35 Burst results for "Hundred Million Years"

The Renewable Heating System Right Below Your Feet

TED Talks Daily

01:46 min | 3 months ago

The Renewable Heating System Right Below Your Feet

"One of the hallmarks of living in a technologically advanced society is even the little details of life that seem mundane and being astonishing. Like the fact that it takes five gallons of water to produce a walnut or that half the plastic. That's ever been made has been made in the past fifteen years. My favorite of these examples is what it takes to keep a room room temperature. Allow me to explain. Heating is generally done by combusting fossil fuel so first we have to find the fuel. Unfortunately it tends to be buried more than clutter under the earth's surface and all too often in inconvenient places like the arctic circle nations in conflict or under the bottom of the ocean and then there's the fact that the substance takes sixty to six hundred million years to form from dead plankton. So there's that issue we drilled these incredibly deep to get it then we pipe it truck it and ship it in tankers across the world to refineries which are these incredibly expensive industrial facilities that taking crude oil and gas which are just a bunch of different hydrocarbon molecules in order to sort those molecules into refined products refined natural gas is then delivered to homes and businesses via an invisible interstate highway system. Millions of miles. Long it's invisible. Because it's underground there are so much pipeline. In this system that entire steel mills have been built only to produce pipeline for this system and because there are millions of miles of gas getting pumped beneath us at high pressure at all times. Engineers send these intelligent. Robots called smart pigs through the pipelines to check for safety. Beck's doing this is called. Pigging the pipeline. Yeah that's a real thing. But even with these precautions there are accidents

Arctic Beck
Determining the Age of Earths Continental Crust

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

01:42 min | 4 months ago

Determining the Age of Earths Continental Crust

"And you study claims its continental crust. First emerged some three point. Seven billion years ago. The findings presented at the european geological. Union's general assembly showed that the planet's light continental crust formed within the first nine hundred million years of the earth's existence. The continental crust is the layer of grew natick sedimentary amid them offic rocks which forms the continents in the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores is the continental shelves. It's list dance. The janik crust material and therefore floats on top of it unlike previous research which is based on strontium isotopes and marine cabinets which are usually either scarce or altered in rock more than three billion years old new study by scientists from the university of bergen looked at the mineral barrett which forms from sulfates emotion water mixing with barium from hydrothermal vents and thus holds an unchanging record aversion chemistry. Going back through time. The authors calculated the ratio of strontium isotopes in six different deposits of barrack from three different continents range in age from three pointed three point. Five billion years this allowed them to determine win with continental rock populated into the ocean and was incorporated into barrett the authors determined that the weathering started about three point seven billion years ago. That's around five hundred million years earlier than previously thought. The findings provide a new understanding of early ocean chemistry. As well as the onset of plate tectonics and even hope understanding the evolution of the biosphere because once process is like plate tectonics hope established the continents processes like erosion can begin to where the crucial minerals and nutrients into the ocean.

General Assembly University Of Bergen Barrett
What Earth Looked Like 3.2 Billion Years Ago

Short Wave

08:23 min | 6 months ago

What Earth Looked Like 3.2 Billion Years Ago

"We get into it quick very general refresher on plate tectonics the outer layer of our planet. The stuff we're sitting on is made up of a system of hard plates rigid blocks of rock that move relative to each other and they glide around on top of a layer of softer rock that makes up part of the earth's mantle these rafic plates drift around colliding causing each other to crumple or slide over top of one another. It's why we have most of our mountains and earthquakes in roger wants to know in earth's long history when those plates started moving answering that question was a bit of an adventure. Okay so roger to figure out when these plates started shaking and bacon moving around you had to go on a hunt for some very specific rocks. Where did that take you. Yes so we follow the old rocks. We go to the parts of the world Where rocks from three billion years ago are actually preserved And this is hard because actually of plate tectonics so play tectonics life recycles the surface of the earth over and over again only about five percent of the earth's surface represents the first half of our history. Oh that's really interesting in other words if you're a piece of continent three and a half billion years ago there's very little chance. He survived to the present day so specifically we went to an area. north australia. Called the pilbara so this is an area where there isn't a ton of turnover due to plate tectonics so you can find some really old rocks there. That's right yes. Just by the luck of the draw these rocks have been knocked around on the surface of the earth. It probably wandered all the way from the poll to the equator many times but Over the course of these three billion years it was never pushed down into the interior of the earth in which case it would have been heated melted. What is it look like roger. Yeah it's a really beautiful place and most of the terrains. Condie's green rolling hills with these kind of spiky kind of drought resistant. Grasses is better look then. Walk through sense yeah. It's prettier than it. Feels as what you're telling me exactly the same field season. We took these samples. I I made the grave mistake. Taking light-duty hiking shoes that also had some holes in it ended up duct taping my feet every day just armor at a little bit more against the the spiky grass so okay so you're you're hiking along you find iraq they are looking for you. Collect your samples. And then you take them back to your lab and try to determine their magnetic history. What is what is that me. Yeah that's exactly right. So we'd take the rocks from the field We keep track of how the rocks are are oriented so in other words wish science up and then we take it back to our lab and we measured that direction of of the magnetic field in the so turns out all naturally form rocks contain magnetic components. So i mean i mean. I knew that i knew that. Keep going on your then. Totally knew that. Yeah yeah so so. All natural rocks contain these Minerals so these little grains of material that actually are magnetic and they're actually behave like little compass needles. And if you take a take a rock any old rock and you measure in the instruments that we have You can detect the direction that these little magnetic grains are pointing. Wow so you you can literally take rock and say okay. We know this rock was pointing in this direction. That's exactly right. Yeah and The reason this is useful in our in our case is that the magnetic field of the earth exists at different angles in different directions depending on where you are on earth and specifically changing latitude if you go from one latitude to different latitude on on. The earth dangled a maniac field changes. So if you can measure the angle to make field in these rocks you can figure out what latitude through the form that. Wow okay okay so you you you figure that out and then let me know if i have this right then you compare them to nearby rocks that you know the magnetic history of you know which way they were pointing and that helps you understand like when they started moving By looking at our data of where this rock was relative to the equator and comparing to other studies We showed that this rock actually moved from position. Closer to the equator so in in the tropics of the earth to position that's farther from the equator so in kind of the mid-latitudes and and we can quantify how quick this drift was how quick this motion was and from that. We know that this does and was moving at the same rate at the same kinds of velocities that the modern continents move. Oh that's cool and so into you know when that happened because you know the age of the rocks as well. That's right so other people Other workers that have visited rocks before us. have looked at particular parts of these particular mineral grains in these rocks. Tie actually preserve information about how old they are So for each of these measurements of how close the rock was to decatur We can also put an age on that on that position so roger and his team by collecting and analyzing these very very old rocks and australia came up with an estimate. Their research suggests earth's tectonic plates were in motion at least three point two billion years ago. Several hundred million years earlier than we thought and another cool thing about rogers research. It weighs in on a peculiar geoscience mystery. So there's this very long standing question in earth science of how the earth seems to have had water surface for released last four billion years. Rogers says at that time. The son was probably about thirty percent fainter compared to today so the earth shoud have been completely frozen. But he says there's geological evidence liquid water was on the earth surface. Then you know one of the key ingredients that life to evolve on this planet so what could have made the planet warm enough for liquid water. You know where. I'm going with this. So one of the leading hypotheses for why. The earth managed to maintain equilibrium in temperature managed to have this thermostat. Is that plate. Tectonics causes the recycling of carbon into the earth and then also puts out carbon into the atmosphere and it does in such a way that the surface temperature is kept within the within a certain range. So are you telling me that. The movement of the plates that were living on is partially responsible for the development of our atmosphere and the temperature of our planet. Yeah that's exactly right. So this is a question that geologists have been pondering for like a really long time. How how cool it to add this piece to it to defined this out. Yeah yeah it. Felt very gratified to know that we have contributed to resolving this very old question. If feels like it feels like the effort was well worth it was worth the duct tape boots is. What you're telling me that's right. Yeah it was worth the the pokes foot every day every. Step all right roger. Will i really appreciate you. This super fun. Yeah yeah this is really

Roger North Australia Condie Rogers Research Iraq Decatur Rogers Australia
The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

03:19 min | 7 months ago

The Most Distant Black Hole Ever Seen

"Astronomers of sudden you record for the most distant quasar ever found the quasar dating back some thirty point one. Three billion years is a thousand times more luminous than the milky way galaxy and is powered by the earliest known supermassive black hole a true monster more than one point six billion times. The mass of the sun the newly discovered quasar jazeera three one three minus eighteen o six and reported in the physical journal letters and on the pre press physics website archive dot. Org doesn't just provide new insights into the evolution of massive galaxies in the universe. It also raises profound questions. About how such massive black holes could have existed just six hundred thirty million years after the big bang. And that's a point underlined by the study's lead author for enjoying from the university of arizona. Who says black holes created by the very first massive stars simply could not have grown that large in only a few hundred million years the most distant quasars a crucial for understanding how the earliest black holes formed and for understanding cosmic realization the last major phase transition of the universe from the cosmic dark ages before the first stars quasars a powerful jets of mass and energy generated by black holes feeding on surrounding material as matter falls into a black hole it forms an accretion disc around the black hole event horizon a point of no return beyond which material falls forever into the singularity a place of infinite density and zero volume scientists understanding of the laws of physics breaks down material on the creation disc is ripped apart of the subatomic level by friction and gravitational forces releasing huge amounts of energy radiating out across the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of energy emitted by quasars is enormous with massive examples such as this one being visible right across the entire universe. J zero three one three minus eighteen. O six was first spotted in data from the pan stars new kurt hemisphere survey with follow up specter from the keg in north telescopes to measure the size of its central supermassive black hole measurements from spectral lines that originate from the guests around the quasars. Accretion disk allowed astronomers to determine the black mass and study its rapid growth influences. Its environment for such distant. Quasars important spiritual lines are red shifted to knee infrared wavelength by the physical expansion of the universe over the past thirteen point eight billion years. The and jim nine north observations and covered an extremely fast emitting from the quasar in the form of high-velocity winds travelling at twenty percent the speed of light the energy released by such an extreme. I city flow easily. Large enough to impact star formation in the entire quasars galaxy as for the galaxy itself. Well it's undergoing a spirit of star formation producing you stars two hundred times faster than the milky way the combination of this intense star formation a luminous quasar and the high velocity outflow makes jazeera three one three minus eighteen. O six antos galaxy a promising natural barberie for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies in the early universe.

