35 Burst results for "Hundred Thousand Years"
Reasons to Believe Founder Hugh Ross On How the Sun Affects Life on Earth
"Hey there folks, I'm talking to Hugh Ross. He is the founder and president of reasons to believe an extraordinary ministry and organization that has helped me a lot in making sense of how science accords with the God of the scripture, it's just wonderful to have you as my guest who we were just talking about something I don't think that I've heard before. You said that the earth in recent years very recently happens to be coinciding at a time when the sun is optimal for a planet like ours for life thriving on a planet like ours. And you said that window that perfect window is about a hundred thousand years where roughly halfway through that, what happened? What was the sun doing in the day of the dinosaurs or during the Cambrian era? How did that affect life on earth? Well, the windows fairly broad per bacterial life, about 4 billion years wide. For advanced global human civilization, that's where it's extremely narrow. And the time of the dinosaurs, the sun's fluttering activity was considerably greater than it is now. But they did not to worry about power grids being knocked out or the food supply being wiped out. So they did find what the sun having greater flaring activity. They did okay without having more x-ray and a gamma ray activity than it does right now. It's we humans that are most sensitive to that, and I got a new book come on and fine tuning, designed to the core, or I make the point that right now, the sun's luminosity stability is 5 times more stable than the next most stable star we can see anywhere in our entire
The Beauty of Not Knowing
"In his book the compass of zen zen master singson said. I do not teach buddhism. I only teach don't know this is a quote that i like And i want to share some thoughts regarding this notion of. Don't know what does that mean. I only teach know not knowing the beauty of not knowing arises when we understand that reality as a complete picture is unknowable. I because it's always changing and second because we are limited in our perspective of where we stand in terms of space and time and this is tot with the story and buddhism the story of the six blind men and the elephant which i've brought up multiple times on the podcast where you have six blind men trying to describe an elephant and they're all describing different parts of the elephant and none of them can give an accurate picture of the whole elephant because they're limited with where they stand right. I if i'm standing at the foot versus at the back versus the front versus sitting on top of versus standing under. You know the what. I what i perceive and what i'm going to describe that i'm perceiving is different than what someone else will be experiencing at a different part of the elephant and the key teaching with the six blind men and the elephant is the understanding that nobody has the full picture. And that's how reality is reality in. General is a picture that can't be seen as a whole. It's just literally impossible for example. I know what it's like to be me living and two thousand twenty one To be a male of forty two years of age. I know what it's like to be a parent. I know everything that i perceive is based on where i am in space and time and the interdependent connections of all the things that make me what i am right now. I know what it is to be a twin. I know it is to be a a brother A son adad. You know all of these things but that's in today's day and age. I don't know what it's like to be someone who lived in the middle ages or someone who lived You know. I don't know hundred two hundred thousand years ago. I don't know what that would have been like. I can imagine. But i can't
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The Get Foxy Show
"Be nothing else but darkness but in darkness if you go deep enough into the darkness tres alight and you can see that light and you are that light right. Oh that's nice in the silence of completely silent room. You will hear a song but that's the sound of life in you and you can hear it. Sometimes when you go up north in winter you go out in the snow and you know there's no there's no sounds the birds are all asleep and it's a night and there's no airplanes and no city noises. You actually go there and you hear a sound and it sounds like that. Sound is everywhere. But it's actually the sound of your life that you can hear in silence interesting. Remember he listening to it as a kid. I didn't know what it was at that time. And then in your emptiness there is an unconditional love that you can feel and in in the tastelessness of your own mouse. You can feel it. You can taste the sweetness if you pay attention to it. If you get quite enough to notes. So i do that. I do that in the morning. And and it's it really. I want to. I want to be present in my own space and feel that space. Because that's my gift you know. That's the gift that each one of us has been given for ourselves to enjoy because you can enjoy that for me. And if i don't enjoy that gift for myself then it's a waste of give right. That's that's for all the people who say. Oh you know it's selfish to spend time with yourself. No it's not the people who tell you that selfish to spend time with yourselves. But want you to spend your. I'm doing something for their benefit. But not for your own benefit and taking the time is probably the most neglected and most healing and most important thing of our time. We'll be of all time. But we've been neglecting a four hundred thousand years. That's why there's a lot of messes around on the planet whether you're talking about environment politics or relationships or health you can't you eat. There's a lot to gain in all of those areas from getting present in your in your own space. This is definitely something that i preach to with my patients accolade about yin yang and the balance of it. And young. as you know you're you're giving giving giving giving yen is about taking that time to get still and receive and so i always have so many women that come to my clinic and they just. They're constantly giving giving giving going going doing doing at that time to take that breath and that's true for the men to yes true for because we've become we're supposed to be human beings that we become human doings but if you think about it which is more important being or doing well being because you can be without doing but you can't do without being a so. There's the foundation again..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on No sitting on the sideline dad podcast
"So if you got picked on. I definitely got picked on a lot when i was little. And so you know it formed a belief in my mind that the world's not a safe place you know it's not a safe place and so going through life. I was going through life playing not to lose instead of playing to win. And when you play not to lose you keep losing no matter how hard you try and even when you win. You're just afraid that it's going to get taken away. And so we've got to figure out what these beliefs are and upgrade them and most people just don't want to do it because it's uncomfortable but i've also found that. Your biggest breakthroughs are hidden in the places. You don't wanna go. It's interesting too when you having something good. I can remember something different example in my had something going good and waiting for the other shoe to drop the odds of that. When you say that that that were comes to mind yeah because not only the beliefs that we interpret but also the beliefs that we are around. I mean all the adults around us were often. Wounded gives the grew up. And we've got our religion and we've got our government and we've got our culture and we've got this socio economic pressures around us and where you lived and where you grew up and all of that influences us as well and so people that are our age that were going up in the seventies and the eighties. We have all kinds of beliefs of. Don't get your expectations too high. Because you're gonna get disappointed or you start doing well. Well who do you think you are. You think you're special or you know if you're doing well yeah then You know now you're being selfish ri- you're not being a good christian and so all these limiting beliefs that are ridiculous that cause us to feel less than so. It's no wonder why insecurity is the biggest disease on this planet one. They mentioned to eliminate beliefs. And that's kind of a word kinda like limited believes. Why do you think people have somebody loosen. How can they overcome. Well a big part of our brain was has been developing over the last five hundred thousand years since we were neanderthals and that part of our brain was all about survival and so its main objective is to keep us away from pain and perceived threat. Right we will avoid paying more than we will create pleasure because we have a brain that over half a million years has been trying to keep us away from pain. It pays attention to pain and in pays attention to every possible way that we could get hurt and so it was interesting because of that our society has been wrapped around this idea of pain. You know you can have it all. You should have it all because then you won't have any pain which is alive because everything we do to try to have. It all creates pain. You know. humans are in this horrible habit of trying to avoid pain by doing things that create more of it. Like you're stressed out. So you light up a cigarette you know because you just found out you got lung cancer so you smoke an extra pack that week. you know. i mean we do all these things. I might get diabetes. So i ended up eating a whole bunch of sugar. You know..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Lex Fridman Podcast
"The following is a conversation with david sinclair. He's a professor in the department of genetics at harvard. And co director of the paul f glenn center for the biology of aging at harvard medical school. He's the author of the book lifespan and co founder of several biotech companies. He works on turning age into an engineering problem and solving it driven by a vision of a world where billions of people can live much longer and much healthier lives quick mention of our sponsors on it clear national instruments and i simply safe and leonod check them out in the description to support this podcast as a side note. Let me say that. Legiti research challenges us to think how science and engineering will change society. Imagine if we can live one hundred thousand years even under controlled conditions like spaceships. Say then suddenly a trip to offer centauri that is Four point three seven light years away takes a single human lifespan and on the psychological may even philosophical level as the horizons of death drifts. Farther into the distance how will our search for meaning change does meaning required death or does it merely require struggle reprogramming. Our biology will require us to delve deeper into understanding the human mind and the robot. Mind both of these efforts ours. Exciting of a journey is ekeler. Magin now is the part of the program where we do the ads. Try to make them interesting..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Conspiracy Theories
"Months and there's still a lot of unexplored territory that's true in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven federal wildlife authorities discovered an entire herd of canadian wood bison which had been previously considered extinct. It's also possible that like many animals sasquatch is hide when they're sick or injured which would make a lot harder for people to find a body that sad people have likely lived in the americas for tens of thousands of years. With those odds. You'd think someone would have stumbled on him. Bigfoot corpse by now unless they bury their dead as far as we know. Mortuary practices began with neanderthals. Less than one hundred thousand years ago some paleoanthropologists consider burial to be a mark of advanced intelligence before that point family members were simply left to rot. Unfortunately wilson zone research cast doubt on the sasquatch burial theory. Bigfoot doesn't seem intelligent enough to ensure their dead they don't even seem to have primitive technology. Eye-witnesses almost never mentioned sasquatch is using hunting tools or fire things that existed long before funerals. An anthropologist named dr grover krantz estimated that the average big foot was smarter than a guerrilla but far less intelligent than a human or even a neanderthal. The truth is we won't know exactly how clever sasquatch is our until primatology can study one up close until that happens. There's no way to adequately gauge their mental abilities. Especially since they're notoriously shy around people even without access to a live specimen sasquatch researchers have deduced a lot from the other clues they've allegedly left behind for example last time we discussed how dr krantz analyzed the depth of the sasquatch footprint to determine its weight also the human like shape allowed him to place the species in her own evolutionary time line and sometimes sess kuala gis getting more to work with than just muddy tracks in recent years. Dna sequencing has made it possible to buy animals from the smallest clues. A veterinarian named dr melba ketchum was uniquely positioned to prove big foot's existence to the world since she ran a genetic testing company. I she collected of samples of suspected bigfoot. Blood hair and skin then. She picked the most promising tissues and compared their dna with other known species on february thirteenth. Two thousand thirteen. She published a paper. Alleging that sasquatch is were even more closely related to humans than anyone had realized she claimed that bigfoot was descended from an unknown primate and a human catch him stated that somewhere in our distant past homo sapiens had made it with another hamad and that had created a new hybrid species bigfoot. Unfortunately kitchens worked in. Stand up to scrutiny. She published in an online only with an amateurish. Website the only paper listed was her own and a quick look at our testing companies profile on the better business bureau site reveals further issues. Customers claim she charged the money for tests she never performed then refused issue refunds. In fact a british geneticist named bryan sykes studied who work and concluded the ketchum had accidentally contaminated or samples in his book. Bigfoot yeti the last neanderthal. He claimed that her results were the product of sloppy science. That's an people. Keep finding new samples every year. So it's possible. One will eventually turn.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The Dentalpreneur Podcast with Dr. Mark Costes
