25 Burst results for "Immunodeficiency"

What's HIV got to do with a coronavirus vaccine?

Coronacast

09:25 min | 8 months ago

What's HIV got to do with a coronavirus vaccine?

"And norman. We had on friday that the vaccine which we talked a couple of times about on this podcast saying that it was a really promising candidate has been canned over the fact that people who received it could have a false positive to an hiv test or particular antibody associated with hiv. And we've had a lot of questions from the audience about this. So let's see if we can demystify. These are really felt like a bolt from the blue. We got kenton asking. Can you please explain how a why false positive hiv tests stopped. The queensland trial doesn't this reflect poorly on the hiv test rather than the vaccination. So that's a great question. Canton anita back up and just do a bit of an explanation. Here you listened to colonel cast regular you know that the vaccines and some of the treatments but the vaccines are targeted against the spike. On the surface of crohn's now the problem with the spike is that it changes shape. And you want it to be exactly the right shape for the lock and key mechanism and therefore it's going to be fixed. It changes shape of. It's not attached to the virus itself. Is that what you meant. That's right kind of swings in the breeze a bit now. How the are ours is the no one in the pfizer vaccines novartis's but vaccines do. This is that they've got a genetic variant of which programs a fixed version of the spike protein. So that's how they do it. How the university of queensland vaccine does it is that they've got something called a molecular clamp. So they kind of clamp into position so that it stays in the right shape for the immune system to recognize as a bona feed your at accurate version of the spike protein. So the immune response that you generate is exactly the immune response you want to be able to control the corona virus. Now you gotta be a clamp clampett. So what is what. What's the clamp. You can't do it for the client in the shade. You go to find some way of doing it. And the way the clamp they use in part is the is part of the human immunodeficiency virus. So it's an envelope protein. I think quite crudely although it's called nimble protein that's how they use it in his co. gp forty one and it clamps down the spike and holds in place so that you've got a stable spike for the immune system to respond to. So that's what they use. Hiv's being studied endlessly and they know exactly how these things work. It wasn't as if they didn't expect some antibodies to this part of the human immunodeficiency virus. I'm told that as part of the informed consent people told they might get a transient rise to to hiv antibodies. So that's what's happened here. Is that more people. Got an antibody response an immune response to this part of the human immunodeficiency virus. And that's what killed the vaccine. Not your had issues but we had the antibody response. Here's the problem when you actually do an hiv test you test. A couple of different parts of the virus that the check for the body response to hiv in different parts of different parts of the virus gp forty one is one of the parts. And there's a couple of others now you've got to get more than one of those to have an absolutely definite positive hiv test if all you come up with is gp forty-one then that's you know that's an equivocal test and they've got a taste you further so the problem is that the communist hiv tests include gp forty one in the suite of antibodies. They pick up when the testing for hiv. So the problem is donate blocks you come kneecap positive and they reject your sample or go to do other other ids tests to nil it. It's not as if it's impossible to get over. But it creates a lot of confusion and difficulty out there and and i suppose they just took a risk benefit equation. There was no harm to individuals. And i think you listen to the press conference. Teagan and some of these antibody rises. Were actually tempering. That that's right. So they said that. All of the vaccine as the older people that receive them. Had some level of positivity to hiv even though before the trials they really thought that it was theoretical risk in quite a lawyer one but they did say that even now at least one of the paypal has gone back to zero and the other seem to be declining so it could be a transient thing and they said that they did actually talk. They've had conversations with the government with health bodies about maybe whether the hiv tests should be changed to give people access to the coronavirus vaccine but they decided that i that would be really hard and be in addition to a public health issue around hiv. There's also a really important public perception issue around the vaccines and they wouldn't want people to be put off using the vaccine because of these perceived link with hiv even though there's absolutely no health risk associated with it at all because it's just a tiny little part of the virus that can't suddenly become the virus it's just literally apar- you're molecular part of the virus which is entirely independent says a huge shame and pamela asks. Why did they try using hiv. In the first place. I think the they at the press conference. That's right and one of the big reason is because hiv is just so well studied. And so this this clamp that was talking about before it was crystallized in hiv. I and so because even though. Hiv's are really scary bars or perhaps because it seems like scary virus. We know a lot about it. We started in a lot of detail and so with something. That's a really nine quantity being able to clip these thing out and put it into the vaccine. Seemed like a really sensible choice and because this was the first human trials of this vaccine. They didn't have an opportunity before now to know that this was going to be a risk the issue that we have only working human so they couldn't use them in the animal bottles and it wasn't really a high priority when the outcome that they're looking for is covid not really itchy. Europe was the last question from lou. Lou is asking the the stories seem to suggest that it was abandoned due to a concern about possible public perceptions rather than any real problem with the vaccine is this right is partly right of. Csl was party to that. They're the commercial partner and they've got a marketing issue to explain why this has the while you get a positive. Hiv test. even though it's false positive is enough of an issue reducing vaccine hesitancy. When you've rush through some of these vaccines and then you add hiv on top of it but there are practical issues. Liu and the pro the probably mostly relate to the blood supply you go into give a blood donation they will do a routine. Hiv test on it. And if it comes up positive and you either rejects the blood donation if let's say for example that fifty percent of the australian population got immunized against the with the vaccine and some of them didn't disappear quickly then. They've got to do further testing on the on the blood supply to make sure that it's just. It is truly a false positives. It creates a practical problem. They it also creates a problem for perhaps life insurance. So these things are solvable. I mean if this was the only vaccine available in the world they probably would continue with it but because it's not they've gone for just saying we're just gonna use the overseas vaccines which kind of brings us to some other news. That came out over the weekend so we heard that the yuki vaccine has been canceled. Which is a real blardone scientists but in addition to that glasgow smithkline vaccine has also been paused or cancelled canceled as been paused. So what they had was. They had a problem measuring the virus or the virus particles you know. Basically the corona vars to the vaccine in the in in their samples and they got that wrong and therefore the shoe or the wrong does in the in the samples and they had to had to go back to the drawing board workout test for the the elements of the corona virus in their vaccine and then reinstitute trials in a few months time. So they haven't candid is just the technical problem early on and often dosage does become a problem in vaccine trials. It's not unknown for vaccines to fall over at the dosage stage. And it's worth remembering here. The in the rush to get these vaccines the bit. That's been compressed. Is what's called the phase two trial. So what's happened here with the q. Vaccine it was the phase one trial which is a safety trial which find out this problem with hiv that it was more common than they thought. Normally then you would go to if it was okay in the phase one to phase two trial which is often largely about finding the right does the best fate whether it's a drug over vaccine and that's what's been compressed and they've tried to do phase one phase two trials together or face to face three trials together and the dosage that s- being not very well sorted i in some of the trials so for example. That's one of the problems with the astros trial in a small subs- subset of the trial. They gave half a does again partly because they weren't they weren't formulating in the way that we thought they wear and also a group that was largely under fifty five and they just didn't have time to sort of that element before they got to phase three and then they're probably going to have to double back and recheck all that well.

Hiv's Canton Anita Kenton University Of Queensland Crohn Novartis Norman Pfizer Queensland HIV Teagan Confusion Paypal Pamela CSL LOU LIU
What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

