35 Burst results for "Hundred Thousand Years"
The Beauty of Not Knowing
"In his book the compass of zen zen master singson said. I do not teach buddhism. I only teach don't know this is a quote that i like And i want to share some thoughts regarding this notion of. Don't know what does that mean. I only teach know not knowing the beauty of not knowing arises when we understand that reality as a complete picture is unknowable. I because it's always changing and second because we are limited in our perspective of where we stand in terms of space and time and this is tot with the story and buddhism the story of the six blind men and the elephant which i've brought up multiple times on the podcast where you have six blind men trying to describe an elephant and they're all describing different parts of the elephant and none of them can give an accurate picture of the whole elephant because they're limited with where they stand right. I if i'm standing at the foot versus at the back versus the front versus sitting on top of versus standing under. You know the what. I what i perceive and what i'm going to describe that i'm perceiving is different than what someone else will be experiencing at a different part of the elephant and the key teaching with the six blind men and the elephant is the understanding that nobody has the full picture. And that's how reality is reality in. General is a picture that can't be seen as a whole. It's just literally impossible for example. I know what it's like to be me living and two thousand twenty one To be a male of forty two years of age. I know what it's like to be a parent. I know everything that i perceive is based on where i am in space and time and the interdependent connections of all the things that make me what i am right now. I know what it is to be a twin. I know it is to be a a brother A son adad. You know all of these things but that's in today's day and age. I don't know what it's like to be someone who lived in the middle ages or someone who lived You know. I don't know hundred two hundred thousand years ago. I don't know what that would have been like. I can imagine. But i can't
English Is Plain Weird
"English is not normal the more you hang around and linguistics to more languages you mess around with the more language histories you learn the more you realize that this language that i'm speaking right now. Although it has many advantages for muendane and often unfair reasons this language is not normal and by that. I don't mean that it's extraordinary. I mean that english is weird as languages go and i actually find this one of the funnest things that i know about language and yet it's very hard to perceive it because it's the language that we speak and it's the language spoken by so very many other people in the world. English can feel so normal. But it's actually a highly abnormal thing. And i want to share with you. How it's abnormal and what i mean specifically is that when we think about language we have to think about the history of homo sapiens and the history of homo sapiens. As far as is known now goes back about three hundred thousand years and we might suppose that language emerged then. It's the way. I tend to think of it now. It's also possible. That homo erectus had language in which case language goes back about one point eight million years that is daniel ever another linguist view and i am pretty convinced of it but let's be conservative for now. Let's say that it's three hundred thousand years. The thing is for most of that time. Humanity was different from what most of humanity is now. The neolithic revolution that large scale architecture and the development of what we call civilizations. That's only ten thousand years ago or so and so what that means is that i say two hundred ninety thousand years what humanity was relatively small groups living on the land language developed there. So anything that happens to language after that is a departure from what language normally was what this evolved to be
"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles
Scientists Have Found Some Truly Ancient Ice, But Now They Want Ice That's Even Older
"It's chilly across the country today. Highs of just fifty eight in miami and sixteen in minneapolis which makes minnesota colder than an arctic as mcmurdo station but the cold weather doesn't last forever in the twin cities and in antarctica. It does ice their last hundreds of thousands even millions of years and as npr's nell greenfieldboyce reports that makes an arctic the perfect place to find some of the oldest ice in the world. Just how old is the oldest ice. On earth john higgins says. Nobody really knows you know. Would i be surprised at this point. We had five million-year-old is i mean. I'd be surprised. But not it's not unfathomable i think he and some colleagues recently collected ice samples in antarctica. That were later analyzed and shown to be as old as two point six million years. It's beautiful stuff when you pull out. The is it. Essentially as crystal clear accepted filled with tiny bubbles the bubbles contain air from when the ice formed and this trapped air is what scientists are really after higgins says if you want to understand how gases like carbon dioxide have affected the climate throughout history. You know you can't really do better other than getting a time machine and going back in time and taking an air sample then using these ice cores which physically just trap samples of ancient air to release that ancient air. All you have to do is melt the ice. That's the sound of a research camp manager in antarctica making drinking water by melting scraps of two hundred thousand year old ice in a metal pot to actually collect an analyze the release gases however ancient is has to melt in a lab. Sarah shackleton studies old princeton where she gets to watch the trapped air bubble out and that is something that i don't know if i'll ever get sick of watching. It's actually like pretty mesmerizing and one thing. That's released surprising every time to muse. Just how much gas is actually in the ice. She says it's a lot and samples from time. Periods undergoing past climate changes could be used to help make predictions about the future. One of the biggest questions in terms of kind of the modern warming and look anthropogenic. Climate changes helmich warming. Do should we expect with the amount of co two that we have in the atmosphere now. Antarctica has been covered by an ice sheet for at least thirty million years. But it's actually pretty hard to find really old ice. John gooch is a geologist. At the university of minnesota he says while snowfalls constantly add new layers of ice to the top of the ice sheet the oldest layers at the bottom can disappear. That's because of geothermal heat coming up from the ground so the rocks are giving off heat of slowly over time and so that has the potential to melt ice at the bomb. Still bits of super old ice like that two point six million year old sample can sometimes be preserved at the ice sheets edges the older snippets of ice. That we've been able to find come from places where the ice has flowed up against a mountain range and been exposed at the surface in those spots though. The ice can be all jumbled up and messy. It's not nice layers that have been laid down sequentially over a long continuous stretch of earth's history to get a neatly layered ice sample like that. Scientists need to drill straight down through the thick icesheet so far the oldest ice collected that way goes back eight hundred thousand years. Gooch says the goal now is to drill down a couple of miles to reach ice. That's older a million to two million years old whether or not we'll be able to find it at the bottom of the ice sheet where we can recover a relatively simple continuous record. Is i guess. That's the sixty four thousand dollar question at team from china has drilling underway a group from europe. We'll start in november. What everyone wants is i-i samples that cover a key time period about a million years ago. When there was a dramatic shift in the planet cycle of ice ages. Those had been coming every forty thousand years or so but for some reason that pattern ended and it changed to every one hundred thousand years instead unto us working on climate. That's a really big deal. Eric wolf is a climatologist with the university of cambridge in the united kingdom. It's a really big question as to why that change is fundamental tower climates. Work in a way you could say. We don't really understand today's climate. If we don't understand why we live in one hundred thousand year will draw the forty thousand year world. The coronavirus pandemic basically ruins the arctic research season. That would've been happening now but starting next fall researchers will be backed down there searching for really old ice nell greenfieldboyce npr news.
The Denisovans Expand Their Range Into China
"Like modern humans than neanderthals roamed widely throughout europe. We know this because they left behind. Extensive evidence usually bones or tools but their cousins. The denisovans our more mysterious until recently they were conclusively linked only to a single cave in southern siberia called denisova cave which lies between kazakhstan and mongolia in that cave. Scientists had found a finger bone three teeth and piece of skull which tip them off to the existence of a whole new lineage of ancient human now scientists have uncovered more of the range for the denisovans says de endo mossy lonnie of the max planck institute in germany. His team turned up evidence. The ancient humans occupied a high mountain cave on the tibetan plateau. Called by shia cave belongs to monks and -mongst things that it's a very holy place in fact among found a piece of jawbone there in nineteen eighty which has been tenuously linked to the denisovans salani and his team have now unearthed more conclusive evidence by sifting through cave sediments and sequencing the genetic evidence. The denisovans left behind. Buddy decay of people chests. Gabbing down the side like bleeding. There are coping ping could left their dna. The dna appears in layers suggesting the denisovans inhabited the cave as far back as one hundred thousand years ago as well as at sixty thousand years ago and perhaps even as recently as forty five thousand years ago meaning. The denisovans might overlapped in this region with modern humans. The results appear in the journal. Science mossy lonnie says. This method could enable more denise in detective work to this like so many caves when we have evidence of human activity but we don't have opening remain so if he can exploit to sediment can actually start to track down in segment. The denisova dini denise evans live on today in the genomes of some modern day humans from the south pacific further. Genetic work like this might give scientists more clues where early homo sapiens. I met and mixed with the elusive denisovans.