"Show me where the shit is. And we just shovel shut till we drop dead and these kids. They don't want to do evenings and weekends They don't wanna do pro fees. They want six hundred dollar guarantees and then they change jobs every year. I mean my gosh. If you look. And it's not just dentistry if you look at all the big tack you look at facebook and google and uber and all the greatest companies. The millennials are changing jobs on average year and with. Dso's even tell you. Hartland keeps them the longest they. They're almost like two years and the rest are all year so this is their brand. How hard is it to get. I mean my gosh. My office managers. And i got a bunch of ladies. I get a bunch of people who have been with me twenty years plus that run the whole damn thing while i just babylon My podcast and they don't wanna touch an associate they think they're prima donnas have the millennial work ethic so do you hear that two or my errors two key just a world apart in prescott. Yeah we have. Depending on the time we have between fourteen and sixteen doctors that work for my group and you know there are some common themes to the millennial generation for sure. I'll tell you that for the first three years of my of my career. I worked six days a week. Sometimes seven you know. I come in for a root canal or a bust a tooth. I always on call especially the first three years that i owned my practice. I did as when i needed to shoot up until about two years ago. I was doing pro fees. If i called in sick because we always seem to be short on hygienic up here in prescott arizona and generals seems to have a shortage of of janice. But yeah i mean. I do think that that is a big message that we have to get out there to this new generation of dentist where you know it is kind of an old message and we are some old dogs here. I just had a birthday with zero after. I'm feeling it a little bit more than usual as far as feeling that age but the work ethic does seem to escape this this generation it is a lifestyle generation and they have a little bit of entitlement. That's the generalization about this about this generation. But i would say if if you're going to succeed in this profession especially if you're going to be a successful business owner. You have to have realistic expectations about what it takes to build a successful practice. You can't work three and a half days out of the gate you know. You can't work four days once you own your own practice and refused to appropriate. If hygienic calls in sick there's a little bit of a mind shift that does need to happen in order for people to have just a realistic expectation of what it takes to create a successful practice that they own now if they want to be associated for their entire career. That's totally cool. Dso's love that and so do private practice owners that that have an associate model associate run model but if you really want to be successful and own your own empire yet to be realistic about what it takes to do. That and takes a lot a lot of hard work. My gosh. i'm this is controversial. One i'm going to say but it's it's mathematical is it's obvious that indies dso's sixty percent which is two out of three of their long-term are female. I've always attributed to the fact that women mary with their brains. And you know if you're a female dentists physician royer you're never gonna marry the sexiest cook the waffle house But the demand will and and without even thinking twice. I mean gosh darn. I've talked i've tried to. I remember when i got here in arizona me and three other dennis. Begging this guy practice is just her beauty. she's completely insane and he just couldn't hear any fact you told them and of course. He married her five years later as a financial nightmare. I'm do you think that that's the reason why is because women. Dentists are always married to a male has dental equivalent job. Who makes ten thousand dollars a month while men dentists two out of three times are married to someone. Unemployed who destroys ten thousand dollars a capital a month on their three boys starting with b. and their two dogs. I do think. I do think that the dso's have an advantage on being able to recruit women because it's in many cases they're more flexible and if women have you know a desire to have a family at any point. There's a good chance they're gonna go down to part time at least while. Their children are zero to kindergarten age. So being able to have the flexibility to work for one or two days a week and still bringing in an income. Maybe a five hundred to one thousand dollars. A day is a good help to the household. And if you're a single parent that typically is enough if you're living a realistic modest lifestyle as a single parent would have to To raise several kids on that type of income. So i think that. Dso's are a good option for for women. And i think that that's the reason why they're able to recruit and retain them. I will say that if if the though up of the typical dental class is anything like my alma mater at marquette for the last seven eight years there's been a greater percentage of female students than male students. I don't know if you have the the breakdown across the country on that howard but it does seem to be much more female dominated profession. Now if you're looking at the dental school of population oh absolutely. I remember when i was a freshman. The dean was threatened to be fired. If you didn't have you know. All the dentists were males and they had requirements. And i remember at the closing of the class. They were going to the hygiene. School people who Got accepted starting hygiene. Say no move over to dentistry and i thought that was a smart thing. I mean men have been holding down women for For two hundred thousand years. I thought that was a great thing. But i'll tell you what the women that were in my class. Oh my gosh they crush it. I mean the average woman in my class. I mean Stephanie car motto. lisa gonzales. I mean the built the biggest practices. I think the beat all the men. I mean they just but they were old school with that. that work ethic. I mean like say doing hygiene. I knew a lot of dennis sam. I know so many older dentists. Who when they start getting around my age they wanna start slowing down. They do their picks up in the morning. All their restorative surgeries and everything and then they come back from lunch. They always get the Food coma and just the afternoon. They do cleanings with an assistant. And so the assistant will set up the room. And she'll see the patient and take all the x and then when she's ready for the dock he'll come and the payroll pro with the assistance still there to probe and then when that's done he'll just scale and and do all that while the other assistant goes and cleans up the second room. I'm gets it ready seats. The second one takes xrays rays all that stuff. And then when he's done scaling and the examiner then the system will go back there and do the polish fluoride treatment. Right everything up. Check them out and in the afternoon. That just just runs two rooms a hygiene. And they tell me. That's their favorite procedure because it's stressful when you're doing surgeries and looking for route tabs and you know all this stuff but just come back after lunch with a food coma and just to pro- But again it's at work ethic and that dentists that i'm talking about in santa fe new mexico. He doesn't even have fifty percent overhead. He's in there with two assistance or receptionist. That's it and just Every year you should net a dollar more and some of these denison schools. Look guys like you and they want to be when they grow up Nobody wants to be me when they because they don't have a goal to be short fat. Bald and senile. And they're looking at you with all these offices and they say that weird things i'll say would your golden. They say well i'd like to. I'd like to have five offices within five years. And i'm like five offices and five years i mean. How much would these piece million dollars. And i said well why you want one office. It has five. I mean they just have weird. Thought i'm glad they share. I'm one of those people who a lot of people think. Social media's ruining the world. And i want to remind him that sapien is a two hundred thousand year old species that slipped through to ice ages. And we don't know a damn word the first one hundred and eight billingham sad so i would much rather have i wish all those first hundred seven billion would have been on facebook so we could see what the hell they were saying and thinking two hundred thousand years ago..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Heartland Newsfeed Radio Network
"Eight three six one six zero with you in the studio tonight in joa and big lewis map near mp class. You had something that you wanted to discuss something that you pulled up. Oh yes indeedy. So those days where. We pretended that you're innocent. Until proven guilty. And obviously you were treated like you're guilty as soon as you were charged. No more they have seen that to be unfit for government. And now you will be guilty as soon as they say so so the. Da basically came out with pre crime. That sounds like the government and brace yourself. This is sort of weird combination of Of political speak end legal speak. Can you put your mind down or move closer to them. So from d. h. s. dot gov. Dhs creates new center for prevention programs and partnerships and additional efforts to comprehensively combat domestic violent extremism. Oh this is oh so. This is right after they decide that. Libertarians are going to be lumped in as right wing extremists and terrorists now they now they're talking about thought crime. How did that sounds horrifying right at like months after they said libertarians were a threat to national security. I don't remember exactly which talking head and the government said this but one of them said it and we talked about it on free. Talk live at the time just months later. And what was it clapper. Half of the fbi. The freetalklive live hosts were arrested by the fbi. They could be violent people. But we're going to use violence on them before they can maybe use violence. That's kind of what we're pacifists. Were borderline pacifists. I mean so long as we are not aggressed against we are certainly pacifists. Well and then there are some. There are some among us who go even further would say that while the idea of nonaggression is great and being able to defend yourself as valid use of violence. Some would still like mark. What opt not to do that really well. He's a quaker. I'm assuming he's a pacifist. Because i tend to be but in in a certainly racist racist against quakers quite well quakers race based on A grisly mexicans and muslims are a race so quakers obviously have to be okay. I don't know anyone who says that. Muslims mores anytime that something is an anti muslim policy. It is always culp racist. Okay well it seems that most people can fleet arab with muslim which is kind of ironic given the fact that most muslims aren't arab isn't islam like the fastest growing religion in the world. Probably but yeah. The majority of them are Southeast asian fascinating so. Tell me more about this thought. Crime legislation or this thought crime regulation because the government doesn't really legislate anymore. They just create all of these. Other governmental agencies are going to create law. And somehow they have decided that that's constitutional leaving because the government and they're the ones who get to decide what is and isn't constitutional. Well it's a lot like When the pandemic came. And oh that's against the law. There's a loggins net. No no we. We have three branches of government. Remember your social studies. Kids three branches of government. One of them makes laws a different one makes executive orders oppress the crap out of us and the executive orders aren't supposed to be a thing in the first place. The executive branch was never supposed to be legislating. But sure enough. Kobe happened. I mean the whole executive order thing. It began long before covid but it was generally just when i heard executive order. Know the president doing something which was also on constitutional. But it's been going on for a very long time but now suddenly governors are getting in on the action. Well executive orders used to be. You know the sky's falling and they can you do emergency powers but now they just do it left and left and right on just minor things now that they don't like so we need to get this. Push to real fast. Well the sky is always falling. We're in a war on terror. Don't you know. Are we a world war on the invisible enemy a war on covid where we're fighting a virus a force of nature and ever evolving virus. Now the number. It's you can't tell if you have the invisible enemy. Only i can tell you if you have the invisible enemy if you're having no symptoms whatsoever you're just one of those carriers will now. It's symptomatic now. It's you know we don't even hasn't even happened it as an even existed yet and we're going to charge you for it or find you guilty and and a quick not like ace. Symptomatic has become a fear word. Do you know what a symptomatic means. Niles. yes right. It's not sick and they turned not sick into a terrifying word. How did they do that now. When i had covert. I was symptomatic. But not contagious. If that makes any sense whatsoever because they sent him. I had were just fatigue and body aches which obviously is not creating any sort of mucus that it can be transmitted to another person presumably. I could've you know i know. Spit in someone's mouth got them sick. I don't know wouldn't do that. But i don't know what you do. On your weekend zim ably you know. I wasn't exhibiting any symptoms that would have increased the chances of spreading it. I suppose right. But i had it and i was largely a symptomatic and literally no one in my vicinity. Got sick because of me. that's possible. Well it's because i wash my hands. This whole freaking thing could have been prevented if people just wash their hands but no we had this entire society of putting hand sanitizer. Even before covid there was hand. Sanitizer everywhere i had to go to the dmv came before it was moved. That's how i know it was pre cove it. I don't have to remember the time when it was the old. Dnb and there was this bottle of hand sanitizer sitting there on the desk and this guy who was sitting beside it who every few minutes almost like a nervous tic he would reach over squirts them into an rob it all in. It's like okay. That's fine but it would be far more effective if you just washed your hands as a hell of a marketing technique. The guy going form just systematically over the last fifteen to twenty years just been brainwashed time he sees hand sanitizer. Sanitize my hands. This started when i was at elementary school. Where every student had to bring two bottles of hand sanitizer because it had to be there and students had stood as didn't have to but a lot of students always did just won't by the teachers weren't someone onto their heads like the bacteria and stuff that you're killing on your hands. It's probably not going to harm you. And it's probably helping you in the long run. I can literally guarantee that if you are healthy like if you're not experiencing a problem than at least eighty percent of the bacteria on your skin is working together like that's how it works the same thing in your internal microbiome if you don't have a minimum of eighty percent of your bacteria working together to keep you well then you get sick. That's just how it works. Hewlett's existed for like two hundred thousand years plus without the existence of hand sanitizer. And sure. i'll give it to you. The average death rate. You know it's a lot. Higher death age is a lot higher now than it was two hundred thousand years ago. But it's not because of hand sanitizer that people are living longer. Humans have been adapting to jobs as long as we've existed. I don't see any benefit in preventing our body from being able to adapt to the germs and bacteria around us considering.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on What Got You There with Sean DeLaney
