7 Burst results for "James Robert Brown"

"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

11:49 min | 11 months ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Consciousness is easy to explain. It's just a you know systems theory or whatever But I don't think the Chinese room improves machines. Can't think or understand or Have Intentional or meaningful internal representations or be conscious. I think that's still an open question in my mind. The Chinese Chinese room experiment is one of these thought experiments. That creates a lot of confusion by the hidden assumptions. That imports central imagery. I don't know my being unfair. You know I think you're being being very fair again. I come back to To certain political cartoons as referencing and not not to reduce the tiny room to something so ultimately kind of base but there is a boiling down of other processors. Boiling down a governor problem. It takes place in a thought experiment like this and then you do have to ask well in reducing it to this model of the necessary complexity is lost. It is necessary to understand what's going on. Yeah I think that's exactly right and I I would say for me crucially. It's the image of the person in the room. That's the especially Salihi confusing thing in this thing here like what if there wasn't a person there. What if he just instead said the room is a machine that takes in Takes in symbols and puts out symbols. Then you're basically not really changing much. You're just saying well it's a computer and then would that's what we're talking about originally but It anyway so so we mentioned Daniel Dennen. He's written extensive criticism of the Chinese room. I think this was even the context of his coinage of the term intuition palm oil yes is the title of one of his books. INTUITION PUMPS Dinner writes quote. Intuition pumps are cunningly designed to focus the reader's attention on the important features and to deflect the reader from bogging down in hard to follow details. There's nothing wrong with this in principle. Indeed one philosophy's highest callings is finding ways of helping people see the forest not just the trees but intuition pumps are often abused though seldom deliberately and of course then it himself has has played with thought experiments. Before I go absolutely and it's only reminded of the Almost kind of a little short story he wrote about those that were a robot with the human brain wonderful. Yes the Where am I yeah? I think it was called. Oh so then it is. As he says they're certainly not opposed to thought experiments but he He points out. I think quite correctly that sometimes they they actually confused more than they. Illuminate whether that's true of the ones he himself has put together. It's it's hard to say I mean a lot of times The benefits of these physics thought experiments. As we've been saying is you can eventually go out and test and see whether they were on the right track or whether they were confused by some you you know hidden assumption taken on board. It's harder to do with a lot of these thought experiments about say the physical location of consciousness or something like that so One example sample from dentists book intuition pumps that we talked about in our ship of theseus episode. You remember the swamp man. Oh yes of course yes. It's essentially swamp thing from the Comic Book Right. Hey Yeah so. This was an example of dinovite explaining how intuition pumps can go wrong and again. Intuition pumps are just thought experiments. That that rely on our intuitions missions. That don't like take specific data on board really. I'll try to very very quick. The example was this guy named Donald Davidson. He was a philosopher so he said assume assume lightning strikes me while I'm out walking the swamp in it evaporates my body and I'm just going and then meanwhile it also strikes a tree next door and it rearranges. Is that tree into an exact Adam. Adam copy of me with all my memories and he calls this creature swamp man and so he asks. Is that copy really me me Davidson says you know. Is it really friends with my friends even though it has never met them before does it really know what a banana tastes like even though it has never never tasted or even touched one this was offered. I think to interrogate the question of how the history of an object is related to the identity. The of that object is a thing that is an exact copy of you. That behaves exactly like you but it hasn't been where you've been done what you've done in. What ways is that? Actually actually different from you But didn't response to this story. By saying you know this thought experiment might not actually reveal all that much And as a point of analogy he asks us to consider the cow shark so the cow shark again is it's created when a normal cow gives birth to an animal that is atom for Atom Adam. Exactly like a shark that you would find swimming in the ocean and asks now. Is this newborn animal cow or a shark. Oh but also take on board that it has cow. DNA in all of its cells. Now a question mark like this. It might do something useful like it might help us. Identify unify what features we think are important when we use words like cow shark but it really doesn't reveal anything about biology or the world. You know you're not going to get new information about reality from it. I think the best it could hope to do is help us figure out what we mean by words and not to say there is an evaluation. FBI that seems to be about all that it does. Yes so dennard actually arrives at a claim he says quote. The utility of thought experiment is inversely proportional channel to the size of its departures from reality. That's why he's saying you know swamp man it just doesn't seem to be all that useful and understanding what what it means to be a physical physical objects like a person because something like that is never going to happen in reality. I also and I felt this way before too. I also feel like swamp man is just a little all too complicated like just you star Trek. Just say Kathy Card teleport's down to planet x and then back up to the enterprise like is what happens