23 Burst results for "Jeff Brumfield"
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"Live from NPR news and Culver City California, I'm Dwayne Brown. About two and a half million people along the Florida coastline are being told to leave ahead of a major hurricane expected to make landfall tomorrow, damage is expected across a wide area of Florida, including Fort Myers, Tampa and St. Petersburg, which hasn't seen a category four storm in more than a century. President Biden is urging folks to heed the orders of local officials in stay safe as the administration sends an emergency resources. Fema is already deployed 700 personnel to Florida and the governor is activated 5000 state National Guard with another 2000 guards coming from other states. Fema is also proposing and prepositioning 3.5 million liters of water, 3.7 million meals, and hundreds of generators. The hurricane warning covers roughly 180 miles of Florida's West Coast forecasters say the surge of ocean water could reach ten feet or more at high tide tomorrow. The prime minister of Denmark says sabotage could be behind two leaks detected in the Nord stream pipeline network as NPR's Jeff brumfield tells a seismic stations picked up two explosions shortly before the leaks were seen. Swedish and Danish seismic networks picked up the explosion several hours apart on Monday, Bjorn directs the Swedish national seismic network, he says that the events look a lot like previous signals the network is detected in other areas when the Swedish navy was testing depth charges and undersea mines. What we record are there are very similar to what we record from last. So we are pretty sure. He says there is no natural event that could have caused a similar seismic signal. The Nord stream one pipeline moves natural gas between Russia and Germany, Russia suspended gas shipments through the pipeline earlier this month. You are listening to NPR news. From WAB news in Atlanta, I'm Jim burris her time now 5 32. In Democrats and Republicans are focusing on women voters in Georgia's upcoming midterms. Politics reporter Raoul bally takes us to recent campaign events that highlight their differing approaches. Former Republican Georgia U.S. senator Kelly loeffler has focused on registering and turning out conservative voters since her defeat last year to now U.S. senator Raphael Warnock. On Saturday morning in Roswell she spoke to supporters at an event launching a women's outreach effort
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"Right So this is a Ukrainian plant that's been occupied by Russia since March, but Ukrainians continue to operate it, and it's been supplying power to both Russian and Ukrainian held territory. The current situation really started in August, there was this big uptick in shelling, both sides blame each other for that. But at the start of this month, that shelling led the last main power line connecting the plant to the grid to go down in about four days after that. A backup line went down. That means the entire plant has been cut off from the electricity grid for about four days, and that's not good because nuclear plants need power. And explain why that is. Right, so these plants obviously produce electricity, but they also require it to operate all their safety systems and most importantly, they're cooling systems. Pumps to keep water moving through the cores and keep them from overheating, need to keep running if they stop, a meltdown is possible. God, okay, but you said that they've been without power from the grid for four days now. Do we know how they've been keeping the plant safe during that time? Yeah, interestingly, this type of reactor is able to run in something called islanding islanding operation mode. That basically means that they keep the reactor on or keep one of the reactors on. But turn it way down so it's not producing a lot of power. It's a pretty cool trick and it can power the rest of the plant, but it can't go on forever because the other equipment just isn't designed to run at low power like this. And grossi also says the workers are a factor. They live in a nearby town that's lost power, water, and sewage. He's concerned that the staff will have to leave for their own safety. And that's another reason that the plants Ukrainian owners are discussing whether to shut it down. So if they do shut down the last reactor at the plant, does that mean this crisis will be over? So unfortunately not. And actually makes things a little bit worse in the short term. I mean, if you think of a nuclear plant like cooking on a stove, you might think it's like a stove you can turn down the stove and it just turns off. It's actually more like cooking on charcoal. So even when you're done, those coals stay hot. And that means water needs to keep going to the course. I spoke to a nuclear engineer named Steve nesbitt with the American nuclear society. He says, all plants are prepared for this kind of emergency. They have backup generators to keep the water pumping. We don't want to go on the diesel generators, but it's a situation you can abide by for a while. And in the case of separation, the IAEA says they normally have about ten days of fuel on site, but it might be a little less because we know they've had to run those generators a little bit. Okay, so if they shut the reactor down, the clock starts ticking, they'll need to get more fuel to the site for those generators. I don't want to speculate too much here, but what would be the worst case scenario at that point? Well, the worst case scenario is the reactors, the generators run out of fuel, the reactors heat up and there might be a meltdown. But just before we go, I want to say this won't be a Chernobyl like crisis. These are much newer reactors, they're safer, they have containment buildings that could potentially help. It doesn't want to test any of this stuff. And for that reason, they're calling on all sides to cut it out, knock it off right now. That is Ampere's Jeff brumfield. Thank you so much, Jeff. Thank you. Everyone knew Britain's Queen Elizabeth was likely to die soon. She was 96, yet for many, it's still a shock. And pyrrhus Philip Reeves filed this report from the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, where the queen is expected to lie at rest in the coming days. It's hard to grasp the
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"From NPR news, this is all things considered. I'm Ari Shapiro. It's a court victory for former president Donald Trump. Today a federal judge in Florida granted his request for a special master to review documents the FBI sees from Trump's Florida estate. That judges also putting a temporary halt on the Justice Department's ability to use those papers in its criminal probe. NPR testes correspondent Carrie Johnson is following every turn of this story I carry. Much like you and me, this judge is working on Labor Day. What are the takeaways from her ruling? Judge Eileen cannon who was appointed to the bench by former president Trump has handed the former president a big if temporary win. She says an independent arbiter or a special master should review the 11,000 pages of papers the FBI took from Mar-a-Lago last month, the judge talked about the need to ensure the appearance of fairness and integrity in this process under the extraordinary circumstance of the Justice Department investigating a former president. She says the special master is going to look through these papers to see if there are any materials related to attorney client privilege or executive privilege, the judge says federal prosecutors investigating obstruction and mishandling of government secrets will be barred at least temporarily from using these papers in that part of the criminal probe. But since the papers were taken, we've learned a lot about them. Tell us what's known. Yeah, the FBI took about 27 boxes from the resort during its search early last month. We now know that included at least 100 classified documents, including some marked at the highest level of classification, the FBI also found several dozen folder smart classified, but those folders were empty, and mingled in with these papers were personal items like clothing and gifts, investigators also found a former president Trump's passports in a desk drawer with some secret papers. Now the former president told people at a rally over the weekend the FBI search was an abuse of power, but remember it was approved by a federal magistrate judge who found probable cause that a crime had been committed here. Now the Justice Department had argued that there was no need for a special master. They said it would delay the investigation. What's their reaction today from this ruling? The Justice Department is reviewing the decision and will consider appropriate next steps which may include an appeal last week prosecutors suggested they were going to use these papers to interview more witnesses and conduct more activity before the grand jury, the judge has put a halt to that at least for now, but the judge says that won't apply to the national security review that's being done by the intelligence community, which is looking at whether anyone else gained access to access to these sensitive papers. Any idea how quickly the special master might get to work? A few things need to happen next first. The judge says both sides need to get together and come up with a list of people who have the credentials to serve as a special master, get back to her by Friday. It's not clear how long any independent arbiter would take to go over all these papers, but the judge said when the DoJ looked at them, it took about three weeks. The investigation still seems to be in early stages there's no sense that former president Trump or anyone else will be charged with wrongdoing any time soon if at all. But some of the statements prosecutors made in core filing suggest other people close to Trump will be interviewed eventually. And so will the Trump lawyers who told the Justice Department, they conducted a diligent search for classified material in June before the FBI found even more secrets at Mar-a-Lago. That's NPR's Carrie Johnson. Thanks for your reporting. My pleasure. In Ukraine, there were renewed problems at the troubled zapper Asian nuclear power plant today. The plant lost its last remaining connection to Ukraine's electricity grid after intensive shelling, according to the company that runs the plant. That news comes just a few days after the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency left the site NPR's Jeff brumfield is here to discuss the latest. Jeff, what happened at the plant? Well, normally this nuclear plant has four different connections to the electricity grid and they were down to one and then that one was lost due to shelling earlier this month around the plant. So it turns out there was one more backup option, a smaller line that ran through a nearby thermal power plant, and today we learned that it was also disconnected. Now, the state run utility that runs the