"These are things that i'm very skeptical of. I'd say in the case of some of these plant based meat behind me there just unequivocally unhealthy for you They're they're definitely better for cat house to be clear but i don't think we should be conflating. What's better for the world and the earth with what's better for human health. And i think there's an intersection Particularly in something called regenerative farming where genitive farming is basically letting the animals live in wild setting and letting them coexist with nature of the way. Evolution has happened for the last hundred thousand years and there are a handful of regenerative farms that are being created now all over the country. There's one here. Right outside of austin called rome ranch Which were the entrepreneurs behind the epic bar that they sold to general mills and they're creating a regenerative farm which is spectacular and their regenerative farm actually capturing more carbon than what beyond me doing And they're eating meat You know and they have a process of how to coexist with these wild animals and these wild animals and a lot of a lot of vegans are very militant and their shaming and and my approach. Human co and nutrition is to not shane people. People have all sorts of habits you know. Some of them are on educated. Some of them are educated involuntarily. Choose your habits. I think shaming people's terrible terrible approach There are some people who do better on vegan diets for sure there are some people Who don't and there's a lot of nutritional disadvantages to being full full vegan. But i think if you're eating animals they should be wild animals. They should be animals that are living in conditions that are consistent with their own evolution and there are many many aboriginal tribes all over the world who have not been exposed to modern culture who live on literally live on it and at have none of our modern diseases they're also tribes. I'm plants And are also great. What's consistent across all these aboriginal tribes Who are living more the way we used to live as hunter gatherers. Is that everything in their diet. As unprocessed everything in their diet is as wild as you could get and humans are remarkably adaptable. And they don't have any of our modern diseases. And so i i would say that that just teaching people to to live in more consistent ways with evolutionary principles getting back to more unprocessed lifestyles.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"The idea that the neanderthals were the direct ancestors of the modern. Human type is out of vogue but this in itself does not clear the way for the acceptance of the abbeville jaw. Which if genuine would be three hundred thousand years old so the reasons for them. basically. I think they're saying the reasons for them. Discarding the jaw as a were worthwhile artifact was because it was too modern. Neanderthals were the direct ancestors. Now that's still longer the case but it's still too old but this was in eighteen ninety s that they were doing this meeting or that was when they stopped and as they in eighteen ninety. They ceased the french. Anthropologist ceased to included in the list of discoveries of ancient man because they had been making fines right. And they're they're saying this happened when the belief that the neanderthal man represented a pleistocene phase in the evolution of modern races. Yeah that's no longer the case but it's too late now. They already through that. And i think it's still too old from the information we now have at our disposal. It is difficult to form. Indefinite autheniticity of mulan keegan jaw even if we accept jaw and the mini flint implements. Found along with it. we're fakes. What does this tell us about the nature of paleo anthropological evidence as we shall see the moon kion jaw and tools if they were forgeries are not alone. Piltdown man was accepted for forty years before being dismissed as an elaborate hoax. Okay now they have an update. So i guess this is an update specifically for this version of the book. Didn't make it into the forbidden archeology version. We have recently uncovered new information that gives us a better impression of the mulan. Qigong jaw in the aftermath of the debate dip continued to maintain his discoveries. Were genuine to help prove this. He conducted several more excavations at mulan qigong under very strict controls and in the presence of trained scientific observers these excavations yielded many more anatomically modern human bones bone fragments and teeth. These discoveries which received almost no attention in the english speaking world are demonstrations of a human presence in the middle pleistocene of europe over three hundred thousand years ago. Wow they also tend to strengthen the case for the authenticity of the.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Never Ninety Nine
"That maybe meal older out my way. I don't think it is but like what. I'm kind of like stuff they're saying i'm like oh yeah. That is pretty cool. Yeah i use retinol now. So i feel you was written. Also face credit vitamin a. Oh gotcha sorry for what it is you rub it on your you know i mean could you but i don't need that on my skin environment. A sorry vitamin e. You can sign any everywhere. You can papa capsule you know as retinal rankle rankle vanity. Vanity vitamins have gone quite vain. I am at like. I didn't pay any attention and any other point in life about anything i did. We've seen these eyebrows blonde. Darken them now have learned blond eyebrows. Blonde thanks dad. Way to go way to go dad. You know it's like. I can have dark armpit hair but blond eyebrows. Cool or how you totally like. How did like this might be a trigger for somebody. So that's right. Yeah you try to get some haters same but like armpit here on a woman looks gross. That's pure yeah. Hold on this point this. This is the point. But that's like a social construction but why Because it's the thing that happens you can there for sure. Yeah it's it's just like saying having to eyeballs as we're like. I don't know how many women are like. Oh my god. I'm so sorry. Didn't shave girl fucking shave for you either. I don't care well. Why does it even become a thing. That's about point so my point is like i'm sure it's in the history books i wanted. I'm going to google them mad at body hair. I'm gonna figure that we'll talk about the next one. Because i was talking about that a lot i was like. Why is it a thing. Why do i think that that's definitely changed because people are like you know what i'm gonna have purple armpit hair. That's kinda awesome. It's fun seeing that. Though there. you're going to google that to have a few few friends that are heavily into growing their body here. Cool like. I don't know why i was. Yeah i was taught or that was not attractive. But why when did that start. Like that's crazy. Probably a longtime ago in france his perfume. I thought the. I thought the joke was frenchwoman or harry. All europeans in all people are hearing. We're all here. Yeah how do they become like a weird thing. That's what i wanna know. Why why does -ociety teach me that. That was unattractive next podcast. Come and find out. We're going to do some research. Yeah get it out of my head like i know. It's not like a biological thing as a cultural society kind crazy. Because i feel like you'd get more like fairmount said like would just hang out in the hair follicle would imagine like he's just being like yeah. I would imagine a hundred thousand years ago for children in a forest and brush your teeth. Yeah one hundred thousand years ago like one hundred thousand years ago times were shown in the forest and like i saw like Like a bald woman. Like a little kid be like. That's a child baby like the harry. Mamo your yeah so. I just think it's weird or interesting. How like society or cultural stuff has overridden. My biology and i can't undo it like there. Yeah like i can't look at like superheroes man it really in that. I mean as i could. But i'm not at the moment. Yeah but not in this season live. I mean like if you're superhero woman. That's awesome for you. You probably don't dig me. You know what. I mean. Because i have more than he does. You don't man. I don't have it like the same. Why do some women like really hairy chest but why. Why is the hair placement initiative. What yeah why. Because i would imagine like fat. Yeah but i would imagine what that's here nice know. Why get well. Do i get that one. I dunno still curves. I did see a funny tiktok villa shoes. Like she's like you. Think i don't get sex honey. She's like my whole body. Feels like a tasty.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"Hard pattern eight and a half feet of green clay two feet of vegetable mould two and a half feet of yellow clay. Two feet of har- yellow hard pan and twenty and a half feet of mixed clay and eight hundred eighty-one windchill also described the coin. Light coin like object wind chill quoted a letter by w h wilmot wilmot who listed a sequence of strata slightly different from that given by moffitt wilmot reported reported that the quasi coin had been discovered in the well boring at a depth of one hundred fourteen feet rather than one twenty-five. There's a drawing of the coin using the sequence of strata. Given by wind chill the illinois state geological survey gave us an estimate for the age of the deposits of the hundred and fourteen foot level. They would have formed during the your movie and interglacial sometime between two hundred and four hundred thousand years ago w. e. boss that the shape of the quasi coin was political approaching two circular and that it had crudely portrayed figures and inscriptions on both sides. The inscriptions were in a language to walk and not recognize. The quasi coins appearance differed from any known coined. There's a fight going on out there. A fight i don't know do bar included that. The coin must have been made in a machine shop noting its uniform thickness. He said the coin must have passed through a rolling mill and if the ancient indians had such a contrivance it must've been prehistoric furthermore dubois reported that the coin must have been cut with shears or a chisel and the sharp edges filed down the quasi coin described above suggests the existence of a civilization at least two hundred thousand years ago in north america yet beings intelligent enough to make in us coins homo sapiens sapiens are generally not thought to have lived much earlier than one hundred thousand years ago will no longer that. According to santa reviews metal coins were first used in asia. Minor during the eighth century bc. But you know the thing about coins is they're easy to carry and people do carry them so it doesn't necessarily mean that there is somebody making coins in the americas two hundred thousand years ago but it does mean it does imply that somebody was making coins somewhere two hundred thousand years ago. Maybe yeah. The drill problem is a problem to me but like it could have grabbed it from somewhere..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The Unmistakable Creative Podcast
"Did nothing but my parents divorced. When i was fourteen and she had a deep interest in and before that in young in psychology she immediately got a job at a young center here in los angeles and and went back to school and became a therapist a union therapist and so i think that at that point by the time she was that i was already grown in and out of the house but The interest in in in psychology. Which i think i mean i think an awful lot of the psychology from back then. Counting young and freud is so deeply outdated in so deeply misogynist and so deeply rooted in a concept of the way the brain works that has been completely blown up by neuroscience but that said it really did get down always into the. I see what you're doing but what really matters is why. And i think that that really gave me you know the interest in what was beneath the surface right because we all live on the surface. I don't mean we live surface lives. I mean you know all of us. The one thing that we can say about every one of us unique. Everybody listening is that like from the moment we're born till now we've survived in the surface world. We can see it. We have a basic understanding of it. But it's not what we're trying to figure out where always trying to figure out what's going on beneath the surface not what someone's doing it but y they're doing it because that's what really matters and it's often quite different than what it appears to be when we service of what someone's doing and sort of last thing i'll say is the most fascinating thing about the way that we make sense of things and the way that our brain evolved especially starting about one hundred thousand years ago is that vast what we're wired to look for. Were not wired to look for what's happening. Were wired to look for. Why someone's doing it because the reason that our brain had that last big growth spurt about one hundred thousand years ago and what we were. I was taught what most people until very recently were taught. The reason for that was because that was when we got the ability to.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"Two hundred thousand years were obtained and the maximum age was two hundred and ninety five thousand years. The discovery was reported to the scientific world by henry a famous french archaeologist which means i'm probably mispronouncing his name the tools.
