17 Burst results for "Ira Plato"

"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

KPCC

08:29 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

"Friday. I'm Ira Plato. The brain of a person without timer's disease has a few Hallmark traits. First, there's a build up of plaques of proteins called amyloid Beta. Second are tangles of another protein called Tau within individual neurons, and the third is inflammation. And while researchers have long thought the inflammation was a byproduct of the disease itself There's a growing hypothesis that it may be something else a driver of the disease progression that would help explain why researchers have found people whose brains are full of tau tangles and amyloid plaques, but with no outward symptoms of disease. Research on animals has supported this theory but finding the same evidence in human brains. Well, that's a lot harder. But now a team of scientists thinks they have it time lapsed images of patient brains showing tau tangles and inflammation spreading through the brain in the exact same pattern. Here to explain is the first author of that research. Dr Tarek Pasch. Wow. He's an assistant professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Pittsburgh. Welcome, Tarik. Thank you very much for inviting her and is very exciting. We are able to do this research and we're very excited to be with you here today. Nice to have you. Well, let's let's begin by reminding us what Alzheimer's does to the brain at least as far as what most researchers agree right now. What does that process look like, both inside and out? Yeah. What do we know about Alzheimer's or how I would say What is the most consensual? What you know about those Hammers is that those image disease is characterized mostly for the deposition of true pathological proteins in the brain. And the names of these proteins are amulet and towel. We know already is very well established that this deposition start more or less 20 years before the cognitive symptoms of the patient. And we know as well that this proteins are somehow associated with the narrow degeneration of the brain that their generation of the rain and this will lead to the cognitive symptoms. This is something that established but what we still don't know is exactly how this true proteins amyloid and Tau interact with each other to determine the progression of the disease. Because we know this is very established as well. We know that there are many patients or I would say more or less. 30% of the elderly's older than 65 years old have some of these proteins in the brain. But they never developed their audition aeration in the never developed the cognitive decline associated Four languages. Certainly there is a missing link. Between the deposition of these proteins and the real development of the disease. And so what Your research is showing is that this missing link turns out to be inflammation. And so how does inflammations fit into this picture of Alzheimer's now? In fact, we know that information is somehow associated for Simon this for many, many years. There are many evidence from animal models and even humans linking the negative formation. If I was like this is But was never very care. How does information plays out between this proteins? This deposition of amyloid and tau protein in the development of the cognition? The most accepted understanding of the disease suggest that the position of family protein and the two main upstream events lead to the progression of the disease. What you're proposing is that no information is in fact involved in the development of the disease. Involving the first step. Just the disease. What you're proposing is that individuals that have this deposition of family protein in the brain? But also have the presence of information the brain Are the ones that are going to have the development on the progress of pathology. That's the protein that we know that smart clothes related to the symptoms and this interview with the interaction between the amulet dogs in the brain. In the new inflammation in the brain. They were going to develop the pathology in this type of pathology. We're going to cause the cognitive symptoms. So what you're saying is that we used to think inflammation was a side effect. But now we think it is the actual catalyst for this to go to progress exactly like this. We was to figure out inflammation as a byproduct of everything that was happening, such as many others as the atrophy of the brain. But what you are saying here? That information is in fact, involving the beginning of the disease in the trigger out there the rest of the process that come in front of nerve formation. I'm delighted. So you looked at the Let's talk about how what you actually did in the study of people because it's fascinating. So you looked at the living brains of people in different stages of Alzheimer's disease. What did you see? What does that progress of inflammation and to actually look like? Yes, 113 videos. And we measure bring amyloid out and notice formation. And what we saw was that the interview that have a baseline they have the presence of amyloid pathology in the brain. Inflammation in the brain, where the ones that develop pathology in the follow up and where the ones that Developed cognitive decline developed symptoms of dementia. We also found that individuals that have the brain only amyloid pathology that is believed to be on the cows of the disease did not develop the symptoms of the disease, and the ones that have only formation also did not develop the symptoms of the disease. Then our study suggests that, uh, amulet is important market of the disease as everyone knows. But amyloid alone without the presence of the Reformation cannot lead to the progression of the towel. And consequences to the cognitive symptoms. How do you know that The inflammation is not the result of the disease and you're suggesting it's the cause of the disease. How do you What kind of data information makes you so certain about that? This is a very, very good question. As I mentioned in my last answer, I think for a bit More certain about that. We need more studies with much larger institutional follow ups. But what gives the certainty for us was this in the longitudinal an artist. We have individuals that have the prices of inflammation and, um like and didn't have to pathology yet. And in this charge follow up that you did. They developed a pathology and this a temporary association give us the inference that this would be leading to this stuff at all. I agree that much more studies are needed. And with much larger follow ups. To better a certain this this hypothesis. Now is not inflammation. An immune system response. I mean, the immune system is usually coming in to protect us from something. Why would inflammation? Then why would the body go in and make Alzheimer's disease? Worse? Instead of protecting it? You are completely right. That inflammation have a lot of important and very good functions in our system. But what you believe is that when you are talking about a disease such as Alzheimer disease, the nearest summation that's presently brings a chronicle near information. And in the case of, uh, something related to our findings. This was not reported the R manuscript and this is not studied by us, but it's supposed to lated based on many students in animal models that what may be happening here. Is that the microbial cells That ourselves that are there are there as you well mentioned to protect us. The microbial cells try to clean the top pathology in the brain, the faggots site to pathology in the brain. And they tried to degrade this type of knowledge in the brain. When they degrade the stuff pathology, the brain. There are something called house It's in this. Thousands are a part of the top protein that escaped generate Marta. And along the way he will be released this house it's and this thousands generate new town. For this reason, the note inflammation that's there, probably in relation to the amyloid pathology that attracted the great town is in fact propagated in the brain. So the brain has good intentions. But it's going down the road to hell. Is actually they. My problem has good intentions..

Tarek Pasch Tarik 113 videos Ira Plato today Friday third Simon Second first author University of Pittsburgh First 30% 20 years both Four languages amyloid Beta thousands Thousands two main upstream events
"ira plato" Discussed on NEWS 88.7

NEWS 88.7

07:53 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on NEWS 88.7

"I'm Ira Plato. The brain of a person with Alzheimer's disease has a few Hallmark traits. First, there's a build up of plaques of proteins called amyloid Beta. Second or tangles of another protein called Tau within individual neurons, and the third is inflammation. And while researchers have long thought the inflammation was a byproduct of the disease itself There is a growing hypothesis that it may be something else a driver of the disease progression that would help explain why researchers have found people whose brains are full of tau tangles and amyloid plaques, but with no outward symptoms of disease. Research on animals has supported this theory but finding the same evidence in human brains. Well, that's a lot harder. But now a team of scientists thinks they have it time lapsed images of patient brains showing tau tangles and inflammation spreading through the brain in the exact same pattern. Here to explain is the first author of that research. Dr Tarek Pasch. Wow. He is an assistant professor of psychiatry and neurology at the University of Pittsburgh. Welcome, Tarik. Thank you very much for inviting her and is very exciting. We are able to do this research. And we're very excited to be with you here today. Nice to have you. Well, let's let's begin by reminding us what Alzheimer's does to the brain at least as far as what most researchers agree right now. What does the process look like? Both inside and out? Yes. What we know about Alzheimer's or how I would say What is the most consensual? What you know about those payments is that those primary disease is corrected. I said, mostly for the deposition of true pathological proteins in the brain. And the names of these proteins are, um, a light and Tao we know already is very well established that this deposition start moral s 20 years before the cognitive symptoms of the patient. And we know as well that this proteins are somehow associated with the narrow degeneration of the brain degeneration of the brain, and this will lead to the cognitive symptoms. This is something that established But what we still don't know is exactly how these two proteins amyloid and Tau interact with each other to determine the progression of the disease because we know This is very well established as well. We know that there are many patients or I would say more or less. 30% of the elderly, older than 65 years old have some of these proteins in the brain. But they never developed the dura degeneration in the never developed the cognitive decline associated for example, this is certainly there is a missing link. Between the deposition of these proteins in the real development of the disease. And so what Your research is showing is that this missing link turns out to be inflammation. And so how does inflammation fit into this picture of Alzheimer's now? In fact, we know that no inflammation is somehow associated, for example, this for many, many years, there are many evidence from animal models and even in humans linking the nerve inflammation for emergencies. But was never very clear how this inflammation plays out between these proteins. This deposition of amyloid and tau protein in the development of the cognition. The most accepted understanding of the disease suggest that the position of families and protein and the two main upstream events lead to the progression of the disease. What you're proposing is that no inflammation is in fact involved in the development of disease involving the first steps of the disease. What you're proposing is that individuals that have this deposition of families protein in the brain But also have the presence of information the brain Are the ones that are going to have the development on the progress of scalp pathology. That's the protein that we know that smart rose related to the symptoms and these individuals with the interaction between the amulet dogs in the brain. In the new inflammation in the brain. They were going to develop the pathology in this top pathology. We're going to cause the cognitive symptoms. So what you're saying is that we used to think inflammation was a side effect. But now we think it is the actual catalyst for this to go to to progress exactly like this. We was speaking on inflammation as a byproduct of everything that was happening, such as many others as the atrophy of the brain. But what you are saying here that no deformations, in fact involved in the beginning of the disease trigger out there the rest of the process that come in front of new information and the lighting up of dollars. So you looked at the Let's talk about how what you actually did in the study of people because it's fascinating. So you look at the living brains of people in different stages of Alzheimer's disease. What did you see? What does that progress of inflammation and tower actually look like we assess 113 videos. Any measure bring amyloid out and no inflammation. And what we saw was that the interview that havoc base length they have the presence of amyloid pathology in the brain. Any inflammation in the brain where the ones that develop dollars in the follow up and we're the ones that Developed cognitive decline developed the symptoms of dementia. We also found that individuals that have the brain only amyloid pathology that is believed to be honest. The cows of the disease did not develop the symptoms of the disease, and the ones that have only formation also did not develop the symptoms of the disease. Then our study suggests that, uh, amulet is important a market of the disease as everyone knows. But amyloid alone without the presence of no inflammation cannot lead to the progression of the towel. And consequences to the cognitive symptoms. How do you know that The inflammation is not the result of the disease and you're suggesting it's the cause of the disease. How do you What kind of data information makes you so certain about that? This is a very, very good question. As I mentioned in my last answer, I think for a bit More certain about that. We need more studies with much larger law institutional follow ups. But what gives the certainty for us was this in the longitudinal analysis? We have individuals that have the prices of information and analyze and didn't have to pathology yet. And in discharge followed that you did. They developed a pathology and this temporal association give us the inference that this would be leading to this stuff it does. I agree that much more studies are needed. And with much larger follow ups to better ascertain this this hypothesis Now is not inflammation. An immune system response. I mean, the immune system is usually coming in to protect us from something. Why would inflammation? Then why would the body go in and make Alzheimer's disease? Worse? Instead of protecting it? You are completely right. That inflammation have a lot of important and very good functions in our system. But what you believe is that when you are talking about the disease, such as Alzheimer disease, the near inflammation that's present the brain is a chronic on the reformation. And in the case of, uh, something related to our finest. This was not report to the R manuscript, and this is not studied by us but is postulated based on many students in animal models that what may be happening here. Is that the microbial cells That ourselves that are there are there as you well mentioned to protected us the microbe yourself try to clean the top pathology in the brain. The faggots site the top of dollars in the brain. And they tried to degrade this type of thought was in the brain..