nuclear plant blames Russia for the shelling, the International Atomic Energy Agency said the disconnection came due to a fire, and they expected the line would be reconnected soon, but for now the plant is not connected to the grid. Losing for a four connections to the electricity grid sounds bad. Why specifically does this matter? Well, nuclear plants make a lot of electricity, but they also require electricity from the grid to operate safely and specifically these plants need to keep water pumping through their nuclear cores. So that keeps the course cool and prevents them from melting down. Now, the IAEA says that one of the reactors that the site is actually still supplying power to the cooling systems, but yeah, this is a precarious way to run a nuclear plant on Friday, the head of the IAEA Rafael grossi returned from a visit. He said that it was clear its physical integrity of it violated by shelling and other attacks that he was very worried about it. Any more information on why these lines keep getting hit, is it deliberate or accidental? Well, obviously power lines are going to be affected by things like artillery shells. They're very vulnerable. But on Friday, gross, he said, he thought the targeting of these lines was also deliberate. It is clear that those who have this military aims, know very well that the way to cripple or to do more damage is to hit where it hurts. So the plant becomes very, very problematic. And it does seem like these lines are going down one after another. So the last of the big four main lines was knocked out right after grossy left. And then this backup line was knocked out today. The same day some more of IAEA's inspectors left the facility. Why would these lines
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"It's four 23 You're listening to it on 90.1 W ABE here in Atlanta Thank you for joining us this afternoon Emil Moffat along with ayesha Hyman and you know the stories like that are very very tough to hear but Jeff brumfield the reporter there just with a very nice job of laying out the facts and the timeline behind that story and capturing some of the very emotional moments with that family And a chance to do that over the course of a good 12 minute storytelling that you can only get on public radio Your support of W ABE makes that happen And you can support it today by contributing to the cause that is public radio and trying to tell stories that are important to you and to important to American families A mill I couldn't agree with you more It really is a cause for the greater good for all of us to know the things that we need to know We don't shy away from the difficult stories We don't sensationalize them either And ultimately we give you the humanity underneath the headlines underneath the news so that we can all understand how the news affects us how we are connected to each other and how we are connected through these stories And we want you to know that this kind of reporting and news coverage and storytelling only happens because we have the editorial independence and freedom to do so and you give us that freedom as a supporter of W ABE And despite what we've all been dealing with ABE is still here We're affected by this as well Some of us have lost some family members as well but we continue to push on because we really do believe we need to be here for you that this service is important for you and for.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"Cities today The Istanbul talks appear to be significant with more concessions gained than at previous meetings held in Belarus even as these announcements were made the fighting in Ukraine has continued In the southern port city of mikaela's 7 people were killed and 22 injured when a regional administration building was hit by a Russian rocket and thousands of civilians remain trapped in Mario pole with no word yet of any successful evacuations today That's the BBC's Anna foster reporting The head of the International Atomic Energy Agency is visiting Ukraine NPR's Jeff brumfield has details The agency's director general Rafael Mariano grossi is meeting with Ukrainian government officials to discuss providing personnel and safety equipment to that nation's nuclear facilities In a statement last week grossi said the goal is to reduce the risk of a meltdown in a war zone This assistance is essential to help avert the real risk of a severe nuclear accident that could threaten public health and the environment in Ukraine and beyond Earlier this month Russian in Ukrainian forces battled at Ukraine's largest nuclear power plant and Russia's occupation of the Chernobyl nuclear scientists led to power outages staffing issues and communications problems Jeff brumfield NPR news Washington There's still a near record number of job openings in the United States but as NPR Scott horsley reports a tight labor market may be easing just a little bit A new report from the Labor Department shows employers had 11.3 million job vacancies to fill at the beginning of this month little change from the month before Nick bunker who's with the indeed hiring labs as the job market is still significantly hotter than it was before the pandemic but he notes job openings have come down slightly since December's record high You know you looked at the thermostat a couple Months ago maybe it was a high 90s and now it's sort of dipped down a little bit to low 90s Still quite warm but not quite blistering Employers have been boosting wages in an effort to attract more workers inflation watch dogs of the Federal Reserve would welcome some moderation in the red hot job market It's got horse day in bear news Washington The Dow Jones Industrial Average is up 271 points at last check on more than half a percent at 35,227 Its NPR needs The Chinese city of Shanghai is in a staggered lockdown because of a sharp jumping new coronavirus infections We have the latest from NPR's Emily fang It was prompted by a surge in cases today they reached more than 4000 which doesn't sound like a lot to other countries but in Shanghai where they were seeing zero cases a day for months This is really scary And Shanghai is also not the first city to be locked down an entire province north of Shanghai Jean has been sealed off as China deals with its biggest surge in COVID cases ever That's NPR assembly fang reporting One of the U.S.'s most elite universities is restoring its admissions requirement of standardized test scores which was canceled earlier in the coronavirus pandemic Reports at decision by the Massachusetts institute of technology is bucking one trend but may be leading another Due to the barriers COVID posed to taking tests many selective schools including Harvard and the University of Michigan stopped requiring applicants to submit SAT or ACT scores The pandemic dovetailed with growing skepticism from critics who say the tests favor kids whose parents can afford expensive prep courses and undermine diversity Now MIT is reinstating the requirement because it's dean of admissions says research shows standardized tests help the school assess academic skills and spot disadvantaged but talented students who lack access to advanced coursework or other opportunities Admissions experts predict other selected schools will follow MIT's lead For NPR news I'm Kirk Kerry pesa in Boston The NASDAQ is now up 1.7% S&P up 1.1% its NPR Support for NPR comes from NPR stations other contributors include duck.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on Short Wave
"Hi. I can not tell you how delighted I am to be here with you. Erin, we're so excited to have you on the team. Welcome. And you know, there's gonna be many opportunities to get to know you, but I want to start off with one fun fact, which is that you are based on the West Coast, right? I am indeed, I'm in Portland, Oregon, I've been here on and off since I was a kid because frankly it's a hard place to leave. I get it. And you're saying we can't tempt you to NPR headquarters in Washington, D.C.. Emily, let's just say that when I hear someone say Washington, I think of the state. It hurts so bad. Sorry. I made the mistake of leaving the Pacific Northwest once. You're making me regret it right now. What have you been doing out in Oregon? Yeah, so I spent the past 7 years working at Oregon public broadcasting and getting to really explore some of the cool science that is happening out in this misty corner of the country. I've gotten to crawl down into caves looking for spiders that date back to dinosaur days. I've gotten to go bushwhacking and old growth forests and hooting for spotted owls. And you know, gotten to climb up some volcanos with a microbiologist who studies snow algae. Very cool. And speaking of volcanos, today you're talking to Jeff brumfield on the science desk about one volcano that has been making headlines. Yes, that's coming up next on shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR. How'd that feel? That feel good. That felt good? Okay. You're listening to shortwave. From NPR. Today on the show, I've got NPR science correspondent Jeff brumfield. Hello, Jeff. Hi, nice to meet you. So we're going to be talking about that volcanic eruption in the island nation of Tonga. Devastating underground volcanic eruption off the coast of Tonga over the weekend, despite the violent explosion, the tongan government has so far reported just three deaths. As one of the most powerful volcanic eruptions of the 21st century. It made quite a few headlines. There were those satellite photos from space, showing what looked like an enormous explosions. Satellite images showing a massive cloud of smoke, spewing in all directions, the most powerful volcanic activity in at least three decades. And this was absolutely a humanitarian crisis for Tonga. The United Nations says around 80% of tongan households were affected by the eruption. And the nation still recovering.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WABE 90.1 FM