English Is Plain Weird
"English is not normal the more you hang around and linguistics to more languages you mess around with the more language histories you learn the more you realize that this language that i'm speaking right now. Although it has many advantages for muendane and often unfair reasons this language is not normal and by that. I don't mean that it's extraordinary. I mean that english is weird as languages go and i actually find this one of the funnest things that i know about language and yet it's very hard to perceive it because it's the language that we speak and it's the language spoken by so very many other people in the world. English can feel so normal. But it's actually a highly abnormal thing. And i want to share with you. How it's abnormal and what i mean specifically is that when we think about language we have to think about the history of homo sapiens and the history of homo sapiens. As far as is known now goes back about three hundred thousand years and we might suppose that language emerged then. It's the way. I tend to think of it now. It's also possible. That homo erectus had language in which case language goes back about one point eight million years that is daniel ever another linguist view and i am pretty convinced of it but let's be conservative for now. Let's say that it's three hundred thousand years. The thing is for most of that time. Humanity was different from what most of humanity is now. The neolithic revolution that large scale architecture and the development of what we call civilizations. That's only ten thousand years ago or so and so what that means is that i say two hundred ninety thousand years what humanity was relatively small groups living on the land language developed there. So anything that happens to language after that is a departure from what language normally was what this evolved to be
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Drum History
"You making an alloy. Which almost like in the eyes of nature's like an abomination she ends immediately upon being alloyed. These two metals are actually sort of trying to separate from each other and that is actually the cause of like all the changes that corner on the symbol I was i was getting pretty deep into metallurgy Around the time we did our last podcast. And i had read this thing from this metallurgical scientists who had stated basically once their combined they are immediately beginning the Stage of celebration moon idea. That could be like three hundred thousand years. I don't think anyone's ever seen an example of a piece of bronze that ever like actually done that. But if you think about like if you leave a piece of like iron or steel or something like it'll eventually just completely oxidized and dissolve and turn into the earth again. It's like trying to achieve home stasis with the planet so bronzes is always like changing internally and overtime it hardens and that hardness gives the very unique sound to it it also adds to the brittleness of the symbol too which is another thing to consider. Older is more likely to crack. Okay that's a good means. It's all good but that's a very good like practical. Maybe reason to not but not go older like i. I should say not older. But i think people are drawn to it because you hear all of this really great stuff. But that's like watch you know speaker. I mean if you're a light jazz guy like you're probably gonna yeah braun too much risk breaking something but if you do any kind of bashing crashing crash riding and stuff like yeah you know if something's fifty years old like it might you know be more prone to. Its when i get old symbols like that to modify. I have to be very careful when i'm hammering them. You know i gotta do just a lil little bit on because the risk is so much higher for kraken if you were to in words put Like what the benefit of like like what is it may be like you just. It's a vibe or something but like what's the benefit of using these old symbols over buying a brand new one you know. Yeah well for while it was because people like me didn't really exist so like you couldn't get by old k unless you bought an okay but now like i'm making them cont like pretty much the same way you know. Yeah you didn't really people didn't have access to that before so the only option was to buy vintage he now..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Eric & Gord What If We're Right?
"So that's the so anybody who's under the hopes of That armageddon movie financial rates come and they're going to send a ship and just sends rockets at it. It's not gonna work. you know into armageddon. They were going to split it in half. Yes and hope it splits the earth like. Yeah yes but it could still probably. Yeah if they send something big enough. I guess on my thought my laugh about it would be if they did it. They would nuke it. And then when the thing hit it would have that much more radiation on it. That's just thought would happen. Like oh good. It's just coming at us faster. And now its nuclear. Just what we want. Thanks thanks china. Another gift from china if they just shoot corona virus at it and it will just put a mask on. It'll be fine. That's true or wouldn't matter. So nasa has said that more than ninety five percent of near earth asteroids the size of this one were larger have been cataloged and none of them has any chance of impacting our planet over the next century hundred years we are free and clear of any of the big ones from hitting its the smaller ones. Yeah you guys are. The guys that said for. The last hundred years at every single one was going to hit us on. Yeah i'm not taking your word for it anymore now. The other thing. I caught a speaking of space. I thought was kinda neat. Is that beetlejuice which is a large Read they call it a red dwarf But it's like seven hundred times bigger than our sons. this thing is fucking terrifying For those that don't know if you're looking at the sky and you're looking at oh ryan. It is a ryan's left shoulder blade. So it's the red star up in the left hand side by the head above the beltline will that thing. They noticed a couple of years ago that it started not just like dimming but almost flickering and they discovered that it is in the process of going supernova indeed and when that happens which could be anytime between now and a hundred thousand years.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The Vance Crowe Podcast
"And i am i never had that thought right and very few people have the kind of thoughts that yoshi has on the other hand. There's not a there's not an iota of evidence for that You know. I'm pretty firm on the idea that within our evolutionary tree. I mean i e those things that are using. We all use a uniform dna encoding. It's very clear that all life that we know of on earth is all descended from a single root and so within that evolutionary tree. I believe humans are the only ones that have clearly passed over the line to have high power use of symbols and Can't prove it but it would seem. There's no sign at all that any other animal has come even close to the human level of symbol uses that we have and if someone were just barely over the line let's say the equivalent of a human proto human say Three hundred thousand years ago. It's not at all clear. They would have the capability the technology or the nation to be able to back away from that that that is taking off. It's taken three hundred thousand years. Three wobble being like yoshida in the human line that could have that radical thought. I very much doubt. That's true the elephant and the whale. But i can't prove it will. The symbolism is an interesting concept in fact you know you prompted me to write something down that i had always kept symbols. The well actually graph that put right up here but the this is very powerful. I think The ability to draw something and be able to break down a complex set of thoughts. Put it into lines in an arrows in Or mathematics or any of those things and be able to for me to hand it to you and then for you to be able to hand it on. I mean once you have that ability to capture a symbol and then push it forward is What we've seen exactly how far that takes us..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"I let me stop that done. You guys can cause down that stream two. I'm i've gone back to the if three of on the screen for the recording. But yeah that's a good point about whether or not it's happened before multiple times and i that's the sense. We talked about that in south america. Possibly that the megalithic builders may have come across the work of the monolithic build unin purchase stuff. And who knows if this happened here before. It's it's an and the best i love using that example of we're doing the same thing we are inheriting. We are renovating we are reusing labeling. In and it's just it's just human nature and a lot of ways. We just keep recycling stuff and for sure we've been around four hundred thousand years is a species. We know that from the from is in the current fossil record. I think potentially that window could be as long as one hundred thousand years yet. We know that the date that we split with a common ancestor with the mandl's so that's the potential window and just to mention that you know we civilization and the last thousand years and that's it come on. Yeah of course a more and another part of it is. How many of those other did you know. Right brother species are sister. Species could also do this kind of stuff and this is why you know. We're talking about this where we're looking at the stuff in peru and you're just like this is it's so strange but what if it was built by someone who was not home safe you know it was like a different kind of human a different kind of homicide and that's part of why it's so eerie. You know it's I mean. I don't know if that's even possible but it's a it's an interesting question i i i think it is. I think it is possible. Because you have things like the dennis sullivan bracelet. You die. i mean we. We had big ahead..