Quasar Jazeera Physical Journal University Of Arizona JIM Barberie
Milankovitch Cycles

Everything Everywhere Daily

06:44 min | 8 months ago

Milankovitch Cycles

"To understand millan kovic cycles. We have to understand each of the cycles which the earth goes through individually. There are several of them. And it's gonna take a bit of visualization to get the concept via podcast where there are no visual aids. But it shouldn't be too difficult. We'll start by going through the cycles that the earth itself goes through to understand these need to think of the earth as a spinning top when the top spins. it's usually not perfectly upright. The top will be tilted somewhat just like atop. The earth has a tilt to rotation currently the earth tilts twenty three point five degrees. And that is what is responsible for the seasons. However that tilt known as obligatory isn't static it actually wobbles back and forth between twenty two point one degrees and twenty four point five degrees right now. We're in the middle of such a cycle. The time it takes to complete one full cycle of going from twenty two point one degrees to twenty four point five degrees and back again is forty one thousand years the greater the tilt the more sun the polar regions will get in the summer and the more extreme the seasons are the next part of the cycle is axial procession if you can imagine the spinning top again as it. Spinning the axis of the top is rotating. Circle isn't just tilting. In one direction on the earth the direction of our access in the north currently points to the north star players this temporary over the course of twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one point five years. The earth's axis will go in a circle that means that not only will the north star. Not be the northstar at some point but twenty five thousand seven hundred and seventy one years from now it will be the northstar again while the earth is going about it cycles on it's wobbling and spinning access there are also things happening to the earth orbit itself for this part instead of a spinning top. I want you to visualize a spinning plate. The edge of the spinning plate would be the orbiting. The earth and at the center of the plate would be the sun the first orbital cycle is the orbital eccentricity cycle the orbit of the earth around. The sun isn't a perfect circle. it's slightly elliptical the shape of that ellipse changes over time. And how much it deviates from a circle is known as eccentricity the eccentricity cycles between point zero zero three four which is almost perfectly circular two point zero five eight which is more slightly elliptical the changes due to the gravitational pull of large planets like jupiter and saturn. This cycle takes about one hundred thousand years. The next cycle is called app sill procession. If you can imagine that played again this time imagine it. As more of an oval plate as the earth is going around its orbit around the edge. The plate itself is rotating that means be closest and farthest point that the earth is from the sun will change over time. This cycle is about one hundred and twelve thousand years. Finally there's a cycle for orbital inclination. That rotating plate isn't flat and actually tilts and the tilt changes over time as well. This cycle is about one hundred thousand years as well and is very close to the same length. As orbital eccentricity cycle each of these cycles involves relatively small changes over long periods of time however they can compound each other or they can mitigate each other all of these cycles have been known for a while somewhere known back as far as antiquity and others were more recently discovered in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in one thousand nine hundred eighty s serbian astrophysicists named bulletin. Millan kovic put all the pieces together. He realized that these cycles closely followed the patterns of ice ages in particular three of these axial tilt eccentricity and procession all affected the amount of sunlight that would fall on the northern hemisphere. These cycles could either cancel each other out to moderate the strength of seasons or they could compound each other making the seasons even more powerful in particular. What really mattered was the amount of sunlight falling on the northern hemisphere. In the summer why the northern hemisphere that is where most of the land is sixty eight percent of the land on earth is in the northern hemisphere land. Can't store heat as well as water. Which means that ice can form on it. Easier ice reflects sunlight which can cause further cooling during an ice age most. The ice accumulates in the northern hemisphere in the south is can only accumulate to a point before it hits warmer water and the ice will cleave off to form icebergs. Glaciers depend on how much of the ice melts during the summer when the earth is at its maximum tilt more sun is hitting the northern hemisphere in the summers if the orbit of the earth is such that it's at its closest point to the sun. When this happens summers will be very intense and ice will melt when he opposite happens when the tilt is at a minimum and the earth is farther away in the summers ice will not melt as much and glaciers will grow. All of these factors individually are rather small at its closest point to the sun which currently happens on january fourth. Remember back to my episode on why we celebrate new year's day when we do there's only about six percent more solar radiation hitting the earth than when we are at the farthest point likewise the axial tilt of the earth only changes a few degrees however these effects can be big enough when they work in conjunction to cause an ice age. The observed strength of ice ages is usually found to be stronger than the millen kovic cycles would suggest leading some climatologists to think that there might be a positive feedback mechanism at work. Something which causes the planet to cool faster than expected. The timing of ice ages is still being worked on. Kovic predicted that i would be about forty one thousand years apart and that was true up until about one million years ago since then ice ages have come at about one hundred thousand years which corresponds to the eccentricity cycle. Milne kovic cycles aren't just unique to earth like the earth. Mars has all the cycles. I just mentioned except that the timing and the extent of the cycles are different. Researchers estimate that mars has had between six and twenty ice ages over the last eight hundred million years. The martian milankovitch cycle might bring about an ice age every four hundred thousand to two point one million years. Some of you might be wondering if mellon kovic cycles are responsible for the recent climatic changes measured over the last several decades and the answer is no milakovic's cycles take thousands. If not tens of thousands of years to change their effects. Camping noticed over periods short as a decade so the next time you think about the earth as a spinning ball in space realize that the spinning the orbit isn't a static unchanging thing it's always slowly changing and there are cycles within cycles within cycles

Millan Kovic Aids Kovic Milne Kovic Mellon
Springtails: Nothing to be afraid of

On The Ledge

05:49 min | 10 months ago

Springtails: Nothing to be afraid of

"The first thing to say about spring tells is that probably not something. The yoga sports on the lease of your plants. They like moist places. And that means you most want you to see them on the surface of your soil particularly if you've just watered or perhaps if you lift up apart and look underneath inside a cashpoint possibly you will see lots of little creatures roaming about. They're about the size of a full stop and there are hundreds if not thousands of species. I think there's about two hundred and fifty different species of spring tail here in the uk so as well as into the in your house plant pots. You might also find them outside. You'll compost heap or in part of dump leaves on the characteristic that gives them their name is their ability to spring. But don't get them confused with fleas. They are different creatures. And do not have the capacity to blunt. You or your pets or indeed. You'll houseplants these are really agent creatures. Apparently there are fossil's of spring tales. Going back to four hundred million years ago the know insects they are heck supports which means they've got six legs. I've said that detroit officials while that means they feed on any kind of decaying matter in the soil. They also feed on fungi and algae and that sort of thing so they serve a wonderful purpose in breaking down organic matter. The thing that makes the spring tale jump is called for keeler earned it is of wishbone shaped appendage kind of detail that sits underneath the spring tales belly and when it's surprised for example by you lifting up the port where. It's been hiding this little spring flicks up and propels the spring tail into the air. And apparently this leap is the equivalent of me jumping over. The eiffel tower says pretty impressive. I'll link in the show notes to a wonderful video. Featuring sir david at bra or should i say our lord. God david attenborough talking about spring tales. The column bola class as they unknown and showing how they actually go about springing. It's really amazing to watch. They also have an amazing cheap on the head which they use to moisture is their body basically they have to stay moist in order to survive and most patches of ground on all seven continents of the world will contain about one hundred thousand spring tales per square meter wells' so they are everywhere and there isn't really any great reason for concern if you see and the old spring tail in your soil or under your parts. Because they're gonna go somewhere moist. They are breaking down organic matter. It may be a sign that you're a little bit to dump if maybe you're seeing spring tales in the soil of say cacti and succulents but if you seeing them in the soil of the plants in you've just watered or you're lifting up a part there some there it's really not something to worry yourself about. Just take a look at those tells on wonder at how amazing they are. The other thing to note is that they do mainly wonder about that. Jump everywhere so if you see some small creatures about the size of a full stopped moving around not necessarily jumping the could very well still be spring tails but if you disturb them you may find that one or two will jump and the color very say anything from very dark gray to white to brown. But as i say. The main indication is their location if they are in that soil and they're not doing anything with these. If your plot unusually the location of the creature gives you a really good indication of what it is if it's white and fluffy and in the crevices of your succulent than it's probably a mealy bug if it's a white and fluffy and it's in the roots of your plant while check it carefully. Because it could be micro rizal. Fungi strands but it could also be mealy bugs again. Your hand lenses really useful here. If it's something on the back of your leaves are white grainy stuff. That's probably the shed skins of your spider mites. If you've got really good vision or use a hand lens you should be able to see the brown crab like spider mites wandering around aphids. Well they usually tackle the new soft growth on plants often find them on. Flower stems or on new growth of leaves and thrifts well. They don't look that much different than spring tails but they are bigger and generally you'll find them wondering about your plant leaves as opposed to on the soil and if he wants to get a closer look at the spring tales in your life. Then dave wilson has written an excellent book called the garden jungle or gardening to save the planet which i highly recommend has a good technique to suggest for gathering some up. Dave suggests that you get some compost or leaf mold or indeed the material that's in your plant pots and put it into a funnel under warm lamp sick that funnel on top of some kind of container and the spring tails will head away from the heat and into the container and then you can take a closer look at them a fun activity if you have kids or grandkids to entertain this festive season

