6 Burst results for "James Pilcher"

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

The Piketon Massacre

04:33 min | 4 months ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

"To answering listener questions this season. You've really helped lead us down some interesting and unexpected roads. We called through a bunch of submissions and picked out a few questions that we felt needed to be discussed. We also invited group of our regular contributors to join reporters james pilcher and engineer levy as well as forensics expert joseph morgan. Walk into the finale. It's been quite a surprising season. It's been a shocking season..

james pilcher joseph morgan levy
"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

The Piketon Massacre

06:01 min | 5 months ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

"As part of his reporting pilcher. Track down michael moran to get his side of the story moran vehemently denied all the allegations about being involved in any prostitution or sex trafficking rings up. Talk to michael moran three times at length and we. I talked to him i said. Are you a sex trafficker. People have said your sex trafficking it says here in this affidavit your sex trafficker what do you say to that. She tried to play the dumb country lawyer. The following is an audio recording from that interview. With michael moran. I don't even know. What a kimmy. The definition of a sex trafficker. So then we get all these women lined up. We come back home and say okay. We've got these women now saying that you're the guy and he says okay and then he was more angry. He would not go on camera with a second time during one conversation pilcher. S moran specifically about making. Lancaster moran denied being her pimp or being involved in any of that kind of activity but when james pilcher brought up the possible whereabouts of megan lancaster. He got a shocking response. Pilcher related the story to producer. Jeff shane a joke with me. Hey maybe she's in my basement. Maybe she's in my backyard. He thinks that the joke because he knows what the rumors are late. What you so. You asked him directly about it absolutely. I said you have anything to do with meghan lancaster and he said no. But you can check my basement. everybody else wants to. You can check out back. He said i. I've invited the cops in to take a look. Well i'm not going to surmise whether he's trying to get away with anything because i i don't know whether or not he had anything to do with her disappearance. I really don't are reporting. Didn't lead down those path. But he had this attitude that he thought he was smarter than you that he thought he was smarter than anybody. And i think what probably from my reporting in my history on all this is a. I read a lot of stuff about him and leading up to them and i'd see stories here and there but nobody but nikki blankenship kept adam. Nobody kept on him. And i can tell you that we never went away. The photographer person that i worked with was always in the courtroom blogging. Blogging him. That she was there was always taking pictures or getting video of him in action in the courtroom. We never went away. In twenty twenty authorities finally made their move phillies rated. The home of a well known lawyer suspected of running a national sex trafficking ring for years march twenty fifth state and local police raid. Michael moran's house with a search warrant in dave used. the attorney general was personally present for that enforcement. When you get the state attorney general showing up to serve a search warrant. You know that there are some very important people watching this. I'm looking at the story. I did and you can see. Iran is sitting on his porch in his stocking feet while police are searching his office. Slash house now. The thing you've got to remember too which is interesting is brick two story house. It sits on the corner right across from the courthouse and right across catty-cornered from the local prosecutor's office. So he literally can walk back and forth from his house. Slash office to the courtroom and walk right in front of the prosecutor's office. Just seven months later it all came crashing down for michael moran longtime defense lawyer and former city councilman has been arrested in an alleged sex trafficking operation friday october. Twenty third to twenty twenty state and local police teamed up in arrested. michael moran. this comes nearly seven years. After that initial affidavit issued by the da for nikki blankenship. It was a day that marks the culmination of years of tireless work and a victory for dozens of portsmouth women. When my father was arrested october twice he was arrested on the eighteen charges that included sex trafficking racketeering telling 'em promoting prostitution when that came out. That was a real exciting day for me. I was screaming iran screaming. Because i worry that no one was ever gonna check. No one was really ever gonna look into it. I really worry. I know that the cincinnati inquirer they had to do their own investigation but it was approximately a year before they started releasing things and when they release things. I still didn't know anything was ever going to happen. And so finally i was like okay. At least somebody's finally checking. Did it kind of validate journey started on. Yeah yeah it definitely did. There are also a lot of people who are saying. He's a great man. And i worried about that. I'm like did i make a mistake. Am i wrong. And there's no way. I have seen that i i was at this point. I'm like i have so much evidence. But still i can't. I don't want to hurt anyone's life. So yeah i was like okay. Something i it was valid and everything i have time for for a decade is olive yeah katie. Lancaster also felt a great sense of relief and was struck by the uncanny timing of miranda arrest. Maria was arrested october. Third twenty twenty the day before megan's thirty third birthday. I mean i was on my way to columbus not jumped out the damn car while it was moving. I couldn't speak. I couldn't talk. Couldn't tell anybody what was going on. I was just like oh my gosh. Oh my gosh. Like i just couldn't believe it and four to happen the day that it did it was almost like a sense of okay now i know this is a god thing like this happened the day before. Megan's birthday almost eight years into it like it could not have come at a better time. It was like oh my gosh we did it. We got this far. Megan look.