"An undersea cable that was severed last month during an explosive volcanic eruption Now as NPR's Jeff brumfield reports one scientific group has new clues as to what caused it For a few weeks the volcano had been rubbed like residents could hear it in the distance sometimes low like thunder and then on the afternoon of January 15th things got crazy There was a big earthquake gas and steam shot skyward and minutes later That was what one social media user recorded in Fiji over 250 miles away The blast was detected all over the world the shockwave actually circled the earth for days afterwards It's a remarkable explosion Shane cronin is a volcanologist at the university of Auckland in New Zealand but it's also quite a mysterious one just at the moment as we try and figure out hey what did create this Cronin has been working with the Tonga geological services He's gotten samples of volcanic ash that blanketed nearby islands And we're seeking clues in those air samples you know what went on during that explosive eruption period Now he says they have some First the magma or liquid rock inside the volcano was filled with tiny star shaped crystals The crystals were small because the magma was still hot and fresh from deep within the earth and that means the magma that drove this explosion rose very very quickly It came from miles below in a matter of minutes What caused this rapid rise Well cronin and his team suspect it was probably that first earthquake He thinks it was actually a landslide that sent an entire Flank of the volcano's rim to the ocean floor That would also explain why we've had some damage for example to the to the undersea cables east of the volcano Without the weight of the volcanos were to hold it down the magma shot up and water filtered downward into the cracks and crevices in the remaining rock That actually magnifies the explosion And it makes it even bigger because The Rock can for a short time at least hold the water and steam and magma together allowing pressure to build and build until finally it blows There's also the way in which weapons explosions are magnified by compressing the accelerant inside a tight container Researchers think this blast was as powerful as some of the biggest nuclear weapons ever made Cronin says what happened at Tonga matters Globally there are more volcanos under the sea than there are of land He hopes that this eruption can teach researchers a lot more about the dangers they might pose Jeff brumfield and pier news Facebook's parent company meta is making a big bet on the metaverse But building that immersive virtual universe is really expensive Think billions of dollars So what has that money built so far Well we sent NPR tech correspondent Shannon bond to check it out and just a note meta pays NPR to license NPR content To visit the metaverse I strap on a clunky virtual reality headset and pick up two handheld controllers The headset looks like oversized ski goggles It's heavy on my face but as soon as the screen lights up inches from my eyes I'm transported to another universe I'm on a roller coaster surrounded by a jungle With a jolt I lurch forward on the track.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Member station K ERA reports the attack is being investigated as an act of terror Faith leaders at congregation of Beth Israel led prayers in between songs of healing had a church in nearby south Lake Texas Charlie citron walker the synagogue's rabbi in one of the four hostages says he's grateful for the outcome Thank God Thank God It could have been so much worse and I am overflowing Truly overflowing with gratitude Citron walker thanked faith communities of all backgrounds for their support following the hostage situation on Saturday He called the beginning of the healing process quote a lifesaving and world saving endeavor and pavlova Pena in Dallas The BBC is reporting today that the suspected gunman who died at the synagogue was known by British intelligence and assessed to no longer be a threat at the time he traveled to the U.S. also to teenagers have been arrested in England as part of the investigation Senate Democrats are preparing to begin debate today on their voting rights legislation but there's no clear path for passage in PR's Kelsey Snell Democrats are running out of time to get legislation passed this year It is an election year and they promised voting protections like ensuring access to mail in voting and making election day a federal holiday They did all of that in the last election and they need to make sure they prove that they tried The voting protections are expected to fail in the face of united Republican opposition majority leader Chuck Schumer has pledged to move to change Senate filibuster rules but West Virginia senator Joe Manchin and Arizona senator kyrsten sinema remain opposed to that New research suggests that Mars may have once been home to a cold ocean Jeff brumfield has details Its surface has valleys that look like they were carved by running water and evidence of ancient shorelines in the planet's northern hemisphere but there aren't enough of these features to suggest that Mars was super warm and wet Now Frederick Schmidt of Paris university and his colleagues have run computer models that show billions of years ago there could have been a cold Martian ocean the ocean would have been located in the northern hemisphere It could have delivered rainfall to some areas and built up glaciers in others The researchers say their vision of a cold wet Mars Eat it The work appears in the proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences Jeff bromfield NPR news Washington And this is NPR news It's doubly NYC at 7 O four Good morning I'm Michael hill mostly cloudy 30 now mostly sun again 34 today We have delays this morning on the M and Q trains and delays on Long Island railroads port Jefferson and Ron conker branches and New Jersey's main Bergen port jurassicus montler Boone and Morrison Essex lines of NJ transit New York governor Cathy holker will deliver her first budget plan to the legislature today and she'll do it with plenty of cash on hand due to better than expected sales and income tax collections and federal pandemic aid stay control of Thomas de napali says he is cautiously optimistic about this stage financial position We have had a better revenue stream in recent months than any of us would have anticipated going back over a year ago certainly even going back to April when the current budget was put in place And an apple also says that we'll bring you or at will bring your analysis of the governor's budget plan later today on all things considered An energy company on Long Island has won the first construction contract for the south fork wind farm W SHUs desiree diorio reports Developers orsted and ever source say the Melville based hogland energy group will build the four mile underground cable That will connect New York's first offshore wind farm to an electrical substation in east Hampton Ken bowes is in charge of permitting at eversource Our main goal is here to leave the conditions better than we found them which means repaving the streets and really making sure that the residents are comfortable with where we've left everything at the end of construction Bose told environmental groups last week that the final permits are just days away and construction is set to begin next month That's despite heavy opposition from residents in wainscot who don't want the cable to come ashore in their neighborhood If you live in New York State assembly district 68 today is election day Voters in that district which includes east Harlem parts of central Harlem and the upper east side were head to the poles to pick a new state assembly member at seat with vacated by Robert Rodriguez after governor Kathy Holm tapped him to become New York's next Secretary of State Polls opened at 6 o'clock this morning about an hour ago and they close at 9 o'clock tonight You can look up your pole sight at the city's board of elections website vote dot NYC 30 with some clouds out there this morning watch out for a black ice on some of the untreated surfaces mostly sunny and 41 sunny and 34 for a day 45 tomorrow Right now 30 with clouds out there It's W in my city Support for NPR comes from data iku a platform for everyday AI to help organizations make AI part of their daily business Designed to elevate people teams and companies Dot com WNYC and the New York public library have teamed up for a virtual book club I'm Alison Stewart and this month are get lit book club selection is the novel our country Friends by Gary steinhart It's about a group of friends quarantining in 2020 with a famous actor New Yorkers can borrow.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on Short Wave
"When we're dreaming about what might be in store next year and maybe even the year after that, and while we're at it, why stop at this galaxy? We thought this week we'd bring you a very special lineup devoted entirely to science fiction. Strap on your gravity suits and polish your lightsabers. It's about to get real nerdy. We're gonna start with one of our favorite episodes from earlier this year where Jeff brumfield and I dissect what some science fiction movies get wrong about the science of space propulsion. Happy science fiction week, earthlings. You're listening to shortwave. From NPR. Well, well, well, NPR science correspondent Jeff brumfield guess you decided to poke your little head up again for another shortwave episode. Emily, it's been too long. And today I'm pleased to tell you, I've got something fun to talk about. Oh, thank goodness. Okay, let's go. So to get things going, just start by telling me your favorite sci-fi shows or movies. Well, you know my family love Star Trek, die hard trekkies. I like The Avengers Black Panther Captain Marvel all those movies are really good. All fantastic choices I'm a trek guy myself. But I will say one thing. These shows and movies they've all skipped over the big problem with space travel. And that is actually getting around. Oh, like flying from one place to another. Yeah, and I'm not really talking about trek tech like a warp drive that lets you jump huge distances across the galaxy. We all know that's the full realm of sci-fi. I'm talking about the basic business of getting from point a to point B in space. It is a really tough engineering problem, Emily. Jeff, you said this would be fun. You're taking space flying and turning it into an engineering problem. Are you going to ruin my favorite shows? No, I'm going to enrich your understanding of your favorite shows Emily by bringing some facts into the conversation. And I'm also going to tell you about some exciting new technologies that may actually.