What crows teach us about death with Kaeli Swift
"Whether we want to or not human spend a great deal of time considering death. And it's possible we've been doing. So since shortly after Homo Sapiens, I began roaming the landscape. After all the first intentional human burial is thought to have occurred around one hundred thousand years ago. What might those early people have been thinking? As they took the time to dig into the earth deposit, the body and carefully covered up again. Were they trying to protect it from scavengers or stymie spread of disease? Were they trying to honor the deceased or did they just not want to have to look at a dead body? Without the advent of a time machine. We may never know for sure what those early people were thanking. But one thing we do know is that humans are far from alone in our attention towards the dead. Like people some animals including the corvettes, the family of birds that houses the crows. Ravens Magpies Jays also seemed to pay special attention to their dead. In fact, the rituals of corvettes made acted as the inspiration for own. After all, it was the raven that God sent down to teach Kane how to bury his slain brother able. But despite the clear recognition by early people that other animals attend to their dead, it's only fairly recently that science has really turned its attention towards this phenomenon. In fact, formal name for this field comparative Anthology. First introduced until twenty sixteen. In this growing field, we are beginning to appreciate what a rich place the natural world is with respect to how other animals interact with their dead, and it's in this growing body of knowledge at that time machine to our early ancestors might be possible. So what are we learning in this growing field? Well right now, we can split our understanding into two main groups. In the first, we have animals that display stereotyped predictable behaviors towards their dead and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from experimental studies. This group includes things like social insects, bees, ants, and termites, and for all of these animals colony hygiene is of critical importance and so as a result, these animals display rigorous undertaking behaviors in response to corpses. For example, they may physically remove carcasses from the colony they may consume them. They may even construct tombs. We see similar hygiene driven responses in some colony living mammals rats, for example, will reliably Berry cage mates that have been dead for forty eight hours. In our other group, we have animals that display more variable, perhaps more charismatic behaviors and for whom much of what we understand about them comes from anecdotes by scientists or other observers. This is the animals whose death behaviors I suspect might be more familiar to folks. It includes organisms like elephants which are well known for their attendance to their dead even in popular culture. In fact, they're even known to be attracted to the bones of their deceased. It also includes animals like primates which display a wide variety of behaviors around their dead from grooming them to. Prolonged attention towards them guarding them even the transportation of dead infants and that's actually behavior we've seen in the number of animals like the dolphins. For example, you may remember the story of Taleh, the ORCA in the resident J. pod in the puget sound who during the summer of two thousand eighteen carried her dead calf for an unprecedented seventeen days. Now a story like that is both heartbreaking and fascinating, but it offers far more questions than it does answers for example, why did Kerry her calf for such a long period of time. who she just that stricken with grief. Wishy more confused by her unresponsive infant. Or is this behavior just less rare in orcas than we currently understand it to be
Neanderthals Used Glue
"There was a time when neanderthal was used as an insult with the implication that this extinct species or perhaps sub species of hominids was unintelligent and unsophisticated. But the more research that goes into how neanderthals lived the more we learn that they were quite clever. For example, they made an used glue millennia before we humans figured it out. Pay. Bring stuff is Christian. Sager here. There are some things people just can't live without. So we invented them way before we ever invented writing coats, knives, roofs, fire turns out. Another thing are prehistoric precursors needed that we still need today is the ability to stick one thing to another thing, and then you know have them stay that way which is why neanderthals had glue they might have been caveman, but they weren't savages now. Hormone neanderthalensis used their glue a viscous tar distilled from Birchbark to fix weapons on the heads of a tool onto a half or maybe a handle and neanderthals were actually the leaders in glue technology beating US Homo Sapiens to the punch by more than a hundred thousand years they began brewing tar two, hundred thousand years ago whereas the earliest evidence of modern humans using tree resin as adhesive appears less than one hundred, thousand years ago. Research published in twenty eleven shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire. So does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar proved they weren't as dimwitted as we'd like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal Nature Scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced. This stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest, but how difficult was making tar? Tar Making is definitely a process. No matter which way you go about the research team figured that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology, they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birchbark the ash mound method where tightly rolled layers of birchbark are covered in ash and embers the pit role cigar roll method where one end of Bertril is lit emplaced burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath an organic Mesh, which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire. After recreating the three tar production methods, the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature in complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method, the ash mound method yield digest a pea sized amount of tar the most complicated time consuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient. They also observed that regulating the temperature of the fire didn't make much of a difference to the product even though they have no evidence that the neanderthal way. Of Making Tar. was similar to any of their experimental methods making the connection between the Birchbark the fire and the tar would have required that neanderthals possess a proclivity for abstract thought. So whether they were making easy inefficient tar instead of something like the high yield method requiring a folded cup and a little grill made of sticks neanderthals had something going for them. They were seriously using their
The earliest human footprints in Arabia
"Now, we have contributing correspondent and gibbons. She wrote this week about the likely earliest human footprints on the Arabian Peninsula high an hi Sarah how old or how early are these footprints but that's a good question. They threw a whole package of dating methods at them and came up with in the Ballpark of twenty, one, thousand, two, hundred, and ten, thousand years old. Now the dates are not absolute. There's some questions about them, but that's a pretty good ballpark. How does this age compare to previous hints or clues that humans modern humans early modern humans were on the Arabian Peninsula. Here's the. We know that early hominids members of human family have been migrating out of Africa for two million years because we find fossils of our ancestors in the public of Georgia we find them in. Asia. We find them in Eurasia place, but we don't know how they got out and the most logical route is they had to walk through Rabia because they couldn't fly. They couldn't paddleboats a at that point the one landmass in the way between Africa where humans arose originally, our ancestors arose and Eurasia is through Arabia. So we know they had to go through there, but there's a huge gap there are. No tools older than three hundred to five, hundred, thousand years, and what is there is not definitive. The only fossil have a member of the human family from Arabia is a finger bone that is about eighty eight, thousand years old. So the mystery is, where's the evidence of members of the human family marching through Arabia, and then the second part of that is modern humans specifically, our ancestors Homo sapiens arose probably in Africa, because we see fossils in the ballpark of one, hundred, eight, thousand, three, hundred, thousand years of Proto early Homo, sapiens arising and Africa, and then we find more of these sort. Of Early Homo Sapiens in Greece dating possibly back to as early as two hundred and ten thousand. So we know that they got out right now we're just trying to find evidence. Is there something that going on in the Arabian Peninsula that either people didn't want to hang out there for very long or that erased a lot of evidence. Reagan. Peninsula, has covered with desert's it's very dry today the food desert where they found these fossils is parched arid but there were periods in the past where the planet was cooler and wetter, and during those times hundred, twenty, five, thousand years ago it was. One of them, it was green radio was covered with tens of thousands of lakes. They were grasslands between them. If you think about these early human ancestors, it's not a separate continent or a separate place for them to go to its Afro Arabia, right? Yeah. So it's an extension of Africa if the client is good and they're following large game, how were they able to find these footprints? This is a very large area and it's a few remnants of human passing through. Yes. So this team will have by Michael, Leah and it's an international team of Saudi Arabians in a number of people on. Has Been doing a search of scouring the deserts of. Arabia. For the last decade, they start with satellite imagery which helps them see parched ancient lake beds which have sort of characteristic white halio souls often these ancient sediments that stand out in the satellites and then go down to ground truth what they see on the satellites, an airplane shots they go in on foot in jeeps, and in this case they saw this ancient. Lake better rolling out as white sediment. It had just been recently exposed by Rosen and they found the footprints of the animals which was amazing and as I looked closer to one hundreds of footprints, it was four hundred mostly animals but they did identify a small number. It was seven that seemed to be human footprints. So they knew right away they were very excited about that that this was something that was important how Can you tell that they're human footprints and not some other upright walking relative? There's not a whole science of studying human footprints ever since the first ones are found in la totally in Tanzania and Kenya there've been a number of footprints that have been studied people use three D morphometric dimensional analysis with computational imaging or can really look at the depth and they could model how much weight would have been needed to make. That footprint, the length of the foot, the stride between the steps, and then they've done studies living people in their footprints in Africa to sort of test out those ideas and Lo, and behold when they do that to these footprints, they seem to come up with somebody kind of humor that was taller and maybe a little lighter weight more like a modern human of Homo sapiens and say an Andrew Tall so based on that. They say, Oh, these probably were made by Homo sapiens although we cannot rule out that nanotubes might have been there to is there anything else can tell about these people by looking at these marks I think if they get more, they can start to tell about their social structure footprint studies in Africa. I've got quite complicated where you could see the direction that they're going in the payson different members of social groups you can. To see what they are the packs of humans look like you know, what size are they how many are in these groups? What are they doing a lot of the way in this case, they're not spending a lotta time. They're just sort of walking through. This is a bantering group. What is really really cool. Though is that footprint site these are a snapshot of a single moment in time a single day most of the. Time when you have an archaeological site in a layer soil that you get the fossils of the tools and the dates, all that took place. This fan is usually hundreds of thousands, tens of thousands of years. So if you find an animal bone near a prominent human early Human Boehner tool, you don't necessarily know fear there at the same time as parch with footprints like these these were lay down in the same day maybe. A couple of days and they dried out and then got caught up in preserved. So we know they were all there at the same time. So you get this really cool day in the life look at the and of the animals they were with, which is really cool in this case and lots of animals. Yes. Almost four hundred footprints of animals including very interesting. A wild asses which I don't think we're carrying burdens but. That's kind of neat and they were elephants and the thing that's interesting about the elephants as their popular disappeared for the Middle East, just in Africa. Thanks for three hundred years ago and here they are in hundred twenty, thousand in Arabia and the camps they also Campbell's it's kind of interesting that such large animals with Aaron. It begs the question were these humans following them where they attracted them. Going back to the, we talked about it being about one, hundred, twenty, thousand years old. There's some question about the date but if that were cracked, is there anything particularly Gordon about this time human history about what we know about migrations that we could link these prince two? Yes. So what is really interesting is that genetic evidence says that everybody outside of Africa. Came from migrations that happened in the last fifty to eighty thousand years. So this state predates that we happen to know that early Homo Sapiens were in the Middle East pretty quickly after this or at the same time they're fossils in caves. At school and cough so that our early sort of product Homo sapiens. So we know humans are at sorta suggests that because we don't have DNA that dates back this early these were failed migrations. These were members of the human family that went out they weren't shelled migrations for them they lived, but they did not contribute to the gene pool of letting people today that's one hypothesis but it also shows that there's more complex story of groups of humans migrating out of Africa constantly whenever the weather excitement is right that it's three to nothing that they can get water follow animals to meet and trek. Africa. They can cross the desert. It looks like humans were doing that whenever they could and so how do they contribute tour ancestry today a really interesting question and how many different kinds of hominids out there. Thank you so much an thank you. Sir,
What are the origins of English
