35 Burst results for "J. Query"
7 New Ways to Grow Your SEO Traffic
"To another episode of Marketing School I'm Eric Su. Hotel and today we're GonNa talk about seven new ways to grow your seo traffic. So I'll start first because they had a Webinar on new ways to do SEO. So the first way to grow your SEO traffic new way to grow your seo traffic would be to think about on surp- seo but does that mean exactly so Serb assertion that result page, and as you know Seo now is getting more difficult because the search result pages are so dynamic you have sometimes you might have apps you have knowledge box you might have featured snippets you might have site links there's a lot. Of changes happening. So what you gotTa do from your and we've talked about Faq Schema before in the past, we've talked about all these different tactics those all fall on the search engine result page. You GotTa think about how you can do on Seo part of what you can do using software or you can do it on your own, but you can use our software. If you want click flow, you can test your titles Meta description and that is basically one element of on as he'll. There's a lot more that goes into that but I just want to give you one piece. Number two is create new formats of content. So you don't have to just do text based content. You've already seen that Google ranks videos, but did you know Google also rains podcasts? So now crawling podcasts transcribing and indexing them and getting driving traffic to them as loss. So don't create text based content, considering creating all the different types of media formats that people really leveraging these days such as video audio off Cassie I should out there make she include keywords with whatever you're talking about your research on. What you'll find is some of that context also start ranking. For many listings are pushing up just classroom pushing up just video results. So it's a way to grab more search traffic bubbling people already. Number three kind of alluded to this a little earlier. But if you Google, Matthew Woodward Faq Schema. You'll find a way to get Faq. Schema. Set Up, and in some cases you click the rate actually might go higher. This is kind of continuing to follow the theme of on Surp- SEO number four by websites now for their back lanes buying for their brand and their existing traffic and there exists. You'll traffic merging into your site makes you deleted duplicate content merge than duplicate content together what it mean by duplicate is not word for word content. But if I have article on Seo someone else has an article on Seo and they both talk bout began as a test yo you don't have to pay design begins Guy Teissier you'd WanNa merge tackle only do that. What you'll find is Marshall Tropical to ring for Marquee Words All. Right. Number five. So even though we talk about it, I don't think a lot of people do this enough think about how you can build your own widget or how you could build your own software where those will basically because those to me, there are a little more defensible than making new book or a new Info Graphic, for example so An example, this Neil night I talked about this website when covert initially hid a lot of late in the United States a lot of layoffs started happening. So these layoff tracker started going up I was actually looking at one of the layoff trackers recently, sixteen hundred referring domains going that's a lot of lakes. So if you can build something, that's helpful. Genuinely helpful. The people that's very lincoln asset. This is evergreen SEO tactic but nobody has ever talked about talk about Lincoln assets, but don't talk too much about using a product to help with branding or product to build lakes. Another thing that you can end up doing is. Look at popular tools on the Internet that are Mir Space Adam to your website. You can find a lot like code canyons stuff like that will find his they tend to create a lot of brand queries more BRANCUSI's. You have the easier to rank on Google. So yes, eric talked about lingual acids but you can also get tools that create more brand queries will you'll find as you rankings for all Europeans go up even if you're not getting into links. All right number seven kind of similar. Building on the example I gave from number five where you build a where you lied with a product could be a widget as well. But let's use Neil Uber suggests as an example, he has a lot of data, a lot of click stream data. And basically, the great thing about that is that he can make really data loaded post that nobody else can do so I remember recently, I just read something from about how everything you know about click the rate has changed, but they were pulling proprietary data that they have. If you have your own product, you're able to glean zone insights and you can produce. Content that stands out on its own which you have liquid asset that's helping you produce more link cable assets with your content.
SEC Investigates Kodak's Federal Loan, Stock Surge
"Last week, Kodak announced, it had secured a seven hundred, sixty five, million dollar loan from the Federal Government under the Defense Production Act to shift gears for making photo supplies to drug ingredients. Now, we've learned that the Securities and Exchange Commission is investigating the deal joining me now with more details is Wall Street Journal reporter Dave, Michaels? So Dave Codex shares surged after news about this loan broke, and that got the attention of the Securities and Exchange Commission. What can you tell us about what they're now looking into? Well, we understand that the SEC has opened up. An investigation they're looking at trading in the shares just before the loan announcement was officially made, and then also how the in the news about the loan was communicated to the wider market. Why is that potentially a problem that Kodak had shared news of this deal with some media outlets before making this public wouldn't be a violation of criminal law, but but it could be a violation of the regulations that apply to public companies, which they can be straightforward. They can also beat her technical, but suffice it to say that public companies have to have a lot of rigor around how they communicate. Information, that is information that is going to influence investors decisions about whether to buy a seller, hold on a shares and if the company released information. About the control loan before the initial announcement in released in a way that was. Haphazard or not well thought through and then that information. Leaked down in some form or fashion to the wide broader market people traded on it than that could be a problem for Kodak as a public company just in terms of their responsibilities in terms of how they're supposed to control the flow of material information. So what are some of the questions still surrounding this deal that our team is looking into right now including this question about the disclosure in the communication? Of the loan, we're still looking into the loan itself in Kodak is saying that. Alone details are not fully finalized and yet the announcement was made last week that it was going to be getting seven, hundred, sixty, five, million dollar loan. So announcing net to the broader market, ensure holders developed certain expectations about how that's going to change. Kodak's business. But the loan is in guaranteed is not finalized. Query whether whether it was appropriate to make make that announcement at the time. We're also looking into continue to look into some of the equity options grants that were made to executives directors in the day before the day, just before the official announcement was made. So Dave, what are the potential outcomes from an SEC investigation of this sort? What can we see come out of this and when? You know we understand this is Very early days of this, I mean after all the announcement was just made last week, so it could take. Months to learn anything from either the company or potentially in the SEC. If actually brought any sort of official claims against the company. So we won't. We won't know anytime soon, and also it's also not clear that this would result in in a in former allegations of wrongdoing SEC opens up investigations all the time they ask questions, they do the dig into something, they take testimony and they might decide you know, hey, this, this was a little weird wasn't perfect way went down, but there's not a clear regulatory violation. Yourself is just something that I think people who are interested in Kodak Interested in in this story would just have to stay tuned.
Big tech CEOs testify before Congress
"So, this hearing just going to say it, it was six hours of chaos. So. So many things like individual moments of pure chaos happened this hearing. But because every member of Congress was only given five minutes to ask the questions in and they moved on, no one could process the moments of cash. So here are some things that happened during this hearing. Jeff. bezos just started eating nuts on his call. That was just a thing that you started snacking for the first ninety minutes. It appears that basis had tech issues was operating in some kind of delay. So we didn't hear from him. They just answer any questions and they'd take a ten minute break Jeff. bezos could fix his computer. Amazing. Jim Jordan, who McKenna pointed out. On the show last week is always sort of chaos element. Try to talk over several members of Congress got yelled to put his mass back on floated. Just elaborate conspiracy theories. was when I say was chaos I. Don't know if there's any other way to describe it. I. Think that led a lot of people to think the hearing itself didn't accomplish its goals, but I think in many ways it did. But Kennedy you WanNa Kinda go through what the committee was trying to accomplish the themes they were pointed at in. How hearing played out, right. So okay. First off. Harkening back to last week I mentioned Jim. Jordan's mountain dew obsession. Definitely drink a handful those throughout the hearing I took notes in screen shots. So, I, called it. But regardless of their pores soda choices, there were a lot of lawmakers who definitely did their homework and I think that was really apparent throughout the entire hearing and when I look at. The picture that they tried to paint I think that became really clear in chairman Sicily's opening statements. So this is the guy who liked. And spearheaded the entire investigation from the beginning, and in those opening statements, he pointed out that yeah Apple Amazon Google facebook. There are different in a lot of ways and they exhibit anticompetitive behaviors potentially allegedly and a lot of different ways. But what they tried to pull together and was a story, and it's really hard to tell a story and five minute fragments. But what happened yesterday was Sicily. Ni, and a lot of the Democrats on the Committee wanted to point out that these companies they become bottlenecks for distribution whether that's information or just like APP stores marketplace's they control what gets distributed in how what was really key to the investigation was how? How they survey competitors. If you have so much control dominance over a market or a specific part of the tech industry, you have a lot of insight into your competitors and you can do a lot of dangerous things with that, and then lastly, after that dominance has gained, it's how they abuse it. Right? How they abuse it to make harder for small businesses in competitors and I think that's exactly what Cellini pointed out in the beginning and I think they did a poor job that storytelling throughout the process. But I think that's also our job. Right is to pull that evidence together and tell that story for them in a way that isn't like. Yes, no yelling at CEOS and like stopping them and I think by getting that in the evidentiary record doing all this questioning, I think they really did achieve their goal in the end. Yeah. I mean, I think the thing that happened sort of next to the hearing was that they released a bunch of documents from these one point, three, million documents of clutch. Over the past year, they released pretty targeted selection documents for every company showing some of this stuff, Casey, I wrote a story about. facebook. INSTAGRAM. My I'm going to frame this email or mark Zuckerberg. Literally one sentence, no period. The Andrew says I need to figure out. I'M GONNA buy instagram like I would love to just be in a place were sending that email like super casually like I got this thing to figure out and it's not like am I gonNa buy the model of the car. It's like instagram. I've been thinking of the text messages where so and so says that Mark Zuckerberg's didn't go destroy mode on instagram ever since they got that up. Case she this to Kevin and right that text was. Yes. Well, it was Kevin. System was talking to an investor and Kevin said to the investor. If we don't sell well, mark, go into destroy mode on us and the investor side probably. Of course, stray casual. So there's just a lot of documents and I think one of the functions of hearing was to get those documents into the official congressional record to make the CEO's account for them. That did not seem very successful to me. Is like a takeaway people should have from this hearing, right? No. I think a lot of people that go into these hearings are expecting like these big Gotcha moments and expecting like a lot of news and all this stuff. But it really, it wasn't oversight hearing. You know it wasn't. They didn't come. They came at this like in a report last earlier this week that they came out at as investigators. They didn't come at it to make a big show horse and pony show out of it, and yet I think the CEO's didn't. The record well enough to the extent that they could have. But there was definitely, I was expecting them to do a lot less evasion and I expected a lot less room probation with the documents, but it's just the process of a Congressional hearing. It's. It's hard to do that in a congressional hearing. But if you put those documents out there, you get the CEO's on the record a little bit who does excite this excites the FTC. J, and that's who can take this next and then it's also congress. You know they can't break up a tech company, but they can regulate going forward and it's those three key themes that I pointed out earlier that they could regulate. You know what I mean. They could legislate to forbid companies from surveying competitors and things like that, and that's where this goes. So the format of the hearing, every member and five minute chunks, it seemed very clear that the Democrats had some sort of coordinated evidentiary strategy, they would start and. And they would say, I, want to read this email to you. What did you mean by this email and then Jeff bezos would say something like I have. No idea is on works. I. Was real pattern that developed was basis really not doing or claiming he definitely knows claiming not really no way Wayne is under the thing they did or they would ask sooner Pichai about the very granular add deal google made by an ad product, and soon I, would say I'll get back to you, which is basically all responses. So the Democrats seemed like they were coordinated to move through their documents. The Republicans seem to be doing something else that also seem coordinated intentional, but what was their focus because that seemed clear split my takeaway from Jim Jordan who? We got into earlier, he he was interviewing. As if they were all Jack Dorsey. And as we talked about like, yeah, he invited Jack Dorsey to testify, but he doesn't sit on the antidote subcommittees. Anything. He says, it just doesn't matter. So it sounded to me as if he prepared questions Jack Dorsey and then it was like, oh, he's not coming I'll ask Tim Cook the same questions. Another completely crazy moment that happened just seen by and five minute chunks is that. Represented Sensenbrenner from Wisconsin Dear Sweet Wisconsin. Definitely. Asked Mark Zuckerberg why the Donald Junior was banned from twitter and mark. Zuckerberg was happening on twitter facebook and there was just like a moment of confused silence, and then he tried to move on and that just sort of floated by in the river of chaos to tell you how much chaos there was kneeling. When you started to tell that story, I thought you were going to tell the story about when Jim Jordan asked him cook if the famous one, thousand, nine, hundred, four, Apple Super Bowl, AD was actually about twenty twenty cancel culture, which is another thing that really happened. I think that's out of context. He didn't ask him. He said clearly, this is. That's definitely what Steve Jobs was thinking IBM is canceled culture and Apple's going to break it with hammer and Jeff. Bezos said that social media is a nuance destruction machine and all this crazy stuff from that. It was a wild will that that particular question when Jim Jordan asked, do you support the cancel culture mov, you could see the CEOS like. 'cause they went in order. He asks them all in order. So First Tim Cook just like basically muttered nothing. Here's like I don't. I support speech whatever. The iphone a keyboard like that was his answer. Sooner per child also, just like muttered, right? He's like Google has always supported free expression Zuckerberg like saw the opportunity and took it and the forces of liberalism I rising I, and then basis was like I cannot. I cannot do in like went for it, and that was just totally insane moment. But it also seems like the Republicans were intentional to try to create their own moments where they were yelling at CEOS about bias on platforms is obviously something cover a. At. You were paying a lot of attention that case you're paying a lot of attention to it. Do you think that was effective in creating because you know there's like a parallel conservative Universe Jim? Jordan was on Tucker. Carlson. Last night like was that effective or d think that the CEO's were able to sort of tamp down on interesting the Tucker Carlson pointed out that Google and other companies are all big donors to Jim Jordan another folks. So that is a weird side, but I think it was actually besides the moment where they mixed up twitter with facebook I. Think this was much more effective off. Off Topic yelling about technology than we usually see like are genuinely issues that like they are upset about that, they could point to largely around like cove nineteen misinformation and they could at least like pick those topics and stick to them rather than kind of asking vague questions about like, why is my phone listening to me? Well, they're definitely asked questions about why are my campaign emails getting filtered by G mail? Yes. I should. I should mention that they have really and they have all of these cases where they ask about extremely specific one off incidents that anyone who has used social media knows happens constantly. And, then turn them into a sinister pattern. But I think they managed to come off as sounding more like they understood what they were talking about the unusual. I think that was a real theme of the hearing, Casey. What did you think of this sort of bias side show that occurred? Well, I mean the the idea that conservative voices are being suppressed is foundational to the conservative movement and is behind the rise of conservative talk radio. It was behind the rise of Fox News. Now that social media exists, we have seen it in this new form, but it is sort of being presented as extra, sinister and worthy of. Some sort of legislative intervention what frustrates me about it is that much more than newspapers or or cable news like Mark Zuckerberg Dorsey. These people benefit hugely from having all possible voices on their platform. None of them is incentivized to drive conservatives off their platform. What they are incentivized to do is have rules that make the place safe and welcoming. So that people want to hang out there and so to the extent that there are issues on the platform, they've largely come because these platforms have rules. And you know you would think that a bunch of free marketeers would realize that the alternative to the system that they're so mad about would be creating a new system, but they don't seem at all interested in doing that. So I just sort of dismissed all of them as charlatans I actually thought it was interesting that the opposite track came up, which was the Stop Hey for profit campaign I kind of wasn't expecting that. The representative Raskin I believe asked facebook. Basically, why aren't you kicking more hate speech off. I forget who else asked like look is the point that you're so big. You don't care about advertiser boycotts I. Mean, you know it will here. Here is a fact that the number one complaint that facebook gets from its users, the thing that users. About. FACEBOOK is that it removes too much content and so if you're running the place, you do have to take these complaints seriously in a way. Right? It might not be you know that you shadow band conservative whatever that even means on social network in twenty twenty. But the fact that you're removing content is really upsetting people. So you can't dismiss that idea entirely, but I still don't feel like we're having that intellectually honest conversation about it. So this was definitely I feel like you can connect the you control distribution. We're GONNA show the abuses of power narrative. We got other. Democrats. With the you control distribution. You're banning conservatives right like I. Think what's Sensenbrenner Again, cups and conservatives are consumers to is that people don't realize that like fifty percent of the population in many ways. But facebook has like famous conservatives working its highest levels Kevin. We last week, we're talking about Kevin Roose keeps sharing the list. List of the most engaged content from crowd tangle. It's all conservative content, and that's so problematic for facebook that they're. They're pushing back with other metrics and graphs of their own, making the facts just aren't there, but it doesn't seem to be convincing. Brett Kevin is being asked to recuse himself from facebook case because he's like best friends with facebook I, AP I wrote a column almost two years ago. Now, arguing that conservatives were trying to redefine. Any conservative identified person having any unwanted outcome on a social network, right? So bias is your name was higher than mine in search results. Bias is used suggested that I follow a Democrat and not a Republican right, and if you take action on your policies that apply to everyone against me a conservative that is biased against conservatives, right. So and by the way I have to say this has been hugely successful because we've talked about it. How many minutes now and the longer that these discussions. Discussions. Go on. They just sort of refi people's minds. The idea that there really is a vast conspiracy to silence conservative speech because he's networks are so big millions of conservatives are having experiences like this every day, and now there is an ideology that is basically a religion for them to attach to, which is although Silicon Valley liberals are out to get. Reason I wanted to talk about the conservative side show, which in many ways was a circus is it feels like the notion that we should be punitive to the companies or mad at the company's. Bipartisan, right we were. We were not looking at a hearing where the Democrats were on the attack. Republicans are saying we love. Apple. We're looking at hearing where they were. Everyone was mad. There are a couple of exceptions to that. There were a couple of I think sensenbrenner and a few other folks were like look we want to be clear. Big is not bad. We just WANNA make sure we're not punishing you for your success, but you were like almost entirely, right? Yeah. I. Mean I. think that's it's important to. To capture that mood like Jeff Bezos Mark Zuckerberg, Tim, Cook soon. Darpa, try they usually get to finish whatever sentence they start saying. Right. They're not used to being interrupted. Their thoughts are usually like you know they get to live in complete sentences and people take them seriously here in five in intervals, they were interrupted almost every time they started speaking to be told that they were wrong that they were filibuster at one point Sicily said stop thinking is for the questions. We can just assume they're all good questions. They. Were getting yelled at and they're going yell that about a variety of things that were pretty specific. So you kind of in your kind of structure here. The first one was controlling distribution. What did you hear as a hearing went on the indicated to that? The committee had a case here? I think the apple's APP store is one thing you know charging thirty percent cuts on certain things is just controlling an APP store. It's the same thing with Amazon's marketplace. They can inherently in control what gets placed and what gets sold and you know if they want to play with search results on Amazon, they can do that, and then on facebook and Google, it's not just like products and software that's information. And it could be information when it's like Google. Google. Stealing yelps, texture views right in putting those in its little info boxes in search queries in facebook if facebook is just like an. Mation, distribution platform and. It can decide Algorithm Mickley. Knowingly. What people get to see this bution was very keen to the committee's hearing yesterday and they pointed out different aspects in which you know each company exhibited that kind of behavior. So the one that will you bring up apple? We wrote about this, say there's much emails. Apples document production is just one hundred and thirty pages of unrelated emails and whatever order see it's like scan through it. So there's a lot of little stories in there. There's one about right to repair and apple realizing it needed to repair. By watching PR people operate by reading their emails journalists. Very entertaining. They're like we had a break like here's our strategy. Here's we're GONNA. That's all in there. You can look at it, but there's a lot about the APP store itself and how they're going to use the mechanics of the APP store to control their platform, and it started at the beginning like the first emails in this production from twenty, ten there. From Phil, Schiller Steve Jobs saying, are we GONNA? Let Amazon Sell Books in the kindle store. Store, it felt like I saw an Amazon ad was hard to watch this hard to watch this ad where a person's reading a book on an iphone in the kindle APP in the pick up an android phone keep reading. He's like literally like it was hard to watch like Schiller's at home like pain what a customer is having an experience that good it really just. Heart and so he's like it was hard to watch. You fours Steve Jobs. They're like we gotta shut it down jobs is the bookstore will be the only bookstore on the APP. Store. That's the way it's going to be everyone's gotta used to it. We know that restricting payments will hurt other things, but that's what we're doing and they started there in two thousand ten and they pulled it out, and then that ladders up into everything that we've seen with, hey, ladders up into the analysis group showing up to. Apple, can pay them to say that there's independent study has revealed. Everybody has a thirty percent cut. It has landed up into Tim Cook, forwarding. He gets a letters from developers that are in this direction. It's like apples breaking my heart and he just like Ford's it. Tim, Cook forwards that email to filter credit eighty, just as thoughts like amazing like they are constantly thinking about the APP store as a mechanism of control for the platform in the leverage and other deals. So the other one was apple is this Amazon one which I have very mixed feelings on saying that this is bad or legal I'm curious for all of your thoughts famously. Did, not have the prime video APP on the Apple TV and all these other places apple, Amazon came to a deal. There's an entire presentation in this production like the slide deck of how the deal is going to work. Apple got to be the preferred seller of its own product. So third parties cancel. Apple. Products, Amazon pages, they got. They have a custom by flow. They've custom product pages, all the stuff in return. Amazon got a lower commission on the APP store and gets to Selatan products which no. No like you can rent a movie from the Amazon APP on the Apple TV, no one else gets to it in one world. This is just pure platform collision, right? Apple cut VIP deal for big companies because it wanted something and you could say this is legal