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Edition from NPR news I'm Steve incident And I'm Rachel Martin politics are showing up in COVID rates in a new way The political leanings of the county were a person lives may indicate their risk of dying from COVID-19 A new analysis from NPR found that conservative counties had nearly three times the death rates of more liberal ones Other polls suggest that vaccination rates among Republicans or lagging and disinformation is playing a role And pierce Jeff brumfield has been looking into this partisan divide and I talked with him earlier My colleague Daniel wood and I looked at deaths from COVID-19 since May of 2021 that's when the vaccines became widely available And what we did was we compared those death rates to election data from the 2020 election We found that counties that went heavily for Trump 60% or more had much higher death rates than those who went for Biden Now for another disease say the flu they're probably isn't this connection because the flu is not politically fraught the way COVID is But unfortunately for COVID there's this real stark trend And the bigger the margin for Trump the higher on average the death rate So why I mean it's actually remarkably simple Those counties also on average have much lower vaccination rates We checked that trend as well And vaccination lowers your chances of dying from COVID by 14 times according to the CDC So I mean it's a huge effect getting vaccinated So when we think about why Republicans are still falling behind on vaccination I mean is this where the disinformation comes in That's exactly right I mean I spoke to this guy named Mark Valentine his brother was a conservative talk show host Phil Valentine who died back in August from COVID-19 And Mark told me that conservatives trust in official sources of information is very low and that lets lies about the vaccines take hold and spread He sort of describes conservative America as the perfect marketplace for anti vaccine propaganda They're selling And people are buying it And folks are dying And the polling data from the Kaiser family foundation really shows that connection 94% of Republicans think one or more false statements about COVID and vaccines might be true And many believe multiple statements belief in these false statements is hugely correlated with a decision not to take the vaccine Liz hammel heads polling for Kaiser She says Republicans now make up the largest share of unvaccinated people in America An unvaccinated person is three times as likely to lean Republican as they are to lean Democrat Three times I mean that's big So here we are at the holiday season Cases are rising again Variant is out there where's all this heading from your perspective when you look at these numbers It's pretty discouraging I mean vaccine mandates have driven up the number somewhat but several folks I spoke to actually fear is going to make things worse in this particular group It's supercharged the misinformation and the politics around vaccines Mark Valentine's been trying to convince people that they need to get vaccinated and he's found it to be a real uphill battle People have a natural aversion to the realities of horrific things like this until it hits them He thinks trust is low and so it may take more direct contact with COVID to convince people and unfortunately that may be what's about to happen NPR's Jeff.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on NPR's Story of the Day
"Product. You must become a member of pin fed. Federally insured by NC UA. Politics are showing up in COVID rates in a new way. The political leanings of the county were a person lives may indicate their risk of dying from COVID-19. A new analysis from NPR found that conservative counties had nearly three times the death rates of more liberal ones. Other polls suggest that vaccination rates among Republicans or lagging and disinformation is playing a role. And pierce Jeff brumfield has been looking into this partisan divide and I talked with him earlier. My colleague Daniel wood and I looked at deaths from COVID-19 since May of 2021, that's when the vaccines became widely available. And what we did was we compared those death rates to election data from the 2020 election. We found that counties that went heavily for Trump 60% or more had much higher death rates than those that went for Biden. Now, for another disease, like the flu, there probably isn't this connection because the flu is not politically fraught the way COVID is. But unfortunately for COVID, there's this real stark trend. And the bigger the margin for Trump, the higher on average, the death rate. So why? I mean, it's actually remarkably simple. Those counties also on average have much lower vaccination rates. We checked that trend as well. And vaccination lowers your chances of dying from COVID by 14 times according to the CDC. So I mean, it's a huge effect getting vaccinated. So when we think about why Republicans are still falling behind on vaccination, I mean, is this where the disinformation comes in? That's exactly right. I mean, I spoke to this guy named Mark Valentine, his brother was a conservative talk show host, Phil Valentine, who died back in August from COVID-19. And Mark told me that conservatives trust in official sources of information is very low, and that lets lies about the vaccines take hold and spread. He sort of describes conservative America as the perfect marketplace for anti vaccine propaganda. There's so many. And people are buying it. And folks are dying. And the polling data from the Kaiser family foundation really shows that connection. 94% of Republicans think one or more false statements about COVID and vaccines might be true. And many believe multiple statements belief in these false statements is hugely correlated with a decision not to take the vaccine was Hamill heads polling for Kaiser. She says Republicans now make up the largest share of unvaccinated people in America. An unvaccinated person is three times as likely to lean Republican as they are to lean Democrat. Three times. I mean, that's big. So here we are in the holiday season. Cases are rising again. A variant is out there, where's all this heading from your perspective when you look at these numbers? It's pretty discouraging. I mean, vaccine mandates have driven up the number somewhat, but several folks I spoke to actually fear is going to make things worse in this particular group. It's supercharged the misinformation and the politics around vaccines. Mark Valentine's been trying to convince people that they need to get vaccinated, and he's found it to be a real uphill battle. People have a natural aversion to the realities of horrific things like this until it hits them. He thinks trust is low and so it may take more direct contact with COVID to convince people and unfortunately that may be what's about to happen. NPR's Jeff brumfield, Jeff, we appreciate you thanks. Thank you. This message comes from NPR sponsor, Capital One, fighting fraud with random forests, anomaly detection, and machine learning at the edge. Search machine learning at Capital One to explore more, Capital One, what's in your wallet? A decade ago, Republican congressman bob inglis changed his position on climate. You know, I am the guy who was wrong for 6 years. But there were consequences. That was the end of my career in Congress. Deciding to change our minds that's on the Ted radio hour from NPR..
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The ground for perseverance is a big part of ingenuity is mission. That's in part because the little helicopters just to test vehicle it's not designed for scientific research. Xanatos thinks that will change in the future. Though drones will become valuable Explorers, a row to craft can fly up to a cliff side wall and take images of a cliff. We can dive into caves. Having that completely ran new perspective is something that we think is going to blow the doors open on exploration of Mars, and it's not just Mars. NASA is working on a giant drone to explore Saturn's moon Titan. The thing is the size of a small car, and if you're wondering how that's going to work Well, Elizabeth turtles, the principal investigator of the tight emission, says it turns out the moon is a perfect place to fly. It's got a thick atmosphere and not a lot of gravity. So physically, it's actually easier to fly on Titan than it is on on Earth Turtle and the rest of her team are closely watching ingenuity is progress. It's a chance for them to learn about flying another worlds. But also, she says, it's cool. It's just really exciting. It would see a vehicle flying on another. Planet. Although ingenuity isn't flying right this second, it's sitting on the surface of Mars, waiting for the perseverance Rover to catch up. But again, it's not a race. Jeff Brumfield NPR news This is NPR news. It's not always a race on the freeways.
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on NPR News Now
"News. Paris today's the deadline for the us intelligence community to deliver a report on what they know about the origins of the karuna virus as npr's jeff brumfield reports many hope it will shed light on where the virus originated. There are two theories about where the corona virus came from one is that it started in the wild possibly in bats. The others that came from a laboratory in china in may president biden or the nation's intelligence agencies to conduct a ninety day review of everything they had on the question since then the agencies have been pouring over things such as intercepted communications databases to see. If there's anything they've collected that might provide answers. The findings will be briefed to the president and congress and unclassified version of. The report is expected to be released. Soon jeff brumfield. Npr news washington. Texas governor greg. Abbott is asking the state supreme court to back his efforts to stop mask. Mandates in two counties texas public radio's paul flab reports san antonio and bear county successfully argued for an injunction against the state's ban on government mask mandates. They argued the current situation would prove irreparably harmful from unmitigated spread of kovic. Nineteen is schools open without masks monday. The attorney general's office filed for a stay nullifying. The injunction arguing irreparable harm was actually being caused by the growing list of local orders. In defiance of the governor's order banning mask mandates the status for a supreme court order saying the fourth quarter of appeals had abused its discretion by continuing the injunction after. It was appealed the argue. The governor can't enforce laws if people are able to break them pending trial. I'm paul flab in san antonio. This is npr vice. President harris is in singapore on her trip to southeast asia. She'll visit vietnam next. She's helping promote the us relationships with the countries and also hoping to counteract china's influence harris criticized china today saying it's coercing and intimidating. Its neighbors china hit back immediately against harris's comments in a statement china said the. Us cannot be trusted and pointed to its messy from afghanistan. A top official in iran is acknowledging that videos from a hacked surveillance camera showing abuse in an iranian. Prison are real as duri. Karen reports the head of iran's prison system wrote on twitter that he took responsibility for the quote unacceptable behaviours in the videos leaked the associated press by a self-described hacker group known as justice for ali. Guards beat emaciated prisoners and drag them on the ground. Bunk beds are stacked three high and single rooms. Iran's evine prison is known for detaining political dissidents and people with ties to the west americans. Jason resign john wong she way and matthew. Trevor thick were held there on twitter. The head of iran's prison system mohammed medea. Haji mohammadi wrote that. He promised to avoid the repeat of such bitter incidents as well as confront the perpetrators. His remarks were then repeated on state television for npr news. Day boost karen in istanbul the controversial president of the philippines rodrigo duterte has agreed to run for vice president next year. His political party is announcing the news. Detaille is term limited as president on korva coleman. Npr news from washington..
