19 Burst results for "Italian Peninsula"
"italian peninsula" Discussed on 77WABC Radio
"This is John. The day after the final debate of the presidential contest. I welcome Monk of Lejos and teaches history at Johns Hopkins. Michael are going to slip into our roles of A question class Roman citizens living in or near London, IAM. The year is 90 80. Commission, the half God Emperor. We're happy with him. But at the wine shop one afternoon because we're idle men. We have people to work for us. We start to speculate about Rome's history, especially the civil wars. And a civil wars is a common topic. Michael and I've talked about as Michael and John for many months years because we're not sure if we're in a civil war here in the 21st century in America before another election, which Michael and I both agree, will not resolve this conflict. So we start to look for analogies. What is to be done what has happened before, and the Romans who invented civil war? Invented civil war over several 100 years and we go to a period of time. This is thesent century. BC between approximately the year 1 33 and 1 20 in that zone. This is after Rome is bested and humiliated Carthage. S O. There is Cartago Delinda as there is no rival for Rome. And the Roman citizens are supreme in the Mediterranean basin. But there is anxiety because the rest of the Italian peninsula wants tohave the blessings of being a Roman citizen to why can't we be included? You taxes? You make us go to war when you go to war. And yet, you treat us says not even second class outside. And this is a popular spirit. There are two brothers, Tiberius and guys they're known now. Today is the Grand Kai. And they both are of the senatorial class. The optimists and yet, Michael, A very good evening to you. Cleverly dramatic has take us to the great Khai. To discuss what we're witnessing here in the 21st century, which is populism versus the senatorial class. Let me fill in the blank. The billionaire from Manhattan is a populist later. The 47, year long poorest man in the Senate is a leader of the senatorial class. The optimism is what the Romans called them, whereas they called the Popular, some recognizable popularity. Michael, How does the graphic I story Inform us for these days? Good evening, too. Good evening, John. And there is, I think, in fact great utility to historical analogies, or you might want to say residence, and the truth is that this period Of the late Republic in Rome has a lot of resonance with the U. S today, and it does so not in any kind of parallelism but rather in the dynamics of a unraveling. Republic and those dynamics historically and forever are the dynamics of A wealthy, privileged, aristocratic class. Getting Mohr off of each of the hosts three qualities getting stronger and bigger and richer all the time and ah, vast majority of citizens because it's a republic like our own. Who are getting screwed. Who are you know, starving or without land or being, you know, exploited by the state and by all these aristocrats, and that is such a pertinent seen throughout History, especially the history of Republics. Is this constant trend in which an aristocratic class owning the state gets richer and more powerful and Everyone else is left behind and ground down now what the Rocky were were Optima Tous. They were aristocrats and and they were right in the heart of the patrician world in Rome, and yet they championed the people and their reforms. Which you know, ironically enough would be fulfilled by Julius Caesar and Augustus Caesar was to actually do something for the poeple, Orestes. And of course they were killed. For that. You see, Ross Perot emerge another Billionaire who was the first open up this possibility for those who had been for gotten to be heard that gained a lot of strength in the early 21st century. Especially after the turmoil of the war, followed by the great recession and you had the emergence of the tea party and then with Trump and his capacity to To speak and to embrace the deplorables to become a Her guardian figure for them a kind of a savior. Even you've had this emotional identification between a leader who is among the patrician Uh, class on DH and the people and what is fascinating about this is not just that it's it's happened throughout the history of Republics, but the fact that Um the, uh, the opposition. We'll call it Blue has managed to obscure our capacity to understand what's going on by making themselves out. That is blue to be the tribunes of the people. They're the ones who are going to help the people. But in fact that's a false flag. And this happens a lot, too, because in the late Roman Republic you had Lots of big men leaders among the optimum artists who would appeal to the popular Loris for their support like Pompey and Crassus. And again, you know, eventually, Julius Caesar. Himself. But the fact is that The papa Loris are necessary for the up Tomatis, the whole power And the question is, how well is the elite able to disguise? They're actual estate there actual position in society and their actual objectives, which is simply to increase their own wealth and power forever from the discerning gaze of of the Pope, Lars and This is the big question we have heading in to November and this election year analogy. Michael makes it easier to see today when we see how the Romans were fooled or allowed themselves to be fooled, Tiberius Gracchus. Is elected Tribune of the People around 1 31 33 B. C e his brother 10 years later. After Gracchus Tiberius Gracchus is killed by the senatorial class who conjure up a mob and they club Tiberius and his followers to death in the farm..
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Hostage
"The roots of Aldo Moro's kidnapping and the social and political chaos of nineteen seventies. Italy lie decades before the actual event they can be found in the successful resistance against Mussolini's fascist regime and the creation of the Italian republic in the wake of World War Two Mussolini's fascist regime had risen out of the turmoil and violence that plagued the Italian peninsula in the early twentieth century. He promised vision of order to counter the chaos and instability but as soon as Mussalini took power it became clear that the fascist way of controlling the country meant persecution imprisonment or death for anyone. Who disagreed with him? It didn't take long for a new anti fascist resistance to take hold and when World War Two broke out the Italian resistance undermine Mussolini from within ultimately helping to liberate their country but the groups that formed the resistance were extremely diverse. They included anarchists. Catholics Marxists and capitalists while they'd been able to put aside their differences when faced with Mussalini their ideological disagreements reappeared in nineteen forty five in the ashes of World War. Two's devastation. They argued about how Italy should be governed by the time. A new constitution was signed in nineteen forty seven deep political divisions had already been formed while these ideologies competed. Italy's nascent. Parliamentary Republic was struggling to rebuild the war-torn