36 Burst results for "James Madison"
Fresh update on "james madison" discussed on WTOP 24 Hour News
"The Virginia board of education meets tomorrow, they'll have a lot of proposals to consider, including one that will make changes to the state's history curriculum. This will be the first meeting of the board with the 5 members newly appointed by governor Glenn youngkin in attendance. Proposed curriculum changes include no longer requiring students to know why George Washington is called the father of our country or why James Madison is called the father of the constitution. The board will also consider expanding Chinese history and making changes to the African American curriculum. If approved, the public will get an opportunity to comment on the new standards before the board takes a final vote in November. A puppy found so emaciated he was on the verge of Oregon failure. Is now on the rebound and detectives are offering a reward for whoever is responsible. There was a point in the night where it seemed like he wasn't going to make it. Christian Schindler with humane rescue alliance is talking about Darwin a possible Labrador pit bull mix for months old weighing 8 pounds. He couldn't stand when discovered behind an apartment building right at the third street tunnel on ramp southbound from New York avenue. We're really hopeful that, you know, he's a fighter that he's going to make it. There's a reward of up to 5 grand for the right info, see Darwin's pictures at WTO P dot com. People can remain anonymous, can remain completely anonymous. Movie studios have a plan to make up for lost revenue
Founding Father James Madison Sidelined by Woke History in His Home
"Mary Kay lynch and John Levine reporting in the near post founding father James Madison's sidelined by woke history in his own home The globalists built excuse me The globus billionaire who funded the woke transformation Of Thomas Jefferson Monticello paid for a similar overhaul of James Madison's house With the author of the U.S. Constitution has been shoved into a supporting role while slavery and racism takes center stage No American flags fly up on Pierre Madison's plantation home and roll Virginia And not a single display focuses on the life and accomplishment of America's foremost political philosopher Who created our three branch federal system of government wrote the Bill of Rights and the federalist papers and served two terms as president Instead blindsided tourists are hammered by high-tech exhibits about Madison slaves and current racial conflicts Thanks to a $10 million grant from left leaning philanthropist David M Rubenstein Now remember this guy gave 20 million to Monticello Quote I was kind of thinking we'd be hearing more about the constitution one baffled dad said When the New York Post visited the president's home this week but everything he's really about a slavery It's been inspirational I guess shrugged John from Wisconsin after taking the $35 guided tour Reviewers on social media had been more harsh they really missed the mark Greg Hancock of May say Arizona posted last week we left disappointed not learning not having learned more about the creation of the constitution
The Lessons We Need in the US With Dr. Larry Arnn of Hillsdale College
"So I want to ask you and be respectful of your time doctor Arne, what do you believe as a scholar of the declaration of the constitution are the lessons we now need to implement today? We're in crisis. Our country is more fragile than ever. The latest poll shows that only 39% of Americans are proud of their country and its current form. I'm definitely proud to be an American, but it's hard for me to be over the top excited about where we are currently. What can we learn from the declaration and apply it to our troubles and our difficulties today? I focus more and more in these times on this. There are two statements, one from tocqueville, and one from James Madison. Tocqueville says that America is unique. He comes in 1832. He was a French aristocrat. France was the first centralized nation state. And he says there's more government in America than in France. It's just different. Because it's mostly local and voluntary. And that means in the management of hillsdale college, I don't believe in rules. I believe in goals. And you know, because goals, we all adopt them, and then everybody can figure out how to serve them. And the rules need to be very few and they need to be boilable down to be good. And just think what bureaucratic government is like, think of the rules that govern the schools, for example. Nobody can read them. Nobody does. But they can be used whenever there's a dispute, the person who gets to interpret the rule. More laws the less justice is Cicero would say, Madison said something similar to second thing is men are not angels and angels do not govern men. And that doesn't matter. It doesn't matter then if Anthony Fauci dynamic example has been there for 400 years and wrote the textbook on epidemiology, which he did. Give him power. He's just like the rest of us. And therefore, there's no solution to the human problem from empowering experts.
Why Did Virginia State Delegate Nick Freitas Become a Politician?
"Why on earth do you want to become a politician? I did it. I had a friend of mine. The first time I got asked to run for office, I was involved because from the time I was little, my mother had been the head of a Republican women's organization and she always impressed upon me that it was important to be involved. And so that's where I was involved on a volunteer basis and helping out with other candidates and things of that nature. The first time I got asked to run for office, I'm not doing that. And the second time, I got asked, my wife really sat down and talked to me and she goes, you know, you talk a lot about the various issues about the problems that are going on in the country. I had a philosophical level. She was if you're not willing to go in when people are asking you to. She says, that's not really the guy I know. And your wife always knows how to get you. But so ran for office had a really good friend that helped out. I still work with them now. And ran for the House of delegates and won that seat. And when was that? This was in 2015 as one of the election was sworn in in 2016. And then the last 6 years. It's been interesting. Kind of a unique thing. I represent James Madison's district. That's district. Yeah, and I tease my constituents that this district started off with James Madison, and now you got me. But no, it's been interesting on a number of levels. Not just to see what's gone on in the Commonwealth of Virginia because when I came in, we had a 64 seat Republican
The Criminalization of Policy Differences With Paul Kengor
"Paul, as somebody born here, did you ever expect to see a political adversary of an administration who hasn't killed anybody, is not a drug lord, be handcuffed at Reagan airport and put in leg irons to be physically transported by the federal agents to hinckley's cell in the bowels of the FBI. Did you did you think that was ever possible? Yeah, it's really shocking, isn't it? And Hank Lee sell right about the time that hinckley has been released recently released. It was unconditional release. Here we are 41 years after he shot Ronald Reagan. And what bothers me too is, in fact, taking this back to, well, again, the Reagan years, it was with the Iran contra hearings, trying to think who used this term at the time. It might have been Ed meese, who talked about the criminalization of policy differences. Yes. And this is something that the liberals have been doing. And in fact, here, it grows city college just this past week. We had one of our fellows in the institute for faith and freedom, Jay cost. And I know you've read Jake costs, he writes for RealClearPolitics, Washington examiner, national review. He's an expert on James Madison. And he was talking about Madison and the art of compromise. And how politics people make fun of politics being all about compromise, but really that's kind of a virtue of politics in a democracy is that you do have compromise. So parties learn how to compromise and their differences. In fact, Ronald Reagan in 1981, August 13th, 1981, got his enormous federal income tax passed with tip O'Neill and the Democrats overwhelmingly controlling the House of Representatives. The Washington Post called it the most remarkable example of bipartisan cooperation in politics in generations.
COVID Lockdowns Would Have Been FAR WORSE Without 2nd Amendment
"Than what you saw the last couple of years with COVID of how important it is? That people are able to defend themselves against a potentially tyrannical government. COVID lockdowns would have been far worse if it wasn't for the Second Amendment. We would have been closer to New Zealand or Australia because if only one side has the guns, they get to call all the shots. James Madison, we have a picture of James Madison here. In our studio. The father of the United States Constitution said quote always remember that an armed and trained militia is the firmest bulwark of republics that without standing armies, their liberty can never be in danger. Nor with large ones safe. Now what is a militia? You see militia gets misrepresented by the media saying, oh, that's a trained force and only people in the military. Nope, George Mason, who inspired the Second Amendment said, I ask, sir, what is the militia? Quote, it is the whole people to disarm the people is the best and most effectual way to enslave them. The founding fathers were clear that if you disarm a people, you enslave them. The purpose of the Second Amendment is to be able to protect all the other amendments. The purpose of the Second Amendment protects your right to privacy, the Fourth Amendment protects your right to sell against self incrimination, the Fifth Amendment protects your right to due process 6 7th Eighth Amendment. Protects your right, the speech and to assembly. A free people must have leverage against tyrants. One of the reasons why America has a tradition of the many ruling the few, not the few ruling the many. It's because we've been armed. And for some people, they just don't like hearing this. It's an uncomfortable truth while it's what it is.
Florida Was an Unbelievable Success Story During the Pandemic. Why?
"So Florida was an unbelievable success story. During the pandemic. By remaining open and defying federal government, pressure, Ron DeSantis, the courageous Ron DeSantis was able to keep Florida free, businesses from closing down. He was able to taper and hedge against mental health issues, depression, suicide, social isolation, alcoholism, Florida became kind of a Beacon of liberty and hope, and you see it with the real estate values around here. You see it with the new businesses that are moving here. It's almost synonymous with self government. Ron DeSantis deserves credit and Ron DeSantis has received some incredibly well earned praise for doing this. But the question is, why was he able to do it? The reason is in the structure of our government. We talk a lot about the United States Constitution here on this program. And James Madison, in the federalist papers, argued that the structure of the constitution was one of its defining elements. James Madison Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, the three authors of the federalist papers and one of the three most involved in designing our constitution, James Madison being the most involved. Why is America able to be free not because of our Bill of rights every banana republic has a Bill of rights? No, the structure of checks and balances and consent of the governed. Allows a bottom up structure, a grassroots centric way of governing.