"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Space Nuts
"Were very big on this on this view but we do have we do have evidence that certainly have been periods where the bombardment via has been much higher than other periods and not just right at the beginning in the early history of the solar system. Three point eight zero three point. Nine billion years ago something called the late heavy bombardment. Which in which was a time when everything's charging around but they've been these other period since then where it's looked as other been more higher rates of cratering on solar system bodies which suggests that there's been more pets and that suggests that maybe something has upset the clouded. And i suppose it's also possible. Something disturbed what. I've fifty to one hundred thousand years ago when humanity wasn't feeling and we might say the effects real soon true actually hundred thousand years ago. He was a thing but different. Not quite as well in tune with the the sums negatives were then they just new things. We're flying down. The point mentioned in the youtube channel. That donald watch not confessed to watch this video. And it's giving us a link to it. We'll try and do that. But that talks about events seventy thousand years ago. That would have messed things up. We could still say the effect of we could yes. That's right yeah we watch out for this spes. Yes great news. Daryl not question. It was a good one. I do enjoy the what would happen. If so if you want to Forest one or two of those for episode to forty We could have a bit of Because i'm sure people got something in mind about what we'll look forward to that. Is i forget again. If you do have a question you can upload it our Website gust gum. I m i linked voice If you want to record your voice Or you can just do it through the email interface and send us the text. Whatever way suits you that brings us to the end of another program and their first one for twenty twenty one. Thank you for it. It's it's great fun and a great pleasure. We'll we'll find other interesting stuff to talk about next time on a look food andrew soon. Okay professor fred watson astronomer lodge out of the time he space nets.
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
The Denisovans Expand Their Range Into China
"Like modern humans than neanderthals roamed widely throughout europe. We know this because they left behind. Extensive evidence usually bones or tools but their cousins. The denisovans our more mysterious until recently they were conclusively linked only to a single cave in southern siberia called denisova cave which lies between kazakhstan and mongolia in that cave. Scientists had found a finger bone three teeth and piece of skull which tip them off to the existence of a whole new lineage of ancient human now scientists have uncovered more of the range for the denisovans says de endo mossy lonnie of the max planck institute in germany. His team turned up evidence. The ancient humans occupied a high mountain cave on the tibetan plateau. Called by shia cave belongs to monks and -mongst things that it's a very holy place in fact among found a piece of jawbone there in nineteen eighty which has been tenuously linked to the denisovans salani and his team have now unearthed more conclusive evidence by sifting through cave sediments and sequencing the genetic evidence. The denisovans left behind. Buddy decay of people chests. Gabbing down the side like bleeding. There are coping ping could left their dna. The dna appears in layers suggesting the denisovans inhabited the cave as far back as one hundred thousand years ago as well as at sixty thousand years ago and perhaps even as recently as forty five thousand years ago meaning. The denisovans might overlapped in this region with modern humans. The results appear in the journal. Science mossy lonnie says. This method could enable more denise in detective work to this like so many caves when we have evidence of human activity but we don't have opening remain so if he can exploit to sediment can actually start to track down in segment. The denisova dini denise evans live on today in the genomes of some modern day humans from the south pacific further. Genetic work like this might give scientists more clues where early homo sapiens. I met and mixed with the elusive denisovans.
What crows teach us about death with Kaeli Swift
"Whether we want to or not human spend a great deal of time considering death. And it's possible we've been doing. So since shortly after Homo Sapiens, I began roaming the landscape. After all the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around one hundred thousand years ago. What might those early people have been thinking? As they took the time to dig into the earth deposit, the body and carefully covered up again. Were they trying to protect it from scavengers or stymie spread of disease? Were they trying to honor the deceased or did they just not want to have to look at a dead body? Without the advent of a time machine. We may never know for sure what those early people were thanking. But one thing we do know is that humans are far from alone in our attention towards the dead. Like people some animals including the corvettes, the family of birds that houses the crows. Ravens Magpies Jays also seemed to pay special attention to their dead. In fact, the rituals of corvettes made acted as the inspiration for own. After all, it was the raven that God sent down to teach Kane how to bury his slain brother able. But despite the clear recognition by early people that other animals attend to their dead, it's only fairly recently that science has really turned its attention towards this phenomenon. In fact, formal name for this field comparative Anthology. First introduced until twenty sixteen. In this growing field, we are beginning to appreciate what a rich place the natural world is with respect to how other animals interact with their dead, and it's in this growing body of knowledge at that time machine to our early ancestors might be possible. So what are we learning in this growing field? Well right now, we can split our understanding into two main groups. In the first, we have animals that display stereotyped predictable behaviors towards their dead and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from experimental studies. This group includes things like social insects, bees, ants, and termites, and for all of these animals colony hygiene is of critical importance and so as a result, these animals display rigorous undertaking behaviors in response to corpses. For example, they may physically remove carcasses from the colony they may consume them. They may even construct tombs. We see similar hygiene driven responses in some colony living mammals rats, for example, will reliably Berry cage mates that have been dead for forty eight hours. In our other group, we have animals that display more variable, perhaps more charismatic behaviors and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from anecdotes by scientists or other observers. This is the animals whose death behaviors I suspect might be more familiar to folks. It includes organisms like elephants which are well known for their attendance to their dead even in popular culture. In fact, they're even known to be attracted to the bones of their deceased. It also includes animals like primates which display a wide variety of behaviors around their dead from grooming them to. Prolonged attention towards them guarding them even the transportation of dead infants and that's actually behavior we've seen in the number of animals like the dolphins. For example, you may remember the story of Taleh, the ORCA in the resident J. pod in the puget sound who during the summer of two thousand eighteen carried her dead calf for an unprecedented seventeen days. Now a story like that is both heartbreaking and fascinating, but it offers far more questions than it does answers for example, why did Kerry her calf for such a long period of time. who she just that stricken with grief. Wishy more confused by her unresponsive infant. Or is this behavior just less rare in orcas than we currently understand it to be
Neanderthals Used Glue
"There was a time when neanderthal was used as an insult with the implication that this extinct species or perhaps sub species of hominids was unintelligent and unsophisticated. But the more research that goes into how neanderthals lived the more we learn that they were quite clever. For example, they made an used glue millennia before we humans figured it out. Pay. Bring stuff is Christian. Sager here. There are some things people just can't live without. So we invented them way before we ever invented writing coats, knives, roofs, fire turns out. Another thing are prehistoric precursors needed that we still need today is the ability to stick one thing to another thing, and then you know have them stay that way which is why neanderthals had glue they might have been caveman, but they weren't savages now. Hormone neanderthalensis used their glue a viscous tar distilled from Birchbark to fix weapons on the heads of a tool onto a half or maybe a handle and neanderthals were actually the leaders in glue technology beating US Homo Sapiens to the punch by more than a hundred thousand years they began brewing tar two, hundred thousand years ago whereas the earliest evidence of modern humans using tree resin as adhesive appears less than one hundred, thousand years ago. Research published in twenty eleven shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire. So does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar proved they weren't as dimwitted as we'd like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal Nature Scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced. This stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest, but how difficult was making tar? Tar Making is definitely a process. No matter which way you go about the research team figured that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology, they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birchbark the ash mound method where tightly rolled layers of birchbark are covered in ash and embers the pit role cigar roll method where one end of Bertril is lit emplaced burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath an organic Mesh, which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire. After recreating the three tar production methods, the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature in complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method, the ash mound method yield digest a pea sized amount of tar the most complicated time consuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient. They also observed that regulating the temperature of the fire didn't make much of a difference to the product even though they have no evidence that the neanderthal way. Of Making Tar. was similar to any of their experimental methods making the connection between the Birchbark the fire and the tar would have required that neanderthals possess a proclivity for abstract thought. So whether they were making easy inefficient tar instead of something like the high yield method requiring a folded cup and a little grill made of sticks neanderthals had something going for them. They were seriously using their
The earliest human footprints in Arabia
"Now, we have contributing correspondent and gibbons. She wrote this week about the likely earliest human footprints on the Arabian Peninsula high an hi Sarah how old or how early are these footprints but that's a good question. They threw a whole package of dating methods at them and came up with in the Ballpark of twenty, one, thousand, two, hundred, and ten, thousand years old. Now the dates are not absolute. There's some questions about them, but that's a pretty good ballpark. How does this age compare to previous hints or clues that humans modern humans early modern humans were on the Arabian Peninsula. Here's the. We know that early hominids members of human family have been migrating out of Africa for two million years because we find fossils of our ancestors in the public of Georgia we find them in. Asia. We find them in Eurasia place, but we don't know how they got out and the most logical route is they had to walk through Rabia because they couldn't fly. They couldn't paddleboats a at that point the one landmass in the way between Africa where humans arose originally, our ancestors arose and Eurasia is through Arabia. So we know they had to go through there, but there's a huge gap there are. No tools older than three hundred to five, hundred, thousand years, and what is there is not definitive. The only fossil have a member of the human family from Arabia is a finger bone that is about eighty eight, thousand years old. So the mystery is, where's the evidence of members of the human family marching through Arabia, and then the second part of that is modern humans specifically, our ancestors Homo sapiens arose probably in Africa, because we see fossils in the ballpark of one, hundred, eight, thousand, three, hundred, thousand years of Proto early Homo, sapiens arising and Africa, and then we find more of these sort. Of Early Homo Sapiens in Greece dating possibly back to as early as two hundred and ten thousand. So we know that they got out right now we're just trying to find evidence. Is there something that going on in the Arabian Peninsula that either people didn't want to hang out there for very long or that erased a lot of evidence. Reagan. Peninsula, has covered with desert's it's very dry today the food desert where they found these fossils is parched arid but there were periods in the past where the planet was cooler and wetter, and during those times hundred, twenty, five, thousand years ago it was. One of them, it was green radio was covered with tens of thousands of lakes. They were grasslands between them. If you think about these early human ancestors, it's not a separate continent or a separate place for them to go to its Afro Arabia, right? Yeah. So it's an extension of Africa if the client is good and they're following large game, how were they able to find these footprints? This is a very large area and