country so when the US offered a financial aid package the new government gladly accepted but this decision only increased Italy's political turmoil. The Cold War was beginning to shape global politics. Instead of siding with the Communist Soviet Union Italy aligned with the capitalist United States. This did not sit well with the communists and socialists who had fought in the resistance and the remaining fascist weren't happy with the new association either following Mussolini's Defeat. Many of them had stayed in the police and military or joined extreme right-wing parties they hope to wedge their way back into the government even though the majority of the country didn't trust them torn between extremes. Italians were primed for a moderate party. The only option that seemed to walk the line was the center-left Christian Democratic Party the Christian Democrats blended modern democratic ideals with liberal Catholic values like equality morality. They weren't inherently capitalist but as Italy's majority party they became associated with capitalism in the minds of both the Italian left and right this shift to a capitalist economy transformed the country from a predominantly agrarian culture to an urban one old ways of life quickly died out causing yet another crisis. People from the poor southern regions moved to the more prosperous. North exacerbating cultural tensions the Sicilian mafia and other criminal organizations expanded their spheres of influence and became more brazen and violent by the late sixties. Italy had once again descended into violent turmoil. Far Left groups were waging war against the status quo the far right one at a return to fascism both sides carried out assassinations robberies and bombings as they struggled for control street protests often turned into clashes with the police the years from the late sixty s through the mid nineteen eighties became known as the years of lead named after the countless bullets fired. Then in one thousand nine hundred. Seventy Renato Curcio Margherita goal and Alberto Franceschini Three Devout Ideological Marxist Leninist communist in their early twenties established a militant faction called the Red Brigades. Their goal was to conduct class warfare until they could bring about the long-awaited revolution and restore power to the people. The Red Brigades had no intention of waiting around for the Italian Communist Party to gain power in parliament. They viewed cooperation within the existing system as a betrayal of their ideals. Instead they plan to use violence to incite the people to rise up from the start. The Red Brigades firebombed factories kidnapped Fascist maimed. Anyone who spoke out against them and used other violent means to make themselves known they quickly became one of the most prominent examples of radical left wing terrorism in Europe which both further alienated them from the Communist Party and gain the members from among Italy's disenfranchised youth but even as the majority of Italians viewed them as terrorists. The Red Brigades were convinced they were fighting to save their country according to the. Us government report the sociology and Psychology of terrorism most terrorist see themselves as fighting for legitimate and noble social causes in. Don't view their actions as terrorism. This certainly seemed to be the case for the Red Brigades whose ideology told them that they had to fight against the existing class system. Anyone who got in their way or represented. The system was an enemy in this war. In June nineteen seventy four curcio goal Franceschini and approximately seventeen of their comrades kidnapped. Conservative judge Mario SOCI- from his home in Genoa in exchange for his release they demanded freedom for eight of their imprisoned. Comrades the Red Brigades threatened to execute judge SOCI- unless the government cooperated the Italian authorities were trapped on principle. They did not negotiate with terrorists plus giving in would mean releasing known criminals back onto the streets but they also couldn't abandon a citizen much less unimportant representative of the law ultimately the decision makers chose not to abandon the judge and agreed to release the prisoners. The Red Brigades saw this as a massive coup. They'd succeeded in bending the government there will it gave them confidence to be even bolder in the future but as the Red Brigades celebrated their imminent victory. Something changed the judge charged with releasing the prisoners. Francesco Coco refused. He couldn't bring himself to let the terrorists win. The Red Brigade leaders were livid at the betrayal and the team holding judge SOCI- captive argue over what to do one of the most fanatical of these comrades a well educated former factory. Worker named Mario Moretti argued that they should execute judge SOCI- but in the end leaders Curcio and Franceschini had the final say. They decided that they could win the PR battle if they released judge SOCI- anyway by letting the judge go unharmed and holding up their end of the bargain. The Red Brigades would look magnanimous and reasonable. While the government would look cowardly and weak but by choosing not to release the prisoners judge. Cocoa had put a target on himself two years later in nineteen seventy six. He and his bodyguards were murdered in the street. Outside his home by Mario Moretti and five of his men judge Coco's murder rattled the government that year a of the Red Brigade leaders including both Curcio and Franceschini were arrested and charged for terrorist activities while the Italian justice system considered these ringleaders to be criminals. The Red Brigades saw them as prisoners of war and it was their job to free their comrades following Curcio and Franceschini Arrests. The remaining Red Brigade leaders split up. They moved to different regions to make themselves harder for the authorities to find. They built new cells and planned new actions certain that their revolution was close. Though in reality they never had more than several hundred active members. One of the most confident was Mario Moretti. The kidnapper who had advocated for Judge Societas murder. In order to avoid arrest Mario move to Rome in late. Nineteen seventy six there. He organized a cell of equally zealous. Comrades Mario's goal was to strike a death blow to the capitalist. Us controlled government and get the Red Brigade leaders released. He just had to figure out how and time was running out. The ruling Christian Democrats were making changes to the Italian Communist Party hoping to form a coalition that would give both parties broad governing power. If the Communist Party was neutralized by the establishment moderates on. That would make it almost impossible for the Red Brigades revolution to succeed anytime soon. Mario knew that everything the Red Brigades had done go to waste if they didn't stop the coalition. He was ready to do. Whatever it took coming up we'll find out how the Red Brigades found their unlikely target Parkas listeners. We realized that there are a lot of par- cash shows to choose from each day and sometimes not enough time to sort through them..