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on NPR News Now
"Live from npr news. I'm shay stevens. President biden met with his cabinet and senior white house. Staffers tuesday to go over there achievements after six months in office. The bottom line is we're delivering on our promises. We have to deliver on all the promises we made. Because i think we're in a situation where the vast majority of the public agrees with the essence of what we're trying to do biden says kobe. Nineteen deaths are down around ninety percent due to his administration's vaccination program he also notes that polls show strong support for his massive infrastructure plan which is still subject to negotiation on capitol hill world. Governments are spending big to boost economies amid the corona virus pandemic but the international energy agency says that only two percent of those funds is going to clean energy projects. Npr's jeff brady reports that means global carbon dioxide emissions could reach record levels in the years to come countries have mobilized about sixteen trillion dollars in public and private capital to help economies recover but the international energy agency says they aren't spending enough on climate change an and i a analysis shows overall only about two percent has been dedicated to the transition to cleaner energy throughout the pandemic the i encourage countries to focus stimulus programs on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The idea is to address to problems at the same time i ahead. Foty bureau says in a statement. Many leaders talked about doing this early on but now they need to quote put their money where their mouth is jeff radi. Npr news former amazon ceo. Jeff bezos is celebrating a successful excursion to the edge about her space as npr's jeff brumfield reports. It is the beginning of big plans for bezos and his rocket company blue origin in.
Magnets, The Hidden Objects Powering Your Life
"Okay jeff brumfield. Where does our journey into the world of magnetism begin. It begins with a call to carlos. And a guy named tim murphy. They both work at the national high magnetic field laboratory in tallahassee florida. Normally you know. I do research and i learn about things but this time i just i just brought some bar magnets thought i would let you. That's all we do here so they just you know they're bigger and they give us money for it so expensive too. Yeah and they're painted. We paint them. They're so ready for this interview. They were born ready for this interview. These folks work with magnets all day long. Carlos heads the k. Twelve education programs for the lab. Tim is a physicist there. And like carlos was saying earlier they really feel like magnets need respect. I guarantee you that whatever direction you're looking right now unless you're in the wilderness. Right now there's probably a magnet in your line of sight and you just don't know it well and if you're you're in the wilderness you're standing on the biggest magnet that we have which is the earth the earth is a giant magnet with a pole and the south pole and where that magnetism comes from kind of complicated so for today. We're just going to stick to smaller baghdad's like the ones we use in our daily lives. Jeff i'll be honest. I don't really know what makes a magnetic field magnetic field. So how would you describe that which is kind of fascinating. Because you've turned yourself. Into the shortwave fisk there's gaps in my knowledge the only god what is a magnetic field exactly well so magnetic fields like i just said you know based on the field. Actually they're often said to north and the south pole and right opposite poles attract and light poles repel. So magnets can pull each other together. Push each other part in actually magnetism itself is half of fundamental force a called electromagnetism which also includes electric fields. But what i think is really fascinating is aside from gravity. Magnets are really the only fundamental force that we can just experience an encounter on a regular basis right and we can kind of see this magnetism action when we're playing around with magnets and they stick to certain metals right. Yeah yeah i mean the whole metal magnet thing is kinda complicated carlos. Tell you that everybody comes up. I see on. Tv shows all the time even the education tv shows. They say magnets metal. And i'm like no you got it wrong again. There's only three medals of her naturally magnetic iron nickel and cobalt. And what carlos means there is that there are only three medals that be permanent magnets that hold their magnetism forever and never other metals can stick to magnets but then there are a lot of medals. They can't so we just moved to. A new house has a stainless steel fridge. And guess what like all our fridge. Magnets don't work on this fridge anymore. so what makes them materials magnetic and others not so much well it actually all has to do with electrons. Oh our friends the electrons. Of course these are. The negatively charged particles in adams and when they flow they create electricity. That's right and whenever electrons move in in particular when they spin around something they generate a magnetic field as well as an electric field so magnetic fields have to do with spinning electrons exactly so the electrons are spinning around the atom and that makes like a little magnetic field but then in a permanent magnet. What happens is all. The atoms are facing the same direction. Imagine all these atoms lined up in a row and they kinda wanna do what their next neighbor is doing. So if their neighbor is pointed up right there magnetic moment is up than the one next to him says. Hey up is the the direction so they go up as well. So now you end up with a macroscopic magnetic field because all of these atoms are kind of lined up with their magnetic moments so all of these atoms facing the same direction is what creates one. Big magnet exactly. That's how permanent magnets work like the magnet. Cystic to your fridge. All the atoms in that baghdad are lined up in the same way and they make this big magnetic field that polls the magnet against your fridge and keeps it there. But then there's another kind of magnet and tim the guy you just heard there he actually works with this one. It's called an electromagnet for electro magnets. We actually don't care about the spin of the electron what we care about is the
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on Short Wave
"Ra jeff. So in this episode. We are making the case for exploring venus. Where do you wanna start. Why not start with the history. Venus exploration august twenty six the mariners countdown begins so the very first spacecraft humans ever sent to another planet mariner to and they didn't go to mars. It went to venus the first planet. Humans ever landed a program on that was venus to vienna. That was the soviet union's venera seven <hes>. That landed on venus's surface in nineteen seventy. Got it okay jeff. So why did planetary exploration start with venus like that well because venus's actually pretty good place to visit it's closer the mars and it looks in some ways a lot like earth similar size thicker atmosphere. Yeah but it's not exactly suitable for humans right venus. It's really hot. I know it's filled with poisonous gases that can kill you. That's true that's all true. Fact check through. Its atmosphere is filled with sulfuric acid and the atmosphere so thick at the surface. It's like being under kilometer of water. Also it's so hot that lead melts. So when the russian venera probes touchdown. Martha gilmore planetary scientist at wesleyan university. She told me they didn't last very long. Those were able to operate for at the best an hour and a half before suffering what we call a thermal death <hes>. I mean yeah. I mean they did not have a happy end but before they died. They did snap a few grainy photos and what they sent back didn't look great either. This desolate inhospitable world. And nobody's really tried seriously to get any closer since those soviet missions. Yeah and i mean mars by contrast even though it's colder and the atmosphere is thin and it's farther away at least the rovers we send their don't melt. Yeah okay sir. All i can see why. Mars is a favorite destination over venus. Yeah yeah okay. There's an argument to be made but the orbiter said have gone to venus and studied it from above. They're starting to build up this really interesting picture at the planet for starters. Scientists think that venus has had a super interesting past. Gilmore told me that a few billion years ago venus actually had oceans. venus should have had <hes>. a lot of water and new climate model suggests that water may have persisted for billions of years <hes>. That's pretty cool. I didn't know venus. Had oceans yeah. Yeah and i mean what's equally. Who is the story of what happened to those oceans so just bear with me for a second <hes>. Basically the theory is that venus earth had volcanoes that we're putting out tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere now the oceans were scrubbing the atmosphere of the carbon dioxide there literally sucking up the co two as it was released but they couldn't keep up so the co two levels kept rising and just like we see here on earth with global warming <hes>. The temperature got hotter. The ocean started to evaporate the start to shrink. And if you don't have that ocean you lose that mechanism to pull the o two down into rock and so that co two <hes>. Has no choice but to stay in the atmosphere so venus keeps getting hotter the disappear entirely the co two levels. Go through the roof. It's this runaway. Greenhouse effect that eventually completely dries the planet out and co two and noxious gases. Blanket the surface. And that's how you get from a nice warm ocean. Venus the past of what we see. Today yeah this is kind of scary to hear in a way jeff because it sounds like climate change on earth i mean. Are we on a road. That's headed towards a venus like future. No no the short answer is no and that's because although the processes are similar there are parallels between earth and venus and climate change. Could get serious. It won't get venus bad because basically the earth is farther from the sun. Gotcha okay so that's not exactly what our earth hasn't store jeff wise. It's still worth it to visit and study venus well. There's this really interesting question of life i mean. I think there's an argument to be made. The venus was more likely to have life on it. In the past the mars ever was venus had this warmer thicker atmosphere and it definitely had oceans. Gilmore thinks that you are some extraterrestrial visitor in your swinging by from some other part of the milky way mars venus and earth would have actually looked a lot alike back. Then you know. Three billion years ago you would have seen three terrestrial planets of which have oceans venus earth and mars and at least on one of those planets life had already evolved and you know has led
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU
"Cornish, and I'm also Jane coming up. The Capitol Police chief is among those to resign after the riot by Trump supporters later, the voters in Georgia who split their ballot between the two parties, all politics are local. And then when you go into that little booth, you tapping those names interest want decent people. We'll also hear from one of the president elects Pandemic advisors on how they can ramp up vaccinations and why a town in Colorado is among those rural communities doing well on the Up front in the fact that it is here is kind of mind blowing like they care enough to reach out to the role communities now news Live from NPR news. I'm Jack Spear. Democrats in Congress are upping the pressure on the Pentagon, the limit President Trump's ability to launch a nuclear strike during his final days in office. NPR's Geoff Brumfield reports. Under current rules all in the president decides whether to launch nuclear weapons. House Speaker Nancy Pelosi spoke by phone to chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Mark Milley about quote preventing an unstable president from initiating hostilities. Several other Democratic lawmakers have pressed Pentagon leadership to refuse any nuclear order from President Trump. But under current rules, they are supposed to obey the president's commands when it comes to nuclear weapons. Elaine Scary isn't Harvard University. The president has so launch authority and he does not have to check this with anyone. The absolute power of the president is a holdover from Cold War days, scary and others believe it's time to review and revise those rules. Jeff Brumfield. NPR NEWS Washington After briefly, we're storing it. Microblogging site. Twitter now says it is permanently silencing President Trump's account due to quote the risk of further incitement of violence by the president. Facebook and Instagram, who also suspended the president's social media accounts. Twitter temporarily blocked Trump's account after Wednesday's pro Trump rally, widely promoted on social media turned violent. My people died, including woman was part of the mob that stormed the U. S Capitol police officer who clashed with that group. State and local governments are scheduled to begin receiving their first infusion of federal dollars to support coronavirus vaccinations. The U. S Department of Health and Human Services says three billion for vaccine efforts should be going out to states no later than January, 19th on with $19 billion worth of additional aid for Corona virus testing and contact tracing efforts. Stocks ended the week at new record highs despite political turmoil and a disappointing jobs report more from NPR's Scott Horsley. All the major stock indexes pushed higher into record territory. The S and P 500 index rose more than half a percent while the NASDAQ jumped more than 1%. Those gains come in spite of a worse than expected jobs report showing US employers cut 140,000 jobs last month daily death from the pandemic. We're also breaking records, and that's taking a toll on economic activity, especially in restaurants, bars and entertainment venues. Investors are counting on Morrell from the incoming Biden administration to prop up the economy. The odds of that increased this week with Democrats winning both run off elections in Georgia to flip control of the U. S. Senate. Scott Horsley. NPR NEWS Washington Taking a look at those numbers, the Dow Jones industrial average ended the week up. 56 points of 31,097. The NASDAQ gained 134 points to close at 13,002 01, the S and P 500 was up 20 points of 38 24. You're listening to NPR news in Washington. Events at the U. S. Capitol this week reminded some foreign born Americans of turmoil experienced in their own home countries. NPR's Sally, Her ship shares advice from one Venezuelan American. Nelia Miguel isn't early sixties. She lives in New Jersey, where she's assistant head of a middle school. But she grew up in Venezuela, and she wasn't entirely shocked by the attack on the capital earlier this week. I don't know that I expected it, but I When you've seen something up close, then you know it's possible for Americans on accustomed to this kind of political unrest. Miguel has some advice. She says. Our system, the Constitution is only as good as our belief in it. So hold on to that belief. If you lose that, then it's only a set of papers. Miguel says politicians will need to set aside their differences to find a middle ground that's best for the country. Sally, her ship's NPR news five months after the first two rounds of help expired for millions of small business owners, additional aid, maybe on the way, the small business Administration in the U. S Treasury Department announced they are reviving the Paycheck protection program. Businesses that received loans last year will be able to borrow up to $2 million as long as they have no more than 300 employees. It suffered at least a 25% drop in quarterly revenue. First time borrowers with fewer than 500 employees. We also put up to $10 million Loans, which can be forgiven live five year terms and carrying interest rate of just 1%. Critical futures prices closed hired and the weak oil up a dollar and 41 cents a barrel. Settle it 50 to 24 barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange. I'm Jack Spear..
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Jeff. i have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular mater. What is that. Yeah so a refresher for who don't remember regular matters abroad category for everything. So you're matter i'm matter. The studios matter the microphones. Yeah i get it matter and we matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter were all made of atoms. So you're bunch of adamson the shape of an emily corn. And i'm tabatha the shape of a jeff brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another jeffrey. Who knows a lot more. Physics denied to answer this one. His name is jeffrey hengst. And he's a researcher at our house university in denmark. And to i. I think of it as kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this muir to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now yet. I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact it was discovered that way by coming up with an equation that predicted his existence. Nobody was really looking for it. And i am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations of physics on this podcast. Because i don't really understand them But hank says the closest analogy. He's got for us mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very but there's a second solution negative to allocate right because negative negative to is four so the way you just went straight to two. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative said and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean. That's nonsense but it turned out there. Worthies negative particles. They did exist in. They're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly. Here's the thing it really is like opposite matter. Protons remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their negatively charged and their anti particles are positively charged. This is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part. It actually lives up to the sci-fi analogy so just go with your sifi brain and i get it emily. You're more of like colin firth. Pride and prejudice bbc. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't i've seen it probably more times than you have in my life. But what do you think happens when matter and antimatter Get together when they actually meet okay. If anti matters the evil twin the fight they do will. They do like in a jane austen novel. They do. Well you're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. And i have a tendency to cancel each other out a minute. Where's this under. Certain conditions when to identify articles of matter. Antimatter meet these. Are your experts. Jeff captain kirk and is that leonard nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation. Spock it is. That's right and you're right. That's star trek season. One episode twenty-seven original track the best track. But here's the thing eveline. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or pretty close so the universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles do disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. The science fiction stuff comes in these things really do annihilate each other if you get together okay. So i've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although i will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life it's really Just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point be an antimatter physicist it it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter and i don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's existing theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much antimatter matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard. To find and hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicists. Do see little bits of antimatter here. and there. In fact anti electrons for i discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually i've got another natural source of antimatter right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes this banana. What are you talking about this real episode. This is an episode about nothing and tomfoolery. Hold the banana to make sure it's real. I'll explain yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti matter. But here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope potassium into banana called potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring. isotope So some porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases an anti electron. So if we just hold this banana and wait for for. How long are we waiting. Okay we'd have to seventy five minutes. We're at ten minute podcast. Geoff just sit here for seventy five minute. What i'm hearing is seven part series on antimatter. Emily kwan and a meditation silence. That's right no so. On average this entire banana will spit out. One anti-electron every seventy five minutes. I think this really makes the point. Well right like antimatter exists. It's not some parallel universe but one tiny anti trump for trillions of banana adams is like even. That's a pretty rare thing to have. Happened and jeffrey wants a lot more than that. That's why he's at this giant particle accelerator cernan switzerland. Okay so tell me what. He's up to their well. Hanks wants lots of anti electrons. And in this is key anti protons. Hey so it turns out the anti electrons are kind of easy. You can find other radioactive sources Besides bananas that can make a lot more of them and then the elevator makes anti protons. And here's the thing so you have to very carefully hang us to bring the anti protons in the anti electrons together we call it s- merge it's a smooz merge merge but even after that merge they still end up with a lot of antimatter just disappearing. Thirty million anti protons. That's converted two hundred thousand or so trapped. Anti protons of those will get twenty or thirty that actually make anti hyphen that we can use well. Willow anti-hydrogen is that what i just heard. Jeff what is that. Anti-hydrogen is just one anti electron orbiting one anti protons and it's the antimatter. Equivalent of the lightest element on earth. So that's regular hydrogen willing to go to all this trouble just to get a few atoms of anti-hydrogen but why go through all the trouble you know of making andy hydrogen okay. So here's the thing. He's hoping to get some clues from anti-hydrogen about matter antimatter and the thinking goes like this. Hydrogen is the lightest element in the universe and hydrogen is probably the thing we know best. We've been studying it forever. We really understand it. So by looking very very carefully at anti-hydrogen. He's hoping that they can learn more about what's going on with antimatter. And that's basically what he's doing he's using lasers all kinds of stuff to probe this anti-hydrogen to see how it behaves. Well has shed any light on where the rest of the antimatter is. Not yet not yet. And so far. Anti-hydrogen is behaving exactly as predicted by all those fundamental physics equations. And so far with the places that we've looked and to the precision with which we've looked they're the same and that's kind of a problem because they also say there should be much matters antimatter unless they can find some sort of deviation it may not be possible to figure out you know where the antimatter went. So we don't have any clues but that's okay because he's just