Keeler David Attenborough Sir David Detroit UK Dave Wilson Dave
Late Triassic extinctions linked to climate change

Climate Connections

01:12 min | 10 months ago

Late Triassic extinctions linked to climate change

"Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can have a dramatic impact on life on earth. It has before about two hundred million years ago at the end of the triassic period about three quarters of all species died out the mass extinction was likely triggered by widespread volcanic eruptions the amended enormous amounts of carbon dioxide causing global warming. These medieval county conveyance side in time with the mass extinction events. Manfred capriolo is a phd student at the university of padua in italy. He says the eruptions occurred in bursts over hundreds of thousands of years. Each burst lasted about five hundred years by studying bubbles of gas trapped in ancient volcanic rock. He determined how much carfax each burst released. The amount was similar to the human caused emissions expected. This century campriello says his research shows that a single pulse of volcanic activity could have contributed to dramatic changes to the climate at the end of the triassic. Our world is different than it was two hundred million years ago but he says it's a warning that rapidly adding co two to the atmosphere now could have major consequences of this. Finding is absolutely alarming

Manfred Capriolo University Of Padua Campriello Carfax Italy
How Do Cuttlefish Work?

BrainStuff

03:59 min | 1 year ago

How Do Cuttlefish Work?

"Cuttlefish are among my favorite aquatic animals. Because they are smart and cute as heck. If you dig tentacles they belong to the class of molluscs called cephalopods along with squid and octopuses cephalopod meaning head foot in Latin thus named because these creatures feet arms really encircle their heads several pods have been around for about five hundred million years much longer than most other marine life including fish. And there's some of the smartest animals in the sea and even in this group of smart animals. The cuttlefish stands out for its intelligence more than one hundred twenty species of fish call. Earth's waters home. They can be found in virtually all Sion's although they do tend to migrate to deep areas during the winter before returning to shallow waters and reefs in spring and summer to mate. They're identified by their eight short arms and two longer tentacles. They also have a hidden weapon underneath. The cuttlefish is many arms lies a razor sharp beak much like that of your average parrot. This tool allows the cuttlefish to knock on crab mollusks and other hard shelled animals. And it's extra effective because it's sports a toxin designed to freeze pray in their tracks once bitten and cuttlefish are masters of camouflage similar to the Chameleon cuttlefish can change their color and texture to blend into their surroundings. But that's not the half of it. Researchers found that they can freeze their camouflage Palette by locking hundreds of tiny structures and their skin in place for up to an hour all this without consuming any energy from their main nervous system to stay in place sorta like an e reader that lasts a long time between charges because only uses juice when you turn the page. A cuttlefish only expend energy when they change the pattern. This trick allows them to hold their disguise. For long periods to avoid being detected or eaten it also helps some snatch their prey by allowing them to remain almost invisible as they wait for fish and crustaceans to come by they. Also use patterns to communicate with or sometimes trick other cuttlefish in the world of cuttlefish mating. The big brawny males usually win the female. Codfish BY SCARING OFF smaller males but every once in a while. A smaller mail gets his chance he can do this. By splitting his colors to show typically female patterns on the side of his body facing a larger male while showing masculine patterns to the female of choice then he sidled up to her and commences mating before the other male has figured out however when the odds are a little more. Even cuttlefish aren't afraid to brawl. Scientists have long known that cuttlefish are capable of aggressive behavior but twenty eleven footage captured this behavior in the wild rather than in the laboratory in this footage a male and female cuttlefish heff just finished meeting another male tries to steal her way he succeeds at first but then the first male follows them for awhile and finally strikes back. The two male start fighting flashing INC biting in showing other types of angry cuttlefish behavior. This is interesting because it confirms that. The aggressive behavior was based on mutual assessment rather than self-assessment when applying game theory models in other words. The cuttlefish didn't determine its actions based only on its own strength but also on considering the capabilities of sparring partner to that takes a lot more thought than simply throwing Braun around further. This discovery might prove to be a valuable way to learn more about the cognition and aggression of other animals. Also cuttlefish can count twenty sixteen. Study plays fifty four. Different Pharaoh cuttlefish tank along with a transparent to chambered box each side of the box contained a different quantity of shrimp to eat forcing each To choose the better deal. The two researchers changed the shrimp ratio each time and even played around with larger

Sion Partner Braun
How Does Saturn Work?

BrainStuff

07:37 min | 1 year ago

How Does Saturn Work?

"The Planet Saturn takes its name from a Roman God of agriculture and of all the planets revolve around our sun. It's cultivated if you will the greatest ring system by far shining rings filled with ice dust and rock orbit its equator. The whitest one called the phoebe ring has an outer edge. That's millions of miles away from Saturn itself. For comparison the average distance between Earth and our moon is a paltry two hundred thirty nine thousand miles or three hundred eighty four thousand kilometers once again. Astronomy PUTS THE HUMAN EGO IN CHECK. Saturn's rings get all the attention but we shouldn't ignore its other attributes the sixth planet in our solar system. It's also the biggest after Jupiter. Those two are in a league of their own. If you mushed every planet from Mercury to Neptune together Saturn and Jupiter would account for over ninety percent of the cumulative mass of that planetary mass but despite its immense size Saturn is the least dense planet in the sun's orbit and the spherical to. We'll need to look at. Its physical makeup to understand why research published in two thousand nineteen showed that a day on Saturday and lasts just ten hours thirty three minutes and thirty eight seconds. It's spin rate helps explain one of the ring. World's stranger qualities is he. Saturn is ten percent wider than it is tall. A difference of over seven thousand miles or nearly twelve thousand kilometers. Astronomers call that kind of disparity an equatorial bulge every planet in the solar system has one but Saturn's is the most extreme saturn rotates around its axis at a very high speed. Hence the brevity stays. And here's where density comes into play like. Jupiter Saturn is a gas giant such worlds predominantly consists of hydrogen and helium and whereas Earth is solid on. The outside gas. Giants are not they may however have hard intercourse now. Saturn is downright huge in terms of volume. Some seven hundred sixty four earth sized objects could fit inside of it and the planet is ninety five times as massive as our home world and yet relative to its size. Earth is eight times more dense. In fact water yes. Plain water is denser them Saturn although that doesn't mean the planet would float. It's not cohesive enough so thanks to its low. Low density zippy rotational. Speed Saturn's been deformed into a oblong world that looks kind of squished in profile Jupiter's southern hemisphere famously has an ongoing storm called the great. Red Spot Saturn's answer to. This is the great white spots which are periodic tempests that arise every twenty thirty Earth Years I detected in eighteen seventy six. These weather events are colossal scale ness as Cassini spacecraft spent thirteen productive years hovering around Saturn on December fifth of two thousand ten. It witnessed the most recent iteration of the great white spot phenomenon. The storm was about eight hundred miles by sixteen hundred miles long when it first began. That's about thirteen hundred twenty five hundred kilometers but over the next six months. The spot expanded Longitudinal early until it had looped itself around the planet in a gigantic circle. Some researchers think the great white spots might be part of a cycle that sees the outer layer Saturn's atmosphere slowly lose heat allowing the warm air from lower levels to burst upward. Meanwhile Saturn's North Pole. There's a cloud pattern shaped like giant hexagon. This pleasantly symmetrical jet stream spins counterclockwise measures about twenty thousand miles or thirty two thousand kilometers across and includes a hurricane. That's been swirling right over the poll ever since it was discovered back in Nineteen eighty-eight. Of course it's not the hexagon earned Saturday. A place on. Chucky festers T. shirt you know from rugrats anyway. The gas giant is most famous for the spectacular ring system encircling it a planetary rings aren't rare per se Jupiter Uranus and Neptune. Have the well yet. In terms of sheer scale network around Saturn is totally unrivaled. Most of the primary rings come with letter names. The closest one to Saturn is called the D ring which has an inner radius of about forty two thousand miles or sixty seven thousand kilometers a lot closer than our moon. It's surrounded by these C B A F G and earrings in that order by the way. The rings aren't arranged Alphabetically. Because the naming system reflects the dates of their discovery Abmc recited before the rest when measured from its outside edge. The earring showcases an impressive. Three hundred thousand mile radius or four hundred and eighty thousand kilometers. Or at least that looks impressive until you get to know the big bad fearing that. We mentioned earlier. I spotted in two thousand nine. This one was named after one of Saturn's moons untold trillions of ice rock dust particles. Make up these rings. Some bits are the size of a sugar grain. Others could probably Dwarf Your House in any case. The ring material is stretched. Remarkably thin Saturn's rings may be as thick as two miles or kilometers wide. Found just thirty two feet or ten meters wide so proportionately. The gas giants iconic rings thinner than a typical sheet of writing paper as noted by Astronomer. Phil plait whereas Saturn itself is probably around four point five billion years old. The age of its rings isn't as clear. Some scientists think that they were formed ten million to a hundred million years ago when an icy comet or some ice covered moons came too close to the planet. The visitor or visitors would have met a grisly end. Getting ripped to pieces by Saturn's gravity as those fragments collided they grew smaller and multiplied giving rise to the skinny but brilliant system. We all know today on the other. Hand a twenty. Nineteen paper argued that the rings might have originated at an earlier stage in the history of our solar system. We'll have to see how the debate unfolds as new evidence arises. There's lots about this planet that we're still learning in October of two thousand. Nineteen the international astronomical. Union heralded the discovery of twenty newfound moons orbiting the gas giant with these bodies added to the mix. There are now eighty two verified. Saturn moons altogether no other planet in the solar system has that many natural satellites not even mighty Jupiter. You can find Saturn's moons in around and beyond the ring system before Cassini was retired in two thousand seventeen it revealed that some of them gather clumps of ice and dust. From the Rings Saturn's Moon Titan is especially well-named it's our solar system second-biggest moon overall and it's dotted with seas lakes and rivers of liquid methane and pain. There's only one other body within the Sun's orbit that has standing pools of liquid that we know about. And here's a hint. You're sitting on it right now. Tighten is also noteworthy for having an atmosphere and it's theorized that there could be ice volcanoes that spew water instead of lava like Earth Saturn gets auroras at its poles. They're invisible to the unaided human eye. But the Cassini spacecraft and the Hubble Space Telescope have captured footage of them using infrared and ultraviolet

Astronomy Giants Cassini Phil Plait Chucky Festers Hubble Space Telescope North Pole Union Abmc
Who Was First on Earth?