Derby d'Italia Preview
"Hello welcome to the show. The Italian peninsula is pulsating at the prospect of the the Italian. I described the anticipation level. Here is above average shackling shocks. The only major daily Steve Nickel Craig Burley Guide Makoni is with US too. He is certainly quaking at the prospect of you venter's against Inter. We can see they are the top two teams in in Syria. After six games into perfect with six wins out of six events is just the two points behind them. The automakers actually actually make it into slight favorites to win this at home. You've into sit close to two to one for the win just over two to one on the draw gap. Let's start with you. It's always a massive game but many are calling this the biggest WTI Italia in close to a decade why simply because it's really the first time in close to a decade that that interacts legitimate contenders they've won every game name thus far in they're coming off a Champions League week where they went to the camp now in Barcelona and for more than an hour they play really really well and then perhaps had a dip at the end and so all these factors together coupled with all the all the subjects here obviously you've got doggone thing and Bep in Mata going back to take on to take on new Venice. You've got you know geico go dean against skips. Ronaldo renewing old rivalries there. You've got show many things going on on the side as well. I think there is a sense that the people are ready after so many years of vendors dominance for for somebody to go and deliver the title and it would be quite a story if it were who does it contain against Syria sorry of course gap the battle of the recently deposed Chelsea coaching say. Let's let's get to the teams that you expect to see out there. GAP STARTS OUT WITH INTER-WAR. What is it starting eleven and we look at blue collar. Who Missing Out in mid week? He's should be fit again so he's up front. There's no Alexis Sanchez who suspended of course foolish suspended I might add highly would've started anyway Dombrowski of coming in on the right wing Mozart elite for beyond that it's really interest- best eleven recenter backs and really explosive midfield led by Stefan with and Brockovich rough and what about event is Gab. Renaldo is starting to click yeah some debate about whether it's developed Renaldo whether it's GonNa be Wayne and who Seattle upfront some debate over the formation I should do. There's a lot more than certainty here which weird when you think society team we know that his best eleven we'll have douglas on the wing and that that four three three with church turns before for two off the ball but there is no douglas costs are so the thinking is we're going to see somebody in the whole it could be Aaron Ramsey. We will the Aaron Ramsey it could be. There's also the option of been lining up as sort of the third man in that three prong attack in midfield. Probably what what right now you would say three and ambulatory continued to write back in part because the show and then levels out in part because he's done a pretty decent job there and obviously community but we know that he's not gonna be back until the new year so it's partnering Pucci Delicious Delicious Prospect. Isn't it great big one for Ramsey's relatively house played the GOP said they'd give teams a bit more hard to gauge because Sarah has changed around and they have a big squad but as another market down for inter who started this season fantastic well okay had a big challenge in mid week which the the Ba- lost whoo certainly won't disgraced and the debt of CIANCI's against the US side who haven't quite had the straps yet. I think gobs mentioned this before. I think one of the big things enter is not just the fact that they've got. Some new faces in the playing field is the fact that Antonio Conte has given the funds hope as well and you know. Here's is a guy that goes to ut lingering around seventh previous even towns around it goes to Chelsea has a has a bad star tones it round that season they went new league and to get off the six games in the League of Women Star. I think giving everybody a and rightly so I'll look forward to but the two biggies is tested all coming within four or five days and then you know got good gauge of where enter our by by Sunday night I coming off that loss against since Barcelona as well I I'm interested to see coney goes both because of the Madrid in bothell on an yes they played well for no doubt shed but ultimately law is he going to try and set trying to save some energy because they they gave me or will he try and take advantage of the modern pop because it's five against four my opinion of safely we three you. You know sorry one which which we did. He go accompanied my mind up whether he goes on the front foot or whether it goes conservative. Yep You get the sense out there. Slow Start Conventis is starting to enjoy full now and Maurizio. Sorry starting to figure things out as you'd expect. This event is a still you've enters the daytime daytime defending champions for for a reason. I still think that this is you've enters. That hasn't hit full stride just yet. I feel they can go up a game or two and I act who is coming would be playing seemingly for the long term now. I don't think he's found his confidence either. Just yet alongside Baluchi intend to catch a new Venice. This is about as good a time. No parental yeah to get something out of it. I can key players Craig fee. Oh you who stands out on either side of the ball who the potential gain decide his sentence. He's playing Brnovich. Didn't the hard graft in the middle of the macaca could come back in the game. You know mind united we were critical as GONNA show up in a real big games. They don't come much bigger than this. He didn't play mid week so so he's he's. He's fresh off blocking the site so he'd be a big shot mentioned from you have a lane how does young Honduras partnership with Benicio Gab. I wonder mental block. Perhaps for into the get over here. They've only beaten you've inches one time in the last thirteen in Syria. I don't think so we look I mean have a whole lot of issues mental and otherwise have had over the last decade but you know I'm not a believer in those statistics. I don't see how it's relevant. What happened eight games ago ten games ago when it was different players? It was a different manager different manager on the on the you've aside as well of course obviously when you're when you ain't that it does feel as if you you're kind of always climbing a mountain. It's a very Sisyphean pursuit if you will but that's add any dog team especially in the first six months months what they're never lacking is mentality so. I don't think that's going to be an issue in issue for them at all. I think give this game this game. I don't think it's going to be won or lost by mind games or whatever this game is going to be won or lost either either tactically if one of these two teams and weirdly Qaddafi who's the one who's perhaps more likely to throw a curve ball and change things up rather than Cold Day. One there or it's going to be won by individuals because you've got some tremendous game changing individuals on the page from from merely Ghannage to China Rinaldo obviously to as as we heard from Craig the likes Consi Louder Martinez whose looked sharp and maybe lukaku offers a different type of challenge stevie could possibly be a game decided by which defense plays better the the defense has been spectacular. They've conceded feed. No there's only one mistakes in my head as could game could be decided by Rinaldo. Yeah I mean the truth is I'm listening in right now. This could be a good thing to play event. Remember l'ennemi vent is no last couple seasons regardless of the monitor players have we sat and watched little about how the moving the ball well decree logic get the feeling that was more event as it never played. GUETTA fought to get resolved. They always get when at my house most. There's one team and there's one. Guy Renaldo who comes up trump scored in both games at the San Sierra last season prediction timeshare. which way do you see this going? I in and to get the job done. You know I think we've seen enough from into suggests that and as I said on a standby this is as good time as any to to catch Venice. I think to get three points. Golden Lost Zero sorry at the wrong country park for that aw just particularly say come on it was nothing to do with. We talked about insurance. There's nothing to be by defendant grip pace in the bowl from massey the touch from Suarez just go finish one of those things it wasn't all over the place yes they had to defend but they were beaten by couple of Grit Gold folks and I think that gives them heartful game because the well I'm GonNa go for an intimate on win and another Markelle Dome for them in the League to who they're going to be a Hatcher Kuni. Event is don't lose. Don't lose so you're saying say saying juice. Hugh had junior bets into we've all event is always come up trumps. You County back against him in a big game blue gabby. You get you get the casting vote here. What's going to happen diplomatically. Sit on the fence here. See something I think into draw points for the first time in the season. I'm going to go with with a high scoring hiring draw to to something like that. Maybe even more I know you wouldn't normally think so. Look at city is a game. It's going to be tight but I think there are enough off individuals out there and you know this is still Saturday's. You've and I could see a game with practically different outcome but along the same lines of what we saw when they played Napoli so basically gobbled says you won't lose that'd be Eddie can place for the girls rose for a high scoring draw the rest of the Syria fixtures on Saturday and Sunday looking like this