Why Russia Is So Very Different With Paul Kengor
"Let's pretend it's day one of poor kangas communism in Russia one O one course. What is the first thing that neo fights that amateurs need to understand about Russia explain why Russia isn't like France, Russia isn't like Switzerland, is France isn't like Canada explain why Russia sorry, explain why Russia isn't like those countries and why it is so very, very different. And also the importance of the strong man. Yeah, it is so very, very different. And it's really kind of deep seated. In fact, our old friends, the late Richard pipes, who was professor at Harvard forever for a long time, going back to 19 50. He just died a few years ago. He wrote books on the Russian Revolution, the Russian Civil War, communism, a history. And he was in kind of a battle with Alexander Solzhenitsyn of all people, right? Who we also greatly respect because pipes made comments like this and souls in its and thought that pipes was making a comment on the Russian people generally, right? That this is a people that's kind of destined for authoritarian leaders. That this is part of Russian culture. This is how they are. And I'm not going to go that far. I'm not going to say that. But let's just say God bless pipes who is a giant in your field. But there's not a lot of evidence to the contrary that it isn't. Something deep seated in Russian culture from Ivan the terrible all the way to Putin, this atavistic innate proclivity to follow a strong man. That's not a statement unfounded by empirical data, is it poor? No, it's right. In fact, I remember in the 1990s post communist Russia period. And I was talking to somebody from there and he said, look, there are no Thomas jeffersons in Russia, right? You have this country so rich and playwrights, writers, literature, a pianist composers, right? Tolstoy, dostoyevsky, right? And some of them with great statements about morality that dostoevsky among them. But they've never had a Milton Friedman. They've never had a Thomas Jefferson or James Madison.
Charlie Kirk on the Potential Bio-Labs in Ukraine
"Charlie, you're a friend. I want to talk to you about everything, but let's talk about something that I normally wouldn't talk about on this program, like bio labs. There are people listening to this program. Today's Monday who they haven't drilled down into this world. Can you sum it up and explain? Yeah, we did a whole hour on this and the short answer is we don't know the full extent of what is true and what is not. Here's what we do know is that Victoria Nuland did an entire Senate testimony where she said that there are biological laboratories in Ukraine and there really worried about them falling into the hands of the Russians. Okay, now what is biological laboratory? It could be anything. It could be a place where you develop biochemical weapons. It could be a place where you do gain of function research where you develop Chinese Corona type virus. In Ukraine. Potentially, we don't know. So then the State Department responds after Victoria Nuland kind of screws up this entire testimony. Can I guess? They said, absolutely not. This is false information. Close. Yeah, basically they said it's Russian propaganda. And they said, I'll get to that in a second. They think the constitution, the United States Constitution is Russian propaganda. Yeah, I mean, look, I don't think they'll stay had a big impact on James Madison. She wasn't alive yet, but anyway, so there are some good Russian Russian literature, mostly about depression and surviving imminent death. That's actually the great approach. That's great. The great contribution. But actually, look, when you say, when you say no kidding, okay? Because you live in this world, so it doesn't blow your mind the way it blows my mind. I haven't been doing satire. The idea that they would say that? Well, let me get to the whole, let me complete it really quick. There's a lot of details. So she says it, State Department says, okay, we admit there were Soviet era relics like they were Soviet era labs that used to exist and the Russians want to get their hands on them. So that doesn't make a lot of sense because no one was really worried about Chernobyl. Being taken over because when you say Soviet era, that is 30 years ago. Well, meaning that they're not denying that they're there, they're just saying that the Americans have no involvement. They're not of any geopolitical significance. Then you go to the Russian side of this, which the Russians are known liars are government is also known for lying, so take whatever it's worth. The head of their foreign minister comes out and says, we have come across active biochemical laboratories that the United States have been funding and have been involved in. Now, we would probably scoff at this if we didn't also have the last two years of experience. I was going to say of the Wuhan institute of virology and the National Institute of health and the fact that Anthony Fauci has now gone into the witness protection program. The moment that Vladimir Putin invades Ukraine, it's like Fauci has gone missing is he worried that there's going to be a revelation here? What were these laboratories doing innocent enough type of biochemical research, which I don't think can be done very innocently? Or was this another kind of a Petri dish, no pun intended of our State Department trying to play God and the farthest reaches of the corner of the world and was there gain of function research being done was Vladimir Putin worried that this could have made a pathogen that would then escape into Russia. These are all very valid questions. Our entire national security apparatus doesn't want us to ask these questions. Because they call it Russian
Mark Levin Recalls the First Time Meeting Mark Meckler
"And so when you hear these state senators in this case in South Dakota saying I'm concerned about it That means they're not textualists That means they're not originalists There's nothing to be afraid of Milton Freeman said this was really the only way to fix things even Dwight Eisenhower looked at it and said this was probably the only way to fix things It many you older people like me You know who he pointed to it And as a matter of fact James Madison pointed to it as a way to trying to avoid what would become the Civil War So this is a very very important lever that we had And if we don't use it we're going to lose it right Mark Yeah look I mean it's there It's for us to use It was put in there for a time such as this Another thing I'd like to address Marcus I get people in senators and state legislators who question me like who are you Are you some kind of secret less dis I get accused of being funded by Soros I know you and I have known each other for a long time I remember the first time we sat down and had dinner together Would you mind talking a little bit about because you know the history of this organization and an independent kind of third party view on that Well the organization came to be around the time I booked liberty and exchange of my book the liberty amendments came out Mark and I had coordinated We hadn't planned it's just so we studied this issue And at the same time we said we need to push this We didn't say it again We never talked about it in any coordinated way did we No No we had no advanced discussion We were both very surprised to find the other one involved in this
Robert Wilkie Tells Us What We Should Be Paying More Attention To
"So given your proclivities, your interests talk to us about things that our listeners should be paying more attention to or what should they be reading first things first join the heritage foundation where it's actually wilkie is senior distinguished fellow that's heritage. It is the conservative mothership. We are so excited that we will be having the new president on our show this weekend on newsmax. So you mustn't miss that. But what would you say to those who enjoy this conversation want more? Where should they begin? Well, what they should do is embrace their history. There's never enough to read. If you want to know of our place, there's nothing better and it's not a hard agreed. Churchill's history of the English speaking peoples, and its addendum by your friend Andrew Robert. History of the English speaking people since 1900, and you see that we are the heirs to the most benevolent. Imperium in the history of the world, we have given more to the world than any other civilization. And I say that the Anglo American tradition, and I include our Friends, Australian, New Zealand, Canada, where the freest people in history. I would also ask people to read extensively. About the life of general Washington. That sounds sophomoric. Without Washington there is nothing. Yeah. And Madison, I'm just going through a new biog wonderful biography of James Madison the first America's first politician. Do you have a recommendation on Washington where to begin? Well, the best one is the longest one, and that's Douglas Freeman's biography of Washington, his 6 volumes of condensed into one. There are several there's a new one out or by the university of University of Virginia. History professor. Lingo, George Washington revolutionary. And then one on George Washington
You're About to Live Through the Greatest Citizen Movement of a Generation
"The founders believed, and this was explicitly written in Alexander Hamilton, John Jay's, James Madison's private journals, that only God should be able to have the executive legislative and judicial authority. This is why they intentionally separated everybody. They separated it because they believed that no person on this planet should have that much authority. But they realized that the true immediate authority needs to be invested in all of you. This is one of the great dangers of these independent regulatory agencies of people that are largely untouchable that run these bureaucracies in D.C. of which you've never met them, they're unelected, unknown and have almost unaccountable power. But the trajectory of 2020, that were on, if we keep it up, if you keep on praying, fasting, showing up to events, showing up to school board meetings, running for office, if you feel so compelled, consuming news and information, knowing it's happening around you, even though it might be slightly depressing at times, is that you're about to live through the greatest, most unexpected citizen movement in a generation. Let me say that again. You're about to live through one of the greatest cities that all of a sudden they're going to look back and they're going to say when it seemed the bleak and it seems so negative and so dark and it was led by the church. I really believe that's where it all comes down to.