michael moran pilcher nikki blankenship moran Lancaster moran james pilcher megan lancaster Jeff shane meghan lancaster Michael moran Pilcher Slash house Slash office phillies cincinnati inquirer adam dave Iran portsmouth iran
"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

The Piketon Massacre

03:10 min | 5 months ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

"James. Pilcher began further exploring the megan lancaster case. Katie lancaster thanks very strongly. That michael moran lured meghan into this life. And it's his fault. She's dead or missing now whether he actually was directly involved all we know she left behind a heck of a lot of notes about oliver different liaisons and all the people she would go to for money she kept all of it. Katie founded chess copies of everything. We called every single number in that some people acknowledge yeah about sex and she became like a slew of women went missing or got killed. Were addicted prostitutes. Sex workers up in ross county in chillicothe iw which is two counties to the north. I mean we're talking. Does dozen more win so meghan. A lot of people theorize the meghan might have been wrapped up in something that got those women killed by. There's a lot of thought. And there's a lot of Theory or rumor that no that that was separate from what happened to her and what happened to her points back to possibly michael. Marine michael moran has denied any involvement or responsibility and meghan lancaster's disappearance moran has stated numerous times and interviews that the only involvement he had with making lancaster was in the case involving a former client. Where lancaster acted as an informant. He has said that he had no other relationship with her and that she did not work for him. Additionally authorities have not brought any charges against him in the case at this time it's unclear whether they have questioned him in the matter throughout twenty nineteen cincinnati inquirer published a series of articles by james pilcher and his colleagues about michael moran and his alleged ties to human trafficking. Everything that was in that affidavit. We reported it out as outrageous as it sounds allegations that he was running women all over the country. He was promising women drugs for sex. He had relationships with judges and with members of law enforcement all of it so those allegations all of this is in the federal document and yet they never moved on moran now the. Da says we ended all the stuff about human trafficking over the fbi. Says we're not going to comment on any potential ongoing investigation so you can see how frustrated we were with like okay. Why doesn't anybody move on him. What's going on here bob. Strictly shared pictures frustration. Very important thing that the press does when they're when it's done well is is to shine lights in you know and to offer a vehicle for those people stepping forward right. Do you find a sense of kind of responsibility of making sure. Those those voices are heard. What set this one apart was just the amount of women at stepped forward and said something about this to us talk to us about it and then also the apparatus that has to exist around a person michael moran for an operation as we reported on to exist in the first place a lot of people have turn their heads kinda damn ability of people who just turn the other way. Don't care about what's going on right in front.

michael moran meghan megan lancaster Katie lancaster Marine michael moran meghan lancaster Pilcher lancaster ross county james pilcher moran chillicothe oliver chess Katie James michael cincinnati Da fbi
"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