when he hangs out with his friends. What happens when he plays the flute etc.? I guess it's the same problem either way but To answer that question. You're using your our intuitions which are trained on a world where that never happens. So your intuitions. Just don't do much. They're they're they are not honed wound to solving this kind of problem. Your intuitions are much more useful in say like combining premises about how things fall and stuff like that right because actually you're quite experienced with falling and you can combine that with observations about gravity and stuff now. I I don't think Dentists little proclamation. They're about about the size of its departures from reality is then again like a solvent. That'll that'll fix all the problems. Because it can be very hard to measure the size of of a departure from reality the consistent way like just the Chinese room experiment depart more or less from reality than Einstein imagining a train traveling aveling near the speed of light because the the Chinese room. You could do that. I mean maybe somebody has done that. I mean all you need is the person in a room and and an individual in the outside writing Chinese characters down right I mean and also speaking being able being able to speak and write Chinese. Obviously you can't have just nonsense going in. But the only two components we could. We could pull this off today if we needed to though I would say that the problem with the Chinese room actually is not. It's departures archers from reality as in like it's not plausible that you could make a room like this and Putin somebody in it. Because it's illustrating anything about how right machine is thinking or not thinking right. The lack of its use I think is it's in its departures from the thing it's supposed to represent it's supposed to be an analogy before a computer but it's actually not a good analogy for a computer because it's a room and a person in some pencil and paper that just like same thing but swamp man. Yeah there are all these fantastic ideas in it that don't match up with reality whereas the ship of theseus is a is so brilliant in standards to the test of time because Everybody can can associate with that. Like the upkeep of physical structures in devices the the constant replacement of those things the constant change to things that we think have autonomy like Like ourselves or or sports teams clubs buildings et Cetera the kind of chilling takeaway from from that distinction. You make between the ship of theseus and the ship of theseus version in stantione swamp man is that maybe it makes more sense to have to answer questions about the meaning of identity as it refers to things then as it does refer to people in many ways. It is easier to think of people people who thinks if you're just doing these kind of computations. I also want to clarify that if you're more interested in the Chinese room they're like billion other the classes of responses to it. You can go look up like one is that you know you should really maybe Think about putting that computer inside a robot and then that would be more or consistent with the type of experience that a human has until like what. If you put the Chinese room in a thing that could go around and look with cameras outside and all all kinds of so. They're just tons of different responses while I don't find it convincing on On what it tries to prove I do think it's one of these things that is at least inadvertently useful for clarifying. What people mean when they're talking about this subject because usually if you start asking something like cannon machine be conscious you just don't even even have a foothold to start reasoning just goes just I don't know yet because on one hand it's hard enough to know what consciousnesses for us and then to extrapolate what that would mean to a machine you? There's just no like how do you feel in the values on that equation. So I give it credit for that it. I don't think it solves the question but it does give you a for a first place to start climbing climbing where you can even contemplate what it would mean to solve this question. Better return back. Just the idea of what is the thought experiment. What is in thought experiment? I do on a refer to just a few ideas that are the pointed out by Dan. Faulk and his Ian Article Armchair Science thought experiment played a crucial role in the history of science. But do they tell us anything about the real world He points out that John Norton a philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh has argued that we shouldn't elevate thought experiments to highly they are essentially quote elegantly crafted arguments that bring vivid pictures. Tend to the mind's eye so the argument here is that the thought experiments as we've been discussing don't produce any new knowledge themselves selves but rather constituted deduction of existing knowledge and he maintains that all thought experiments are simply restate can simply be restated arguments events like his challenges sort of challenges. You bring me a thought experiment. I'll just restate it as an argument and that's all there is to it. Well I think he's essentially correct. The the thought experiment can be restated as a deductive argument with the kind of the boring. You know logic class style logical premises right but it thought experiments are useful. Because they're easier to remember they're easier to understand and they give you pictures that you can wrap your mind around right. Exactly they they they changed the we think about something. And and that's ultimately I believe the point The counterpoint that has made by James Robert Brown a philosopher the University of Toronto. Who points out like okay? Yeah Norton Jordan. You may be right. And he even says I think probably could restate all thought experiments as arguments but we don't really work them out in our heads as arguments. We worked them out in the form. Warm these thought experiments the cognitive process. He are much is much more intuitive and less analytical thought experiments therefore they transform the addle title the analytical into the intuitive..