Elon Musk: ‘Government Is Simply the Biggest Corporation, With the Monopoly on Violence’
"297 billion dollars. That is Elon Musk's net worth. Can you believe that? I mean, it just seems like a couple years ago. It was like 50 billion. Before I remember when Elon Musk is net worth was like $10 billion. Elon Musk is worth nearly 300 $1 billion. He is the world's wealthiest man. And Elon Musk is one of the few people that you could call in the ruling class that is red pilling people by the millions. Do you notice the activist press though doesn't really cover everything Elon says, but it's okay. He's so rich. He's so big. I just want to say Elon, if you're listening to this, please go buy all the media companies and make them less corrupt. You're worth $300 billion. You could do it. Or go start your own honestly. Let's go to cut 43. Elon Musk was asked about the vaccine. And said this, play cut 43. It does not make sense to take the job of capital allocation away from people who have demonstrated great skill in capital allocation and give it to an entity that has demonstrated very core skill in capital allocation, which is the government. You can think of the government essentially as a corporation in the limits. The government is simply the biggest corporation with the monopoly on violence. And where you have no recourse. I want to reemphasize what he just said. That is one of the most red pilled statements I have heard. From anyone, with a net worth over a $100 billion, the government is simply a big corporation with a monopoly on violences from a Wall Street Journal interview. And they have no recourse. Elon Musk has just articulated one of the core beliefs of the founding fathers better than anyone that I've seen in recent memory, the government has monopoly on violence and right now we do not have a check and balance against them. Hello James Madison, your original thesis and now being articulated by the world's
Former Rep. Dave Brat Talks About the Intersection of Free Market and Faith
"Yep. Yep. By the supply curve and the demand curve are both curves that involve human beings who are both fallen. But also made the image of God. The creation story right on the gate were created as co creators with God almighty, made in God's image, just something to think about. But what that means, go YouTube that one. And so we have that creative ability to create jobs and commerce to serve our neighbors, our brothers and our sisters. The hebrews were great business folks. Then the tradition continues with Jesus and the New Testament and the outwork of that. Jesus begins with a band of 12 around him. To go out and preach the gospel to the ends of the earth and in 300 years, the Holy Roman Empire and Constantine Constantine turns emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, the Christian empire. So just shocking turnaround. And so what what people don't get is that tradition that judeo Christian tradition is responsible for our dignity as human beings. There's no other source that you can name the enlightenment project failed terribly on that. Jefferson and et cetera they could never name an alternative source for the dignity that is inherent in us. And so that is what undergirds the free market system. And then we're triply blessed with all that plus James Madison and the constitution and the rule of law and then Adam Smith and free markets, but the irony is you need the law to be a free people. And so the left gets utopian at times and they just say, you know, let's just make it up as we go marks. There's no need for God. There's no need for this rule of law. There's no need for human rights, all these ideas that exist in the air, are fake. No, they're not fake. They're responsible for the greatest civilization on earth. And it's our detriment that we lose those foundational pieces that set up the free market system that now serves us so
Larry O'Connor: Stop Worrying About Who Sits in the White House
"And what we saw in Virginia with the election of glencoe in the first Republican elected statewide since 2009 was exactly the power and organization and political message that we need to spread far and wide between now and election day next year Stop worrying about who's sitting in the Oval Office Does it matter of course it matters But right now what matters more How do you win this country by changing the president and then everything gets fixed Come on You're smarter than that you know better You know your founders the founders didn't want that You'd think James Madison and Alexander Hamilton and George Washington and Thomas Jefferson wanted us to wring our hands and worry about who would sit in The White House every four years Our entire country was built on the premise of divesting power from the federal government in the nation's capital The most important decisions that happen in our lives should be made at the local level and there's nothing more local than school boards Fix your house fix your neighborhood fix your community fix your town fix your county fix your school district That's how you change a country I've got more to say about that coming up in a little bit But that's what we need to focus on right now
A Comprehensive Defense of America's Embattled Constitution
"We are blessed everybody. We are very very blessed to live in. A country still has some semblance of a divinely. Inspired form of government of the independent jewish judiciary rule of law consent to the govern- checks and balances and that started today. Not actually today. But on this day i should say many many years ago in seventeen eighty seven the united states constitution after it was the seven articles were at least conditionally approved by the constitution convention. They had to go state by state so they had to go. Delaware was the first state rhode island was the last state to ratify and to approve it and there are seven articles of the united states constitution. It wasn't until seventeen. Ninety one that the bill of rights was passed and ratified by all the states. And that's actually what most people know is their constitutional rights first amendment second amendment amendment fourth amendment first amendment right to speech not to be infringed upon by government. Secondment the right to bear arms third amendment. That soldiers don't come into your home fourth amendment. The government can spy on you fifth amendment. You're right against self-incrimination. Six seven and eight all about process speed and a speedy speedy and quick jury of your peers against long imprisonment unfairly ninth amendment which actually one of my favorite amendments to the constitution which says that anything that is not in the constitution does not mean that it's not protected tenth amendment. Things that are not in here are protect are then given to the states and to the people that the for. That's the first ten amendments to the united states constitution. But that actually wasn't part of what we're celebrating today. If i remember correctly december seventeen ninety one that the bill of rights was was ratified. James madison wrote. It is our reason alone that must be placed in control of the government. Our passions must be controlled by it. The constitution spreads power over time and over land makes it hard to change. Things makes it hard to conduct. Quick revolutions you see the founding fathers in this constitution. And this is the best way to defend. Somebody asked me say charlie what conservatives actually believe said. It's very simple. We believe in natural law. We believe in a natural law. Giver founders knew this they wrote it in the declaration which is why the declaration is a partner of the constitution. They go right into each other. As dr larry arnn from hillsdale college would say it's the founders key. They are meant for one
We Will Never Know What Was Said During the Constitutional Convention
"In today's time it's easy to feel disconnected to the brilliant so the clairvoyance or the wisdom of our founding fathers or the framers september seventeenth. Seventeen eighty seven was the last day of a heated constitutional convention that lasted almost the entire summer and went from may twenty fifth to september seventeenth. Hundred eighty seven. It was held in private and and secret. George washington presided over the chair as the chair of the constitutional convention. Now we have some notes from the constitutional convention but most of the back and forth debate and the commentary. We will never know exactly what was set alexander hamilton john. Jay james madison. They were going at it. You see the articles in confederation at articles of confederation which were written after the successful revolution or separation from the british. Were posing problems there. Shays rebellion inability to commerce between states to mint currency. It became more and more clear that some form of a federal government was necessary. The question is what kind of government do we want to form
September 17, 1787: The History Behind This Significant Day
"Today is a day that every single child in school should take pause and be leads through and told the great american story of how we got here. Today is a beautiful day. There's a lot wrong with our country right now and i wanna take a pause to remember what happened on this day in seventeen. Eighty seven september seventeenth. Seventeen eighty seven was one of the most significant days in human history. It was definitely one of the most significant days in political history. Almost never before had this idea of self government been tried. The romans tried it in some capacity and failed and eventually became an empire. The greek strident and city states. But never before. Did a people attempt to embark on a form of government. We're the people were the sovereign. The idea of self government independent judiciary the ideas of freedom and equality in the rule of law that are the ultimate principles to build that society. In today's time it's easy to feel disconnected to the brilliant so the clairvoyance or the wisdom of our founding fathers or the framers september seventeenth. Seventeen eighty seven was the last day of a heated constitutional convention that lasted almost the entire summer and went from may twenty fifth to september seventeenth. Hundred eighty seven. It was held in private and and secret. George washington presided over the chair as the chair of the constitutional convention. Now we have some notes from the constitutional convention but most of the back and forth debate and the commentary. We will never know exactly what was set alexander hamilton john. Jay james madison. They were going at it. You see the articles in confederation at articles of confederation which were written after the successful revolution or separation from the british. Were posing problems there. Shays rebellion inability to commerce between states to mint currency. It became more and more clear that some form of a federal government was necessary. The question is what kind of government do we want to form now. A sloppy way to talk about the american stories say we had two founders one in seventeen seventy six and one in seventeen eighty seven that is not true there is an a divine connection between the truths of the declaration of independence and the laws of the constitution of the united states
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"I'm going to ask for closing statements from fester. Shannon judge mags cleaned. The first one is to you. Why should we. The people listeners. Read the federalist papers on constitution day. And why are the federalist papers important. We the people would find it in our interest if not for the purpose of simply of edification in amazement to read the federal. I think because we don't depend on other governors. We have the responsibility to govern ourselves and as madison put it liberty in learning. Lean on each other. You can't have liberty without learning for free people Otherwise he says it's a prologue to a farce or tragedy. Or perhaps both while. I don't want either of those things to be the end of the american story so one of the places that we can educate ourselves in both our rights and our responsibilities as citizens is by reading the federal. I think jefferson's right. It's the best commentary on the principles of government that ever was written. I mean just say one word about constitution day in seventeen eighty seven. I went back and looked at the weather map that day. It was a gloomy day in philadelphia. September seventeen seventeen eighty seven was overcast. And you can just imagine the men in what we today call leggings. All these men walking around independence hall in leggings walking up to washington's desk and putting their signature on that parchment and then afterwards they adjourned. Except i don't know. If albridge gary edmund randolph and george mason went with them maybe to probably to the city tavern over on on on second street and they celebrated but as as ben franklin said yes. It's a republic if we can keep it. I think there's never been a time more than today that that question is real for us. Certainly the case in eighteen sixty. But it's again the case in twenty twenty one. Do we wanna keep it. Are we willing to do the work to keep age. I think it's something that we as americans have to give the most serious thought to and constitution is a good day to spend a little time thinking about that. Thank you very much for that greg. The last words aren't you. Why should we. The people listeners. Read the federalist papers on constitution day. And why are important You know in a in the eighteen twenties Chief justice marshall. In case of coinc- virginia said this about the federalist papers. It is a complete commentary on our constitution and it is appealed to by all parties in the questions to which instrument has given birth. It's intrinsic merit entitles it to this high rank and the part of two of its members and he was speaking about hamilton and madison performed framing of the constitution. Put it very much in their power to explain the views which was framed. The federal papers are not the final word they are not a perfect source of the original meaning of the constitution. And yet i think it's almost impossible to get a hold of the original meaning without at least considering What the federals papers have to offer. And i think if you're interested in constitution as you're interested in what they the framers intended to accomplish the ratifiers wanted I think you have to include the federal papers in your study. Thank you so much kaleen. Sheehan and judge gregory maggs for a wonderful discussion of the federalist papers. The philosophy that inspired them and the reasons for reading them today. Thank you. we'd people listeners. For reading the federalist papers. And if you find a favourite left no kaleen greg thank you so much for happy constitution them happy constitution day. Thank you very much. Happy constitution day september seventeenth. Today's show was produced by jackie. Mcdermott and engineered by kevin kilburn research was provided by sam. Deci john guerra and lana warwick please rate review and subscribe to we the people on apple and recommend the show to friends colleagues. Anyone anywhere who is eager for a weekly dose of constitutional illumination and debate and always remember that. The national constitution center is a private non-profit. Thanks so much to those of you. Who have been sending in donations of any amount five dollars ten dollars to show your support for the mission in honor of constitution day it would be so great if you would go online and make.