The Piketon Massacre

08:05 min | 5 months ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

"I'm dr lori centers. I'm a psychology professor at yale. And i started to notice that a lot of my students all that happy so i created a new class longtime everybody to psychology and the good life. But it's not just my students who need to understand the science being and that's why we launched the happens lab so you can learn about too. Are you ready to feel happier. Head to iheartradio app apple podcasts. Or if you like to listen brought to you by ziprecruiter. The smartest way to hire. Welcome to the piped-in massacre production of iheartradio and katie studios. Somebody pretty important in ohio. Once asked to be why. I was so vested interested in this case in sex trafficking. I had to be honest with myself and i had to say when i first heard it. I didn't believe it. i didn't think it was widespread. And ever since then. It's been like these women aren't lying and they deserve all lavar. This is the pectin massacre return to pike county season. Two episode nine twenty five miles south part to. I'm courtney armstrong a television producer at katy studios with stephanie lie. Decker and jeff shane throughout the series we've examined abuses of power by authorities in ohio from law enforcement officials to city councilman investigative reporter. James pilcher drew a through line in the cases of pike. County sheriff charlie reader michael moran and the corruption that has infiltrated the southern ohio criminal justice system happening in these kinds of counties. So much either. Hey you had ineffectual or corrupt or both law enforcement right. You had a community or a culture of lawlessness that has descended on upon many places in rural america. And i think that's one of the reasons. Nobody's watching nobody cares to watch not to enhance or blow up importance of journalists. But if you don't have some kind of watchdog or Somebody holding officials accountable i. It doesn't always work in two thousand. Seventeen reported nikki. Blankenship uncovered an affidavit filed by the drug enforcement agency. The document detailed and fbi investigation into a portsmouth. Ohio lawyer and former city councilman michael moran. Its content supported stories. Nikki had long heard from area. Women who claimed that moran was involved in sexual digging and prostitution. It should be noted. That michael moran has strongly denied the allegations. So when i got this affidavit. I i mean they took it to my publisher my editor and they wanna prove that it was real it was authentic and all this was real and so i contacted private investigators that i knew had the look into the document further. I call people in court systems. That i knew and had them looking into it. I verified it over and over and over and ultimately they said that no we're not going to publish gave my letter of resignation that day and the said ethical differences. I left during the course of her reporting on sex trafficking and southern ohio. The issue had become personal for nikki. She often spoke with the families of portsmouth women that had fallen into prostitution and others whose family members had gone missing or been murdered after her resignation. Nikki had a crucial decision to make. I made a promise to the families little bit. But i promised these families and i shouldn't have as journalists thomas them but i did. I promise that i was going to scream until someone listened. So i felt like i was just repeatedly be shut down. I feel very helpless. I had to do something. I had to put it out there somewhere. And social media's. I knew even if only local families were able to see that i thought it might them in some way give them something and as a local journalist a lot of people locally were on my facebook page so i went ahead and i publish him. I went to sleep. Woke up the next morning. I had hundreds probably thousands of whites on the close already traits if not thousands of shares and messages for everyone. But it kinda went crazier than i expected to win. You saw the affidavit. What ran through your head. I was not a bit stunned and people. They want me to be stunned. But i wasn't. That's katie lancaster. Speaking with producer. Chris graves katie's best friend and sister-in-law megan lancaster went missing twenty thirteen. Katie alleges that megan worked for michael moran as a prostitute moran denies these allegations. What went through my head is. Oh my gosh like. I'm not the only one that sees this. You know like the fbi sees it like it was just so just a sense of relief. News of the affidavits spread. It soon. Caught the attention of cincinnati inquirer investigative editor. Bob strictly who had once worked for the newspaper. The portsmouth daily times initially was sports editor in portsmouth and was elevated to managing editor. And during my time there there were always these rumors about michael moran and the women that he was around in circles he he ran in and at the time early in my career it just seems so far fetched or smith if nothing else is a remote so a lot of things get tossed around without substantive evidence to back it up but it was quite surprising to receive or that there is something that could actually back this up. We got a copy of it ourselves and verified through various attorneys and around the council. And i went back and looked through notes that i take and i 'cause i never throw away notebook for my time. Working enforcement was like a lot of this tracks. And here's a government official saying so and it's in a sworn affidavit. So it's time for the chips allah table and get involved says too. Big of a story took more even. If it is a place that is not traditionally in an area where type paper covers it. I don't know if initiated a sense of responsibility as much as it triggered a pretty huge amount of guilt that motivated me to go pitch the story of our bosses despite paper being two and a half hours away from the subject that we were covering and luckily bosses were hospitable enough to allow us to explore that dig real deep in this story and turn over some rocks that needed to be turned over decades ago the puerta. Jane's kilter was writing for the inquirer at the time mob. Boss came to me. Because i was investigative reporter and said what do you think about this. You wanna take a look at this guy. Trafficking women all over the country from this little town. This burned out shell of a town. It's known as the epicenter of the opioid epidemic. Is he doing. This is it. Sure can we prove it. I really thought there was no way. There was no way this could be going on for so long and nobody did anything about the other interesting thing. Was that the paper got. This wouldn't publish it. I mean it's a federal affidavit and they still wouldn't publish it right. There in the hometown of mike moran picks it the big city newspaper from two hours away in cincinnati to come in and do this investigation now granted. We have the resources of usa today behind this but why not at that have been published or if the local newspaper had been truly and independent harm or an independent high with some of this stuff have gone on. I don't think so the first time i went to portsmouth. I didn't know what to expect. Nate partnered me fulltime with photographer. Who is also on the story is she and i were just shooting some footage out at the. Us shoe factory and there was graffiti. They're talking about a prostitution and drugs and things like that and this guy writes up on a bicycle san What you guys doing. We just kinda tell them so. By the way.