Donald Davidson Adam stantione swamp Daniel Dennen FBI James Robert Brown John Norton University of Toronto Kathy Card Putin Einstein Faulk Dan Ian Article University of Pittsburgh
"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

12:45 min | 11 months ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"To podcasts. We're back so in looking at the history of thought experiments. Were you able to find the oldest one on a like a like a cave of all no but I mean th we kind of ended up getting into a similar situation we start trying to think about this Because certainly we know that thought experiments were employed by by a pre socratic philosophers. So this has been before the the life of Socrates before four seventy BC and then thought experiments are little if things were essentially thought. Experience were popular throughout the Middle Ages. And of course came into their own in the seventeenth century the centuries to follow the term itself is is often attributed to one ernst mach lived at eighteen thirty eight through nineteen sixteen. He was an Austrian physicist and philosopher. And the I point this out because he used the term. Let's see I get this right Good Dunkin experiment but it seems though that like it was already in use by the time he used it and it may have derived from the Danish Tuncay experiment and then it turns out that Georg Lichtenberg seventeen forty to seventeen ninety nine. He discussed quote experiments with thoughts and ideas. Like all of these are coming. After the advent you know after Galileo Galileo when Newton and people had already been using these as. We said they weren't the first to use them but they use them in really profoundly influential ways in real science. Yeah it's kind of like we're looking at three phase here. There's the phase where people were actually calling it a thought experiment. There's the phase where people are using them to great effect and ultimately really I think if we if you go back further in time you get lost in the midst of of earlier history. I think it's fair to say that thought experiments are generally a more refined refined idea of something that we just do as humans and internal simulation of observed empirical data. Yeah trying to run an experiment in your mind given what you know right and I can imagine this is kind of getting into the territory of our our other show invention which everyone can learn about invention pod dot com. It's a podcast about inventions. And where they come from subscribe. Now subscribe now right now a seriously. Stop and go and subscribe but but you know you can imagine with any any of these inventions. This even some of the ancient wins. We've talked about like there is a thought experiment level That is that is in play. But I don't think it's a great great stretch to imagine some of these ancient inventors and inventive minds essentially engaging in thought experiments. Oh Yeah I mean that's an interesting way of putting it that you have to sort of a before you create a tool you have to imagine what would happen if you use something of a certain shape in a certain way without having seen something like that done before right but then again of course we go back to what we said earlier about. How just envisioning an experiment that you could carry out? It's not in an in an audit self a thought experiment. But it's still kind of the roots of the thought experiment right in terms of thinking about like what some taxonomy we can refer to four thought experiments Sir various ways you could categorize thought experiments. But there's not really a fully agreed upon standards so much. Obviously you can categorize then by the discipline that they stem from. So here's a bunch of physics thought. Experiments in quantum physics thought experiments here. Some economic thought experiments the psychological experiments. You know we could also break them up based on their features I guess but I'm not sure really sure that does any good because again if it's a cat or a dog or Bacilus doesn't matter that's just some Some flavoring that's added to the little story of thought experiment. Well I'm already seeing in the examples. We've discussed so far. One Clear Distinction Asian emerges which is the thought experiment that shows the absurdity or contradictions inherent in some preexisting idea versus versus the thought experiment that demonstrates a new conclusion or show reveals new knowledge based on premises. You already accept right. And that's that's where we come back to. Karl Popper who talked about briefly earlier. Karl Popper was an Austrian British philosopher and professor live nineteen ninety-two through Nineteen ninety-four war and he. This is this is basically how he divided up thought experiments he said there are basically three types heuristic in other words to illustrate a theory. Okay so this would be the kind that just helps clarify what you're talking about gives people something to picture right and you could argue that. Maybe I don't know I'm not quite sure how Newton's cannon would fit in. There was that just to illustrate or did he actually prove something using the image of the Canon. Well you could also argue that it falls into the next category right Critical against a theory. Because he's kind of playing the preconceived notions about how these things work right. Well I guess yeah. It does challenge the idea. They're different mechanics at operation in the heavens than there are on the earth and other Karl Popper's third category than is Apologetic in favor of a theory eerie. Okay so you've got the kind that illustrates the kind that challenges and the kind argues in favour of right now on a similar note. You have Canadian philosopher of Science James Robert Brown born nineteen forty nine still still alive and kicking as of this recording and he's divided dot experiments into two to major categories similar along similar lines. Constructive and destructive okay. Those are the broad categories. Okay and then there are some some subtypes hypes to the destructive Category so there's contradictive. This is the thought experiment. That points out a contradiction to give an idea. Then there's paradoxical so you have a thought experiment here that shows how a given idea is conflicting with a commonly held belief then you have the undermine or a thought experiment that would actively undermines an idea and then there's the counter thought experiment of thought experiment. It serves as a rebuttal to another thought experiment. You know I think I generally would find that thought. Experiments experiments are more often sound when deployed as destructive or critical tools