Tarek Pasch Tarik 113 videos Ira Plato today 20 years third First 30% first author Second Both University of Pittsburgh Alzheimer amyloid Beta two proteins two main upstream events first steps older than 65 years each
"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

Science Friday

09:26 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

"Science friday. I'm ira plato. Later in the hour a look at how global change is upsetting vital ocean currents in the atlantic and trip to the bakery for some sour dough. Bread kikori but i if you've been online at all in the past few weeks you've probably seen discussions about the drug ivermectin. It was originally developed as an anti parasitic treatment for livestock and in two thousand fifteen. The nobel prize went to scientists. Who found that. It helped control parasitic diseases in humans as well but now some groups have been promoting the drug as a treatment for cova nineteen even though the corona virus is a virus not a parasite joining me now to help unpack that and other news from your covy. Newsfeed is dr angela. Rasmussen research scientists at veto inter vac. The university of saskatchewan's vaccine research institute in saskatoon saskatchewan up there in our friends in the north in canada. Welcome back angela. Thanks for having me back ira okay. So what's the deal with this horse. Medication story ivermectin. In some ways is really the new hydroxy chloroquine. I'm not entirely sure how ivermectin came on the scene as possible treatment for covert nineteen but multiple clinical trials have been conducted to look at ivermectin for treating cova nineteen preventing covert nineteen and it. It doesn't appear to do either one of those things the fda as well as the one of the manufactures of ivermectin merck Have both released statement saying that. That ivermectin cannot be used for for treating cove nineteen and that people should not use it especially as a substitute for vaccination and you know for me like months ago when merck said. Don't take ivermectin for cove. Ed i mean that's not usually the kind of thing that a pharmaceutical company says about a product that they make. Please don't take our product you know. All of that along with the data is really strong. Indication that ivermectin doesn't do much In the way of treating cove nineteen in it certainly doesn't prevent it and it certainly is not a good alternative vaccination as some people who are promoting ivermectin for this purpose have said while ivermectin is on the. who's list of essential medicines. It's a crucial medicine in. You mentioned that. The discovers of ivermectin won the nobel prize because it is used for treating some some really horrific parasitic diseases. One of those African riverblindness is a disease caused by worms that can ultimately results as the name implies in loss vision most of the listeners. Probably our most familiar with ivermectin as an ingredient in heart guard or any of the other types of de worming medications that they give pets. It's very effective for treating parasitic worm. Infections it is not effective however for treating cove nineteen. And this is what really concerns me are people who are promoting ivermectin as a valid alternative vaccination for preventing cova nineteen and. This is just simply not the case if you're taking ivermectin every day not only If you are taking off label can use suffer the consequences of taking too much ivermectin. Because if you're buying ivermectin in a dose that's meant for horses or cows or large animals that have considerably more body mass than we do You could overdose on it but also you are going to continue to be vulnerable to kogo nineteen and if you think that that ivermectin is providing the same protection that a vaccine would You're you're going to potentially put yourself at a greater risk. Let's move on to something. That has a bit more evidence behind it and that is boosters. There's been a lot of talk about boosters. What israel is doing what other countries are doing. Will there be a third shot. Who will get it and win. Yeah this is really kind of one of the hot topics of the hour and really a lot of this is based on evidence that i was pretty skeptical of it. I but i'm i'm starting to be more and more persuaded. We're starting to see more evidence at really the population level that over time the marin vaccines particularly the pfizer vaccine appears to be decreasing ineffectiveness preventing symptomatic covert nineteen. Now this. this has been a really confusing topic. I think because we are also hearing all the time about breakthrough infections and how they're more common with the delta variant and that's not necessarily due to this decrease in effectiveness And that's not always talking about cases as cases of symptomatic cova nineteen sometimes it conflates Symptomatic disease with pcr positively but overall. This is really important. A decreasing effectiveness is something to be on the lookout. For because in the clinical trials to evaluate these vaccines they were expedited because this was an emergency situation So we weren't able to look at durability we don't know how long these vaccines are going to have a long-term protective effect and it is entirely possible that third dose would always be needed because oftentimes one of the reasons. Why vaccine clinical trials. Take such a long time as they try multiple configurations of the dosing regimen to determine the optimal one for establishing durability we have many vaccines that are three dose regimens usually with the third dose being given after a longer time interval from the second dose which is really what's being discussed now. The reason why this is important is not just to prevent a symptomatic breakthrough cases. And i think this is one of the things that has really confused people because there has been some talk of while. You're moving the goalposts. I it was just to to prevent cova and now it's to prevent all these infections. And why do i care if i get infected. If i'm just positive on a test in. I don't have symptomatic cova but for people who are already high risk of developing severe cove in nineteen an increase in the number of symptomatic cove nineteen cases in healthy low risk vaccinated. People probably means that there could be an increase in the number of severe cova nineteen cases in high risk people who are more likely to end up in the hospital. More likely to die from having cove ed so it does make sense to to say well. We do have a surplus in many parts of the country. Vaccines right now. We do have increasing evidence that a third vaccine or even a mix and match vaccine regimen with the third dose is safe if you can increase vaccine effectiveness to take it from fifty to seventy percent. Backup to ninety percent in terms of preventing. That's something that we would want to have and then finally As i mentioned before many vaccine regimens are three dose regimens and the reason for that third dose in the data to support this to the kovic. Vaccines is that if you haven't increased interval between your second and third doses your immune system basically says you know what this is something that i might continue to see this pathogen. So i'm really going to exert of the resources needed to to really make that long term memory protective immune responses and. I hope that that's what we will get from the third vaccine now. Of course we don't know for these vaccines because we weren't able to look durability but knowing what we know from other vaccines and other types of vaccines This usually applies that that sometimes booster doses are needed but they're not needed at frequent intervals. And they do results in immunity that lasts for years in most cases. Can we learn anything from the israeli experience on this. they've already been using third doses will absolutely and unfortunately what we can only learn is about the pfizer vaccine in israel on because that's predominantly the one that they're using but israel has really been a wealth of information because they have had such a successful vaccine campaign and they've been collecting so much data on it. So i think that probably we will be able to learn a lot more at least about what the benefit is to a third dose from the for the pfizer vaccine at the population level. I hear you saying or implying that the modern dern vaccine may be longer lasting than the pfizer vaccine well. A study came out this week in the journal of the american medical association. That suggested just that now. There aren't very many studies that are directly comparing these two vaccines. And i think people have assumed that they're basically the same vaccine as far as what the marin a is in codeine But there are a couple of differences. The pfizer vaccine is given in a lower dose thirty micrograms compared to the hundred microgram dose of moderna And they have a different interval Three weeks for five or four weeks for moderna and they also use a different lipid nanoparticle to deliver the vaccine That ends up going into your cells where the spike protein gets made. All three of those things could make a difference potentially Study in jama showed It showed that that the pfizer vaccine was reduced in terms of its effectiveness in people who received that compared to moderna and also that they had lower levels of neutralizing antibodies..

ira plato dr angela university of saskatchewan's v Symptomatic disease Rasmussen saskatoon cova saskatchewan pfizer merck angela atlantic fda israel Ed canada journal of the american medica
"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

Science Friday

09:28 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

"Who fought for equality. Lifted up black voices and then mysteriously disappeared. The vanishing of harry pace is a story of hidden identities any phenomenal but forgotten man. Who transformed our world. Listen on the radio feed on apple. Podcasts this is science. Friday ira plato. If you live in pennsylvania or any if it's surrounding environs you've probably seen a really interesting looking bug in the past. Few years the spotted lantern fly around this time of the year. It's in it's nymph stage but when fully grown these lantern fly. Sound a little. Like the joke. They're black and white and red all over. They've also got spots as their name suggests the good news about how interesting they look is offset of course by the bad news. They are invasive species sci-fi producer. Kathleen davis is here with her up. Close and personal experience with these bugs. Hi kathleen hello ira so kathleen. What's been bugging you funny Yeah it's interesting. So i have lived in new jersey for a little bit over a year and last year i saw probably one or two fully grown spotted lantern flies in my neighborhood in late summer. And they're really distinctive-looking. They look like moths kind of like the size of takeda for those listeners. Who have experienced brewed ten. This year Wow that's pretty big isn't it. Yeah yeah they're really big actually so this year though. The plants around my house have been covered in these little black spotted bugs and they are super distinct looking dare. I say they're a little bit cute they are. They're black and they've got these white polka dots over them. They also jumped really far if you touch them. So i thought these are really funky looking bugs. And i looked up and sure enough. They are spotted lantern fly nymphs. Well if they're an invasive species what what can we do anything about them if anything. Well i've been trying to figure that out. But i looked it up in the main advice for getting rid of them is to To stomp on them way. That's the official advice. The high tech answer stop on them. I'm not joking. The state of new jersey's official instructions for what to do. If you see a spotted lantern flight is quote. Join the battle. Beat the bug stomp it out. How well. I'm putting on my and boots. Kathleen hoping my next guests can give you some more advice. Thank you thank you. Ira and my next guest is dr julie. Urban an associate research professor in entomology at penn state university state college pennsylvania. Welcome to science. Friday high great to be here dr urban. Do you agree that the best way to deal with a spot. Atlantan fly as new jersey. Says it's to stop it out. Well it's better than the alternative which is to spread it right trying to direct the public and how to effectively manage it and not transport it and further. Contribute to its. Fred is kind of a hard issue that we've been really wrapping our brains around for quite a while so the short answer is yes. That's not to say that we're not spending a lot of a lot of money on control efforts. But yes yeah. Why don't you let me rewind a bit so we can. We can talk a bit. About how the spotted lantern fly became an invasive species. Tell us about the origin story there. Yes so the origin story actually spotted land reply was an invasive that first occurred in south korea in two thousand four and so there it was reported to damage grapes. Apple stone fruit and was a nuisance. Pests she residence so we were all primed in us and looking for it anyway and so it was first detected and reported pennsylvania department of agriculture September twenty second twenty fourteen so they knew immediately what this thing was confirmed what it was and reported it to. Usda and immediately action was taken and so It was suspected from where it occurred. And from how we know it got to south korea. And what we know about the biology of of other lantern fly. Species is that essentially the lay their eggs on anything. They don't require a host plant that their offspring can fito kahn to be viable host for their eggs and so we suspected they were transported in that egg mass state on a shipment of stone so they were either laid on the stone itself though a shepper on the palate and that's how they got here from their native range which would be somewhere from china vietnam japan or india. So we're talking about tropical bugs right. I mean the pennsylvania's and not really a tropical state while now with the nineties were having for the summer us you could. You could argue that. I mean how is it that they're establishing themselves so well in the northeast. And here's where we get into some complexity of lantern lantern. Flies are a family of plant hoppers on called forty. There's five hundred species and largely. Most of them are tropical. That's that's what i study. But there are a few that occur in more temperate habitats and spotted lantern. Fly like karma delicate. Ula is one of those. Its native range you. You find it in beijing which is forty degrees north latitude which is the same as you know the north latitude of philadelphia new york city. So this is one of the very few leonard lie species that could get here and it is able to survive these harsher temperatures in winter temperatures because it over winters in its inc stage. Not all enterprise do that. Other other species do other things so this this is just one of the few outliers of this particular family. And that's what makes them so good at spreading is that they can survive. Yes that's one of the things. That's not the only okay. What else makes them so good at spreading. They're so good at spreading because they'll feed so broadly on such a huge range of host plants. There sat feeders so more specifically their flowing feeders. And they'll feed on essentially anything except for conifers. So they feed so so there's plenty of different host plants. They can feed on their their biology doesn't have to be honed in. Just the timing of anyone plant because they're feeding on so many different things they're broadly diffused across the habitat so it's really hard to know when they're there right 'cause they're kind of spread out and then the other thing about them is that while they like a lot of things they really like one host plant in particular that also comes from their native range. I land altissimo our tree of heaven. That's an introduced invasive. That's here in the united states. It persists throughout the united states. And it's generally found in highly disturbed habitats so along railroad corridors and road sites. You know once you know what trip having looks like or smells like you're going to see it on the new jersey turnpike. You're gonna see it everywhere. Is that the one with the long thin leaves. Exactly oh i call them junk trees. they're everywhere it's The kids book a tree grows in brooklyn where the tree grows out of a crack in the sidewalk. Right and so. So basically. Because larry fly are always moving around and their eggs are laid on anything that lets the move along with. I- lantis along these corridors and said that's also able to spread and what what makes them so bad. I mean if there's so many of these trees around what are they attacking that we don't like there's two answers your question The first what are they doing. What are they attacking the that we like. They're attacking greats right. They'll feed on Different plants throughout their life cycle. But they'll feed on great throughout their whole life cycle and they'll actually damage rates and so we've seen significant economic impact in actual vineyards on the only other tree that they'll actually kill is tree of heaven otherwise they're just as stressed or to other trees. They're not gonna do a tree in and of itself but the other way. They're so damaging in terms of their direct impact is that they can move around right and so they can get into goods that have to be shipped and we have quarantines for protection to prevent leonard fly from spreading so the other place we're seeing economic impact is in the nursery industry. Because you know you can't ship. Nursery stock is. Bugs will get into him. Even they're not feeding on this plants like topiary our conference they're not gonna feed on them will certainly get into them and they'll get into into christmas trees and lay their eggs and so now we have these nurseries and christmas tree growers who have to spend a lot of money to keep them out of the products before they transport them but also anything else you know if you think about them getting here on stone they can get on anything so. This is a significant impact to any kind of company that transports anything state or international lines but the other reasons by clarify so bad is because they evade our regular bag of tricks we have to control insects so one of the things we often use to monitor insects is figure out what is their chemical cue. What is their fair mon that they use in mating because then if we can use that we can build a lure and build a trap when he can use that for detection and traffic while nobody's found a fair amount for sided. Leonard fly no plant hoppers known to use a ceremony. Not.