michael moran ohio dr lori iheartradio katie studios lavar courtney armstrong katy studios stephanie lie jeff shane James pilcher County sheriff charlie reader portsmouth nikki Nikki moran pike county fbi katie lancaster
"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

The Piketon Massacre

08:49 min | 5 months ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on The Piketon Massacre

"Him. Abors in it to michael ryan's name his cell phone number. I had all this remains that really impacted our area a lot of closure to these families who are told nothing by our local officials are local for this is the pike and massacre returned to pike county season. Two episode seven twenty five miles south. I'm courtney armstrong a television producer at kt studios with stephanie. Lie decker and jeff. Shane in episode five of this season. We explored the allegations of corruption and the subsequent arrest of pike county. Sheriff charlie reader but his story is just one of many that has illuminated alleged abuses of power perpetrated by those involved in southern. Ohio's criminal justice system so in this episode. We wanna focus on another case that has long affected a community. Just twenty five miles south of piked in in a town called portsmouth. Ohio in two thousand fifteen reporter named nicky blankenship began investigating rumors of human trafficking in the town like many small ohio. Town's portsmouth has a long rich history of industrial might preceding an era of rapid urban decay. Here's james pilcher. Reporter for local twelve news and cincinnati. Speaking with our producer. Chris graves the county seat of kyoto. County which right below pike county. So it's about thirty to forty five minutes out. The pike portsmouth has this. Rust belt burned out industrial field. There are half empty to empty factories in the middle of the city at one point. Us shoe had biggest plant there. And then obviously you know the global economy and we all know what happened to manufacturing in the mid west it still has a small profitable steel mill. Downtown it's barely hanging on. So kyle a city that was forgotten when the manufacturing industry began to disappear. Portsmouth was besieged by the drug trade nikki. Blankenship grew up in the area and saw the devastation firsthand. Your areas been really hit by the opiate crisis right. Yeah we call ourselves. Ground zero for the opioid epidemic. I've lived in ohio. Since nineteen eighty-four insider counties. Yeah lived here my whole life. I remember in highschool people around me. They would start out with small pain pills and oxycontin hit and it was no longer recreational drug use. That people were doing that parties. You're seeing people become addicted very very very quickly in two thousand eight. Nikki started writing about the issue for a local newspaper. I started out covering the drug epidemic. I was the first in the area to do stories on oxycontin looking at overdose rates in the area and started asking those questions from the coroner's office. About how many of these deaths that we're seeing are connected to opiate use and then started looking into komo's and we ended up shutting down over twenty three helmets inside a county nikki's reporting helps at a late on the areas drug problem but other elicit industries sprung up around it. Nikki was there to cover it all and twenty thirteen. I did a series that ran for months on prostitution and i was walking the streets with these growth. I also talked to you like parents of one then that we're working on the streets and talk to officers about the problem and local businesses about how it affected It was interesting. Because when i was doing these stories i started seeing a lot of names. Come up from these girls. The one mentioned most often was michael. Moran michael moran. He's in his mid seventies long-time defense attorney. You know the you is drug offenses those kinds of things yet. His own firm in portsmouth and at one point in the late two thousands got himself appointed as a city. Councilman of