than as constructive or Apologetic tools and I think this is because of course as we thought experiments do not provide new data or new evidence of anything. They only illustrate logical relationships between things that we already know are already believe so they can take existing knowledge and use that to extrapolate to knowledge. But it's much easier to use them in in a way. That's reasonable to demonstrate a contradiction between existing pieces of knowledge or principles that the extended version of the reductio AD absurdum. The these are sure I think some of the most powerful uses of thought experiments when they when they have the power to clearly showed that things that you already believe or accept or are bound bound to accept are in fact self-contradictory all right. So let's go. Let's get down to one of the questions that is often discussed regarding thought experiments experiments People say do they really tell us anything. Oh yeah some people hate thought experiments they get really just just riled up because it's like oh you know it seems like like this navel-gazing kind of thing like if you're not going to go out and do physical experiments in the physical world. What are you even talking about why you know? Why are you wasting your time? Yeah Armchair Chair. Science is Is is one of the criticisms as often thrown out regarding thought experiments but of course thought experiments have been really useful in the history of science as we've talked about before or a lot of important advances in the history of science have been before they were confirmed. In fact by physical experiments were predicted by thought experiments experiments that this is a very common feature especially in physics. I mean you could even say in fact that there are whole realms of physics today it probably what you would call theoretical heretical physics. You often hear this division of theoretical physics physics and experimental physics There there there's all this stuff in theoretical physics right now that we don't have have a way of testing with physical experiments yet. And you can. You can kind of try to make your arguments one way or another stronger about string theory or something like that but it just just the we. We don't have a test for yet so you could say that all of that is in a way a type of mathematically elegant thought experiment but I it but if you go back and look at you know Newton and Galileo and all this and certainly Einstein. There's no denying the thought experiments have been extremely useful and productive live in the history of physics but thought experiments can sometimes also as we've acknowledged be confusing and misleading even though there are other times illuminating a favorite of ours on here here is of course Daniel Dinner You know he likes to highlight the the different kinds of thought experiments that try to leverage our intuitions into new discoveries simply by tightly controlling pulling the variables of an imagined scenario and some of the most famous thought experiments in history. Actually I think maybe confused more than they illuminate. I don't WANNA put words in his mouth but I. I think it would say this about Donald Davidson's swamp man which we discussed in our show. Yeah theseus episode or Searle's Chinese room which maybe who issued come back to now so we explain Searle's Chinese room earlier with the person exchanging the symbols in the room and the question of the person in the room who doesn't speak Chinese. It can simulate perfect conversational output in Chinese By following this instruction manual. Does that person really understand Chinese and A lot of people have thought. Yeah this is a powerful disprove of the notion that computers could ever think understand or be conscious and a lot of other things have been incredibly incredibly critical of this as an example of a reply to the Chinese room. That makes sense to me is what if what's true of the part might not be true of the system of as a whole hole so you imagine again this person in the room. The person in the room doesn't understand Chinese and thus the responses they produce are not meaningful to them but you could argue accused the room itself the set of instructions combined with the memories and sensory experiences and logic that went into the creation of the instructions auctions and the human operator and the Pencil and paper taken together perhaps do understand Chinese and searle rejects this line if thinking One of the reasons is he says you know this is a kind of illicit externalizing of thought saying that. Like paper could thing for a book of instructions could think but but like I think like he's the person who put this system to get you know you're the one who put a human inside a room as the metaphor for a computer. Computers do not actually have a tiny human inside them. That's performing operations with opportunities to understand or not understand likewise there is not actually actually a little human sitting inside your brain with the job of understanding or not understanding inputs and outputs. Your brain is a system in many ways. You might. I'd say that system of your brain that produces your mind is more comparable to the entire system of the person in the room the room. The instructions is an all that than it is. Just the person inside I think the evidence is pretty clear that the mind is not one thing. And there's no evidence of an observer within the observer the mind is at the very least a system of information processing but also storage inputs outputs all working together. There's not there's there's no evidence of a pilot inside who does all of the final understanding right as right is as simple as it would be imagine that you know because it would reduce whatever we're trying to figure out what would reduce it to a person get back into that That kind of Neolithic Mindset. And so I I think no. I certainly don't want to say that the casting aspersions on John Searle. I'm sure he is a very brilliant man. Much smarter than me. And there's been a lot more complex back and forth on this but just as somebody who's right about this a good bit it seems to me like this is one of those thought experiments that needlessly churns up confusion just by bringing bringing in a lot of unnecessary assumptions in the connotations of the imagery. You use in the thing like we've got a person inside a room that is making you think of analogies allergies to a person sitting inside the computer or an observer inside the observer in the brain right now I do take the problem of consciousness seriously. I'm not one of those people who would hand wave and say oh yeah..