ira plato new jersey Kathleen davis kathleen hello dr julie penn state university state co Atlantan pennsylvania department of agr fito kahn south korea pennsylvania kathleen harry Kathleen apple Fred Usda leonard vietnam
"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

Science Friday

09:01 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on Science Friday

"In many places in the triple. Digits can't get too hot for planes to fly. My next guest says yes red. Elaine is associate professor of physics at southeastern louisiana university and a popular dot physics blogger at wired science blogs read. Welcome back to science friday. Thank you. Let's get right into this. Because i remember reading a piece. He wrote back in two thousand seventeen a heatwave back then describing how it can get too hot for airplanes to take off. Tell us why that is. I mean i was surprised to. I saw that. And i'm like what that's weird But it is true when when the weather gets too hot some of these planes can't take off it has to do with the way that planes fly when the plane wing flies at in it's tilted at some angle. It collides with these molecules these than change momentum in because they change momentum they push on on the wing so if you think of a plane flying and is pushing through the air and deflecting these air molecules down this produces an upward thrust on the plane and it explains how the plan comply. I like that way better. 'cause it's fundamental physics more physics. It's like a rocket ship. Air goes down plane goes up. It's exactly like a rocket ship. That's right so what happens when the air gets too hot there. Well when the arrogance hot you know what what is hot air. We like to think of Temperature as associated with the motion of the particles in the air. The nitrogen molecules in the auction molecules. And as you increase the temperature these molecules move faster and faster and faster and when they do that they spread out so you decrease the density of the air when it's hot and doesn't feel that way but that is true this lower density air with higher temperature and that means there's fewer of these air molecules to collide with the wing and you get lower lift with lower density air. You could compensate for that by flying faster but that would take a longer runway. And then that's where we get into a safety issue for some point there does not. They don't have a long enough runway to make sure that they can get to take off speed and so there you just have to wait till it gets cooler before you can take off. Yeah someone told me that. A lot of flights into las vegas in december are morning and evening. Because it's not so hot. It's if it's too hot in the middle of the day than a lot of these planes just don't have the safety clearances to take off you know. I didn't hear any reports of mass groundings of airplanes. This really hot week. We've been having Do you expect this to happen sooner or later. Oh yeah as we deal with hotter and hotter temperatures. You have an option of either changing planes. Someplace can take off with that or getting along the runway but both of those aren't really easy to change real quick. It's easier just to ground the plane. Wait till it's safe to fly again. You know we always hear about the unexpected consequences of climate change and what things are going on about plants and and he and hurricanes but we never think about effecting the airline industry right and we depend on that a lot. In general we fly a lot and we travel a lot by plane because this lot quicker than cars and then it is a problem so we need to address climate change but we probably also need to address airline travel. It's not necessarily always the best mode. high-speed trains would wouldn't have this problem. I'm with you on that one. Let's let's see if we can get more of them to cross the country. Yeah i'd like that too. Yeah well thank you for explaining the physics of flight right. Thank you read. Elaine is an associate professor of physics at southeastern louisiana university and a popular dot physics blogger at wired science blogs. We're gonna take a break and when we come back. The delta variant is spreading. Is it time to bring back masks. Get more people vaccinated. All of the above will be back to fact. Check your feed after this break. Stay with us. Decades before motown there was black swan records. America's first black owned record label. It was founded by a maverick who fought for equality. Lifted up black voices and then mysteriously disappeared. The vanishing harry pace is a story of hidden identities any phenomenal but forgotten man. Who transformed our world. Listen on the radio app. Feed on apple podcasts. This is science friday. i'm ira plato. It's been six months since the first variant of copied nineteen raised alarm bells around the world. Now one variant above all others seems to be spreading rapidly. I'm talking about the delta variant. I identified in india and then now has spread to more than eighty countries south africa australia. Germany and other countries are reimposing limits on travel and daily life and israel where more than sixty percent of people are vaccinated has reinstated mask requirements. In fact the world health organization is recommending that all fully vaccinated people continue to wear masks and los angeles county advised everyone to wear masks indoors in public places even if fully vaccinated. What does that mean for you here to help us take the temperature of the delta variant and other covert nineteen news is angela rasmussen research scientists that veto interact the university of saskatchewan's vaccine research institute in saskatoon says. Catch one welcome back. Thanks for having me back ira. We've talked about the variants. Before but this delta variant is really making the rounds i mean the dominant variant of the virus in many countries the twenty percent of cases in the us that variant. Do we know why it's so contagious. So we we really don't it could be that people are remaining contagious for a longer period of time it could be that the virus is better at binding. Its receptor ace to And infecting cells that's called insect activity. It could be that The virus is just making more virus and shedding more infectious virus thereby increasing the odds that you will be infected if you're exposed to somebody who is infected as well so we we really don't know but to me the epidemiology. Data's quite clear that this virus does spread Quite easily particularly among unvaccinated or partially vaccinated people and for that reason it is Rightfully a big concern and we still don't know if it's more likely to cause serious illness. That's something that i think is very very difficult to try to figure out. With epidemiologic data human populations in populations of unvaccinated or partially vaccinated. People are going to be different in every community and in every place where the delta variant might be spreading and if you end up seeing an increase in people going to the hospital relatives to other variants it could be just that different. People are getting infected people with other risk factors but because it's infecting more people. It appears that it is more pathogenic or virulent. So that's something that's still remains to be seen in. There are studies trying to get to the bottom of this but to me the take home message for everybody is really clear. You should get fully vaccinated because full vaccination does provide a strong protection against the delta variants. And i think that's what we're seeing in israel where the vaccination rates are high. There are a significant number of their cases and vaccinated people. But they're not serious illnesses. That's exactly right so this is one thing that's really frustrating about some of the media coverage about this people talk about all these breakthrough infections happening in fully vaccinated people. But they don't mention that the people who are actually in the hospital are largely unvaccinated or partially vaccinated people the people who are fully vaccinated may test positive for the virus. They may have transient abortive infections. And this actually normally happens with many other vaccines that are very very effective But the vaccines are holding their own against the delta variant. And that is that. They're protecting people even people with breakthrough infections from becoming seriously ill from going to the hospital and from dying. So what should people do. They heard the w. h. o. Should i keep my mask on how. How should i make that decision. Will you know. I think this is something that that were all sick. A wearing masks and that can't be under. Estimated mass can be uncomfortable especially in hot weather but masks are a relatively easy. Non-pharmaceutical intervention to apply. Certainly there are a lot better than closing down businesses or telling people to stay home. Many of the breakthrough infections vaccinated people in a few cases. There has.

southeastern louisiana univers Elaine ira plato angela rasmussen university of saskatchewan's v las vegas world health organization los angeles county israel saskatoon harry us south africa apple Germany india australia
"ira plato" Discussed on NEWS 88.7

NEWS 88.7

05:57 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on NEWS 88.7

"Last in your body stay with us. Is this science Friday from W. N. Y C studios? I'm Dr Ball Club and I'm the president, CEO and executive dean of the Baylor College of Medicine. The Texas Medical Center is really unique. We agreed early on to start meeting daily. Every single CEO in the medical center was on the calls every day at seven A.m.. His biggest health crisis in 100 years, and it's right here in our city, and what can we do collectively to try and make the right decisions? When you have diverse perspectives and different expertise, you often make better decisions. But there is an issue. We all had a slightly different opinion. But what was remarkable almost all the time we came down with complete consensus, and we're still meeting. You know, talking about who's got this amount of vaccine has got that amount of accent who could do what we have managed better than most large urban centers better than Chicago, L, a New York and it's because we work together. Tested. Houston's response to covert 19 is produced in partnership with ST Lukes Health Visit Houston public media dot org's slash tested for more This is science Friday. I'm Ira Plato. Since the start of the covert 19 pandemic, we've equated hope in getting out of this mess with the concept of herd immunity. Some people call it community immunity. That's when a certain percentage of the population is immune to a disease, mostly through vaccination with covert experts have said. We need somewhere around 70 to 90% of the population to be immunized. To meet this goal. Now that all adults in the U. S are eligible for the vaccine, where we act and has that 70 to 90 number changed, some experts now say with variants and vaccine hesitancy, Herd immunity may not be possible here in the U. S. Well here with me to break down. This and other recent Covic quandaries is my guest. Dr Angela Rasmussen. Research Scientists at Vito Inter Vac, the University of Saskatchewan's Vaccine Research Institute in Saskatoon, says Catch one Canada Welcome to Science Friday. Thanks so much for having me back. Kyra, welcome back. Angela, Where do you fall on the herd Immunity, optimism scale, the also think that it's unattainable. So I think that that some of that depends on what the herd immunity threshold actually is, and some of that also depends on other factors, such as how much transmission is actually occurring. In the community. Now, one thing I think that people have been confused about with regard to the herd Immunity threshold, which is that number that you just referred to at which a virus would not be able to spread within a population because too many people are immune. That's an estimate based on transmission dynamics based on susceptibility in the population, And for that reason, it's very difficult. T nail down a specific number. But I think some of the confusion has been that people think we absolutely have to get to that number. And then once we get there, things will magically change in the pandemic will be over. But unfortunately, it's really not that simple. We can look at a country like Israel, for example, that has now vaccinated about 60% of the adult population, and we can see that they've had long sustained reductions in transmission in the overall community. Now, 60% is nowhere near the herd immunity threshold. And there probably is some population immunity from people who were naturally infected with covert adding to that, But I think that a n'importe point that we should all think about is that we might not have to hit. The herd Immunity threshold, which currently is calculated it somewhere above 80% of people immunized to see sustained reductions in transmission. Like what Israel is seen. Now, at the beginning of their vaccination campaign, they had a pretty restrictive lockdown. On DATs, not the only way to do it. But if you get transmission down enough while boosting vaccination enough in the population you can actually get to a place that is functionally like the herd immunity threshold. Before you actually get there just because there's not very much virus in the community and you have a growing number of people who are immunized, so it's a really tough concept. I think it would be a lot easier for people if we could just say, Hey, we're aiming for 80 85% 90% vaccinated and Of course, it's great to vaccinate as many people as we possibly can. But that's not necessarily the metric that we have to hit in order to start relaxing some of the restrictions and being able to return to Quote unquote normal. But Herd immunity is really not a national concept. Herd immunity is really regional. And as you pointed out, some people call it community immunity for this reason. If you have overall 70% of people vaccinated, there's still maybe communities where there's a very low vaccination rate that's far under that in which you will have a lot of susceptible people. Interesting point. I know that right now, More than half of the U. S. Adults have gotten at least one dose of a vaccine. But some states have only been open toe all adults for less than a month. Is it too early to really tell how many people will get vaccinated and how much to open? What's your view on that? So if you look at New York, for example, which has plans to fully reopened by May 19th I do think that that is premature again because of this herd immunity being a regional issue and in some places in New York state, you're going to have people with very high levels of immunity, who have been able to access vaccines more readily and who were very enthusiastic about getting it..