it's a few remnants of human passing through. Yes. So this team will have by Michael, Leah and it's an international team of Saudi Arabians in a number of people on. Has Been doing a search of scouring the deserts of. Arabia. For the last decade, they start with satellite imagery which helps them see parched ancient lake beds which have sort of characteristic white halio souls often these ancient sediments that stand out in the satellites and then go down to ground truth what they see on the satellites, an airplane shots they go in on foot in jeeps, and in this case they saw this ancient. Lake better rolling out as white sediment. It had just been recently exposed by Rosen and they found the footprints of the animals which was amazing and as I looked closer to one hundreds of footprints, it was four hundred mostly animals but they did identify a small number. It was seven that seemed to be human footprints. So they knew right away they were very excited about that that this was something that was important how Can you tell that they're human footprints and not some other upright walking relative? There's not a whole science of studying human footprints ever since the first ones are found in la totally in Tanzania and Kenya there've been a number of footprints that have been studied people use three D morphometric dimensional analysis with computational imaging or can really look at the depth and they could model how much weight would have been needed to make. That footprint, the length of the foot, the stride between the steps, and then they've done studies living people in their footprints in Africa to sort of test out those ideas and Lo, and behold when they do that to these footprints, they seem to come up with somebody kind of humor that was taller and maybe a little lighter weight more like a modern human of Homo sapiens and say an Andrew Tall so based on that. They say, Oh, these probably were made by Homo sapiens although we cannot rule out that nanotubes might have been there to is there anything else can tell about these people by looking at these marks I think if they get more, they can start to tell about their social structure footprint studies in Africa. I've got quite complicated where you could see the direction that they're going in the payson different members of social groups you can. To see what they are the packs of humans look like you know, what size are they how many are in these groups? What are they doing a lot of the way in this case, they're not spending a lotta time. They're just sort of walking through. This is a bantering group. What is really really cool. Though is that footprint site these are a snapshot of a single moment in time a single day most of the. Time when you have an archaeological site in a layer soil that you get the fossils of the tools and the dates, all that took place. This fan is usually hundreds of thousands, tens of thousands of years. So if you find an animal bone near a prominent human early Human Boehner tool, you don't necessarily know fear there at the same time as parch with footprints like these these were lay down in the same day maybe. A couple of days and they dried out and then got caught up in preserved. So we know they were all there at the same time. So you get this really cool day in the life look at the and of the animals they were with, which is really cool in this case and lots of animals. Yes. Almost four hundred footprints of animals including very interesting. A wild asses which I don't think we're carrying burdens but. That's kind of neat and they were elephants and the thing that's interesting about the elephants as their popular disappeared for the Middle East, just in Africa. Thanks for three hundred years ago and here they are in hundred twenty, thousand in Arabia and the camps they also Campbell's it's kind of interesting that such large animals with Aaron. It begs the question were these humans following them where they attracted them. Going back to the, we talked about it being about one, hundred, twenty, thousand years old. There's some question about the date but if that were cracked, is there anything particularly Gordon about this time human history about what we know about migrations that we could link these prince two? Yes. So what is really interesting is that genetic evidence says that everybody outside of Africa. Came from migrations that happened in the last fifty to eighty thousand years. So this state predates that we happen to know that early Homo Sapiens were in the Middle East pretty quickly after this or at the same time they're fossils in caves. At school and cough so that our early sort of product Homo sapiens. So we know humans are at sorta suggests that because we don't have DNA that dates back this early these were failed migrations. These were members of the human family that went out they weren't shelled migrations for them they lived, but they did not contribute to the gene pool of letting people today that's one hypothesis but it also shows that there's more complex story of groups of humans migrating out of Africa constantly whenever the weather excitement is right that it's three to nothing that they can get water follow animals to meet and trek. Africa. They can cross the desert. It looks like humans were doing that whenever they could and so how do they contribute tour ancestry today a really interesting question and how many different kinds of hominids out there. Thank you so much an thank you. Sir,
What are the origins of English
"Think if it is a bunch of. It is probably a bunch of women, MOMS and aunts on the island of England. That's probably the people who invented the English language and they were called angles. So they didn't even call English. They called it anguish. My Name's Tom Howell and I used to write the Oxford Dictionary encounter and I wrote a book called the Rude Story of English and it is a history of some dudes and some woman thousand five hundred years ago trying to invent the language. So in a sense when you learned English. From the older people in your family. They are inventing English in a way because that is going to be a bit different. From the English that their grandparents spoke and then their great grandparents spoke and so on and so on and so on. Until when you go back far enough, it would be very difficult for us now to understand like great. Great. Great. Great. Great. Great great grandparents, saints which other think of how friend and neighbor are spell differently neighbors eat before I, friend is I before e friend came from one place where they said free owned once upon a time and neighbor came from another place where they were saying. It was actually called a near Ghabbour. You know has GM neighbor Mrs Weird thing we don't pronounce it now. It's just people stop pronouncing it properly but. Once upon a time, they would've been like, no, it's wrong to say neighbor without Jeanette they would have been like the correct way to say that is Nia Gabor because it was a boor who lived near you. So generations go by people make mistakes people say things a bit differently. People put on funny voices. Things Change. Now we say neighbor instead of new? Kabar I guess it is. The English is so complicated because it comes from all around the world. Yeah. What recalled English today like if you look up a word on the Internet to find out where it came from could come from anywhere. Like bungalow comes from India but you know even if you went back all the way to what the angles were saying, their language also came from all around the world like their language came from. Iraq and India and Russia and all kinds of weird places like people have been talking to each other for at least one, hundred, thousand years. So all of us, any point in history might say who invented our language and the odds would almost be some not dudes some arts and mother's thousand, five, hundred years ago. kind of doesn't matter where you are. That's always kind of be the answer.
Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams
"Around one hundred thousand years ago in what what is now. Italy are nandor tall cousins. Wait it out into the shallow. Coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. Big Grant the the molluscs from the sea floor and perhaps even died for them in deeper water and they also simply collect clams from the beach but the creatures weren't just food in a recent Study University of Colorado Boulder archaeologist Paolo Villa inner team report that neanderthals modified the clams hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The clam derived implements were found inside the grow today. Motion rainy a coastal cave. That was first rediscovered around eighty five years ago by examining wear and tear on the shells the researchers determined that about seventy five percent of the tool source material had been found found dead on the beach. These shows had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny indicating that the clams lambs were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. These shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tools so even though gathering clams underwater took more work than picking them up on the beach. The effort may have been worth it also found in the growth at any pumice stones volcanic eruptions that occurred to to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by neanderthals as abrasive tools. The study is in the journal loss. One neanderthals else were making these tools than fifty thousand years before modern. Humans first arrived in Western Europe but neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community. Munity during much of the twentieth century in recent years however evidence of their tool use and even artistic abilities has grown neanderthals hunted. That'd made cave art cooked with fire us boats and when fishing just last year for example research by villa and others found that neanderthals tolls living not far from the grocery knee. Site used resonant. He serves to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some forty thousand years ago but it's becoming ever more clear that neanderthals were intelligent creative. People who lead fully human lives.
Who Was First on Earth?
"Today are mysterious past the first the people on Earth. Where did they come from? Leonardo Davinci. Tesla is dying these three in one hundred others over the centuries all with ideas. You were ahead of their time. Where did these ideas come from? Metal Staples at held Mexico's Ancient Pyramids together yet. Local indigenous business people had no knowledge of metallurgy. The NASCA wells relied on air pressure to bring water up from underground rivers and the unexplained tunnels on on the two thousand five hundred mile. Inca road that are carved through solid stone. How did that happen? How were these deeds? Possible where to disadvantage. What's knowledge come from could survivors of a long extinct species of Homo Sapiens have somehow passed on the tiniest spark of knowledge through DNA? What a silly question indeed based on science I guess not so silly before you dismiss this premise? Completely let's take a look at the evolution universe. Science would agree that the planet earth is about four point five billion years old to put that number two perspective consider that a billion is a thousand million and a million is a thousand thousands for no less than a century. It has been believed that the earliest earth was covered with the see of vocally magma however evidence of this of the rocks have either eroded with time or stay down underground inaccessible enter Zircon crystals. Not the man made versions but tiny crystals pulled from the Jack Hills of central Australia. The oldest of which have revealed that during the first five hundred million years so the planet earth was not covered with the see of magma indeed that it was cold enough for the formations of continents were above sea level. What is revolutionary is these ancient crystals have revealed that early earth and some aspects? Wasn't that different from today. These science-based facts are less than a decade old. That already gaining aning the respect of mainstream science in one four point one billion year old crystal carbon was found suggesting that life existed justed on earth. Three hundred million years earlier than scientists previously thought. Twenty years ago this would have been heretical. This carbon resembles modern carbon. Though this all adds up to the conclusion that early Earth was more hospitable to life than science thought and begs the question could could the environment of early Earth supported. Humans could earth's I people have crawled out of an ancient ocean. The primordial soup so to speak and evolved over the next two hundred thousand years if we run with that rough figure man and is developed brain may have been walking walking around over a billion years ago not two hundred thousand. But where's the evidence of a civilization that all the answer is. Where's I the evidence of anything? Over one billion years old science degree so there have been five periods of mass extinction. Four hundred forty four million years ago. When eighty six percent of all species became extinct? Three hundred seventy five million years ago. When seventy five percent of all species became extinct and in two hundred million years ago with the loss of eighty percent and finally sixty six million years ago when seventy six percent fell to extinction keep keep in mind that the tortoise of the Galapagos has evolved over twelve million years each of the known periods of mass extinction did not eliminate all all the species and some fossils remain science agrees that there certainly could have been far earlier periods of mass extinction and extinction say over a billion years ago? One that would leave. No fossils. Time would take care of that. If Homo sapiens were among the victims uh-huh of an early earth extinction. Of course there would be no fossils. But what are the carbon found in Australia's ancient zircon crystals and what of the advanced knowledge displayed by South America's earliest indigenous people. Where did they come from? Your guess is as good as mine and only time time will tell
How Do You Compare to the Average American?