John Searle Karl Popper Newton Georg Lichtenberg Middle Ages physicist Galileo Galileo Dunkin James Robert Brown Donald Davidson Bacilus Canon Daniel Dinner professor Galileo
"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

WHAS 840 AM

04:33 min | 1 year ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

"Says multiple mass shootings have been prevented in Kentucky that's according to special agent in charge James Robert Brown who heads up the FBI Louisville office we have had some success for disruptions preventing mass shootings in Kentucky working closely with our state and local partners brown says the number of domestic terrorism related arrests has risen in Kentucky as it has across the nation a lawyer representing victims of the Las Vegas mass shooting claims he is very impressed with MGM for agreeing to a landmark settlement lawyer eaglet Adams says it was a very difficult case for all sides again I I just want to say that I'm very impressed with MGM here yeah the nearly eight hundred million dollar settlement between MGM resorts international and the families of people killed and wounded in the twenty seventeen shooting at a country music concert was announced today but was actually reached on Monday a lawyer for the victims said they faced a two year statute of limitations deadline to get it done however MGM and the lawyers agreed it would be best to wait until after anniversary ceremonies take place to make the announcement lawyer Edward Adams estimated it will take until the end of next year to award the money to the estimated forty four hundred victims authorities are scaling back their search for a Kentucky woman reported missing in the U. S. Virgin Islands after two weeks and no new clues officials say they will down scale the search effort for Lucy Schuman the forty eight year old low evil woman was reported missing on September nineteenth when she failed to return to her vacation rental on Saint John climbing teams drones scuba divers dogs at the U. S. Coast Guard have search several miles of trails shorelines and roadways in Virgin Islands national park where Shuman's jeep was found the National Park Service says the search will continue but on a more limited basis in addition the park service and Virgin Islands police launched investigations which are expected to continue through the coming days. all miles news radio eight forty WHAS today vice president Mike pence is under scrutiny after the Washington post reports that one of vice presidents top staffers was listening in to the July twenty fifth phone call between president trump and president salen ski of Ukraine that's become the subject of the president's impeachment inquiry the post reports officials close the Penn state he was unaware that are not controversial Paul with Ukraine the president repeatedly asked for help in investigating by then even though the paper sites White House officials who say the B. piece top security adviser was listening in a spokesperson for the vice president telling ABC news in a statement pence directly and effectively deliver the president's anti corruption and European burden sharing messages overseas and upon his return the financial aid to Ukraine was released three to Wallace reporting. Donald trumps video is being removed from Twitter after a copyright claim by rock band Nickelback the video takes aim at Joe Biden and in the clip cuts to a popular meme based on an edit of the music video for Nickelback's two thousand five single photograph and president trump said it lead singer of the band Chad Kroger's photograph is replaced by one taken in twenty fourteen that shows both the bidens on a golf course with Devin archer a colleague of hunters labeled in the edit AS eight Ukraine gas exact within twelve hours of the video being posted to Twitter it was removed however the video was still available on you too this is the second time this year that the president has been consensual word for copyright infringement on Twitter your next news update is it for I'm Suzanne Duval news radio eight forty WHAS Kentucky and is breaking news weather and traffic station and it was brilliant because that song has the line what it is what the hell's going on Joey's head. for for Joe Biden's earplugs mine earlier today there was a post from Reuters top news there is climate change act was spray red paint at the facade of the British treasury excuse me and then. they didn't even mention the fact it was an epic fail have you seen this video yet it's it's so it's hilariously sad really they have a fire truck in a fire hose there's spraying red paint on this beautiful building to make a statement about climate change but the holes jumps out of the activist hand then is to start spraying the Reds spray all over the streets it was a lawyer is but Reuters the name make note of that in the headline news like. why might change activist Brady red painted the facade of the British well how bout say it looked like a keystone cops would it look like you know some some Saturday Night Live sketch they they failed to mention that but anyway the only audio.