The Guardian's Science Weekly

12:52 min | 8 months ago

What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

"With a number vaccine candidates against the corona virus sharing promising results in clinical trials and a growing number of studies elving into our mean response to infection. The spotlight has turned once again. On the body's defense mechanisms. I think two questions that really relate to the ability of the vaccine to protect us and our ability to fight off a second infection and so that is the quality of the immune response and the duration of the immune response this week. I'm joined by professor. Eleanor riley from the university of edinburgh to dove into these questions and more. I'm nichole davis. Welcome to science. Weekly ellena you came onto the podcast in july and talk to us about immunity and covid nineteen specifically the relationship between antibodies and immunity. So let's start with a recap on the major players in the immune system that are of interest when it comes to an immune response and potentially immunity so antibodies are protein molecules that are produced by immune cells kobe cells and these cells live in our spleen and narrow and they secrete antibodies off. They've been exposed to a foreign organism such as virus. There are two types of cells that produce. Antibodies on short-lived cells that produce. Antibodies for a few weeks national to the first line response and then some of those cells transition into lonely cells that goto a bone marrow and can produce antibodies for months years. Possibly even to case and then on top of antibodies. have that can kill virus. Infected host cells t cells the two types of t cells one of which we think of such of the conductor of the orchestra of the immune system and these kotei health cells and they very much help the b. cells to make antibodies produce. Growth factors may direct the direction in which the be cells developed and they will still give them signals to turn into cells and then there are the cdte cells and they actively kill virus infected cells and then Antibodies can also bind to these specific cells and help them to kill cells so they recognize little bits of virus on the infected cell bind to the infected so and kill it and then there are cells which are less specific cells that we call macrophages are neutral fills and they just recognized that. Something's not quite right with the cell. They don't necessarily recognize the infected with the virus and they kill it actually or bits of the immune system work together a little bit like you need a whole orchestra to make a good tune when you need all of these cells working together to make a good news arms. And i know you said in july that at that point it was too early to tell how quickly people were losing their antibodies. And we've got to remember here that it's a relatively new virus. What's the latest research saying that seems to have been some movement on that now. What we're seeing is if you all the data together. There's an early peek in the antibodies wants. Lots and lots of antibodies are produced to mop up all virus. That's in your body and then as that virus goes away the antibodies start to decline a little bit. Because you don't need them any antibodies anymore and they settle into a of steady class. O of antibody production. And that's very typical. This kind of two phase response the only peak lots of antibodies followed by sort of standing level of antibodies. That nick for a long time. That's very typical of an antibody response and it sort of relates to the short lived long lived cells. You have lots of short-lived cells making lots of antibody that off and then the long lived cells who that fewer in numba keep on producing. Antibodies for much longer so yes. Let's talk about these long-lived b. cells in the no said the t. cells. What is research telling us about what happens to them and how. How long do they hang around for. So we don't have much data on those are actually quite difficult to look at in humans. They tend to live in the bone marrow for example not very accessible and so we tend to rely on mathematical modeling of the change in the dynamics of the antibody concentration to predict what's going to happen even though we haven't actually been able to see it because it hasn't gone on long enough so the moment the infants is that we have suggests that things are probably okay these cells behaving as we expect them to the was one pay published early on suggesting may be a little bit of a fault with the production of these long midsouth. But i'm not sure that that's been replicated in other studies. I think i saw a preprinted study. That hasn't been peer reviewed yet. Which jested that these visas and t so's lost for at least six months is that. What are the problems here in terms of measuring this so we only have six months data at the moment and the virus really hasn't been around that long so what we can say the moment. Is that the cells assisting for as long as we are able to measure them at the moment obviously in six months or another twelve months time. We'll be able to go back to those people and say have they still got those cells. Yes or no. But in the meantime just looking at the change in the dynamics of the response and mapping it onto what we know the other viruses. My prediction is that these that there will be some long lift immunity to this virus. He said there might be some long term protection. How long term are we talking here. I mean i've seen a lot of people saying well current viruses such as that of course common code some codes of course by coronavirus is of course the protection only lasts for say a year or so. Do we think that our protection against the corona virus that causes covid nineteen mike baxter timeframe or or could it be longer. I think it's very difficult to say at the moment. Say all of the data. We have suggests that these antibody responses are going to be at least as long lived as response of corona viruses. And possibly i might think even probably going to last longer your immune response tends to be proportional to the level of threat that you face so the common cold corona viruses really only colonize our upper respiratory tract so on nose throat and so the virus doesn't go very deep into apology and we make rather grief that effective noon response nose and throat that controls it this coq nineteen causing virus goes much deeper into our bodies it goes down into our lungs into bronchial and therefore the immune response tends to be stronger and they struggle we call systemic immune responses do tend to last longer because they are recognizing that there is a more serious threat that has to be dealt with. Do we know if factors like ethnicity gender age factor in the scale of the immune response. She said stronger. Immune response to your first. Infection is is more likely to me. You have great protection against the second infection. Those factors correlated at all. There's very little day to so far on ethnic differences in the immune response the data. That's coming after the vaccine trials suggests that there aren't any major differences in at between ethnic groups in terms of whether the vaccine protects them will not but we haven't yet seen lab data on their antibody responses with at t cell responses. There is a lot of genetic variation in the immune response. People be aware that some people unfortunately have very severe genetically determined immunodeficiencies. That's just the tip of the iceberg of genetic variation in the immune response and some of those differences do have geographical and ethnic components to that certain genes that either make good or bad immune response on more common or less common in groups countries. But we don't yet know if any of that is going to influence really the totality of their immune responses. We just don't have any evidence much by age. It feels like ages is. It's very important given that the older you are the more risque from caveat nineteen so there are two components to that one is whether you are able to make an immune response again's a virus. You've never seen before and there is. I think really quite good evidence that you ability to make a completely new immune response does decline as you get older. The other component is that a lot of the disease we say in coke nineteen excessive inflammation. And there's also evidence that we get older with less good controlling inflammation so it's a little bit of a double whammy as we get older way are less able to make an immune response to a new virus such as the covid nineteen virus and if we then get the viral infection where less good at controlling the inflammation that it causes a so we know there are several different vaccines. Which looking very promising. You have the rene vaccines at you have vaccines which used a chimp. Virus to bring genetic material from the corona virus into cells. The question is is the immune response that generated the same as it would have been to a natural infection and do the t. cells and so on hang around in the same way. The vaccine is just a tiny component of viruses this spike protein which is on the surface of the virus and so if you vaccinated with spike protein. You make antibodies in tesol responses just to that protein. If you get the virus itself then you get many many more pro teams that you're exposed to a new may make antibodies to some of those. So you responded more limited but you might also say that your response is more focused because it's actually antibodies to spike coaching a really important for neutralizing the virus so the vaccine in juices a narrow immune response but one would hope it would also be focused on therefore stronger on the base the matter and would it be expected that this will provoke a stronger. Immune response natural infection. I've heard some people say that actually vaccine can producer a strong response it coun- if they initial infection is quite mild say with virus like sauce covy to which induces very mild infections in some people i would expect the vaccine to tobacco to jason mewes which is much stronger than you would get after nascent dramatic or mild infection. People get serious dose of coca to make a very strong immune response. And i doubt if the vaccine it doesn't need to be any strong national adopt if it is when it comes to and viruses the coups common code. It's been some concern that these viruses somehow elude the memory b cells. and so. that's why even though we have thousand cells to to the common cold viruses. We will often get reinfected with them. I wonder if they're those same concerns about the coronavirus behind covid nineteen so there is a little basic data. There's one paper that suggests that the sauce kofi to virus that causes covid nineteen disables particular pathway in the b. cell response leading to a poor long term memory response but these experiments done in the lab in a in a in a petrie dish. And i think it's too early to know if that's really what happens in humans so i think we do need to be a little bit cautious and we need to be aware that it might happen. Good news is that the proteins that are believed to cause that problem are not present in the vaccine so even if it's a problem in natural infection it shouldn't be a problem with a vaccine

Elving Eleanor Riley Nichole Davis University Of Edinburgh Mike Baxter Inflammation Nick Cold Infection Mild Infection Jason Mewes
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on Savage Lovecast

Savage Lovecast

09:41 min | 1 year ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on Savage Lovecast

"They didn't want us to lead anyway. The difference between having sex during that pandemic and this pandemic. If I may be crude than I often, am the difference. was that if I got fucked in the ASS by some guy thousand, nine, hundred eighty. Eighty eight, if I took that risk while at the same time doing what I could to minimize the danger by using condoms, having sex with guys I trusted trusted to be safe, not trusted to be negative. I had plenty of sex with positive is if I took that risk, I was only put myself at risk I didn't put the people I came into casual contact with after I got fucked in the ASS at risk. Because I didn't have anal sex with everybody on the subway after I left or at the pizza place where I stopped for a slice or with my parents when I got home. The human immunodeficiency virus was different, much harder to catch the novel Corona Virus and much to transmit. You can't transmit HIV to someone by exhaling on them or by touching something. Someone else might touch a half an hour later. But that said I agree with do it's and I agree with the Dutch health authorities. We can't ask people to go without physical contact to go without sex forever, and if we don't give people the information, they need to have sex as safely as they can. People will have sex recklessly when they can. The Dutch are showing us the way again Dutch. Health authorities are encouraging single Dutch people single Dutch people who WanNa have sex, which not all single people do sexuality the new superpower Dutch. Health authorities are encouraging single people to find sex buddies singular, actually non-plural aspects, buddy and the Dutch. Being told to carefully screen their potential sex buddies to figure out how. How many people your potential sex buddies in regular contact with disclose how many people your in regular contact with and the greater the number, the greater the risk, so maybe cut back those numbers and find yourself a sex buddy, but it's not as simple as doing now. What game ended then? We had a lot of sacks during the AIDS epidemic, and even as we controlled for the much easier to manage risks of having sex. During that pandemic, a lot of people got infected on a lot of people died. The risks of having sex during this pandemic can't be eliminated any more than the risks of having sex during the AIDS pandemic could but the risks. Could be managed and mitigated then and can be managed and mitigated now. And the Dutch are once again way out in front, not just by talking to people about how to have sex during this pandemic, but by acknowledging the legitimacy of wanting to have sex and seeking sex even at a time like this. All right coming up on today's show. We have tons of your cues tons of my eyes, and on the Magnum edition of the show. Diana Adams joins us. She is a lawyer who worked with LGBTQ and poly-amorous families. She's here to talk about the challenges. polly. Folks are navigating during this dangerous time. I also want to let you know that Nancy and I are going to be doing our first ever savage love livestream. We may not be able to come to your city and do the show live, but you can come to us on your computer, sending your questions to livestream at savage love cast dot..