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"Some maybe tell us more about that taxonomy but also when i asked you which papers you wanted to talk about today you said beside ten and fifty one i think one fourteen thirty nine forty nine fifty seven and sixty three or especially interesting. That's so tantalizing and you. You can't talk about all of them. But maybe give us a sense of why you picked some of those numbers that you well in terms of studying the federalist papers I think either in both at either end boasts is the answer to your question. There that it's it's it's good to to study at the way it was originally thought to be laid out by hamilton. Of course it doesn't quite work out as planned because this is a a a work in progress. Right as they're writing these papers staying up burning the midnight get it in by the deadline to publish it in the in the newspapers and so sometimes the plan didn't go quite as as as planned To begin with so they don't really follow hamilton's original plan Perfectly and it is interesting to see the different personalities coming through Despite the fact that they all sign the each paper puja says if there's one Persona writing these papers. Kubilius speaks with one voice but you can discover in the pages of the federalists When you see how. Hamilton madison will disagree and be on different sides of the party. Line later on you can see the seeds of some of that in their essays For example madison. One of the essays talks about trade. How how Has to take its natural. Agriculture and trade has taken natural course. Well that's exactly his argument in the seventeen ninety s against hamilton's report on manufactures. Hamilton wants to jump start. Manufacturers madison says no trade should take its natural course. Madison was with the physique kratz. Then he would be much of a free market kind of guy. Don't get government involved in subsidizing. This and hamilton is saying we have to. We have to in order to compete with england. Don't you understand economics. Madison jefferson you. Guys don't get it So you can see some of the seeds of that the federalist papers i think the federal is number one when hamilton says you know seems to have been reserved to the people of this country to decide the important question whether or not societies of men are really capable of establishing good government on the basis of reflection and choice or whether there forever destined for their political constitutions to depend on accident and force that one sentence along sentence but if you parse it out think about that are choices. I mean it's either gonna be accident. Force in some form of tyranny or another or the possibility of establishing good government on the basis of reflection choice. That is exactly the dichotomy put before us and book. Wanna plato's republic this. That's that's exactly what's going on in the pro-am of plato's republic power or is it going to be on the basis of power or is it going to be on the basis of persuasion. Is it going to be ballots ultimately or bullets and we facing that in the united states today were asking ourselves question Can we go on. Can we talk to each other so we can persuade each other and be one people rather than resort to force. once we resort to force. The rule of law is in danger. As lincoln tells us in the lyceum address. And it's a very easy. Slide downhill into some kind of chaos anarchy and just respect for government and disrespect for each other so that opening salvo a federalist number. One is more than mere words. It's more than rhetoric. It's puts before us the question of politics. Which is the question for each of us citizens. What are we going to choose. And how we act. Is that choice. How we act with one. Another is making that choice I have to say one word about federalist forty nine. It's my favorite though. I like though i have others Enclosed seconds but Federalists forty nine is Madison's disagreement with jefferson. And he takes him to task. You really kind of points out. He shows us the the seeds of assyria public opinion in federal's forty-nine but there's another thing i like about it and jack rakoff if he's listening to laugh at this so at montpellier that beautiful farm that you can have madison's home that you can walk around there these these gorgeous horses there and jack and i were ruminating when time about these horses if anyone were racehorses wouldn't you want to name one of 'em ticklish experiment madison says you know calling a second convention. You shouldn't do that particular experiment so we thought that if there was a racehorse vermont. Not to be named ticklish experiment Let me let me just conclude with my favorite Passage in the federalist papers. It's actually from federal thirty nine. Which i think sums up the vision of the federalist the first question that offers itself is whether the general form aspect of the government. Be strictly republican. It is evident that no other form would be reconcilable with the genius of the people of america with the fundamental principles of the revolution. Or would that honorable determination which animates every voter of of freedom to rest all our political experiments on the capacity of mankind for self government. That's the project of the federalists. That's the challenge of the federalist. That's our challenge. Still today so inspiring. Thank you so much for that. Thank you for reminding us that it all comes back to plato and aristotle power persuasion reason passion reflected in federalist one. And thanks for sharing your favorites including forty nine greg. I know it's very hard to pick a one. But so so much fun to hear which ones especially speak to. You can use single out one or two federalist papers that you like especially well you know one that The captures the imagination as a as a judge and legal scholar of constitutional law is a federal seventy eight. Now i mentioned earlier. Federal seventy eight one of the most cited in the courts Whether anybody actually read it at the time as i mentioned eight states had already ratified before it was published. It was one of the last one published. It was wasn't first published in the newspaper. It was published in the in the second volume of the federalist And was only later published in the newspapers but it talks about the judiciary and it says two things which both seem eminently reasonable until You think about them and then you wonder whether they're contradictory one. Is it says that the courts the judiciary is the least dangerous branch because all they do is apply the law. They just decide the questions. And they don't have their own force or their own political will and then in a very interesting passage they expressly discuss Judicial review that if there are provisions that are contrary to the constitution. The courts have no choice but to enforce the constitution over the provision. Now this is somewhat remarkable because what is the supremacy clause which has the constitution is supreme over state law. There's there's nothing that really says. What the relationship of the constitution to laws passed by congress are but the the unmistakable implication of several seventy eight is that talking about judicial review and those propositions seem Evident to us and reasonable that they're not like the president. They're not like the congress they are. They take cases that come to them and they decide according to law and therefore the least dangerous branch and then at the same time it says and of course they get the decide when there's a conflict between legislation constitution and i don't think at the time they understood that that could be seen as making it perhaps one of the most dangerous branches if not one of the most dangerous one of the most powerful and you know it it's difficult for them and their mindset at deceit things that would transpire later on Doesn't make them wrong But it's very interesting and Certainly any lawyer Who's interested in judicial review and and charges of judicial activism arguments. That there isn't traditional active. Should read the federal seventy-eight. Thank you so much for that. So great read several seventy eight and also to hear cleans recommendation of feckless forty-nine. Well it is time for closing arguments in this wonderful discussion of the federalist papers on constitution. Day your homework we. The people listeners is obvious of read the federalist papers. And if you find you have a favorite right to me and tell me what it is. And why jim rosen Hundred dot org and in order to inspire you to do the homework. I'm going to ask for closing statements from fester. Shannon judge mags cleaned. The first one is to you. Why should we. The people listeners. Read the federalist.