vice president MGM Kentucky Ukraine Washington post Virgin Islands national park Joe Biden Twitter Virgin Islands MGM resorts National Park Service James Robert Brown Mike pence trump U. S. Virgin Islands Lucy Schuman eaglet Adams Las Vegas FBI
"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

04:00 min | 1 year ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"You make between the ship of Theseus, and the the ship of Theseus version as in stained, cheated and swamp, man, is that maybe it makes more sense to have to answer questions about the meaning of identity as it refers to things than as it does refer to people in many ways, it is easier to think of people as things if you. Doing these kind of computations. I also want to clarify that if you're more interested in the Chinese room, they're like a billion other classes of responses to it. You can go look up like one is that you know, you should really maybe think about putting that computer inside a robot. And then that would be more consistent with the type of experience that human has. And so like, what if you put the Chinese room in thing that could go around and look with cameras outside, and you know, all that kind of they're just tons of different responses while I don't find it convincing on on. What it tries to prove. I do think it's one of these things that is at least inadvertently useful for clarifying. What people mean when they're talking about this subject because usually if you start asking something like cannon machine be conscious. You just don't even have a foothold start reasoning. Just goes just I don't know because one handed hard enough to know what consciousnesses for us, and then to extrapolate what that would mean to machine is just no. How do you feel in the values on that equation? So I give it credit for that. It it. I don't think it solves the question. But it does give you a first place to start climbing where you can even contemplate what it would mean to solve this question return back. Just the idea of what is the thought experiment. What isn't a thought experiment? I do on a refer to just a few ideas that are they've been pointed out by Dan Faulk, and his Ian, article armchair, science thought experiment. Played a crucial role in the history of science. But do they tell us anything about the real world? He points out the John Norton philosopher at the university of Pittsburgh has argued that we shouldn't elevate thought experiments to highly they are essentially, quote, elegantly crafted arguments that bring vivid pictures to to the mind's eye. So the argument here is that that thought experiments as we've been discussing don't produce any new nodes themselves, but rather constituted deduction of existing knowledge. Right. And he maintains that all thought experiments are simply restate can simply be restated arguments. His challenge. Sort of challenges you bring the thought experiment. I'll just restate it as an argument, and that's all there is to it. Well, I think he's essentially, correct. The any good thought experiment can be restated as deductive argument, you know, with the of the boring, you know, logic class style logical premises, right? But thought experiments are useful because they're easier to remember they're easier to understand, and they give you pictures that you can wrap your mind around. Right. Exactly, they they they changed the way think about something. And that's also I believe the point the counterpoint that is made by James Robert Brown philosopher, the university of Toronto who points out that like, okay. Yeah, norton. You may be right. And even says, I think Norton probably could restate all thought experiments as arguments, but we don't really work them out in our heads as arguments, we work them out in the form of these thought experiments the cognitive process. He are much is much more intuitive and less analytical thought experiments, therefore, they transform the addle the analytical into the. Intuitive. What did we evolve thinking four what was it useful for? I mean can't be sure. But it really seems like what's likely is not that say are boreal primates were trying to work out in a local premises of an argument say, you know, premise one is. No, I mean, they were imagining scenarios like thinking is useful for saying. Okay. If I went down on the ground right now. What would happen? Oh, yeah. That's right. There was a leopard down there. So if leopard and me on the ground that that's not good. Imagining scenarios is so much more natural and intuitive to us than than formal Silla justic arguments..