Diana Adams AIDS immunodeficiency Nancy
New York releases preliminary coronavirus antibody test results

Tennessee Matters

03:45 min | 1 year ago

New York releases preliminary coronavirus antibody test results

"Kita we've also seen some interesting information come out of New York in regards to the prevalence of the virus throughout the state based on some early antibody studies what can you tell us about the new data date that very exciting data actually first of all let me say that that herd immunity where the virus will be completely obliterated pretty much by people to them seventy percent of the population have to be infected and they have to produce an immune response so we have found with the New York state number thank you and predict based on the expected that several hundred people that roughly twenty seven to thirty percent of the population have been a body which means they have been infected whether they've been to the hospital their doctor the emergency room or whatever they have been impacted now that that they it is not a random sample of the sample of people interpret market detector that have have been asked to contribute sample and they have so if that's the case then the original infectivity rate which we thought or the death rate which we fought with three point seven percent with the numbers of people that now have antibodies and showing unity means that the death rate is really down below one percent about point six protect based on calculations that if that's the case that the good thing it means number one that at the at the even those on the virus will begin to Peter out and number two it means that a lot more people have been infected than we know and that the public knows up and that those people are spreading the infection unknowingly to other people the best majority of people are not winding up in the hospital on a respirator thank and dying as we eat every day here in our institution the possibility of a second wave in the fall explain why that's becoming a real concern it's becoming a concern for two reasons number one we don't have a back being at and I heard that you're trying to get the back being that being developed that may be in a two hour back being there now about you're going to pay you in this country we have multiple company developing the vaccine and I hope that by the fall god willing we will have a vaccine that's the first that concern second concern we've already discussed then added right to differentiate their viral infection of what Kuroda with Kobe who October nineteen but now start to try to differentiate this infection from regular garden variety hello influenza a or B. there are always people out there many millions that don't want to get back to nature and so they may have both infections that the same time and actually we've seen that clinically or they may have one or the other and it's up to what the doctor to figure out which one both infection can kill you no question about it if you're a new intolerable and you know who they are they're the elderly people in nursing homes there people with immuno deficiency that they don't even know they have an immunodeficiency there are people on chemotherapy there are people with other infection we have to be able to doctors to differentiate each of those patients and be able to make that diagnosis within hours because we've got a month back you know if this is a respiratory virus and does the flow in some cases and this repertory virus can kill you in a matter of hours we have to know what your pulse oxygen level is and all that and if you're short of breath and you get one of these calls being meeting high fever infection whether it be the flu or corona virus you better get yourself to an emergency room and that is my advice for the fall because I expect the Kobe nineteen could be weakened by the call that my personal rich and my date that on the science of the way most infectious epidemics go but it's going to be with us until we have a vaccine so it may have a resurgence in the fall which is what everybody I

New York
Self-styled California 'refugees' moving to Idaho to avoid vaccinating their kids

Atheist Nomads

03:30 min | 1 year ago

Self-styled California 'refugees' moving to Idaho to avoid vaccinating their kids

"Start each episode with the new story that basically got the most I'M GONNA say strongest emotional response out of me and this one is is a local story. This one is about Boise's a refugee city. There's lots of people whenever you drive around. You will see bumper stickers on cars saying refugees welcome. We have strong refugee programs. We have one of the two major health systems. Here has a a major global health program specifically geared towards the refugees. We have a lot of stuff around town for refugees it is. It is something that that Boise really prides itself on but when we talk about refugees is not the subject of this new story and this new story is coming out of W. C. V. B. From Boston and this is about California refugees yes Californian refugees coming to Idaho as one wrote in too. Yeah there's one road into the state government As they were considering a change in vaccine rules strengthening the vaccine roles wrote quote. I'm writing as deeply concerned parents in California refugee who had to pull entire family out of the state to protect them from tyrannical government. I will not stand by allowing Idaho to become a socialist state. The next one quote I am a mother and I am a California referee refugee. I came here in search of medical freedom. That was Shaly Brindley a Berry Bay area native at a hearing at the Idaho. State Capitol Lou Manila left a public comment got a masters degree from Stanford but moved to Idaho quote for the freedoms of the state in quote. He told the audience that he would defend his rates quote with my life and my weapons. I don't care about the heard. I care about my family about my children. In quote these are people who are moving from California to Idaho because California enacted reasonable legislation to prevent stupid people from being stupid to protect their children and even more importantly to protect other children from their children. Because when you're talking about her immunity you're talking about kids with cancer. You're talking about kids with immunodeficiency disorders. You're talking about kids who just don't respond to vaccines because with most vaccines anywhere from five. To ten percent of people are non responders. Okay usually around five percent if you get much higher than that at the the vaccine is not likely actually beginning approved by about five percent. Just don't respond. We need high vaccination rates to protect people who just their bodies don't produce the antibodies. And when you look at all those groups of people who legitimately need the heard that's about five to seven percent

Idaho California Boise Shaly Brindley Immunodeficiency Stanford Berry Bay Lou Manila Boston W. C. V. B.
A Look Back at HIV

2 Docs Talk

08:31 min | 1 year ago

A Look Back at HIV

"Before we jump in. Let's clarify what exactly HIV and AIDS are good call. Hiv stands for human immunodeficiency virus which is a virus that causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Yes so HIV is a retrovirus which means it is an rn. A virus that is a cellular machinery from the infected cell to do a reverse transcription of itself a DNA version which is inserted into the cells on DNA when the cell becomes active. It will make new copies of the virus that go out and continue the cycle and this is important because the drugs that we use today to combat HIV a variety of antiretroviral agents target different points in the cycle. The right combination of drugs can keep the viral load solo that it isn't detectable exactly so HIV infects a specific immune cell the CD four cell and over time the virus kills a CD foresaw which being part of the immune system plays a critical role in the body's ability to fight infection as de decline. The body becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections. Right these are often infections caused by pathogens that are normally present in on or around the body but a healthy immune system recognizes them and keep them in check someone with the depleted immune system however is susceptible to unusual infections. That healthy folks don't need to worry about. Plus they're they're susceptible. To all the irregular infections even healthy people get okay so an untreated course of goes something like this. A person is infected with HIV. The virus being transmitted during sexual activity directly into the bloodstream during childbirth or breastfeeding or a blood transfusion at this point the virus makes its way to the lymph nodes where has access to lots of CD. Four cells and replicates like crazy? This goes on for about three weeks three or four weeks. The patient may experience a viral type of illness during this time period. Fever swollen glands rash but not everyone experiences this yes and it feels like a regular just viral infections. So you don't really think about that. That might be what it is but after about two weeks the viral load in the blood is at a peak and CD four levels fall. This is a period of time where it is really easy to transmit the disease to another sexual partner because the viral load is so high after about six months the viral load and CD. Four count stabilized to set point and the chronic phase issue begins. This can last a up to ten years without treatment during which HIV gradually destroys CD. Four cells at some point the CD four count gets low enough. That opportunistic infections are possible. Yes and that's how we define AIDS either the CD. Four count is below two hundred cells per mil or the patient has an AIDS defining conditions such as retinitis from cmv cytomegalovirus or invasive cervical cancer or many many others so this was the typical course of disease for people early in the epidemic. Did you amy? That AIDS was around before the Nineteen Seventy S. That's when the epidemic began but it is believed that the virus jump from chimpanzees to humans in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in one thousand. Nine hundred and sporadic cases were reported from then until the mid seventies when the epidemic got its legs. Very interesting now. It wasn't until Nineteen eighty-one that we really understood what was happening in. La There were five young gay men who develop Mrs to screen pneumonia PCP which is now new. Mississippi'S VICI pneumonia. I know I can never get used to that. I still call it. Pcp Yeah. I'm sure a lot of school. It was pretty much standard at the time right. I mean that was like defy so defining but anyways another group in New York in California who developed Kassy's sarcoma which is an aggressive cancer caused by the human herpes virus eight that wouldn't normally happen without a suppressed. Immune system right both of those diseases. And by the end of that year there were two hundred seventy cases of severe immune deficiency among gay men and nearly half had died. Yeah that we knew so fast forward. A few years by the end of nineteen eighty five. There were over. Twenty thousand reported cases coming from every region of the world. The virus was officially named in Nineteen eighty-six and in nineteen eighty seven A. Z. T. was introduced. The this was the first antiretroviral drug this drug worked by inhibiting the initial reverse transcription of the virus into DNA. This was a very exciting development because the epidemic was growing quickly. Now there were three hundred seven thousand reported AIDS cases worldwide compared to the twenty thousand. You mentioned just fine. Harsh prior and two hundred and seventy just nine years prior to that. It's impressive how. The pharmaceutical industry kind of ramped up so quickly research development. Yeah and those remember. Those were the reported numbers so they estimated that there were actually a million AIDS cases in another eight to ten million living with HIV worldwide. At that point. So if you're younger just in med school residency right now. It's hard to explain. How unsettling this was that how fast it was spreading right. Yeah and these patients were so sick and dying in such large numbers and there didn't seem to be in and site to the expansion of the epidemic. So there's a lot of fear and misinformation out there the had a policy to not allow those infected with HIV into the country and it was still viewed as a gay disease. So that created a lot of stigma for the LGBTQ community so by nineteen ninety three. There were two point five million AIDS cases globally the US Congress dug in and voted to continue the travel ban. Things are not looking good even with easy. T- which wasn't really panning out as everyone had hoped. And the fact that it was approved at all was questioned by many. Yeah so but in one thousand nine hundred things really started changing. This was kind of a turning point. The first price inhibitor was approved these inhibit the protease enzyme. Which is important in the translation of HIV v? Virus back into Aurigny. Yeah and this was the beginning of Heart H. A. RT highly active antiretroviral therapy and it immediately dropped deaths from AIDS related diseases by at least sixty percent but still there were thirty three million people living with HIV by nineteen ninety nine and fourteen million people had died since epidemic began. Those are huge as is to be expected the UN had to step in and negotiate prices to make antiretroviral therapy available to the people who need it The World Trade Organization that announce the Doha Declaration allowing developing countries to manufacture generic versions of drugs. Go See Fire Dallas buyers club. Yes also yeah so in the two thousands people who needed it weren't getting treatment aids. Was the number one cause of death in sub Saharan Africa. That blows my mind by the two thousand ten. A lot of goals had been set to get treatment where it was needed and have the spread of HIV an organization such as the UN and the World Health Organization and individual government agencies are getting involved at this point yeah the US finally lifted the travel ban for people with HIV treatments that decrease the chance of spread were discovered pre exposure prophylaxis or prep was shown to reduce transmission between male and male sexual partners by about forty four percent. Yeah in two thousand. Eleven research demonstrated that early initiation of antiretroviral treatment reduce transmission to partners by ninety six percent. So this is a real game changer. Because until this time the antiretrovirals weren't started until HIV was had started advancing and causing aids. So this is when they started the treatment early after the infection was discovered and it really changed things as far as transmission. Yeah as related. Deaths fell thirty percent from the peak. Year two thousand five and thirty five million people were living with HIV dramatic slowdown in the spread of the epidemic compared to previous decades. Yeah Okay but now we may find yourselves at a standstill here. We are twenty twenty because the immediate crisis of the wildfire spread and almost certain death is well behind us. Attention has waned key populations that account for over half of new infections are not receiving access to combination therapy and the gap between resource need and provisions as widening. The funding is is shrinking. It's pretty typical right. Yeah as a species. Humans aren't very good at thinking long term. If it's not an immediate threat it's not threat right well. It is a threat to those populations. So there's clearly still stigma that has marginalizing