in another world. It's like this is how deals work apple something valuable. Amazon s something valuable and they came to a conclusion wherever made more money and quite frankly the consumer experience platform has got better. How do you read that? Casey? That is good and fair analysis of it. I. Think I did read slightly more scandalous. Tones into it in part because apple would never acknowledge that some developers are more important to it than others even though if you assume that that's true, I think maybe one of the things that's frustrating about it is there is no transparency accountability around which developers get sweetheart deals is that once you hit a certain threshold of revenue will cut your price. Why couldn't they extend that deal to everyone right? Or is it just if we withhold something that seems particularly valuable, we can eventually drag you to the table. Table, which is sort of what seems like happened here. I think in all cases, what I'm always looking for is the accountability, right like and some sense of of equitable treatment of developers and I understand the guys are always going to get the best treatment, but it can that be publicly visible. Can it be acknowledged and there'd be routes for others to achieve that same level of success and treatment, and that I'll just seems missing here. Did you buy Tim Co? He said it twice. It was obviously A. Glimmer, of sympathy for all four CEOS. There is a lot of reporting that they had spent months preparing for this hearing like being grilled there, they'd hire outside law firms. They. Practiced they all clearly had soundbites memorized in none of them. Got To say him because it kept getting interrupted. Tim Cook had this one where he is like if we're the gatekeepers, the gates are open wider than ever. We've gone from five hundred. APPS to one point seven, he said like. A whole speech. and. The thing is there's fierce competition for developers. They don't like our store can do for android the windows. For xbox and PS. Four. Which I was like the idea that adobe is going to be like we don't want to be on the IPAD. Here's PS. Four Photoshop is insanity to me. I'm going to build a spreadsheet. APP. For the five. That's how frustrated with Tim Cook. To that ring. True to you I. Mean, there's no, it does not ring true. There is a, there is a duopoly. In the United States when it comes to smartphones, iphones have majority share in the United States and you can't say, well, you know there's there's a rogue fork of android in Malaysia that you could go develop for if you really wanted to and have that come across as a credible argument to Americans. Right it is. Natural for any monopolist to spend most of its time, arguing that it is much smaller and much less consequential as as you think it is and they're essentially always asking you to ignore what is in front of your face, which is that they are the giant. They are in control. What they say goes, and it doesn't matter which small businesses get hurt along the. The. Way I would point out that the contact and we're gonNA talk about earnings eventually. But the context for that is apple had its biggest third quarter ever this month, their revenues went up eleven percent year over year, they're making obviously making billions of dollars in their services revenue, which is a lot of the narrative around the APP stores increasing that services line. Also went up. I think it was thirteen billion. So you're right. They're very big in their earnings the day after the hearing did nothing. To reduce that impression. I want to switch to Amazon a little bit McKenna. You really focused Amazon was basis first time up there. They came at him a lot about marketplace. How did you think that went I think it went pretty good. I. Think. John Paul specifically was just like killer her questions with breakout star. Yeah. She was just like killer and she's the representative for. SEATTLE. So this is where Amazon is right. So she just like killed it and. And I think there were a couple of instances in the documents and in questioning yesterday that really pulled important things out there was like testimony from one bookseller who was like, yeah. We just can't sell a category of books and we don't know why Amazon doesn't let us do that just like testimony like that or even when it comes to like acquisitions, the ring acquisition especially, I wrote about that today through the documents and how. They said, this is for market position. This is a for technology, your talent or anything. We just bought this and that's something that base said again, yesterday he was just very clear. It's like, yeah, we do buy things market position, which is like so insane just here like the richest person in the world. But like, yeah, we're buying market position. It's just what happens. That's another one I have mixed feelings right, and by the way, people should read McKenna story because those documents have just a very funny breakdown like the pros and cons of buying. Buying ring in many of the cons like what if this turns into nest, which if you're just the verge cast listeners like it's just like the Keyword Bingo, but it's fine to say, we're buying market position like this isn't the best product out there, but it's the category of video. doorbells is not huge, right? So to by the the market leader in video doorbells is maybe the most rational use of the money. What is the problem that you think the committee was trying to show an address sense of we're just going to market position. Pointing out, they can just do whatever they want and how casual it is, and there really isn't. It's really funny to read an email like that, and we could buy it or we could just copy it or are. We could just watch. You know that was one of the emails that base from someone. Those are just three options you know and it's like just pick and choose you know. Pointed out like a lot. Just that email itself really pointed out just how easy it is for them. They used a lot of that time history to talk about copycat behaviors and to talk about just like you know buying up competitors and it just seeing that all in one little e mail having to do with the ring was like really i. think it was really kind of I opening and especially like useful for the committee. So Amazon got hit a lot for the data collection side of it of copying competitors. bezos did not seem to have great answers there. Right. So that's the. The thing they got in trouble with this. There is that Wall Street. Journal article from like April where employees were literally like, yeah. We dip into data and we use that to guide our own private label products and everybody was like Whoa and Amazon basins. Yesterday said, well, we do have a policy that bans that but giant pointed out yesterday. It's like, okay. So what's your enforcement look like you can have the policy, but like if you don't enforce it, then it's like meaningless. And then yesterday I. Think Paul was like, can you give me a yes or no answer? Do you dip into data and he's like I can't I can't give you. Yes or no, and we're just like we're looking into it. The story had anonymous sources. So that isn't very helpful to us. You know what I mean. So that was one of the main things and that Wall Street Journal article and I think it's the same kind of examples in the committee's documents. They point out specific examples like car trunk, organizers of all things. It's like weird little products like Amazon's like this is a little hot. Maybe we should do that. So I, I think. I, think they made a good case yesterday. Yesterday on that. Yeah. I mean bezos brought up that Wall Street Journal, Article himself twice, and he was like, well, your policy against it. But I can't guarantee never happened. Then there is a strange just didn't come across clear I. Think I know what the committee was trying to get at their like US aggregate seller data when there's only three sellers and then only to sellers? Yes, I. Think what they're getting at is when you're down to the aggregate data of two companies, you heard effectively looking at individual data. What is the problem? They're like the I get what you're doing. You're just reducing the denominator to get to one, but like it, why is that particular problem? Right? Well, none of these. Dipping into individual seller data and looking at aggregate data. That's not a legal. There is no law. This is all voluntary of Amazon. So they have a voluntary policy where like we can't do individual seller data, but they say nothing against aggregate and aggregate what you're getting at eight. Here you is. Does the same thing if it's just like some goofy little product they. They bring up pop stock. It's all the time before pop tops in a moment. Right? There's only like one pop. So company like you know pop soggy, it was kind of an innovative product. It's like well, if there's only two of them and use the aggregate data, you you you have everything you need to know you know about that product line looking aggregate. If that's what you decide to qualify as do you as you're looking through the other Amazon documents and other stuff. So anything jump out at you is something the committee was trying to prove or get at. The questioning seemed very focused on. Like are you using the state at a copy products? Are you buying things? You shouldn't buy. There's one question which I did not understand why came up about DMC. Take downs on twitch and Jeff as just had this look of panic in his eyes. He's like I don't know man I bought Wedge because my kids want to. Do something like that was like the side show stuff, but the real focus here, it just seemed like it was definitely in the marketplace, right? Amazon, everyone came at Amazon for the marketplace. That's what everybody knows him as like they have all these little sides. They got rain. They got Alexa Alexa was one thing too. That was kind of interesting. It's like. Are you buying things like ring to put Alexa into and dislike expand your like Titan Ism as like an Internet Internet connected home. Thing and make that more closed off and walled gardening. That was one thing. But no, it was just focusing on how much power they have to kind of change. What happens in the marketplace to kind of decide what companies in what products are able to come up on the first page of results. You know that's also something that they dug into Google and in something that one of those like themes that kind of ties everything together. We should say they all spend a lot of time talking about counterfeit goods, and why is it Amazon removed? Fake stuff from the platform and how much is it profiting off of you know selling pick rolexes? Is it surprising? The whole foods didn't show up at all they're. Like that is a really massive thing. Amazon owns that. Is it moving into a huge new product category? I think whole foods is not an online marketplace, which was the title of the hearing, not that that restricted anybody from doing anything except that, one of the things Amazon says is we have lots of competition from offline marketplaces, right? Brought up kroger a lot I mean, this is the case he's point. They all made. It seem like they were beset at any moment. They could be crushed by the likes of stop and Shop Right? Like I think the point though was really on the. Digital. Experience Consumers have and like I, don't know Ho-. Foods fits. Into that narrative, especially, because it is itself not dominant like they bought it because you needed to grow in their. Good at that at my question for you on the Amazon stuff was when you think about, we talk about two thirty a lot right like you and I in particular spent a lot time to thirty, which regulates with the platform can do with content. There's not really an equivalent of two thirty for goods on store. Right like there's some case is out there saying like you're liable for what what happens on your online store page, but Amazon doesn't have that like second order of like Messi nece around it that twitter and facebook to with two thirty, I. Mean, it gets invoked a lot for marketplace's, but it's way messier. Well, I just wanted to like this question at counterfeits question about ranking the store like they are even more free than any twitter is to to sort tweets algorithm. Algorithm clear to modern like it just their store. Do you think that they're like that Algorithm transparency? Your wire things ranked. Did you catch a sense that that's where the regulation is GonNa go. So much of the conversation around Amazon really felt like it was individuals sellers being wronged for reasons of Amazon being unresponsive or stealing. It's data. So I don't know it didn't. It didn't seem like a really big focus of the hearing, but it is a huge deal. Yeah. The, digital marketplace frame of this, which is where we have talked to. Cellini. That's where he's going right like facebook and Google very digital. They have like they don't do physical goods. Really. Apple is the APP store. It's all digital goods. Amazon is the one where it's. Front to a lot of physical things, and that is the only place where I can see this regulation needing to make some sort of like major meaningful distinction in I. Didn't see it in the hearing, but I was curious of you caught a glimmer of it. I'm not positive that they have to make a huge distinction there like depending on what they come up with because. So much of this is about their companies and whatever product they produced. The issue is more or less whether or not they're being surveilled and unfairly by targeted and crushed by that data surveillance. All right. We have gone for forty minutes. We should take a quick break. I said I wasn't going to go by company and it happens. So we should come back and talk with facebook Ango. We'll be right back. This is advertiser content. When I say utopia what comes to mind. Birds Chirping lush natural beauty dialed up and vibrant technicolor. Is it within reach. Your world world. World. explained. You are an essential part of the perfect social body. Every Body Matt Place. Everybody happy now while the peacock original series, brave new world takes place in a scientific futuristic utopia. A concept is nothing new Sir Thomas more. I introduced the theory five hundred years ago. 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These are really difficult crazy stressful times, and if you're trying to sort of cope, it could be helpful to find something that gets beyond like doom scrolling and like obsessive worried. But digs into what is really going on underneath the surface, and that's what the weeds is all about I. Matthew Yglesias. Weeds podcast here on the box meeting podcast network. This is podcast for people who really want to understand the policy debates and policy issues that shaping our world. We've seen now more than ever like how relevant policy is to our actual lives, but so much in the news isn't focused on really understanding and explaining detail way if that sounds good to you, join us for the weeds, every Tuesday and Friday to find out what's going on why matters and what we can do about it. You could download the weeds on apple spotify or wherever else you get your podcasts. Tracy. When it comes to facebook I turn to you. FACEBOOK is patience consumer of startups as what we've learned. Yeah. But you said something to me yesterday was interesting, which is everyone else's problems are forward looking and it feels like facebook's problems are actually in the past break for people explain what you mean. Yeah. So when Congress is looking at any trust with respect to these four companies for three of them, it's It's sort of about the marketplaces that their operating right now with facebook, the question is much more about should we have allowed it to buy serum? Should we have allowed it to buy WHATSAPP and most of the antitrust conversation that was around facebook yesterday was all about that. What did Mark Zuckerberg know about Instagram, and when did he know it? We wrote a story based on some documents that the house released yesterday. In which facebook has clearly identified instagram as a competitor. In at least some ways and wants to go after it and knock it off the table, and so that's kind of where the focuses their facebook and Burke did get a lot of other questions yesterday, but it tended to be much more about content moderation and things that don't have a lot to do with antitrust. So there was weird section where they asked the face. Face Research APP in the novel, Vpn? Any kind of got lost well, explain what happened and I'm curious reactions. Yeah. So facebook has a bunch of nifty tech tools to figure out what's trending which APPs or the kids using, and so that can essentially have an early warning system if it needs to consider acquiring something or more likely in these days, go out clone it. and. So Zuckerberg was asked about the way that the company uses these systems and if they are anti competitive I, think you know traditional antitrust law probably would not say copying an APP feature is anti competitive, but could lobby written in the future about it shirt I. Think the one that caught me was I mean, this is what I'm. McKenna's points from earlier is like one of the themes here is, are you so dominant that you can collect data that's unfair and then use that to crush or killer competitors, and definitely bought the Inaba VPN to do it. That's true. Now, when I've asked executives at facebook about this, what they'll say is they don't get surprised anymore. When you have three point, one billion people using your apps around the world. You know what links they're sharing, you know what they're talking about. And so you're not going to need some kind of specialized tool to know that WHATSAPP is really taking off. Right. So they would argue that, yes, these tools were useful to them, but you know at their scale, they know what's popular now, which doesn't really seem like addresses, the problem is reached. The fact that we're so big that we're all knowing is maybe not the defense that they sometimes presented as so here's what I didn't get. I thought, Zuckerberg I want to the instagram. What's about who's issues, but on the facebook research front, the data front, they him about this APP facebook research, which you were giving to teens. They were deploying with an enterprise certificate that story broke apple revoke the certificate, and all of facebook's internal APPs went dark, and this is a scandal story after story about it, they went on for two days. So I can I, don't recall that APP? Just how he you know, he remembers the day that all facebook's internal APPS went down and people couldn't go to the cafeteria. I would agree I found that answer. Extremely, ed? Persuasive. that. Do you think that was like actually strategic for him to be like, I, don't know and then come back later and correct the record I do remember when that happened I. Mean. I really don't know I mean also you know during a six hour hearing, it's also possible that you just you get flustered or you miss here something or or something because. Yeah. As as you say, I'm sure he remembers the day that apple turned off their internal APPS I mean. Honestly. Seems like an opportunity to talk about apple's market power, and the fact that you know a day of work canceled at facebook because apple got mad. But I think most of the CEO's didn't go into yesterday a wanted to pick fights with each other. It was kind of sad that they didn't. I was Kinda hoping that Tim Cook take a shot at soccer burger. Point that the other two APP platforms I was expecting it. It was there. It was. There was all there. So cellini ended and he ended the whole meeting with closing statement. He said, some of these companies didn't get broken out. They all need to get regulated in the off too much power that some of them I. don't these breaking up apple. What sort of break. Right like. The division get sent into the corner thing about what it's done. Right. Does should spin out the finder team I've always wanted to. A clean is always that they want to. They want the APP store to be separate from the IPHONE. Basically, that's the thing I always hear. Can't break I. Think you can write some strong regulations but not playing you're on store, right. But like Elizabeth Warren's point was it's cleaner if it's two companies, but it's still a gigantic remedy that I don't think there's a lot of like like consumer or public opinion is going to walk into an Apple Cup I think you'll radio at marketplace. It seems very clear that we says some of them she broken up he is talking about facebook. I have a twenty percent conference level. He might be talking with Google and Youtube as well. But if he's going to say some of the need to get broken up like it's facebook, did you hear anything yesterday that supported that conclusion or Saudi stocks I? MEAN HE I don't remember which Republican it was, but he was like the Obama FTC looked at this and they said it was minding love. Obama. Right. Like. Why would we go back in time to relook at I? Mean, there is a belief and I mean. Somebody who thinks there could be a lot of benefit in instagram and WHATSAPP being different companies from facebook. And the reason you ask. So many questions about that acquisition as you're making the case that it never should have been approved in the first place, and so now you need to remedy it. So that was actually like the entire thrust of the argument against facebook yesterday. I think, you could probably make just as good a case that Amazon after spin out aws, but lawmakers chose not to make that case. Yeah. I think that also gets into. Politics of the acquisition of the time. To his credit is like nobody knew instagram would actually be a success like we made it a success. It didn't happen by itself. I, don't know if the lawmakers. By award, these guys said, but I don't know that he actually made that case very persuasively. and. Who knows I mean? That's like anything could have happened. Right? Cram could've stayed independent and rapidly grown and overtaken facebook like that's something that could have happened. It could have kind settled into a middle zone like snapchat or twitter seems more likely to me although I think probably would have been bigger than those two but. You're never going to know I mean it is true that facebook gave Mike and Kevin it instagram enormous resources. A lot of the reasons why Mike and Kevin sold was because running tiny startup that's blowing up is absolutely exhausting Mike. Krieger. was dragging his laptop all around San. Francisco. Because the servers were melting at all times of the day whenever Justin Bieber. Posted like the site stopped working and they really we need help. Finding a person who can quickly fix this? So we don't have to like that is the reason that they were entertaining these offers and wanted to sell it. So that is also thing that happened. Do you think that that same kind of argument or approach can apply to what's up? What's up basically did not come up yesterday and all the focus on Instagram, but that's the other one, right? Yeah, and we know weirdly a lot less about that acquisition I. Think it's because people in America just have so much less love for what's APP generally. That, it's never seemed as important. What happened to WHATSAPP as what happens to instagram even though WHATSAPP, is used, you know way more, it probably has way more engagement even than instagram does so I don't know why that didn't come up as often. We know there was a competitive bidding war for that as well. Goule. Wanted it as well. You know Mark Zuckerberg made them an offer, they can't refuse. Do you think everyday Google's we should've spent more money on what's whatsapp like this could have been solved. Should have, but Google has been placed under an ancient curse that prevents them from ever making the right decision about any social product. So it was doomed never to happen. It's fun looking through the documents and watching them casually say they should buy facebook dot com. Yeah, that. Point. That is how they talk like the window into these executives just casually being like we should just this thing or maybe not, or we should just copied ourselves and kill it before it gets any traction like it's repeated over and over again last facebook question. This one is like harder to parse because I. There's a chance, it's October is just joking around but. But. He's in many of these emails. He's like the thing about startups, as you can always buy them, which I think the committee thinks is a smoking gun, right? Like facebook's entire plan is to buy the competition to get the data from wherever they get it to say, oh, man, this apps popping, we just buy it and kill it before it competes with us. I. Think he actually said at one point. That's a joke. Yes, he did and I believe that you know it was two thousand, twelve, right? He was probably still in his mid twenties. At that point, the company was a lot smaller like people were joking around like there's more loose talk when companies are younger and I do think. It was it was part of that. I think the more interesting question becomes. Let's say facebook is telling the truth about everything. Let's say they thought it was going to be a successful acquisition, but they never knew it was gonna big as it became today and they invested in it and it got super big. Okay. Well, now, it's as big as it is. Should they be allowed to keep? Keep it or should they be forced to spend it out and if you're GONNA force them to spin it out. What's the argument that you'RE GONNA. Make about why one question that I have a lot is clearly the referral they're gonNa make, and it seems like if you don't have some other reason, we've heard hints that there's some other reason, the FTC scrutinize this that will eventually be revealed. But what you're saying is the antitrust standard at the time, the Consumer Hartman stand, which is still our standard. Says, you have to prove prices will go up both products for free. You're screwed. Right? There's nothing to review because you're not gonNA prove prove that free products are gonNA get more expensive. I think it's pretty unfair if you change the standard and you go back in time and say you missed that standard. So I think there has to be something else there. Well, what was the standard by which at and T. was broken up? Right? Like presumably at and T. didn't used to be that big, and then it just got really big and then they broke it up at least. That's the thumbnail understanding I have of that break-up. Well, yeah. But then reformed itself. Right. But because of lax antitrust regulation, right? Like it wasn't a naturally occurring phenomenon that all those APPS got back to the other or was that just sort of like inattention to capitalism It's like in the seventies and eighties. This is Tim moves book the cursive bigness in the seventies and eighties Robert Bork I can't talk about Robert on this podcast. Are we doing this right now. Robert was very influential judge Appellate Judge Federal Appellate? Judge. And basically moved the antitrust law to the consumer harm standard as part of a movement called and economics. A whole thing Robert. Bork. Mostly famous because he was not appointed. He was nominated Supreme Court by Reagan but they leaked video tape rental history, and then he didn't get nominated and that is where the expression getting bork's comes from. This is all true Netflix's still has to abide by videotape data privacy act is a whole. This is all true when facebook and Netflix had some partners, Nansen? Partnership. To. Automatically share your net flicks, watch history to facebook. They're like pending the change of this law which we are working on Robert Bork. He haunts us all. I'm sorry, I can't believe this much. Yeah I. think that's just like the law changed in the in the seventies and eighties, the standard change. The conversation right now is a very much about changing it back months and months ago, pre pandemic, we had an economist from I. Think it was Nyu Thomas Philippon came on the show, and he was like look you have this natural ab test going on in the world where the European Union when it formed was like, how do we get an economy like America's? So, we'll just take their competition policies pretty good, and at the same time we changed consumer harm standard. So everything you're seeing the EU is basically our old competition antitrust standard in. You can see how active they are in everything. Here's a new consumer welfare standard. Whether you believe, this is actually a functional Ab test given. The state of both governments is up for debate, but that was his point I thought. It was spare can say.