"Think if it is a bunch of. It is probably a bunch of women, MOMS and aunts on the island of England. That's probably the people who invented the English language and they were called angles. So they didn't even call English. They called it anguish. My Name's Tom Howell and I used to write the Oxford Dictionary encounter and I wrote a book called the Rude Story of English and it is a history of some dudes and some woman thousand five hundred years ago trying to invent the language. So in a sense when you learned English. From the older people in your family. They are inventing English in a way because that is going to be a bit different. From the English that their grandparents spoke and then their great grandparents spoke and so on and so on and so on. Until when you go back far enough, it would be very difficult for us now to understand like great. Great. Great. Great. Great. Great great grandparents, saints which other think of how friend and neighbor are spell differently neighbors eat before I, friend is I before e friend came from one place where they said free owned once upon a time and neighbor came from another place where they were saying. It was actually called a near Ghabbour. You know has GM neighbor Mrs Weird thing we don't pronounce it now. It's just people stop pronouncing it properly but. Once upon a time, they would've been like, no, it's wrong to say neighbor without Jeanette they would have been like the correct way to say that is Nia Gabor because it was a boor who lived near you. So generations go by people make mistakes people say things a bit differently. People put on funny voices. Things Change. Now we say neighbor instead of new? Kabar I guess it is. The English is so complicated because it comes from all around the world. Yeah. What recalled English today like if you look up a word on the Internet to find out where it came from could come from anywhere. Like bungalow comes from India but you know even if you went back all the way to what the angles were saying, their language also came from all around the world like their language came from. Iraq and India and Russia and all kinds of weird places like people have been talking to each other for at least one, hundred, thousand years. So all of us, any point in history might say who invented our language and the odds would almost be some not dudes some arts and mother's thousand, five, hundred years ago. kind of doesn't matter where you are. That's always kind of be the answer.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Progressive Talk 1350 AM
"As much as is riding on this we have a lot going against us we are our own worst enemies when it comes to existential risks we come pre loaded with a lot of biases that keep us from thinking rationally I would prefer not to think about pleasant things like the sudden extinction of our species our brains aren't wired to think ahead to the degree that existential risks requires to really very little of our hundred thousand years or so of the cumulated human experience has prepared us to take on the challenge that we are coming to face and a lot of the experience that we do have can actually steer us wrong it's almost like we were dropped into a point in history we hadn't yet become equipped to deal with yet despite how utterly unbelievable the position that we find ourselves in is the evidence points to this is our reality the cosmic silence that creates the Fermi paradox tells us that we are either alone and always have been whether we are alone because no other civilization has managed to survive if the latter is true if the great filter has killed off every other civilization in the universe before they could spread out from their home planets then we will face the same impossible step that everyone else has before as we attempt to move off of earth and if the great filters real then it appears to be coming our way in the form of the powerful technology that we're beginning to create right now but even granting that the great filter hypothesis may be faulty that we aren't alone that there really is intelligent life elsewhere we still find ourselves in the same position we are in grave danger of wiping ourselves out there doesn't appear to be anyone coming to guide us through the treacherous times ahead whether we're alone in the universe or not we appear to be on our own in facing our existential risks all of our shortcomings and flaws notwithstanding there is hope we humans are smart widely ingenious creatures and as much as we like to think of ourselves as something higher than animals those hundreds of millions of years of animal evolution is still very much in our nature and when we're backed into a corner that animal ancestry comes rising to the surface we fight we rail against our demise we survive if we can manage to join that creature habits to the intelligence we've involved that really does make us different from other animals then we have a chance of making it through the existential risks that lie waiting ahead if we can do that we will deliver the entire human race to a safe place where it can thrive and flourish for billions of years it's in our ability to do this we can do this some of us are already trying and we've already shown that we can face down existential risks we've done it before we encountered the first potential human made existential risk we've ever faced in New Mexico of all places on July sixteenth nineteen forty five it just before five thirty AM the desert outside of Alamogordo was the site of the first detonation of a nuclear bomb in human history they called it the Trinity test at the moment the bomb detonated the pre dawn sky lit up brighter than the sun and the landscape is beautiful in golden gray and violet purple and blue the explosion was so bright that one of the bombs designers went blind for nearly half a minute from looking directly at by the blast site the sandy ground instantly turned into a green glass the type that it never existed on earth before that moment they call the Trinity to mark the occasion then they buried it so no one would find on.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on NewsRadio KFBK
"Augment the human body with technology whether it strips in the brain or wires under the skin this case chemicals in the body and what will be in conditions George through our generation it began about a generation ago is that the human species is a week that we are powerless that we're helpless and that we needed this external technology to survive and thrive in the world and I'm really being told that that is the case that we we can't feel safe in the world unless we've got some support coming from some kind of of chemical support either prophylactic Lee is a vaccine or after the fact and we we get the virus here's the problem with that problem is that we are such a highly advanced technologically sophisticated soft biology soft technology is what it's called and when we begin to deny that aspect of our existence and we begin to replace within our bodies neurons themselves with machines in the wires in the chips in the chemicals those aspects of our human history to begin to atrophy in one generation maybe it's a choice as to whether or not we use these things or not the next generation all of a sudden we have lost a building with large capacity we appeared on this planet scientists agree with what I'm I'm going to say in terms of when we appear to modern humans anatomically modern humans we appeared on earth about two hundred thousand years ago we got two hundred thousand years George of of experience of dealing with pathogens and we've survived and transcended everyone that's ever ever been introduced us our bodies know what to do with this virus but if we continue to deny that capability within us and if we believe that we can only survive and thrive when we have external technology in in this case I'm I'm talking about the the chemicals then this is where our humanness is really on the line so as we have this conversation with you and in many respects the technology is advancing before the morality of of how we apply that technology in our lives and and I think it is really his forces conversation front and center has anyone with a reasonably healthy immune system has very little to be a fearful of when it comes to to encountering this virus and certainly the dying it's only those that are immune compromised and that's appears to be the case either the elderly or people who are sick or have some other ailment that you know this just kinda magnifies it a little bit speeds up that the system the die and then what they're putting in the in the Greg in the terms of statistics they don't even know if these people are dying from cove ID there just putting them in that batch well this is there's been a lot of of articles have come out in the science journal time I'm an active member of American Association for advance of science so I'm I'm wonder message boards and I'm I'm watching and and reading the scientist if they are our messaging back and forth to one another and they're raising a lot of questions about the way the statistics are being shared about the ways to to six are are being created so for example anyone who dies if in the post mortem if they are testing positive for covert nineteen calling out a corona virus death when in fact they could've they could've died from hypertension they could have died from diabetes and happens to have the corona virus antibodies in their in their body so it it doesn't necessarily mean that that is what they've died for which I think by the way most people have I think they have that the antibody system in their bodies already I think we're gonna be surprised Georgia first of all what the specifics are now telling us is that the coronavirus Copa nineteen coronavirus within the U. S. before we knew within the year before absolutely but you know you and I were in Los Angeles in an international hotel that's right with flight attendants coming in from from China from Beijing I was on an elevator with a group of them from from from China well I was well we in the lobby we were in the restaurant and you know what the conference that we were out of a lot of people became very ill and usually all ends in people thought they might have just the flu I'm not so sure Greg I'm not either and I I wouldn't be surprised if when we get around to doing the test a lot of people test positive for the anybody no I I didn't get sick a lot of people around me did I came home from that conference and I was unusually tired for a couple of days I didn't have any symptoms at all Greg we're gonna hit a break we'll come back and talk more about your work the wisdom codes will take calls next hour with Gregg Braden right here on.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"Once you stop at a time you're really of no time in a sanitary are every time so there could be some time travelers coming back from five hundred thousand years or more and then there could be others that are more recent if that's when we discover the key to a traveling back in time and I can't give that year unfortunately in terms of the I and what they look like you're the reports of course and you know them is better than anybody people get reports that they look like us they have these alien greys they look like praying mantis they have reptilian looks if their time travelers from our future obviously they're gonna look like let us but how do we explain the other ones that people claim that they have seen what they are usually humanoid and so the first point is on other planets well they developed humanoid creatures that all in their evolution they would have different sunlight different error on our side ever they breezed estate breeze so humanoid is is a strong hand but as far as like the in fact looking that might be accounted for by different stages are phases of time they could be from a million years in advance filed the golden humans and possibly the Nordiques might be from three hundred years in advance so is that tribes that we assumed were extraterrestrials I think we assume that to ease away it was plan Kenneth Arnold saw that the saucers rank in nineteen forty seven we just kind of as soon the LLC teas and then there are movies and and the fact is that front we think of is an eighteen he is usually a human actor I is always excellent actor in a movie and this all just kind of got ingrained and in doing that I think we've cheated ourselves a bit of our future a lot of people kind of looking at the dark side of things these days this is well saying why don't even think we deserve to go online or internally tell me clean up the planet we don't really deserve to go online and yet yes the UFO phenomenon could be staring us in the face and we just keep giving credit to advance detainees well that's a good point too but the third time travelers from our future why don't they tell us that where I hate the crowd Star Trek go ahead probably a prime directive that says and Carol there are few and tell the twenty first twenty twenty first century people are you ready for it because this would shake everything from governments to religions to their call are more even than eighteen knowledge disclosure ride history and the foundation of earth cultures would be called into question are we have to wonder if some heroes and villains of religion and history were future humans and they'd certainly threatened the power structure even more than knowledge of the keys just the night I don't because people with Pharrell future humans easier they would have the cure to cancer and other diseases probably they might be able to fix the planet that we messed up easier than we can hi and to follow another branch of humans away from the power structure would be very tempting so it's just a total of a huge iceberg and it's less of an iceberg if it succeeds he's backs away interesting take do you think something happens in the future because of what we're doing today and that could be another reason they're coming back here maybe to fix it yes narrative fix it at least to warn about it I've got a whole chapter from on the nuclear yeah that harboring over the Meszaros back and that and nineteen sixty thousand and that so many nuclear plants even that their civilian plants that generator at Kent state I have had UFO sightings and I have a couple of accounts of that and UFOs at the Cooper plant in Nebraska which got nearly flooded a few years ago and a UFO come back over several weeks time and of course climate change with the nuclear problem who is going to be a bigger problem because plants are the weather there are military or anything nuclear is usually belt along wider so as water rises flag torrential rains are perhaps more earthquakes yeah I have to wonder what we laughed our great great grandchildren in the rain our nuclear contamination especially as the climate is chaotic and then there's nuclear waste storage which we've we've argued about that is it yep mountain or your doctor they're not using it yeah but they have it all built all ready to go and you know several as no clear story the nuclear waste is stored on a certain temporarily because the world that does permanent is full and even the permanent isn't.
Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams
"Around one hundred thousand years ago in what what is now. Italy are nandor tall cousins. Wait it out into the shallow. Coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. Big Grant the the molluscs from the sea floor and perhaps even died for them in deeper water and they also simply collect clams from the beach but the creatures weren't just food in a recent Study University of Colorado Boulder archaeologist Paolo Villa inner team report that neanderthals modified the clams hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The clam derived implements were found inside the grow today. Motion rainy a coastal cave. That was first rediscovered around eighty five years ago by examining wear and tear on the shells the researchers determined that about seventy five percent of the tool source material had been found found dead on the beach. These shows had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny indicating that the clams lambs were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. These shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tools so even though gathering clams underwater took more work than picking them up on the beach. The effort may have been worth it also found in the growth at any pumice stones volcanic eruptions that occurred to to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by neanderthals as abrasive tools. The study is in the journal loss. One neanderthals else were making these tools than fifty thousand years before modern. Humans first arrived in Western Europe but neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community. Munity during much of the twentieth century in recent years however evidence of their tool use and even artistic abilities has grown neanderthals hunted. That'd made cave art cooked with fire us boats and when fishing just last year for example research by villa and others found that neanderthals tolls living not far from the grocery knee. Site used resonant. He serves to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some forty thousand years ago but it's becoming ever more clear that neanderthals were intelligent creative. People who lead fully human lives.
Who Was First on Earth?