Notre Dame, Notre Dame Cathedral And Paris discussed on 790 KABC Programming
"Begin with the big news out of France. The burning of the Notre Dame cathedral. Their lead. The outer structure was indeed saved according to French fire services Sky News says flames broke out at the twelfth century building on Monday evening, quickly devastating this fire and roof and sending plumes of smoke into the sky. One fire was serious firefighter was seriously injured local media say police were treating the blaze as an accident. French president Emmanuel Macron's and he was so sad tonight to see this part of us all burn declared, a national emergency speaking from the scene in Paris express, sympathy with Catholics around the world following the terrible tragedy. But added that the worst had been avoided, and then he vowed to launch an international fundraising campaign, for instance, minister originally warned that the four hundred firefighters scrambled to the scene would not be enough to save the cathedral. But a junior minister from the department later said they were more optimistic that the cathedral itself could be spared. A French firefighter official confirmed that Notre Dame structure and two towers had indeed been saved from total destruction Prime Minister Theresa may said her thoughts with the people of France tonight. And with the emergency services are fighting the terrible blades, the video of it was just. Astonishing and shocking the area where the spire once was was still burning with sparks falling from the cathedral vaulted ceiling as of Monday night, people outside were singing hymns and gasping as they watch much of the much of the cathedral burned to the ground. The Paris mayor and had although urged the public to respect the security perimeter around the cathedral while firefighters tackled. The terrible blaze added that the areas close to the scene were evacuated. Rich Lowry over at national review has a good review about what exactly Notre dominant means. Does Notre Dame stands for so many qualities that we now lack patients and staying power the cultivation of beauty a deep religious faith, the cultural confidence and ambition to build a timeless monument of our civilization that the collapse of inspire is almost too much to bear the great novelist. Victor Hugo who did so much provide interest in the cathedral when it was in disrepair in the nineteen th century wrote. How quote every surface every stone of this. Venerable pile is a page of the history, not only of the country, but of science and art work of generations completed across three centuries in triumph over considerable arc. Conceptual and logistical challenges at arose at the original site of a pagan temple thousands of tons of stone has to be transported from outside Paris, one ox-cart or barge at a time. So cheated soaring height and hold up at ceiling and walls relied on the architectural innovations of the rib vaults and the flying buttress France, built eighty cathedrals in five hundred large churches across this period says rich lower there's only one at Notre Dame of Paris gothic jewel who's towers prior. To the advent of the Eiffel tower the tallest structure in the city. It is or one hates to think was torn by what are culturally significant artifacts in their own, right. The statutory meant to illustrate the story of the bible and to all worshippers couldn't read the stained glass windows, that took ingenuity to embed in stone, walls and are themselves are tick Marvel's the Oregon with more than eight thousand pipes the bells with their names, including the largest masterpiece. Emmanuel dating back to the fifteenth century and recast in sixteen eighty one not to mention the religious relics. That means so much to the Catholic faithful it has been the of countless processions in services to petition and thank God on behalf of the French nation. It is where less is. Marriages and funerals occurred or Napoleon crowned himself emperor or Charles de Gaulle attended a mass to celebrate the liberation of Paris in nineteen forty four riflefire echoing outside it's revived the rampages of iconoclastic huge knots in the sixteenth century the depredation of radicals during the French revolution into the eighteenth century. They transformed it into a friend to the cult of reason used it. As a warehouse in wanted to melt down the bells and incidental damage during two world wars in the twentieth century all the while at accumulated layers in history. And meaning it's great advocate Hugo author of the famous Hunchback of Notre Dame wrote of how the greatest productions of architecture are not so much work of individuals as a community. I rather the offspring of a nation's labor than the outcome of individual genius that a positive a whole people the heaped up treasurer of centuries, the residual left by successive evaporation of human society in a word a species of formations each wave of time leaves it's coating of Luhya alluvial each race deposits layers on the monuments, each individual contribute to stone to it. And that of course is exactly right is amazing at tweeted something out that I thought frankly was. Was really uncontroversial. I tweeted out that Notre Dom was a was a totem to western civilization and of western civilization, and people that very upset with this particularly a lot of folks on the left were very upset with this. I tweeted out if we wish to uphold the beauty and profundity of the Notre Dame cathedral means reefa millions ourselves with the philosophy and religious principles that built it means reefa. Millions ref- Amelia rising ourselves with the precepts of Catholicism with western history with what Catholicism was without contributed to the west. And all this stuff seems deeply important to me this became very controversial lot of folks on the left were very upset with me for suggesting this. They said why can't we just appreciate it just as a piece of art? You can appreciate it. However you want, but if you want to know why so many people in the west were deeply affected by the burning of Notre Dom. It wasn't just because it was icon. Ick is because Notre Dame holds deeper meaning because it is a totem of a chain of history that culminates in the modern west. They can see the sort of sort of anodyne version of mourning for the cathedral from Ilhan, mar she tweeted out art and architecture have unique ability to help us connect across our differences and bring people together and important ways. Thinking of the people of Paris in praying for every first responder trying to save this wonder. Again, it's fine to look at Notre Dame is just art and architecture, but it has deeper resonance than that. And that was the point that I was making is that the residents of Notre nam is about the faith that inspired. Notre and listen, this is coming from a Jew this coming for an orthodox Jew house. So important to remember then note for Dom is again a historical monument to the chain of history of which we are apart and Ronin entire book about this. My book the right side of history talks about this chain of history Judeo Christian history of the west and how Judaism and Christianity combined with Greek reason in play in intention created the world in which we live. I want to read a section from the talking about the period during which Notre Dame was built Notre Dame. Of course was built during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Took a couple of centuries to complete which in and of itself. Is an amazing testament to the human mind ends of the power of the eternal to inspire the human mind. Because after all why plant the tree if you're not going to get to sit in its shade. Why build a building if you know that you're not gonna get completed because our task is not to complete the building. Our task is to join in the building of that structure in the first place. Here's what I talk about in my book with regard to this period in western history. From the fall of Rome through the twelfth century. Christianity would spread from its base in the Italian peninsula in the British Isles, France, Germany, and eventually the Nordic countries as well. Well, understand had posited. A great divide between the city of God. In the city of van. The Catholic church was quite active in the city of man, the church receive tithes from Christians the Continente over had its own ecclesiastical courts by the tenth century, the church was the single largest landowner in western Europe kings found their legitimacy through the conduit of the church and battles with the church to expand their own power. Holy Roman Emperor. Henry the fourth walk barefoot in the snow earn back the approval of pope, Gregory the seventh and within seconds of England eleven thirty three to eleven eighty nine had himself flogged in order to win back. The. Approval of his Christian population. After accidents ordering the death of archbishop Thomas Becket popular history maintains that this period represents the dark ages, but that's simply inaccurate progress. Continued as Christianity spread the monastic system centralized learning in monasteries where priests nuns devoted themselves with Sediq pursuit of divine understanding in educational terms this devotion revolved around scripture. The Benedictine monks. For example, lived under the rules created by Saint Benedictine for eighty two five forty seven a set of orders regarding the hierarchy of monasteries the behavior by which to abide and the requirements of work the arts thrived in the monastic system manuscripts were preserved by monks devoted to writing new copies and beautifying them in the monastic system. The liberal arts taught by the Greeks and the