Interview With Sam Querrey And Eric Hutchinson
"Jon Wertheim here, and it's this week's. Illustrated Tennis podcast, we have two guests this week, a bonus guest in mainstream tennis player guest I. Am Query joins us. He is at the Greenbrier in West Virginia where he was laying world team tennis, and then as he will explain, is ready to embark on a full season starting in August, and we talked to him about what it's been like in the tennis bubble what his plans are for the rest of the season and sort of what the impact of this crazy and cratered year has been on a on a player of his status, his age. then. We have Eric Hutchinson. He's been on the show before Eric is a friend of big. Band of tennis and we talk a bit about what it's like to be a solo performer solar artists in the time of Cova probably not dissimilar to being a singles player. Eric has a new album class of one, thousand, nine, hundred, Eighty, eight. So we talk a bit about the process a bit about this sort of enforced break that we are all on. What the overlaps between music and tennis. All right now and some tennis chatter with a big tennis fan. So Sam Corey versed Haircut Simpson's second. Let's start in. West. Virginia. You're. In the bubble. I am. Tennis bubble. Let's let's start the president as a been. IT'S BEEN AWESOME You know for me I hadn't told a match in. Australian Open because my wife had a baby in February also I mean it's been five months. So I was excited to go I think all the players here are are really loving it and it's fine and we're finally back plans some competition and it's been great i. mean the I've never I don't know if you've ever been here. I. Know I haven't most you'll have in, but the resort is awesome So it is a bubble but at the same time you can there's golf fishing a bunch of restaurants you can go. You know skeet shooting eighteen. So you're you don't feel like you're just you're playing tennis and going back to your room. There's so much to do outside tennis, which is really made it fun for everyone because we are here for for three full weeks. And it's great to be back in absolute competition and. Going to court I mean it's going great so far. Some sounds like summer camp widsom competitive tennis thrown in. That's exactly what it feels like especially 'cause you're you're in the mountains that it's got a very, very much camp field. We're we're only doing this audio. I have to say you're your backdrop is tremendous. It looks like I mean you can kind of see like. Beautiful. No it's. It's this part of the I've never been here like I said it's I mean we went ATV and a few days ago, and you go up in the mountains in the views and. I. Spectacular. Doesn't sound like a bad way to spend July. What's been the? What about sort of the training, the nutrition, the hydration everything that comes with competitive playing how have you been able to deal with? With that. I, mean for me personally that's been that's been tough. The last like months to find the motivation for practice knowing or not knowing when we're GONNA. Start. You know you're kind of always like like apprenticed for like, wow not studying for I'll just as the next day and then I do the next day. So you know the last two months I haven't practicing hard but there's there's a practice shape and there's match shape. It's hard to really get back into your match shape until you play match. So. I'm doing the best. I can I've got Christian Cossio who travels with me as like a physio here with me. So we've been in the gym every day and working on my body. So physically actually feel fine because you know the team that I'm on I'm only playing singles every day. So I've literally got a thirty minute sets of five. And that's all the tennis I'm playing. So off days and even some matchdays I'm finding the other guys have updates in in an extra and extra practice and spending time in the gym and trying to make the most of it won't here. What's the level play? Overall? It's been high I. Mean I've played tennis twenty years because of the incentives this year online means finals, winters, It's intense. The teams are into it i. mean every you really feel like everyone's kind of laying it out there and It's made it better. You know I it's fun of the past but these incentives, I, it's it's up the level and there's a few more come on. There's a the teams kind of gathering around over a little bit more. So it's it's been really fun and I hope they continue to do is incentives can. Stays at this level. Yeah. I mean I was GONNA. Say, this is an interesting. You're a world team tennis veteran. This is unlike any other season you've had you just. League can. Use this crazy. This crazy three weeks as a springboard. I hope. So I. Mean Look at Fred Leading Eric Davidson behind it and they love tennis and You know they seem to have the financial backing to help move it forward in a good direction and Like the nave because of what happened, I mean the level and the talent they have this year is like no other year they've had world tanks. See this type of caliber players for a full season. So hopefully I mean I everyone that plays this year know especially those top players are GonNa say oh. My God this has been fun like this has been a great. Few weeks of practice, it's fun to be on a team and hopefully for the years moving forward, they're going to those top players GonNa WanNa do it again. Give, give us your your like top top four players of the season. If you're writing in your MVP, votes would be Gosh I would have to look at kind of like the the win loss record. you know Bethany Matic Santa's up there because she's just it seems like every mixed doubles in every doubles cheese. You know winning most of those. Sets. closers was up there until she got her she was just on fire. So I'm still GONNA put closers in the mix and then. Not so I'M GONNA try to I'm trying to think of a guy that's. been somewhat dominant. I can't tell I. Don't know I would need to look at like. He's been winning losing.
Big Tech CEOs Testimony Before Congress
"Today was the day as I record these words the big tech CEO's are still testifying before Congress. So I'm going to have to do a summary of what I've seen just in the first couple of hours or so and leave some of the juicier question and answer back and forth for tomorrow. I up a note on the format that we've been seeing. Yes. All of the CEOS were testifying remotely. They were using Cisco Webex as the video conferencing tool and it seemed to work fairly well at least right until this very moment as I turned off the stream to go into the booth to record this, they took a ten minute recess because apparently one of the witnesses. was having an issue with their stream or feed, and I'm wondering if it might have been Jeff Bezos because at least thus far were almost an hour and a half into the testimony and he hadn't been asked a single question. Anyway back to the whole idea of testifying remotely if I were going to do one of those rate, my video call backgrounds reports. Bezos look like he was in some sort of executive boardroom, lots of tasteful Chomsky's behind him. Look like he was in a conference room at a high end law firm I couldn't tell what Zuckerberg was sitting in front of it looked like closed vertical blinds almost like I don't know some sort of like a bunker like if you're battening down your house for a Hurricane Tim, Cook was in front of some sort of tasteful plant trough though he was clearly working off an ipad pro. Let's start off with what the Fab four had to say in their opening statements. Amazon's Jeff bezos underscored Amazon's job creation, its investments in social causes and its role in supporting small and medium-sized businesses. And made the case that Hey Amazon is just a tiny competitor in a huge global market quote. The global retail market we compete in is strikingly large and extraordinarily competitive Amazon accounts for less than one percent of the thousand five, trillion dollar global retail market and less than four percent of retail in the US unlike industries that are winner take all there's room in retail for many winners for example. More than eighty retailers in the US. Alone earn over one billion dollars in annual revenue like any retailer we know that the success of our store depends entirely on customer satisfaction with their experience in our store every day Amazon competes against large established players like target Costco Kroger and of course, Walmart a company more than twice Amazon size, and while we have always focused on producing a great customer experience. For retail sales done primarily online sales initiated online are now in even larger Growth Area for other stores Walmart's online sales grew seventy four percent in the first quarter and customers are increasingly flocking disservices invented by other stores. Amazon still can't match at the scale of other large companies like curbside pickup and in store returns and quote alphabets. Soon, Darpa, Chai, said that Google also operates in a highly competitive. Market and that it's free products benefit the average American quote. A competitive digital ad marketplace gives publishers, advertisers, and therefore consumers an enormous amount of choice pichai stated, for example, competition and ads from twitter instagram comcast and others has helped lower online advertising costs by forty percent over the last ten years with these savings pass down to consumers through lower prices in areas like travel and real estate Google faces strong. For search queries for many businesses that are experts in those areas. Today's competitive landscape looks nothing like I. Did five years ago let alone twenty one years ago when Google launched its first product Google search people have more ways to search for information than ever before and quote. Tim Cook of Apple said that the APP store has opened the gate wider for software developers. Also, apple doesn't have dominant market share quote as much as we believe, the iphone provides the best user experience. We know it is far from the only choice available to consumers Cook said after beginning with five hundred APPs today the APP store hosts more than one point seven, million, only sixty of which are apple software. Clearly, if apple is a gatekeeper, what we have done is open the gate wider we want to get every APP we can on the store, not keep them off and quote. And facebook's mark. Zuckerberg said well, but he said a thousand times before that facebook knows it has more work to do on things like fighting misinformation and that you know companies aren't bad simply because they're big. And he took pains to point out that facebook is an American success story quote although people around the world use our products. FACEBOOK is a proudly American company. He said, we believe in Values Democracy Competition Inclusion and free expression that the American economy was built on many other tech companies share these values, but there's no guarantee our values will win out for example China. Is Building its own version of the Internet focused on very different ideas and they are exporting their vision to other countries as Congress and other stakeholders. Consider how antitrust laws support competition in the US. I believe it's important to maintain the core values of openness and fairness that have made America's digital economy, a force for empowerment and opportunity here and around the world and quote. In his opening remarks, the chairman of the Committee David. Sy-. Selena Rhode. Island. Laid out three areas of inquiry that the was scheduled to delve into at least in questioning from the Democratic Congress folk more on that in A. Quitting CNBC, each platform allegedly serves as a quote bottleneck for a key channel of distribution and quote the platforms allegedly used their control over digital infrastructure to Sir Vail other companies, their growth business activity, and whether they might pose a competitive threat and use that information to maintain their own power and third the platforms allegedly abused their control over current technologies to extend their power through tactics like self referencing their own products. Quote. Prior to the cove nineteen pandemic, these corporations already stood out as titans in our economy. Silly said in the wake of Covid nineteen however, they are likely to emerge stronger and more powerful than ever before, and he concluded by saying quote, our founders would not bow before a king nor should we bow before the emperor's of the online economy and quote? But as I say, while this was labelled as an anticompetitive antitrust inquiry, it seems like the Republican Congress folk were primarily interested in probing alleged bias against conservative users. In fact, Jim Jordan. One of the ranking Republican representatives spent most of his opening remarks railing against. which if that continues would basically be exactly what all of the CEOS in the talking head boxes would be hoping for right lots of distraction and no real spotlight on them. In fact, a lot of the most heated questions directed at a company that's not even present. We'll see if that continues but I have to say straight off Chairman Sicily and was very specific targeted sharp questions. He kept interrupting folks when they started to stray into doublespeak and the very nature of the questions from him and others at least so far. This wasn't like previous congressional hearings we've covered where the congress folk didn't seem to even understand the businesses they were investigating, and maybe that was because I don't know if you saw the woman sitting very prominently very obviously behind Mr. Cecil lean. Let me let the Washington Post fill you in on who that was quote as a twenty eight year old law student Lena Con penned a twenty four thousand word article for Yale Law Journal titled Amazon's antitrust. Paradox. The article described how US antitrust law isn't equipped to deal with tech giants such as Amazon. Even as the company has made itself as essential to commerce in the twenty first century in the way that railroads and telephone systems had in the previous century con now works as counsel for the antitrust subcommittee she has worked with Sylvain to develop his case against the tech giants including Amazon and quote. As I said, the questioning is continuing as I speak these words in fact I just heard that they came back from their recess. The whole thing did kick off hour late only getting started at one PM, eastern? So I don't think it'll be done before for five PM at least. So again, I'll put together a summary of all of the juicy exchanges happening now for tomorrow.
"j. query" Discussed on The Changelog
"Mention seven habits of highly productive developers, now I want to know is seven habits. Of highly anything trademarked because there's another book that's really popular. That's very similar named. What are your thoughts? What I found out? The hard way. So now it's not seven anymore. It's fourteen the. Took twice as good. Nice. That's so funny well anytime, writing down habits of highly productive anything you should just always done. Right so that's hilarious. You're at fourteen habits. Yes, when I was doing the pro that that's what I I realized right like okay I can give you the best team in the world, the best fonts into world and the best code editor in the world, but even if you have all that, but don't coal to the right habits, then it's all for nothing right so. That's where this whole book idea came up. But when I put this out there, I said Yeah I'm going to put together and you book. It's going to be. Nice and that's it. But Yeah I had no idea what. I was getting into no idea. So fast forward three months later. It's been crazy. Three months I have been working super hard on that, and it's yet now it's it's out there. How many words per day what's? How do you gauge I? Guess Dealer Success Chip Away at the block Ati gauge it. I think lots of people they think about the word as the the of right, so if I hear ten thousand words I, don't know what is the the point then now we'll have a book I didn't think about that at all. I'm like okay. I'm going to try to put together. All these things that I learned throughout my career working with lots of good people in. Let's see how it goes right. If at the end of the day it's a thirty pages book. Okay, that's it if it's a hundred or two hundred. That's it as well so that's where my mentality is. Like writing a book is very different beast like from programming. But still when he started this, my mentality was okay. I built open source projects before I built Baid products before I know how to ship things and like. Sit Down and do the work, so I will do the same for books, and even if it's a different type of work is I'm just GONNA put a lot of effort consistently, and and hopefully to be out there in the And now it's it's ready. Did you know you have the book and you? Though I mean it's one thing to sit down to the work and have a this is another actually have the book in You? Yeah, I think so like doubt named. Assurance which you'll have eleven habits. Last. On seven, but I can't quite get the fourteen. I was actually you know. How did it have I'm GonNa tell you how God the fourteen okay? I I search for eight habits dot com that was taken nine habits dot com that was taken Tan habits that was free, but it was like five thousand dollars to buy the so that that's not an option. Eleven twelve taken or too pricey, and then fourteen was okay fourteen it is. So, that's Salah. That's I love that. Yeah back into your. Get your topics is so you like well? I'M GONNA have to come with fourteen in one way or the other. Yes, I was riding in. There were certain topics that were already on my mind like I think one that we can all relate as software engineers is how difficult it is to pick what you should learn right? We are bombarded with. tweets and messages ever like everybody telling you, you should use this technology. You should use that one used that framework. Oh, react as much better than Angler polluters much better than wreck native everybody always telling you what you should do right and I feel like that. Since I started using J. Query, there was always a new framework patters always a new library that is better I. Try to combine all these things that I was noticing on the market or working on on the day to day. And for my personal life, as well I think by now. I gave more than one hundred presentations, so and I know how that was amazing for me personally as a human being. You know putting yourself out there like talking to you right now. This is super hard. It's not easy to be out in the public again. Just like opening your heart until all the things you feel and it's a very difficult thing specially for program as we are all introspective. We have to deal with that so. I tried to put that like okay. If you teach things, it's going to help you. It's not gonNA. Only help the person who's listening, but it's going to help you much more at the end of the day, so trying to combine all these lessons was how I I ended up with those fourteen habits. Fourteen DOT COM is super cool. I love the find out. There's some science some actual science around like okay habit creation. which will this investigation? Maybe she'll called brain science actually do a little investigation to this hypothesis, but it'd be cool. There was some science to say. Learning fourteen habits is easier than learning ten. Because like that'd be cool, right? 'cause habit loops, and creation is one thing, and there's insane science behind like for some reason numbers they play into habits, and we're in the whole. World is mathematical. It's all math and physics and stuff, and it's like it's intense, but if there's some reason why learning fourteen is somehow easier than ten or maybe even seven hey. On Stephen Covey's. Maybe, it's easier to do fourteen versus seven or ten. I don't.