"Today are mysterious past the first the people on Earth. Where did they come from? Leonardo Davinci. Tesla is dying these three in one hundred others over the centuries all with ideas. You were ahead of their time. Where did these ideas come from? Metal Staples at held Mexico's Ancient Pyramids together yet. Local indigenous business people had no knowledge of metallurgy. The NASCA wells relied on air pressure to bring water up from underground rivers and the unexplained tunnels on on the two thousand five hundred mile. Inca road that are carved through solid stone. How did that happen? How were these deeds? Possible where to disadvantage. What's knowledge come from could survivors of a long extinct species of Homo Sapiens have somehow passed on the tiniest spark of knowledge through DNA? What a silly question indeed based on science I guess not so silly before you dismiss this premise? Completely let's take a look at the evolution universe. Science would agree that the planet earth is about four point five billion years old to put that number two perspective consider that a billion is a thousand million and a million is a thousand thousands for no less than a century. It has been believed that the earliest earth was covered with the see of vocally magma however evidence of this of the rocks have either eroded with time or stay down underground inaccessible enter Zircon crystals. Not the man made versions but tiny crystals pulled from the Jack Hills of central Australia. The oldest of which have revealed that during the first five hundred million years so the planet earth was not covered with the see of magma indeed that it was cold enough for the formations of continents were above sea level. What is revolutionary is these ancient crystals have revealed that early earth and some aspects? Wasn't that different from today. These science-based facts are less than a decade old. That already gaining aning the respect of mainstream science in one four point one billion year old crystal carbon was found suggesting that life existed justed on earth. Three hundred million years earlier than scientists previously thought. Twenty years ago this would have been heretical. This carbon resembles modern carbon. Though this all adds up to the conclusion that early Earth was more hospitable to life than science thought and begs the question could could the environment of early Earth supported. Humans could earth's I people have crawled out of an ancient ocean. The primordial soup so to speak and evolved over the next two hundred thousand years if we run with that rough figure man and is developed brain may have been walking walking around over a billion years ago not two hundred thousand. But where's the evidence of a civilization that all the answer is. Where's I the evidence of anything? Over one billion years old science degree so there have been five periods of mass extinction. Four hundred forty four million years ago. When eighty six percent of all species became extinct? Three hundred seventy five million years ago. When seventy five percent of all species became extinct and in two hundred million years ago with the loss of eighty percent and finally sixty six million years ago when seventy six percent fell to extinction keep keep in mind that the tortoise of the Galapagos has evolved over twelve million years each of the known periods of mass extinction did not eliminate all all the species and some fossils remain science agrees that there certainly could have been far earlier periods of mass extinction and extinction say over a billion years ago? One that would leave. No fossils. Time would take care of that. If Homo sapiens were among the victims uh-huh of an early earth extinction. Of course there would be no fossils. But what are the carbon found in Australia's ancient zircon crystals and what of the advanced knowledge displayed by South America's earliest indigenous people. Where did they come from? Your guess is as good as mine and only time time will tell
How Do You Compare to the Average American?
"The financial profile all of the average American or more accurately profiles of many average Americans since a proper apples to apples? Comparison takes into account several factors. So we're GONNA approach this this by looking at the financial life cycle of somebody which of course starts with birth. Fortunately you don't have to pay for your own birth. That's good because because the average cost of a birth in America these days ten thousand dollars and that's if there are no complications whatsoever So let's jump ahead to one of the first experiences people have have with actually earning money and that is an allowance. How many kids get an allowance? And how much do they get law. According to a recent survey from the American Institute of CPA's as two thirds of parents get allowance and the average is thirty dollars a week. It's pretty nice. Isn't ages they say what ages they start giving they broke it down a little bit. Okay but what was interesting to me was far too five. Parents expect the children to do work. Some people feel like you should just allowance because that's how you learn how to be responsible And they expect at least one hour week of chores but on average children are spending five point one hours a week doing chores for their allowance. So let me just say that my kids are below average with my kids are not doing five hours. Where the tour? I don't even do five hours worth of chores in our house and I do a lot of chores in our. What are these are? Are these kids living on a farm like that's a very good question. Chores chores could be clean your room for us. It is dishes this. This is the number one joy that kids do and we're not even very good of making them. Do it. Put your own shoes on in the morning to dress yourself. Live at Downton Abbey. Everyone everyone here anyway. So there you go. That's allowance so that's money from your parents but you'll eventually reach the point where you can start earning money from other people and here we are talking about being a teenager but the emphasis is can because most teenagers don't according to a study by the Hamilton project. And the Brookings Institute back in Nineteen nineteen seventy nine fifty eight percent of teenagers. Were doing some sort of work. But today it's only thirty five percent most teenagers don't have a job which not even like babysitting reasoning or I I guess not then the factors for why this has gone down as number one. They say that teenagers just have more things to do. Like like more kids are doing More kids are taking classes over the summer. Also there's less low wage work more competition from older folks and immigrants. That said I have three teenagers and I'm not sure I quite vile this Mike. Especially in the summer my kids have managed to find jobs but regardless the majority of teenagers not working. What was your first job while so I used to cut before I was of age to be doing? I cut lawns in the neighborhood and Dan. I watered flowers at a local flower shop. Then sure I've told you this story F.. I faked my birth certificate so I could work in McDonalds when I was age. Fifteen instead instead of sixteen so I did that ric have I to you. It was your first job horrible paper route once where you have to go door to door and collect the money which I always hated to do you so I never did it so I never really got paid for thing. What about you so my first job? I I went to high school where you are expected to work like four hours a day so you go to class in either the morning or the afternoon and then you would then so what kind of like work at the school. Yeah you'd work in the school or you'd lurk working in nearby bakery or you'd work farm too so you could work on the farm. Some people had farm jobs or work on maintenance and the school So I worked for the principal symbol. Of course I was responding. I did a lot of you. Know entering in people's grades and typing let transcribing letters and just the office work so as like fifteen. I think started. Did you like that because I've often thought especially as a former elementary school teacher junior high teacher. I thought a lot of this education is wasted in the dish. It's been half the day like working out in the basically interning at different types of jobs because they're not learning so much in school. Yeah no I mean it was is one of the better jobs to have on campus. That's for sure. So did you. And your friends. I'll get straight a's no but we I mean we could. We could have definitely changed. All of our grades were honest asked by it was a religious school so God would have smoked in us we. We were well aware of the consequences for changing our grades. So we didn't do it got got it. At least I didn't what's next in life. maxine life is well. We're going real job hitting their well even before. Then you finish high school and and then what college you go to college. I should first of all point out that it's nice if you want to write so point out. First of all. The graduation rate from public high schools is now eighty five percent near an all time high. So let's go so how many people then go onto college sixty nine point seven percent according to the Department of Labor not everyone gets four year degree as some people go to college and they don't get a degree. People get the associates so when you look at four year bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees. It's it's between thirty five and forty percent of people who actually end up with a degree but almost seventy percent do end up going to college which of course brings us to one of the first major financial decisions. A kid has to make depending on how much their family is willing and able to pay and that is the cost of college so according to the College Board. Let's go over the numbers here for the two thousand nineteen thousand twenty year a four year your public in State Education Room Board Fees Tuition Twenty one thousand nine hundred and fifty for your public out of state thirty eight thousand three hundred and thirty four year private school forty nine thousand four hundred ninety dollars ice now. The College Board is quick to point out at those are the published sticker prices and that most people don't pay those they say that about three quarters of students receive grants that reduce the actual price that people pay and just just about every college these days has something called net price calculator. You go onto their website. You put in some basic financial information. It gives you a general idea of how much you would pay. It's not binding or anything but if you're thinking of a college go to the net price calculator and you get an idea of how much aid you might receive. That said. We all know that grants. It's an aren't enough. which brings us to the topic of educational loan so approximately two thirds of kids graduate with debt with the average being between thirty thousand and forty thousand dollars depending on which source? You're looking at repayment. Can Take Ten to twenty years. And according to the Federal Reserve one fifth of ours were behind in their payments in two thousand in seventeen. So you have to wonder is a college degree worth the cost well for most people. The answer's probably yes. College grads on average earn seventy I five percent more than high school grads but that said the Fed did find that college is not a good investment for about twenty five percent of graduates and several studies of people who have loans at found that the majority of people regret the debt and they wish they would have found some other way to pay for college either going to community college allege not going to the private school something like that but regardless of how you pay for it you do graduate head out of college time for that first job. How much can you expect to make while starting salaries these days around fifty three thousand dollars? But who's paying you the most well engineering degrees computer. Peter Science and math those starting salaries are between sixty five thousand and seventy thousand math math. Now that's crazy math data that everyone is so hot with the data. One loves the data exactly so since we just brought up salaries. Let's expand this beyond starting income income in general in the United States. What is the average or the median household income and the United States and the answer is whereas the sixty three thousand one hundred seventy nine dollars? that's what you said family or average average average household household income but there are a lot of factors that would tournament starting with where you live. So the highest incomes are in the northeast. Meeting is around. Seventy thousand thousand filed by the West Midwest and the South South is lowest at fifty seven thousand. Being married helps. The median income for a household with a married couple earns. Ninety three thousand six hundred dollars Also age is a factor the households will make the most are in the forty five to fifty four age range with a median income of eighty. Four thousand four hundred dollars. We've talked about this before. Where income generally peaks at some point in your late forties or early fifties? Finally just just give me an idea of where your income puts you in relation to the rest of America. Here's how the income dispersion breaks down so if you make thirty seven thousand dollars you're in the bottom thirty thirty percent again. Median sixty three thousand. If you make one hundred thousand year in the top thirty percent hundred eighty four year in the top ten percent and to be in the top five five percent you make two hundred and forty eight thousand dollars. That's generally how income breaks down.
A Star In Orion Is Dimming. Is It About To Explode?