HIV Aids Nineteen Seventy Partner Pneumonia Immunodeficiency Us Congress Retinitis UN Congo AMY Saharan Africa California MRS Mississippi New York Aurigny
Ambassador Deborah Birx on Creating an AIDS-Free World

The Strategerist

12:02 min | 2 years ago

Ambassador Deborah Birx on Creating an AIDS-Free World

"Guest. Today's Ambassador Large Deborah burks who serves as the global AIDS coordinator in the US Special Representative for global health diplomacy diplomacy and in this role she heads up far the US president's emergency plan for AIDS Relief Dr Burks. Thank you so much for spending the time with us today happy to be here and our expert co host is the esteemed colleague who's Mitch the Executive Director at the Bush Institute Holly. Thank you for spending this so Dr Burks we. We we really WanNa talk to you about the incredible work that pep far is doing and has done but we've been extremely lucky to have so many great guests with leadership journeys that are just incredible on the on the strategic since we want to talk about your leadership journey a little bit to start and so early on I understand you're you you actually started off as a physician in the US military in the US army. Yes I was yes. How did that start off your career well. That's a great question so so I actually paid for my own medical school. It's why I went to Penn State Hershey on my parents and I paid but I ended up meeting someone in College Canary them my first year of medical school and I didn't realize he had taken the army scholarship and so he was actually active duty Army when he finished so in order under for me to be with him because it's not like they let you just come in and be a co resident so his residency was at Walter Reed so I joined the military military so I could be in an internal medicine residency with him otherwise I would have never seen him and what kind of what kind of did you learn from your from your standing. The military freising up to colonel. I believe you have to read was really an amazing place to trade it was at that time every complicated case from all all over the world came to Walter Reed. It didn't matter if you were retired in Europe or you were active duty and Thailand if anything befell someone or there was a very very complicated illnesses they came to Walter Reed and so we would have araks medical Arabic's coming in three and four times a week and as residents so you would bring all those patients in an exam in them so it was a we saw the most complicated infectious diseases is to the most complicated cancers do it was just it was amazing experience and we had really terrific professors we call them. Attending who were over at the research institute who would come over to Walter Reed Hospital to attend and so it was very easy for me. Pass my internal medicine boards 'cause I had actually seen everything that was on the board because it was really an amazing training experience so given that you initially really only joined the military because of your husband and you were when you went to medical school did that change your path in terms of. Do you think you would have been the head of PEP far today. If you hadn't gone the military route I definitely nervous angle angle because the military I think they spent so much time on leadership training so it didn't matter that I was a physician from the military standpoint you were just a captain didn't or you're just a major or lieutenant colonel and you were just a colonel and you had to be able to lead troops and so we had the same trainings and the same leadership trainings things as all the line officers at the time you could imagine you're busy with medicine and you're taking care of patients and then you're having to do all of this command and General Israel Staff School and Leadership Training and at the time I was like I'm never going to use this because when you're in their twenties as you think all of this stuff is really natural very or you think it's intuitive but it leadership is not intuitive and I think that trainings at the military the discipline that the military brings to sequential leadership training. I think is quite unique. I think it's why many businesses have tried to copy it the end it's really comprehensive so I had to learn acquisition and budgets and so all of the terminology that used in government. It's all normal to me because all that acronyms we had to train on. Even though I was in medicine I really had to learn all the other pieces different there you went to from your from the military you went to the Department of Defense on the civilian side now dow. You skipped a little bit of a step so it was very very interesting. I was in. I was actually in pep far. At the time I soon as President Bush announced pep far are at the state of the Union. I had already been working in Africa for about five or six years. I was doing research and it really bothered me that I was doing very significant. HIV Vaccine Research but the community around me was dying so when President Bush announced this I flew back from from Kenya and waited outside of Joe O'Neill's house for almost a week in February to get a meeting with him and of course everybody knows is my powerpoint this time I went in like one hundred eighty slides and tell he agreed to let people are to let the army awesome be part of have far. I was not leaving his office and so I think I war him down by my powerpoint and I came into pep far as the critical community compassionate program that surrounded our research in both Uganda Kenya and Tanzania and then later Cameroon and Nigeria and it was that unbelievable ability to bring your high tech laboratory Ori Piece to serving the public that it was so intriguing so I got into pep far as on the side and then people ask me to apply for the CDC we see position in two thousand and five and so I went through the regular civilian application process got selected which I was very much shocked by uh-huh and my commanding general at that time my surgeon general general scumacher said I really we want them to understand the military and CDC doesn't really have a lot of experience with military members. Would you go down there on active duty for two years so they could see uh that the military is just like them and you know we can work together seamlessly so I did and then the war started and so I ended up being an active duty longer than I had anticipated but eventually I became the civilian down at CDC and so it was a it it was a very crooked pathway into my office visit you tell the story there. We have one hundred eighty point powerpoint deck where did good where did that passion for. HIV and AIDS really start to form for you. So I had just finished my fellowship. I had finished internal medicine. I was doing immunology. I wanted immunology really do research on how the immune system works. I was working on primary and secondary condemn. You note efficiencies similar to like the boy in the bubble who didn't have T. cells. I worked with B. Cell immunodeficiencies. Tesol immunodeficiencies and I got called old in one thousand nine hundred eighty two about individuals. I'm dying at Walter Reed soldiers young soldiers dying from a mysterious serious immune immune dysfunction and so came into HIV not knowing it was HIV. We didn't know that it was. HIV until nineteen eighteen eighty five so from eighty to eighty five. I worked side by side with the Infectious Disease Team while we tried to save these soldiers and we couldn't and I think it was so profoundly I think what you're trained in medicine and the eighties and you've got all this high tech stuff and ability to diagnose everything when you naughtily could make a diagnosis didn't know what the problem was and you didn't know how to treat it. It was devastating. It was incredibly humbling and I they really and the shocking thing to me was all of my patients who were dying. We're worried about me because I was so upset that I couldn't can do anything to help. They died with such courage and such willingness to try different things realizing that may not help them but it helped the person person behind them. I just never saw that level of altruism in the midst of just death and despair from the patients themselves and so so I think like for the last I guess thirty seven years. I've just really thirty plus even more than that. We're not it really been focused on doing everything we can to not only save lives but change the course of the epidemic so that the future feature for the world could be imagined as age as AIDS free so. Let's talk a little bit about pet far and the progress we've made. It's been then going since two thousand and three for sixteen years so what's happened in the six juniors. It's been really I would say. It's probably everything that that I've ever done. It's been an enormous privilege. I think because of two reasons one it was like a moonshot. I mean when President Bush Bush announced this there weren't sophisticated labs in sub Saharan Africa which was bearing the brunt of the disease where one a- and in four adults were already infected. Children hundreds of thousands millions of children's didn't have parents anymore. It was really this unbelievable translation translation of what you believe America stands for as we will take our best and our brightest and everything that we know and use that to change the future for others and I think being able to translate. US Taxpayer dollars through this initiative has been the most extraordinary piece of work take anyone could be involved in and I think that is such a big responsibility but it's also an amazing really representation of what we stay on for it and it's not just I think what's been always exciting to me. It was never just about the money it was ensuring that that money continue new to us the best science and the best evidence to do what you could do remarkably for people and making sure that you're bringing that best signs. It's the same science that we have here in the United States and Europe to the people who need it the most around the globe. There's not very many programs as a lot of programs. That will say oh well. You can't really do that there. Because of these ten reasons this program said Oh nope. We're GONNA do everything that we're doing here. There and we're just GonNa make it happen and I think ah boldness that the president brought to this. I think people don't realize it wasn't just the boldness and the money it was the fact that he decided to create an entirely different structure for foreign assistance. I think people still have trouble understanding how brilliant that was the way it was positioned at the State Department the way it brought all the agencies together the way it made the State Department as the coordinator but but not actually Benny parts of implementation so that you could maintain accountability separate from any of these single agencies understanding that anyone agency would be conflicted. Ah trying to oversee another agency if they were actually doing the work

President Bush Bush Walter Reed United States HIV Aids Deborah Burks President Trump Walter Reed Hospital CDC Us Army Europe Coordinator Bush Institute Holly State Department Penn State Hershey Mitch Army Africa Executive Director
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on This Week in Science