SIGRed: What You Should Know About the Windows DNS Server Bug
"Cigarette. As checkpoint research said this is not just another vulnerability. This month's big scary worm. -Able Vulnerability! Turns out to have been present in windows server versions since Windows Server, two thousand three, which actually did come out two, thousand and three. Unlike. Windows, ten, twenty, four to two, thousand, four, which came out in two thousand twenty, but anyway You'll get to my windows. Rent little, but later. This big! This problem has been present in all subsequent versions of Windows Server. Since including. Server twenty, nineteen, which is the most recent release of windows server so without knowing it. We've been living with this in our midst for the past seventeen years. its discoverer was checkpoint research as I mentioned who named it? Sig read and I'll explain where sick Cossiga's in signature because that's about a DNS sex signing stuff signing records I was assigned to C., V., e., twenty, twenty, thirteen, fifty, and I'm always suspicious when I see such a low CV. Number. I wonder if they're going to have to start, randomize ing them. Because you know, you can tell how old it is from how small it is, you know we're in July of twenty twenty, so a thirteen fifty. That happened right at the. Near the beginning of the year, and it's like okay, especially considering how serious the guys at checkpoint think this is, so it's warm, -able meaning that it can propagate among any and all windows servers. WHO's? Who that can be induced to make a DNS query and turns out. There are lots of clever ways that can be done and the checkpoint research guys did all that. It's triggered. By the receipt of a specially crafted DNS response. And since Windows Server Services runs with elevated system privilege. If it's exploited, an attacker gets full domain, admin rights effectively compromising the entire corporate infrastructure and many who looked at this realized this could have been a flash worm of of the sort of like slammer, which remember it took, was it thirty minutes to take over all the vulnerable systems on the Internet. It is loaded this. Is a self propagating word so yeah? The end the way checkpoint explained their discovery. That is why they went. Looking was sort of interesting. They wrote quote. Our main goal was to find a vulnerability. There would let an attacker compromise. A windows domain and -ment preferably unauthenticated. They said there's a lot of research by various independent security researchers as well as those sponsored by nation states, most of the published and publicly available materials and exploits focus on Microsoft's Internet. Of and no one's going to be surprised by this. B.! Server message blocks I e eternal, blue and RDP, the remote desktop protocol blue keep protocols as these targets affect both servers and end points. They said to obtain domain admin privileges. A straightforward approach is to directly exploit the domain controller. Therefore, we decided to focus our research. On a less publicly explored attack surface that exists primarily on windows, server and domain controllers windy Ns. For anyone who's interested in the in their really detailed. Tech stuff I've got a link in the show notes. Because it's it's very detailed, and well frankly, and it's wonderful and takes a step by step through checkpoints process, so I'll just hit the high points. For every query type that a DNS server makes there is a corresponding reply. What checkpoint found was a classic. Type conversion flaw, a math result variable sizing mistake in the parsing logic for the reply to a SIG as in signature. which is part of the of DNA SEC? The extensions for DNS SECURITY FOR DNS. They discovered by Louis By. Like, reverse engineering the I think it was DNS dot EXC-, which is the the the service that does Wendy Ns. They studied the code there. The reverse engineered code. And they found a mishandling of values between the sixteen bit fields, which are used by the DNS protocol and the sixty four bit register math used by the codes compiler. All coders know that if a sixty four bit value is calculated to allocate memory or even thirty two, that is lar- larger than sixteen bit so sixty, six, sixty, four bit or thirty two bit calculated to allocate memory. And if the result is larger than six, five, five, three five. which is the maximum absolute quantity that can be represented with sixteen bits? Then the least sixteen bits of the larger value. will be as small imager. Basically, it's the. Of the overflow over six, five, five, three five. And if that smaller integer sixteen bit value. was then used to allocate memory four buffer The resulting buffer will be much too small to hold the larger calculated amount of data. And of course. That's exactly what happened.
"j. query" Discussed on Software Engineering Daily
"Netease they run in July, and they're handing data off to one another eventually. That data gets indexed inside of solar. Why did you pick solar. Solar has a lot of really nice properties and one of the key properties that it has is the extensive ability and openness. And the richness of the search platform, so we've highly customized different pieces of it that are optimized for the types of searches that we do, but we find using documents store for a lot of these events really makes sense for the types of use cases that our customers have. have. There been any nuances to dealing with all the different front end frameworks that a customer could be using so if you need to be able to understand problems that occur in the rendering of a angular component versus a view component overseas a react component of the subtleties of each of those frameworks. Can you do that? You can were actually working on something that is going to take that piece of it to the next level because a lot of times what you want to know is. Is this a common problem that a lot of people have or is this something that is unique to me, so we? We have some interesting efforts in that regard, the Nice thing about operating at the dom level is that you tend to be gnostic to the particular framework that you're using so a base level because you're operating of that dumb, you don't necessarily care how the developer implemented the actual site now for a developer whose debugging of course there's a bunch of nuance there be. Certain bugs that are manifesting. In, certain components on certain browsers, and that would certainly be information that you WANNA know. And as I said he wanted to know. Is this a problem that is unique to you? Is it something that is coming from your code, or is it something that's coming from a framework layer because you're probably going to treat those things differently? So there is there is a lot of subtlety. Are there any problems that you found working with maybe older technologies like J. Query. That's a good question. None are immediately coming to mind I mean for us. A lot of the other issues or some of the limiting factors are actually older browsers. So you might have an old version of IEP that is still very common on the web, and so in order for full story to operate reliably in that environment. House, to take into account the particular limitations of that browser, so for example earlier we were talking about efficiency of the recording stream, and there are certain things that we would like to do across. All browsers, but not all of them have the support that we need to be even more efficient. Were kind of you have to wait for certain browser technologies that actually deprecate before you can move on. Are there ever issues where the collection script or the dominant collection causes degraded performance for the end user. That is something that we guard against very very heavily and that we collect data on of course for ourselves to understand what the impact is to the end user. That to us is one of the you know kind of cardinal sins that, of course you always wanted to avoid, so we work really hard, and we have a lot of test cases on the back end we've built up a fairly large sort of compendium of different cases that we run our recording scripts through to ensure that that's not the case. When I started this podcast, I was under the impression that. Back Engineering was harder than front end. Engineering and one of the things that surprised through the years is that the front end has really proven to be quite a thick stack of technologies. D This is a common misconception. I think it's a common misconception by back and engineers of which I am one right I usually describe myself as kind of grumpy old server guy and I think the really just very different shapes of problems on the back end you have certain types of issues where you're worried about scale and worried about reliability, and you're worried about availability of these different services on the front end it's just a different set of constraints and a different set of problems I think both of them are equally hard, but the thing that I have found particularly fascinating as I work at full story is to realize just. How inaccurate a picture, you can have of the user experience from looking at just back end server logs, and not understanding the actual on the ground truth of users. I had a funny case. This was going back several months, but I woke up one morning. It was drinking my coffee and. I had an alert from or web application firewall that said that we had blocked. An Ip because we saw a lot of suspicious activity from specifically this Ip. Did something like thirty seven failed log in attempts over the course of sixty seconds. And so of course. I just assumed that this was somebody. who was you know breaking into our site and doing some dictionary, attack or credential, stuffing or something? And I felt really good that we had blocked this Ip. And Just to double check what happened I took that Ip. And I put it into full story and just said let me see if this person had ever actually had a session with us. And I put it in in what I actually saw. Was Somebody legitimately trying to log in and running into a bug on our site? And then out of frustration, just clicking the log in button over and over and over again, and we just kept sending the same acts hr to our back end to log in. and. Who not only was this user running into a bug failing to log in, but then we had actually locked this user out by blocking their Ip. And you I mean. It was just a massive one eighty for me right to say Oh gosh, you know. I went from the point of feeling. Super happy that we blocked what was obviously a hacker into extreme empathy for the user who is running into problems on our site hammeed, sometimes just clicking that logging button again and again and again and again. Different happens. We've all done it right absolutely. The question I have to ask and I discussed some with the log rocket. Guest came on. Is that there is this? Question about privacy around the collection of a full session replay being able to basically videotape. What is going on in the browser for every given user? Has just been an issue that has been discussed throughout the full story organization. Well privacy is always top of mind for us, and in number one where our own customers and were on users, and we wanted to do the right thing from a privacy perspective. Always, that's just the ethical thing to do, and so we always offer tools that allow people to dial in just the right amount of data that they need to collect forgiven session. That's where it really is different I know there's a little bit of a sometimes even common misperception that what's actually happening is the pixels are being recorded on the screen, and that's not at all. The case was actually being captured are the structural information and then any content that you also want to have so. We have a variety of different approaches that we take for. For this, where you can either dynamically or statically declare the different pieces that you don't want to leave the user's browser, or you can flip it around the other way we have an option called privacy by default and prophesied by default allows you to actually say only structural information believe the user site, not any content unless you put it into an allow list for us. Have there been any issues that have emerged in the GDP our space. What kinds of privacy protection rules have affected your engineering? Well, certainly the one that gets called out most commonly is right to be forgotten loss, and that aspect of GDP are. And so of course, we offer API's for our customers to be able to remove customers data. If they get right to be forgotten request, the other part is around whether or not the user is consenting to have analytics recorded, and so there was a lot of sites right. That will ask you. For that consent we offer AP is at the recording level so that we don't actually began any analytics capturing until the user gives consent, and even more interestingly as part of that you, then as a site operator have an understanding of which users. Did actually grant. You can sense because you've actually can have the specific session where it happened. In a way that's easily accessible, and so only when the user actually offers consent would be start capturing those the analytics data for them. There is further subtlety in the API about the types of data that we record and when we can record it..
Microsoft pushes fix for two vulnerabilities in the Windows Codecs Library
"US cert posted last a Tuesday on June thirtieth. Microsoft has released information regarding vulnerabilities and they're oddly low numbered so apparently Microsoft is known of them for a while there twenty, twenty, fourteen, twenty, five and fourteen, fifty seven, the CV designations in Microsoft, Windows Codex Library. they said this contains updates that are rated as critical. Remote attackers leveraging these vulnerabilities may be able to execute arbitrary code for more information. The vulnerabilities please refer to the information provided by Microsoft and of course it's like Oh. What's this because again? This was this is out of cycle this. This is the end of the end of June. They didn't even feel they could wait. A couple of weeks until July's updates apparently so. Both of the advisories on Microsoft's site have the same title Microsoft Windows Codex Library Remote Code Execution. Vulnerability that's for for fourteen, twenty, five, fourteen, fifty, seven, and the disclosures are almost identical. But of course at this point, our listeners are low longer surprised to learn of a fatal flaw in a media Kodak as we know Codex. Are Complex interpreters. Of a compressing encoders Meta data. it's truly difficult to make a Kodak both screamingly fast as they need to be, and also careful at the same time, being super careful means checking everything and checking everything takes precious time when a Kodak is by its nature, often racing the clock. So, what made these? Stand out aside from the fact that they were once again patches for an out of cycle, critical, remote code. Execution Vulnerability and the second one is an information disclosure. Was the fact that Microsoft indicated that the updates would not. Be available through windows update north through windows update catalog. No these updates would be provided through. The Microsoft store. And as well as like what? Users are instructed to click on the little white shopping bag. On the windows, ten task bar and I'll note that none of my windows. Ten task bars have little white shopping bags. But that's another story. Then you select more downloads updates and then get updates. In their disclosure. Microsoft wrote a remote code execution. Vulnerability exists in the way that Microsoft Windows. Library handles objects in memory. Okay, no surprise there. An attacker who successfully exploited the vulnerability could execute Arbor Schroeder. Code Right? And the other one a slight variation, same boilerplate, an attack who successfully exploited the second vulnerability could obtain information to further compromise the user system. And in either case they say the exploitation of the vulnerability requires a program process a specially crafted image file right so it's the evil image, which is what you'd expect a Kodak to Barf on. The update addresses the vulnerability by correcting how Microsoft Windows Codex Library handles objects in memory. Then, they wrote. Affected users will be automatically updated box Microsoft store. And according to Microsoft's users who want to receive the update immediately can check for updates with the Microsoft store APP. That's the clicking on the little white. Bag that I talked about before. And I was thinking about this. I suppose it makes sense for store APPs and extensions that are sourced by the store. Even when they are provided by Microsoft to be updated through the channel that the user. Used for their original delivery, and that's especially the case for third party. APPs being updated mean. Microsoft would not want to be hosting updates. Of Third Party APPS through their own operating system and APP update channels to the windows update and the update catalog. So the store it is. Both updates were privately reported and are not known to be used in the wild, so it's not clear to me why the emergency but the fact that it was on the thirtieth, which was a Tuesday as I right? Yeah, it was a Tuesday. maybe that was a deliberate like store patch Tuesday new thing that is going to be happening. The problems exist in. Excuse me. The H., E. V. C. video extensions and they're not free, surprisingly ninety nine cents if you want that from the Microsoft store. Maybe a You'll you'll get them. As part of an of another package provided there, there's like actually two different instances of H. E. C. on the store once for ninety nine cents and one says it's provided by other software. The FCC extension apparently not very popular read only two and a half out of five stars and Microsoft's description says play high efficiency Video Kodak. That's what HIV stands for. In any video, APP, on your windows, ten device, these extensions they say are designed to take advantage of hardware capabilities on some newer devices, including those with these Intel seventh generation, core, processor, and newer GPU to support four K and ultra HD content. They said for devices that don't have hardware support for H. E. V. C. so a software Kodak to enhance what you have on your system. and. This was sort of a new designation for me. And actually. We've already gone to the to the Kodak beyond this, but wikipedia explains the HEC. This high efficiency video coding is also known as H. Dot, two, six, five, and also MPC age part two video compression standard designed as part of the M Peg h project as a successor to the widely used ABC. which is what everybody is now using that's H. Dot, two six four, which is MP for ten, so and and wikipedia finished in comparison to ABC H.. E. V. C. offers from twenty five to fifty percent, better data compression, the same level of video quality, giving it substantially improved the equality at the same bit rate. Okay so. if you're curious to know, and it turns out, you may need to be curious whether your system or any system might have the H.. Video! Extensions installed. And, if so, which version you, there is a power. Shell Command the which will tell you, so you'd open power shell. Probably do it with Admin because why not and then it's I, have I have the command in the show notes if you're interested, but it's get high hyphen APP x Package Space Dash Name Space Microsoft Dot H.. E. V. C. video extension. When I entered that into my win ten machine. I got nothing. It was just blank in return, but the repaired versions of the HVAC extensions one point zero point. Three one, eight, two, two dot, zero or three, one, eight, two three dot zero. and so since I don't have a my power shell just exited returning nothing. Some commentators have observed that this new. Store Windows store channel for releasing critical updates outside of the normal window security update distribution channels. Though I noted I could see why it happened. It made sense is understandable, can cause trouble in enterprise settings where certain windows features and windows store. Probably. I would imagine the store more than anything else may have been deliberately disabled by enterprise policies, and for such companies who have purposely disabled, the Microsoft store and the Microsoft store automatic up up. Up Updates. Those vulnerable computers will not receive fixes without the removal of that policy and in Fact Computer World's Industry Fixture Woody Leonard. Over in his ask, woody column was far less patient with this and much less understanding that I was about. Like I could understand why that was the windows store. One of the replies to his posting noted that this optional hec Kodak exists by default in Windows clients. Editions since eighteen o nine, except the N. and the lts's editions I do have the Lt Tse. The Long Term Servicing Channel so that explains why my power shall query came a blank. But assuming that's the case. it would be probable then that any normal windows eight, hundred, zero, nine, nine, hundred, zero, three, nine, hundred, Ninety, nine and twenty, four would have the vulnerable Kodak installed. Yet presumably be unable to get it updated if the user or an enterprise had determined that they had no interest in the windows store, and had consequently removed and or disabled, it It's exactly the same as if we could uninstall windows update, which, of course we can't because we need. We need windows updates so. It'll be interesting to see if like what happens with this Woody wound up his post by writing quote. The distribution method is riddled with all sorts of obvious holes. He said I mean anybody with any sort of updating. Experience should have been able to compile a list of half a dozen ways that this could go wrong. And he finished yet another unholy mess, and actually he also he used some of the content in his kgab computer world. Call him where he just really raked windows Microsoft for the debacle of the June windows update with all the printer issue. Basically all the things we've talked about and touched on, but ooh being much less. Forgiving, either even than I am
The Good Parts of AWS with Daniel Vassallo