True Mysteries of the Pacific Northwest

04:35 min | 1 year ago

Who Was First on Earth?

"Today are mysterious past the first the people on Earth. Where did they come from? Leonardo Davinci. Tesla is dying these three in one hundred others over the centuries all with ideas. You were ahead of their time. Where did these ideas come from? Metal Staples at held Mexico's Ancient Pyramids together yet. Local indigenous business people had no knowledge of metallurgy. The NASCA wells relied on air pressure to bring water up from underground rivers and the unexplained tunnels on on the two thousand five hundred mile. Inca road that are carved through solid stone. How did that happen? How were these deeds? Possible where to disadvantage. What's knowledge come from could survivors of a long extinct species of Homo Sapiens have somehow passed on the tiniest spark of knowledge through DNA? What a silly question indeed based on science I guess not so silly before you dismiss this premise? Completely let's take a look at the evolution universe. Science would agree that the planet earth is about four point five billion years old to put that number two perspective consider that a billion is a thousand million and a million is a thousand thousands for no less than a century. It has been believed that the earliest earth was covered with the see of vocally magma however evidence of this of the rocks have either eroded with time or stay down underground inaccessible enter Zircon crystals. Not the man made versions but tiny crystals pulled from the Jack Hills of central Australia. The oldest of which have revealed that during the first five hundred million years so the planet earth was not covered with the see of magma indeed that it was cold enough for the formations of continents were above sea level. What is revolutionary is these ancient crystals have revealed that early earth and some aspects? Wasn't that different from today. These science-based facts are less than a decade old. That already gaining aning the respect of mainstream science in one four point one billion year old crystal carbon was found suggesting that life existed justed on earth. Three hundred million years earlier than scientists previously thought. Twenty years ago this would have been heretical. This carbon resembles modern carbon. Though this all adds up to the conclusion that early Earth was more hospitable to life than science thought and begs the question could could the environment of early Earth supported. Humans could earth's I people have crawled out of an ancient ocean. The primordial soup so to speak and evolved over the next two hundred thousand years if we run with that rough figure man and is developed brain may have been walking walking around over a billion years ago not two hundred thousand. But where's the evidence of a civilization that all the answer is. Where's I the evidence of anything? Over one billion years old science degree so there have been five periods of mass extinction. Four hundred forty four million years ago. When eighty six percent of all species became extinct? Three hundred seventy five million years ago. When seventy five percent of all species became extinct and in two hundred million years ago with the loss of eighty percent and finally sixty six million years ago when seventy six percent fell to extinction keep keep in mind that the tortoise of the Galapagos has evolved over twelve million years each of the known periods of mass extinction did not eliminate all all the species and some fossils remain science agrees that there certainly could have been far earlier periods of mass extinction and extinction say over a billion years ago? One that would leave. No fossils. Time would take care of that. If Homo sapiens were among the victims uh-huh of an early earth extinction. Of course there would be no fossils. But what are the carbon found in Australia's ancient zircon crystals and what of the advanced knowledge displayed by South America's earliest indigenous people. Where did they come from? Your guess is as good as mine and only time time will tell

Australia Leonardo Davinci Tesla Mexico Jack Hills Galapagos South America
How To Make a Mass Extinction

Science Talk

09:43 min | 1 year ago

How To Make a Mass Extinction

"This episode. Not so scary but exciting citing that we're kind of in the most consequential few decades in the past few hundred million years. That's Peter Brennan. On his website. He describes himself as a placental mammal camel but he's also an award winning journalist and the author of the book the ends of the world volcanic apocalypse lethal oceans and our quest to understand understand. Earth's past mass extinctions a book that the journal Science called a surprisingly lyrical investigation of Earth's mass extinctions in New York City recently and we sat down together to talk about the book midway through our discussion. We'll take a break for a short segment sponsored by the Cavalry Prize with Stanford neuroscientists scientists Carlos shots which perhaps surprisingly has some connections with the discussion of mass extinctions. And now Peter Brandon. Let's talk about mass extinction all right. The book is really kind of a survey of the great mass extinctions in the history of our our planet. Yeah there's a reason though that you go through all that and that's related to what's happening today right. Yeah I really wrote it because I think in the popular imagination mass extinctions or what happens when big rocks from space at the planet. And I'd noticed that there was this really interesting thing. Conversation going on in the geology community over the last thirty years or so where yes and asteroids seems to have something to do with why the dinosaurs went extinct. But they're all these Older mass extinctions some of which were much more severe and almost all of them had to do with severe rapid climate change driven by changes in carbon dioxide basically atmosphere. And so I thought there was both this sort of sci-fi story about these sort of lost worlds that you might not be familiar with 'cause unfamiliar with the dinosaurs but The planet really has been a bunch of different plants over its lifetime and so if I thought that was really interesting to write about but there's also this news hook about. Hey we're starting starting to pull some of the same lovers that have been pulled in the worst things that have ever happened this time. We're pulling the levers in the past natural Rossi's of the levers rate. Yeah so in the past this has happened. It's been for the most part sort of tectonic cataclysms So when one of the mass extinctions there's some weird stuff going on with mountain building that might draw down. Co Two and plunged into an ice age but for a bunch of the mass extinctions actually are seem to be associated with these huge apocalyptic volcanic events called large provinces were just an unimaginable amount of lava comes out of the earth covering Thousands of are actually in one case three million square miles But law alone. If it comes out part of the world can't kill everything on the planet has to be you know because things on the other side of the planet seemed to be going extinct. In these mass extinctions scientists are trying to figure out what that must have something to do with the gases that are coming out at the same time. And what you see in some of the mass extinctions but if you know how to read the rocks if you're a really clever geochemists you can see that there are. These huge injections of carbon dioxide is the air from these volcanoes. And you can tell that it gets really warm. The Ocean starts to lose its oxygen and this thing called Ocean acidification. which we're doing now? which is what happens when too much co two reacts with seawater is is happening in these mass extinctions too? So it's sort of unnerving to see that you know we're not there yet but Were trending direction. Where if you go too far down that road that it can really be all breaks loose right? A lot of people have said we are in the midst of the sixth mass extinction but the scientists who talked to are a little more conservative conservative than that. Well I think paleontologists are certainly you know if you're a conservation biologist or any area and ecologist you can just see this tragedy unfolding all around to you and I'm not trying to minimize the the catastrophic damage. Humans have done to the planet. But I think it's actually. It's both worrying that we could even be in the same conversation as these mass extinctions because these are just you're turning everything up to eleven and trying as hard as you kill everything on the planet. I mean this is the the end the boundary boundary sort of condition for how hard the planet can be pushed. And we're not there yet. which the good news? We still have time to save the planet and that's really the point of that Sort of discussed in the book that you know. We're driving species extinct at a crazy rate today. But they're still time before we get to the level love you know when the asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs when these giant volcanos were happening. So there's time to save the the turn the ship around and it's sort of scary but exciting we're kind of the most consequential few decades in in the past few hundred million years. It's really up to us to to avert to avert this Scott in a mind boggling and I didn't mean to minimize what's going on right now. By saying that the scientists he spoke to her a little more conservative about whether we're in the sixth mass extinction. It's more more like you don't have lung cancer yet. You only have emphysema right so everything's cool. Everything's bad right exactly If we keep up the current rates then we'll get there for certain In the next few decades centuries to Millennia depending on how you count but we will. We'll get there for certain if we don't change their behavior and we're making the sound like a very depressing book but there's some there's some lighter moments to it. I'd say I was it has to do with your felicity as a writer actually happening out there. Scientists the funny people funny people for example. Just to since. We're trying to have a good time here. let's talk about the first time you went out the Cincinnati Rock count people and the guy. The had a name for something that you picked up. Yeah right so if you know how to read the rocks and you know what you're looking looking at. There is no matter where you are in the country. There's not a boring spot for geology And there's some great. There's a APP called rocked which you condemn on my phone and it will tell you what you're standing on basically and so no matter where you are. If you're in New England you can look up. Oh my goodness I'm on this volcanic archipelago that crashed into tropical North America. Four hundred fifty nine years ago or if you're in boulder where I am you know there's red rocks from the middle of Panja and the dinosaurs and you know there really isn't a boring or right here in New York. We're on top of UH either Cambrian stuff from the dawn of animal. Life Ocean rock or in Brooklyn. There's glacial stuff from these crazy ice ages. That happened. Not that long Ongo and there's some cretaceous stuff in Staten Island's from the dinosaurs from these big river delta. So there's an amazing story underneath your feet. No matter where you are and geology is just is sort of amazing endlessly fascinating field. That sort of tells you about these alien worlds at the planet spend before a sort of crisscrossed the country and joined up with professional geologists amend was sort of introduced these groups of amateur theologists. Who are really inspiring people because they take their own time out of their own weekends to You know just pull over to the side of the road. These unloved highway road cuts. 'cause they know that there's amazing fossils there and they're incredibly dedicated to it and I was sort of a Newbie and I joined up with him. One day to look for fossils on the side of the highway in Cincinnati because it turns out that in Cincinnati four hundred fifty six four hundred fifty million years ago It was a shallow sea and it was filled. With sort of weird things. Look like horseshoe crabs in these giant squid like things. And so it's just it's totally alien. SCIFI world infects the lends its name to a particular time because of that right. There's this thing called the Cincinnati and in the late or division period because Cincinnati is the best place in the world to find fossils fossils from this period right before this big mass extinction but I went there and I went with all these Sort of really interesting quirky people. Who Do this spare time? Just pull over the side of the road looking for fossils and we're finding lots of these things called grab delights which are these weird sea creatures that swam in these colonial homes and stuff like that not colonial homes like from I'm from New England But yes I was finding a lot of those and so I would ask people what's this and say. Oh it's a trial by. Oh it's too late and then I thought I found something and I showed it to this guy and that's what it was and he said that's a leave right I said is that good. And he said Yeah Lever Right there and he took it out of my hand and he threw it on the ground so good. Yep Ah so you you went out. With a whole bunch of different people are amateurs and professional researchers and Saul a lot of I just got back from England and I saw the white cliffs of Dover Right So the white cliffs of Dover like a really good example of a lot of stuff. You're talking talking about it's all fossils. Yeah right yeah. I think people don't appreciate that limestone for the most part is Stuff it was. It's calcium carbonate. That was sort of precipitated by sea creatures. And if you go to Indiana and you see limestone if you put under Mexico begin see it's just all a lot of it's like little Z.. Creatures and things like that and the white cliffs of Dover Our caucus fours which are the you know you see today from space in these giant swirling blue green sort of hurricanes in the ocean. And it's just plankton. And you give plankton enough time and it can build up something like the white cliffs of Dover this giant Edifice Livingston. I wants to living