Romans as championed by Cicero and Seneca among others survived albeit in Spiritualized form gusted himself, despite his distaste for paganism suggested that the liberal arts education could be hijacked for service to God. I'll Guston likened such cultural appropriation to the Jews taking gold during the biblical exodus. These liberal arts were categorized by the philosopher both into the famous Quadra, verion music, arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy and trivia, grammar rhetoric and logic. Meanwhile, the middle ages saw technological revolution. In agriculture, the rise of commerce institution of new forms of art ranging from polyphonic music to gothic architecture. Notre Dame would be a perfect example of gothic architecture. It also saw new developments in the art of war with technology developments that would allow the west to defeat its enemies in the course of coming centuries while many history historians tout the power of Islamic civilization during this time period and Islam civilization did thrive on the Arabian peninsula, particularly when his Llamas civilization came up against western civilization. At the battle of tours Islamic forces were soundly defeated by the eighth century. Christian leaders were crusading against enslavement, except notably for the enslavement of Muslim war. Captives monasteries were engaging in proto capitalism as well. Furthermore, the Catholic church was responsible for learning and teaching virtually all literacy sprang from honest, Aries still the modern world could not have been created. Under these circumstances. But I write my book faith provided individual moral purpose faith provided collective moral purpose, but while individual capacity was bolstered by the doctrinal belief in free will and the value of work reason had been made secondary to faith. Well, collective capacity was bolstered by the presence of a strong social fabric. The all encompassing. Power of the Catholic church and the rule of monarchs that that individual choice. It was heavily circumscribed even education had been radically reoriented toward the church ultra knowledge lay in the bible. The liberal arts were only useful so far as they bolstered the biblical story for science and democracy. Take hold in the west reason would have to be elevated once more
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Thank God I'm Atheist
"Wow. Did they know? This was going to happen. I don't think so they knew that they were meeting with the pope my God. And he basically he note down, and he said he said, quote, I express my heartfelt hope the house still ladies will finally cease that the armistice will be respected that political and ethnic divisions will be surmounted and that there will be a lasting peace for the common. Good of all those citizens who dream of beginning to build the nation. No here. So my first response to this. When I read it was will that's going to make a difference. You know, you've got oh good. Some random white guy that neither of these political leaders actually cares about kiss their feet. Well, Donald totally changed the world. But then I realized what he's dealing with is just two guys. Yeah. Just a couple of emotional human beings. And you never know like literally that gesture could be baffling enough to like make a difference. I don't know. I literally have no idea like how this whether this is a worthless stupid thing for the pope to do it can't hurt. Like, what is he like their attention? I mean. Yeah. Sort of way that I could somebody else's been able to get there. I don't know. I don't know one of the one of the vice presidents of south Sudan. Whose name is Rebecca NIA, ding Garang said I've never seen anything like that tears were flowing down my eyes. She's she's she was a very very moved by the whole thing. I bet it was moving a bit. It was shocking. I bet it was caught people off guard. Yeah. Pope francis. I mean, so I. I like the idea of like a world leader someone who is a very important person in the world. Yeah. Literally, just humbling them himself and just saying look, you're the piece is more important than any of us. Right. It's more important than my dignity, right or whatever. What's the most important? He gets off on this show. Of course, he does. But he's but he's doing he's doing something for two. He's making a show. He's making a point. Right. And you know, he's using it at least for. A good idea. He's in south Sudan would be great. I mean, Sudan just had just over through their government. Seriously. I mean at this point I'd like to find somebody in the entire Italian peninsula whose feet he hasn't washed or kissed her on something. This is an African. Totally different. He's moved out from Italy. Jerk. All right. No. I'm just imagining some tourist walking around the Vatican City looking down at their feet going you I shouldn't have worn sandals. Hey is the pope available at the dirty dirty? I need them. Yeah. Pucker up. Popey. The title of this week's episode pucker up popey. I can I can make that how. Okay. Dan. A few how long ago how long ago did we talk about? The in India's Supreme Court lifting the ban on the entry of women have been shrill age at that Hindu temple. That was what a couple months ago a few months ago, six months months ago, something like, okay? Maybe that happened. I don't have a concept of time. Yeah. That's close enough fair enough. Anyway. So that happened and that kind of opened up a little bit of an issue. Yeah. Did obviously there were conservative Hindus who did not like that at all people were not happy with it. But there were maybe some more moderate or liberal Muslims who were watching the whole thing..
"italian peninsula" Discussed on ESPN FC
"Bit of a catastrophe teams on the Italian peninsula. In Europe this week a tale of woe Romer Cosa getting new ventures, but both of them losing the big story really for the to Milan clubs Napoli cool sit so close to gain for. But the headline said old on the sport going into idiots Milan. Hill is also another headline. So let's bring in Gabon called the tale of woe, Glenn catastrophes. Same would engage an Italian gap it for which men land club. Do you think? This was the worst week. I think I think it was probably worse week for it to be honest. Simply because they look at themselves, and they had it totally incorrect approach I thought against against PS VR Dovan, parents them spend all the time worrying about whether it Barcelona we're going to try hard against Burs or not. Meet on for their part. I mean not much to write home about either. And obviously their European campaign is now over, but they did create a bunch of chances against to leave your calls. They probably only have themselves to blame. They can be really unhappy about the penalty. But you know, message to about it. There's no need for you to put your hands on him. And if you don't do that you won't get you won't get whistled for a penalty. So I'm gonna lean inter, but certainly, you know, only just do you guys can co was it more of a disaster into I think so and I think he has to do with the level of expectation and the train for inter that seemed to be taking steps forward and going into the next phase. So Champions League, I think themselves and a different level altogether. Now, it doesn't mean that resolve all of their issues, but he puts them in a situation where they can now think of themselves at a higher level they can think of themselves that they can step forward. Now, it's more questions than answers jacket. Yeah. I agree. I think the bigger damage his it was done by by into on on seven it. I've just say. As far as AC goes. Yes, it was. It was a penalty. You know? Maybe you can make the argument that it isn't always given. Well, it should. And then you know, you start pointing fingers at what shouldn't shouldn't. And that's he can stance, but given how well into how done up to that point. Only left would get any better PSV at home the the team bottom of your group. I just I just expected more from into in that sick of the other things that inter had couple of chances to wrap this up lose to Spurs away from home. And then when you really have a chance in front of your your own able to win a game that you need to win some should disaster for them both. We're going to talk with the embarrassing excuse Leonardo with his claiming that the homes in the flu. Not Olympia costs and Greece on you talk about noise and clones nonsense. I'm sorry. Walt can drivel is. I mean, you know, enter shouldn't have been looking at what boss is the boys have said and AC Milano the Europa league. The you've got any defense Findlay and Ottawa tool. No. I mean, I'm surprised he he said that I think he was just shocked that he wasn't really thinking what he was saying. He's basically blaming a club for having noisy passionate home fans who might bring horns and drums and T and all that stuff that supposedly makes European football. Colorful, look, I mean, it was a tough group because so Olympia Bianco and Beattie's, but. Ultimately, you know, we have them selves to blame. Generally, what you get when you go to Greece. Is that pretty good? Pretty good atmosphere. Pretty good, Paul. Kost the Seri. Awesome. Kost. Oh, look at those three Kabylie genus, aloe. See it on ESPN NFC. Welcome into. It's been see extra. Chime the full crew here got Gabon caldy on which is just as well because they stock flows Israel, don't very much it. We got the shrubbery. Shrubberies? It's very it's will. Rubbery shrimping the face, the glare a gap. Joe Schwantz know what's going on with the tally in football question. Mark Napoli and out of the Champions League. Europe league walk needs to change question voice. Sit back and relax. The floor is yours. Oh, man..