"One of the brightest stars in the night sky is named beetlejuice is about six hundred fifty light years away which is pretty close in outer space terms and if you've gazed eased up into the night sky and seen the Constellation Orion. You've seen beetlejuice before. So if you were to look up at it you would want to start by finding the three stars that make a nice little line that we call a Ryan's belts and then beetlejuice is as you're looking at it. The shoulder of Orion on the left. Emily Leveque is an astronomer at the University University of Washington who studies stars like beetlejuice which is known as a red supergiant supergiant because this star is enormous much bigger than our sun. If if you were to put beetlejuice where our son is it would swallow up all of the planets out past Mars and because it's so massive it means that it goes through a very different sort of life experience than our Sun will which brings us to why we're talking about beetlejuice right now. In recent weeks astronomers have noticed that beetlejuice. It's no longer appears to be one of the brightest stars. In the night sky there were sort of quick reports put out from people who monitor and observe beetlejuice very frequently. Saying you know it's getting dimmer and dimmer it's starting to get closest to the dentist we've seen there's also big dedicated networks of amateur astronomers that keep very close track of the brightness of stars like beetlejuice and they started noticing the same thing when we called Emily. She was preparing for this big astronomy conference in Hawaii Hawaii and she thought there would be a lot of buzz there about the dimming of beetlejuice beetlejuice is going to be a big topic. I'm sure especially family. She told us a Ryan is her. Favourite Constellation Constellation. But actually you don't have to be a pro astronomer to see what's happening with beetlejuice you can look for yourself at one point. beetlejuice was one of the brightest rytas stars in Orion. But now not so much so if you were to go up and look at it tonight it's dimmer than the star in Iran's right knee which is Ri- Joel and it's about equal in brightness to Ryan's other shoulder which is a star named Bella tricks so the fact that we can see with our eyes. That got noticeably dimmer really caught a lot of people's attention and then spiralled as just a wow. This is a really interesting and compelling thing changing sort of on our timescale in the night sky. So what's going on as we'll explain with help from Emily Leveque. Scientists have a few theories for why BETA disappear so dim and in the most dramatic explanation. Is that this star could be about to die. What's known as going SUPERNOVA? It would look pretty epic. I'm Emily Kwong filling informatics format today. This is short wave the daily science podcast from NPR. So here's the thing there's been quite a bit of speculation that the reason beetlejuice getting dimmer is that it's about to go Supernova. That's the big explode e end to the lifespan of a massive star and while dimming can mean that's about to happen for reasons that will get into it's not the most likely scenario for beetlejuice but first we had to clear up something with astronomer. Emily Leveque is this very cool star named after the tenth highest biased grossing film of One thousand nine hundred eighty eight. I'm pretty sure that it's the other way around. The spelling is different and sometimes here astronomers pronounce a little bit differently. Bentley will say beetlejuice instead of beetlejuice. Three times But it's actually derived from a Arabic name and there's I think some disagreement on what exactly it means but either means the arm of Orion or the hand of Orion or the hand of the hunter because the total constellation is looks like a person hunting. It's the only can I be honest. The only constellation I can ever successfully identify. Isn't that belt. It's very telling so I'll admit it's the easiest constellation and for me to identify to This is one of those. Well kept secrets of astronomy. A lot of us are embarrassingly bad at finding things in the night sky because we're used to looking at things that are so so dim that you can't see them with their own eyes and our telescopes have amazing computers. That can help us find things so we'll occasionally go out and look up and do just what a lot of people doing fine like that familiar. Little Line of three or another easy constellation to get our bearings A.. Let's talk about how astronomers such as yourself people who really study V. Stars have noticed something different about how beetlejuice looks in the night sky. How does it look different? So I will say we've been monitoring the brightness of beetlejuice for decades its and we've been measuring its brightness very frequently and we've seen its brightness change with times we've watched it get brighter and dimmer. This just caught people's attention because it was close close to the dentist that beetlejuice has ever been and what could dimming like this indicate so our guest right now is that what we're seeing is a combination of a few behaviors that we see in red super giants and that we've seen before in beetlejuice. The just happened to be coinciding. So we know that stars like beetlejuice. Have big support of boiling convective cells near their surfaces seal sort of get a bright hot spot and a slightly dimmer cool spot and it's entirely possible that this dimming is due in part to those convective cells we also know that stars like beetlejuice will actually shed off some mass from their outer layer. sobel sort popoff. The outermost layers of the star when that mass hits the Interstellar medium. It'll condense into what we call dust and dust dust in space kind of does. What does here it blocks light and gets in the way and can be a little bit of a nuisance but it would make star look a little bit dimmer if it then had a little veil of dust around it we also know that stars like this can pulse eight a little bit so their outer layers will sort of squeeze in puff out just due to instabilities in those layers and that'll also affect how bright the star looks so? I think the current guests is that we're seeing a couple different behaviors in beetlejuice. That on their own aren't too to strange. That just happened to be coinciding to make the star look especially dim so just as a thought experiment say beetlejuice is going to go Supernova. Br Nova how would we know. And what would it look like. So first of all the light that we're seeing from beetlejuice was emitted by the star about six hundred and fifty years ago. beetlejuice is a six hundred and fifty light years from Earth so when the light emerges it comes toward us as fast as it can but it's moving at the speed of light so looking at Beta Jesus a little bit like looking back in time to what the Star was actually doing six hundred and fifty years ago in terms of whether we will see beetlejuice go Supernova in our lifetimes beetlejuice and other massive stars like this kind of follow a live fast die young philosophy so they live about ten million with an m years beetlejuice in particular we know is moving into a later stage of its life because it is so big and so red but that could mean that we still have one hundred thousand years before it dies and produces a Supernova If it did though say we all went outside tomorrow and we we were seeing the light arrive from babies dying as a Supernova six hundred and fifty years minus day sometime in the Middle Ages. Let's say okay it. It would look pretty epic we have some records of other SUPERNOVA. That happened in the Milky Way and their appearance parents is incredibly dramatic. What we would see is Bagel juice getting brighter and brighter? Because we'd be seeing the incredibly bright signature of the SUPERNOVA explosion explosion. It would actually get so bright that if beetlejuice was up during the day we'd be able to see it during the daytime alongside the sun and it would last for for weeks and I think that if beetlejuice were to go supernova tomorrow and we saw it at night it would be comparable in brightness. I think to the full moon. ooh Wow we'd be able to see are shadows based on the light from the SUPERNOVA. Okay so what would it look like for beetlejuice more of a going collapsing inward on itself. I I am more of them. Exploding outward with star debris scattering across the universe. What what does it look like for Adl juice? It's a good question in it. We think that it's a bit of both both okay initial disruption comes when the core of the star collapses and depending on the type of star. And how much mass is in that core. It'll collapse into to a neutron star or a black hole after that collapse all the outer layers of the star come falling in toward the core and then bounce back off in a sort of rebound shock and that shock is what we see as a Supernova and what we would call a supernova because we see this outward blast of material you know new gas slamming into the interstellar medium and getting really bright and it looks to us like an explosion but it originally did start as a collapse. It's why I try to avoid saying that a star exploded as a SUPERNOVA. Because it's not to be the pedantic scientist it's not quite the first thing that happened in the star. But it's a bit Moroccan role as a turn of phrase. Oh yeah how would you so. This star is a part of your favorite constellation or Ryan and how would you feel if if indeed it we're we're going SUPERNOVA. I would be psyched. And I think some people expect that we would be very sad but it's a very exciting citing transition to watch and this would be one of the best studied stars we have available to US producing a Supernova. which right now is a process that we're you're still trying to understand we'd still be able to see the Supernova as it happened and then faded away these stars also leave behind what we call supernova remnants? So they're these these beautiful multicolored gas clouds that show us the dissipating material from the star. So it would be this amazing font of data and new ways to understand stars so I think it would be incredibly exciting.
The Real Paleo Diet: Roots and Tubers
"Paleo Diet is a popular high protein diet that that aims to mimic what our hunter gatherer ancestors aid. But what we buy at. The supermarket doesn't quite approximate. Those ancient foods take for example star Lily roots heard heard of those things. Lynn widely is an archaeologist at the University of the voters round in South Africa. Her team recently discovered the charred remains of star Lily. Roots in South Africa's border cave hunks of roasted root that date to a hundred and seventy thousand years ago. These great glueck has available Pizzi once the vegetables are cooked and they knew that nearly two hundred thousand years ago which I think's extraordinarily Omeday just know the chemistry of it that they would have realized that a feel satisfied of eating a meal is cooked then eighteen warning which is rule. It's not easy to identify charge. Chunk of ancient food though so wildly team gathered an array of raw ancient foodstuffs and then roasted and charred had them in ovens and campfires. They then did visual comparisons to the ancient sample and observed both in a scanning electron microscope which revealed that the charred leftovers from that meal. A young one hundred seventy thousand years ago where probably chunks of star Lily root details and photos of those roots are in the journal Science widely. He says the find also provides a better view of what the ancients eight. I think the people he was shooting depending on diet is based on protein. Turpin done me
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Hits Highest Level in at least 3 Million Years
"In our science fact of the day this just in according to the world meteorological association no you know flaming left wing think tank the a this is the W. ammo the literally the world meteorological association atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide CO two are now at the highest ever in three million years now that is longer than human history human history only goes back a couple hundred thousand years so atmosphere CO two levels right now are higher than when Lucy was around right the the pre human and a higher than when Lucy's ancestors were around getting Lucy was only about a million or so ago all of which means that our children and grandchildren can expect temperatures to continue to rise more extreme weather more sea level rise more destruction to marine life more destruction of land based ecosystems more death of insects and and stuff at the bottom of the food chain which then echoes up so that the birds die and and we're saying this right now you know sixty seventy percent of certain kinds of birds particularly the insect insectivorous birds drawn from our planet we're looking at at at an insect apocalypse right now and and this is just the very beginning we have not yet even hit one point five degrees Celsius increase in temperature over the bass line and the pre industrial base line I mean we're just about there but we haven't quite hit it and the bottom line what what all these climate scientists are saying is is that we have to stop it right there I can't go any farther and yet what is the industry doing right now and and in on the right wing media that is that is supportive of industry while they're making fun of the stuff I mean Michael Mann for example the the the scientist he's been a guest on this program many times as a brilliant easy university of Pennsylvania sciences he's the guy who invented the cop the hockey stick conception of the SCO to going up that Al Gore popularized bed professor of cleans climate science or atmospheric science or whatever it is add to Penn state university one of probably a top five climate scientists in the world Michael Mann me was made fun of by the competitive interest enterprise institute in their blog ran Samberg wrote that well first of all they they attacked Michael Mann they said that his science was nonsense and and that is so Penn state did an investigation because there was all this ball Rollin publicity Penn state did an investigation what they found was that he was totally stand up everything he said was true and the way he said it was fine and though he published it was in compliance with scientific rigorous scientific standards reviews stuff so the compatible devices that is one of these right wing think tanks in quotes it really just a propaganda show operation for industry guy name brand Sandburg wrote that Penn state had quote covered up one two in by Michael Mann and characterize man as quote the Jerry Sandusky of climate science because he had quote molested and tortured data in service of politicized science and then not a blog posted by hosted by the National Review online the national reviews the magazine that William F. Buckley started back in the day when he was alive the saying that the you know the National Review is supporting segregation not just in South Africa but in the United States as well apartheid the National Review still around even though he is gone and they said in the end they oppose this was mark staying he said the man was behind the fraudulent climate change study in the investigation clearing him was a cover up basically and so Michael Landon Jr mattered factions from from the competitive enterprise institute see I am from National Review and instead they naturally you published an op ed by rich Lowry their editor titled get lost well so Matt Michael Mann suit and they just tried to get the lawsuit dismissed and here's the headline this is in the Washington post's Robert Barnes a climate scientists may pursue his definition lawsuit against a magazine in a Washington think tank after the Supreme Court on Monday declined to intervene at this stage of the litigation Sam Alito dissented Sam Mr craze right wing dissented but the the Supreme Court said not spread go ahead and so on it's absolutely amazing I mean this is this is so so here we are we've got more CO two in the atmosphere than at any time in the history of the human race or even the pre human race day in other holidays mmhm more and more CO two in the air our course it takes sometimes as much as a century to that for the CO two in a holding heat and to accumulate to the point where you really start seeing the effects we're already starting to and you've got industry trying to pretend that there's not and there's nothing to see here and making fun of it ridicule and the folks and I've got real scientists were starting to fight back and say no this is real stuff and then the world meteorological organization just comes out and says CO two levels higher than they've ever been
A journey into the Chicxulub Crater
"The town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers during the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms Dr after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of
Black hole breakthrough: NASA captures its first-ever black hole tearing a star to shreds
"It's a space show like no other NASA satellites of spotted one of the most rare and violent events in the universe a black cold gobbling up a star shredding it to pieces it's an event that scientists believe happens every ten to one hundred thousand years a black hole is shredding a star bit by bit NASA satellite telescopes are giving space researchers and fans a chance to watch as it unfolds NASA scientist nickel Colin explains just how far away this is white it traveled three hundred seventy five million years to get to us because that's how far away the galaxy is that the black hole lives in this event called a title disruption was first discovered occurring in
How Did We Miss This Week's Shockingly Close Asteroid Flyby?