Cincinnati Dover New York City Peter Brennan Peter Brandon Indiana Emphysema Rossi Saul Brooklyn Writer Staten Island Edifice Livingston England Lung Cancer Scott New England
"hundred million years" Discussed on Newsradio 1200 WOAI

Newsradio 1200 WOAI

04:19 min | 1 year ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on Newsradio 1200 WOAI

"To its highest state appreciate were all beings of pure consciousness ultimately and I think that and for that purpose the human form of life has always been available since the very beginning of the universe and without that you're mentioning the views of modern science according to modern science well the way they do things we live in an accidental universe that our human bodies of the results of nearly materialistic process of random genetic mutation and I can't believe governed by natural selection and somehow or other yeah it kind of just a small button cockroaches ruling the earth but but not as our human form they think well it came into existence fairly recently within the past two or three hundred thousand years and but when I look at all the archaeological evidence there are many discoveries that archaeologists have maze of human bones human artifacts human foot press going back millions and millions and millions of years right back to the very beginnings of the history of life on earth Michael tell us the story because this one is so fascinating I think it's and forbidden archeology of the metals three years that were found way underground and they could have been millions of years old well actually bill is not that is that is one of the really extreme allowable leaves you could say you know for for me yeah anomalous is older than the current theories so while the current fear you say humans like us first came into existence about three hundred thousand years ago so if you have any evidence for human presence that goes back through the lattice anomalous but some of the evidence that has the documents is is really extreme as the case that you just mentioned those of missed I I call the metallic spheres because of these round objects or about one or two inches and diameter they are found in mineral deposits and online and South Africa is the western tribes fall reach right some of those yes the some of these objects are not perfectly round gather other shades but I find it's the ones that are perfectly spherical in shape that are really interesting most interesting feature them as far as I'm concerned is the parallel groups that go around the waiters of these objects does the willow said okay maybe these objects they are these mineral deposits which are two point eight billion one oh two billion eight hundred million years old some some people have suggested okay well may be there are some of the round spherical objects that form would naturally somehow or other than these layers of rock and then somebody may have taken one of them and then yeah in fairly recent times in car some groups are out of a book yeah I went to South Africa once and I met the chief mining engineer from the company that runs this line is there also Stalin as the head of his western Transvaal regions and I met a man John this bird and he had a a block of mineral from this mind a block of solid stone from this line with some of.

Australia firefighters save world's only rare dinosaur trees

WBZ Morning News

00:37 sec | 1 year ago

Australia firefighters save world's only rare dinosaur trees

"To couple a secret operation led by uniquely trained firefighters has seen the last of a rare tree species that survive the dinosaur era the wall of my pine trees once thought to be completely extinct now number fewer than two hundred it's believed they've grown in Australia for about this is not a typo two hundred million years and they're so fragile their location has been kept secret to the rescue mission had to be kept quiet and those firefighters set of an irrigation system to keep the pre historic trees again also known as dinosaur trees moist and they also pond water daily from the gorge as a blaze edge closer had burned out of control for more than two

Australia
How Did the Ancient Land Blob Called Gondwana Become Today's Southern Continents?

BrainStuff

05:50 min | 2 years ago

How Did the Ancient Land Blob Called Gondwana Become Today's Southern Continents?

"Lauren Bogle bomb here sometimes. Good Science Science can happen just by looking at a map of the world and letting your mind wander for instance observe how Africa and South America seemed to have been very recently cuddled together even though there are currently a couple of thousand miles of ocean between them similarly Madagascar fits perfectly into a little nick in the eastern edge of Africa and the Middle East seems seems to be pulling away from the top of Africa like a corner being pulled off of a hot cookie with a reasonably good representation of the shape and arrangement of the world's continents in front of them. Anyone could easily assess the earth's land masses have definitely been speaking around the name for the southern landmass that once was is Gondwanaland and also known as Gondwana but it wasn't just the shape of the continents that clued researchers into its former existence. They've also looked at similarities. Among plants and animals that live across the modern separate continents from those clues. Gondwana was an idea long before anybody figured out how or why. It worked the secret of course being plate. tectonics and idea that didn't really start gaining steam. Until the mid twentieth century but a nineteenth century Austrian geologist named Edward Seuss put a name to the concept of the supercontinent in his book. The face of the earth the first volume of which was published in eighteen eighty. Three SEUSS didn't come up with many completely novel ideas ideas. But he did a great job of synthesizing. A bunch of the research of the day to conclude that the southern continents and landmasses we now know as South America Africa Arabia India via Sri Lanka and Madagascar had at one point in time been connected because one well just look at them and two. They contained the same rocks and the same fossil's from an extinct feathery leafed tree called gloss of terrace Austria and in Arctic. Oh would be added theory. Thirty years later Gondwana on what was named for a densely forested region of central India where the first fossil evidence of the supercontinent was found in the nineteenth century. WanNa is a word for forest in Sanskrit and the guns are tribe that European explorers. I found living in the region. Even though we now know a lot about the mechanism by which Gondwana China was formed. It's extremely complicated and still being investigated. There's at least one. Peer Reviewed Scientific Journal devoted entirely to the study of the supercontinent. It's it's called appropriately Gondwana research however. There are a few things that we're pretty certain of I got Wada wasn't built in a day. The the making of Gondwana was a long process. Most likely through three major mountain building events driven by the movement of Earth's tectonic plates we spoke spoke via email with Joseph Merit professor in the Department of Geological Sciences. At the University of Florida he explained during the interval from about six hundred fifty to five hundred in fifty million years ago. Various pieces of Africa and South America collided along an ancient mountain chain called the Brazilian belt slightly older but overlapping with the Brazilian. Oh seven seven hundred and fifty to six hundred and fifty million years. AGO is the east African Oregon or Mozambique Belt that resulted from the collision between East Africa and Madagascar India Tree Lanka and parts of East Antarctica. The final collision was along the Kouanga Oregon between all those assembled pieces and the rest of Antarctica and Australia between five five hundred eighty and five hundred and thirty million years ago so it was a couple hundred million years of extremely slow continental car wrecks the created this Beta Ada version of Gondwana. But it wasn't done yet later about three hundred million years ago other landmasses join forces with it to form the giant ball of land. We now no no as Panja. But one continent rule them all couldn't last and sometime between two hundred eighty and two hundred million years ago. Hingis started started disintegrating as magma began pushing up from beneath the mega supercontinent creating rifts in the land that would later become seafloor as Penn.. Jia cracked the top part was pushed to the north creating the continent Laura Asia and Gondwana headed south back when Gondwana was just a baby supercontinent between five hundred and fifty and four hundred eighty five million years ago it hosted some of the very first complex life forms like trial abides bracket pods but since it continued to exist I didn't the drastic period lots of plant and animal. Evolution went down there merit said Gondwana contains evidence for evolutionary changes in the very first complex complex animals. The very first fish amphibians and reptiles the most famous fossils are the gun doina flora such as the loss of terrace fern a freshwater reptile called. Messo Soroush Soroush in a land. Reptile called Lyster Soroush Gondwana existed as a single landmass for more than three hundred million years because of its humongous assize by covered an area of one hundred billion square kilometers or about thirty nine billion square miles and because the continents moved a lot during that time Gondwana experienced many different climates said during the Cambridge. When Gondwana I formed the earth and Gondwana were in a greenhouse state in the late order vision? Four four hundred fifty million years ago gun was moving over. The South Pole and the climate was very cold. Gondwana continued to move through variety of latitudes and depending on where you are located hated. The climate might have been quite warm or more temperate. The continent was so large. That one part of Gondwana might be located at the quarter while another might be located at the poll. It's true it would have been cool to see Gondwana in its prime and although you won't personally get to see its victorious return. That doesn't mean that it's not possible. Possible the continents are always moving and scientists have a lot of ideas about what our next supercontinent is going to look like.