This Week in Science

04:33 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on This Week in Science

"Zero off target affects so we don't know if it'll act the same in the human genome though we don't know if it'll cut as accurately and the human genome for whatever reason so you know you need attested 'em but they're not gonna jump directly the researchers fears are currently working on primate studies great so they're doing these experiments in more closely related organism to humans yeah end in one where it's you know these mice had to be given these t cells that are susceptible to hiv right in a in primate studies they have simian immunodeficiency virus so it's a completely be a self contained system that is running kind of in parallel it's similar to the human disease systems so it's the primate model could actually be a much more accurate model than what were what they're looking at and the mice so that hopefully a paper will be coming out in even by the end of the year we don't know let's say let's say remember to when we were talking about these off target affects a is there's very few drugs become side effects you're talking about it yeah yeah good point they have these off target facts and they're like no solemn anyway just telling yeah you know and and when they do like if you see these laundry list of potential side effects when you're seeing the disclaimer on a drug it's not necessarily gonna get all of them it's that there's a lot of things it they saw in the trials and they don't don't know why a otherwise they could potentially have eliminated them from paying off target effects so yeah i mean if if anything is this with these end it's hard to say it started were talking about no off target effects in a mouse who cannot tell you that they remember where they left their keys there there there's there's problems that way as well 'em right so we yeah we don't know if if there are other side effects from the treatment of from all of the tests that they did and they did a lot they didn't see any side effects the by still behaved like mice 'em the tissues to still looks like normal tissues 'em yeah will see we will see but this is a very interesting what they're calling it as a proof of concept andy it's the it's a interesting starting point to see you know is this you know this is a an interesting question can we would with diseases like this where it's this is a virus it takes itself and puts it self in are gino this isn't a question of messing with human genes this is can we use crisper cast nine and other the other drugs in whatever we have to clean a disease of virus out of are gino can we cut it out it's it's an interesting question i yeah yeah we will see so far so good a and then moving on from hiv i have a very a very short yet interesting story about probing atmospheres nasa is wonderful it looking out into the universe in a one of are a nearby fish hundred hundred light years or so away star a solar system called liaised z we've talked about it before has several exo planets orbiting around this this star one of the world's in the glazing system three four seven zero be to be exact it's kind of weird it's like wants to be earth got a rocky core but it's kind of like i wanna be a gas giant also an so it's not it's like i i'm like my math is not earthy but it's not as big as neptune either kind of this weird in between space and i don't know who i am and so humble and spitzer telescopes took a look look at this exo.

hundred hundred light years
11-year-old Blues fan celebrates Stanley Cup

All Things Considered

01:07 min | 2 years ago

11-year-old Blues fan celebrates Stanley Cup

"Old Layla Anderson has an incredibly rare immunodeficiency disease because of the disease called H, L H. She's had bone marrow transplants and chemotherapy, that has meant some pretty significant hospital. Stays Anderson is also to put it mildly a fan of her hometown hockey team the Saint Louis blues and during the team's visits to the hospital, Leyla got to know many of the players on her favorite team. Her beloved blues were vying for the Stanley Cup versus the Boston Bruins in Beantown last night the day before the game. Her mother, Heather posed a question to Leyla captured on video. If you could watch the game anywhere in the world tomorrow, anywhere in the world, where would you watch boys play games, Boston, which seemed highly improbable, because Leyla Anderson has not been able to travel, what if they told you the blues called in they want you at the game. Boy, how said it's okay. He did. So Leyla found herself at the garden watching as.

Leyla Anderson Layla Anderson Beantown Boston Bruins Immunodeficiency Saint Louis Hockey Heather
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on This Day in History Class

This Day in History Class

05:25 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on This Day in History Class

"The article detailed five cases of Numa, sisters Carini, pneumonia, or PCP, which is a rare lung infection. The cases were all in Los Angeles, and all of the men identified in the report as having PCP where young white and gay. This report was the first on what would become known as the aids or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, epidemic aids is caused.

PCP Numa Carini immunodeficiency Los Angeles pneumonia
'Bubble Boy' Disease Helped By Advances In Gene Therapy

Fresh Air

03:54 min | 2 years ago

'Bubble Boy' Disease Helped By Advances In Gene Therapy

"Sometimes rare diseases allow for scientists to pioneer bold, new ideas. That's been the case with a condition that affects fewer than a hundred babies a year in the US, those babies are born without a functioning immune system and the quest to cure them has led to advances in technique called gene therapy NPR's, Richard Harris reports the disease is called severe combined immunodeficiency or skid met Portia Stanford. Pediatrician says you might be familiar with it. It was made famous I guess in the mid seventies. When the bubble boy was described in in Documenta documentary. And I think he captured the imagination of a lot of people David Vetter spent most of his short life in a plastic bubble to protect him from infection. He died at the age of twelve things have come a long way since then all babies born in the United States are now screened for this. Edition and standard treatment a bone marrow transplant succeeds more than ninety percent of the time when it's done promptly yet. Skit remains a source of great interest to researchers. This is one of those diseases in which probably more doctors and scientists studying the disease than patients who have the disease in the nineteen nineties European scientists actually cured it in some patients. Using gene therapy this technique involves removing defective. Blood cells from a patient inserting, a new gene with the help of a virus? And then putting the cells back into the body, though cells than build up the patient's immune systems, Dr Donald Kohn at UCLA says at first it looked really good and initially twenty patients, they all had immune recovery. But over time five of them went to develop leukemia to scramble to figure out how to inject new genes into cells without triggering that blood cancer, and they're cautiously optimistic they've succeeded since then there have been gradual improvements in the technique the latest advance involving eight infant. Shows that a short dose of chemotherapy helped the new cells take root, the infants ended up with apparently healthy immune systems. I am thrilled to CDs. Outstanding results Eveline among Sasha at Saint Jude's Children's Research Hospital in Memphis is first author of a paper reporting these findings in the New England Journal of medicine to be able to see these babies in my clinic now as toddlers Israeli very rewarding they live normal lives. There are not any different from my daughter's today most children with skid who get a bone marrow transplant also need ongoing treatment, including lifetime injections of antibodies. Jennifer puck a pediatrician at UC San Francisco and a study collaborator says infants who got the newest gene therapy don't need that medication and they're growing. Normally they're getting cold like everybody else, and they take it over infection. So I would say that that is a cure. Of course, she adds that they'll be watched carefully for signs of leukemia and to see if the. Of the therapy are wearing off in her mind. The key is finding these children early through newborn screening before they start to get life threatening infections that had typically been the case. And now we're seeing happy bouncy little newborns. Just look perfectly normal. This is not only good news for those rare families the disease provides a good opportunity for all the scientists to develop even newer, gene therapy techniques, for example, instead of inserting a healthy, gene. Matt Portius at Stanford. His used a powerful gene editing technique called crisper to correct the genetic error in skid blood cells. It works with human cells in a dish. And this really sets the stage than for testing the approach in a clinical trial. Hopefully in the next twelve to eighteen months. All this makes the leukemia setback from the nineteen nineties feel like a fading memory Cohn at UCLA said for more than a decade. It seemed that the field was a dead end. But no more just nice to see. Another success for

David Vetter Leukemia United States Ucla Severe Combined Immunodeficien New England Journal Of Medicin Matt Portius Portia Stanford Eveline NPR Dr Donald Kohn Richard Harris Jennifer Puck Cohn San Francisco Memphis Saint Jude Sasha
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on Bad Science

Bad Science

01:51 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on Bad Science

"How did you start getting in interested in this? You know what I mean? You're just breeds paranoia. You know, I read about this kind of thing. And I now I just get like own know, how do I void this do? I just wash my hands constantly, you know. So I think this there's two ways you can go. So I know people who've gone into the microbiology field in have become paranoid, right and two are incredibly anal about having everything be clean, and then others like myself who are actually very go the opposite direction. It's. Yeah. No. I I mean. Yeah. No. But I don't worry about don't worry about. It is what it is. I don't worry about getting contracting, viruses, and contracting bacteria from my from my apartment and getting terribly ill muggles monkey from Africa and unleashes it in the woods. Don't you worry about that? I'm scared to. Hello. The pet store didn't even want it because it was a girl monkey. Yeah. They wanted a guy because the, thankfully, there's numbers on our side. I have a question. So in the beginning of the movie there was like this scene in Zaire where this disease originally came up, the sixty s or something, and then the American government bombed it to get rid of the disease, but they just like blew up all of your whatever. I don't really know. What happened that's pretty much? What happened? That's what happened. And then we're supposed to believe that these monkeys were carrying it for thirty years or something like that. Like did the monkeys get the disease again or was it just like dormant in their system? Oh, good God outcome either. So this Dr. So thinking about like HIV research, right? So HIV is thought to have come from what's called simian immunodeficiency virus Siamese?.

immunodeficiency Zaire Africa thirty years
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on QUEERY with Cameron Esposito

QUEERY with Cameron Esposito

03:24 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on QUEERY with Cameron Esposito