Angela May 19th New York 70% Angela Rasmussen Ira Plato Chicago 60% Vito Inter Vac 70 100 years Kyra ST Lukes Health Baylor College of Medicine Saskatoon U. S 90 seven A.m Friday less than a month
"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

KPCC

06:02 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

"Friday. I'm Ira Plato a bit later in the hour. How effective will vaccines be against new variants of the Corona virus? But first, if you're out of the grocery store or taking a walk, you might see someone sporting the new pandemic trend double masks. Sometimes it's a cloth mask over and and 95. Sometimes it's too fabric masks layer together. If you are already double masked, you may be prescient because this week, Dr Anthony Fauci said the CDC is considering updating its mass guidelines to suggest wearing two masks to protect against new were contagious variants of the Corona virus here to share Maura about the thinking behind the double masking guidelines. And to discuss other science. News of the week is Sarah Zang, staff writer for the Atlantic. Hi, Sarah. Hi, Ira. Good to talk to you again. Nice to have you back, So we just got used to wearing one mask, and now we can anticipate they're saying it's time to up it to to. Well, I confessed to having been someone who has occasionally warrant a double bass myself, mostly in cases where even indoors, talking to other people, which is a kind of a high risk. Covet situation. Right? So, yeah. What are the benefits of to mess while they're a couple of different ways to think about it? One is you're obviously just getting another layer filtration in front of your face. And that, you know, just kind of keeps out any particles but make the bigger benefit is actually having a tighter seal or a tighter fit around your face. I think this is probably especially true if you're wearing a surgical mask, a zoo first layer, which is kind of tend to be fairly loose, especially about your nose and maybe around your chin. Then you might wear a slightly better fitting cloth mask over it, so that you just kind of jump get that here That's coming out. But you know, around your basket, you're actually really through your mask. I wear glasses. So when I walk outside in the cold, it's really obvious to me when I'm asked us not fitting well, but what you're really trying to avoid. Is kind of like breathing around the mass rather than through it. Yeah, I kind of test my masks by putting my fingers on it and see if I'm I'm pressing it. If I'm breathing more through the mask than at the top on the bottom, then I know it's not a good seal. Yeah, Yeah, exactly. And I think if listeners have been lucky enough to get the 95 mask or one of the Kegan 90 five's, you'll probably know this. Those actually do kind of sit against your face a little bit tighter. They'd really do press against your face. Sara. Why do we need double masking at this time? Has it got something to do with the new variants of the Corona virus? Part of it is you want is there's just a lot of Cupid spread in general around right now, but also you variants are more transmissible, You know, variance. Not is not like the It's not going to have magic powers. It's not gonna automatically jump through your mask. But what might be happening is that you might be like less the virus to get sick, So the double mask is just kind of like an extra layer of protection that extra precaution to Kind of protect us against this more transports will very end. There are also reports that the White House is considering sending everyone a cloth mask. Yeah, I think we should have probably done this a year ago. I think that would have really helped. You know, I think it would be great to have mass available for everyone. Certainly, when I walk around outside, I sometimes still people see people wearing scarves. I think it's certainly be better if they were wearing masks. If we could be getting anyone and 95 months, that would be even better. You know. Also, one of the things we haven't talked about, much is the flu season. It's like run under the radar screen, and there is so many fewer cases of flu. Is that from the mask wearing or just people social distancing or both, do you think Yeah. Yeah, Flu has like almost completely disappeared. It's it's probably a little bit of both. I think what we're seeing is that our measures that are being used to contain covert or been really, really good at containing flu. So you know, as you mentioned were wearing masks more. There's more social distancing, and a lot of schools are also closed. Or, you know they're also kind of precautions in place in schools in the past, you know, kids tend to be a pretty big vector for flu's. I think that's probably another reason we're just seeing very, very little of it. But, yeah, it's really astonishing. If you're just talking to people in public health, and I think it shows that Cove it is a lot more infectious in the flu and and and flu shots are people getting flu shots at the regular rate, or has that Dropped off. Also, that's a good question they knew earlier last year, people were really trying to encourage people get flu shots because we're afraid of a quote unquote twinned Emmick of Cupid and the flu. I don't know if there's a way we have the numbers for this year yet, but I think the flu drops off have been so dramatic that just vaccination alone without explain it. Let's talk about other co vid related news. We got some new data this week from the U. K and the U. K is looking into whether you can mix a shot of the AstraZeneca vaccine. With a shot of the Fizer or a modern a vaccine, I guess sort of mixing and matching. Tell us tell us how that would work and what they're studying. Yeah, yeah, The UK is starting a trial to see if you can mix and match these vaccines. So the idea of why you would want to do this is partly just because we'll be a lot easier, right? If you you know when you have all these food vaccines. If you don't have to worry about making sure you have exactly the same one. I'll just Be easier to administer. There's sort of no specific reason to think that there it would be bad and there's no specific reason to think that they would not work. But we always just what I run the trials and have the data to make sure there's nothing unexpected. The reason we might think that two different doses of two different vaccines will probably work is because basically all of the vaccines we have have a very similar target. So you know vaccines kind of present a snapshot of the virus for your system. Basically all the vaccines present exact same snapshot. It's the spec protein of the coroner Various and so what's different about the AstraZeneca best team and the Visor vaccine is not the snapshot representing but the way they're getting into yourself..

Flu Ira Plato Sarah Zang Dr Anthony Fauci staff writer Maura CDC UK White House U. K
"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

08:23 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Partisanship, polarization, the erosion of trust reform and even sometimes tearing down may be necessary. But we should do so with an eye towards the eventual outcome, which is what we actually want these things to do restoring faith in our institutions. Next time on politics with Amy Walter from the takeaway Fridays at three on 93.9 FM. This is science Friday. I'm Ira Plato a bit later in the hour. How effective will vaccines be against new variants of the Corona virus? But first, if you're out of the grocery store or taking a walk, you might see someone sporting the new pandemic trend double masks. Sometimes it's a cloth mask over and and 95. Sometimes it's too fabric mask slayer together. If you are already double masked, you may be prescient because this week, Dr Anthony Fauci said the CDC is considering updating its mass guidelines to suggest wearing two masks to protect against new were contagious variants of the Corona virus here to share Maura about the thinking behind the double masking guidelines and to discuss other science. News of the week is Sarah Zang, staff writer for the Atlantic. Hi, Sarah. Hi, Ira. Good to talk to you again. Nice to have you back, So we just got used to wearing one mask, and now we can anticipate they're saying it's time to up it to to. Well, I confessed to having been someone who has occasionally warrant a double bass myself, mostly in cases where even indoors, talking to other people, which is a kind of a high risk. Habit situation. Right? So, yeah. What are the benefits of to mess while they're a couple of different ways to think about it, one is you're obviously just getting another layer filtration in front of your face, And that just kind of keeps out any particles, But maybe the bigger benefit is actually having a tighter seal or a tighter fit around your face. I think this is probably especially true if you're wearing a surgical mask, a zoo first layer, which is kind of tends to be fairly loose, especially about your nose and maybe around your chin. Then you might wear a slightly better fitting cloth mask over it, so that you just kind of jump get that here That's coming out. But you know, around your basket, you're actually really through your mask. I wear glasses. So when I walk outside in the cold, it's really obvious to me when I'm asked us not fitting well, but what you're really trying to avoid. Is kind of like breathing around the mass rather than through it. Yeah, I kind of test my masks by putting my fingers on it and see if I'm I'm pressing it. If I'm breathing more through the mask than at the top on the bottom, then I know it's not a good seal. Yeah, Yeah, exactly. And I think of listeners have been lucky enough to get the 95 mask or one of the kegan 90 five's. You'll probably know this. Those actually do kind of sit against your face a little bit tighter. They'd really do press against your face. Sara. Why do we need double masking at this time? Has it got something to do with the new variants of the Corona virus? Part of it is you want is there's just a lot of Cupid spread in general around right now, but also the new variants are more transmissible. You know, the variance not is not like the It's not going to have magic powers. It's not gonna automatically jump through your mask. But what might be happening is that you might be like less the virus to get sick, So the double mask is just kind of like an extra layer of protection that extra precaution to Kind of protect us against this more transmissible very end. There are also reports that the White House is considering sending everyone a cloth mask. Yeah, I think we should have probably done this a year ago. I think that would have really helped. You know, I think it would be great to have mass available for everyone. Certainly when I walk around outside, I sometimes still people see people wearing scarves. I think it's certainly be better if they growing mass. If we could be getting anyone and 95 months, I would be even better. You know. Also, one of the things we haven't talked about, much is the flu season. It's like run under the radar screen, and there are so many fewer cases of flu. Is that from the mask wearing or just people social distancing or both, do you think Yeah. Yeah, Flu has like almost completely disappeared. It's it's probably a little bit of both. I think what we're seeing is that our measures that are being used to contain covert or been really, really good at containing flu. So you know, as you mentioned were wearing masks or there's more social distancing, and a lot of schools are also closed. Or, you know they're also kind of precautions in place in schools in the past, you know, kids tend to be a pretty big vector for flu's. I think that's probably another reason we're just seeing very, very little of it. But, yeah, it's really astonishing. If you're just talking to people in public health, and I think it shows that Cove it is a lot more infectious in the flu and and and flu shots are people getting flu shots at the regular rate, or has that Dropped off. Also, that's a good question they knew earlier last year, people were really trying to encourage people get flu shots because we're afraid of a quote unquote twinned emmick of Cupid and the flu. I don't know if they we have the numbers for this year yet, but I think the blue drops off have been so dramatic that just vaccination alone without explain it. Let's talk about other co vid related news. We got some new data this week from the U. K and the U. K is looking into whether you can mix a shot of the AstraZeneca vaccine. With a shot of the Fizer or a modern a vaccine, I guess sort of mixing and matching. Tell us tell us how that would work and what they're studying. Yeah, yeah, The UK is starting a trial to see if you can mix and match these vaccines. So the idea of why you would want to do this is partly just because I'll be a lot easier, right? If you you know when you have all these food vaccines. If you don't have to worry about making sure you have exactly the same one. You'll just Be easier to administer. There's sort of no specific reason to think that there it would be bad and there's no specific reason to think that they would not work. But we always just what I ran the trials and have the data to make sure there's nothing unexpected. The reason we might think that two different doses of two different vaccines will probably work is because basically all of the vaccines we have have a very similar target. So you know vaccines kind of present a snapshot of the virus for your system. Basically all the vaccines present exact same snapshot. It's the spec protein of the current various. And so what's different about the AstraZeneca that steam and the visor vaccine is not the snapshot to presenting, but the way they're getting into yourself. Yeah, we'll be talking a lot more about vaccinations a little bit later in the program. Meanwhile, Johnson and Johnson found for emergency use authorization on Thursday with the FDA that they were expected to do that. So what is the timeline that we might expect to see the Johnson and Johnson vaccine And if I heard them correctly? That's just a one shot. Er, Is it not? Yeah, that's right Now. That's where a friend of excitement there'll be a lot easier to roll out that one dose vaccine. So I think we can probably expect it in early march. The process will probably be very similar to what happened with Visor. No Dorner vaccines. The FDA is currently going to be reviewing. You know, lots of lots of data on February 26. I believe gave few advisory committee is gonna have a public meeting which you and I can watch on YouTube. If we you know, have a day for I want to do that. And then we can probably expect an emergency youth authorization very quickly after that. The possible limiting factor right now is that Johnson and Johnson doesn't have that money. Vaccines like coupling sitting on shelves waiting to be used. So I think the latest reporting has said they were probably be single digit million's. So this will be a definitely be more vaccines but won't be like a huge flood of new vaccines yet. So it could be maybe the middle of the summer or the beginning of the summer before we see any large quantities. Of the Johnson and Johnson. Let's talk about this month marking the 20th anniversary of the first human genome getting published. Boy, I remember that back in February of 2001. Can it gonna be 20 years already? Did you cover on this show back then? Absolutely. Yeah. Yeah, It was huge cues, right? I think what was so what happened 20 years ago Is that the first draft of the human genome or published in the journal Nature and Science and the reason.