Gondwana Gondwana China Lyster Soroush Gondwana Africa Madagascar Edward Seuss Messo Soroush Soroush India Lauren Bogle Middle East South America Gondwanaland Madagascar India Tree Lanka Terrace Austria Joseph Merit Professor East Africa Geologist Scientific Journal
This star moving at hyperdrive-speeds was spat out from our black hole

SpaceTime with Stuart Gary

09:56 min | 2 years ago

This star moving at hyperdrive-speeds was spat out from our black hole

"Of the ticket a style that's being flung out of the Milky Way Galaxy Alexey at a record breaking speed of six million kilometers per hour by the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Centre a report in the monthly notices the Roll Economical Society claims. The unfortunate star was sent on its course through gravitational dads with secretaries ace tax more than five million years ago the style which is now some twenty nine thousand light years from Earth is traveling some ten times faster the most stars in the Milky Way including the son in fact. It's moving so fast. I believe the Milky Way in about one hundred million years never to return one of the study's authors emeritus professor Gary that cost us from the Australian National University. Says is the stars encounter with a black hole occurred at a time when humans were first learning to Walk Upright. He says in astronomical terms star will be leaving galaxy fairly sued and will likely travel through the emptiness of intergalactic space for eternity the Milky Way central supermassive black hole secretaries a star has some four four point three million times the mass of our Sun. It's located some twenty six thousand light years away in the direction of the Constellation secretaries authors discovered discovered this hapless style while using the three point nine meter anglo-australian telescope at the siding Spring Observatory to search for the shorted remains of small galaxies orbiting. The Milky Way is part of the southern Stella Stream Spectroscopy survey follow up observations within made with the A and US two point three minute telescope confirming the stars. Extreme speed did the customer and colleagues then trace the Star's journey back to its point of origin in the Galactic Center. It's this must have originally been in a binary system with a companion star and this system ventured too close to the black hole secretaries ace ta which then captured one of the Stars Too Close Orbit or sling shutting the other one out of the system custom and very high speed. DACOSTA says it's great to be able to confirm thirty or prediction. That stars really can be flying out of a galaxy by the supermassive black hole at the Galactic Center. I'm part of it. The national team that is using the anglo-australian telescope to get philosophies and abundances for stars in stellar streams the stuff streams Remnants of small galaxies have been ripped apart as they fall into is advertised on potential and by studying them we can learn about the distribution of doc mattering our galaxy for example but for every field. We don't necessarily have a complete set of targets for the thought so we used the other spare fathers to look at potentially other stars of interest and we found this stuff. That's has a velocity moving away from us as over a thousand cuomo specific and that was very unexpected and exciting discovery. Picked your interest in other words very much so Particularly the stars brought enough that the European Guy Satellite Commissioner a very accurate promotion. The motion in the plight of the sky is distinct from emotional life on us when we combine that with the observed. A lot of thoughts. Lusty you can trace Ashley Orbit back in time. And the orbit. Effect Exactly intersects with the center of the Galaxy. So we're very sure that this does being flung long out of the standard of the galaxy matches a prediction for a long time. Now that's been massive. Black Holes will blackouts. Generally I guess under the right circumstances weren't gobble Lapa Adventures too close but will in fact fling it out. That's right. There was a piper written first by Jack Hills in not an idea actually before four the Central Collin Galaxy was really well established in which he predicted it. If a binary star got too close to the central by call one of the stars would be absorbed in towards the blackhall. The other one would get a lot of energy be flung out of the center of the Galaxy and bicycling escape from galaxy completely. And that's what we're saying here. This really is the the first time that we've been definitively established that this high-velocity star doesn't affect have its origin at the center of the Galaxy. What do you know about this star? Well we know that it's Relatively young it's about two and a half times the mess of some. It's likely to be quite rich in chemical elements because the Santa Pod Aug- Aleksey is where the overall about this is about effective two times higher than it is in the local neighborhood so it's caught rich but With a massive about two and a half times orange the lofty that is traveling at its guide to escape from the Galaxy and hit off into it elected spice which is a very empty place. What does one cool is star in integrated space? I know if we have a planet outside our solar system. It's a rogue planet but what what is it aerobic style. I guess you'd call. It is a collective star. The the volume of spice outside of galaxies is very very empty. So you know you have a very small population of stars walk. These escaped from galaxies and and They'd be very hard to find. It's not the first high-speed contended that has been detected that appears to be living galaxy. Isn't no that's right nine for some Almost addicted I guess that there are these high-velocity stars that appear to be skyping galaxy in fraction of which appear to be coming from the center of the Galaxy. But this is the very first one where we've got precise enough to seminar of the top of the star to absolutely verify that it's coming from the center of the Galaxy hasn't been given head log number yet or a name. It has the rather prosaic name S. five because as five is the Stream survey project we're involved with And then it's it should be s one high-velocity star number one. I guess with the expectation that we might find more to me about the survey that you guys have been doing. This is really exciting. Isn't it looking at. The shredded remains a small galaxies opening the Milky Way. That's right It's actually a very good example of international collaboration. There's a team in the US that uses what's called the doc energy like camera on the former telescope in Chile. But let's you image lodge areas in the sky and they've infect done quite deep suv. I of the Southern Hemisphere Scott and in that imaging serve I I discovered of order a dozen of these streams where we believe these a AH small galaxies. That have been disrupted but you need to take spectroscopy of the stock is to get the philosophies in the abundances and the anglo-australian telescope with its two degree field spectograph spectograph lets you observe up to four hundred dollars at a time and that is a unique facility in terms of its field of view. A numbers fathers in the astronomical world so the US imaging imaging people have collaborated with star stone of his experts in fava spectroscopy to measure that. He's sort of these streams and You know serendipity can sometimes what can you fight or wait. Found this This particular stop by studying these still streams. This must be telling you a lot about the origins of the Milky Way Galaxy itself and how it's grown over Giga Giga us. Yes you're exactly right The the standard Theory of how the Milky Way is come into existence as had lots of galaxies Small galaxies full in get disrupted and then contribute. This does to the highlands of the disk of the galaxy in that process. We can try and map out. What the distribution of mass in our galaxy is by understanding the orbits of these streams in the galaxy get disrupted some of the stars get energy energy and move ahead than some of the stars lose energy in full behind? That's probably the other way around And so you. The whole thing gets strung out as a string of beat effectively and by studying the motions of streams we can actually see things like the influence of the lodge measuring like cloud as it comes by our galaxy. It's extra gravity. It disturbs the orbits of streams. and Are we seeing a lot of stuff from secretaries to office will run the other side that well it's been gobbled up. Now's well isn't it. That's that's right. I mean. The Sagittarius Stream was the first example of this Process with off. Galaxies falling in and being disrupted I guess it's Probably twenty. He's ago I guess it was in twenty five years since it was discovered and that is the archetypal example. The core of the galaxy is near the center of a Galaxy Galaxy. There's a stream of stars advice that goes across the hall. Scott now Sagittarius is was originally much more massive system than the small systems. That are just being disrupted the streams of West studying but it does just show that this process goes on Sagittarius. What in fact its own set of costs that guide to be added to the Hanover? The galaxy wants to sides of terrorists. System is completely disrupted with globular clusters. Can you tell the difference between a glove class. Sta and the center of a shredded galaxy. See that's very good question There are a few Gobert. COST IS GONNA cost is have constant abundance of elements it's like on and calcium Others but there are a few classes like a Centauri which is readily visible in the summer sky where there was a big range inch in the chemical elements like Nelson on from star to star. And it's certainly been suggested that Those cover costs as well. You see a heavy element abundance range by well obtained the former nucleus off galaxies. Pain disrupted our listeners are way normally globular cluster. oster is a tight ball of thousands if not millions of stars which originally formed together at the same time in the same molecular gas and dust cloud but when you see globular clusters crossed with stars of very different MILICIA's very different compositions. That's the telltale sign you're talking about. Exactly yes yes. In fact we have an example inside serious various the The there's a classical m fifty four which is a very luminous go cost which is right at the center secretaries and in fact does have a Ryan the elephants. So that's almost smoking guns or the Saudi.

United States Central Collin Galaxy Galactic Center Spring Observatory Stella Stream Australian National University Galactic Centre Roll Economical Society Dacosta Cuomo Gary Professor Lapa Adventures Commissioner Pain Jack Hills
How Does Venus Work?

BrainStuff

06:13 min | 2 years ago

How Does Venus Work?