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"People so this is great amount of communication that is happening over a period of time because it takes a while to build a coalition of the majority and during that time people are talking communicating. it's a kind of socratic method at the civic level of weeding out the The unjust in a row nias notions to build a consensus among majority. That is a more just and refined notion of the public. Good thank you so much. Tha that greg. What is your reaction to madison's defensive. The rise of political parties is persuasively consistent with the broader philosophy. He you're too late in the civilised was a sultan kherson effort to justify the party. He was increasingly the head. Will you know i. It's tempting to Say well it looks like Madison was it hypocritical or inconsistent he opposed factions and then he Was part of a a an a a political party But i think he. I think in fairness If you look at federalists ten madison recognized that there's always going to be different political interests. They're always going to be factions. So for example he said people who own property are going to have different interests from people who don't on property and that's always going to be the case and really what he was talking about was or what his goal was was to create a system that would weaken the power of faction sort of behind the veil without knowing what was going to happen. He said you know if we have a federal system if we have a republic Where we have representatives who have to represent large numbers of people If we have The different components of government elected at different times All of these things will weaken a faction and Addressed there bad effects. I don't think he had any Illusion that there were going to be factions or groups with different interests But from behind the veil without knowing whether his side was going to be the majority or some other side was going to be majority he was thinking of a system that would counteract the pernicious effects of faction now To say that after that system got going he got involved in political party is not really to say that. He's hypocritical on in fact. If he had been nefarious he would have designed a system that would have favored his interests. But i don't think that he did that. I think he did the opposite which was a to try to create a system That would further democracy not direct democracy representative democracy which would have the have counteracting effects on faction. So i don't. I don't feel him as being inconsistent or hypocritical in fact On the contrary he created a system Behind the veil of not knowing what was going to happen in the future that he thought would be best for the country by weakening factions and even later got involved in affection. He was subject to those rules. that the constituency would be divided. It will be represented by large numbers of people and so forth. Thanks so much for that. A cleaner persuaded. Well i don't think i answered The question you asked me very well so let me give another shot at that. Opt madison deliberately establishes. The republican party in the united states. In seventeen ninety two jefferson is his cohort in this and he writes a couple articles about this and explains himself. One is called parties and one is called candid state of parties and he sees the opposition the federalist party as the anti republican party by this point in seventeen ninety two. He's so frustrated with the hamiltonian. Federalists thrust of of government that he feels. It's necessary to organize this republican party. Not it's not in the contemporary sense of just organization to be a part to win. Elections sees it as putting the country on the right track on the republican smaller republican tract. Where we're not ignoring the people out in the countryside and just flooding the stock jobbers in new york Control things Or these enlightened statesmen or people who think they're enlightened statesmen at the seat of government that for this kind of republican government to work the way he envisioned it requires a genuine attention by the people in participation and governing by the people. Not just when you vote not just at election time but to be real citizens not like the ancient greeks were. That's all you do with. Your life is go to the assembly every day but to have a real meaningful part in this thing called self government and so for madison. The republican party. He's founding is not a faction it's the opposite it's meant to promote republicanism against what he sees as the tendency towards anti republicanism in the early days of the republic To set america on a course in which we could actually You know they were so afraid. When washington was an office that this would fail and that we can't do it without washington. We were not ready to walk alone as jefferson put it. Washington had to stay a second term because the country wasn't ready to walk alone and it's during this period that madison and jefferson our founding the republican party to bring the republican cause into the workings of government. And so for them. It's it's the culmination of the founding It republicanism so that it's not factions. That will rule but adjust majority. That will rule. Thank you very much for that greg. I want to put on the table. The main ideas of the federalist papers are different ways to organize them. Do you have any particular papers we've talked about. Of course ten and one and and are there any particular ones are group's of papers that you want people listeners to read more about well you know. I think it's hard to single out. Any i mean it'd be like If you gave me the bible and said which books are important which ones are not it would be hard to pick one or or another. But you know what i've always found to be very interesting Are the initial essays where they described the weaknesses of the articles of the government under the articles of confederation. And the need for a stronger union these These are not as philosophically deep as some of the other ones And yet when you do read them you recognize What they were trying to accomplish was to make the system better and i think without fully understanding some of the weaknesses of the The articles confederation and also the article that the The the ones that were comparing the government To state governments that already existed. I think it's hard to understand. You know what what what are. They specifically trying to do one of the things. That's very interesting. Is that nearly. Every provisions in the articles of confederation has a correlative a provision in the constitution often exchanged but You can sort of map. The articles confederation to the constitutional provision in the constitution that are nowhere found in the articles consideration But you can look very carefully at these a different provisions because they weren't starting from scratch They were they had a system and they were trying to persuade people to change the system. system had flaws but the head to identify those flaws and i think that in many ways although are somewhat overlooked These are some of the most important ones. And let me just give you some of the numbers. Fifteen to twenty two or really wants that. Mostly talk about the difficulties with the articles of confederation. And i think It's kind of the background that You need to understand why they were undertaking this project. Now this doesn't necessarily tell you what they were trying to accomplish But it does give you the background. So i i think fifteen twenty two or a very good place to start to get idea of why they were trying to create a new constitution. It wasn't that we didn't have a government was that we wanted a better one. Thank you very much for that of kaleen. In your introduction with jack off to the cambridge companion to the federalist no two ways of organizing the federalist one flags the division that greg just did focusing on half eighty the essays concerned with making the case for a national government and half beat the essays focused on an exposition of the constitution itself And then you say. Another approach is on the broader political thought and vision of each of the authors including madison's emphasis on republican government in hamilton hamilton's interest in state building commerce in foreign affairs and so forth..
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"I don't know about eighty or ninety laws which they set up the structure of government and they were all influenced by these ideas that were expressed in the federals papers. Whether they actually read. The federals papers are not They were certainly influenced my those kinds of thinking soap whether everybody was able to read the printed word and and learn about these ideas and possibility of communication. We don't know a interesting One scholar Wrote a very interesting paper called kubilius in the provinces and looked to see where the federalist papers actually penetrated and about half the states. None of the essays wherever reprinted And maybe some of them were mailed. There we know that Madison and hamilton took copies of the federalist mailed of virginia and elsewhere but communication was still very difficult at the time. Hyped one Estimate is that the newspapers that publish the federals papers only print about six hundred copies. Because that's that's it was a daily paper and the and the daily paper just physically could print six hundred copies And that's not allowed copies now. They floated around They floated around taverns and other places where people could read them I think people who are interested could find them whether there was the penetration. That would be ideal. I i don't think there was. I mean i i again. I think it's not so much that the federals papers were actually read by a large number of people and influence them as opposed to just the the idea that they are repository of the kinds of arguments that were circulating and that ultimately did turn out to be persuasive combing the greatest challenge to madison's definition of a faction as any group of majority or minority animated by passion rather than reason devoted to self interest rather than the public good was the rise of political parties and of course madison played a central role in the rise of the first party but the republican democratic party and yet madison had a defense of the rise of parties That he managed to reconcile with his views about public opinion than the refining powers of reason. Tell us how medicine justified the rise of political parties. That seem to clash with his definition of fashion. That's a great question. I i have to say when when judgment i was talking about some sometimes Some people thought that the federalist papers are a little hard to get through a little boring I had to laugh to myself. We've heard that in the classroom from our students once or twice. Haven't we teach the fetch but hopefully they get into the text. it's a little bit like shakespeare. Seems foreign at first. But when you see there's actually a story there a people and let it let the techs come alive at because i think the federalist papers are provisioned for america. Not just about the nuts and bolts of government. That's one thing but the nuts and bolts are there to make him to make this machine in this country full of this dynamic people To set forth the environment that allows us to live a certain kind of life. An ethos to be a certain kind of people so I i try to try to get the students to see that. There's more there than Some eighteenth century tough language but admitted to challenge so so all factions are parties there part not a whole but now all parties are factions that is a faction by definition whether majority or minority is adverse to the rights of others or to the permanent and aggregate interests of the community so faction is unjust or contrary to the common good by definition when madison who is one of the founders. He in jefferson the founder of the first republican party in the united states the federalist party really becomes a party in the seventeen. Ninety s with the rise of the republican party. the republican party makes federalists into a party. I would say it's the republicans who who. It's jefferson and madison. I actually think led by madison in the beginning more than jefferson In in the spring of seventeen ninety two madison is talking about the republican cause. And he finally says okay. It's the republican party. we're talking about. It has to be an organized opposition to what he sees as a hamiltonian plan of government. That is focused on the money. Men in new york city and he says hamilton is trying to interpret this constitution in the way he sees fit Whereas what we have to do like it or not is understand those who ratified it and abide by that fundamental Opinion of the american people as they understood this document and other words madison is taking seriously from day. One that who he asked the question who are the best keepers of the people's liberties and his answer is the people themselves. They are not just to have confidence in their rulers submitted. Obey which he thought. Some of the federalists believed was their understanding of representative government. Madison said no. The people have to actually be their own governors. They have to be a part. They have to participate. They have to be attached to this government. Which is of their own making. And then those laws that are made they obey and so it really had to do the difference between the This newly established republican party and the federalist opposition had to do with what is role of the people themselves as larry. Kramer put it in a wonderful article. The people themselves what is the role of the people themselves in this new republic. Is it a ghostly body politic where we talk about popular sovereignty but in the end. It's really a few elites ruling Well some of the. Federalists thought that was really the best way to go. I mean reid fisher ames his speech at the massachusetts Ratifying convention and he. You know your people sir. You're people sir can be a great beast We need. We need a sober second. Thought we've got to be so careful of this. This thing we call the people So there was a lot of skepticism about the people. Madison had his own skepticism. And he's not in favor of fleeting passions and interests ruling in the form of factions. That's why this whole processes of what we might call deliberative republicanism where the space and time that he sees built into the american constitutional system is there for a reason. It's there. How do we refine and enlarge public views. Well in newspapers as you said jeff newspapers circulate lading among the great body of the people in look at the newspapers That are developing in the early seventeen nineties and all the the major cities across the thirteen states. it's between the representatives in the people going back and forth to congress. It's within congress within the house itself within the senate between the house and senate between the congress and the presidency between the presidency and the.