John Norton Ian Dan Faulk James Robert Brown university of Toronto university of Pittsburgh
"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

04:43 min | 1 year ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Well, I'm already seeing in the examples we've discussed so far one clear distinction that emerges, which is thought experiment that shows the absurdity or contradictions inherent in some preexisting idea. Verses the thought experiment that demonstrates a new conclusion or show reveals new knowledge based on premises. You already accept right? And that's that's where we come back to Karl Popper who talked about briefly earlier. Karl Papa was an Austrian British philosopher and professor live nineteen o two through nineteen ninety four. And he this is this is basically how he divided up thought experiments. He said, they're basically three types heuristic in other words to illustrate a theory. And so this would be the kind that just helps clarify what you're talking about gives people something to picture, right? And you could argue that maybe I don't know. I'm not quite sure how Newton's cannon would fit in. There was that just to illustrate or did he actually prove something using the image of the canon? Well, you could also argue that falls into the next category right critical against theory because these kind of playing with preconceived notions about how these things would work. Right. Well, I guess yet. Does challenge the idea that they're different mechanics at operation in the heavens than there are on the earth and the car poppers third category. Then is apologetic in favor of theory. Okay. So you've got the kind that illustrates the kind that Challe. Hinges and the kind that argues in favour of right now on a similar note, you have Canadian philosopher of science James Robert Brown, born nineteen forty nine still still alive and kicking as of this recording. And he's divided thought experiments into two major categories similar along similar lines, constructive and destructive. Okay. Those are the broad categories. Okay. And then there are some some sub types to the destructive category. So there's contradictive this is a thought experiment that points out a contradiction to give an idea. Then there's paradoxical. So you have a thought experiment here that shows how give an idea is conflicting with a commonly held belief. Then you have the undermine our thought experiment that actively undermines an idea. And then there's the counter thought experiment of thought experiment that serves as a rebuttal to another thought experiment. You know, I think I generally would find that thought experiments are more often sound when deployed as destructive or critical tools than as constructive or apologetic tools, and I think this is because of course, as we know thought experiments do not provide new data or new evidence of anything. They only illustrate logical relationships between things that we already know are already believe so they can take existing knowledge and use that to extrapolate to new knowledge, but it's much easier to use them in a way that's reasonable to demonstrate a contradiction between existing pieces of knowledge or principles the extended version of the reductio ad. Absurd him the these are I think some of the most powerful uses of thought experiments when they when they have the power to clearly showed that things that you already believe or accept or you know, bound to accept are in fact self-contradictory. All right. So let's let's get down to one of the questions that is often discussed regarding thought experiments people say, we'll do they really tell us anything. Oh, yes. Some people hate thought experiment. They get really just just riled up. Because it's like, oh, you know, it seems like this navel-gazing thing. Like, if you're not going to go out and do physical experiments in the physical world. What are you even talking about? Why you know, why are you wasting your time? Yeah. Armchair sciences is is one of the criticisms it's often thrown out regarding thought experiments, but of course, thought experiments have been really useful in the history of science as we've talked about before a lot of important advances in the history of science have been before they were confirmed, in fact by physical experiments. Were predicted by thought experiments. This is a very common feature especially in physics. I mean, you could even say in fact, there are whole realms of physics today. It probably what you would call. Theoretical physics. You often. Hear this division of theoretical physics physics and experimental physics there. There's all this stuff in theoretical physics right now that we don't have a way of testing with physical experiments yet, and you can kind of try to make your arguments one way or another stronger about string theory or something like that. But it just we don't have a test for yet. So you could say that all of that is in a way type of mathematically elegant thought experiment..