"Can you just go a little bit deeper on why architecturally Dynamo DB is not well equipped to fulfill the same semantics of a sequel database. Oh, it was designed to dissuade I. Don't know if you know do the member simple to be what it used to be. A the dissenter of Dynamo DB back in I think it was launched in two thousand, ten nine. And it's. It's a significantly more ambitious than Donald. Debates was meant to be slow inequity. Relations was more like you know like Mongo documents based you documents so aquarians essentially the answer. And this is actually it's probably one of the few. I can't think of any any other service. One of the few implicated services from aws. It's technically supported of your salon and gets. You send using simple debate. API still work, but basically almost hit it under the carpet side. You don't find any and there were. You won't find us in the console. It's not it's not a new. The send things like that. And the problem was that. Amazon founded super hard to make this type of database Kale and to have predictable performance guarantees, one of the biggest problems that was happening. That would simply be. You might throw in some complex square. You might not have an index about it. And the declare would take two minutes, timeouts and lay. It was completely unpredictable. Some quays take two hundred milliseconds. Some will take minutes. And it was very high. On the service side to these about site to locate the sources so talking about capacity, so not the be was the answer to that and TWAS, radically different perspective like completely predictable versus completely unpredictable, so there's two operations gets put the listed going to bt index behind the scenes and updating single lighten very predictable. They all take. Just, a few single digits milliseconds identify typically, and there's this query API, which again just goes to the starting point of a beat the sequence of cards after megabyte so again like the the the upper bound per addicts, how much expensive Dakota can be ends attested dissolved, and that set of to to continue to participate you. You go with the next token. megabyte that I, so it became very easy. For the service provider to these about how expensive it can be how fast it can be how to allocate resources, and it became huge success successful, but numbers on itself, because I remember we used to on services on top of relational database address to have the same problem so sometimes the relational database at an all. It's a complex machine is my star choosing? It's it's my start to use suboptimal query, and suddenly acquitted that used to take a second is now taking twenty seconds and suddenly using all the memory. When we started thinking in terms of much more primitive technology, like beatings become easier to these in about as long as you managed to model your queries and what you needed to do. To its limitations. But then. Today's were you're fighting your database. Because suddenly spiking two hundred percents, appeal and everything is slowing down disappear so that that element of predictability is highly highly available, so they were defer the. It was designed to be this way that I just wasn't. Designed to be so inequity, of. Arbitrary complexity and will give you the answer. What do people do when they have built their infrastructure around Dynamo DB and it's not fulfilling the requirements that they have. I think you will struggle the limitations and up subsidizing you I. I think the problem is up become became being discovered very early in development. Like for example, if you're expecting to be doing lots of recommendations on amounts of data, doing development you to realize that you're going to be downloading everything out of Dynamo and doing it locally, not so. Hopefully yearly allies airily that this is worth considering Golden, considering that they should use another type of database or relational, database or something. I don't have any first hand experience for example where delimitations and and adopt sort of surprising later, which is I think is a good thing again like the fact that it's significant distinctive. Had few. It's very hard to. Abuse it sight and sort of expect more out of your life. You realize immediately that these are the limits. which again I think these tend to be sometimes that. And more sophisticated database aside because during development your. Attention like hundred minutes seconds, and then once you have lots of data or things are in Qatar. They start to become more unpredictable. Dynamo just elements that issue just just there's no unpredictability. It's actually incredibly predictable at the cost of the constraints the comes with. You right in some detail about s three and s three I think of for obvious use cases as slow file system. It's BLOB. Storage it static website hosting its data lake. Told me about the other applications of s three. Yes. Yes, I. Think One of the lists. Values of trees that you can think of as having infinite Benguet for all. Practical purposes that so, if you have terabytes of data, you could basically an estimate. You could download it as fast as you as you want to. Basically always many to that says he wanted many servers. You want to tell you can chunk it up in pieces and just download the terabyte like in a second. For example one of my biggest project Thomason was launching and working gone. Cloud Watch watchdogs incites, which is basically a monitoring tool that allows you to arbiter the complex queries against your log data. And much entirely built on top of the and this is it surprises? People because this unlike Donald to be, we actually chose to support. Give me an arbiter equality of complexity, including regular expressions and things that are super cost to evaluate and. To dissolve, and we built it literally on top of us today and in in a very cost effective way because we relies on the assumption that. For example log data tends to be. Very big generalized especially nowadays like application censored. Tonight's like gigabytes and terabytes of logs. You want to start them somewhere where it's cheap and us these the perfect place for that and you tend to Kuwait infrequently, though when there's a problem I want to something about your application. And I think one of the ideas that works with s threes, this technique where you separate compute from the data so basically once. Does no question. There's no compute so basically you can just have the data sitting in streeter, just paying the to censor gigabytes per month, and there's no other costs. And if you open up the consulate insights and you do Equa they. Spin up some. Is it Winston while I mean behind the scenes like some pool of warmest. But fundamentally you can think of about it does like spin some ephemeral instances and we enough such that we can download data. As they wanted to. And then you can sort of just turn over the data very quickly I just because. I can listen to such as your network
Conversational Components - Yaki Dunietz, CoCo
"I'm really intrigued by the whole approach is a taking the component based approach, and there's a lot of discussion as to whether a pure standalone at motto is really suitable for voice snaps at the moment that's problems regarding discovery, and all of these things that we can dive into because taking a quite unique approach. Somebody looking forward to diving into that today. Just give a quick in Toronto Company, and then we'll dive. You can give us the full value prop conversational components. Will Cocoa's simplify the way we build bots? BOTs based in Israel the components you build modular blocks our conversation. The collect use the data that customizable reusable, and they fit together in any number of ways to improve abuts performance, and they're accessible via API's which you can integrate into larger conversational flows as well so that right but yacky. Maybe we can start with you. Maybe you can expand on that and give us the full value proposition. What is conversational components first correction It's not us who provide the components we provide the arena place. Were everything takes place we a marketplace for components we did make sure we have enough components in the marketplace to make it usable already now we have less than one hundred right now. And they were developed by different organizations that experts in the particular areas in which these components operate. So basically we hope to be a Hob and that's what we call ourselves cocoa hub. Hub for possessions for short conversations that can be between three or and ten exchanges or turns as we call them. And they cover a certain area so when you want to augment the capability of your book or build a new one. Instead of meeting everything from scratch you just take the ready made components, and they include everything. They entered the entire conversation from NPR. To response, which is customizable, so there's just a small correction regarding with offering the components. issue. It's a very important one, is so you? Guys are the infrastructure that allows people to publish box. They've created themselves and also a marketplace I believe the allows people to actually sell and profit from the Boston. They create that the IP that they've created not right. Yeah, actually for on corrections. There's another small correction. We don't collect the user's data. What we do is we passed the. The user data along to the calling, but basically what we do is we just passed information along. We don't have any data security on our servers. We don't store it. We don't GDP are compliant, so it's very important for us to make that distinction that we do not store the information that user information. Okay, it's good to clarify that absolutely the conduit you are the plumbing. Bucks the pipe so just to make the complete picture in some of the uses some platform to develop capability in some area can be a Chit Chat area, or it can be a goal to be achieved. Get someone so number or address or any other type of information that you want to acquire from the user, so if somebody somewhere developed the component which handled that situation, and there's a beginning and an end. And he posts this component on the marketplace and cocoa hob. Somebody else that wants to use. It doesn't need the cold. It doesn't need. The ball doesn't need anything. He just needs to make an API call. To the particular person. Posted the component in the marketplace, and it's works from there through API calls. So. Nothing moves from place to place. It's all a matter of neutral queries. I'm going back and forth and I say, and this is the way in which collaboration can take place in such a crazy fragmented market as we have in the checkbook, development platforms indeed and just a question on that the code that runs does it run on your service or Component resides on the platform where it was developed works best where it can work at all. It is supervised and managed by its owner, and it just receives calls. Of course we don't post components that are not online all the time or the response, time or stuff like that, but in essence the component doesn't come to the marketplace, nor does it come to the calling bought. It just sits. Worth is and gives you one response at the time. It's handles. It gets control over the compensation and handles it through API close. I say so, if you purchase or if you use a component through cocoa, really you guys are the directory and. I saw the switchboard. Yeah, I say switchboard. Yeah, that's a good analogy, all right excellent, and of course there's the coca marketplace that allows people to search for us, so let's dive into the the features one by one first of all. If you're looking to build a chat chapel, you have a chat and you want to add some functionality. You can go to the coca marketplace cocoa hub. I believe that's where it's code, and then you can search for components that you want. So. How does that search work at the moment is a free text search. And what type? How do you saw and select the component you want? Well right now. On a cocoa hub, you can do a free search. You could just go into the search bar. Top inches type in the name of component. They're also sorted by their purpose, so some components are utility based meaning they serve a certain function. One of the more popular ones is a name or component or schedule component. The scheduler component for instance allows you to through voice schedule. An appointment with connects to your crm, what your organization crm and lets you schedule through conversation, an appointment, which may seem like an easy thing to do, but people have various ways of saying. Oh, I can only meet Tuesdays between eleven thirty am and twelve thirty, but only. Only during the month of April. You know when you ask for specific date. They don't always give you the exact date. You know they don't say March Twelfth, so we've developed the scheduler component, which can handle different ways that users who asks schedule an appointment, but we also have components that are small talk components, because we realized that especially in our open open domain bats in our entertainment bots that a lot of people went outside of whatever the use case of the wasn't started asking questions about for instance pets, they asked about the weather, or they talked about their pets and I after making so many bots and rewriting in remaking conversation, talking about the users pet. I thought well. Why don't you just make this into a template? And then anyone can use have a quick discussion about the weather or the pet. They would obviously change the lines of text. We develop these small talk components basically for those situations where the user wants to go outside the use case of your specific bought, so let's say you're making about that sells insurance. You don't really have the time or resources or even the manpower. Manpower to build a component tested a conversation about pets. Because you're not expecting that conversation, but with a simple API call to a component, it's already handled for you, so you don't have to really invest any time or resources. You just have to change the lines of the text and can have a mini conversation with your users about their pets, then drive back to the bots, original goal, which is selling insurance or whatever the bots.
Procella: YouTube's super-system for analytics data storage
"Hickey. Pay Ben. which been up to lately? I've been spending a lotta time on Youtube actually. There are a lot of good youtube videos on different topics. Music also data science Yeah have you been spending anytime on Youtube recently? I wouldn't say up been watching more youtube than than usual or anything, but I have been reading about it a little bit and that's kind of what we'll talk about today. All right. You're listening to linear digressions. So is reading youtube a thing then? I think reading papers about Youtube. It's fair to that. That's the thing not aware of anyone who I know. People who listen to music on Youtube and people who learn how to do stuff on Youtube I'm not sure I. Know Very many people who just read on Youtube, though yeah, so, what? What is it that you were reading? Right so I was reading about a system that they have built over there called Pro Chela I believe I am pronouncing that correctly. Coach Yeah it now. It's about slightly differently P. R O. C E L L. Yeah so this is the data system that they have set up to power. Four different types of analytics use cases which I think is really interesting, because usually what you would do if you have four different types of analytics use cases, you would have different systems, and you'd be shuttling data back and forth, but instead what they've done at Youtube is they've built one unified system, and so prochell is the name of that system. I was reading sort of a white paper that describes how it works, and why they made some of the design choices did. One system to rule them all, that is the goal. The goal so Let's start with what are the different use cases that you want able, so this is all under the bucket of analytics data serving, so if you've been listening to some of our other more recent episodes, you know that there's also another high profile use for databases, which is sort of transaction handling for running applications. We're not talking about dot stuff by and large instead. This is just data that's being used for various analytics needs. And those four needs are number one. This is the data that powers reporting and Dash Boarding. So imagine that you are for example, a a creator or sort of like a video author or something on Youtube you have you know some reports and some dashboards and stuff like that you can do to see how many views your videos getting and that sort of thing. Right so I guess that data has to come from somewhere and and. Normally, you would build a system just to handle that data. Right? Yeah, so in that case, let's talk about each of these. What are the needs of each of these systems as we go through them so for reporting and Dash Boarding? Because we are doing that on roughly the scale of you know maybe the number of. Creators or the number of videos, others are very high volume of data that and of queries that you have to be able to serve because there's potentially out that the entire user base of Youtube. Might be interacting with that data. these people have probably expectation that the data's pretty fresh, so if someone watched a video of mine ten minutes ago, I want to see that reflected in my report were my dashboard so being able to see things, I don't know maybe not necessarily in real time, but pretty fast after they happen. Yeah, yeah, I mean like you launch a video. You want to get a pulse on how well it's doing! Let's say if you get ten million views roughly on a video and you launch video. You'RE GONNA get a lot of us really quickly and your dashboard and save zero view is for five hours. Right right, so you want to be able to access fresh data, and you want to do it with a fast response time so I. Don't want to log into my dashboard. Run a query, and then it has to wait thirty seconds or a minute, or who knows multiple minutes for it to return something back to be I definitely have had that experience on some websites wherever most of the pages on the website or web APP or service or fast, and then you go to the charts fewer, the analytics view, and you know you see a lot of spinners. Is these things happen in the background? Yeah, yeah, so that's not. That's not good user experience yeah. So the second use case is embedded statistics So this is when you're actually in the application There's you know those little ticker. The how many times of it has been viewed how many thumbs up it's gotten. HOW MANY THUMBS DOWN! So the ticks that are actually embedded in the user experience, you're not going to establish view, but you're. Clicking around Youtube and you see these statistics that are maybe a little bit more general or or rougher. In the actual user interface. Yeah, so those are you know. I guess that's a little bit starting to flirt with something that looks more application based, but it's intellects because it's looking at potentially all of the. All of the data that's in the database to try to be able to compute those compute those numbers, so this is also a pretty large volume of queries that you have to be able to handle. They say on the order of millions of queries per second because I guess that's probably the roughly the order of. like the frequency with which videos are viewed, which is probably the what's driving most of that.
"j. query" Discussed on The Podcast Domination Show | Grow your audience, make money and have fun doing it
"And of themselves kind of straddle the fence between light celebrity, endorsement and traditional advertising. Right so it's usually host read Ad. Which means that they're hearing it in a voice that they know unlike the host can give some kind of testimony all sorts you get all kinds of stuff out of it, so I'm changing the structure on the podcast sponsorships now I've looked at what some other people are doing and I'm probably only going to have one. Maybe two sponsored per show and we used to do three. Nobody really wants the. The postal at the end of the show, so we're probably GONNA wind up dropping that, and then we'll have a sponsor that gets a fifteen second pre roll and a thirty second mineral, and then if somebody really wants to the show I, might throw in another mineral somewhere for a discount, but that's kind of we're looking now. We used to do three pre rolls and then just play the episode. And then we moved to putting some into minerals because we found that was more effective for our sponsors men at this point, the minerals are really the payoff, right? You can throw the post. Roll onto those as kind of a remember. Go check him out right at the very end of the show. You know, remember our sponsor. Anyway that's kind of what we're looking at now as far as how to find them. One thing that we've benefited from is having been around for the last ten years I have good relationships with a lot of developers and a lot of companies. And what I tend to do is I'll reach out to people who I know work at the company that I want to sponsor and I will network my way into the marketing department. I also have somebody that works for me. That actually goes. It looks up, leads though and does cold outreach for me and I can explain how I do all of that if you'd like and then for the sponsorship, get a banner on the website. Get a mention in the episode, and they get a Lincoln the show notes. got. It, okay I think I get a lot of questions about that around them. For New podcasters like I can help you, but it with a network. It's a different beast is definitely different. Kinds of beasts comes to that that level of sponsorship, so you have someone handling cold outreach for you full-time, and that's Oh she's not full-time. Are Okay so part-time in terms of she's doing handling cold outreach for you guys. have you found effective at all to bring people on like safe? You know the CMO of a startup, or you have a connection with a heavy founded effective at all to interview that person or to bring the mic a podcast of your way, and then just build relationship and go from there. Yes I've done that. Last year our largest sponsor that we had was. I went to a conference and did a podcast interview at the conference, and then they wound up sponsoring for like a year and a half. Okay one thing to also keep in mind, though is when I lose sponsors, generally because they hire a new CMO. Right and so I don't have the relationship with the person I'm talking to anymore, and so they go and move on to some other initiative, which is totally fine, and it makes sense that works Fars interviewing the CMO themselves most of the time that doesn't work for me just because we have technical shows and the CMO's are not the people that we're gonNA. Be Talking to. Yeah exactly I guess. Would it be then someone else inside the company? Who is just so? Yeah! It's a CEO or a developer evangelist. or even just a programmer that works on the product. Got It, okay. They just looking back now if you were had all knowledge knowledgeable now when you're starting your network, what would you change? What would you do differently? In two thousand eleven if you flashback. I would've started more shows. Honestly because the longer the track record you have, and I mean back then. It was so early there was really nobody else right I mean only in the Ruby space. There were like two other podcasts. Get relationships with both of the hosts on those shows. And made it work. And so by being established at really helps so yeah, if I could go back I do that. One of the thing is is I think I would have experimented a little bit more with. The format and sponsorships and things like that. Just to see what works. What doesn't so that I could give people a better idea because I've wound up doing that now and we're being successful at it, but it would have been nice to know before right, because then we could just say hey. Look if you do these three things. When you sponsor our show, you're going to have the ROI. Gotcha and beyond that I mean the programming industry has changed a lot. And the things that people talk about and worry about have changed a lot both on the the social geopolitical front. It's amazing. How much that creeps into tech sometimes? And so I kind of wish. I'd been a little bit more aware of that. And then the other thing is I'm just now. It's funny because I've have podcasting for thirteen years. That's a great great point. Nothing you've mentioned there. It's like two thousand eleven. There is barely anyone ten years from now. We'll see the same thing like Oh, Johnny Twenty. There wasn't anyone there. There's only there's like thirty competitors now now there's three hundred. Well it's funny, too. 'cause people were lining. How do you see your competition? You know the other Java scrip- podcasts. I mean. because. Java scripts are biggest one right and I'm like. Oh, you mean the other five or six I mean. When we started jobless Jabber, I think there might have been one other right you know. And they were. They were focused on J. Query. So you know it's like I mean people have enough time in the week to listen to all of us. So. My competitor is what are they listening to? That's not.