"The financial profile all of the average American or more accurately profiles of many average Americans since a proper apples to apples? Comparison takes into account several factors. So we're GONNA approach this this by looking at the financial life cycle of somebody which of course starts with birth. Fortunately you don't have to pay for your own birth. That's good because because the average cost of a birth in America these days ten thousand dollars and that's if there are no complications whatsoever So let's jump ahead to one of the first experiences people have have with actually earning money and that is an allowance. How many kids get an allowance? And how much do they get law. According to a recent survey from the American Institute of CPA's as two thirds of parents get allowance and the average is thirty dollars a week. It's pretty nice. Isn't ages they say what ages they start giving they broke it down a little bit. Okay but what was interesting to me was far too five. Parents expect the children to do work. Some people feel like you should just allowance because that's how you learn how to be responsible And they expect at least one hour week of chores but on average children are spending five point one hours a week doing chores for their allowance. So let me just say that my kids are below average with my kids are not doing five hours. Where the tour? I don't even do five hours worth of chores in our house and I do a lot of chores in our. What are these are? Are these kids living on a farm like that's a very good question. Chores chores could be clean your room for us. It is dishes this. This is the number one joy that kids do and we're not even very good of making them. Do it. Put your own shoes on in the morning to dress yourself. Live at Downton Abbey. Everyone everyone here anyway. So there you go. That's allowance so that's money from your parents but you'll eventually reach the point where you can start earning money from other people and here we are talking about being a teenager but the emphasis is can because most teenagers don't according to a study by the Hamilton project. And the Brookings Institute back in Nineteen nineteen seventy nine fifty eight percent of teenagers. Were doing some sort of work. But today it's only thirty five percent most teenagers don't have a job which not even like babysitting reasoning or I I guess not then the factors for why this has gone down as number one. They say that teenagers just have more things to do. Like like more kids are doing More kids are taking classes over the summer. Also there's less low wage work more competition from older folks and immigrants. That said I have three teenagers and I'm not sure I quite vile this Mike. Especially in the summer my kids have managed to find jobs but regardless the majority of teenagers not working. What was your first job while so I used to cut before I was of age to be doing? I cut lawns in the neighborhood and Dan. I watered flowers at a local flower shop. Then sure I've told you this story F.. I faked my birth certificate so I could work in McDonalds when I was age. Fifteen instead instead of sixteen so I did that ric have I to you. It was your first job horrible paper route once where you have to go door to door and collect the money which I always hated to do you so I never did it so I never really got paid for thing. What about you so my first job? I I went to high school where you are expected to work like four hours a day so you go to class in either the morning or the afternoon and then you would then so what kind of like work at the school. Yeah you'd work in the school or you'd lurk working in nearby bakery or you'd work farm too so you could work on the farm. Some people had farm jobs or work on maintenance and the school So I worked for the principal symbol. Of course I was responding. I did a lot of you. Know entering in people's grades and typing let transcribing letters and just the office work so as like fifteen. I think started. Did you like that because I've often thought especially as a former elementary school teacher junior high teacher. I thought a lot of this education is wasted in the dish. It's been half the day like working out in the basically interning at different types of jobs because they're not learning so much in school. Yeah no I mean it was is one of the better jobs to have on campus. That's for sure. So did you. And your friends. I'll get straight a's no but we I mean we could. We could have definitely changed. All of our grades were honest asked by it was a religious school so God would have smoked in us we. We were well aware of the consequences for changing our grades. So we didn't do it got got it. At least I didn't what's next in life. maxine life is well. We're going real job hitting their well even before. Then you finish high school and and then what college you go to college. I should first of all point out that it's nice if you want to write so point out. First of all. The graduation rate from public high schools is now eighty five percent near an all time high. So let's go so how many people then go onto college sixty nine point seven percent according to the Department of Labor not everyone gets four year degree as some people go to college and they don't get a degree. People get the associates so when you look at four year bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees. It's it's between thirty five and forty percent of people who actually end up with a degree but almost seventy percent do end up going to college which of course brings us to one of the first major financial decisions. A kid has to make depending on how much their family is willing and able to pay and that is the cost of college so according to the College Board. Let's go over the numbers here for the two thousand nineteen thousand twenty year a four year your public in State Education Room Board Fees Tuition Twenty one thousand nine hundred and fifty for your public out of state thirty eight thousand three hundred and thirty four year private school forty nine thousand four hundred ninety dollars ice now. The College Board is quick to point out at those are the published sticker prices and that most people don't pay those they say that about three quarters of students receive grants that reduce the actual price that people pay and just just about every college these days has something called net price calculator. You go onto their website. You put in some basic financial information. It gives you a general idea of how much you would pay. It's not binding or anything but if you're thinking of a college go to the net price calculator and you get an idea of how much aid you might receive. That said. We all know that grants. It's an aren't enough. which brings us to the topic of educational loan so approximately two thirds of kids graduate with debt with the average being between thirty thousand and forty thousand dollars depending on which source? You're looking at repayment. Can Take Ten to twenty years. And according to the Federal Reserve one fifth of ours were behind in their payments in two thousand in seventeen. So you have to wonder is a college degree worth the cost well for most people. The answer's probably yes. College grads on average earn seventy I five percent more than high school grads but that said the Fed did find that college is not a good investment for about twenty five percent of graduates and several studies of people who have loans at found that the majority of people regret the debt and they wish they would have found some other way to pay for college either going to community college allege not going to the private school something like that but regardless of how you pay for it you do graduate head out of college time for that first job. How much can you expect to make while starting salaries these days around fifty three thousand dollars? But who's paying you the most well engineering degrees computer. Peter Science and math those starting salaries are between sixty five thousand and seventy thousand math math. Now that's crazy math data that everyone is so hot with the data. One loves the data exactly so since we just brought up salaries. Let's expand this beyond starting income income in general in the United States. What is the average or the median household income and the United States and the answer is whereas the sixty three thousand one hundred seventy nine dollars? that's what you said family or average average average household household income but there are a lot of factors that would tournament starting with where you live. So the highest incomes are in the northeast. Meeting is around. Seventy thousand thousand filed by the West Midwest and the South South is lowest at fifty seven thousand. Being married helps. The median income for a household with a married couple earns. Ninety three thousand six hundred dollars Also age is a factor the households will make the most are in the forty five to fifty four age range with a median income of eighty. Four thousand four hundred dollars. We've talked about this before. Where income generally peaks at some point in your late forties or early fifties? Finally just just give me an idea of where your income puts you in relation to the rest of America. Here's how the income dispersion breaks down so if you make thirty seven thousand dollars you're in the bottom thirty thirty percent again. Median sixty three thousand. If you make one hundred thousand year in the top thirty percent hundred eighty four year in the top ten percent and to be in the top five five percent you make two hundred and forty eight thousand dollars. That's generally how income breaks down.
A Star In Orion Is Dimming. Is It About To Explode?