"After the moon the Venus is the second brightest natural object in the night sky partially because this planet is covered by reflective clouds that make it is an optical telescopes can't penetrate eight with the Venetian surface hidden from view generations of fiction writers used to speculate wild about the mysterious terrain beneath those clouds for example Tarzan Creator Edgar Rice burroughs portrayed Venus as a world with lush forests in our boreal cities in a nineteen eighty-four pulp novel but then science intervened B eight at Venus's habitable pretty much imploded during the Cold War in Nineteen fifty-six Radio Telescope observations showed that the planet had surfaced temperatures in excess of six hundred and eight eighteen degrees Fahrenheit that's three hundred twenty six degrees Celsius and believe it or not those readings were kind of low we now know the average surface temperature on Nisa blistering eight hundred sixty four degrees Fahrenheit or four hundred sixty two Celsius it's the hottest planet in our solar system even though mercury is closer to the Sun on the face of Venus the atmospheric pressure is crushingly extreme and lead would melt into a puddle but as hellish as this place sounds actually has in common with Earth the two worlds are quite similar in size if you were to stuff venus inside our planet matric doll style it would occupy roughly eighty six percent end of earth total volume Venus has earth beaten in some key regards though earth displays a slight midsection bulge being wider around its equator than it is from one pole to the other conversely Venus is almost a perfect sphere what gives well when a massive celestial body like a star or planet spins quickly around its axis centrifugal force will give it a more dramatic bulge around its equator however Venus has an ultra slow rotation speed it takes the equivalent of two hundred and forty-three earth days for Venus to complete one full rotation around its axis and only two hundred twenty five earth days to finish a new lap around the Sun so in other words a day on Venus lasts longer than Vanesian year does and get this from our self centered perspective Venus spins backward word most of the planets in the solar system rotate from west to east Uranus and Venus Buck that trend on those two worlds the sun appears to rise in the West and set in the East nobody knows how that came to pass. Astronomers think Venus us to move in a counterclockwise direction like Earth but at some point it's been I have reversed alternatively perhaps the sun's Gravitational influence or a collision with a large object caused the entire planet to flip upside down in December of nineteen sixty two Venus became the first planet to get a fly by visit from a manmade spacecraft exploiting brief window of opportunity NASA's Mariner two probes studied this world up close from distances as near as twenty one thousand miles that's about thirty four thousand kilometers onboard instruments taught us a great deal mariner two firms that Venus does not have an earth like magnetic field and it recorded surface temperatures within the expected range a young Carl Sagan helped design the mariner to probe yes successfully lobbied to have the space craft fitted with a camera because close up pictures of Venus might quote answer questions that we were too dumb to even pose by the time Mariner to launched scientists already knew that there were high levels of carbon dioxide in the vision atmosphere and that composition should give us pause carbon dockside makes up a whopping ninety six percent of Venus's atmosphere scientists attribute this to a runaway greenhouse effect theoretically the planet used to have a more temperate climate that could have remained stable for billions of years back then oceans of liquid water may have covered its surface though we don't know for sure things changed as are growing son became hotter any oceans would have evaporated during this time astronomers think much of the carbon dioxide invasion rocks leached out and traveled guy word while the atmosphere changed it got better at trapping heat creating a vicious cycle that worsens the problem inevitably temperatures spiked and stayed since our own planet has a major greenhouse gas problem Venus could offer us important insights regarding climate change but sending probes to explore it has always presented major challenges on Venus the surface gravity is comparable to what you and I experience on earth what's not comparable is that atmospheric Asher which is ninety two times greater on the face of Venus than it is here faced with extreme temperatures and high pressure it's no wonder that manmade objects don't last long long in the planet's environment when the Soviet venire thirteen probe landed on Venus in Nineteen eighty-two it stayed intact for record setting one hundred and twenty seven minutes before it was destroyed mind you this wasn't the USSR's first Rodeo previous Venero spacecraft's successfully visited the planet's atmosphere and touched down on its outer crest brief though their visits were these probes captured the first ever photographs of the Venetian surface Nasr's Magellan spacecraft provided further insights has it mapped ninety eight percent of the planet's face all in all Venus boasts more than sixteen thousand volcanoes and volcanic features but we don't know of any these are still active highland plateaus deep canyons and meteorite impact craters have also been discovered there although Venus's about four point six billion years old crest is thought to be much younger with an estimated age of just three hundred to six hundred million years Venus lacks tectonic plates as we know them on earth nonetheless Sunday August think that upwelling magma occasionally recycle sections of the crust long before it was an object scientific study or of Edgar Rice burroughs. goals Venus mesmerized our ancestors bright and beautiful the cloud adorned planet derives its name from the Roman Goddess of love into mathematicians mapped it's progress across the sky and Galileo took detailed notes about its moon like phases somehow knowing that Venus is a stifling hot house doesn't diminish its allure with every new discovery inspires curiosity aw

Edgar Rice Burroughs Radio Telescope Nisa Eight Hundred Sixty Four Degre Three Hundred Twenty Six Degre Eight Eighteen Degrees Fahrenh Thirty Four Thousand Kilometer Six Hundred Million Years Ninety Eight Percent Twenty Seven Minutes Eighty Six Percent Ninety Six Percent Six Billion Years One Pole
Saturn Becomes ‘Moon King’ with 20 New Discoveries

The Daily Article

00:31 sec | 2 years ago

Saturn Becomes ‘Moon King’ with 20 New Discoveries

"Have discovered twenty new moons orbiting Saturn their announcement brings the total of known moons around Saturn to eighty two seventeen of them orbit the planet backwards scientists are asking for the public's help in naming their new discoveries however our moon existed for four point five billion in years before the native Americans began naming its phases some scientists believe that Saturn's moons are much younger only one hundred million years older so

One Hundred Million Years
Fossilized Proteins Unravel Dinosaur Mysteries

Science Magazine Podcast

12:03 min | 2 years ago

Fossilized Proteins Unravel Dinosaur Mysteries

"Now we have Gretchen Vogel a staff writer for Science sheer talk with us about a new technique for looking at organic molecules user from animals from fossils from way back we're talking hundreds of millions of years Hi Gretchen Hi Sarah is that number right is it hundreds of millions of years for these molecules correct yes the oldest ones they've around our five hundred or a little bit more than five hundred million years old who and how does that compare with ancient DNA or proteins from ancient animals yet much much older so into DNA has a huge amount that it can tell us about previous life yeah animals and humans but only up to tens of thousands maybe hundreds of thousands of years DNA sequences degrade fairly rapidly relatively speaking proteins can last longer two four million years or so elbows can also give you lots of information if you can sequence the proteins you can tell lots of things about how animals were really needed beyond that some people have claimed to find intact proteins from dinosaurs but those claims have remained controversial well what about these molecules not DNA they're not protein there's something a little bit different correct. They're called protein residues essentially scientists call them protein fossils ation products and they are complex polymers that form from proteins and lipids and sugars after death during the fossils ation process they must be super super tough if they're surviving for so long yes they are they're actually similar to some molecules the you're probably fairly familiar with their formed by reactions very similar to reactions called the my yard reactions that happen in food chemistry so hey time you toast something or round something or grill something molecule similar to these form and they're the kind of things that are left over on your grill that you have to scrub off so anyone who scripted grill knows that these things are pretty tough there definitely not water soluble and yeah microbes don't eat them and they don't wash away this isn't cooking per se but there is a chemical process here that's breaking down all these components of the sal and turning them into something else so how do we know thir identify like what we know about their original four before all these chemical processes happened yeah what the researchers that I'm writing about have discovered word their names are yes me know via N- and Derek Briggs and they work at Yale University and what they found out is that these really tough polymers do still contain some of the original information that the proteins contained when the animal was alive and that's because although there transformed into the he's complex polymers different proteins form different polymers and using a technique called Rahman spectroscopy they can and get a fingerprint of the chemical bonds that are in these polymers and from those fingerprints they can compare different fossils end figure out interesting things about how I'm how those animals might have been related and even things about their metabolism whether they were warm blooded or cold blooded Would they do that. How would they be able to tease out their metabolism from this collection of molecular products? Yeah that's one of the insights that these researchers have had the dispenser the interesting they realized that in living cells similar reactions also take place and the faster an animal's metabolism fast. cell's metabolism the more of these reactions take place and so even during life some of these complex polymers build up in cells and and they realized that the more of them form after death in the fossil station process they could sort of subtract those fossils Russian polymers that had formed and see still a signature of how many of these complex plumbers might have formed during the animal's life. and that gives them a clue about how fast the animal's metabolism was that speed of the metabolism ass- is kind of an indicator if they were warm blooded or cold blooded and we're talking about hundreds millions of years ago so we're talking about dinosaurs correct exactly and people had not suspected but had started to conclude that at least some dinosaurs were probably warm-blooded had a fairly fast metabolism tyrannosaurus rex for example and another kind of dinosaur called Dina Nike's which was the basis for the velociraptor in Jurassic Park that was actually one of the first dinosaurs that inspired the idea that dinosaurs subtly some of them may have been fast runners and had responding fast metabolism and this new technique support those earlier conclusions yes they looked at the Roman Spectra from a whole range of the fossils and it looks like two legged dinosaurs like velociraptor or than an isis or tyrannosaurus rex they had fairly fast metabol- uh-huh and other dinosaurs the quadrupedal ones that walked on all fours and were probably a bit slower that they had much slower metabolisms it looks like the sisters of lizards and snakes were for example cold blooded and fossil mammals turned out to be warm-blooded as did tear sores the largest creatures ever to to live from it sounds like a lot of different specimens have been already examined using this technique. How common are these residues in the different fossils that we have and collections and museums. That's a great question so it doesn't happen in every kind of fossil it's a specific set of conditions that is conducive to the kind of preservation and it turns out that it's sort of dark brown or black fossils in light colored sediments that tend to be aclu and so yes meena human who works at Yale had millions of fossils to look at at the Yale peabody Museum of Natural History and she didn't Dan millions of fossils but more than one hundred and has gone through and built up of fairly significant database of Roman Spectra from a whole range of different fossils do we know why the Dark Brown fossils on a light background tend to have these kinds of molecules that's a sign or that's a a characteristic of oxidative conditions the environment surrounding the animal after died was rich in reactive oxygen mal molecules and dissolved metal ions and that promotes these kinds of biochemical reactions called glide cock sedation and lip pox nation which are big words but they the are the same kinds of reactions that happen when you grill something when you caramelized some okay one I really liked the part of your story you talk about how this is I happened upon can you can you talk about that as an Undergrad Freeman was part of the team that was studying color in dinosaur eggs and she and her colleagues were some of the first defined that some dinosaur eggs were blue green sort of like Robin's egg Johnny people had always thought that they were just white I she was doing this work she would dissolve pieces of fossil eggshells to remove the calcium and to isolate the pigments and she found that they're in some cases Sort of Brown crusty remains as well and she thought hm what is that she looked at it under the microscope and it looked kind of like the organic matrix of eggshells and she wondered if she was seen bits of original tissue but she didn't have time to characterize it until she came to Yale for and there she used a similar technique with pieces of bone or teeth and she found more residues and they even looked like at blood vessels and cells and even nerve actions and she thought what in the world is this so then she and her ht advisor Derek Briggs decided to look at them more carefully Rahman spectroscopy just mean a chose this technique she said because it's one that that is sort of exploratory you don't have to you're not looking for a specific thing it records all the chemical bonds in sample and then you can sort of piece together what it is that you're seeing a lot of biochemical techniques test for specific kinds of molecules but if you don't know what you're looking for then you can't find it and so and this is this is also non-destructive rights you don't have to dissolve your sample right they started out looking at these seduce that had come from destructive sampling but then they realized once they had looked at those they could also look at other kinds of fossils just ramen spectroscopy that doesn't damage the fossil and indeed they found these signs of these complex polymers that mean then recognized as the product of the he's mired reactions that happened in food chemistry oh well are they going to continue to build up this database of profiles and different dinosaurs yes right they're building a database is that can help them compare more fossils with each other they've also done a couple of proof of principle experiments for example they they looked at a fossil called the tully monster which is this really strange creature from three hundred million years ago from fossil beds in Illinois nobody has really been able to determine exactly what kind of thing it was it's it's the sort of oval shape with this long weird appendage and people visit a worm is at some weird nail is it a vertebrate and a paper in nature and two thousand and sixteen concluded that it was most likely probably some kind of really strange vertebrates rush based on morphology when they used the Romans spectroscopy to look at this critters purported teeth that looks like those teeth were probably aide of Collagen or Carrollton which are two kinds of proteins that vertebrates make rather than Titan which would be something that a an in it would make and so that chemical evidence is consistent with the morphological evidence that they had already put together and that was another sign that they're finding L. information in these in these Rahman Spectrum Not Everybody's on board with this get what else could they do to further firm this up has a a new technique for understanding the world of dinosaurs some other researchers cautioned that they're not one hundred percent convinced that all of the signatures that are being picked up these Roman spectra are really from the original animal that there may be some bacteria contamination or some other deposits that might have settled into these fossils for millions of years that's certainly a legitimate question to ask although the men and Briggs say that they have looked bacteria residues and can compare and that they've old those out in most cases they've also looked for contaminants for things like glue or other preparation materials that have been applied to these fossils beeman briggs and their colleagues also say it's early days for this technique they're really excited about the potential that it has but they're hoping that more people start to use it and help to build up the database this is and figure out exactly what kinds of questions these ancient protein residues might help to answer. Are there some big questions at these residues might help answer that people are very excited about people especially excited about this insight into metabolism because that's been a big question in paleontology what animals were warm added what kinds of metabolism's did different animals have for example some of the giant sea creatures did they have a warm lead type of metabolism or were they did they have a slower metabol- awesome or some sort of mix of the to the idea that you could get at some of those questions by a simple non-destructive scan of fossils is really exciting alright. Gretchen thank you so