"But he also made me read books. I can't remember the name of the author the psychologist called society and the healthy homosexual, and it was the antidote to everything ever wanted to know about sex, but we're afraid to ask which was this kind of pop sex book science pop sex awful book about sacks that had these terrible chapters about what gay people are in our like and damaged. They are. And he made me read citing the healthy homosexual to understand who I was as a condition of continuing to get to bounce up outta as dick. And that was how the we have a responsibility. When people come out. To educate them because they arrive ignorant, and and you know, I think less so now though because there's access that, you know, clear could going up today if they're so motivated us to get online and not just look for porn or not just look, you know, to create their own YouTube channel and do makeup tips, but to actually read and learn this, it's all instantly available in a way that it wasn't when we were younger typically when I was younger, but we don't raise our kids, right? We're also. Like just missing a generation of people. Yeah. Which is fucking sad and bizarre that that that Israel. But, but I in some ways, you know, after the new drugs after the cocktail came along Lazarus syndrome, which was a happy syndrome not required immunodeficiency syndrome that was people rising from the dead. Which was what happened when the drugs came in ninety six the cocktail. There was this desire not just among younger generations. We're an old enough. What the hell is going on who wouldn't know. Then then couldn't forget they just never knew there's a desire on the part. I think a lot of us who lived at to like have to think about it for five minutes to to to return to some semblance of of normality and rebuild our psyches. I find myself increasingly so vulnerable to anything that sort of touches on what nine hundred ninety eight or nine hundred ninety one was like and people think the worst of it was like eighty four. Eighty five the worst. The death toll is rising every year until ninety six like I lost a whole bunch of people early. But I was still losing people and at a greater clip into the nineties in tonight, you know, ninety six and just sometimes something will come along like, and I will just be shattered by thrown back into the moment in a way that. In two thousand I just wasn't thinking about it anymore or or just not allowing myself to think about it and moving pass it not wanting to talk about it or think about it. Now, there's this remembering now, there's this. Accounting that has to be done. Sure. I never heard anybody say that that makes sense. That makes sense. I'm like, we we are not asking the question. And I think that it fair also to say we didn't we needed a break from providing the information. That's that's also that makes sense to me ACTA, Philip part. Not because everybody backed up died, but because everybody act up was done. Yeah. Everybody hadn't died posited. Nag like was done and needed to think about do something else..

immunodeficiency YouTube Philip Israel five minutes
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on How To Be Amazing with Michael Ian Black

How To Be Amazing with Michael Ian Black

05:38 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on How To Be Amazing with Michael Ian Black

"Began today by talking about genetically engineered children. Can you explain for our audience who may not know what crisper is? Yes. I'm an expert on crisper. Sure. I am we own drum, gene, repeat? So yes, we will. I can deal. I we go to be an expert on all things ci- while here's the way, I work at it. You know, there's different people in the world, there's lumper's and splitters of you heard these expression, no heard of showers growers. But I think that's something different. So some people this is in one of the one of the great insights in science is to see the connections between phenomena and things we come across in nature. We realized that the physics on earth in the physics on the moon are the same the law the rules of motion and energy or the same. And so I'm a Lumper. Let's face it. So here's what we discovered that certain genes from one species can be introduced into another species naturally and the common way this happens in nature's with a virus so viruses collection of proteins that enables it to use other organisms to reproduce the virus to reproduce the same proteins. And so doing they carry genes from one species into another, and the example that most of us have seen in nature is the Gauls the mushrooms shaped growth on certain trees, an infection that the tree deals with. And the virus carries on doesn't kill the tree yet jeans travel are get expressed from one species into nine never thought about what that was before seeing those little mushroom. Things on trees. Yeah. So along this line humans now are able to harness certain viral proteins to carry genes that we want to put into a different species. And this is where you get genetically modified crops. That's where you get this technology. That's now going by the acronym. Crisper that guys in China claim so far unsubstantiated that they were able to introduce genes into fetuses before the was twins that were born with the premise or the idea that you could introduce immunity to the human immunodeficiency virus to aids HIV, which should be extrordinary. Now this hasn't been proven, but they claim they've done it. And I gotta say scientifically, it's quite reasonable in a science fiction future. Parents would imbue their kids with their babies with immunities. I q physical attributes that seem desirable. And then you'd have a better world for everyone or you'd produce a race of mindless soldiers who would do Stroia all humankind, or you've got all you've got to tear humanity where you've got where you're using eugenics for the sort of topped here humanity to create essentially a master race. And then you've got this unknown genyk -ly enhanced species that that does not have the same advantages. Yeah. This is, you know, the subject of all sorts of science fiction and quite reasonably, but we're living at a time when this is going to be possible apparently. But I will say this is a fine and wonderful thing in the developed world. But most of the babies. In the world as a result of most of the sex in the world is going to go on and conventional fashion. I think for quite a while. But Abecia, you know, somebody who was born by somebody. I mean right now, it'd be somebody under fifteen years old who was born by vitro fertilization. Right. And you might know somebody who's twenty twenty five years old. So this technology has been around a long time and people just love having babies. My parents did. Yes, they did. They had three of them. And I was watching a documentary about you and one of the unfortunate by products in your genetic code is something called a taxi. Can you explain what a taxi is or taxi is a symptom? So it embrace it encompasses about forty different causes that people at the Kennedy Krieger institute at Johns Hopkins University or studying, apparently, if you have the wrong repeated jeans, it affects your Sara bellum the base of your brain in an affects your balance, your -bility to walk and sometimes you're fine motor skills and your speech because it's your tongue jaw are finally motored. And it's a drag my brother and sister have it. My dad had at his brother, my uncle hat and that side of the family. Uncle side of the family all has this affliction, and it sucks, and it's a result of a gene repeat. So currently they think they've stood. They've looked for about a quarter of the probable cause..

Kennedy Krieger institute China Stroia Johns Hopkins University Abecia immunodeficiency HIV twenty twenty five years fifteen years
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WTMJ 620

WTMJ 620

07:26 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WTMJ 620

"The world continues to focus on the importance of ongoing research early detection as we are addressing a really a leading public health challenge in the world age this weekend. We had a chance to sit down and speak a link with Dr Steven A, John PHD assistant, professor Medical College of Wisconsin part of the department of psychiatry and behavioral medicine center for age intervention research. Dr John just does a beautiful job of breaking it down. So we can appreciate not only the challenge of age on a global situation. But also some of the breakthrough stuff going on in the lab right now. Well, Dr John first of all help us appreciate the relationship between HIV and aids itself, if you would sure well, I thanks for having me, Mark. I think the main thing is that aid stands for choir immune deficiency syndrome, which is. Caused by the virus HIV which stands for human immunodeficiency virus. So ages of is the last phase of the HIV infection in the body. What actually happens when that transition occurs as just a total breakdown in the immune system. Dr. Well, h attacks the body's immune system, which is the primary system. Our bodies have for fighting off infections in his eases. And if HIV is untreated a person's immune system breaks down over time. And we assess phases of HIV aids in stages and aids is the last phase when the body has very few t cells, or which are the ones that fight off infections, and when the immune system breaks down you're susceptible to all kinds of things. I am. I correct. Yes. This is when you become more susceptible to what we call opportunistic infections or some more rare infections. So that's one of the ways that HIV was initially a sort of identified early in that pedantic, doctor how common is aids itself in Wisconsin right now. Sure. The most recent statistics, we have our that. There are about six thousand people living with HIV in Wisconsin. And this is from the end of twenty sixteen and in two thousand seventeen there were two hundred and fifty nine new HSE diagnoses in Wisconsin. And I should say that in general, Wisconsin has fewer new HIV diagnoses compared to other states, especially compared to those in the south where the HIV epidemic currently much more severe. I would also like to say it's worth mentioning, however that we still have a lot of work to do to fight HIV, particularly here in Milwaukee. For instance, the rate of HIV infections within the city of Milwaukee nearly four times greater than that of the state of Wisconsin and above the national average and some groups of people are disproportionately affected, including our young black game bisexual men here in Milwaukee. And nationally why is it higher in Milwaukee? What's happening here, sir? Well, I just think that we have some different landscapes for access to care. So and we have a historically higher rate of bacterial sexually transmitted infections as well. So I think it just has to do with some of the network level prevalence. So we need to focus on increasing access HIV testing to get individuals diagnosed and linked to care. I know the testing is one of the is at the heart of your ongoing research. Dr and kids are kids are actually made available for testing at home for the patient. His or herself to do the testing explain that to me. Sure. So we now have HIV self testing kits that can be purchased over the counter without a prescription at local pharmacies, and you can even purchase these on Amazon. So even if we have issues with getting to a clinic for HIV testing and counseling we can still find ways to increase access by promoting the use of these self testing kits as well. Do you recommend them? Do you? Do you have good faith in in the the home kits? I do. There are a few caveats. I the testing that you get at a clinic based setting we like to talk about window periods of win. You might have been exposed to HIV, and when we can detect HIV with a test and currently the over the counter tests have have about a three month window period, which means you could have been exposed to HIV two months ago. And that tests might not notice it. But if you go to a clinic, we have much shorter window periods, which means that you can detect more acute or new infections. So while it does help increase a lot of access. We do have some concerns about their use as well. And how often should adults test themselves or have the test being done during their annual exam, for example. Well, I think the CDC recommends that individuals who are engaging in sexual activity be tested every about every six months, and then individuals who are at higher risk should be tested for HIV, perhaps every three months or so wouldn't a typical patient checks in for an annual exam annual exam as part of that has blood work done in the lab is is part of the blood screened for HIV as part of a normal order from the physician or not necessarily. Well, I'm not entirely sure what the normal protocols are buyer, local hospitals. But a lot of times we do have there is opt out screening. So you are tested for HIV unless you opt out of it. But I'm not familiar with the local protocols here is I am public health and not an MD if that makes under understand doctor while you're helping us a lot here. And better understand this issue. We're very grateful for it. In terms of advances being made in prevention and treatment overall for rates. Are we coming on that in your opinion as a professional researcher and in public health leader? Well, I think we are making really some great leaps and both prevention and treatment. So we have now it should be medications that can be taken before voter ID to help prevent you from getting HIV, and we call this pre exposure prophylaxis. So this has been available since two thousand twelve and approved by the FDA, and basically you can take a pill once a day to prevent your risk for HIV if you're ever exposed, and I like to think of these as being comparable to malaria pill, for instance, before international travel to some parts of the world has breakthrough stuff. Dr breakthrough stuff. It definitely is. And I think that there is a lot of future work being done to try to advance prep in particular. There are new drug formulations that allow that a lot of different dosing. So. There are some clinical trials ongoing with long acting injectable since that I've taken a daily pill. Individuals could get an injection about every eight weeks and a lot of our trajectory of research and new dosing formulations for prep is very similar to that of contraception for women, as we know that there is a menu of options for for how women can prevent pregnancy. Unfortunately, we only have about fifteen seconds left. Is there a cure doctor or is that still yet to come and actual cure? There is not a cure yet for HIV. But we know that individuals who are living with HIV can be treated successfully and live long healthy lives. So appreciative of your ongoing research or guidance and your public health leadership. Thank you so much. Thanks for having me, Mark. Dr Steven John. Thank you, sir. Take care now. Yeah. Dr John just doing some great leadership in public health and research just getting the word out on the challenge of aids an global on a global level, and certainly here right here in Wisconsin. Okay. Coming up.