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Monocle Daily
"Made its entire identity over the opposition to north of the country in the south of the country now the guess it's it's always accused of southerners to be scroungers of of of the italian peninsula but now it's founded scroungers elsewhere and now is trying to turn the same mentality which had worked so well in an urban part of the country onto the southern part of the country against a new wave of socalled scrumptious what other current or possible dispute so a fault lines of between italy cities and italy's national government so interestingly an just at the end of last week and other meryl initiative was reported by la stampa and another member of de new government who's quite extremist in his views as the new minister families from tana who's another lega member who's the clad in a gun in one of this feud first few days in power that he thought that gay couples didn't legally exist now some as in across cities across italy such as cheering for examples florence also i'll take upon themselves to try and warrants some degree of civil rights for gay couples within is possible for them in city hall so for example there inscribing both names of same sex couples onto the register of births which is a bit of a i guess a full measure but still a way of legitimising the existence of of same sex couples way and the national discourse is is turning very very sour around just finally vanity it is only ten or eleven days into this this bold new experiment in italy's national government but.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Giants of History
"And another interesting bit about putin folly is that this is the city that paul the apostle is said to have arrived in as well on his way to rome around sixty ad but just like that after a journey that was estimated to be around two thousand miles given her route and roughly six to eight weeks at sea and some say a little bit longer some say a little bit shorter cleopatra finally arrived on italian soil but the journey wasn't over yet the overland trip from puteolana to rome was about one hundred and seventy miles so she was still about three to four days out from actually arriving in room but for all intents and purposes she had made it now from puteolana cleopatra and her entourage would have worked their way of bit north by way of primitive roads that were mostly constructive gravel and sand until they reached the famous via appier or the abbey and way now this was one of the earliest roads constructed in the roman republic and certainly one of its most important ultimately running some three hundred plus miles connecting rome on the west coast of the italian peninsula with its settlements on the southeastern coast but as we said cleopatra's journey from put yoli to rome was roughly another three days overland so how would cleopatra have made this part of the journey well she would have either been sitting in a covered carriage bumping her way along the rough road for three days or she presumably spent all or a good portion of the trip in a litter.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Giants of History
"But north of crete and into and through the i own seat from there cleopatra either traveled through the strait of messina which is that little space between sicily and the italian peninsula and by the way that's just two miles wide at its narrowest point or she would have gone around sicily altogether the exact route is unknown but ultimately at some point cleopatra and her flotilla would've found themselves in the waters just off the western coast of italy tracing the peninsula's coastline and here it's really interesting to put yourself in the shoes of cleopatra and those that traveled with her brasow they made their way up the western coast of italy and into the bay of naples if they looked to their right or east they would have seen would appear to be a small mountain in the distance sitting between two coastal cities one to it south and one to its north if only they could have known in that moment that roughly a hundred twenty five years later in seventy nine ad and you all know where i'm going with this that mountain that they were then looking at would be the source of one of the most catastrophic ball cannock eruptions in history for that small mountain that they could see from their ships was mount vesuvius and the city to itself was pompeii and palm pay would be completely destroyed in just over a century into the future but soon after this cleopatra and her flotilla would arrive in puteolana which was the main seaport for rome at this time.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on WAAM Talk 1600
"Release of the film to the general public there'd been a new york premier in november 42 but most people got to see it in january or forty three in that period of time for may 42 to that next january you had the turning of the tied in world war 2 so even though there's like a lag time of about six to eight months in the movie actually more than that about a good year in the movie because rick says it's december 1941 in humphrey bogart character it when he's there in the bart's are basically drinking himself into a stupor because ingrid bergman ills has come back into his life saint of all the gin joints and all the towns and all the world she has to walk in the mine and he makes the comment uh i'll bet there sleeping in new york up at their sleeping all over america will actually we would be in world war two on december seven with the bombing of pearl harbor so it must have been the first few days of december that he's talking about but the audiences who would have gone to see casablanca on a to release they would have been through a very very recent progression of all sorts of events were that movie would have made crystal clear sense to them uh and sometimes it's it it's worth trying to reestablish those connections with audiences today so one point that i did make was some of the changes that had occurred from the spring a forty two into early forty three were you have the um uh the russian effective counteroffensive against the germans that november you have the germans surrounded at stalingrad and finally in february fortythree actually surrendering losing ninety thousand troops all at once a you have the axis powers italy about to be knocked out of the war and mussalini of deposed although than the germans of course come down and they occupy the rest of the italian peninsula also at the time of the release of the film the germans that pass november had decided to take over the whole country of france not just the occupied zone but vichy france also because they were fearing that since the americans had landed in the british landed north africa they'd be coming up in the europe so the occupied all of france all of.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"A food once you renovation workers in new jersey found what's probably the largest and oldest madeira collection in the united states these were found during a renovation at liberty hall museum they were hidden behind a plaster imply would wall there was put up during prohibition staff new there was a wine cellar hitting back there but it turned out to be a lot bigger and better stocked than they expected with more than fifty bottles some dating back to the seventeen 90s and other wind news a team testing residues in a copper age storage pot from italy found evidence of wine this goes back to about three thousand b c e and is now the oldest evidence of wine in the italian peninsula conservatives in antarctica found an almost edible includes fruitcake in a building constructed by an 18 ninety nine norwegian expedition that fruitcake is a hundred and six years old it was probably brought to the building by robert falcon scott's expedition in nineteen ten the fruitcake was wrapped in paper and stored in it ten and lizzy meek of the antarctic heritage trust describe it as looking and smelling edible apart from a slight rancid butter smell i would just light question whether anything that smells like rancid butter seasonable i guess it depends on the strength of your uh gut microbes uh our last entry is notable not for what was in the vessel but for what was on it a team in turkey claims to have found the oldest smiley face in the world the smiley faces we know it with two dots for eyes and a swoop of mouth has generally been dated back to just the 1960s but a team excavating a hittites settlement founded jr dating back to 17 hundred b c that has would definitely looks like a smiley face if it turns out to be legitimate and not a coincidence or a leader addition by someone who is trying to be cute that'd be the oldest smiley face in the world had definitely look like looks like somebody's took their finger and went i mouth.