Flu Johnson Ira Plato Sarah Zang Dr Anthony Fauci FDA Amy Walter staff writer Nature and Science Maura UK CDC White House YouTube U. K
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

08:39 min | 1 year ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"We want to be able to be resilient to them. So I do think that we have to fix that window of opportunity right now to fix this. To get pandemic preparedness, the attention it deserves, so that it is sustainable so that it is funded more the way the Department of Defense funds budgets. If you think about how much money we spend on pandemic preparedness, compared to how much we spend on another 35 fighter plane. You can't even compare the two and look what Look what's happened with this pandemic. It's been said that if you stop this pandemic a month earlier will save half a trillion dollars. Let's talk about preparing for it because there's a lot of talk of using the Defense Production act to help ramp up production of vaccines Image. Tell us what the actors can the government start directing companies to produce Vaccines. How does this work? So the defense production It has lots of different sections to it in lots of different aspects to it, And I'm not a lawyer, So I'm going to give you my understanding of how it applies in an infectious disease emergency. What it does is, it allows the president to To have cos prioritized orders from the U. S government say that might be a vaccine and might be syringes. It might be some ingredient that's needed in masks, for example, and it allows things to happen much quicker. Those contracts get prioritized. Some of the red tape disappears, and it just gives a lot of power to the president. T direct. Resource is towards what is deemed a national security emergency and it's been invoked before but by President Trump, and it's been invoked for other things in the past as well. But what I don't think what I think we have to think about is that it's not going to be a magic bullet and the fact that we're actually getting to the DP A for masks, For example, this far into the pandemic tells you that there's been a lot of failures that the DPH needs to be put into place, because, remember the After 2000 and h one n one. The strategic national stockpile was not repeated event 95, Mass. We have no one to blame for the fact that we need to deep now but ourselves. Thomas. We're relying then on private companies to create these vaccines that don't give up their trade secrets very easily. Is that an issue? Yeah, so I wanted to build on a couple of things to me, I said, and then answer that question. So one thing they're appreciate it is not only did H one n one shift people's expectations of what a pandemic might look like at this country. We had done all this investment after 9 11, particularly between 4 4007, and we were hit by the financial crisis, and that's really where you saw states and localities and to some extent the federal government start to cut funding. To that preparedness programs because the easiest thing to do, of course, is always to cut for capacity that you hope you'll never need to use and each one and one reinforce that impulse but is really the combination. Of those two things that hurt us in the past Esso in terms of the DP A. It certainly creates a Potential vehicle two for the president to provide economic incentives to try to mobilize domestic industrial capabilities to meet a national security crisis like this one In terms of vaccines. So far, we we actually haven't had as much of a challenge in terms of mobilizing that supply and having companies provided certainly nine person to some other nations. Even the European Union is having some struggles getting their vaccines on time, but it's definitely something the background that can be used if needed to move for those supplies. The problem really has been in terms of mobilizing the capacity more so in some other areas like Hamish mentioned around P p p to be a year into this crisis. And to not have solved that challenges. Really, uh, disappointing, to say the least, and obviously has had a tremendous health costs, particularly at a time where we may need better. Mass, particularly given more contagious, very instead are starting to circulate. Are you saying that the mobilization of the Defense Act will not put more people on the ground as they like to say in the military boots on the ground to be able to distribute the vaccine to get it into maybe planes that need to fly to certain places to have soldiers who were qualified to be able to dispense it. I've already seen soldiers on the ground and In parking lots giving out the injections. Are you saying that won't help that? Deepa is more around production and supplied the actual vaccines. We are seeing mobilization of vaccinators. So through FEMA, you're seeing a ramp up of the availability of vaccinators and starting to reach out. To broader populations and provide the training. You would need to have them be vaccinators. I think the big issue on vaccine capacity and manufacturing is are we going to be able to commence country our company's rather that have failed candidates. To provide their manufacturing capacity to the successful candidates, and we're starting to see that so no fee announced. I think it was last week that they would be manufacturing the Fizer vaccine, Merc recently announced that its candidate failed That's another source of potential manufacturing capacity. That you could bring to bear. But what people under need to understand is as exciting as the stories were in the early days of this pandemic of machinist and companies said had never built a ventilator, trying to build one on the fly, mobilizing new companies to make anything from toilet paper to pee pee. That's harder to do in the vaccine manufacturing contest context. Vaccine Manufacturing is one of the most complex manufacturing challenges in the world is part of the reason why so few countries can actually do it. The fastest way to increase our supplies to get existing manufacturers, particularly those that don't have a successful candidate. Tonto manufacture the successful products and we're starting to see that I have Hope that we'll see more of that moving forward. I'm Ira Plato. And this is Science Friday from W. N. Y C studios. The national plan talks about mass vaccination campaigns turning stadiums into places where you can vaccinate Hundreds in a day. Do you actually see that happening? And is that the right way to go? It is one of its a component of the right way to go, and it's certainly what we advocate for in that New York Times piece. If we're going to hit the targets that we need to hit to sustain One million vaccinations per day for 100 days and I should point out here we we all have seen a ramp up of vaccinations in the US over the last week and a half. We're still averaging since December 14th when the rollout began. We're still averaging just a little over 500,000 per day. So sustaining this for 100 days, even at one million a day would be a feat. The president has said. You want to reach 1.5 million a day to hit these targets. You need a component. That involves mass vaccination ideally of a population where their eligibility for vaccination because their priority population is easier to To identify so something like people over 65, where you really just looking at driver's license is or other documentation to show that they qualify. You cannot just do that, though, And this is the important part. I want emphasize you need to pair that with an effort to make sure you're reaching vulnerable populations, so thank essential workers and meat packing facilities. Or, uh, vulnerable populations with high health risk federal federally qualified health centers. And to do that you also need to pair what you're doing on the mass vaccination side with mobile clinic second reach those more vulnerable populations. How do you get the messaging to be single and national lead? I mean, we're hearing you know the face masking messaging, the keeping kids home from school or or not messaging. Is there any way to nationalize that, or is that not a good idea?.

president Mass Vaccine Manufacturing Department of Defense President Trump European Union DPH US New York Times Hamish Thomas Deepa FEMA Ira Plato U. S
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

06:17 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Friday. I'm Ira Plato. Some scientists find my hypothesis on fashionable outside of mainstream science, even dangerously ill conceived. But the most egregious error we can make, I believe is not to take this possibility seriously enough. That's a quote from Avi Loeb's new book, The Apotheosis that he wants you to take. Seriously. What is it? Well, let's return to October 2017 when our solar system received a strange visitor, unlike any seen before, scientists couldn't pin it down. Was it an asteroid or a comet or chunk of ice? Or what? To this day. It's simply classified as an interstellar object dubbed the Moola Moola. But Loeb is pretty sure of what it is. It's hard to classify he reasons because it's a byproduct of intelligent life outside our solar system. How it found its way here is well, we don't know. This is the central argument of his new book, Extraterrestrial first sign of Intelligent Life Beyond Earth, and here, he is joining us to talk about it. Dr. Avi Loeb, astronomy professor at Harvard University. Director of the school's Institute for Theory and Computation, founding director of Harvard's Black Hole Initiative. Welcome back to Look to Science Friday. Thanks for having now I mentioned in my intro there that a movable was a strange object, which has made it hard to classify. Tell us about this object. What made it so unusual? Yeah, The experience is similar to walking on the beach and seeing most of the time natural sea chest and rocks. But every now and then you stumble across the plastic bottle that indicates that it was artificially made. There is a civilization off there, and that's the sense that one gets from looking at the evidence we have on the more more each told the lot off anomalies. The first of which was that its brightness by reflecting sunlight changed by a factor of 10 as it was tumbling over eight hours. And if you imagine a piece of paper that is razor thin, tumbling in the wind. The area that is projected in front of us, You know, it's not expected to change by such a large factor even for razor thin object. So that implies that the more more has an extreme geometry extreme shape. It is at least 10 times longer than it is wide and then trying to feed the light curve imply that it's most likely flat. It's a flat object robin Cigar shaped It was depicted in some cartoons and then even more mysteriously, It exhibited an extra push away from the sun beyond the force of gravity that the sun exerts on it, And usually that is provided by the rocket effect on comments when eyes on their surface gets evaporated. As it gets heated by sunlight. But the only problem with that is there was no cometary tail. The speeches space telescope search very deeply for carbon based molecules dust around this subject and found nothing. So there was no commentary evaporation off the object. And yet it exhibited this push in order to provide this bush about 1/10 off the object. 10% of the mass of this object had to evaporate and we haven't seen anything. And so the question arose as to what gives it this extra push, and the only thing that I could think off is a reflection of sunlight. And in fact, in September 2020 the war's another object. That showed a similar push away from the sun without any commentary table. It was given the name 2020 s O by the astronomy community. And then astronomers figured out that in 1966. This object came from the earth and according to the history books, indeed, the was a rocket booster that was kicked into space. From a mission called the Lunar Lander, a surveyor, too, and so that Woz this object hollow very thin, and so it could have been pushed by sunlight. And here we have an example of an artificial object that we could in fair that it's artificial from the extra push, and we know that this artificial because we produced it. The question is who produced the more more Wow. And you know, I'm reminded of Carl Sagan's famous quote. Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. Will we ever get extraordinary evidence on this one? Do we need it? I don't think this statement makes much sense because the word extraordinary is really dependent on the eyes of the beholder. For some people, dark matter is extraordinary for others. It must be there. For some people. Extra dimensions are extraordinary for the mainstream of theoretical physics. Even though we have no evidence for it. It's not extraordinary, so my point is, we should be guided by evidence. And if the evidence shows anomalies, we should try to explain them just like Cheryl homes, trying to explain a crime scene. We should put all the possibilities on the table and then ruled them out based on the evidence, But we should not have a prejudice. You know, the Mayan is the Mayan culture collected a lot of data on planets the motion of planets in the sky where they are because they believe That you can focus the outcome of fuel war based on where these planets are on the sky. They had the wrong idea. They collected a lot of data and it was completely useless because they haven't really used it to the right. For example, you don't sloth gravity. So my point is, if we have a prejudice if we have a prior idea about what the data means, we think that everything we see on the sky is rocks. We behave just like a caveman that is faced with the cell phone in the caveman would say, Oh, the cell phone is just a shiny rock. And yet we have a settee. The search for extraterrestrial,.