HIV infection Wisconsin Dr John Dr. Well Dr Steven A Milwaukee Mark Dr Steven John Medical College of Wisconsin immunodeficiency John PHD Amazon CDC HSE FDA department of psychiatry professor malaria
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM

WCBM 680 AM

02:28 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM

"Promo code Levin Christmas. All right. Back to George Carlin. A few more minutes environmentalists and global warming and so forth. Cut twenty go. Planets doing ask those people at Pompeii who are frozen into position. How the planets doing one off the planet's? All right. Ask people in Mexico City or Armenia or one hundred other places buried under thousands of tons of earthquake rebel if they feel like a threat to the planet this week. How about those people in kilo away Hawaii who build their homes right next to an active volcano, and then wonder why they have lava in the living room. Planet will be here for a long long long time after we're gone, and it will heal itself it will cleanse itself because that's what it does. It's a self correcting system the air in the water will recover the earth will be renewed. And if it's true, the plastic is not degradable. Well, the planet will simply incorporate plastic into a new paradigm the earth, plus plastic. Doesn't share our prejudice towards plastic? Plastic came out of the earth the earth. Probably plastic is just another one of its children could be the only reason the earth allowed us to be spawned from it in the first place wanted plastic for itself. How to make it? Could be the answer to our age old philosophical question. Why are we here? Our job is done. We can be phased out now. And I think that's really started already. Don't you? I mean to be fair the planet probably sees us as a mild threat something to be dealt with. I'm sure the planet will defend itself in the manner of a large organism like a beehive, or an ant colony can muster a defense. I'm sure the planet. We'll think of something. What would you do if you were the planet trying to defend against this troublesome species? Let's see what my viruses viruses, might be good. They seem vulnerable to viruses and viruses are mutating. A foreign news strains whenever a vaccine is developed perhaps this first virus could be one that compromises the immune system of these creatures perhaps a human immunodeficiency virus, making them vulnerable to all sorts of other diseases and.

George Carlin immunodeficiency Pompeii Mexico City Armenia
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

WMAL 630AM

03:00 min | 2 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WMAL 630AM

"Code Levin Christmas. All right. Back to George Carlin. A few more minutes environmentalists and global warming and so forth. Cut twenty go. Planets doing ask those people at Pompeii who a frozen into position. How the planets doing? Of the planets. All right asking people in Mexico City or Armenia hundred other places buried under thousands of tons of earthquake rebel if they feel like a threat to the planet this week. Kellaway Hawaii who build their homes right next to an active volcano, and then wonder why they have lava in the living room. We'll be here for a long long long time after we're gone, and it will heal itself. It will cleanse itself. Because that's what it does. It's a self correcting system the air in the water will recover the earth will be renewed. And if it's true, the plastic is not degradable. Well, the planet will simply incorporate plastic into a new paradigm the earth, plus plastic. Earth doesn't share our prejudice towards plastic. Plastic came out of the earth the earth. Probably sees plastic is just another one of its children could be the only reason the earth allowed us to be spawned from it in the first place. It wanted plastic for itself. How to make it? Could be the answer to our age old philosophical question. Why are we here? Plastic is here. Our job is done. We can be phased out now. And I think that's really started already. Don't you? I mean to be fair the planet probably sees us as a mild threat, something to be dealt with the planet will defend itself in the manner of a large organism like a beehive, or an ant colony can muster a defense. I'm sure the planet. We'll think of something. What would you do if you were the planet trying to defend against this pesky troublesome speedy? My viruses viruses might be good vulnerable to viruses and viruses are mutating forming. New strains whenever a vaccine is developed, perhaps this first virus could be one that compromises the immune system, these creatures perhaps the human immunodeficiency virus, making them vulnerable to all sorts of other diseases and infections that might go along, and maybe it could be spread sexually making a little reluctant to engage in the act of reproduction poetic note, and I can dream. Don't worry about the little things these trees whales snails. I think we're part of a greater wisdom that we will ever understand higher. Order call it what you want. No one. I call it. The big electron. The big electron. All right. Excellent. Excellent. Excellent..

George Carlin Pompeii Mexico City immunodeficiency Armenia
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

KDWN 720AM

02:13 min | 3 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

"The other thing too is you can look at the palms of their hands if the palms of your hands are starting to look a little globally we know little sunlight lighting blow yellowish could but the easiest thing to do is to look in the mirror and look at the whites of your eyes the whites of your eyes are looking yellow not your teeth a lot of us has yellow teeth but the whites have rise those start turning yellow and liber davidge happens because the liver cell that has the enzymes in on billy rubin and all sorts of other products that deliver has to make when these cells die right because of an inflammation or an infection or an attack by alcohol or drug or whatever and you go into a hepatitis which is deliver these the cells lights or they open up so the contents leak into the blood which is why when we see high liver enzymes we're like there must be a lot of damage going onto the liver because these numbers should it be that high now i've had some people that say look my liberal enzymes are perfect i've been drinking a bottle of wine a day for years and my liver looks normal well if your liver enzymes are the result of cells opening up and licensing and you have a liver where half of the liver is dead like a psoriatic liver where the liberals are not working anyway then you might not mount that response of seeing all the liver enzyme spike you know people with hiv may not get fevers they may not have the same symptoms when a non hiv or somebody with aids i should say some people they hiv don't have the acquired immuno deficiency syndrome but if somebody has a severe immunodeficiency transplant patient etc they may not mount the same response someone who's diabetic does it feel sharply they have nerve damage so they may not get the chest pain that you were i get a heart attack diabetic someone with anemia or sickle cell anemia may not have a red throat because again they're anemic they don't have as many blood cells so we have to take that into account and not say oh you're just.

billy rubin anemia immunodeficiency heart attack
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KBOI 670AM

KBOI 670AM

02:47 min | 3 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KBOI 670AM

"Thing itself there's a great squabble that happens early in the 1980s david covers it quickly it's important to come to the resolution because there is a meeting of antulay to call what we're witnessing hiv having established what we know of this retrovirus what is siv david and surgery is what uh is stands for simian immunodeficiency virus and that is the version the precursor of this particular virus hiv that exist in different forms in a number of nonhuman primates across air it it it exists in almost forty different species of monkey in various forms it exists also in chimpanzees the different s ivs can be distinguished from one another uh genetically but they're clearly all related and one of them was the starting point for the aids pandemic we're looking now at everyone getting organized this is the 1980s into the 1990s and david story is extremely exciting this is an opera tragedy at the same time there's victory here because what i read is establishing a template for doing the important lifting of wear and win mankind will be hit with recombination retroviruses it's coming it always comes it's the nature of global a global enterprise prize and this one is is a specially tragic but it does in all of the sacrifice a today establish away of looking where things come from and preventing or seeking ways a remedies so we now go to this s ivs assumption and from the siv working with a different kinds of monkeys one is a called an african green monkey and other ones is called a suit key sutee man gubbay the reasoning is that they come to a monkey called a oh 22 it has no romantic name and in that there is a discovery that leads to understanding this all is a spillover what are they find and a oh twenty two's remains what they find nato 22 is one of these versions of simian immunodeficiency virus and not just a version of it but a version that matches very closely with hiv two now hiv to is the lesser disease it's not the pandemic strain of aids but it's a disease it's a virus that causes disease mostly in west africa it's not as virulent and not as transmissible is hiv one but it was detected and people realize well there are two different hiv and they they found a close match two one of them in this monkey and in the species of.

siv david david story immunodeficiency nato hiv
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on NEJM This Week - Audio Summaries

NEJM This Week - Audio Summaries

02:22 min | 3 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on NEJM This Week - Audio Summaries