"An asteroid as large as a football field is just flying past the earth with astronomers not detecting acting it until literally just a day before its closest approach. The giants space rock thought to be up to one hundred and thirty meters wide came within sixty five thousand kilometers of earth on july the twenty fifth in nominal terms. That's about as close as it gets. The asteroids being catalogued as twenty nine. Okay the european paint space agency says this near earth objects close approach illustrates the need for more eyes on the sky was able to observe the asteroid just before its fly by requesting requesting to separate telescopes in the international scientific optical network is on to take images of space rock the observations allow strana missed the determine the asteroids exact back position and trajectory yesterday it was i the technical the day before its closest approach by the southern observatory veneer of asteroids research observations of twenty nine thousand nine okay with an independently confirmed by other observatories including the chiba radio telescope in puerto rico and third telescope in the ice on network following following its discovery with knowledge of the astros would have been in the past based on its current course and by manually searching for it by existing images were found in the past is is an atlas skysurfer archives it turns out birth said they had in fact captured the asteroid in the weeks before it's ultra close encounter with earth but the space space rock was moving so slowly it appears to move just a tiny amount between the images and was therefore not recognized as a near earth object neo and hence the seriousness of the threat <unk>. It wasn't appreciated of course astronomers now of an attracting thousands of asteroids across the solar system so why was this one discovered so late will unfortunately originally currently there's no single obvious reason apart from its slow apparent motion across the sky before it's close approach twenty nineteen okay travels in highly elliptical orbit taking it from within the open of venus out too well beyond that of mas this means the time it spends near earth and therefore time it's detectable both current telescope capabilities is relatively short modules towards the size of twenty nine. Okay i relatively common throughout the solar system but they impact on average only about once every one hundred thousand years or so still an asteroid like that hitting a major city or urban area would cause major devastation destruction based from its current orbital path through the solar system the asteroid one come close to the game for at least the next two hundred years. I'm stewart gary. You're listening space
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on KLBJ 590AM
"Maybe another fifty thousand years, and the number would be around two hundred thousand years old on this planet and your book and the way that and Danielle is book the way that your evidence has been collected. Is that date is actually pushed back another six hundred thousand years, and it's tipping things over correct? Yes. That's right. It was it's bad to say as well. You know, I'm I'm kind of changing what what was once can say that most most games because I mean, again, there's reasons why you say that, you know, the for a long time. I would have said now that we arise about two hundred thousand years ago, they even the mainstream may starting to change date that they're having to ship back as well. Is they've realized that they've had it wrong. They understood you know, what's made us the way we are. And and the different human ancestors. It looked different how they will feel today mixed. You know, so you might get some David quite looked like us, and they all they went home. But then they get that group makes a discreet make and all of that mixing as well, which is made us. How do they they are also pushing back the the dates on the species now where I am. Yeah. Which is the point that we just have peered here. Whether it's two hundred thousand years ago or eight hundred thousand years ago, there isn't the evolutionary steps that Darwin has suggested that would have taken tens of millions of years in front of homo sapiens. Sapien that we just appeared in there are reasons for that. We've got about ten seconds can. Is it alien is an ET are those the reasons for my position. Yes, it's an AT engineering event. And you know, we'll give evidence about this is coast to coast AM. I am your host Jimmy church live from the UK. What's that? Oh, you want to go ahead. And okay. We've got about another minute, Bruce. That is according to my engineer here in the studio when when we talk about ET doing this is a genetic thing where we seated here. How's it possible that we would just appear and there's nothing else on the planet like us? Yeah. Me too angles rarely seating. Penn. I I am panspermia theories. You know as many academics. You know, I think all DNA live the product again with a seating event, you know, four point five billion years ago, and that you can see it almost as if in the way that if you see Joe garden, Jimmy, you know, if you see to garden, you probably go buy, then you, you know, you Walter at you all PLA you maybe even hybridise them, you know, the people do gardens, and that at some point later down the line, these challenges have come back in, you know, they've modified a home in which is also result of meddling. But that home, and is being upgraded if you like in the way, the bigger brain and all that, you know that show. It's it's a continuum. This is not just one strange event. There's it's strange, you know, from beginning to present our guest tonight, Bruce are Fenton live from the UK this coast to coast AM, we'll be right back..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM
"So we're talking the last hundred thousand years of the millennia structure said that defy explanation can only be coast to coast AM every night. Talkradio six eighty WCBS. Show. Talkradio six eighty WCBS. Emails in. This is Cindy, so in three minutes, Mark called you a bunch of names, you didn't return the vitriol, classy patient, Bruce will we try? This from John Mark, listen, he's supposed to ask mom before you play on the phone and this from Christopher Mark run about one thing that Democrats need to stop talking about what they were in favor of many years ago. What happened many years ago and how much they thought about it many years ago? And they do the border right now. I'm always delighted always delighted to have. Opposing points of view. I think it's interesting. Engage. Unfortunately, it's hard to do that. It's hard to part because as you see it has the potential almost every single time of devolving down into a a bunch of personal attacks and name calling. So you walk away from talking about the issues and just start calling names. I'm not going to do that. Maybe once upon a time, but not just the the time shift too serious, and we have too much to do Nancy Pelosi, listen carefully here, folks, Nancy Pelosi. Yesterday. Was a raise the wage event. Something we're going to be doing here in this state. She says the Democrats will work to keep their promise of creating a livable wage for all Americans and to strengthen the middle class, listen carefully. We all know that the Neal causes the backbone of our middle class in our country and the middle class and those who aspire to it those we are here to work for and that middle class is essential to the strength of our democracy. For those of you who might have gone through a moment of fuzzy on your radio or something let's play again, the really important part. I mean, the key part of what MS Pelosi just said we all know that in the middle class is the backbone of our middle class in our country. We all know that the middle class is the backbone. Of the middle class in our country. I'm not quite sure I understand. So what what the speaker seems to be saying that there's one class of individuals that is the backbone of the middle class. In this country. But I can't remember miss Pelosi. What class would that be who's the backbone of the middle class in our country? Okay. The middle class. All right. Good. Thank you for clarifying that I was so confused for moment. They are just absolutely. So confused. Can we cut six up again place because I know make a twenty six. No, I'm sorry. One just let me know what you're going to do. All right. Again, here is the speaker of the house of representatives. One of the most are ticket Democrats to ever approach a microphone Nancy Pelosi. We all know that in the middle class is the backbone of our middle class in our country and in the middle class and those who aspire to it are those we are here to work for and that middle class is essential to the strength of our democracy because the middle class. Is the backbone of the middle class of this country in the middle class the middle class. They're the backbone of all the classes in this particular country. There was one class again that is the backbone of the middle class in the middle class. Of course is the backbone of the economy. So what class is that again, Neil? The middle class. I'm so glad we're clear that up. Bristle hit show. Talkradio six eighty.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"It is to our great misfortune that we are being presented with the responsibility of dealing with existential risks at this point in human history. It was only perhaps fifty to a hundred thousand years ago that human started being born with the full package of behaviors and intelligence that makes us uniquely human. Our ability to reason and think abstractly to imagine different futures are -bility to organize imagine. If we had another hundred thousand years to continue to evolve before the eggs essential risks will have to address appeared on our horizon, but that's not how the chips have fallen. Instead, it is come upon us while we were in what Carl Sagan called our technological adolescence the most dangerous face on the way to technological maturity it is up to those of us alive in the twenty first century, we bear responsibility for saving the future of the human race. And we have come up with plenty of reasons why we shouldn't. Or more to the point. Why we won't? Probably I among them is that the chance of one of these risks befalling us is so small so utterly remote. Not even worth considering. It is true that the chance of existential catastrophe like an altered pathogen escaping lab in creating a pandemic is extremely room up, but as more labs conduct more risky experiments around the world, the probability of that remote risk begins to compound and the same is true in other fields as new particle collider run higher energy experiments as more companies deploy more self improving algorithms onto global networks. What was once a mere remote possibility exit central catastrophe becomes decidedly less remote? I think there are various forms of arguments against dealing with existential some of them much better than others. So I think the Hudson the signs of the action. Oh, it one path or it has never happened before that is a really bad. But it's of course, psychologically wrote the coma because his fits with Colin Tobias. That was Anderson Berg, the philosopher from the future of humanity institute. In addition to all of the advanced behaviors that we humans has evolved that served us. So well, we also operate using some extremely ancient techniques to shortcuts that allow us to deal with everyday life, but can breakdown going more faced with things that are out of the ordinary. What result are called biases. Take for example, being presented with the fork in the road, given that both paths look equally inviting we might have trouble choosing. But say we've been presented with the same decision. Elsewhere with other forks and other. Roads before and we've usually taken the left path since nothing bad happened to us all those other times. We've chosen to go left. We would feel pretty sure nothing will this time either. So we head down the left path this time to whistling without a care in the world, totally unaware of the family of hungry bears ahead. Our cognitive biases can make us overconfident suspicious of new things optimistic pessimistic frozen within decision. We are you could say a little hamstrung by them. But even when we managed to overcome our biases or set them aside, which we will need to win were dealing with existential risks. There are still plenty of other reasons we can come up with to avoid addressing them for one even discussing this type of risk can be dangerous. Such talk can have a chilling effect on a field that's struggling to establish itself as Eric Drexler found when he led the gray genie out of the bottle and engines of creation. Talking about things like AI becoming super intelligent in taking control of our world can really go a long way to turning the public off from the idea of scientists working on building self improving thinking machines, besides as most machine intelligence, researchers will point out at this stage in its development. The field is capable of producing a machine that's perhaps as smart as three year old or even if it is advanced it's advanced it just one thing like finding patterns and medical charts or identifying cat pictures. We don't need to worry about. In other words. This argument seem shortsighted if it is the case that we're at a point where we can still fully controller artificial intelligence. The now is the best time to plan for the potential future outcomes, they might bring so that we can ensure as best as we can that they'll continue to remain under our control..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on A Moment of Science