portsmouth is a very public person. So if there was a red cross danquah or something covering he would be there. So he's he's been around my whole career pretty much now. Rumors had been circulating about mike moran for years they stories about him being involved in prostitution prostitution god way back to the seventies. A lot of those stories are just about him. Hiring grows stance and Apple local parties and poker gangs. It was a secret the everyone choked about but no one really talked about and it was pretty common knowledge. I think. I mentioned like a red cross bank. I had to cover once. He was air with a girl known to be arrested for prostitution known to be arrested for drug abuse and she was there you could tell that. She was under the influence her behavior. She being very loud. I'm on a cell phone with this. And speaking very appropriately for the study and like just laughing with her at westerly councilman at the time. Actually wendover towards me jokingly elbow me in the side than said. There's mike at one of his girls. It's just always been known as nikki began exploring maran's ties to the local sex trade. The story grew much darker. I was interviewing some people who were in an inpatient treatment facility. And i found out that one of the women over the program was involved with a human trafficking program and so i started talking with her about human trafficking and she said that when women are arrested eleazar major moran has been going to see them in jail and charges and exchange floor doing sexual favors for him and working in prostitution nikki. Further explain the allegations levelled against moran by area. Women that the crux of what he does is. He offers his legal services to get these women out of jail and then put some under his employee. Yes he gets women out of gel and basically gets into his clutches. Our stories are the people are hired as dog walkers or as cleaners and and said are actually working in prostitution. An affidavit filed by the. Da would later support these accounts. James explained that this method of manipulation marks the distinction between prostitution and human trafficking from people will say oh well these women knew what they were doing. They were just trying to make money. These women were prostitutes. Well if you talk to the experts it went one step beyond that. It went into trafficking because some of those allegations moran was holding over them the fact that they were drug addicts even he would withhold their money or withhold. Their money wherewithal to get drunk so the statute says if you withhold or threatened to withhold money that women need for drugs or withhold. The drugs trafficking. 'cause it's coercion anytime you can prove coercion. It's traffic both in ohio law in federal. We're going to take a quick break here. We'll be back in a moment. Remember the saying if you love something. Set it free. If it doesn't come back it was never yours to begin with well when it comes to your identity. The folks at lifelock totally disagree all those nights working overtime. Saving up all that money paying off all that debt and now some identity thief wants to try and set it free. They say that's crazy talk and we agree. That's why lifelock by norton helps monitor your info and alert you to potential entity threats. And if you do become a victim a dedicated us-based specialist will be there to help fix it. No one can prevent all identity theft or monitor all transactions at all businesses but when identity thieves. Try to take what you were as you don't have to take it lying down. Save up to twenty five percent of your first year by going to lifelock dot com slash. Piped-in that's lifelock dot com slash biden for twenty five percent off. 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mike moran James michael ryan Chris james pilcher jeff michael Lie decker today Shane stephanie first year twelve models kt studios Nikki portsmouth forty five minutes seventies norton twenty thirteen
"james pilcher" Discussed on Everyday Marksman Radio