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The story about dante in and be a truth sir but the story about the bridge at world war 2 which is really quite compelling it is it's a really beautiful story and if if if you like how read it was not only a story about love them he just frame it this way but it's also story about the response of people again too long he and what they have their hearts open to all the work of dante who is the thirteen fourteen th century master po'd of the divine comedy in one of the greatest poets it ever to exist was inspired by a single moment of love um as robert johnson union analyst described it began when the young donte was standing on the ponte vecchio a graceful medieval bridge that crosses the arnaud rivollier and florence it was just before 1300 and dante spotted a young woman name the atroush spe of three chase standing on the bridge the side of her ignited in him a vision that contain the whole of eternity and this is falling in love dante didn't speak to her but spoke to her later met her and not long after his epiphany beatrice died carried off by the plague donte was stricken by the loss but his work was inspired for her by her she became his muse the bridge to heaven itself six hundred fifty years later during world war two the americans were chasing the german army upped the italian peninsula and the german armenian retreat where blowing up everything in their wake including bridges to stop the american progress but no one wanted to blow up the pump the vecchio for cosby atroush had stood on it and dante had written about her so the leaders of the german army made radio contact with the americans in in plain language said that they would leave the pontios ecu intact if the americans would promise not to use it the promise held the bridge was not up and not one american soldier a piece of equipment went across it the bridge was spared in a modern ruthless war for cosby a trysted stood on it and love had touched dante.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on KQED Radio
"But also above love and i i was very struck by story many listeners probably know the story about dante in and be a true sir but the story about the bridge in world war 2 which is really quite compelling it is it's a really beautiful story and if if if you like will read it was not only a story about love let me just frame it this way but it's also story about the response of people again to love he and what they have their hearts open to all the work of dante who is the thirteen fourteen th century master powder the divine comedy in one of the greatest poets it ever to exist was inspired by a single moment of love um as a robert johnson union analyst described it began when the young dante was standing on the ponta vecchio a graceful medieval bridge that crosses the arnaud rebelrun on florence it was just before 1300 and dante spotted a young woman name beatrice spe three chase standing on the bridge the site of her ignited in him a vision that contain the whole of eternity and this is falling at love dante didn't speak to her but spoke to her later matter and not long after his epiphany beatrice died carried off by the plague donte was stricken by the loss but his work was inspired for her by her she became his muse the bridge to heaven itself six hundred fifty years later during world war two the americans were chasing the german army upped the italian peninsula and the german army in retreat where blowing up everything in their wake including bridges to stop the american progress but no one wanted to blow up the pump the vecchio because beatrice had stood on it and donte had written about her so the leaders of the german army made radio contact with the americans in in plain language said that they would leave the pontios ecu intact if the americans would i must not to use it the promise held the bridge was lobbed blown up and not one american soldier a piece of equipment when across it the bridge was.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on The How-To Heretic
"The hipsters of are ruining italian garden but it's uh i was vatican before was cool it's a so it's a it's really weird how much of it is beauty looks like beautiful peroxidase and you know than the giant chunk of saint peter's so let's talk a bit a little bit about where the vatican comes from okay so so it used to be that rome was part of this giant swath of land that was the whole middle of the italian peninsula called the papal states okay so from about the eighth century intel eighteen seventy at italy kind of didn't exist right right so it was several kingdoms it was piedmont in sardinia and it's separate cetera i'm sure he made at least one of those no no no i thought that he contracted islands on right so um so i around eighteen seventy whoever the current king of of it'll of piedmont sardinia actually which was now unified oh decided to unify all of italy so the attack the papal states the pope used to be the king of the papal states right he had armies and t fought wars yeah notice i'm saying he because it's always been he it's always the so in eighteen seventy they took back the papal states and the pope was stripped of his temporal lands in fact even the vatican it's sell the vatican itself was considered just part of room oh while the city of rump boca so um that went on for about sixty years this war no no just all the juditha catered yeah italy was re italy was unified for the first time polka and the and and they had a very fuck the pope attitude apparently they kind of had a fucked the pope added because the pope had fucked with everybody else around for so long it only took them 1500 years so they managed it first essentially here's a series of five different pope sat behind the wall and pitched about being a prisoner in their own palace in there than her little red shoes and their gold pretty dresses i'll wait i thought we did do current events on the show.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on The Lawfare Podcast
"What did ancient populism look like and what were its grievances and concerns so after so that the book really begins with the the the imperial triumph at the roman republic where they have decided that they've already defeated the carthaginians really in its the romans making a decision that we are going to move from being the those strongest power in the mediterranean world to being the imperial power of the mediterranean world they directly annexed greece directly annexed north africa they had already annexed spain so now they directly ruled most of the western mediterranean the legions that had gone out a conquer and through all of these all these decades were bringing wealth back to italy on an unimaginable scale we're talking about hundreds of thousands of gold coins out hundreds of thousands of silver point some consoles going to come back from spain with eighty thousand pounds of raw silver you're talking about the wealth of mediterranean really starting to concentrate in the italian peninsula and then really specifically in rome and then even more specifically on the palatine hill which is where the wealthy senatorial elite the nobility of rome were living because they were the consul's they were the generals and so they were in control of the state treasury and they were control their own personal fortunes so you have all this wealth that is coming into italy on a scale that there that the austere ancestors of of the early know the early republicans would not have even been able to contemplate how much wealth is coming in.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on Giants of History