Creating Antimatter: Matter's "Evil Twin"
"Antimatter. I'm so excited to talk to you about antimatter and emily. I know exactly what you're thinking. Anti-matter pods are rigged to blow up the moment we star Trek Right. I mean antivirus. A huge part of Star Trek. All right I know. The Vulcan Salute. Live long and prosper. That's about the extent of my knowledge of Star Trek. But I get your point. Antimatter does kind of sound like science fiction. But it's Real. That's the cool thing. Yes antimatter particles. Are these strange mirror particles to the stuff we see all around us and scientists have made it using a giant particle accelerator in Europe. They're studying it because they hope it can answer some fundamental questions about the universe. Okay not entirely sure I get it but by the end of the episode I assume we all will so today on the show anti-battery what it is how it works and why one scientist has spent decades trying to trap it. Jeff. I have a lot of questions about antimatter. But can you just start with regular matter? What is that? Yeah so a Refresher Viseu. Don't remember regular matter. It's a broad category for everything. So you're madder I matter the studios matter the I I get it matter matter matter. It's a nice thought. Yeah and as matter. We're all made of atoms. So you're a bunch of Adamson the shape of an emily corn on the shape of a Jeff Brumfield now for antimatter. I'm actually going to let another Jeffrey. Who knows a lot more physics? Naidoo answer this one. His name is Jeffrey Angst. And he's a researcher at our House University in Denmark and to Madeira. I think it is kind of an evil twin of the stuff that makes up our everyday world intriguing. Go on it is it is. It's just this kind of opposite matter. It's like this mirror to everything that's around us so antimatter. It's here right now. Yeah I mean it's a little more complicated than that but anti matters real stuff and it exists in our universe and actually before anyone ever even detected it. They predicted it because math. The equations of physics demanded in fact was discovered that way. You know by coming up with a an equation that predicted existence. But nobody was really looking forward and I am not going to attempt to describe the fundamental equations physics on this podcast because I don't really understand them But Hank says the closest analogy. He's got for US mortals to think about. Is this math problem. What's the square root of four two very good? But there's a second solution negative to Aoki because negative negative to four so the way you just went straight to. That's exactly kind of what happened in physics like there were these equations and there was a positive set of solutions for particles and negative side and everyone was like the negative set. What does that even mean? That's nonsense but it turned out there. Were these negative particles. They did exist and they're called antimatter. Oh okay so there's this theoretical idea of antimatter kicking around for awhile. Which kind of explains what it is. But what is it exactly? Here's the thing. It really is opposite matters. So protons do you remember protons. Yeah their positively charged subatomic particles. They are anti. Protons are negatively charged electrons their charged and their anti particles are positively charged. Hey this is kind of amazing. It is kind of amazing. And here's the best part actually lives up to the SCIFI analogy. So just go with your vestigial Sifi brain and I get it emily. You're more of like Colin Firth. Pride and prejudice. Bbc D. You know no shame in it. There isn't there isn't I've seen it probably more times than you have in my life but what do you think happens when matter? Antimatter get when they actually meet okay. If antimatter is the evil twin they fight they dual. They do lake in Jane austen novel. They do well. You're not too far off. I'm going to let the actual experts explain it to you. My her Antimatter tendency to. Cancel each other out. Where's this under certain conditions when to identify articles of matter? Antimatter meet these experts. Jeff Captain Kirk and is that Leonard Nimoy as relationship. Yes total complete absolute annihilation as stock. It is that's right and you're right that Star Trek season one episode twenty seven original track the best track. But here's the thing heavily. It's actually a hundred percent accurate or close. The Universe won't end if antimatter and matter meat. But the two particles disappear in a flash of light. The anti-matter can't exist in the presence of matter. That's where the science fiction stuff comes in. These things really do annihilate each other if you get them together okay. So I've covered a lot of physics over the years and this is pretty much the only case where the sci-fi and the reality match although I will say annihilation is actually a lot less sexy in real life. It's really just annoying to have to deal with something that you have to make and that the universe is trying to destroy and every every every turning point that's hard to be an antimatter physicist I it is. I mean he's literally been doing this since the ninety s and like he does get a little frustrated. All right you said earlier that antimatter. It's here in this universe but this universe is full of matter. I don't see any antimatter lurking around. So where is it if it's exists in theory but it's hard to find in reality. I don't get this you know who else doesn't get it. Every physicist on earth like this is one of the fundamental questions the equation say there should be as much anti matters. There's matter but in practice. Antimatter is actually super hard to find and Hank says nobody knows why there aren't any good ideas about this. I mean physicist. Ducey little. Bits of antimatter here and there. In fact anti electrons I discovered in cosmic rays coming from deep space way back in the nineteen thirties. And actually I've got another natural source of antimatter. Right here in the studio emily in this room. Yes ready yes. Data this banana. What are you talking about? Is this a real episode? This is an episode. About nothing and Tomfoolery. Mom Can I hold the banana to make sure it's real Alex Lane? Yes okay so obviously. The banana is not anti. It's it's matter but here's the thing about bananas. Bananas are full of Potassium. Which is really good for you. But there's also a radioactive isotope of potassium into banana. Call Potassium forty. This is a naturally occurring isotope So some Porsche. The potassium in the banana is potassium. Forty now here's the thing. Potassium forty when it decays eight usually releases an electron but very very very very rarely it releases and anti-electron so if we just hold this banana
U.S. Has Reportedly Deployed New, Small Nukes On Submarine
"US as reportedly deployed a new small nuclear weapon on a submarine as NPR's Jeff Bromfield explains that his arm control experts concerned. The new nuclear weapon has just a fraction of the explosive power of those currently carried on submarines its main job is to deter Russia which the trump administration believes has small nukes of tone. We're somewhat back in the sort of Cold War Tit for tat here. Hans Christianson is with the Federation of American scientists a watchdog group that reported on the nuke nuke he worries that these smaller weapons might see more usable by both sides in a conflict that could lead to escalating. Yeah once you start popping nukes folks. The bets are off and the possibility of full-scale nuclear war becomes more likely the Pentagon declined to comment on the report Jeff Brumfield. NPR News as
"jeff brumfield" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"From NPR news astronomers are carefully watching a nearby star it's been behaving very strangely over the past few weeks and as in Paris Jeff Brumfield reports stargazers don't even need a telescope to witness it's remarkable change look up at the constellation Orion and there it is it's one of the shoulders and it's usually one of the brightest stars in the sky it's called Beetlejuice Edward Guinan has been watching Beetlejuice since Ronald Reagan was president nineteen eighty one nineteen eighty why do you feel like you have a relationship with they don't use of this yeah I do it's my star sign in has been keeping an eye on it from his perch at Villanova University where he's a professor of astrophysics it's not the only star he looks at but it's definitely his favorite a lot of stars are I actually study that I I pretty well know what they're going to do this I don't know now I don't so it's it's it's a puzzle to me no I like I like puzzles unlike other stars Betelgeuse brightens and fades unpredictably and started late last year Guinan and his colleagues noticed something Beetlejuice just kept getting dimmer and dimmer except getting fainter him beyond where we ever observed the number of service this is Frank Emily love that kiss an astronomer at the university of Washington she says the star who's becomes so faded at this point anyone can walk outside and see for themselves it's very obviously dimmer than the star that would be in one of Orion's needs which is right it does jump out to a stargazer that the consolation really looks different it looks so different that some have speculated Beetlejuice may be on the verge of a violent death unlike our son which will burn for billions of years they don't use this lifespan is around just ten million years it's what's known as a red supergiant roiling boiling stark constantly pulsing in changing it's kind of this live fast die young version of stellar evolution live X. as part of the reason astronomers are taking such an interest is that if they don't use is about to die it won't just fade away it will collapse and then explode in a huge spectacular supernova here on earth we get quite a show you'd see it in the daytime sky for weeks at night I believe it would be comparable and brightness to the full moon or something close to that I mean you'd be able to see a shadow cast by the brightness of the supernova so is it about to blow well there are some other possibilities maybe the star just bounced out some dust that blocking our view at least for now and the truth is stars live and die on their own time scales not ours it could be getting ready to go supernova very soon but very soon could mean another ten thousand years a hundred thousand years so maybe don't hold your breath but if you're out ended stark and you can see a Ryan you might just want.