"One of the brightest stars in the night sky is named beetlejuice is about six hundred fifty light years away which is pretty close in outer space terms and if you've gazed eased up into the night sky and seen the Constellation Orion. You've seen beetlejuice before. So if you were to look up at it you would want to start by finding the three stars that make a nice little line that we call a Ryan's belts and then beetlejuice is as you're looking at it. The shoulder of Orion on the left. Emily Leveque is an astronomer at the University University of Washington who studies stars like beetlejuice which is known as a red supergiant supergiant because this star is enormous much bigger than our sun. If if you were to put beetlejuice where our son is it would swallow up all of the planets out past Mars and because it's so massive it means that it goes through a very different sort of life experience than our Sun will which brings us to why we're talking about beetlejuice right now. In recent weeks astronomers have noticed that beetlejuice. It's no longer appears to be one of the brightest stars. In the night sky there were sort of quick reports put out from people who monitor and observe beetlejuice very frequently. Saying you know it's getting dimmer and dimmer it's starting to get closest to the dentist we've seen there's also big dedicated networks of amateur astronomers that keep very close track of the brightness of stars like beetlejuice and they started noticing the same thing when we called Emily. She was preparing for this big astronomy conference in Hawaii Hawaii and she thought there would be a lot of buzz there about the dimming of beetlejuice beetlejuice is going to be a big topic. I'm sure especially family. She told us a Ryan is her. Favourite Constellation Constellation. But actually you don't have to be a pro astronomer to see what's happening with beetlejuice you can look for yourself at one point. beetlejuice was one of the brightest rytas stars in Orion. But now not so much so if you were to go up and look at it tonight it's dimmer than the star in Iran's right knee which is Ri- Joel and it's about equal in brightness to Ryan's other shoulder which is a star named Bella tricks so the fact that we can see with our eyes. That got noticeably dimmer really caught a lot of people's attention and then spiralled as just a wow. This is a really interesting and compelling thing changing sort of on our timescale in the night sky. So what's going on as we'll explain with help from Emily Leveque. Scientists have a few theories for why BETA disappear so dim and in the most dramatic explanation. Is that this star could be about to die. What's known as going SUPERNOVA? It would look pretty epic. I'm Emily Kwong filling informatics format today. This is short wave the daily science podcast from NPR. So here's the thing there's been quite a bit of speculation that the reason beetlejuice getting dimmer is that it's about to go Supernova. That's the big explode e end to the lifespan of a massive star and while dimming can mean that's about to happen for reasons that will get into it's not the most likely scenario for beetlejuice but first we had to clear up something with astronomer. Emily Leveque is this very cool star named after the tenth highest biased grossing film of One thousand nine hundred eighty eight. I'm pretty sure that it's the other way around. The spelling is different and sometimes here astronomers pronounce a little bit differently. Bentley will say beetlejuice instead of beetlejuice. Three times But it's actually derived from a Arabic name and there's I think some disagreement on what exactly it means but either means the arm of Orion or the hand of Orion or the hand of the hunter because the total constellation is looks like a person hunting. It's the only can I be honest. The only constellation I can ever successfully identify. Isn't that belt. It's very telling so I'll admit it's the easiest constellation and for me to identify to This is one of those. Well kept secrets of astronomy. A lot of us are embarrassingly bad at finding things in the night sky because we're used to looking at things that are so so dim that you can't see them with their own eyes and our telescopes have amazing computers. That can help us find things so we'll occasionally go out and look up and do just what a lot of people doing fine like that familiar. Little Line of three or another easy constellation to get our bearings A.. Let's talk about how astronomers such as yourself people who really study V. Stars have noticed something different about how beetlejuice looks in the night sky. How does it look different? So I will say we've been monitoring the brightness of beetlejuice for decades its and we've been measuring its brightness very frequently and we've seen its brightness change with times we've watched it get brighter and dimmer. This just caught people's attention because it was close close to the dentist that beetlejuice has ever been and what could dimming like this indicate so our guest right now is that what we're seeing is a combination of a few behaviors that we see in red super giants and that we've seen before in beetlejuice. The just happened to be coinciding. So we know that stars like beetlejuice. Have big support of boiling convective cells near their surfaces seal sort of get a bright hot spot and a slightly dimmer cool spot and it's entirely possible that this dimming is due in part to those convective cells we also know that stars like beetlejuice will actually shed off some mass from their outer layer. sobel sort popoff. The outermost layers of the star when that mass hits the Interstellar medium. It'll condense into what we call dust and dust dust in space kind of does. What does here it blocks light and gets in the way and can be a little bit of a nuisance but it would make star look a little bit dimmer if it then had a little veil of dust around it we also know that stars like this can pulse eight a little bit so their outer layers will sort of squeeze in puff out just due to instabilities in those layers and that'll also affect how bright the star looks so? I think the current guests is that we're seeing a couple different behaviors in beetlejuice. That on their own aren't too to strange. That just happened to be coinciding to make the star look especially dim so just as a thought experiment say beetlejuice is going to go Supernova. Br Nova how would we know. And what would it look like. So first of all the light that we're seeing from beetlejuice was emitted by the star about six hundred and fifty years ago. beetlejuice is a six hundred and fifty light years from Earth so when the light emerges it comes toward us as fast as it can but it's moving at the speed of light so looking at Beta Jesus a little bit like looking back in time to what the Star was actually doing six hundred and fifty years ago in terms of whether we will see beetlejuice go Supernova in our lifetimes beetlejuice and other massive stars like this kind of follow a live fast die young philosophy so they live about ten million with an m years beetlejuice in particular we know is moving into a later stage of its life because it is so big and so red but that could mean that we still have one hundred thousand years before it dies and produces a Supernova If it did though say we all went outside tomorrow and we we were seeing the light arrive from babies dying as a Supernova six hundred and fifty years minus day sometime in the Middle Ages. Let's say okay it. It would look pretty epic we have some records of other SUPERNOVA. That happened in the Milky Way and their appearance parents is incredibly dramatic. What we would see is Bagel juice getting brighter and brighter? Because we'd be seeing the incredibly bright signature of the SUPERNOVA explosion explosion. It would actually get so bright that if beetlejuice was up during the day we'd be able to see it during the daytime alongside the sun and it would last for for weeks and I think that if beetlejuice were to go supernova tomorrow and we saw it at night it would be comparable in brightness. I think to the full moon. ooh Wow we'd be able to see are shadows based on the light from the SUPERNOVA. Okay so what would it look like for beetlejuice more of a going collapsing inward on itself. I I am more of them. Exploding outward with star debris scattering across the universe. What what does it look like for Adl juice? It's a good question in it. We think that it's a bit of both both okay initial disruption comes when the core of the star collapses and depending on the type of star. And how much mass is in that core. It'll collapse into to a neutron star or a black hole after that collapse all the outer layers of the star come falling in toward the core and then bounce back off in a sort of rebound shock and that shock is what we see as a Supernova and what we would call a supernova because we see this outward blast of material you know new gas slamming into the interstellar medium and getting really bright and it looks to us like an explosion but it originally did start as a collapse. It's why I try to avoid saying that a star exploded as a SUPERNOVA. Because it's not to be the pedantic scientist it's not quite the first thing that happened in the star. But it's a bit Moroccan role as a turn of phrase. Oh yeah how would you so. This star is a part of your favorite constellation or Ryan and how would you feel if if indeed it we're we're going SUPERNOVA. I would be psyched. And I think some people expect that we would be very sad but it's a very exciting citing transition to watch and this would be one of the best studied stars we have available to US producing a Supernova. which right now is a process that we're you're still trying to understand we'd still be able to see the Supernova as it happened and then faded away these stars also leave behind what we call supernova remnants? So they're these these beautiful multicolored gas clouds that show us the dissipating material from the star. So it would be this amazing font of data and new ways to understand stars so I think it would be incredibly exciting.
The Real Paleo Diet: Roots and Tubers
"Paleo Diet is a popular high protein diet that that aims to mimic what our hunter gatherer ancestors aid. But what we buy at. The supermarket doesn't quite approximate. Those ancient foods take for example star Lily roots heard heard of those things. Lynn widely is an archaeologist at the University of the voters round in South Africa. Her team recently discovered the charred remains of star Lily. Roots in South Africa's border cave hunks of roasted root that date to a hundred and seventy thousand years ago. These great glueck has available Pizzi once the vegetables are cooked and they knew that nearly two hundred thousand years ago which I think's extraordinarily Omeday just know the chemistry of it that they would have realized that a feel satisfied of eating a meal is cooked then eighteen warning which is rule. It's not easy to identify charge. Chunk of ancient food though so wildly team gathered an array of raw ancient foodstuffs and then roasted and charred had them in ovens and campfires. They then did visual comparisons to the ancient sample and observed both in a scanning electron microscope which revealed that the charred leftovers from that meal. A young one hundred seventy thousand years ago where probably chunks of star Lily root details and photos of those roots are in the journal Science widely. He says the find also provides a better view of what the ancients eight. I think the people he was shooting depending on diet is based on protein. Turpin done me
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Hits Highest Level in at least 3 Million Years
"In our science fact of the day this just in according to the world meteorological association no you know flaming left wing think tank the a this is the W. ammo the literally the world meteorological association atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide CO two are now at the highest ever in three million years now that is longer than human history human history only goes back a couple hundred thousand years so atmosphere CO two levels right now are higher than when Lucy was around right the the pre human and a higher than when Lucy's ancestors were around getting Lucy was only about a million or so ago all of which means that our children and grandchildren can expect temperatures to continue to rise more extreme weather more sea level rise more destruction to marine life more destruction of land based ecosystems more death of insects and and stuff at the bottom of the food chain which then echoes up so that the birds die and and we're saying this right now you know sixty seventy percent of certain kinds of birds particularly the insect insectivorous birds drawn from our planet we're looking at at at an insect apocalypse right now and and this is just the very beginning we have not yet even hit one point five degrees Celsius increase in temperature over the bass line and the pre industrial base line I mean we're just about there but we haven't quite hit it and the bottom line what what all these climate scientists are saying is is that we have to stop it right there I can't go any farther and yet what is the industry doing right now and and in on the right wing media that is that is supportive of industry while they're making fun of the stuff I mean Michael Mann for example the the the scientist he's been a guest on this program many times as a brilliant easy university of Pennsylvania sciences he's the guy who invented the cop the hockey stick conception of the SCO to going up that Al Gore popularized bed professor of cleans climate science or atmospheric science or whatever it is add to Penn state university one of probably a top five climate scientists in the world Michael Mann me was made fun of by the competitive interest enterprise institute in their blog ran Samberg wrote that well first of all they they attacked Michael Mann they said that his science was nonsense and and that is so Penn state did an investigation because there was all this ball Rollin publicity Penn state did an investigation what they found was that he was totally stand up everything he said was true and the way he said it was fine and though he published it was in compliance with scientific rigorous scientific standards reviews stuff so the compatible devices that is one of these right wing think tanks in quotes it really just a propaganda show operation for industry guy name brand Sandburg wrote that Penn state had quote covered up one two in by Michael Mann and characterize man as quote the Jerry Sandusky of climate science because he had quote molested and tortured data in service of politicized science and then not a blog posted by hosted by the National Review online the national reviews the magazine that William F. Buckley started back in the day when he was alive the saying that the you know the National Review is supporting segregation not just in South Africa but in the United States as well apartheid the National Review still around even though he is gone and they said in the end they oppose this was mark staying he said the man was behind the fraudulent climate change study in the investigation clearing him was a cover up basically and so Michael Landon Jr mattered factions from from the competitive enterprise institute see I am from National Review and instead they naturally you published an op ed by rich Lowry their editor titled get lost well so Matt Michael Mann suit and they just tried to get the lawsuit dismissed and here's the headline this is in the Washington post's Robert Barnes a climate scientists may pursue his definition lawsuit against a magazine in a Washington think tank after the Supreme Court on Monday declined to intervene at this stage of the litigation Sam Alito dissented Sam Mr craze right wing dissented but the the Supreme Court said not spread go ahead and so on it's absolutely amazing I mean this is this is so so here we are we've got more CO two in the atmosphere than at any time in the history of the human race or even the pre human race day in other holidays mmhm more and more CO two in the air our course it takes sometimes as much as a century to that for the CO two in a holding heat and to accumulate to the point where you really start seeing the effects we're already starting to and you've got industry trying to pretend that there's not and there's nothing to see here and making fun of it ridicule and the folks and I've got real scientists were starting to fight back and say no this is real stuff and then the world meteorological organization just comes out and says CO two levels higher than they've ever been
A journey into the Chicxulub Crater
"The town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers during the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms Dr after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of
Black hole breakthrough: NASA captures its first-ever black hole tearing a star to shreds
"It's a space show like no other NASA satellites of spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe a black cold gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is white it traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in