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"Didn't have a federal system of the kind that was developed in the world before this and certainly there wasn't a political. Science experiment are explication of this system until the madison described What the different theory would be. In addition there were of course many debates about whether you could have a republican government in a large country as opposed to say a small city state and madison. of course Came up with the idea that will actually it's gonna work better In at large territory because it will have the benefit of breaking apart factions. We'll have delegates would have to represent many people and it will be a difficult for factions To control in such an area. I think this was original. Thought this was. This was not something that had been tried and done before and certainly the theory behind it had been explained now whether madison completely invented it. Or whether it's a joint product of all the people at the convention. I think that's a fair subject of debate. I don't think madison claim to be the sole inventor But i think he was one of the original explainers of the system and perhaps the best advocate for the system. Just a an. I mentioned in my article That courts often cite the federalist papers and there seemed to be to sort of Strands of citations at the supreme court. Some justices like justice. Scalia and justice. Thomas look at it for details. You know when they used the word commerce do they just mean trade or they mean something broader and then there are others like justice kennedy who's obviously A now retired But he looked at it for the big principles. He looked at it for questions of state sovereignty of of of federalism of What was the overall picture of what they were trying to accomplish I think that's probably most in line with the kinds of things that madison was trying to get at in his essays. Thank you so much for that. A kaleen greg mentions medicines refinement of montesquieu's view that republican only possible in a small territory written a wonderful article madison in the french enlightenment. The authority of public opinion. Will you describe. The influence of his thought on thinkers including recently called my attention to jacques shays policing municipalities. So love you to help us understand. What madison was reading the influence his view of public opinion and how that affected his refinement of mandis skier and whether or not that was original madison or not. Yes oh so. Jefferson is in paris as minister to france. Right in the late seventeen. Eighty s and. He's there will. Madison is with everyone else. At the philadelphia convention framing the constitution and jefferson will come back After the formation of the new government under president washington so during that time jefferson is sending cargo box boxes full of books to madison and madison is not just reading but as hamilton might have said in by being the french philosophy the that jefferson and madison have drunk too deeply from the well of french philosophy. Hamilton once said And madison was doing that and he wasn't agreeing with all of it but there was a whole group. French thinkers especially in the seventeen seventy seventeen eighties. Who were developing. This new theory called a theory of public opinion. They'll pinon public. That public opinion is queen of the world. Because there's actually this new phenomena called the public why what makes this different in the in the in the history of all the world has to do with communication not just the commerce of goods but the commerce of ideas that you can spread ideas more than just from In at one. Assembly in ancient greece for example or just one salon in paris but through the printed word. You can get these ideas out to a much broader audience a much broader public that can then communicate and have an influence on the center of government and so The the kings and queens of france had to watch out because there was a new power in world and it was predicted that it would be more powerful than anything else in. It's called public opinion and it paved the way for what tocqueville would later talk about in terms of public opinion when by then by the late eighteen twenty s and eighteen thirties. It's clear that public opinion is queen of the world and that equality is a well night irresistible principle of modern times and so madison is reading all of this. And it's said not just you. Glimpse had a glimpse of it but he lived a little too early and he really didn't quite understand the ramifications of it that more than just the institutional arrangements of government checks and balances separation of powers all. Those things are important. But there's something even more important going on here and it has to do with not just stifling unjust opinion but actually building educating shaping forming the public into one that is not only queen of the world but deserves to be queen of the world capable of people think that a people coming into their own people capable of governing themselves and this had never been possible in the history of the world before. This is partly why it's so new in my madison so excited about the discovery. How these things can work together because you couldn't have government by the people over large territory Before this ability to communicate to the printed word Because all large Governments were considered empires and empires as much ski said tend to be despotic but communication. The commerce of ideas changes the face of politics. The potential for for popular government actually being successful in the modern world. Thank you so much for that. I'm just reading your article on say now and it's so exciting to see the connection. Between shaves conclusion public opinion has its source in the opinion of enlightenment. Wherever it words some gains partisans becomes the general conviction madison's conclusions as you say in his national as as in seventeen ninety one that enlightened journalists and literati would communicate with public through essays like the federalist papers and and other eighteenth century version of long atlantic articles and would refine public opinion. So it's guided by reason rather than passion. Greg is as you hear. Madison's theory of public opinion is clean. Cleaned helped us understand it. What was vindicated first of all in in madison's arab by the thoughtful debates over ramification where people actually did read the federalist papers were guided in. We're able to engage complicated arguments. And does it seem too optimistic today in the age of twitter. Well you know It's interesting if you were if you look at the commentary on the federalist papers at the time they were written It was very mixed They were recognized. As being very scholarly they The supreme court cited them and chief justice. Marshall said that there's no greater explanation of our government. Then you'll find there by no greater minds and and yet when you look at other commentary There were people who said well. They're kind of hard to get through. They're kind of boring. they're kind of long. I really doubt anybody has been able to read and digest all of them Some said for educated people. They don't really add that much and for uneducated. they're just too difficult to read. So you know. I i again. I think it's somewhat of a mixed picture. Certainly their views did carry a lot of weight we we we created the government according to the structure that they had adopted that they had proposed When we had the debate in congress on the first In the first congress they passed..
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"They included all of the kinds of very important philosophical and political science arguments. That professor sheehan remarks sort of ingenious meshing together of the two. Thanks well in the process of doing this. They described nearly every aspect of the constitution. And so if you're interested in knowing something about the original meaning of the constitution is a source that is perhaps the most frequently cited source is the federalist papers because Nearly everything that we talk about today has something said about it in the federalist papers. Now as you point out though i it is not necessarily imperfect source so for example many people site donald papers as a source of evidence of the original understanding of the constitution. That is to say well. What did the people who ratified the constitution at the various state ratifying conventions. What did they think it meant. And i think a strong counter argument is most of them. Didn't read the pharaohs papers in fact half of the federals papers a weren't written until over half of the states had already ratified it and one of the most cited up Papers up Paper number seventy eight. It wasn't written until after eight of the states had already ratified the constitution. But you know. I think counterargument to that is that it is a repository of the arguments. That supporters of the constitution were making and we know that the supporters won the day and something must have persuaded the ratifiers to adopt the constitution. And it was probably something similar to the argument that were in the federalist papers in other words. Even if people didn't directly read the federals papers the federals papers is a repository of the kinds of arguments that strong supporters the constitution were making and of course ultimately constitution was ratified kaleen. You have honored ansi c. By joining a really exciting project that called the founders library were putting online the sources that inspired the founders and having a pleasure of learning from you about what madison read a before the convention and while writing the federalist papers and how that influenced his distinctive understanding of faction as the triumph of passion over reason of self infrastructure devotion public. Good were brainstorming. This now but give we the people listeners sense of some of the main books that madison read Before and during and after the convention that influenced federal spits. Sure ba- before. I talk about that. Jeff let me just follow up on the the last question momentarily Jefferson said about the federalist papers that They're the best commentary on the principles of government that were ever written and so I agree with judge mags that you have to look deeper than just one argument year. There in terms of what people at the ratifying conventions were talking about whether or not they'd read the federalist papers or any one particular one with published yet because what hamilton madison j. Mostly him to and madison did was. They understood the principles that they were that that they at the federal convention were trying to implement into this document. You know it's not just words on paper. Those words are there for a purpose meant to accomplish something and the federalist papers has at depths of commentary. That's more than just describing article one article to article three. It's telling us what they are trying to accomplish. And how The founders went about that. And i don't know a better commentary than the federalist papers that does that. In terms of the purpose design the argument and action of the united states constitution So what did madison reed madison. Read most everything he he. He didn't read every book in jefferson's library but he was constantly borowing books from jefferson's library whenever they lived in the same city for example in philadelphia When the when the new government was just started Jefferson as was was as won't had to remodel his rental rental property and he built a whole library in it and madison was constantly borrowing books from him. In addition to the hundreds of books madison had packed and taken with him. Imagine that how how long it took to gift from helier to philadelphia And what you take with you. Mostly is your books. I mean that's madison. He had a rented room in mrs houses boarding house. Because he's a bachelor. He's there in this boarding house with all these other folks and and basically his room is just full of books Madison was the scholars. Scholar of all the founders. John adams wanted to be but i. I think it's madison. Who truly was He read aristotle. Plato xenophon through siddique's For as examples of the classic cicero he read he really studied monto skew Of course lock poof. Indoors sydney The list goes on and on they allred. Hobbs and didn't like him That that the and and madison comments on on rousseau once and in not very kind terms He didn't care much for rousseau. So madison's idea of how majority rules is not the rue sewing in general. Will he thought about all these things and he agreed with some people about something in disagreed about other things but he also had this independence Thought this spark of breads in which he's the one i believe and i'd love to hear what judge mag says. A madison thinks that what he's discovered is a way to make popular government. Good government in other words. They talked about liberty hangs in the balance. The eyes of the world are upon us. we are engaged in the great experiment of self government And what that means is kinda people govern themselves in a way that truly respects one another and it's not just majority faction Injustice and oppression. Madison thinks he's found a way to do that. And it has to do as You know jeff with this idea of an extensive territory and a larger number of population so the faction can counteract faction but it's more than just that negative faction counteracting faction. That's a big part of it. But there's a reason you want factions to be thwarted it so that the There's time for the majority to refine and enlarge its views to refine and enlarge the public views so that justice will rain rather than injustice. That's the goal of that Pugliese sets himself in the federalist papers to show that republican government can really work and that when the eyes of the world are upon america. We're going to show the world as robert frost once. Put it not just how things work but how democracy is meant. Thank you so much for that greg. Do you agree. Kaleen statements that madison discovered for the first time in the history of the world away of making popular government by good government. And the way that he did that was by Thwarting factions to give majority is time to refine enlarge the public views of the justice. When reason could prevail. And then after you tell us what you agree with that or want to amplify on it. Maybe introduced us to the idea of how madison achieve that. Well you know there. Probably i do agree with it. And i think they're probably several examples that could be given but i think perhaps the best one concerns the of federalism and madison's idea or at least explanation of the idea that having two governments rather than one Preserves individual liberty. I've been a very influential idea. I and idea that justice kennedy cited in various ways and it seems counter. Intuitive when you first hear about it that while all of a sudden there's going to be two governments regulating But when you realize that certain things will be left of the national government and others will be left to the states You realized that this has the tendency to break apart factions but to still allow local Interest had to be governed and we really.