"j. query" Discussed on Front End Happy Hour
"Three design language. Like the designers cooking up with new purple buttons, and all of this just went through this with like mine and stuff. If in order to get those purple buttons into our entire enterprise means you have to re factor your entire application to US react. Forget about it, forget about it. You're done so here. You have this notion of it's like. What if We can have our our design system and have our parcells as SAS file. In what that does is that kicks out a Zayn System Name Dot. Dot s file, or whatever that we chuck onto a cdn, so that our share point consumers are wordpress site or whatever all they have to do is match the class names, and they get the Purple Buttons, and the reacts APP gets the fancy. CSS Modules version of that or like whatever it doesn't matter. I don't who cares how that actually plays out. There you go so so so for me. The portability thing it's like. Let's suck everything into this sort of CSS. jazzing is is it's so like I'm putting on my horse blinders. I don't care about what any other team across our companies. or Wet Tech Stacks. They're doing if they're writing PHP than. Like have fun in the nineties or whatever it's like and you could like. Try to like belittle that stuff, but it's like that's just the reality of a lot of a lot of places, not just even the software. Your Company owns vendors. You're working with all this stuff, so. Bringing this back his like what we're talking about. As making a freaking button purple. Who've why in the world are we wrapping? This sort of like you know universe brain? kind of thinking around it. Andrea Andrea! You've hit it really well in the sense, a lot of things that we do. Like you said the front end of the front end. It's like front. End is now even obstructed more and more, but we've separated concerns on the back end where you know you're not trying to combine your back in language with your html and putting all the CSS together. It's like you can now say the your CSS is separate. You can migrate from Angular one to angular two or to react. If you want were view whatever free murky want, you could rewrite the CSS completely. Sometimes, you might WanNa. Do all at once, but you could say I'm just going to migrate react. I'm just GONNA. Remind great you the Java. SCRIP- framework language the html output as long as the. The classes are the same. You're still gonNA. Look the same to the user. The end state user you can rewrite that CSS to down the Line Reno. Rewrite the class and everything by you can change the underlying technology in your assess still left pretty good. Here's the big trick to it. All the class names N. P. M. Library classrooms. It just builds an object. It just builds a string, and you basically go button at any say button Dash Dash large equals size equals large, so you just map like the API to your react component or whatever to class name, and what it does just depends that if that thing returns true than just chucks that it's just as I. In my opinion are just like trivial. You can do the equivalent of like inline styling, everything and having a bunch of F.. L. Statements in the middle of your of your job scripts. Or in the middle of your CSS file is like having a bunch of logic, or you get like have what I feel is like a really trivial abstraction of that, which basically just sort of dynamically builds a a class name based on whatever conditions you wanNA check at it, and that just sort of for me to get like it's just a no brainer. like the tiniest bit of like extra legwork like. Maybe? Add a couple more characters. Yeah, you still have to like consider class names. I guess in general. But to be able to sort of like in order to do that, you just automatically get this like maximum portability across the Sure Siamese in. Even if you have an organization where you're, you have the luxury of like everything is the same stacks like even if you're. Like we have a bunch of APPS. They're all react. And we're going to build our design system react and we're GONNA stock components is simple. Even that can cause problems where lake. Let's say you want to. Upgrade, the version of saw components, or maybe switch out and do use a different. Framework if you don't coordinate, you have to coordinate that then because you're designed. System is inside of every product, so every product in every and the designed system at the same time has to upgrade and make sure that it's like all working together nicely, because I think like Sao components, three and four don't play Nice together on the same page at breaks, the whole site or something. Like that that can really cause problems and then you. End Up having to coordinate. There's overhead to that even if you are. On the same same stack. And, it's also withstanding, and this is one of my favorite exercises to play with every client. Let's just say so. What happens two years from now? When everyone is migrating to view, what what are you GonNa do and it's and it's a federal, obviously as like. I can't predict the future, but also it's like okay. Views hot like everybody like love view. It's like seems to be. Be Nice to work with and like whatever ensure react is like that the hot mess and has been the hotness for a while, but like at the time J. Query was in at the time wordpress was and whatever and it's like we are fickle, bunch US developer folks, and so the the sands of time changed things, and so it's just fun to play that game of like. What happens when we migrate away from this thing and you could either sort of sales will never going to do that, and then you like a fool, or you out, okay? So, how would we approach architect in this thing in such a way that sort of anticipates a future that might involve a new library that hasn't even been conceived yet, or that's being written right this moment in time so? that. That's the sort of thing I love how you said that where you're like. Even if you are standardized, it's not like a short bet. Like, even if you win that argument like. GET REAL PHP people like you shouldn't. Even! If you win those arguments, you're still you're still in in. Maybe not like the best place so before we get into picks. I would love to leave our listeners with one piece of advice that you've all thought about when writing. I would say try to always bet on the web platforms, so if you're thinking about implementing something i. think this goes to what Brad was talking about before like having those conversations with designers like trying..
The global hotspots where coronavirus is still killing thousands
"As we've observed a bunch of times on this show, which seemed to be a pretty good spot in Australia at the moment when it comes to it, but that's certainly not the case elsewhere in the world. More than eight million people have now been infected by covid nineteen, according to Johns Hopkins University. It took nine days for the number of infections to grow from six million to seven. Seven million and less than eight days to get to the latest millions either pandemics, not slowing down. So what's happening elsewhere in the world nominee? Will it still going I mean? The United States tailed off a little bit, but that's largely because of New York state are lots of states in the United States which are now increasing, and there are some states that look as if they actually might be suffering from a second wave like south. Carolina and the league table of cases. Is America Brazil Russia India UK Spain Italy Peru. which gives you a sense of Latin America particularly, South America is a prominent source of new cases, which confirms what people already had a lot of which is Latin. America is a significant hotspot. As indeed is Russia, and Russia has had to revise its. Deaths reporting because it had all these eight, hundred, thousand, nine, hundred thousand cases and I think it was wondering reporting rows of handful of deaths, which made the WHO query their statistics, and they've rapidly revised that we oversee the far more deaths than they're admitting to. So that's the league table at the moment, and it is spreading, and you could argue that in some parts of the world are beginning to see a second wave. China's obviously worried about this outbreak in the. Food Market in Beijing and trying to control that very very quickly. So, what does this mean for us here in Australia where we're sort of? Increased pressure open borders especially to business people well. It says that they're still a huge amount of virus circulating in the world. It's not going away, it's. And it's spreading to countries that have had small epidemics up until now and growing and second waves look as if they may be happening, so you'd be nuts if you open the border to the United States. Russia India UK still far too much. In a lot of European countries still too much virus circulating, there are some countries in the world where there's not very much, and which you could consider that, but very very careful, and in fact, the Chinese think that the source of the cases that they've got in Beijing where Chinese people returning from overseas, so it's a high risk situation when the so much virus around the. The world, so a lot of countries around the world did lockdown, and we've done that here in Australia New Zealand and stuff like that, but if it's still increasing at such a rapid right in so many countries around the world, what were the point of lockdowns? Well for the countries that lockdown early? They've had success. Tens of thousands of people have died the point is that most countries with a bad pandemic. Countries that didn't lockdown early enough, and it already established itself. That's the problem. The problem is not the lockdown lockdown. Social distancing is actually the only thing that works and they have instituted late, and the viruses got away from them. But. It's not benefited their country. Their economies are shattered. They're not able to come back fully. People are frightened to come out the statistics from the United States show that most people are still quite nervous about coming out, even though the trying to open up the economy, because it's still a lot of virus around, whereas if you look at a Sturdier with lockdown and. and. New Zealand people are not so nervous about coming up because they know there's not much virus around, so allows us to return much more strongly. In terms of our economy, the problem those countries face where the still seeing an epidemic upenn significant pandemic is nothing to show for it. They've got an economy that short they've had a field lockdown was not failed. Failed more people would have died. Had they not locked down and the natural immunity in the population that tiny levels maximum, twenty percent, some countries like Sweden, maybe only nine or ten percent, so all these people died for what when they could have actually shut down earlier, and this is just like nineteen eighteen, the cities that in places that shutdown earlier their economies. Economies bounced back better and more fulsomely and places. That waited around
Starting to Write with Louise Tondeur
"Hello Welcome to season two episode twenty, two of the rookie writer show I'm Robin. Cable and I will be your host today you can find me on twitter at Lacan twos and on Instagram as Robin Canadial I wanNA dedicate today's review to all the new writers out there who are listening Kudos to you. Forgetting started a lot of the time. PODCASTS or videos that discuss writing are talking about submissions, queries, getting an agent or polishing the manuscript. You've been working on for the past few months or longer. So, today's review is going to go over the basics. I'm going to tell you about starting to write a free class offered by Louise Thanh Dur Unu- to me for beginner writers. Her focus is to get a new riders started with the basics, though there are a few helpful reminders and tidbits in there for season writers or writers who have gone astray who are in need of regaining some focus and getting back to their craft. The entire course is only an hour long, and it is broken up into eight sections Louise does a great job giving detailed synopsis at the Individ- Section as well as instructions, if needed for the activities, she suggests. She is extremely engaging and likeable, and if I were a new writer, she would be an excellent first teacher. Louise has. Two novels has been teaching for twenty five years. She offers six classes on Unani two of which are free of charge. She also has published a book on Time Management, a short story, collection and several writing guides. If you enroll in starting to write, you will be eligible to receive two of Louise's e-book writing guides free of charge. This class is a total win for new writers. She has a variety of resource pages to pull up and a variety of exercises to get. You started as well. I'd also like to admit something. One of my favorite parts of this class was just enjoying Louise's beautiful accent and some of the British. British lingo that I. Don't get to hear every day. It made it even more enjoyable not to mention her generous gift of two free e books is great. I look through my copies and feel like they have a lot of good information. I do have three tips and a hack. That will be sharing today. The first tip is to start where you are. Don't wait until you feel like it. Everyone has moments. Moments when they say I'll do such and such when this happens or when that happens or when my desk area looks like a writer's desk, or when everything is just so louise encourages you to start now. Don't wait for the perfect conditions because they never happen also right down why you want to start writing and be really specific if you have written in the past, but haven't in a while be kind to. To Yourself, also you can still start again. You can carry your notebook with you and build time into your day to right when you have free moments. Perhaps you get some writing in while you're on a bus or a train. Maybe you can take a few minutes to jot down. Some of the word sketches Louise Talks about in her class. While you're sitting at your favorite cafe, the second tip is turning up. As. The most important piece of writing advice she can give is to turn up. Show up and start writing. Establish a habit that works for you with a time you can identify some people enjoy being part of the five am writing club. That's not me yet, person. Some people prefer to work at night. When everyone else is asleep, whatever works for you, put it in your calendar. And as Lewis says, turn up, the third tip is to collect writing prompts as you're starting out a great way to get story ideas is to collect those problems. You can even make a scrapbook of it helps you collect images postcards things you might usually throw away like bus tickets or advertisements gather objects from nature anything that you can think of. Of that's GONNA. Kick off your writing. You can also get books of writing prompts or find websites online. One of the free e books from Louise has prompt ideas in it as well once you have some prompts, sit down with one of them and a lot yourself an amount of time to work on some of the exercises she shares. Then you can try another the next time with prompts. The possibilities for creating stories are endless. Today's hack is something called. Habits stacking. Each of us has something that we do every day. Perhaps a multitude of things may be in the morning or even throughout the whole day you enjoy a hot beverage. This is where you can stack a habit that you want to start onto an existing habit for instance. Put a notebook beside your tea kettle, or maybe your coffee pot, and as your drink is brewing, you can write while you're waiting. Perhaps you have to use the laundromat when it's time to do your laundry. Put your notebook in your basket and use that time to your advantage. Make you writing a habit by stacking it on top of your current habits whether they are daily or weekly. Find whatever works for you.
Prisma: Modern Database Tooling with Johannes Schickling
"Honest welcome back to the show. It's great to be back under so thanks so much for having me. Of course you run. PRISMA and PRISMA is involved in workflows for accessing data. Can you describe the AP? Is that sit between the front and the back end database layer, and where PRISMA fits in sure so I think that's a pretty complex questions. It's always. Always depends on what your application architecture looks like, and there's so many angles to take does feed for example, take a more mortar jam, stag texture, or if you take a micro services architecture, the onset is always depends. What's always the same as if you build application that requires state of assistance? Then chances are you're using database and how PRISMA fits into. Is that it tries to help application developers built applications more easily was working with the databases so typically that means you're using a part of PRISMA. What's called the prisoner client that sits typically in your application server? That's typically an API server and talks to your database. Typically, this part of the stack is known as an or layer or data access layer. PRESI-, in particular is not an Orem can talk about that separately. The pretty nuanced topic, but prison up to. The main function is to serve to access state. I'm more easily in your application language. Can you talk about that in more detail? Like? Why would I need a additional layer of access I? Mean I think in general? I if I'm sitting on the front end and I want to access the database I m hitting some service that services talking to a database and the service is requesting the data from the database. Why do I need prisma to help out with that database access so this setup just to recap one more time, so you have your fronton application. Let's say you have reactive of you up on the other end. You have database. Let's say you have a more traditional postures, my sequel database, but would also apply to same for more modern. Modern Dynamo DB etc, and then typically have this middle tier that's let's say an API server, and where you would use prisma for is just having an easier time building your API server in order to talk to the database, so let's say you're using pastas. The most barebones thing you could do is implementing your Api Server and just writing implementing your points, or let's say rebuilding a graph gals over implementing overs, and then just talking directly to the database by writing raw sequel. Curry's and that works, but that comes also was some problems. Problems typically in terms of productivity, and does not quite abstraction level that you want as an application developer to be productive and confident in what you're writing the same way as fronton applications are built through abstraction layers. Let's say react angular view. It's the same on the back end that you also want more application at U. Matic obstruction layer for away you talking to the database, and historically there's been many forms of the most common one is in Orem, and they're on more modern ways of how you build a better abstraction on top. Top of fear database for data access, and that's a pattern that implementing was prisma that to be referred to as careerbuilder. Can you explain in more detail? What is the difference between a query builder and an OEM right? So that comes down to the way how you're thinking about these application patterns, an Orem stands for object, relational knepper, and the idea behind an orum is mapping a typically a database table to a class in typically object oriented programming language, and this is a pretty intuitive model and is widely used in tons of. The most prominent one of be being active record as part of friggin rails, but there tons of other ones as well and the Java world. There's hibernate and the idea there you have tons of tables in your database, and you want to map that somehow and Julia programming language and your programming language. You're typically working with classes as opposed to a career rebuilder with looks more like sequel way, but maps you sequel statements into statements in your programme language and the difference really come down to how much flexibility and control you need, but they're tons of downsides of or and that as Good more widely used became more and more well known, so there's a great block posed called the Vietnam of computer science, which is all about or ems and the problems behind orum's most importantly one thing called the object relational impedance mismatch. Talks about the problems of mapping databases database tables to objects where he's just a big amount of oven, impedance mismatch, and the way around that is that you should think about the craziest that you're writing a database instead of obsessing too much about the classes and objects, and your curry should really determine the shape of the data. You're getting back in the same way as the British striking analogy to how gruff LDL's was the sort of pattern where draft, but L. is all about the quarry writing that you need in your components, and it's a pretty similar pattern that you're now applying the way how you do. They access on the back end. If I was to set up PRISMA for Miami application. What would the life of a query look like and the structure of a query look like? So what you'd be using concretely, there is prisoner. Database took. And what you would use to career database is a part of prisma called the PRISMA Klein's. The prisoner client is basically just a Java script library that you installed installed from NPR. And you're. Writing that query ones in your coat. One great advantage is that it's fully type safe by leveraging type script, so you're writing that query and then strode run times when your application is deployed. That code gets invokes that under the hood generates a database dependent query, typically a sequel query, but as we were supporting of databases, swell could generate dynamo queries, Atra, and these queries are centered underlying database, and the data's returned, and then returned injury application code. Got It and. What the difference between using PRISMA AND USING GRAPH KUNAL! So, it's a really two fundamentally different technologies for different use cases I. think a good way to think about is where into application stack. These technology said so graphic. L. is typically used for fronton applications to talk back end up locations whereas prisoners specifically the prison. My client is used for typically your backup location to talk to your database so analogous in this way, but typically the different layers of the stack. However, it always depends was newer approaches like the jam stack your friends and education can statically directly talk to
Robustness to Unforeseen Adversarial Attacks
"I'm I'm Daniel Daniel King King Credit Graduate Student at Stanford University in the Computer Science Department Pad. I am or the Stanford on lab where we work on. Deploying machine learning efficiently Easily also for this particular. I was also volunteered. Open I for some time and tell me a little bit about your specific areas of research. What's most of your time in Grad School? Spent looking at considering. Yeah so Grad School. What I've been focusing on is trying to understand a how to actually deploy machine learning efficiently reliably and effectively. What we've noticed that one machine learning researchers have created these amazing machine learning models that do really well under certain circumstances let the real world is really complicated. There's a lot of issues that crop up. When actually deploying machinery models ranging from Michigan being expensive to deploy ranging from Trinidad of being noisy all the way down to worrying about attacks from adversaries. I've been focusing on trying to understand those issues when it comes to deploy the amazing technology that many machine learning researchers have been making. Yeah the paper I invited you on to talk about his title testing robustness against unforeseen adversaries. And it's interesting you frame that as a deployment issue because in my mind when I think of deploying male I'm thinking of how there's no perfect system in my opinion you know we have onyx files and different stuff like that. You can try but for some reason it's not as easy as it seems like it should be. Do you have any thoughts about why the I guess what I picture is? More lower level aspects of that are still kind of challenging for a lot of people that deploy absolutely so machine. Learning is very different than essentially all software so a lot of software comes into play when applying machine learning. But I don't think there's been a lot of understanding the community both the Research Committee and the industry community and what the difference between deploying standard software underplaying machine. Learning are so as you say. There's a lot of low level. Things for example like onyx files or actually taking a towards wallace say or while and converting to runtime engine. But that's actually being smoothed out. I think in the next year so we're GONNA be seeing a lot more of that. So for example serving has released some stuff but I think at a higher level. There's a lot of issues regarding how to combine data and Code that. We don't really know the answers to yet. And that's part of what my research deals with. A lot of other folks are thinking about as well. Yeah these adversarial attacks if I think about standing up my M. L. Model and exposing it via API. Just give that away where anyone can post to it. Or maybe someone's very clever and figures out how to get to my API for some reason they're going to post. What could be a sizable thing? An image file or something like that that has a ton of data and while that machine learning model it's a function it maps from the full input space to output space. Still we have these challenges. You think this is some sort of temporary thing where this adversarial game is going to eventually be solved or are we just dealing with a very hard problem. That will always be sort of cat and mouse. It's hard for me to predict the future but if you look at standard security ignoring machine learning there's been a cat and mouse game. Basically since computers have been invented sixty seventy years so if I had to guess I would say that. We're unlikely to solve the problem exactly. But I'm hoping that we can at least make it much much harder to attack. Machine learning systems in broadly. Speaking what are these adversarial attacks for anyone? Who hasn't heard of him yet? An adversary attack is think of it. As a procedure to generate an input that will fool machine learning model often for some nefarious mean so to give an extreme example. You might imagine posting a sticker on a stop sign that changes a perception system friction and accelerating car from stop sign to say sixty mile per hour speed limit sign which would cause erroneous behavior in a vehicle and might even cause physical harm now. I've looked into a number of these different techniques and there seemed to be more coming out by the hour. Some of them need the model and some of them need the day to set and some of them need not require too much of anything. What do you see sort of the garden or the taxonomy of these different kinds of attacks? And how much a little bit access helps or hinders. Yes as you say. There's a wide spectrum of attacks. I'll roughly them down. But these categorisations very rough and the tax can span different categorisations as well a high level. There's what I'll call white box and black box. Attacks White box attacks assume access to the MODEL AND BLACKBOX ATTACKS. Don't assume exits the model but assume you can query the model for example in a white box attack you'll have the weights and basically everything a blackbox tax. You might just have. Api access so for example Google's image classification API as an example of where he can query. But you don't have access to the model weights themselves. That's on the model side. There's also as you say a tax on the data side and here the threat model is slightly different. Typically the third as soon as you can tamper with some fraction of the data and by tampering with a small fraction of the data. This will cause the model to have eroneous outputs on typically specific patterns or be in general.