"Done. There's new evidence in a very old murder mystery. What murder mystery is that yelled the OJ Simpson case no much older. I mean, the global mass extinction of large mammals that started about a hundred thousand years ago that wasn't doodoo climate changes after the last ice age. The new evidence implicates another prime culprit hunting by our own homo sapiens ancestors and their relatives. A team of American paleontologists from several universities analyzed a large database of fossil evidence. They published their results in twenty eighteen the findings, fuel a controversy among scientists between climate change and humans as the main cause of the extinctions who's this new evidence? Implicating humans, the evidence has to do with the unique feature of the extinction. Unlike any other extinction, it was highly selective for large mammals over much of. The last sixty five million years since the extinction of the dinosaurs. Large mammals have prospered the sides woolly mammoths there were gigantic Llamas, camels, lofts, antelopes, and a bear that stood eleven feet tall. The new evidence shows that that I started to change in Africa, humanities, and sexual home by one hundred twenty five thousand years ago, the average African mammal was fifty percent smaller than on other continents. The pattern of size specific mass, extinctions corresponds with the spread of humans out of Africa. It is most severe in the last place reached by spreading humans, north and South America where the weapons of prehistoric humans would have been most advanced. Wondering if there's new evidence real solve the case. This moment of science comes from Indiana University harm. Dog was and Iowa, Cassandra..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on BBC Inside Science
"I also the invasion into our genomes genomes, many creatures from viruses as well. What do we something like eight or ten percents of our genome is actually from viral sources and dodge Anais retroviruses somewhere between eight and ten percent. So that's about four times more DNA, which actually makes us male. We move virus than we all man. I'm not going to follow up on that festive if you that's just bring bring it back to to humans because that's what we have to power through the whole history of life on earth hair on. So we're interested in the notion of what happens, these major transitions. And then something happened to us, which I think is a fundamental interest because we quite a anthropocentric species, understandably, which is at some point in the last hundred thousand years we become behaviorally modern, we become the creatures that we recognize today. Now what can we say that I, but then I want to move on talk to Danny about this as a neuroscientist. What can we say about what happens to our brains in the last hundred thousand years, which made us who we all. I think this is really interesting. In ongoing question. It's been very difficult to pinpoint any specific genetic changes that are associated with this transition. That probably means that it's more complicated than a single mutation that happens that sweeps through the population that makes us distinctly. Human different from any of our archaic common ancestors. So this really is a question about complexity. Were there many low frequency mutations that just happened to combine interact and a particular person in just the right environment? I don't know. But as we start diving into inch genomes and anatomically modern individuals from archaeological sites, I think we'll get closer to seeing that answer to all brains from the mentally change. We don't think for two hundred two hundred fifty thousand years, maybe three hundred thousand years, but I'll behavior has radically change in the laws. One hundred thousand years. We don't show precise dates of when that transition that code, but what can we learn about the emergence of our modern human behavior from the structure of our brains when we think about the human brain and what makes it maybe different than other brains, there have been theories that suggest that it is has to do with the number of neurons that are present in the brain. And that's sort of been set aside at this point. There was also a theory that it's the size of the brain, and that's been set. to. I think the current ideas that are prevalent at the moment are that it has to do with the complexity of the interconnections between neurons and other cellular components inside of brain tissue that allow for the complexities of behavior, the characterize us as humans. But crucially that we, as the human brain is the most complex structure in the known universe. Now, he's not. He's not a reasonable thing to say, is that a useful thing to say the true? It depends if you talk to an astrophysicist or not. Astrophysicists on this panel say, let's just say it's true. What does it mean in terms of the organization of the brain? Where does that complexity arise from the complexity arises from the fact that that individual components inside of neural tissue may each have different functions, but then they have to communicate that information to other parts of the cortex source of Portugal areas. So that pattern of communication becomes important. Just like the pattern of communications between us as humans changes the way that our country's work, our culture works. Our societies work the history of neuroscience and also often the way we talk about brains in this sort of public schools is we tend to think about them as sort of components. There was an area which does this. There's a speech center. There is a sense of emotions, old old bits of the brain, which control things like breathing, is that still a useful way to think about brains compartmentalized in in that manner? I think that there has been a huge success in the area of what's called brain mapping, which is trying to identify. What each of the pieces of the brain does particularly at the large scale. So regions of the brain that are important for auditory function or visual function or movement. However, I think it's it's a bit like mapping out a country, right?.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Sex With Emily
"And this is not just current now. I should like this literally for two hundred thousand years. Women were property. That's nothing right. It's only been a few thousand years and one hundred years where women have had the right to vote in most, right? So for two hundred thousand years, women were property and this is living in the limbic system and the nervous systems of all women, right? And now there's kind of a waking up a like a collective waking up of the feminine, and and men are confused because all of a sudden this not just your anger about your life and your relationship to men and all of that. But generations of beat raped, tortured, and you know, and and. So the first thing I I'm trying to do is get men to see that and really feel like make a practice now of feeling deep into her pain and not just her pain, but the collective pain of the feminine. And if you can start from there, men can take Dell. Well, you know, I just. Axes exit through intellectual. Well, yeah. Okay. So painful, but I'm paying a rat, right? Whatever guys are thinking. I'm just saying I'm doing this for her and that it's not that bad, but we are talking about the suffering of women like it is out there. It's been there. We feel it. I just I love that you bring. I had an exercise on Saturday night where I had all the men stand in front of the women. We ended that practice sink. You breath, look into her heart, you know, sync up with her. And then I had I had the women say no in every possible way for as must have been ten minutes and they were yelling, no, they were begging. No, all the knows that they couldn't say and the men were just weeping and the women were screaming, and it was just this really beautiful experience of men feeling how much pain is in the feminine body. And so you, I guess you could try that home. I think. You should try this at home. Yeah, you have to decide to feel it right? It doesn't. It's not hard to actually feel somebody more once you decide to feel more, you just have to make an intention to feel more. And of course the exercise that we talked about that. Yeah, no, definitely. I remember doing something some of that on your retreat. Yeah, yeah. So I start there and then and then from there, then you can start to feel like, you know, where is she a? Yes and where she? No, right. But once you once you can feel like, hey, I'm in a lot of pain, and I actually have to be super impeccable for her to trust me and super present for her to trust me because she's carrying not only mistrust of her whole life, but like for all women in a certain way, end generations back, I don't know if you know this book, it didn't start with you. Now. Great book about epigenetics out. Trauma gets passed down from generation to generation. It's really, really freaking good book that anyway. So if men are doing that than I'm just training them to start to get in sync with what women are going through, like this massive waking up. And if you do that and then you go out on a date like I when I was thinking about this, I've thinking like, would you know women are dying to be thrown up against the wall. It's great example. How would you like me to come. He was okay. If I throw you out. I just. Yeah, so so men have to try to feel like, where is that moment, where her eyes and her body tell me, throw me up against the non verbal consent, totally non non blog about and lot of posts on your website to check up. Let's explain that the nonverbal, what you're saying reading into it, the body language. So let's say I'm on a date with scouting or listen on a date and and I'm, I don't even have to let her know, but I'm slowing down. I'm looking into her eyes. I'm looking deeper into her. I'm trying to breathe with or like you just took an inhale with. Attentive way. Not right now I'm doing this thing, but you could actually it's accessible successful. Do it. Eddie moment at any moment, everyone should slow down all the time sexually and even date. So yeah. Okay. And you don't have to brag about like a baby..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Pardon My Take
"Does humans haven't developed in two hundred thousand years? Yes, yes, backs. Yeah. And then the last thing, the biggest takeaway or the last takeaway that we had was could juicy could use. Everyone's rooting form his father had three heart attacks that we know of. And he also is a big time junk science guy because he was harnessing the power of the moon in one scene did and then had his jerk off crystals in the next. Yeah, he's got entire room of crystal just rubbing up against each other like men. This will teach me how to block. I would like to hear him explain to NASA just how much. He spent on geodesy. Yes, yes. So if could use doesn't like every year they have this, it's one guy you get really attached to in the end up cutting them. I hope it's not him. I think he might make the team and I actually do believe in the crystals like the harnessing of the crystal power's probably was going to get him on the either that or the full moon. If he can play every game, he can be like a spot guy. You know, some guys rush the passer on third down. He's just for full moon guy right once a month. He will give you a hell of a game. I, he didn't really explain how the full moon only affects him and nobody else, but that doesn't matter. Well, no, I think he was willing to share the power of the moon if anyone wanted. If anybody else. Baker's like check out that moon, dude, you want you want it on that and get you some moan and bakers like, nah, and then what happened threw an interception exact so taking voice could use in junk science. Okay. So the other thing we had before we get to our hotseat cool thrown in rob Riggle and all that stuff is Odal Beckham. Yes. Highest paid wide receiver sixty five million guaranteed something like that. Ninety five million overall. Do you like it or not? Real answer? Yeah. What the hell? Why not? It's kind of had to pay them so like is it a good decision? No, probably not. Right. But what else were they going to do? It's it's that's exactly my thoughts. It's like you have to pay him because he went healthy is you could make the argument the best wide receiver in the NFL obviously throw Antonio Brown and Julio Jones, but you don't win Super Bowls by paying wide receivers that much. That's true. My favorite part of the story is that so that there were some rumors earlier in this offseason that there were teams that were interested in trading for him, and one of the teams sent a private investigator detail him? Yes, like do their their background research, like do that that went to Oklahoma state just hung out in the bar and count the number of Justin Blackmon gaming the up. This dude had an awesome assignment, dislike follow delta yacht week. Go to cocaine parties? Yeah, lie in the bed with pizza and cocaine. Allegedly the best room in the world. Probably spent some time in Columbia who knows what else was going on, but I, yeah, that that is a sweet job..