"james madison" Discussed on We The People
"On jeffrey rosen president and ceo of the national constitution center and welcome to we. The people. weekly show must touche's debate. The national institutions center is a nonpartisan nonprofit chartered by congress to increase awareness and understanding of prostitution among the american people september seventeenth is constitution the anniversary of the framers signing of the constitution in seventeen eighty seven this week. We dive into the philosophy of the federalist papers written by madison. Hamilton and john j to support the ratification of the constitution. After it was signed. I'm so excited to be joined. By two of america's leading experts on the settlers paved colleen sheehan is director of graduate studies at the arizona state school of civic and economic thought and leadership. She's the author of many books including several on james madison. And she co edited the cambridge companion to the federalists. Kaleen is wonderful to have you back on the show. Always happy to be here with you. Jeff and judge gregory. Maggs is a judge on the. Us court of appeals for the armed forces. He was my colleague. As a member of the full time faculty at gw law school from nineteen ninety-three to twenty eighteen still teaches and he is the author of many works including the article a concise guide to the federalist papers as a source of the original meaning of the united states constitution. Greg thank you so much for joining. I'm delighted to be here. Thank you for inviting me colleen. In your wonderful essay in the cambridge companion to the federalist papers. You write that. The federalist papers can be traced back to aristotle and the declaration of independence and for madison. Jefferson you right. The freedom of the mind is the basis of all other liberties and rights. Each person has the right and responsibility to exercise freedom in a manner that accords with reason and manages to govern passions and therefore you say the rightful exercise of enjoyed rule as described by the federalist papers is the accomplishment of the cool and deliberate sense of community or the reason for the public. Tell us distill the essence of the federalist papers and it's classical antithesis between reason and passionate. Well that's a small question to start with thank you jeff. That's why the recent goes back to. Aristotle is because aristotle comprehensively looked at the problems of politics and the problems of politics have to do with human nature that we don't always get along with each other and that if we're going to live in some kind of community so that there could be something more than just mere survival but possibly more than safety possibly freedom even possibly happiness or the pursuit of happiness. Then we have to find ways to live together. We have to do the kind of things that lawyers wanna do make laws but of course not all laws are good laws not all laws are just and as puja says in federalist fifty one justice is the end of government. It is the end of civil society. Never has been never will be pursued until it be obtained or until liberty will be lost in its pursuit. And that's the challenge. How do we live together in such a way that we treat each other decently fairly justly well if we want to have free government government based on consent of the governed on What we might call popular government or democratic republicanism than the majority is going to rule but of course the age old problem is that a majority can just as unjust as one individual And when they have when you have power in your hands it's likely to be abused so the challenge publi sell out for himself if we want to speak of him the three of them as a one person because they all sign the federalist papers under one name Then we have to see that their challenge is they. They're dedicated to the people ruling government by the people but has to be also government for the people that is for all the people for the common good so that's the challenge puja sets for himself and In other words what we have to do is find a way for the majority to rule not on the basis of mir interest self interest not on the basis of mir passion and prejudice but on the basis of justice and the general good that is reasoning The the thing that human beings have that the other animals don't have that we can reason together to come to understand not simply what this abstract idea of justices because justice is really about. It's it's these social virtue. It's how we treat one another the american republic that publiz is trying to describe as they've thought about it in framed at the constitutional convention in that long hot summer of seventeen eighty seven and independence hall was really about one thing. How can the people govern themselves genuinely govern themselves. that is. it's such a way that they treat one another well. That's the american experiment. Thank you so much for that greg. Why should we care about the federalist papers. As a legal source in your important article in the boston university law review the federalist papers as a source of the original meaning of the united states constitution. You respond to the familiar arguments. About why the federalist papers are not a good source of original meaning including the idea of delegates to the state. Ratifying conventions did read. Many of them are often self-contradictory. And so forth. You run through the Objections in refused them. Tell us why. The federalist papers are a reliable guide to the original meaning of the constitution according to several different definitions of original meaning original understand. First of all. I i don't think i refute the counterarguments of the arguments against it. I merely point out that it's sort of a mixed bag that the federalist papers are a very important source of the original meaning of the constitution. But they are certainly not a perfect source and they are subject to many very valid Object claims made based on them or subject. Many very valid Objections however at these objections also have counterarguments which sort of a mixed picture together you know. I think a building on what professor she and said The federal papers is a rich source of political philosophy. And i think one of the genius aspects of this was that the framer that the Madison and hamilton and just fossil extent. Jay they have one mission which was to convince the people of new york to ratify the constitution and in order to do that they had to take certain practical steps ahead. Explain why the articles of consideration were problematic. Ahead explain why we need it in a portent strong union i. They had to explain the structure of the government. That it wasn't going to be a national government wasn't going to be a federation. It was going to be a federal system They had to Also describe the senate describe. The house described the judiciary and so forth and at the same time..
The Time Has Come to Reclaim the American Republic
"The time has come to reclaim what is ours. As I write in American Marxism. What is ours, the American Republic from those who seek to destroy it. If we expect others to rescue our nation for us, as we go about our daily lives as mere observers to what is transpiring Or close our eyes and ears to current events. We will lose the struggle and yes, it's a struggle. We've allowed the American Marxists to define who we are as a people. They d famous land. Our ancestors in history and trash have founding documents and principles. They're mostly reprobates who hate the country. And have contributed nothing to its betterment. Fact they live off the sweat and toil of others. You While they pursue a destructive and diabolical course for our nation. Undermining its sabotaging virtually every institution in our society. The ideology and worldview are based on the arguments and beliefs of a man Karl Marx, whose writings are responsible for the enslavement. Impoverishment, torture and death of untold millions. This is a hard fact. Despite the predictable protest stations from some in our society who embrace an advanced Marxism score ideas. But attempted disassociate themselves from responsibility for its inevitable outcomes. These are the useful idiots who occupy influential and leadership positions of the Democratic Party, media, academia, culture and so forth. But we must take solace and find strength in the sacrifice and bravery of our early revolutionaries. Joseph Warren Samuel Adams. John Hancock, Paul Revere, Tom Paine. To name just a few. And become energized and inspired by the wisdom and genius of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson. John Adams, James Madison.
"james madison" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Mastodon subdued. A new crisis ensued to the league. Dissensions broke out among its members. These the romans fostered color. Critise and other popular leaders became mercenary instruments. For inveigling their countrymen the more affectionately to nurse discord and disorder the romans had to the astonishment of those who confided in their sincerity already proclaimed universal liberty throughout grease with the same insidious views they now seduced the members from the league by representing to their pride. The violation committed on their sovereignty by these arts. This union the last hope of greece. The last hope of ancient liberty was torn into pieces and such imbecilities and distraction introduced that the arms of rome found little difficulty in completing the ruin which they're arts had commenced the akins were cut to pieces and a kia loaded with jane's under which it is groaning at this hour. I have thought it not cer- perf loess to give the outlines of this important portion of history both because it teaches more than one lesson and because as a supplement to the outlines of the acadian constitution. It emphatically illustrates the tendency of federal bodies rather to anarchy among the members that to tyranny and the head federalist number nineteen the insufficiency of the present confederation to preserve the union. The same subject continued written for the independent journal by alexander hamilton and james madison to the people of the state of new york. The examples of ancient confederacies cited in my last paper have not exhausted. The source of experimental instruction on this subject. There are existing institutions founded on a similar principle which merit particular consideration the first which presents itself is the germanic body in the early ages of christianity. Germany was occupied by seven distinct. Tenation's who had no common chief. The franks one of the number having conquered the gauls established the kingdom which has taken. Its name from them in the ninth century. Charlemagne its warlike monarch carried his victorious arms in every direction and germany became a part of his vast dominions on the dismemberment which took place under his sons. This part was erected into a separate and independent empire. Charlemagne and his immediate descendants possessed the reality as well as the ensigns and dignity of imperial power.
"james madison" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"And in the abridgement or subversion of the royal authority this is not an assertion founded merely in speculation or conjecture among other illustrations of its truth which might be cited scotland will furnish cogent example the spirit of clench ship which was at an early day introduced into that kingdom uniting the nobles and their dependence by ties equivalent to those of kindred rendered the aristocracy a constant overmach for the power of the monarch till the incorporation with england subdued it's fierce and ungovernable spirit and reduced it within those rules of subordination which a more rational and more energetic system of civil polity had previously established in the latter kingdom the separate governments in a confederacy may aptly be compared with the feudal baronies with this advantage in their favor that from the reasons already explained they will generally possess the confidence and goodwill of the people and with so important to support we'll be able effectively to oppose all encroachments of the national government. It will be well if they are not able to counteract. It's legitimate and necessary. Authority the points of similitude in the rival ship of power applicable to both and in the concentration of large portions of the strength of the community into particular deposits in one case at the disposal of individuals in the other at the disposal of political bodies a concise review of the events that have attended confederate governments while further illustrate this important doctrine and inattention to which has been the great source of our political mistakes and has given our jealousy a direction to the wrong side. This review shall form the subject of some ensuing papers publi. Es federalist number eighteen the insufficiency of the present confederation to preserve the union. The same subject continued written for the independent journal by alexander hamilton and james madison to the people of the state of new york among the confederacies of antiquity the most considerable miss stat of the grecian republics associated under the m fifty hanoch council from the best accounts transmitted of the celebrated institution. It bore a very instructive analogy to the present confederation. Enough the american states. The members retained the character of independent and sovereign states and had equal votes in the federal council. This council had a general authority to propose and resolve. Whatever it judged necessary for the common welfare of greece to declare and carry on war to decide in the last resort. All controversies between the.