Dr. Avi Loeb Institute for Theory and Compu Harvard University Ira Plato Carl Sagan Lunar Lander astronomy community Director founding director bush Cheryl homes professor Black Hole Initiative
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

06:29 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"To join us to talk about Reflections about that experience and give us an update. He's an associate professor in microbiology and immunology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. Welcome back. Thank you for having me again listening to those clips of yourself eight months ago. What's the difference between where you were then and compared to today? Well, I thought I was very tired of that moment. Eight months ago, I didn't realize how much more tired I could possibly get. But I think that what it reflects is that this obviously we all are going through this remarkable pandemic over the last year at the time it months ago, we knew that was this was going to spread. This was going to be a very big deal around the world. I certainly don't I don't think anyone could predicted the numbers of cases that we are seeing right now. It's still in the midst of it. Like you say the virus you work on is now out in the real world, and there are still record numbers of cases and deaths. How does it feel for you to be a corona virus researcher right now. I think it feels for all of us that we We have a very important role in this especially all of the labs that it worked on Coronaviruses. Previously. The driving force in my lab over the last year has been working with companies and developing therapeutics that they've developed or we're working with them on and get them into the people in the community as fast as possible. And so we have. Ah, we have a remarkable um, role to play because of our expertise in this field. It certainly is exhausting Entire ng. I'm a really a basic science scientist at heart. I never thought I would do anything that would affect any human really directly from the lab. So to be able to play a part of this is really quite rewarding and really drives the research. I'm Ira Plato and this is science Friday from W. N. Y C studios. The speed that scientists have had to work has been astonishing, right? I mean in the clip, one of the researchers described approaching the work like a marathon rather than a sprint. Do you agree that this is this is a marathon and you create a balance between the two. There is absolutely no balance. Unfortunately, at the beginning of this week, certainly we were all calling it. It's a marathon and sprint pace and that hasn't slowed down our lab and everyone else's lab in this field is that are working on these. This virus are working at an amazing pace. To try to understand the virus. Better develop therapeutics, get clinical trials run and then out into the population so we can get approvals. It just hasn't slowed down. I don't know when it will. But in our lab, it certainly is not. How are you viewing the second year of the pandemic? I think I look at it two ways. I'm quite optimistic about all of the vaccine that has been really rapidly developed through. All of these companies were working with Novavax on their vaccine directly. Seeing that out in trials and the two vaccines that have anyway, approval already in a year. That is incredibly remarkable. I know we keep saying that, and I don't think the general public really realizes. What a scientific endeavor has been to really develop these fast on do safely. The other aspect of that was the cases are not slowing down. And so that the scary thing and kind of get sad thing to me really is that we're not protecting ourselves The way we know how to protect socialism thing wearing masks on go seeing the case Numbers increase is really disheartening. So watch this move, not just the United States but around the world. People not doing the things that we know can protect them and getting really just tired of it, which I totally understand, But the case numbers are certainly not slowing down, and it really It saddens me that we're getting better at this yet. You talk about being sad and by this do you take your work home with you? I mean, does it affect you when you leave the lap? Sure. I don't think I'm depressed at home. I certainly am working more now. In the last 12 months that I have ever before, you know, staying up late, Miss some kid bedtimes and dinners. But I have AH, 11 year old. An eight year old Andre wife was also also a physician scientist at Johns Hopkins. So You know, all of this impacts all of our lives, whether it's somebody working in the lab or it's a single mom at home. Trying to, you know, put her kid through virtual school while they work a job. It's everyone is finding their way through this, and I think that you know, we all have a role to play. Whether it's in the lab are, you know otherwise? What do you want us to know about your work and Cove? It researchers in general, what I want everyone to know is that again. Everyone plays a role in this that we can work as hard as we can in the lab to develop vaccines and anti bodies and drugs. But if everyone out there is not helping themselves by Justin saying, wearing masks, doing the real things that we know our interventions that are non for pharmaceutical interventions that really reduce the risk of being infected. That is where everyone can play a role in this. I also want everyone to know that the vaccines that are rolling out now. Have gone through trials very rapidly, and I know there's some concern in the community that no, that's not normal and maybe they aren't safe. That certainly is not the fact. Not in fact, in any of the things that we have seen both published and unpublished, where all of the rigors of normal scientific research and clinical trials are still there. In these experiments and in these in these in phase 12 and three trials. I want everyone to understand that that these vaccines are safe and that therapeutics are safe and combining those therapeutics with, uh, protecting herself by, you know Following all of the normal public health measures are really how we could get ourselves through this. Thank you very much, Matthew for taking time to be with us today. Thank you very much for having me and good luck in states like Yeah, we'll check in with you along the way. Is that okay? Absolutely. Thank you. Matthew Freeman is an associate professor in microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore. We have to take a break. And when we come back a conversation with an astrophysicist, Dr obvious Loeb, who believes evidence for intelligent life has visited our solar system. Stay with us. We'll be right.

University of Maryland School associate professor Baltimore scientist Matthew Freeman United States Ira Plato Dr obvious Loeb Coronaviruses researcher Novavax Johns Hopkins Justin Andre
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

08:01 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Or g'kar Coming up this afternoon, two o'clock, Theo international community put pressure on a former Soviet republic to drop the death penalty. Enlightened nations. The argument goes, have abolished capital punishment. But on the other hand, there is the death penalty in the United States. If they have it, why should we abolish it? Why Kazakhstan has stopped executions even as the U. S carries on that story on the world. This is science Friday. I'm Ira Plato At the beginning of 2020. There were no vaccines available, much less approved for covert 19. But now in the first weeks of 2021 we have to as well as a pipeline of dozens of vaccine candidates in clinical trials, as does has become available for frontline health care workers and the broader public. Trust is a concern. We've even heard from listeners who wonder if he sped up time line or the novelty of him already a are compromising safety. I think I sort of understand how our current vaccines for like smallpox work, But I'm not sure I understand what it is. That happens with these Marine A vaccines. How much Confidence do we have in the efficacy of this treatment, primarily due to the fact that it was pushed so fast? I'm a pediatrician in West Bloomfield, Michigan. Even among the community of parents who accept all other vaccines. There's some hesitancy, there should be a way to explain how the streamlined vaccine approval did not sacrifice safety considerations. Thanks to listeners Tom Arnold and Isabel for their comments on our science Friday. Box Papa while SARS cov two feels like it came out of nowhere. These vaccines did not their rest atop years of research vaccine technologies with proven safety records. Tweak just a bit for this new virus. Even m. RNA is not new. We can thank the first SARS epidemic for much of that. Influenza and HIV vaccine research have also contributed here to talk about it to vaccine researchers with their own cove in 19 vaccines in the pipeline. Dr. Maria Elena Petacchi is associate dean at the National School of Tropical Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine and co director of Texas Children's Hospital Center for Vaccine Development in Houston. She's done work on SARS and is part of a project to make vaccine for covert 19 welcome Dr Ba Tazi. Hi. Good morning, Ira. Very nice to be with you. And Dr Rama Amara, professor of microbiology and immunology at Emory University's National Primate Research Center. He joins us from Atlanta. He's been applying his expertise from work on HIV vaccines. Also in the name of a covert vaccine this year. Welcome back to Amara. Hi. I had a really nice to be with you. I used to have both of you with us. Let me do a time warp. Let's do a time work back to let's say it's January 2020 doctor, but Tazi and you're researching SARS and there's Let's say, and you've just heard about a new virus with pandemic potential. Tell me Tell me what the vaccine researchers do first. Absolutely. So, In fact, it was more like December of 2019 when we already worse hearing about this pneumonia like virus, So they moment January 11. We got the sequence. That he was a source like coronavirus. We took that sequence and compared it in that case, too, for us to the star sequence. We saw that both sequences where around 80% similar and we tanker that very quickly because we already knew how to our work with it from our service experience. And honestly, I have to tell you what we used to do for stars that took us 34 years. We actually managed to do it in 34 months because we knew exactly how to manipulate the new sequence. So that's what we did. First we looked at the sequence took it, synthesize it and put it into our yeast expression system to be able to make. Are recommending proteins. So you your lab was already ready to get working on this. Absolutely. This is what we were trained for. Our center now has 20 years of operation. We have, of course many other vaccines were working on. But we've already had 10. Years of experience working on Corona virus vaccines, Merced as well, a sour So as you mentioned And Dr Mara, you were working on HIV vaccines before pivoting to covert candidate. What could you apply from this work on the HIV vaccine to this virus? Absolutely. So that is about of information that we learned from the HIV vaccine development. We are interested in using both neutralizing antibody as one last cycle, toxic killer P cells as well as help of city 40 Selves. Against the virus That would give you a broad coverage from the immune system to attack the wires from multiple fronts. And we learned a lot about the safety of this and how to deliver it and how to make high levels of this southwest protein when Maxine is delivered And we also know that what kind of immune responses that Maxine and uses oven Mitt is given considering all that. When we decided to make a Corona virus vaccine, we could jump right into it and then made of vaccine within a few weeks. So in other words, you already knew how to tweak the immune system to respond to the HIV vaccine. And you you adjusted that for the new vaccine, that's good. So the success of the coffin Maintain vaccines. Stem in large part from the work that's being done on the HIV vaccine. I absolutely believe that because a lot of money that enlisted in the HIV vaccine development and paid off And making the corporate 19 vaccine. For example, whatever AstraZeneca is using, even remember now, and Pfizer and violent can change A All these platforms have been used actually developed for HIV. So all of these platforms were invalid. And Batou, right? So all these words don't look for HIV and then because so much knowledge knowledge existed now they're able to were all able to quickly apply this full Congress 19. And I don't know if you realize, But the clinical trial networks around the world where these vaccines actually are being evaluated, actually are HIV vaccine trial networks. Yeah, so they really mobilized all the HIV is infrastructure, not only technology but the infrastructure. And that has given even a lot of the low middle income countries the opportunity to evaluate some vaccines because they just Locked into an infrastructure that was created with HIV funding. Do you think that success with the covert 19 vaccine is going to spur Development of an HIV vaccine in general had a real vaccine program has been so slow because they follow standard vaccine development Park. I'm hoping that now the experience with the covert vaccines I think they would actually try to change things, toe speed things up..

vaccine development Park HIV Hospital Center for Vaccine De Dr Ba Tazi SARS professor of microbiology and Ira Plato Kazakhstan United States Soviet republic Pfizer West Bloomfield Dr Rama Amara Influenza Michigan pneumonia Atlanta Tom Arnold
"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