What Consumers Want to Know About Voice with Katherine Prescott, Founder & Editor at VoiceBrew
"Company and blog brew has quite a following. Can you share with us? What voice grew is and how many subscribers you have to your blog at this time absolutely so voice brew is be newsletter for Alexa enthusiasts and is simple to help people get more out of Alexa. I launched voice brew a little over a year ago and it's scaled to over forty five thousand Alexa enthusiast email subscribers since then we also published comprehensive guides on voice dot com on different features in use cases. So things like routine setting up smart lights with Alexa settings that you wanNA update and we also have a companion flash reaping for the news while congratulations to you that forty five thousand is nothing to blink. An eye AD. That's pretty amazing. Are you able to share those kind of how you were able to grow that following so quickly and it's such a large scale? Yeah I mean there. I have tried you know so many different things and what I am. The most proud of excited for for the future is just the organic traffic that I've gotten to the various comprehensive guides that are featured on voice dot com. So part of my hypothesis with voice brew and believing that I would be able to scale it because of course you know. It's great if you had a really good product but if you don't have distribution for the product in the end it doesn't really matter you we all WanNa build impactful businesses A great product and a great distribution strategy for that product so when I launched Voice Brew. Part of my thinking was that there seemed to me that there was kind of a space to write comprehensive guides and content. More broadly for just. Break your people so of course. There are the scene of the world who do a really good job. You like the Tom's guides type media outlets who do a fantastic job writing feature guides but I think that their audiences are a bit more technologically sophisticated. So I'm writing per pupil who are just not a super techie. People who really need things to be laid out extremely clearly and what's happened. Is that a number of my posts. Have become some of the top ranked posts on Google so for example if you search for Alexa routines for Spurs Alexa routine. Guide is one of the top search results and that is a query that a year ago. You know there were some people who are searching for EPA today tons of people are setting up Alexa routines and searching for that and so I've been able to sort of go after a bunch of these terms by writing really comprehensive user friendly content for that and then I capture people who come to the site. I have a place to sign up for the slaughter and guests turns out allowed people get more out of Alexa and so they sign up for the newsletter. While again. Congratulations to you and and Cerita Ray. Which I think is something I know I personally talk about all the time as you really found a niche. You've found a need. You really did your research to say what does somebody wants to know about this. What are they searching for in the near providing valuable content so that takes a lot of hard work so I do recognize that? You've really done that congratulate you and again. He said about forty five thousand subscribers. What are you noticing in terms of stats or feedback from your community? Such as what questions questions they have or what they're using voice or maybe where they're frustrated and so forth so since the start of. I guess we'll call it quarantine life about a month ago. I have seen a major search in subscriber in -ment with my emails which is has been really ice to see and I think what's happening. Is that people all over. The country are all over. The world are spending more time at home for the First Time. And as part of the suggested they're forming new habits am one of those habits is using their voice assistance a lot more because they're at home with their smart speakers and also in new ways and I think that one of the things that means that right. Now there's a real opportunity for all of us in the boys I community to engage more deeply with users and just to switch to the second part of your question. What her Kinda questions Mike Heading. It really spans the gamut everything How do I adjust the base on my echo? I've been helping one subscriber who's extremely frustrated because she can't figure out she's having difficulty figuring out how to use the drop a feature on her echo in order to speak to drop it on her daughter's echoes. You can chat with her grandchildren now. There are people who have issues with using Alexa music alarms. Who want to set up. Extreme weather alerts. You know there's been all kinds of crazy weather that's been happening around the country in recent weeks. I was emailing today with a subscriber in India. Who's dying to use a feature that lets you ask? Alexa to remember things for you. But it's not available in India yet and he's asking me if they're second that can do you know help push it along. It's really kind of almost anything you can think of actually getting so many questions email to me and not surprisingly a lot of duplicate questions that I recently launched a chorus style. She went a forum as part of voice website where I recently just in the past week or so started posting an answering questions there so that when I have subscribers that are asking the same question instead of emailing everybody you know an answer. I can direct them to the relevant posts in the forum and my goal. Is that at some point voice. Bruce Subscribers will post their questions directly to the forum and that in addition to me answering the questions that members of the Voice Brew Community. And maybe even the voice could not more. Broadly will help to answer some of
How Berlin Remembers; Turkish Delights; Travel to Bhutan
"Berlin has become the high tech and cultural powerhouse of today's dynamic German economy but there are still plenty of Berliners who can tell you about the difficulties. They faced back in the twentieth century as a divided city and stories of life under the Nazis during World War Two. We're joined now by German tour guides older Timur and Fabien Muga. Look at some of the most impressive monuments and memorials. You can visit to remember the lessons from Berlin past gentlemen. Thanks for joining us. Thanks for having to live in Berlin as a tourist. You just come and go to live there. You're surrounded by all of this history and all of these memorials when you walk down the streets. Does it become just background and you just see through it or are you constantly aware of this happened there? This happened there and so on holger is part of everyday life. Yes but it's not like you kind of oversee it because it is there it is right in your face. I've seen most of the memorials like many countless times. As a berliner as tour guide here but they still are some of them are really haunting especially when it comes to divided city to the wall or to the time of the National Socialist period and in the case of Germany. With your complicated history. The memorials are almost there to not go away to be in your face. I mean there's even something called stumble stones right Fabio yes. There are a memorial stones to victims of the Holocaust who had deported from particular houses. And if you have a friend or relative was deported from that house you can donate some money to this foundation and they will put stumbling stone into the pavement Princeton pavement. Like you need to trip on this to never forget the horrible thing that happened right there when you think about Germany. A lot of our fixated on World War Two in the whole fastest thing but of course there's many layers of the city that was the leading city of of the PRUSSIAN empire and so on Fabio. And when you think about memorials of the horns period and Prussia what is there in Germany to look at our Berlin. I think the most visible that everybody know will know. Is The victory column. That's in the center of the main park often. The victory column was built as a symbol of victory over the French. This is where history and Berlin connect. It was originally standing on the spot where it is today. The Nazis moved at there to make it stand in a more triumphant spot in the very center of the city. It was originally built near the rice stuck building and was not looking quite some one mental there today. Six major streets of lead straight towards the listen to that part of a big access isn't it? I mean Hoeger. The whole city is built on this axis which lined by memorials. The East and west access really is this fascinating thing. You look up. And you see Golden Angel Hair and you think. Wow that's wonderful. Then you close in you. See while this is all candidates made cannons French cannons French cannons. Like as a AS A TO Z. Boy To as spoils of war multiple. Yeah so it is weird thing. If you you would think that's nice to call between can look at it that it has a little jab at the French. It's a big Jab at Big Jab at the French or the Germans the French and of course I in the next century. We've got the whole Hitler situation and a lot of memorials relating to the nightmare of Berlin being the capital of Nazism. What are some of the memorials that you'll see when you go to Berlin that way what I found very haunting as the memorial to the burning of the books right near onto the Lyndon right near the State Opera House? And it's basically a memorial that you wouldn't really see because it's underground and you would just maybe pastas Query Newton. We have no idea what it is but quite often you see consumerist groups looking at nothing really and then you look there and it basically is a hole in the ground. It's a glass plate in the ground and he looked down and there is an empty library like five by five five meters containing empty shelves for twenty thousand books. Symbolizing was happening in the tenth of May Nineteen thirty three. When the Nazis took all the books and literature that they hated that it didn't understand they didn't like and were putting them in a big pile and burning him openly for people to see and that's now empty. Shelves are very haunting memorial to that.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"Skiing in any mountain range. Provided you can set up the course properly absolute ABS- absolutely I mean go at least for the next ten years he can grandpa what snow. These matches all white at the out. The sad thing is we're laughing but it's GonNa Happen so gary you spent so much time introducing Lindsay that we ran out of time in this segment really bad. So we'll get to her question right after the break. This is Star Talk Sports Edition Cosmic Queries exercising a Rebecca Star Gary. Yes in a house Jack in the house. That's right well in my house. Oh sorry yeah well. In our all in our own houses homes house is.
Protecting Individual-Level Census Data with Differential Privacy
"Hey Katie hi Ben. So I got a postcard in the mail From the Census Survey. Can you feel it? I filled it. Yeah I filled it out but it got me thinking how. How do I know what is happening with? Statea that's being collected like it's always great to collect good data But in this case I'm in that data set so Are there any protections that are being put in place for Census Data? Really interesting question. Glad you asked total coincidence because this was what I wanted to talk about any way about that. Yeah so we're going to talk about differential privacy today and will use the census as an example. But it's a topic that's generally interesting to see who works with data around people which tends to be Ohio data. If you look under the covers you are listening to the new year decorations. So we'll focus on the example of the census here today because this is one of the biggest and most expensive and most famous data sets on people that exists but the topic of differential. Privacy is something that's general to really any data that you have but the problem that they have in. The census is collecting this very granular detailed data on everyone in America extensively. Although I think I think we all know that that's probably not totally realistic. But as many people as possible but a lot of people are understandably a little bit nervous about how is my data going to be used and what what protections are there that my individual level like personal data won't be disclosed based on the downstream uses of this data set. And I guess they're kind of two things in that one is. How do we know that the government won't use this data to say Target people who are undocumented but then the other piece of it is if the data set is out there for researchers to use. How do I know that the researchers won't be able to kind of pull it apart and find to be in that data set and the second one is what we're talking about today? Yeah we're going to focus on the second news case and it's an important one and I think it you know the meaning of the word research in this context. It's actually pretty broad So it can refer to folks like academic researchers who are getting versions of this data set to rate sociology or political science papers but it also refers to the way that many parts of the government just run and operate so when things like congressional districts are being drawn there being drawn on the basis of census results when state and local governments are asking for resources from the federal government. They're doing so on the on the basis of the number of people who live in their jurisdiction In some cases if you have a certain make up in terms of socioeconomic status or race or something like that then I can sometimes be the basis of additional funds that you can request for like parameter these kinds of things so it's not just like oh we're kind of interested in this in an academic sense but it's actually a pretty important for the functioning of many of these pieces and so there's different levels of data disclosure that are allowed for different types of research. So obviously if you're making something externally available to an academic researcher who's going to publish on the basis of that data. There might be a different set of expectations versus internal usage for bookkeeping and accounting for the operations of the government. But in general The question that you might have especially for that case where your pieces of the data set with your individual information of them. If those are being made publicly available you as a person in that data set might be wondering what someone who is smart and motivated and has access to that data set could discover about you as an individual as differential. Privacy comes in and that seems that that might seem a little far fetched. But we've had a number of episodes where we've gone into details of how what seem like fairly anonymous data sets even intentionally anonymous data sets can be. You can kind of back out Individual details especially when you combine it with another source So although it may seem far fetched it actually is feasible in does happen is. There's like a fun story about this. That's called a a record linkage attack. And so that's the data set that you release is not does not itself have any personally identifying information but there's a way that you could link it with perhaps some other data set maybe it's a data set. That doesn't even exist yet. But that when you join them together you can identify individuals fun story about this that I read as doing some research There is a woman who is if. I'm not mistaken a professor at Harvard. Now she's very distinguished In the field of this sort of special topics in data science like ethics privacy inequality of of Algorithms when they're being applied to like minority groups. These kinds of things. Her name is Ladonna Sweeney when she was a graduate student at MIT. If I recall correctly so this was in Massachusetts. There was a data set that was released of medical records of a whole bunch of people who were I think state employees or there's some kind of public public database of medical records that The governor said look we have taken off everybody's names. We've taken off any publicly identifying information so if you are an individual who's in the state of set like don't worry nobody's going to be able to know that it's you don't worry about it So as a graduate student she figured out how to do a record linkage ration- so she figured out how to join this publicly de identified medical records database to another database that had P. I approached and was able identifiable information. Yes thank you and was able to do that. Information to find the governor in the medical records database. Oh that's funny. I know this so really a devastating to in a very direct way that you stick in This was in. I think some of the earlier days of differential privacy when people were just starting to think about. Yeah how having your data out In public view. Even if you thought it was deified could was not entirely secure. So yeah so. It's pretty cool so anyway. The place where we are now as a society or something academic community. Let's say is Folks thinking about this problem for for a while now because obviously it's a it's a problem it's really important to a lot of folks who have data being collected about them which is basically everyone and tech companies and the Census Bureau which we're going to focus on today have different ways of dealing with it and one of the methods is differential privacy. That's going to be the main focus here today so differential privacy is kind of interesting. The rough idea is that you add noise to the data site in such a way that If you do a particular calculation on that data set you'll get the same answer regardless of whether a given individual as in the data set or not so. Here's a simple example. Let's suppose that you have a data site and you want to run a query on it. This is what is the average salary of people in the state set and you have individual level salary information for all of them or network. Let's use net worth wasn't worth of all the people in this data set and there's one hundred people on the data side and let's suppose that there's two different versions of the data sat and I give them both to you and one of those versions has Bill Gates in the day and one of them doesn't so the average salary in one of the data sets is going to be. Let's say it has one hundred people in it. It's GonNa be something like a billion dollars yeah And then the other one without Bill Gates in it. We'll have an average net worth of. I Dunno whatever the network is for literally any other group of people who say hundred people who live in my building was like in the tens of thousands of dollars the hundreds of thousands of dollars perhaps depending on like the group that you have or anyway you get the idea. Yeah so the idea of differential privacy is that then. Let's add a certain amount of noise to that output. So that what you'll get instead is a range. Plus minus some uncertainty and that uncertainty can change when you when you query the data set multiple times and things like this. You never quite exactly if you're getting the precisely correct answer and you're probably usually not but it does mean that whether now maybe Bill Gates would be pretty hard to hide in a data set like best but in many cases a little bit of fuzzy and can obscure whether any particular person is in there or not
Tips every Flask developer should know
"j. query" Discussed on .NET Rocks!
"j. query" Discussed on .NET Rocks!