"james madison" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"Adjust your volume. Take a nice deep breath in lead it out. Slowly and off waco. Well it's the beginning of july and that means it's time for our annual reading from the federalist papers written by alexander hamilton. John jay n james madison published as a series of tracks in seventeen. Eighty eight to support the ratification of the united states constitution. Let's pick up where we left off federalist paper number seventeen the insufficiency of the present confederation to preserve the union. The same subject continued written for the independent journal by alexander hamilton. To the people of the state of new york an objection of a nature different from that which has been stated and answered in my last address may perhaps be likewise urged against the principle legislation for the individual citizens of america. It may be said that it would tend to render the government of the union too powerful and to enable it to absorb those residuarity authorities which it might be judged proper to leave with the states for local purposes allowing the utmost latitude to the love of power which any reasonable man can require. I confess. I am a loss to discover what temptation the persons entrusted with the administration of the general government could ever feel to divest the states of the authorities of that description. The regulation of the mere domestic police of state appears to me to hold out slender allurement to ambition. Commerce finance negotiation and war seemed to comprehend all the objects which have charms for minds governed by that passion and all the powers necessary to those objects ought in the first instance to be lodged in the national depository the administration of private justice between the citizens of the same state the supervision of agriculture and of other concerns of a similar nature. All those things in short which are proper to be provided for by local legislation is therefore improbable that there should exist a disposition in the federal council's to your surp- the powers with which they are connected because the attempt to exercise those powers would be as troublesome as it would be nugatory and the possession of them for that reason would contribute nothing to the dignity t to the importance or to the splendor of the national government. But let it be admitted for argument's sake that mere wanted nece and lust of domination would be sufficient to beget that disposition..
"james madison" Discussed on KCRW
"Representative from Pennsylvania had a bold idea and brought it to the floor. Mr Wilson moved that the executive consist of a single person. And there's dead silence. Every man in the room from George Washington to James Madison. Alexander Hamilton just sat there quietly. Remember monarchy was never far from their minds. And then Ben Franklin. Actually, he said, actually says, you know, we ought to at least talk about it on the and so that kind of breaks the ice for four months they debated whether or not there should be a president. On what the terms and limits of executive powers should be. And by mid September 17 87 that made their minds up. The result was Article two of the U. S Constitution. Can you actually if you have it in front of the read to us what they landed on what Article two says and what it means? Sure. Yeah, well, I have it on my desk as always copy in my suit pocket and a copy on my desk in the copy of my phone. Naturally, don't we all never know when you're gonna need a copy of the Constitution. Well, it starts on the first line of it is maybe the most important In some ways, it says simply that the executive power shall be vested in a president of the United States of America. A big deal to some of the framers who had been really wary of putting power in one person's hands. Then it turns to Ah couple of other sections, where it talks about powers and importantly, duties of the office of.
"james madison" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime
"It has rarely been attempted to be employed, but against the weaker members. And in most instances attempts to coerce the refractory and disobedient. have been the signals of bloody wars in which one half of the confederacy as displayed its banners against the other half. The result of these observations to an intelligent mind must be clearly this. That if it be possible at any rate to construct a federal government, capable of regulating the common concerns and preserving the general tranquility. It must be founded as to the objects committed to its care. Upon the reverse of the principle contended for by the opponents of the proposed constitution. It must carry. It's agency to the persons of the citizens. It must stand in need of no intermediate legislations. But must itself be empowered to employ the arm of the ordinary magistrate. To execute its owner resolutions. The Majesty of the National Authority must be manifested through the medium of the courts.
"james madison" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM
"W. CBM Baltimore range taking over the mid week forecast as a front sweeps in from the west or what can I. fifty degrees increasing rain chances for the late night and Wednesday quarter inch plus totals tomorrow looks like fifty high tomorrow fifty three Thursday with the previous day the week with some sunshine at sixty six and then another blast of cold coming in with the front on Friday rain showers high sixty degrees colder for the weekend find out more and more the weather channel on talk radio six eighty W. CBM the W. C. B. M. studios are brought to you by safe retirement solutions call rob burrow we four one zero two six six eleven twenty save for retirement solutions dot com hi this is state every Saturday morning from eight to ten AM the show was called you oughta know expert information on the repair of vehicles flea market and your phone calls the most powerful names and talk you want to know talk radio six eighty WCBS am the following program has been pre recorded no broadcasting both from the files of the hidden somewhere under the brick and steel over nondescript building we once again made contact without a leader the end hello America I'm mark live in our number eight seven seven three eight one three eight one one eight seven seven three eight one three eight one one before we jump in and we're gonna jump in full ma'am both feeder ready when the title story about something that happened on this date how may fifth seventeen eighty seven is written by Joseph Ellis at the American heritage great historian how may five seventeen eighty seven James Madison arrived in Philadelphia it's important remember this because your liberties are being destroyed particularly by iron fisted blue state megalomania X. he was a diminutive young Virginian about five feet three inches tall hundred thirty pounds in thirty six years old who it so happened had thought more deeply about the political problems posed by the current government under the orders of confederation than any other American.
"james madison" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Having these conflicts James Madison pointed out that the legislative executive and judicial departments must in the exercise of their functions be guided by the text of the constitution according to its own interpretation of it each according to its own interpretation of it it was recognized that there would be friction similarly in federal is fifty one Madison pointed out that the great security against a gradual concentration of the several powers in the same department consisting giving to those who administer each department the necessary constitutional means and personal motives to resist encroachment of the others this is checks and balances this friction this clashing between the branches it is not evidence of an impeachable offense it's the separation of powers and its practical operation it's part of the constitutional design now the proper in historically accepted way that these disagreements have been resolved is through the constitutionally mandated accommodations process courts have explained that the branches are required to engage in accommodations process to resolve disagreements where there's a clash over demand for information as the DC circuit has explained when Congress asked for information from the executive branch that triggers quote an implicit constitutional mandate to seek optimal accommodation of the needs of the conflicting branches end quote the goal is to accommodate the needs of both branches to reach a compromise if that accommodation process fails Congress has other tools at its disposal to address the disagreement the has traditionally has proceeded the contents to a vote on a contempt resolution in recent times the house is taken in the position that it may see when the courts to determine the validity of its subpoenas and secure an injunction to enforce them now the house managers have pointed out that the trump administration when it was suiting began case and other cases taken the view that those cases are not justiciable an article.
"james madison" Discussed on Xtra Sports Radio 1300 AM
"Off the football field box is not to the outside twenty to twenty five any steps out of bounds deangelo Amos the safety yacht amount on the far sideline the pick up of two Adam Caulfield who has a one yard touchdown here in this ballgame well this will be the critical play here if they are close to making the third down they'll go for if they're far away from it in this particular case and not very many time outs for James Madison if it's a long slow down that they're likely to run the ball and run the clock out now we're gonna get an official stoppage there's a James Madison player down on the far side by now he is off the field but he is down close enough to the marker that they will stop that is John Dhaka now the staff is trying to help them a little bit further into the bench area because it's close enough to the sideline if they had to stop way so right here Jason I would look for tray lance the the run with the ball or to have a likely complete should pass a short completion of a run of tension run type of place trying to make it but be safe with the football they get the ball to start the third quarter as well one forty go walk to stop snapping the receiver was my answer is to set up a time works off the edge James Madison was ready for it he got to the field is brought down right the thirty so bring down third in about three one thirty to go north to go to St still has to time out not taking one here now your James Madison if you get a stopped maybe you take the time out.
"james madison" Discussed on Xtra Sports Radio 1300 AM
"Run James Madison knocked out North Dakota state on the way to the twenty sixteen crown only to lose the rematch in the championship game the following year Duke said coach Kirk signet he said the bison have set the standard if you want to have a dominant program and put together multiple national championships that road goes through Fargo because what they have done is almost unprecedented however what they have done in the past really has no significance in this game this is this year's JMU team against this year's North Dakota state and it'll be a good one it's all you could ask for in a national championship game number one North Dakota state number two James Mattis it for FCS supremacy next yeah so where would in the years leads into the stadium and joins we taxes for the twenty twenty at C. S. championship game as the twenty fourteen postseason bracket is down to top seeded defending champion North Dakota state bison taken on second James Madison today's broadcast on the last one and see a radio network is sponsored by geico my great service by Capital One N. by N. C. eight dot com Hey folks how.
"james madison" Discussed on KQED Radio
"James Madison, Madison like Methodist five to one twenty. The kind of guy that stands on the corners during a dance. He would call him a nerd. You might call him a pragmatist Madison wants a clear decision about sovereignty, for example, on local matters who gets the final say, the states or the federal government just give me some clarity. And he's not going to get it. And he comes to that realization at the very end because at the end of the convention, they have this document. I mean, he wrote the original blueprint now, there's this new documents so riddled with compromises that. According to Joe, the basic question he wanted answered wasn't the who's in charge question was left kind of vague. On all sorts of matters. I mean who regulates money in banks who gets to tax what who decides whether new states will be slave states for Free State's who's fake and initially couldn't Joe in a letter that Manson wrote to Thomas Jefferson, he's like come on. He's very disappointed he thinks the documents going to fail and the country's gonna fail. He doesn't think this is going to last. But then Joe says in his writings you start to see a shift you start to think differently. He starts to say. Oh, yeah. Wait a second. This this could work precisely because it's unclear and we found what he calls a middle station where everyone can see what they wanna see bring people come out of the convention, go back to their states and the guy in South Carolina, says don't.