KPCC

07:48 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KPCC

"Her education will take them. They hope to a place of higher earnings, middle class stability, but it doesn't always work out that way. We're concerned. Faculty of USC says Strong faculty governance could have helped avoid scandals. 89.3 kpcc L A News and NPR covering education. I'm other fool, Guzman Lopez. This is science Friday. I'm Ira Plato. It's a new week in a new year, and that means there's a whole slew of covert news to take a look at all this new information about vaccines and mutations. It can be pretty overwhelming, right? So we're here to fact, Check your feet. With our gas. Dr. Angela Rasmussen gave urologist at Georgetown University's Center for Global Health and Security. She's based in Seattle. Welcome back, Angela. Always great to have you. It's always great to be here, IRA. Thanks for having me. You're quite welcome. Let's start with distribution of the vaccine for a minute. We've seen a lot of coverage that the U. S fell very short of its goal. Vaccinating 20 million people by the end of 2020. In fact, we hear that just over three million doses or administered. Why did we fall so short? Well, I think one of the reasons we fell so short and it is really complicated in this I should add, is a disclaimer that I am not involved in any way in the distribution, so I only know about this from a sort of bigger picture level. But I think that one of the big problems that we've had with distribution is the fact that there really is no centralized vaccine distribution plan operation works speeds involvement in that really ends at the point where they allocate the vaccines to the different states. And at that point, it becomes each individual state or localities responsibility to distribute that vaccine and some states they're doing better than others. For example, some states have implemented policies that actually make the vaccine much more difficult to access for some people, such as New York, in which the vaccines are only to be given out at hospitals. Right now, when we have an unprecedented number of covert patients going into hospitals that makes using that environment to also distribute vaccines to healthy people, very challenging, So it's a really complex problem. It has a lot to do with logistics, and it also has a lot to do with all the different rules in the different places where the vaccines are actually being distributed on the ground. Yeah, We have no national policy. That would be the same for everybody. That's exactly right. And this was a problem that we also saw with with really testing each state And sometimes local health departments are predominantly involved in doing these tests and collecting the data and then reporting it to a centralized federal data. Cole later and this has also really lead to a lot of confusion, trying to look at the national numbers. Rather than the numbers by states on DSA. Now we're seeing the same thing with vaccine distribution. It really does argue that for really important public health measures that affect all of us in the U. S. The really does need to be a federal national plan to unify us and to make sure that these things run smoothly. Do you think now that we're getting a new president in a couple of weeks that things could speed up with the new administration? I really hope so. And certainly President elect Biden has made it clear that he does plan toe have more of a federal plan. He plans to provide more federal leadership and I really do think that's what's needed because we shouldn't be able to access Really critical public health measures like vaccines based on the politics of who our local governor or leaders are you know a few years ago when Tony Fauci was on the show talking about vaccinations because we used to have him on regularly? Hey, he related a story that when he was a young child, I think he was six or seven and he was living in New York. And there was an outbreak of smallpox in New York City, but because everybody used to get inoculated with smallpox. Remember when you were a baby? They don't do that anymore. Yes, the infrastructure, Maxie, not that old But I know the story. Well, the infrastructure was there so that they could inoculate What? Eight million people in two weeks. I mean, doesn't that speak to us saying, Hey, we've learned a lesson. We should create a permanent infrastructure because we're gonna have more outbreaks of viruses. Absolutely. And you know, Smallpox is a great example of that. That was the first vaccine in fact. Vaccines are called vaccines because the virus that you used to inoculate somebody against smallpox or very old virus is vaccinia virus or cowpox. Virus s So technically, a vaccine is on Lee really? A smallpox inoculation because most vaccines are not based on vaccinia virus. Now, of course, we now use the term generally to mean an immunization. But I think that that's ah great reminder that we should maybe go back to basics that sometimes we need to be able to rapidly and dynamically and flexibly start vaccinating a lot of people, especially if there's an outbreak of a re emergent virus, or if there is a new outbreak of a new virus. Now we have all these different vaccine technologies, and we've shown During this pandemic, at least that we can rapidly approve them for for human use, and that they're actually quite efficacious. We need to start thinking about how we can do that. As part of a larger, longer term pandemic and epidemic preparedness plan. We now have two approved vaccines here in the U. S one from Fizer. One from Oh, derna, these air both to dose vaccines. Hey, you know we have been hearing talk about whether not both doses are necessary to strike to stretch the vaccine supply out What's going on here so that that was first proposed before we started to realize what serious issues we were having with vaccine distribution, But the idea there was when those vaccines were submitted to the FDA for evaluation for emergency use authorization. Both of them showed a certain level of protection after the first Shot. And after about 14 days after you get your first shot, there's really measurable protection conferred by that one shot now, the caveats there is that. That we don't know how long that protection would last after just one shot because, of course, the clinical trials were evaluating them as two shot regimens. So knowing that we would only have about 20 million doses of each by the end of 2020 people have proposed. Maybe we can give people one shot and that will confer some protection and then Either we could leave it at one sought, Or maybe we could give them a second shot. Just later on. We have more vaccine supplies. Now I think that there is merit to some of those arguments. But the real caveat There is that we don't have any efficacy data on Changing up the dose in regimen so right now, given that we aren't able to get the vaccines that we do have into people's arms. I think it's really premature to be suggesting that we just change the dose in schedules without doing any research to see if that would provide the same level of protection as the dozing schedules that were actually evaluated. And and the U. K. I understand is trying. This one does method Right now The UK is actually recommending a delayed second dose. So there is a difference with that. Now it may be, you know, we do get many vaccines and what's called a prime boost regimen where you get the first dose and then you get a booster shot later on. And for some vaccines, we know that you can get that booster shot over a large range of time. And in fact, one of the trials for the AstraZeneca vaccine did give the second dose up to 12 weeks later and didn't see measurable decrease in efficacy..

smallpox New York vaccinia Dr. Angela Rasmussen NPR USC Ira Plato Center for Global Health and S Guzman Lopez Seattle UK New York City Georgetown University president Cole Maxie President Fizer Tony Fauci
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

07:23 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"This is science Friday. I'm Ira Plato. It's a new week in a new year, And that means there's a whole slew of covert news to take a look at all this new information about vaccines and mutations. It can be pretty overwhelming. Right, So we're here to fact, Check your feet with our gas. Dr. Angela Rasmussen favor ologists at Georgetown University's Center for Global Health and Security. She's based in Seattle. Welcome back, Angela. Always great to have you. It's always great to be here, IRA. Thanks for having me you're quite welcome. Let's start with distribution of the vaccine for a minute. We've seen a lot of coverage that the U. S fell very short of its goal. Vaccinating 20 million people by the end of 2020. In fact, we hear that just over three million doses were administered. Why did we fall so short? Well, I think one of the reasons we fell so short and it is really complicated in this I should add, is a disclaimer that I am not involved in any way in the distribution, so I only know about this from a sort of bigger picture level. But I think that one of the big problems that we've had with distribution is the fact that there really is no centralized vaccine distribution plan. Operation works speeds involvement in that really ends at the point where they allocate the vaccines to the different states. And at that point, it becomes each individual state or localities responsibility to distribute that vaccine and some states are doing better than others, for example. Some states have implemented policies that actually make the vaccine much more difficult to access for some people such as New York, in which the vaccines are only to be given out at hospitals right now, when we have an unprecedented number of covert patients going into hospitals that makes using that environment to also distribute vaccines to healthy people. Very challenging, So it's a really complex problem. It has a lot to do with logistics, and it also has a lot to do with all the different rules in the different places where the vaccines are actually being distributed on the ground. Yeah, We have no national policy. That would be the same for everybody. That's exactly right. And this was a problem that we also saw with with really testing each state And sometimes local health departments are predominantly involved in doing these tests and collecting the data and then reporting it to a centralized federal data call later, and this has also really lead to a lot of confusion, trying to look at the national numbers. Rather than the numbers by states on DSA. Now we're seeing the same thing with vaccine distribution. It really does argue that for really important public health measures that affect all of us in the U. S. They're really does need to be a federal national plan to unify us and to make sure that these things run smoothly. Do you think now that we're getting a new president in a couple of weeks that things could speed up with the new administration? I really hope so. And certainly President elect Biden has made it clear that he does. Plans to have more of a federal plan. He plans to provide more federal leadership and I really do think that's what's needed because we shouldn't be able to access Really critical public health measures like vaccines based on the politics of who our local governor or leaders are you know a few years ago when Tony Fatty was on the show talking about vaccinations because we used to have him on regularly? Hey, he related a story that when he was a young child, I think he was six or seven and he was living in New York. And there was an outbreak of smallpox in New York City, but because everybody used to get inoculated with smallpox. Remember when you were a baby? They don't do that anymore. Yes, the infrastructure. I'm actually not that old, but I know the story. Well, the infrastructure was there so that they could inoculate what eight million people in two weeks. I mean, doesn't that speak to us? Hey, we've learned a lesson. We should create a permanent infrastructure because we're going to have more outbreaks of viruses. Absolutely. And you know, smallpox is a great example of that. That was the first vaccine in fact. Vaccines are called vaccines because the virus that you used to inoculate somebody against smallpox or very old virus is vaccinia virus or cowpox. Virus s O. Technically, a vaccine is on Lee really? A smallpox inoculation because most vaccines are not based on vaccinia virus. Now, of course, we now use the term generally to mean an immunization. But I think that that's ah great reminder that we should maybe go back to basics that sometimes we need to be able to rapidly and dynamically and flexibly start vaccinating a lot of people, especially if there's an outbreak of a re immersion virus or if there is a new outbreak of a new virus. Now we have all these different vaccine technologies, and we've shown During this pandemic, at least that we can rapidly approve them for for human use, and that they're actually quite efficacious. We need to start thinking about how we can do that. As part of a larger, longer term pandemic and epidemic preparedness plan. We now have two approved vaccines here in the U. S one from Fizer. One from Oh, Derna. These are both two dose vaccines and you know we have been hearing talk about whether not both doses are necessary. Just try to stretch the vaccine supply out what's going on here so that that was first proposed before we started to realize what serious issues we were having with vaccine distribution. The idea there was when those vaccines were submitted to the FDA for evaluation for emergency use authorization. Both of them showed a certain level of protection after the first shot. And after about 14 days after you get your first shot, there's really measurable protection conferred by that one shot now, the caveats There is that. That we don't know how long that protection would last after just one shot because, of course, the clinical trials were evaluating them as two shot regimens. So knowing that we would only have about 20 million doses of each by the end of 2020 people have proposed. Maybe we can give people one shot and that will confer some protection. And then either we could leave it at one shot. Or maybe we could give them a second shot. Just later on. We have more vaccine supplies. Now I think that there is married to some of those arguments. But the real caveat. There is that we don't have any efficacy data on changing up the dose in regimen so right now, given that we aren't able to get the vaccines that we do have into people's arms. I think it's really premature to be suggesting that we just change the dose and schedules. Without doing any research to see if that would provide the same level of protection as the dozing schedules that were actually evaluated and the U. K. I understand is trying this one dose method right now, The UK is actually recommending a delayed second dose. So there is a difference with that. Now it may be, You know, we do get many vaccines and what's called a prime boost regimen where you get the first dose and then you get a booster shot later on. And for some vaccines, we know that you can get that booster shot over a large range of time. And in fact, one of the trials for the AstraZeneca vaccine did give the second dose up to 12 weeks later and didn't see measurable decrease in efficacy..