Everyday Marksman Radio

12:51 min | 2 years ago

"james pilcher" Discussed on Everyday Marksman Radio

"That keeps you ready and prepared by the way if you are new to the podcasts. I really would appreciate if you took a moment to go ahead and subscribe on your podcast player of choice. Maybe leave you need review and as always if you're pressed for time. Go ahead and jump to the last fifteen minutes or so. We're going to get my key takeaways. I have a couple of quotes of his. I have my thoughts on the matter is kinda. Helps some things things upward as reminds. You of the key points all right without said. Let's get right to our guest. Today is a research physiologist u._s. Army center for initial military training at us army training and doctrine command and is responsible for leading a review and analysis is a physical fitness training efforts for the army is native north carolina and earned a doctorate in kinesiology from the university of georgia. He's built a career out of setting fitness and sports science science in iowa and tennessee and from two thousand twenty thirteen he serves director of instruction and the department of physical education at united states military academy and twenty thirteen he published a historical review and analysis of army physical readiness training and assessment with the combat studies institute. It remains one of the most comprehensive overviews of historical american military fitness training to date from twenty thirteen to twenty sixteen. Dr e served as principal investigator for army base line soldier physical fitness requirements study. The product of this study was army army combat fitness test which will replace the current three event army physical fitness test later this year. He currently serves as the head research physiologist for u._s. Army center for initial military training orsi. I n t and quick disclaimer. I also want to point out this conversation reflects his opinions and are not reflective of dod army or see mt policy dr east welcome to the show. Thank you pleasure so it's a pleasure to have you here. <hes> so i kinda wanna start off reading quote from the the document i mentioned earlier the historical review at army physical fitness training so you open that with sang with a quote from james pilcher in eighteen ninety two when physical training ceased to be a national characteristic and the men of braun were succeeded by creatures of luxury. The decadence of national prosperity followed so i wanna start with that and get your opinion of why you think that was a really good way to open the book so i think there's at least two reasons. That was a a good start point. <hes> number one is it was written you know in in the eighteen hundreds so it basically identifies this systemic cystic of problem that that we have begun to experience <hes> and there are several other times throughout history where we see individuals talking about the national issue with fitness <hes> and and the lack thereof and so it it was a good place to start from that perspective secondly it is a problem that has plagued modern armies for the last two hundred years ears and this is not a new problem i it is i think perhaps moving continuing to move in a direction. Shen is going to be problematic in the future so i noticed in in that writing you mentioned i think going into wilbur one. I think there was some percentage of the population that was ineligible eligible to fight because they weren't in good enough shape and that got worse by world war two and it seems like i hear article today talking about like almost seventy five percent of the population young males particular. There aren't aren't fit to fights so those numbers become a bit of a moving target. What you'll hear people talk about is <hes> single digit types types of numbers five out of ten four out of ten so going into world war one we read about a five out of ten you know medically qualified physically qualified to <hes> engage in military service but the interesting thing about that was <music> on the perception of an agrarian more industrial society more physically fit but there were a lot of bad things that happen to people people who worked in those those kind of high threat <hes> farming industry types of jobs people lost hands and fingers and you know so that they they weren't qualified to serve so it from world war one world war two it was about a fifty percent right about five out of ten depending on the numbers that you see today say that number is starting to creep down into the high twos so two point seven two point eight two point six are are are medically and physically qualified to serve and based on the number of of servicemembers that we recruit and train every year <unk> doubts incredibly problematic right from a strategic standpoint. That's if you don't have a solid base to work from so having a deterrence guy came from the nuclear world world. I know that's an issue. If you don't have the right presents assay you have affected deterrence because look population look capability. That's a warning sign to adversaries so it was it was clearly it's interesting you mentioned nuclear deterrence us. Apparently the genesis of this in our generation has been in the late fifties and sixties with eisenhower howard kennedy <hes> relative to <hes> you know physical fitness is a country in the development of the president's council physical fitness sport <hes> <hes> and the emphasis that those individuals placed on youth fitness as a precursor to national service whether the military voluntary service or or or whatever your your motor service so <hes> it was much <hes> i think much more important concept