The U.S. And Russia Are Stocking Up On Missiles And Nukes For A Different Kind Of War
"The US has begun production of a new nuclear weapon supporters of the weapons they it's needed to counter Russia, but critics worry it's taking America back to a time when nuclear weapons were more likely to be used NPR's, Jeff Brumfield has more. It wasn't that long ago with the military had plans to use nuclear weapons all over the place July nineteen sixty two these troops were the first hour army's history to engage in tactical exercise supported by live nuclear firepower. That's our KYW footage from the Nevada. Desert. Hundreds of troops rehearsed to the tech. But before they went in they fired a tiny nuclear weapon at a simulated enemy position it detonated perfectly releasing its lethal radiation back, then that was how some thought nuclear war would look nukes small enough to knock out just a couple of city blocks used together with conventional weapons like tanks and troops. Of course, that's not what happened radiation and other factors may nuclear weapons of bad fit for the battlefield, and as the US's conventional strength through battlefield nuclear weapons became less important and the end of the Cold War, the United States said well that was kind of stupid. Why did we have all the? Stuff. Let's get rid of it. Matthew crane is at the Atlantic Council. He also worked on nuclear strategy in the Pentagon, the US dismantled nearly all of its battlefield nuclear weapons. But Russia took a different path. It has kept thousands of battlefield nukes in storage. So today Russia has nuclear landmines nuclear torpedoes, nuclear depth charges nuclear artillery, nuclear short range missiles, and the Trump administration believes Russia would be tempted to use some of these weapons in conflict. If that happened chronic says, the US wouldn't be able to responding kind though only nukes it has left are big weapons designed to fight an apocalyptic nuclear war. So the administration has begun converting an existing larger warhead into a new smaller low-yield weapon. More like the old battlefield nukes. What the low yield nuclear weapons do say, no actually we have a range of options. If you use a low you'll nuke. Earlier weapon we can respond with one two or three of our own. I mean, well, it's insane. That's Jeffrey Lewis a scholar at the Middlebury institute of international studies, who's not a fan of battlefield nukes. The Trump administration's new warheads sits on the same missile that now carries a much more powerful nuclear weapon. So if the US did use it for some reason, all the Russians are going to see is that a missile that only carries nuclear warheads is heading toward Russia and Russian policy as Flannery. Putin has said many times is not to wait for it to land. In other words, Russia could unleash an attack on the US just to be safe or go ole occur is with the International Crisis Group. She says just the existence of smaller US weapons could cost the Russians to take battlefield nukes out of storage. They think wow, we need to deter that. No way are conventional weapons deter that. We have to emphasize the nuclear capability, she says that could end. Up countering the vastly superior conventional forces of the US, they're throwing away advantage. The Trump administration says several of these new smaller weapons will be ready to enter service later this year, but the administration's long-term plans for more battlefield nukes. Face a bigger obstacle. Newly elected Democrats have vowed to block them. Jeff Brumfield NPR news, Washington. This message comes from NPR sponsor. Comcast business. Business has always been driven by innovators. That's why Comcast business is helping you with technology that provides better experiences. Comcast business beyond fast.
Russia's 2016 Election Meddling More Comprehensive Than Realized
"Focused on developing an audience and even recruiting asset so people to act in the real world to say stage rallies. Now, one of the report says that a main message that was pushed to African American voters was that it was best to sit out the election to boycott the election. The press turn out, right? And then one example of a fake persona. That was created by the IRA that got a lot of traction is an Instagram account set up with the username of that blacks to Graham, and it had more than three hundred thousand followers. It is worth pointing out that much of the focus up until now has been on Facebook and Twitter. But these researchers are saying that the Russians also use Instagram and other social media platforms. Right, right. One of the things that these reports made clear is that the Russians leveraged every major social media platform Instagram had largely stayed under the radar. That's no longer. The case. These reports say that Instagram was actually a huge part of Russia's efforts online. For example, one of the report says that fake Russian content on Facebook received seventy six point five million engagements on Instagram fake, Russian content earned more than two times as many engagements is that researchers say importantly, looking ahead that the Russians have shifted a lot of their activity to Instagram since the election, which is an important point the Russians are still using social media. Try to influence Americans. That's absolutely, right. And it's a really important point to make that Russians continue to use fake accounts on these platforms for nefarious purposes. So you mentioned that the Senate supplied the data. These researchers used is congress planning to do anything more to stop Russia or any other country from using social media to influence US voters. Well, there's certainly been chatter from lawmakers about possible legislation social media companies would prefer to deal with this without any sort of legislation regulation, of course, one of the reasons that we are talking about this. And this report is out is it puts the public's attention on material online, and with the hope that Americans will be more judicious about what they're engaging with online. That's NPR's. Ryan lucas. Thanks, ryan. Thank you. Thirty one years ago this month. Ronald Reagan turned to Mikhail Gorbachev and spoke these words dove, no provi trust. But verify the occasion was the White House signing of the intermediate range nuclear forces treaty. The I n f as it's known the treaty bans. Both the US and Russia from having land launched missiles that can fly from three hundred to thirty four hundred miles. Washington says Russia has been cheating on the treaty. And now the US is threatening to pull out that could spell the end of what has been considered one of the most successful, Cold War era, arms, control, treaties, more. We're going to take a few minutes here to lay out what is going on. And why it matters here in the studio to help with that our national security correspondent, David welna? Hi there, Mary Louise and our in house nuclear expert. Jeff Brumfield, welcome to you. Hi, David you start. What is the US beef here? What why does the US wanna pull out? Well, the US says that since the end of the last Bush admin. Station. Russia has been out of compliance with the treaty that Russia has been not only developing but also fielding cruise missiles that are in violation of the treaty and the Obama administration this publicly for the first time four years ago. So this isn't just the Trump administration. Leveling these complaints. This goes back, but President Trump in October said that the US was going to pull out of the treaty. And then earlier this month secretary of state, Mike Pompeo went to Brussels, and he said Russia would have sixty days to come back into compliance with the treaty or the US would begin the formal six-month notification process for pulling out of the treaty. Here's what Tom PEO said Russia admits it's violations and fully and verifiably comes back into compliance. We will of course, welcome. That course of action and just to keep the clock straight here. David Pompeo was talking you said earlier this month he gives Russia sixty days to come back into compliance. So that means the US is looking for something by what February by February for them to come back into compliance. And if they don't by early August, the US would no longer be a party to the treaty and just briefly what does Moscow say today acknowledged that they're cheating on the treaty Moscow. At first denied that they even had