smallpox Dr. Angela Rasmussen New York vaccinia Center for Global Health and S Ira Plato Seattle Georgetown University New York City UK president President Fizer Tony Fatty Biden Lee FDA cowpox
"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

03:17 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on KQED Radio

"They might be Giants. The new album Here comes science. John Flansburgh and John Linnell here in the studio with us said, Rocking Away and also on on the drums. Marty Bella back there. Not saying very much is now part of any other folks who play with it. And people in the bank. Yeah, yeah, way. Actually, we're just about to go out on tour. We're doing this, Um, family shows as well as ah Flood show where we're playing our 1990 breakthrough album Flood in sequence. Um, that's kind of a once in a lifetime deal for us, and then we're doing this whole new show for adults. But joining us onstage is this fellow then Ralph Kearney, who's famous. Among musicians for being the guy who plays on all the Tom Waits, sort of the classic Tom Waits, middle period circus music albums. He's a multi instrumentalist. You placed a lot different kinds of horns, and he's going to be joining us and it Z. I'll be very interesting working with somebody who's got such a clear voice as a as a musician. It's It's very like being like the rest of us. Yeah, we're just We're just hacking along, but we also have a dent. Dan Miller plays guitar and anyone caught plays bass. So it's it'll be a six piece where you gonna be. Where can people see you everywhere where they lost and got a schedule? Little I could tell you next time I would say good good. Our website. Maybe Johnson. Go to Facebook. Facebook has got all that information. We're we've got all these and also they're all these videos. If you want to see videos of these songs with the entire album here comes sciences been made into a DVD on there. So they're all these animated videos accompanying The music and there, really some of them are really quite remarkable. We might see you in an MTV video. I don't think MTV is planned video say more, but but if if they were, they certainly know. I mean, it's It's shocking to everywhere, especially especially musicians. I have two daughters and I went down that that lifestyle music is more of a lifestyle expression these days, But I don't think I don't know if they really warm up to science, The hutch I'm Ira Flatow and this is science Friday from W. N. Y C studios. Well, the radio guys, I'm Ira Plato. If you've ever been on the radio before the no nonsense fighting. This is a big deal. Wow. I'm very flattering, You know, because because we all wish we could do something else. I wish I could play a musical instrument. Yeah. I mean, I think you just like I was just hoping that we'd be on science. Right? One of us got. I wish you all right on. Is there a topic you'd like to take on that? You haven't done yet. A subject, man. We're thinking we were tossing out ideas for the next, uh, Disney produced Giants record instructional music for young people were thinking Maybe there goes your civil rights could be the next one. I was was one idea. I think plans plans. Birkhead. Yeah way Have we have come to sindical ist? We could do like a history like sort of. Ah, People's History of America. Val's history of America. Well, we've got about 2.5 minutes left. We got a quick song. You could sing. You could think. Oh, sure. What should we do? We could do you wanna hear a non science so I'm sure whatever. We only had a couple of minutes, but I don't have anything in it. We'll play us out to the end of the show. And why don't we do a song that's factually incorrect..

Tom Waits Giants Facebook Ira Flatow Marty Bella John Flansburgh MTV John Linnell Dan Miller Ira Plato Ralph Kearney America Disney Johnson Birkhead Val
"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

05:28 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"There's an entire succession that happens on a whale as it breaks down in the ocean over a couple of years and provides this really huge source of nutrients for things that live in the deep ocean. So as we've been learning more things about worms and other animals out there in the ocean. We better understand how carbon flows in the ocean and how important that diversity of animals is that are out there. We also can learn lots of cool things like How they move. So one project that I'm working on is looking at actually gossamer worms and they swim really fast and they're really maneuverable. But what we know about how Animals that have long bodies with lots of segments. What we know about how they swim. The gospel worms should not be very fast. They shouldn't be maneuverable, and they shouldn't be able swim for long periods of time. But we watch these things with the Submersibles and the R movies and we see them out Rennes and outmaneuver us And that's really embarrassing. Right when you've got like a $2 million machine, and this little worm just out, right and you and you can't catch it. Um, it's me. It makes it makes you wonder, right, how they do it, and so we've started collecting them and videoing them with high speed cameras. And looking at the mechanics of how they actually move and how they're able to be so maneuverable and moved themselves through the water, and there's lots of really interesting things that we can then use for things like building a robot to say swim up. One of your veins to look at. You know something that's obstructing their once you pick those animals up and you bring him back into the lab and you look at them under the microscope and you see what fantastic structures they have. To solve their challenges in life. It's really cool, like the bristles on bristle worms they come in. I don't know thousands of different shapes. There's 10,000 different types of Pollack eats That have been described so far, and probably about that many that haven't been described yet. And there's at least I don't know. A guesstimate would be something fake 500 to 1000 different kinds of bristles on those different words, and they're all to do different things. Some of them are to be able to crawl around in their tubes. Some of them had to be able to cut holes in their tubes so they could make branches on them. Some of them they're to be able to catch things. Some of them moved to be able to Dig into the type of mud that they're crawling around on. Amazing really All these cool mechanical things going on with these animals. I'm Ira Plato and this is science Friday. If you're just joining us, we're debating marine Bristle Worms or Polly Keats with Dr Karen Osborn and this week's charismatic creature correspondent producer Kristie Taylor. Karen IRA, Let me see if I can summarize the case. For charisma with these pollack eats. We have things like 10,000 species. They can shoot yellow bioluminescence. Some of them have human like eyes. I have cool biker bios IRA you love these. They'll do things like help keep their friends clean and they could live anywhere. They're vital to marine ecologies. They live in the bones of whales. I mean, Karen, is there anything else we could possibly be missing from this list of amazing traits? Well, I don't know how much time do you guys had? You've already convinced Matthew just admit it going into this, you know, knowing the bristle worms. I wasn't too crazy about it. But Christy. You rattled off all those great things, especially the light shooting out from from the arms and the Microbiome loves the laser show. Yeah, these. These are like the super heroes of the ocean to me. You know, they can do all these kinds of things and the environment that they live that that how far down in the in the ocean that they live. Some of these It's deep as we've ever gone. So down on the bottom of the Marianas Trench Weaken. We confined them to these are the superheroes. I think of the ocean, so okay, You've done it again. You have Turned around I they must be included. Maybe a special spot in the hall of Fame here. Oh, wow. Okay, So, Karen, does this bring you joy? It does bring me joy. I mean, it's a little bit of a cheat right? Because there's 10,000 species, right? There's a lot of room there to describe a lot of cool different things. And we could keep talking about them for a long time. But there are really my name all 10,000 go ahead. I've got time. Can I just make up a bunch of weird sounding words? All right. Well, thank you so much. Karen. Dr. Karen Osborn is curator of marine invertebrates of the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D C and a Pollock Eat champion. Thank you so much for joining us. Karen's Absolutely. It was really fun. And Karen, let me add to that. Thank you so much for helping me see the charisma of Polly Keats. And thank you. Christy Christy Taylor's Science Friday producer and this week's charismatic creature correspondent. Thank you, Ira. If you'd like to see some of these Polly Keats we've been talking about, by the way. You can go to our website Science Friday dot com slash worms Just in case you need a bit more proof that they are truly beautiful. We're going to take a break. And when we come back dogs and humans have a long history of friendship. You know that. But how did that friendship first begin? The evolution and domestication of your friendly doggies coming up after the break, Stay with us. Um, I read Plato. This is science Friday from.

Karen IRA Polly Keats Ira Plato Christy Christy Taylor Dr. Karen Osborn Pollack producer Rennes Kristie Taylor Matthew hall of Fame National Museum of Natural His Washington
"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

05:27 min | 2 years ago

"ira plato" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Friday. I'm Ira Plato. Merry Christmas. To those of you celebrating later in the hour, a strangely charismatic creature that to worm look at the evolution of dogs. Also, But first, it's the end of the year and, of course, a time to reflect on some of the stories from the year and some of the stories that didn't get as much attention as they might have in this Kind of weird year, of course, right And here to help navigate through the year in review is one the Zuckerman she's host and executive producer of the Podcast Science Verses from Gimlet, a Spotify studio. Welcome back to science Friday. Thanks for having me. You know, it's been kind of a tough year for science stories that leak through all the main, right. The main Stein story has to be Cove it it has to be covered. I mean, it's been ah ha do you for other science stories, But it's been, uh Exciting year for science and getting people to appreciate and understand science and care about science. On the other hand, it's It's been a very difficult yet of your reporting science. Yeah, let's begin by talking about how the coronavirus story developed over the year when they first reported on it. It was just an unusual outbreak in part of China, right. Yeah. I mean, it's interesting. The way I first heard about it was actually from a doctor in Hong Kong in January. I get this email and it was just really very sparks. It just said There's been a respiratory virus spotted in Wuhan, China, We're keeping an eye on it. And I really didn't think much of it. The bush fires were on. I had other things to be thinking about. And it really wasn't until several weeks later that we started to see how bad the outbreak was in Wuhan, and then it really took several Months later. I want to say much before we knew how bad it was in the United States, and we really didn't know where it came from In those early days, did we I mean, there was a lot of talk of the wet market. You'll remember those headlines a wet market. The wet market, even though actually from very early on. There was a Lancet paper that had noted that there were cases before the outbreak at the wet market. So even I think in January in China We knew the outbreak didn't start at that, you know, now infamous, wet market, but we knew that there were obviously a lot of cases and there was a big spreading event that happened there. But in terms of the very first human to get infected, that remains a mystery. Your podcast science versus won the Triple A S Copley Award for your coronavirus coverage first. Let me say congratulations. Thank you. What? What have been some of the challenges in covering the story. Oh, my goodness. I mean it. The misinformation and the myths about this Corona virus has come up like a 10 headed hydra. I mean, we'll chop one down. 10 more show their face. It's been Kind of unbelievable. And then, from al perspective, you know, on our show, we try and spend as much time researching as possible. So we're not just pumping out stories we really had to pick and choose. What would the myths that really needed covering And what were the things that we're just gonna die down on their own? Focus our attention on what are the big myths that are actually going to be helping people right now? And what can we actually tell them because another big issue was at the beginning. Of this of this pandemic, even though the science was coming out at this amazing, right. I mean, it has been phenomenal to say from a public perspective, who perhaps aren't used to the slow, graceful grind of science. It wasn't fast enough. And so they needed answers, and they needed them yesterday, and lab work takes time and so being able to explain that and to sort of, say, Look in the meantime, while we don't know everything based on the information we have at the moment, this is what we think both be explaining the scientific process and helping people live their lives. Yeah, Being in the intermediary on this to the public is I notice from our coverage really is difficult. Let's move on a little bit because we know as I as I mentioned earlier, there were a lot of other stories that were very interesting and very relevant and very important. For example, the fire is in the American West on when we spoke around this time last year, you were heading back to Australia where the fire situation was awful. They're also Yeah, and it and it just got Watts after after we spoke. What did you do, huh? It was. It was truly truly awful. I'm and I went back to my home city. Melvin and the smoke on some days was just was awful in worse than I'd ever remembered as a child. On. It was devastating. I mean, the sort of good news is, you know, now we've switched to what was happening in Australia. It wasn't just climate change. Climate change is obviously a big part of this picture. But there were other Climate systems at play that made that fire season really, really bad, So we were in this sort of more dangerous cycle of El Nino, so that meant there was some drier conditions across Australia. Less rainfall. Doesn't take a genius to see that that's gonna bring sort of climate conditions more likely to start a fire..

China Australia Wuhan Ira Plato Spotify Zuckerman Hong Kong executive producer Lancet United States Stein Watts Melvin