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on The Cracked Podcast
"Oh yeah probably they don't go anywhere maybe they can just keep hanging out as cartoons truly curious now about how they got to resist if there is no grand illustrator like if nobody illustrated them or if there was one that we never got some meter like maybe there's if we jumped back one hundred thousand years to the boss baby time there's like there's like primitive oxen living around like wandering cartoon oxen from from k yeah it's like or like land before time dinosaurs and it's every everything from the distant past we have the cartoon version two just like some like proto like it looks a little lake roger rabbit but not quite he's like a little hairier and like i think the cartoons do procreate though because the beta the rude vulgar baby is constantly making sex jokes about jessica rabbit no i think he must have all his parts and can do business if necessary that is if people haven't seen that movie it's i think it's one of the best movies ever made i really do think it's great except for how terrifying terrifying hurt there's a part where there's a little cartoon shoe and it is the saddest thing in the history of movies it is it is the scariest thing i've ever seen in a movie they kill this little cartoon shoe and i don't know why that's my kids movie whimpers before killer slowly it's really scary and said it's still makes me sad thinking about it don't start crying in front is going to start crying you're a grownup yeah come on give it together any any true man cries at that scene and i've always believed we we're getting to the time when if you guys have any movies you wanna throw in or bring up where they have a crazy crazy canon or plot or there's a character that nobody noticed is is just terrifying there's a mic over there you can go ahead and lineup and bring it up to us and we'll talk about it it'll be a good time i do want to bring up another movie that like roger rabbit i think it washed over me as a kid which is labyrinth and labyrinth has spooky parts to it because you know there's a kid kidnapped by goblins and so on.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Gastropod
"The science he dropped some sourdot history on the group nobody knows exactly where and when sourdot bread was first invented the earliest evidence we have for making bread comes from a site in africa archaeologists have dated the remains of that bread to a hundred thousand years ago it was probably made from pounded sorghum and water and baked on a hot stone we're not sure whether that was a sourdot or not but it may have been something like the indera that ethiopian still eat today had sort of spongy in bubbly in those bubbles or created by a community of wild microbes just like today's sourdot basically if you combine ground up grain something like wheat with water and you forget about it and leave it alone eventually it starts bubbling and that's because a bunch of different microbes usually a combination of fungi like yeast and bacteria lick lactobacillus the colonized the mixture feed on the flour and that is both the start of beer and a sourdot starter there is hot debate among historians about whether humans i figured this out because they were making boos or making bread i'm on tv beer to be honest but short of cynthia finally inventing her time machine we will probably never know either way humans figured that this wild bubbly mix made their flat breads into breads the non flat kind these loaves of bread would have all been soured owes there was no other way to make bread rice so full thousands of use soured uwa's being used by each and every baker old person that would big brits and even before people knew what microbes were they were already caring for these wild communities of bubbling beige glucose feeding them with more flour and water to keep them alive and happy they figured out that you only need to add a dollop of starter to your doubts eleven it which means you can keep the same starter going for years and years decades even just by feeding it with flour and water and using a little bit of it every time you bake it becomes like your own personalized wild limiting mix that you can keep alive and use it again and again and again other people develop variations on this approach in ancient greece for example plenty the.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on BrainStuff
"Listen as it he save appears less than one hundred thousand years ago research published in 2011 shows that neanderthals had the ability to create in control fire so does the fact neanderthals could manipulate fire to produce tar prove they weren't as dimwitted as we like to assume scientists have been curious about the process neanderthals used to make their glue a new study published in the journal nature scientific reports suggest three different ways neanderthal tar could have been manufactured after all it had to be produced this stuff wasn't just secreted from trees growing in the forest but how difficult was making tar tar making is definitely a process no matter which way you go about it the research team figure that out through a fancy bit of experimental archaeology they devised three different potential methods of extracting sticky stuff from birch park the ashish mound method where tightly ruled layers of birchbark are covered in ash in embers deep pit roll cigar roll method where one end of a bertril is lit and placed burning side down into a small collection pit and the raised structure method where a birch bark container was placed in a pit beneath in organic mesh which holds loosely rolled bark that is then covered with earth and fire after recreating the three tar production methods the scientists assess each according to three criteria the yield temperature and complexity the team found that though the simplest fastest method the ash mound method yielded just a piece sized amount of tar the most complicated timeconsuming method that's the race structure method produced fifteen to twenty times more and was also the most efficient they also observed that regulating the temperature of the.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Dreamland
"And to give it a lot more thought and to see how that would've how that would have happened well when you you look at it what you see is this the sun is type of star known as a yellow dwarf most yellow dwarfs have sterile planetary systems because they explode out ferocious waves of gamma rays every few hundred thousand years we know this because we see them doing it in in in out in in the galaxy now hours does not we know what dozen because we wouldn't be here if it did it is cers try kingly benign compared to most of its sisters are brothers depending on how you look at it again earth is just in the exact lease exact center of the narrow fifty five fifty thousand mile deep habitable zone around this star third the moon which it emerged out of a huge impact you know with the crater on earth the earth was left behind on earth that is of by the moon it's called the pacific ocean that was a big impact without the moon to slow the rotational winds of earth by because it's at the perfect distance and this is the perfect size we would not be here there would be nothing on the earth more than likens and things because the wins naturally generated by the rotation of the plant would be too strong the moon acts as a kind of break if the gas giants out beyond mars weren't here neither would waive because we would have long since been destroyed by asteroids coming in from deep space and the moon is there sweeping up the ones that most of the ones that do get through with the result that earth his hit far less frequently by bull odds and large objects than any other planet that we know of in the solar system so it's like goldilocks planet in a perfect place and i just wonder and that gets me now to this idea the basic idea of the book which is so in thrall ing it's a little bit like the ancient aliens but it's much more complex than that in deeper them.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Lexicon Valley
"But really even you know if we think about it if you know that it couldn't be that it's natural for languages to simplify because think about how old languages homo sapiens is probably about two hundred thousand years old now some people don't date language back that far but anybody who is expert on the subject agrees that language has existed for several tens of millennia certainly eighty thousand years now if language has been around that long and it's natural tendency is to simplify one all language to speed dust by now when we all to speak garg ling if that were the natural tendency over some hundreds or maybe a couple thousand years is one thing but languages and around for a very long time it's almost as if there was an evolutionary model where everything for some reason got simpler so that at one point we were human beings but then because of this simplifying tendency everybody just kept devolving until finally there was nothing but a whole lot of small angry clams that's not how evolution works that's not how language worse let's listen to some languages english is a language but i think we know enough about that here's the resolute does this sound like something that's been simplifying overtime here we go even if you don't understand a word of it does look into a flame is how it got my land me key length lomo sadly we as a shall endeavour nasa windows nozzle local indigenous it conducive munkula the with ila item since the enzyme gina mindedness events if the muslim luigi knee guiding get enough new for russia's italy's citizens on nepal.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Nature Podcast
"Oldest human ever discovered changes the story of our species changes you know everything if you missed that here's here's what happened basically a paper nature came out from some researchers based in germany and they had been excavating a site in in morocco near it's a planet coast near near the city of marrakesh and the site called jebel air hood uh we've known about it since the '60s people found a nearly complete skull there they thought the the skull and the other remains they found were were really quite young first forty thousand years and then maybe in one hundred nine hundred forty thousand years and is option was is that these remains though they had some features that were like us such as kind of a a delicate face uh that these these creatures were they're alive too late to be of much relevant to the origin of our species must be both think that humans homo sapiens emerged maybe two hundred thousand years ago in a quote unquote garden of eden possibly east africa definitely subsaharan the news was is that these researchers re david this site in morocco by being butter a boom it's three hundred fifteen thousand years old and they found some new fossils that complete the picture of its of its skull and of its face in a revealed that in some ways it's face was very much like us it's a face he would recognize today one of the researchers told me it skull would have held a big brain like ours but it was a differently shaped more like a torpedo in our round brain but the the big news in the in the reason why everyone is talking about it than what reason why i'm talking about it is that they decided that this skull of these remains mark the earliest known homo sapiens remains.
"hundred thousand years" Discussed on Science in Action
"Probably at five hundred thousand years ago or more so there was an expectation that they should be a homo sapiens line going much deeper than the forces we have at two hundred thousand years in ethiopia and so there's been expectation but the problem was the they were possible sapiens fossil older but they were very complete will they went well dated now with the re dating and the re study of a good we've got a very good collection of what seems to be a primitive sapiens and a good dyke at around three hundred thousand so i think it breaks the mold of what we but we thought we knew about sapiens but it conforms with really the genetic data of a much deeper history for for us similar now to history we building for the talks that is true that you've been saying for a while that you think that the origin of saplings would be earlier than two hundred thousand years ago but the the place the location is a is another watt complete surprise to me where we are thousands of miles from southern africa niece in africa which is wet typically we thought was the the nursery of hummus at happens that's right yes and i think you shoes being the there's been this volleying for supremacy between east african and south african the fact is that probably different parts of africa were important different times in the story of modern human origins and indeed our autumn origin could even go back to some western asia because we've gotta think where did the common ancestor live of us and the knee and a thomason dennis ovens.