as a problem as we move through the fifties and sixties and it's it has obviously <hes> in my mind gone in the wrong direction for the last twenty five to fifty years. So what do you think well. I think it's a combination of a couple of things one is <hes> <hes> world war two baby so so i grew up in the fifties and sixties everybody plays for all the time you either played sport in school. There was a a lotta scholastic interscholastic type of of sport intramural tied activities. There was physical education classes in schools. <hes> a lot of that has gone away. Hey and sport has become rather elitist and part of that pertains to this perception that we need to start tracking young people into sports at earlier and earlier ages says they might someday be the master of that sport <hes> you know in their they're in their teens and early twenties which mile garner either scholarships or money's in professional sports than those types of things so so so. There's a a significant significantly fewer people are actually participating physical activity today than they were fifty years ago. How from your perspective how has military fitness training evolved over time so i think the important thing to consider is is the threat you know what what what are the threats to soldiers and to a certain degree that more or less drove some of the training <hes> that we that we've seen for the last thousand years for that matter <hes> a initially a threat was hand to hand combat types of threat read i mean we had swords and spears those types of things and that's the way we thought so most service members will tell you that the hand to hand type of combat soldier combat so much physically demanding type of combat so we we trained soldiers to to execute that what type of warfare as we moved into <hes> standoff weapons individual <hes> weapons personal weapons crew served weapons as as we moved in that direction we kill people from a long way away so said this physical type of of of <hes> requirement requirement was was not as great and interestingly going back to the nuclear threat in the sixties and seventies or individuals who posited that we really never gonna have another land war that everything was going to be a nuclear standoff a scenario which obviously has proven to be incorrect so i if you go through the spanish american war civil war world war one individual soldiers had had had a uniform and and and perhaps a helmet and a weapon and that was pretty much <hes> so mobility and strength <hes> was not as <music> as big a factor in nineteen sixteen thousand nine hundred seventeen when the french and the british developed a light tanks basically mobility became a significant african issue. We were no longer you know entrenched in a particular location and we saw individuals who had to move over short to long distances is to keep up with mechanized vehicles so that they could fight and that changed the question of how we trained a little bit then in the in the in the twenties and the thirties interestingly to me <hes> the development of drugs such as salsa in penicillin. John was another factor that changed the way we train because of into that point. If you look at all the training manuals that came out of eighteen twenty eight up to nineteen nineteen the training manuals talked about conducting exercises to develop physical vigor health and vigor so health and vigor were incredibly important at that time in so doing things like you know aerobic types of exercises says or bodyweight types of exercises were were appropriate <hes> based on what the outcome objections were as we started to move into world war two we started putting more immoral soldiers <hes> to the point where today most monitor soldiers as they go into a fight or carrying somewhere between eighty to ninety pounds that changes everything it changes mobility changes strength requirements and that it was part of the genesis for the baseline soldier physical readiness requirements study in that soldiers have been telling us for years that we needed to would be stronger we needed to be able to generate apply power editor <unk> different level based upon the type of connecticut etiquette environment and a fight that they were conducting today especially related to the the the the loads that they were carrying okay so a couple of a couple the things i wanna come back before we can get to the current requirements because i know that was a big topic in the reading you mentioned the the emphasis offices on vigorous physical health and vigor and i know you referenced something. The turn variance in i guess i came from herman koehler. I think was the kind of the guy in the u._s. But what what does that look doc like compared to modern so basically starting back in the late sixteen hundreds early seventeen hundreds. It's predominantly the epicenter was sweden to a certain degree france prussia <hes> there were individuals israel's who were combination of theologians and physicians who recognized that there were not a a a significant number of medical treatments that they could apply to their followers if you will who <hes> to help heal them once i became sick and so basically what they embarked upon was a set of exercises to develop or it promotes health and vigor and we see that a lot as you as you look back through that seventeen hundred to eighteen twenty five if period the need to be healthy and set <hes> as as a way of of having a long again and productive buys..

dod army united states military academy herman koehler north carolina iowa james pilcher Dr e John Shen principal investigator penicillin university of georgia sweden braun mt wilbur director