"j. query" Discussed on Code Story
"That's that's awesome. So how has the product progressed? How has it matured since that point? Walk me through some of the stages of that maturation process. You know be had this super cheap template that I had used. Initially there had been a couple sort of intermediate revisions or sort of improvements on template but now like totally gone. We have a incredible design team in really good from engineers that built a whole new designs for us that Tina very consistent across all the pages as really sort of good in line. Documentation for folks. It's undergone like some like user. Studies interviewed identify like we're there were opportunities to inks clearer astor. A lot of the code initially was sort of a mishmash of J. Query and coffee scripts and that's all gone at this point and we use a tight grip now in react so there's been huge changes there early. On the notification delivery system news was basically a four of open source library. There weren't a lot of ones out there so We had sort of looked at a few in the best one but after the first year very clearly wasn't scaling it was written in Ruby and could only run on one thread and we'll sort of like after it was using one hundred percents. You couldn't get any more performance out of it and so we actually using rust and now we have an incredibly efficient Russ notification delivery system. The early one I think was sort of starting at. It's limit at around like five or six million notification deliveries per day. And now today we send over five billion notifications per day Amara Maroshek and that is a massive amount of notifications. So how do you build your roadmap? How do you figure out maybe early days of a little bit but even to now? How do you go about the process out? What's most important to build next year? I think different companies struggle with us in different ways. The the challenge that we run into is that there is practically an unlimited number of things that we can build in that are going to be useful to some subset of our clients so we have to think critically about out of the prime decisions we make today aligned with the vision of the company vision being that we want we want audiences more intelligently send messages so we think about like what can we do in the next quarter a more in the next sprint. That's going to help us make progress towards that end tactically. What would that means as we like to get the team very involved so we actually get ideas from everyone on the team. All the way across from sales operations to engineering everyone contributes ideas and then We get together across the leadership team And we think very critically about what are the ideas that are going to have a these impact on the business across things like our strategic vision across revenue across systems stability performance and You know we will down to the things that we feel we can accomplish. Our we worked very closely with the different tech leads and individuals on the team to understand how the different things were building fit into. What's achievable what's align? Unlock your product. Goals in then We presented to the team in work at it as.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"Since I was a kid. Good my favorite. MRI joke lease okay. It was from you you would have an MRI. Joe Who's a comedian Very deadpan like even right Steven Wright Steve Right right like your Salvador Dali's art were a comedy he would be. Okay so Stephen Right. He said I'm going to have an MRI to see. If I'm CLAUSTROPHOBIC. MIC check the brain. The brain shows you if you're CLAUSTROPHOBIC and you're taking all right so where oh so. That's an example of the science had to pre exist the engineering application. Asian of it there is no emory without the science that got the Nobel Prize. Hang on okay. So the best thing for engineers have science laying around with no did anything clever with it yet. That's the best kind of engineering solutions I've ever seen but how about creativity. That was the question right. Where does creativity come from? That's what I was GONNA say. Is that invention that your professor discovery made is that considered creative well. The there's a difference. Creativity that is not science is unbounded creativity. That is science. If you don't come up with somebody else will bounded by the laws of nature and science in science. Nature is the ultimate judge jury and executioner. Russians of your idea in art. I guess public sentiment is the judge jury and executioner but that can shift and that could be anything or not it or not or whatever one person created feels. It's beautiful and right right. Nothing's preventing you from creating anything you want but nature's preventing me from discovering discovering anything I want so that's why Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and Van Gogh's starry night a unique creations in the human mind whereas Einstein's relativity. It's not unique. If he didn't do it. Somebody else would have a few years later. Maybe several people stapled table together because the equal has smart as he was so the nature of the creativity manifest differently but hang on a second regarding Einstein. I can't buy that there's not some creativity some nuances look at a problem differently than another astrophysicist. Come come added in a different way. And isn't that by definition creativity or a form. I'm not saying it's not great. I'm saying hey we're going to listen to me. You got a week going. I'm going to get mad. I'm serious about so on. I'm not saying it's not creative. I'm a different kind of creativity. I cannot pull anything out of my ass and say this is this is how nature works. You can pull anything out of your ass and say this is art and I and I in principle you can do that right and of course not all art survived not all artists get famous and there are reasons to not somehow connecting to the human condition in ways that other other artists. Do I get that. I'm just saying if van Gogh didn't paint starry night. No one ever will paint it ever in the future history of the human species. But are you. You're saying scientists can only apply laws a certain way that I can't do it in a creative way that's unique to that can and whatever your creativity is its bounded by the laws of nature that enable the world as it is only do so much with the way things are in terms of the laws of nature correct. There you go so I so I like creativity. It's just manifest a little differently. That's all and you need definitely need and want creative engineers. Here's you definitely want creator scientists but the engineer can invent stuff with pre existing laws of physics. They can improve on. Do things that no one else saw. We've made major improvements on the internal combustion engine from the earliest days. These are engineers over the decades now. We have electric cars. That's a whole jump into another place. Now they can benefit from another century of creative engineers perfecting the electric car driverless cars and the driverless cars and the and the like so those are engineers perfecting on things that are not invoking new laws of physics but I think the most fertile engineering ideas have a fresh law. Physics re ripe for the picking the let me create something on earth. It's never been here before some machine that exploits law physics that we just discovered the coolest stuff out there and I consider that creativity. I didn't say it wasn't creativity. Okay we're in violent agreement really the next question okay. this is Ends Amman Sam. A facebook. Is it possible to travel back in time by going to another universe that is exactly the same as ours but different time zones. Okay okay so in a multi verse. Our current thinking is that if there's an infinite number of multi versus there's another universe where all these same molecular configurations exist except you have some evil goatee and moustache. It's the evil and say right okay. That's that's still a thing. Yeah Yeah you need. Yeah if if you even people have to stroke something is it the cat. What is it they have like nervous service? Whatever the middle person has the switch so it can't be a toy? Can you know God forbid it's like just like a little furry it's gotta be real so so with that you can imagine a universe shifted in time. I don't have a problem imagining that. Here's the difference even if your entire molecular configuration is reproduced in that other universe. I'm not convinced it to you. I'm just not convinced of that. Yeah because of my DNA makeup no dental to you. It's just not you. Because back per that that entities life experiences are different than mine. No because it's it's a parallel universe. Where all that the same same mother? Same bringing don't sorry same. The molecules configurations are all. Does that does that. Entity eyemouth myth five fall off my bike scrape my knee. That experience happened to that. Entity's there'll be multiple universes where that happened when you were three five seven nine. Nine eleven didn't happen could happen. Happen bad happened good. You died in this other one because a truck hits you all those combinations exist so you find the one that's closest to ours but shifted by ten minutes. That's this question so the one you can go back in time into that life and all I'm saying is I'm not convinced that your consciousness consciousness is transportable. In that way I can make an exact replica of you over here. Is your consciousness occupying this the reason why I am. I'm skeptical. Is We already have examples of identical people. They called twins but they don't share each other's conscious they are separate three people they might finish each other's sentences because they're raised together and they do the same thing that you gotta differently. They logic differently they they. They are not the same people even though the genetically identical. That's my point and so if you're not the same person this is my fear of the transporter and start star Trek right. Beam me up Scotty your body and then solar down there and they beat me up into the what they did was they disassembled your atoms and reassemble them over here. Same person or you a photocopy of the same person. If you're just a photocopy then do you share all of the consciousness. I think therefore I am I think therefore am I how do you define unconsciousness in this consciousness. I think it's a poorly defined thing where everybody's trying to define the very amorphous word in this context. It's more than me. Many contexts this whole books on consciousness. You know why they're still publishing books on consciousness because we don't know anything about consciousness that's not true. We know something but the fact that it is an active field of research. The evidence of this is that people keep publishing books on it. Consciousness explained consciousness. re-explained explained my version of consciousness their version of consciousness. This will continue until we understand consciousness and then no more books will be written about it. Why do you think it's so difficult? Understand that. Because you're trying to understand the thing that is making you try to understand it. Goes back to another episode. We were talking about the brain the mind the mind brain only ten percent. It's how can my consciousness understand itself. That is a challenge. We've yet to rise to you. Think it's worth pursuing or do you think it's futile. I think anything that we don't know is worth knowing the asking a scientist. Is it worth knowing it. Definitely check it out. Maybe the consciousness businesses just something else some illusion of something else that act. It's actually going on in our brain but this is it's like on earth though. It looks like we're in the center of all motion at it. Looks that way and it feels that way we feel like we have a consciousness but go to the heart of it. Nowhere in orbit around the Sun. We're not in the center of anything. There's some other thing going on. Perhaps just say we ran out of time. I know there's only so much time to answer questions. Because is that okay. If I do that you yeah we know you like to hear yourself talk. I'll just shut up from now on to say anything. No because this is why I keep saying you're a a great for people because you take things to places where you don't expect than you explains a question you get six answers to wire because the whole world connected and you can just answer a question carbon compartmentalized but that's not where the fun thinking happen. No and then so literally and every question that I've done with you over the last couple of shows does there have been six or five revelations per question for me really had nothing to do with the question completely useless information that I'll never use nestle. That's what you solicit means.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"Kapoma apothecary. Oh co-host rate to be welcome back. Always Damn near old timer now with us this episode is a cosmic queries and they named for me. I had nothing to do with quirky questions. Cosmic Quirky Queries Quirky queries. Sounds like grab bag to me so I don't know where they're coming from. But Paul you've got the question right so bring it. Bring it on I Let's see we'll start with the last kings guard on instagram. Is it possible possible that humans are the most intelligent species in the universe. No next question I agree with you WANNA know. Why is there not sufficient evidence collected? Ah I WANNA give you one reason because people review plungers on Amazon really. I went to buy plunger and there was five hundred. Sixty seven reviews reviews of one plunger. I go gather your belongings and move to the winds people it's over. I'm not joking. Most intelligence. Okay finished the question sister. Mitch Okay I is it possible to most of tells you a species universe and there is no intelligent species out out there other than us. Okay so if there's no other life in the universe I think it's fair for us to say that we're the most intelligent species that ever existed on earth earth and ever existed in the universe if there's no other life out there however who defines humans as being intelligent and what doesn't tell asking what's the answer to that question. Humans humans. Thank you could see a not intelligent. You know man you just blowing my mind human. I'm here and not here. Where am I just answer the question and leave me alone? The human human boohoo defies humans as intelligent humans. Do Okay now what's our DNA difference from chimps. You would learn this in biology class. How much one or two percent one percent difference do account temps as intelligent? Well sure if you're tim. Fan but not intelligent on the level of humans. Chimps are not building aeroplanes. Flying to chimp cities right. Humans aren't throwing.
"j. query" Discussed on Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network
"Unless they've you know put it back in some sort of you know media outrage Google owned YouTube. I see it here. It appears to be here so I think maybe it's it's so it's still available on the chrome web store which is different and distinct from the Amazon the the android but it. You're saying it's down from the place stores what you're saying right. They also took down any pays APP by the way which. I don't think cat anything to do with this. And the reason I say that is because I discovered it accidentally last night I was doing some copy. Edits on crypto website and just kind of reviewing some some stuff and I was like okay. Well I wanted to check and see if they cause. Any pay was going to rename their APP to any pay cash register. Because there's another any pay APP that has sort of like a similar looking logo is and it's like the Chinese any pay or something like that that has nothing to do with accepting crypto payments and. I don't know what it is but it's got the same name and kind of a similar logo and so I wanted to see if their new name change had taken because you know sometimes it takes some time for those things to to happen on. I couldn't even find the APPS I reported it to to Stephen Derek. And didn't know they'd been taken down. They found. There was an email from Google. Apparently there was like a version of Java or J. Query in which I think is some sort of Java related scripting language that apparently had some sort of vulnerability in it and so every program on their store that had this version of J. Query. Yeah they took them all down so any pays working to fix that and get back on the so. They haven't been banned from the store but that was the reason why they were taken down. So if you've been if if you've been trying to download the APP and you found out that it wasn't there well now you know what's going on with that. Well I mean we know that You know youtube outraged. The crypto community just days ago. Go after it took down. Several crypto related videos the video sharing giant stated harmful or dangerous content as the reason for its action however it quickly realized the colossal mistake it made apologized and announced that it had restored all crypto content. The statement has done little according to some youtubers who claim that their content hasn't been recovered and there's a couple with tweets here from users You know still. It's been four days. Still not a peep from youtube or any email response from my youtube partner. Here's what you do go to library L. B. R. Y. DOT COM. It is completely decentralized. They cannot take you down. That is not an option but library. There's really no better. It might look at the different options out there. That's the best one it's the most decentralized and it's the one that.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"I know <Speech_Male> what I'm <Speech_Male> thinking is the Houston. <Speech_Music_Male> I can't hear you <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> okay for landing <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Male> exactly. <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Male> I'd be <Speech_Male> like I'd be like Chuck <Speech_Male> Sullen Burger. <Speech_Male> You know I'm going <Speech_Music_Male> to have to set her down <Speech_Music_Male> I'm sorry <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Male> solely <Speech_Male> from <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> down. I gotta put her down <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> into a flocking. <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> I <Speech_Male> gotta put it down <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> to a flock <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> down on the moon <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> <hes> Apollo there <Speech_Male> on the moon <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> Dammit I saw <Speech_Male> the geese <Speech_Male> anyhow <Speech_Male> so the command <Speech_Male> module pilot while <Speech_Male> on the far <Silence> side of the moon <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> was the farthest human <Speech_Male> there ever <SpeakerChange> was from many <Silence> other human. <Speech_Music_Male> Okay <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> Okay Right. <Speech_Male> So <Speech_Male> they were <Speech_Male> the width of the <Speech_Music_Male> moon away <Speech_Music_Male> from <Speech_Male> any human plus <Silence> some orbital <Speech_Male> distance into <Speech_Male> solo people. <Speech_Male> If <Speech_Male> that's the most solo <Speech_Male> person ever that <Speech_Male> there ever was all right <Speech_Male> nice. <Speech_Male> Yeah <Speech_Male> that's pretty wild. <Speech_Male> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Male> That's <Speech_Male> what I'm saying <Speech_Male> so we don't even more time. <Speech_Male> Okay <Speech_Male> thanks for these questions. These are <Speech_Male> <Speech_Male> good these <Speech_Male> morbid addition. <Speech_Male> I think we have more <Speech_Male> quite <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> forty pages <Speech_Music_Male> question. <Speech_Music_Male> Okay <Speech_Music_Male> people are real <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Music_Male> problems <Speech_Male> okay in <Speech_Music_Male> the inaugural <Speech_Music_Male> <Speech_Male> cosmic <Speech_Male> queries more <Speech_Male> morbid addition. <Speech_Male> You heard it here. You heard <Speech_Male> it. Now Chuck thanks <Speech_Male> as
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"Is doing a reading of the most recognizable voice on the planet. So weird free. How is that Neil? degrasse Tyson does more in Freeman man. You know that's what that's cool but did you like my friend I did. I liked him by the way. That's a great great little Quote okay I got it fast. One quick aside okay okay. A quick aside all right when I read when I heard it said it's beautiful right now. The novel was a nineteenth century Victorian era novel and I said that's beautiful the language I bet it was verbatim from the story Okay because nobody today writes like that for neither. Do men live nor die. No that's not coming to anybody in Hollywood today so I said let me find the original but I had another little issue. I said this makes very strong. Mention of God and h g wells was highly scientifically literate. Did he make mention of God. I went back and found the passage. No he does not make mention a God. Here is H G. Wells is original passage. GHOSTS NAP covering that part of what was used for the movie. Okay ready go ahead for so it'd come about as indeed I and many man man might have foreseen had not terror and disaster blinded our minds these germs of disease have taken their toll of humanity. Since it's the beginning of things taken toll of our pre human ancestors since life began here but by virtue of this natural selection selection of our kind we have developed resisting power to know germs. Do we succumb without a struggle indirectly. These invaders arrived directly. They drank and fed are microscopic allies began to work their overthrow already when I watched them they were irrevocably doomed dying and rotting even as they went to and fro it was inevitable by the toll of a billion deaths man has bought his birthright of this earth and it is is against all comers it would still be his were the Martian ten times as mighty as they are for neither. Do men live nor die die in vain has Tad Darwin rock he's got pre human ancestor. He's got natural selection of things. No mention mentioned a guard. These are two different thing. I think Hollywood was afraid to get real on. Oh yeah there you go. We got a call this segment quits. We'll be back with the third segment of cosmic queries. The definition on star Hey.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"Halt that expansion. It will expand forever once we learned it would expand forever then we asked what is the longterm profile of the universe while the temperature will get further and further diluted as space expands oh space time expands right because all let energies to be concentrated here and now it's half and then the third and tenth so eventually dissipates pretty good way to the the intensity of energy dissipates. What's the temperature? The universe drops right and it'll never come back so and all the stars will die and not get regenerated because there's no everything will separate from each other and so gas clouds will make their final stars and that's it so then the stars will ultimately burn out one by one as the sky goes dark thus the universe ends with the nod in fire but an ice and not with a bang but with a whimper. Kinda sad for the universe. I mean I don't WanNa anthropomorphized. I feel bad for the universe now. Maybe that's a good way to go. Yeah you know. I wouldn't mind going like that you go. You know which brings us to our next question. What a great segue you just made? Dj Mass Two thousand six on instagram. Graham says Lille how do you WANNA die. Oh this is public knowledge. Oh Okay I bet if you type. How does Neil Tyson I wanted to do? I got to test status is handy hold on I would go I'M GONNA I'm GonNa talk to my phone. How does Neil degrasse Tyson one to die? Okay and okay clearly. You have done this because one two three four four five six seven eight youtube videos came up about you dying somehow. Here's you in the afterlife. Here's you on. I don't fear death here. Is You on near death near death. Experience while you're talking about Becca do.
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"At the Hayden Planetarium part of the American Museum of Natural History Right here in New York City. Chuck Ni- you with something. The Nice comic on twitter. And this is a cosmic queries addition. Yes we did yeah okay. We didn't specifically solicit these right. These these trickle in overtime So this is a cosmic queries morbid edition. Oh my these people asking just questions about the ends of things. Yeah that's the thing yes And then I worry about people like what I worry sometimes. Read some of these questions. Yes yeah we have Definitely a A A very death obsessed we have a death obsessed audience what we can do him. I don't even know how to bring in an expert on that. They're thinking about an undertaker. Right right yeah but okay so let's try it. Apparently these are the questions lessons that we get more than anything else as as category category sort of soliciting a category these trillion as the biggest unsolicited category All right so as we go from all over the INTERWEBS and we always start with a Patriot pedram. Thank you Patriot patriotic. That's right right and this is one of the ways we say. Thank you my reading your questions and giving them priority. So let's start with will Jay Who says what one or two skills skills would you learn now to be useful and productive? In a post apocalyptic world. This is of course if you survive the meteor strike apothecary hits the world's first of all if a puff is has the world would we still survive without human human beings survive. Oh yeah so yeah yeah just disrupt civilization. would that be post apocalyptic. Would it would disrupt civilization mad. Max Style Regionally Oh yes okay. Yeah or a boy and his dog style okay go way back to the Senate okay. Johnson one of his first movie. I didn't know that. Yeah all right. He's the boy right. And then there's the dog. So he's living on the surface of the earth which is apocalyptic civilization moved underground eight All the I think all the men became sterile of course and the men on the surface. We're not so. They grabbed him. Brought him down to have him. I'm in pregnant. Standards of women. Luckiest boy average. No they extracted the sperm from him. And then that's the theme if you didn't know about a boy and his dog that's that's Don Johnson in early cinematic role but you can look at movies and how they portrayed. These loans survivors in apocalyptic earth. And they needed like three three things. They need. Sort of a street smarts though. There's no street survival smarts survivors mind. Oh boy scout level survival smarts probably Eagle Scout level. And they all have some kind of weapon true that can cause harm at a distance so a bow and Arrow or gun. You don't want any up close and personal hand to hand. This is my issue with the Lightsaber in Star Wars. Everyone's looking at at it like it's some kind of major amazing weapon when you have to stand three feet feet from person to use it. Just think about that. The whole point of the advance of weaponry in the history of warfare is so you don't have to stand that close to anybody except that you can deflect a laser shamanee's bullets laser bullets. Yeah we're wait wait wait so I'm saying is if you have enough time to notice his coming and then flick it out of the way right you could just duck. That is true. Okay you just duck. Why are you ruining for me right now? So I'm just not as impressed with the lightsaber as everybody else is. Okay all right it looks cool though. Okay so you'd Wanna be able to to protect yourself from a distance and You'd want access to food and in a boy and a dog. The only food left over on the ground was canned food. Um which we know was not spoiled by radiation or anything else that was involved in it becoming apocalyptic earth. So I I would also say as you need a can opener opener can't yes you do. The dog could only dog was smarter. The dog is telepathic. And a genius. And he's not so. The dog found the cans basically.
"j. query" Discussed on ShopTalk
"j. query" Discussed on StarTalk Radio
"There are things that are hard for us right. There are things that may even be impossible for us. Can you picture a five dimensional cube. No I cannot no you cannot keep to four dimensional cube probably not the tesseract is close yet. That's like I can. I can actually picture that because I've seen a drawing I F- I have it has racked. Do you really get out. Oh all right well bringing in wait another episode another episode. We'll be the episode of higher dimensions sweet hole on just hired him. I liked that. We didn't already how come I don't remember man. We're getting old. Did I have my tesseract in my head. While now I do it again. Took this from Thanos. So so what it means is if you are going to deduce what is there is not true in the universe right. Your senses not the most reliable measure of whether it's true so true because the sense is give you a restricted understanding of what's actually going on in the universe your eyes. You would never trade them for anything yet. They only expose your your mind to a very tiny narrow strip of all the electromagnetic electromagnetic energy. That's out there can't see infrared. You can feel it as he. You can't see it ultraviolet. You can't see that either. You can feel that in a delayed sense by getting thank. Sunburn Reagan cancer is telling you in that instant. It's the time delay but keep going out. There's a infrared ultraviolet x ray gamma rays can't see any of that but the universe is was talking to you in that so are you going to say my sense is give me everything that there is in the universe and therefore it makes sense no as long as we detect things that fall outside of our senses. It's a challenge for you to declare that what we say do and discover make accents. The very statement makes sense means. Your senses can contemplate it right at your senses have experience. If I let go of a ball in a floats up you'll say that doesn't make sense dance right because your senses always told you if you'd like overboard drops right and in fact the very statement let it go not the president not the frozen version but just let it go means drop it. They mean the same thing but that can only be true on earth with a force of gravity pointing down in space and free bit. You let go just float to this days right. There stays right there so like my problems say right. I must be space because all my problems somebody says drop it and I did that. Oh they're right still here and you let it go and Adler exactly so my point is the message tools of science. Give you a way to understand what is true without it being hinged on whether your senses think it's True Nice Ace so the midst of until the access to truth will you can still probed the universe whereas God works in mysterious ways kind of ends that conversation whereas I I say I developed a new instrument that can see in ways humans cannot oh my God said opens entire world of investigation entire branches of science the right gotta take a break okay. My answers are too long. Deep Blue Okay all right when we come back more a cosmic query read as much as you want from.