"Now alexander would only stay in egypt about six months total from the fall of three thirty two b c e to the spring of three thirty one bc but how long he was in egypt didn't matter he had conquered egypt and for roughly the next three hundred years egypt would remain in greek hands under the rule of greek feroz this is again the reason why we said in the intro episode to the series that cleopatra was greek alexander the great was greek ptolemy was greek and thus klia patrick was greek now moving on it's important here to give a little background on what was happening in egypt in the years surrounding cleopatra's birth as well as that of rome's condition at the time after all the interaction's between egypt and rome play a tremendous role in the life of cleopatra and to put it simply here the rise of the roman empire coincided with the decline of egypt a put a flag there as rome rose egypt fell but there is way more to it than that as you might guess and understanding some of the nuances of roman egypt's relationship is key to understanding cleopatra and some of what motivated her and as i said in the intro episode of the series that is one of the questions we want to answer what did cleopatra want and so again this runway were building here is critical to understanding that and answering that question rome was founded in seven fifty three d c e and for two hundred and fifty years or so it was ruled by kings and legend has it that there were seven kings that ruled over rome until the landmark year of 509 b c e when the last king was overthrown and rome officially became a republic now a republic like the united states which was in large part modeled after the roman republic is simply a form of government where the citizens of that country elect individuals who will then represent their interests in the government so 509 b c e was the year the republic was established and then for the next five hundred years roman influence and rule slowly expanded from rome outside of the italian peninsula to other parts of the mediterranean basin.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on KDWN 720AM
"Any sailing to italy on a then shift and that teaches us something doesn't it god uses he than's to help his people get to where he wants them to be god uses he than travel agencies he uses he then ships see uses he than jets he uses heathen pilot see uses even captains to get his people where he wants them to go unsafe people build houses for god's pete unsafe people sell groceries the god's people unsafe people's sell automobiles too god's people unsafe people give jobs to god pete god always looks out for his people he doesn't in any part of the world and often times it will use the unsaved world tell him accomplish what he wants to do paul is going to rome on a than gm now the second fact that's brought out of the sea sailed to syracuse and spent three days there verse 12 tells us that and after we put in its third year we stay there for three days syracuse call today siracusa was the capital of sicily it's a triangular island at the tip of the boot of the italian peninsula is located about eighty miles north of malta it's a very prosperous city it was known for its shipping it was known for its fishing it was known for its brands work cicero called it the loveliest city in the end the empire in this particular city had a population today of more than one hundred thousand people and according to burst twelve the ship stop there for three days we don't know why the shift stop there for three days as possible they were loading and unloading getting trade goods or it's possible that the wind just change directions and they decided you know we're not going to get in trouble with the wind anymore let's just pull in and and weight this thing out but i doubt.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Eu single market in two thousand and nineteen it is keen to ensure that the transition to trade with the wider world is made as smooth as possible german police announced this week that they have found additional evidence that the germanus jailed for life in two thousand and fifteen after being convicted of two murders and several attempted murders killed at least ninety people police say they have evidence of another eighty eight mandates after analysing as of medical files and exhuming bodies in germany poland and tacky some of the suspected victims were cremated wage please say maimai the death toll even higher the man neil togo is being dumped germany's worst serial killer it is believed he began his killing spree in february two thousand one hundred fatal before moving to a second hospital where he was able to continue killing until two thousand five when a colleague witnessed him injecting a patient embraced the alarm he was convicted fast in two thousand and aides have attempted better and later sentenced to life in two thousand and fifteen herkel injected patience with the cardiovascular drug apparently to orchestrate medical imagine seats which would then require him to step in and resuscitate the patience whilst he was employed in one hospital it is thought to their deaths in the intensive care unit doubled from five to ten percent there are now calls for tighter controls on who has access to drugs in clinics hurdle is it spectator faith of further trial in spring next year archaeologists in sicily say they have discovered evidence that suggests wine with made unconsumed on the italian island as far back as six thousand years ago previously scientists sedated why making insistently to around one thousand two hundred b c but this latest find pushes the date back several molyneaux nia their findings were published in the micro chemical janelle and appear to indicate the earliest ever discovery of wind residue on the italian peninsula experts are divided on how long man has been making wine some suggest it could have started ten thousand years ago that evidence found to date in amenia was all serve the period around 4000 bc previously it was thought that the greek sport the art of making to italy that this find predate sarah rival and provides an even more illustrious pedigree to one of italy's most important wineproducing regions emma wallace without roundup of european news this is inside europe and i'm helen seaney involved for several years now european union countries have been squabbling over how to share responsibility.
"italian peninsula" Discussed on WHO NewsRadio 1040 AM
"Of fighting and contests in tom's book that we will not attend at this moment this his seventy ninety six seventy ninety seven seventy ninety eight whereas bonaparte is rising remember he's a field artillery commander and then he becomes a general and his brave acts against the italians against everybody in the italian peninsula are celebrated by the french revolution alex is fighting alongside or parallel to him i as a freeman of color but i want to get to where napoleon takes on egypt tom you can't make up the egyptian a dish expedition you at the idea that the poland's going to free egypt from the mamelukes who ruled since the thirteenth century is so fantastic i just laughed at you when you told me this i know it's true but it's still are the the idea was pretty were going to bring the french revolution to the middle east that would be you know ridiculous and completely flamboyant lie behind the expedition was did he was going to bring the french revolutionary armies than what i did find out in the course this book was that the french revolution re really it's not how we learn it in school it wasn't bike some you know political thing with people had gutting chopped off in them nothing happened amend the polling came along know the the the revolution and the terror and the things that happened in paris set off the century a world war that continued opting to waterloo and napoleon eventually took hold of this world war i mean france before napoleon showed up on the scene back when general alec stewart was the general of running more than fifty three thousand french troops from southwest border at that time they were at war with every other country in europe it was genuinely already a world war but the french revolutionary armies always said it said that they would only invade a country in order to liberate it and they we're actually you can make a case that they were doing that in the case of a country like italy they were really kicking out um the austrian spaniard and other people who were who had been sort of taking advantage of the italian for hundreds of years than they did create the first free italian state by doing it but then polian kinda took this rationale.