"The four primary strains ranged from fifty six to eighty five point three percent after dose to and from seventy eight point eight to ninety point two percent after dose three the percentages of young adults ranged from fifty four point six to eighty five point six percent and seventy eight point nine to eighty nine point seven percent after doses two and three respectively composite responses after doses two n three in adolescence were fifty three point seven percent and eighty two point seven percent respectively and those in young adults were sixty three point three percent and eighty four point five percent respectively responses to the four primary strains were predictive of responses to the ten additional strains most of those who received the men be fehb p vaccine reported mild or moderate pain at the back the nation site the by vaillant meningococcal b vaccine elicited bacteriocidal responses against diverse meningococcal be strains after doses two and three and was associated with more reactions at the injection site than the hepatitis a virus vaccine and sailing kidney diseases associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection a review article by scot colin from george washington university washington d c highly active anti retroviral therapy has led to dramatic improvement in the life expectancy of persons with hiv infection kidney disease which is a common complication of hiv infection and its treatment may shorten the life span of patience this spectrum of hiv associated renal diseases includes diseases that are directly associated with infection those that are linked to the systemic immune response to infection those that develop as a consequence of super infections and those that are associated with the treatment of hiv infection since the introduction of molecular tools to detect hiv within tissues our understanding of the path.

scot colin hiv infection immunodeficiency george washington university w seven percent three percent five percent six percent two percent
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WSRQ Talk Radio

WSRQ Talk Radio

01:54 min | 4 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WSRQ Talk Radio

"I have a quiet and questions that are kind of including me right now cata sounds challenging let's go apparently i have in dark cat and i ask you a lot of yet now and then cat racket and i decided that under the wreckage herro and my backyard and now referred quite an air i told that one of them lady xiv positive and now he has turned into a little luck anyone and an an and up to me and rubbed and practically lickliter out so i'm guessing she why somebody pat and kind of reverted to a herald mind bad and now that he's had a piper fellow than critical thinker virtue going back to being prominent what i opened the door he tries to run in and as she knows what's good man she's on her way and so where it would would it be a bad idea of how ladder can an air fares and a high be positive that and the other key thought there on their that i think i remember i think i heard that if they had had an an that hanging four f5 e l got there have come up positive that i am not sure about that yeah and that kind of comes to like why we have the suspicion of f iv which is also really known as feline immunodeficiency virus hudson which are kind of like the hiv virus in humans so f iv and cats yes we can get some false positives basically from a cat has previously been vaccinated if we do get a a positive test there are some confirming tests we can do to kind of reassure us so i guess the big thing is you know what's the risk with bringing this kitty into the home well for f ivy it's typically spread through bite wounds between cats are cathay live outdoors can have.

hiv virus cata immunodeficiency
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

KDWN 720AM

02:22 min | 4 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

"The o c the aol ira 360 three to five four you know it's i'm not sure what exactly happened that made them change this type of uh you know too the have have this disparity when it when it comes to communicable diseases now maybe the reason why they had to hold off with you know have the tightest nerve he's an hpv this because it just once you start increasing the number of things have to be considered a felony then you know i there's a lot more people worth there's going to be a lot more cases there's going to be a lot more accusations and making something a misdemeanor willie jesus things up from a court standpoint and from a jail standpoint but you know hiv we can treat now hiv can be easily diagnosed and i would love to get rid of the stigma of hiv but the problem is is it still does hill his like hpv kissel like hepatitis it can still hill if somebody does not take the medication regimen appropriately if they do not follow up with their you know cereal counts if they are immuno compromised and they get a condition like dumb in a moment hour pcp or a variety of macular variety of other kaposi sarcoma diseases that could affect somebody with hiv that's a acquire read aids and now in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome we are talking about something that is very very debilitating and if i have a particular stance with somebody i fault for all right we'll demands on me you know i don't pretend says like to that risk that if i you know you know that person to use a condom there and and they don't use the kanda we were just talking about stealthy how stealthy you should be considered sahlin is assault stands in the salt that stealthy in is where well simply his since the view they remove the condom or they tear the condoms so they could impregnate you were past their cement it you all hell is that not he knows of somebody so you know but but it's obvious.

communicable diseases hpv kissel immunodeficiency assault
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

KDWN 720AM

02:34 min | 4 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on KDWN 720AM

"Seven seven delhi winning seven seventy oh c d a l i don't get the fall was on twitter enter diane on facebook that after delhi show so hiv patients in california who expose others to the disease these will no longer face felony charges now this is definitely then very controversial as i believe we are looking at a case right now of a hairdresser who snipped off the end of his condom and purposefully gave the hiv two of their other other let's say partners and so we you know it the existing law as much in california makes it as celani punishable by imprisonment according to chapter five thirty seven of senate votes to thirty nine they say is mason a felony punishable by imprisonment for three five or eight years in state prison to smells another person to the human immunodeficiency virus hiv by engaging in unprotected center to be when the infected person knows at the time of the unprotected sex that he or she is infected with hiv and if they have not disclosed his or her hiv positive status air act so a specific intent to affect the other person with hiv existing law makes it a felony punishable by imprisonment for two four six years for any person to donate blood tissue or under specified circumstances even or breast milk if the prisoners he is he has acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids or that here's she has tested reactive to hiv does the existing law provides that a person who is afflicted with the contagious and fictious or communicable disease who willfully wilfully exposes himself or herself to the person or any person a widely supposed under the person afflicted with it ceases someone else is guilty now of although misdemeanor oh the existing law of another communicable disease would be amiss to be there so what they're now doing california governor jerry brown has signed a law that will lower that penalty of exposing a partner to hiv from a felony told misdemeanor it also includes also donate blood without reform the center of their hiv status so centre scott weaser.

facebook california partner scott weaser twitter hiv senate immunodeficiency governor jerry brown two four six years eight years milk
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WREK

WREK

02:04 min | 4 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WREK

"His his yeah every every now now comes comes a a rare rare book book brings brings your life rushing rushing back back to to you you howler howler five five of of the the inside inside story story of of how how citizens citizens and and sciencethemed sciencethemed aides aides my my davor davor france france not not 2016 2016 is is one one such such rock rock the boat boat chronicles chronicles the the aids aids epidemic epidemic from from the the early early 1980's 1980's when the mysterious game cancer started appearing appearing to to 1995 one one hard hard won won advancements research research and and pharmaceuticals made aids virus virus that that people people lived lived with with rather rather than than a a disease that that people died died from from it amazon avaaz epidemic epidemic of of massive massive proportions proportions as as france france rights rights when the the calendar calendar terms terms in in 1991 1991 one one hundred thousand thousand americans americans were were dead dead from aids twice twice as as many as had perished perished in in vietnam the the bulk bulk chronicles chronicles scientific developments developments the the entwined entwined politics politics and and medical medical the breakthroughs breakthroughs in in the aids aids epidemic epidemic aids acquired immune immune deficiency deficiency syndrome syndrome is a chronic infectious condition condition those those caused caused by the underlying human immunodeficiency immunodeficiency virus virus known as hiv hiv i came out out in in 1980 one one and and munlo munlo devasation devasation france rates rates about about once once online online world it was very close to my experience in those days the women's woman's community community what what we call the lesbian and firmness firmness community was mostly separate separate from from the the gay gay male male community community understandably understandably gave game men men in in lisbon's lisbon's had had our our differences but there there is is in in fighting fighting in in every every group group rebellion was in the the air air and sometimes sometimes we we took took out out or or hostilities on each each other other still gay men and lesbians were also allies and friends something that is reflected in france's writing writing i'll always remember remember.

vietnam lisbon france davor davor france france immunodeficiency
"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WREK

WREK

02:04 min | 4 years ago

"immunodeficiency" Discussed on WREK

"His his yeah every every now now comes comes a a rare rare book book brings brings your life rushing rushing back back to to you you howler howler five five of of the the inside inside story story of of how how citizens citizens and and sciencethemed sciencethemed aides aides my my davor davor france france not not 2016 2016 is is one one such such rock rock the boat boat chronicles chronicles the the aids aids epidemic epidemic from from the the early early 1980's 1980's when the mysterious game cancer started appearing appearing to to 1995 one one hard hard won won advancements research research and and pharmaceuticals made aids virus virus that that people people lived lived with with rather rather than than a a disease that that people died died from from it amazon avaaz epidemic epidemic of of massive massive proportions proportions as as france france rights rights when the the calendar calendar terms terms in in 1991 1991 one one hundred thousand thousand americans americans were were dead dead from aids twice twice as as many as had perished perished in in vietnam the the bulk bulk chronicles chronicles scientific developments developments the the entwined entwined politics politics and and medical medical the breakthroughs breakthroughs in in the aids aids epidemic epidemic aids acquired immune immune deficiency deficiency syndrome syndrome is a chronic infectious condition condition those those caused caused by the underlying human immunodeficiency immunodeficiency virus virus known as hiv hiv i came out out in in 1980 one one and and munlo munlo devasation devasation france rates rates about about once once online online world it was very close to my experience in those days the women's woman's community community what what we call the lesbian and firmness firmness community was mostly separate separate from from the the gay gay male male community community understandably understandably gave game men men in in lisbon's lisbon's had had our our differences but there there is is in in fighting fighting in in every every group group rebellion was in the the air air and sometimes sometimes we we took took out out or or hostilities on each each other other still gay men and lesbians were also allies and friends something that is reflected in france's writing writing i'll always remember remember.

vietnam lisbon france davor davor france france immunodeficiency