Karl Papa Karl Popper James Robert Brown professor canon Newton
"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

WHAS 840 AM

01:53 min | 2 years ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

"Does bother me because I do think this impacts our society, really harshly. You've had so many people like with other African American Jewish like there's been so many horrible things recently happening a little boy police are looking into whether other people were involved in the shooting. But so far no arrests have been made, he Lee Hanson NewsRadio. Eight forty W H A S. Louisville's new FBI chief starts today. He is James Robert Brown junior was named the new chief yesterday. Brown was a deputy assistant director and the national security branches weapons of mass destruction director. Rated FBI headquarters, he replaces former special agent Amy Hess who left Louisville to work in Washington. I do study shows men still aren't getting the message when it comes to protecting themselves from skin cancer. The researchers say skin cancer deaths. Among men have soared in wealthy nations, while mortality rates among women are rising more slowly or even declining in some places bleed author Dorothy Yang of London's Royal free hospital. There is some evidence from several studies that suggest that men possibly don't protect your skin as well as women do more than ninety percent of melanoma cancers are caused by overexposure to the sun making it one of the most preventable of cancers. Something more men need to take on board. That's Vicki Barker reporting and New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady holds a new record. He's the first quarterback in the NFL to gain more than eighty thousand yards in a career the milestone came during a thirty one seventeen win over the Packers Sunday in Foxborough. He ended the day with a total of eighty thousand seventy four yards. Your next news update at ten thirty. I'm Paul miles. Newsradio eight forty W. H E, Kentucky, Anna's breaking news, weather, and traffic station. One thousand dollars..

James Robert Brown FBI Tom Brady Louisville deputy assistant director cancer New England Patriots Lee Hanson Royal free hospital Dorothy Yang Vicki Barker Amy Hess Foxborough Kentucky director Packers Anna NFL Washington
"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

WHAS 840 AM

03:08 min | 2 years ago

"james robert brown" Discussed on WHAS 840 AM

"One person's dead. Another is injured following a shooting on crumbs laying shooting happening Sunday night near crumbs lane. Elementary Ellen PD says one man died at the scene another taken to university hospital with non-life threatening injuries. Neighbor Leyla hood says it doesn't surprise her got drug deals you've got people plotting on some people just hang out like behind the little park back. Here. No arrests have been made. In the case. Anyone with information asked to call the anonymous tip line five. Seven four L M PD. It's six thirty two at News Radio. Eight forty W H A S Senator Chuck Grassley asking the FBI to investigate a second woman who made accusations against supreme court Justice, bright cavenaugh, chairman of the Senate Judiciary committee writing in a letter to the FBI city. Investigators tracked down Judy Monroe Layton who at first claimed she was the author of an anonymous letter that made allegations against cavenaugh during an interview with investigators, the Kentucky woman recanted and said she wasn't the author and it never met Cavanaugh Grassley wants her investigative for making a false statement. Earlier Grassley asked the FBI to investigate another woman who made an accusation. Julie sweat, Nick. Lobes new FBI chief starts today. James Robert Brown junior named the new chief on Sunday. He was a deputy assistant to the director of the national security branches weapons of mass destruction directorate at the FBI headquarters, he's replacing former special agent Amy Hess who left the Louisville office to go work at headquarters. President Trump stumping in Chattanooga. Tennessee Sunday in his final push to campaign for Republicans in tomorrow's midterm elections. The president's been focusing on Senate and gubernatorial races as more projections suggest the Democrats have a good chance of winning control of the house. ABC's Tara Palmeri with more from Tennessee. The president even said he's accepted that he might lose the house the Democrats as it will figure it out. Now, they're really hoping they can squeeze and hold onto the Senate. The Senate is really important for confirmations of political appointments. You gotta remember we barely have any embassador. There's gonna probably be changes in the cabinet. And also if Democrats really do star. Impeachment hearings that gets kicked over to the Senate, and they need to have some support over there. The president continuing his swing through important states. He'll be in Indiana again today making a stop in Fort Wayne stomping for Senate candidate, Mike Braun. So I'm citizen militia groups headed to the southern border to keep migrants crossing into the US the Texas Minutemen playing to send at least one hundred members tobacco military units. President Trump is deploying to stop the migra Karger caravan from Central America. The Pentagon has warned army commanders about unregulated militia members coming to the border the family of a Saudi journalists killed well in the Saudi consulate in Turkey wants back his body Jamal kashogi was killed and dismembered after he walked into the consulate in Istanbul early last month. And the interview was CNN kashogi son say all they want to be able to bury their father's body with the rest of his family. Saudi officials have admitted kashogi was murdered..

Senate FBI President Trump president Senator Chuck Grassley Senate Judiciary committee Saudi consulate Tara Palmeri Ellen PD Judy Monroe Layton Leyla hood Jamal kashogi Tennessee L M PD migra Karger James Robert Brown cavenaugh CNN university hospital US