Gretchen Vogel Derek Briggs Yale University Rahman Staff Writer Sarah SAL N Dina Nike Jurassic Park Three Hundred Million Years Five Hundred Million Years Two Four Million Years One Hundred Percent
How Can Gingko Leaves Help Track Climate Change?

BrainStuff

04:01 min | 2 years ago

How Can Gingko Leaves Help Track Climate Change?

"Hey brain stuff lauren Bogilov here. You might have have a gingko tree in your neighborhood. It has wispy fan shaped leaves that turn a beautiful burnished yellow in the fall and possibly drops rotten smelling fruit. It looks different different from other trees. You might see on your street mostly because when you look at a gingko tree you're looking at the product of another time. Gingko Biloba is the oldest tree on birth. It's outlived odds. Relatives seen the dinosaurs rise and fall any individual Ginkgo tree may have seen a lot the oldest known gingko specimen stands in Zunga Mountains of China and is one thousand four hundred years old gingko trees have remained pretty much unchanged for the past two hundred seventy million years have survived three mass extinctions and might be a key to helping us understand something about how our current climate chefs will affect organisms in the future a group of researchers at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in edgewater Maryland are studying a grove of fifteen gingko trees each housed a plastic greenhouse tent and hooked up to a tank of carbon carbon dioxide that delivers different amounts of the gas to each tree some up to two and a half times the carbon dioxide concentration of modern earth's air in in this experiment called fossil atmospheres. The scientists are trying to reconstruct how the atmosphere of earth has changed over the past couple geologic eras through the ice ages is and periods when there was no ice at all in the polls and how it's likely to change in the future the Earth's atmosphere is made up of a variety of different gases including carbon dioxide the concentrations of which have a huge impact on the planet's climate scientists can get a pretty good idea of what past clients were like by looking at fossil plants. Thanks thanks to a little structure on the surface of their leaves called Sta Mata these are tiny holes that let carbon dioxide into the leaf and water and oxygen out the the concentration of carbon dioxide in the air determines. How many S- tomato are on the surface of the leaf using fossils of GEICO's from different places and time periods can help the researchers features put together a story of what Earth's climate has been up to for the past few hundred million years the researchers are doing all kinds of experiments with their tended fossil atmospheres atmospheres but they also want your help you can assist in this project by volunteering to help counts D'Amato on fossil ginkgo leaves in order to calculate the levels of carbon dioxide oxide in the atmosphere during specific periods in the deep deep past you can also send in Gingko leaves from wherever you live because although Kinko's are native to China they're popular in yards gardens and along streets worldwide may receiving specimens from citizen scientists all over the globe the researchers will be able to get a better sense of how various as features of the trees differ depending on whether they're planted in say Singapore Colorado which will in turn help them better understand how gingko grow differently depending on the climate in which they developed now or two hundred million years ago today's Episode Code was written by Jessica Lynch yields and produced by Tyler claim brain stuff is production of iheartradio's? How stuff works for more on this and lots of other long-lived topics visit our home? Planet has two forks DOT COM. Tom And for more podcasts from iheartradio. The iheartradio APP apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows in this episode is brought to you by the Rolling Stone Charts Rolling in stone is the definitive outlet for all things music bringing you. The latest news interviews and reviews rolling stone is your go-to source to learn everything about groundbreaking artists and now rolling stone is going even further to show you what it means to be on the rise introducing the rolling Stone Charts and Interactive Seta Music Charts that offer an in-depth in the moment view of the biggest songs albums and artists in Usak the rolling stone charts the definitive guide for trending breaking popular music in the age of streaming his at rolling stone dot com slash charts or search R._S.

China Lauren Bogilov Iheartradio Tom And Usak Zunga Mountains Geico Sta Mata Apple Edgewater Maryland Smithsonian Environmental Rese Kinko Jessica Lynch D'amato Singapore Colorado Tyler Two Hundred Seventy Million Ye One Thousand Four Hundred Year Two Hundred Million Years
"hundred million years" Discussed on News Talk 1130 WISN

News Talk 1130 WISN

02:40 min | 2 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on News Talk 1130 WISN

"Reveals her utter ignorance, not just our dismissive attitude towards nine eleven, but the fact that she thinks care was founded in the wake of nine eleven. This reveals a whole lot more about her than quite frankly anything else, she says ever could that she doesn't know what she's talking about. This ignorance is apparently quite widespread very viral exchange this week in a house oversight committee hearing between Representative Thomas Massie Republican out of Massachusetts. Yes. Apparently, those do still exists Republicans out of Bassa -chusetts and former Senator former secretary of state also out of Massachusetts John Carey Carey was before the committee for some reason to talk about climate change with the consensus on parts per million of CO two in the atmosphere. About four six four hundred six today. Okay. Four six are you aware around fifty being level that scientists have said is danger? Okay. Are you aware three hundred fifty s dangerous? Well, are you aware that since mammals have walked the planet? The average has been over thousand parts per million. Yeah. But we weren't working in the planet. It's limit just share with you. Sweet. Were we now know are at no point during the least the past eight hundred thousand years has atmospheric CO tube. And as high as it is today, that's actually. When I was when I was in McMurdo, we couldn't get the south pole because the weather, but I was given a vial of air which said on a cleanest air in the world. It was four zero one point six parts per million. That is fifty parts per million already over. What is the reason you chose eight hundred thousand years ago is because for two hundred million years before that was greater than than it is today, and I'm going to for the record. But there weren't human beings. I mean, there was a different world, folks. We didn't have to get the two thousand parts per million. If we here because there were all kinds of geologic events happening on earth, which spewed geology stop when we got on the planet German. I this is just an honest conversation. Your testimony is hot series. I agree. When you can't when you can't answer the question. That's the best answer. You got. No, actually, he didn't geologic events, particularly volcanic eruptions are responsible for a substantial amount.

Massachusetts Representative Thomas Massie R John Carey Carey Bassa -chusetts McMurdo Senator eight hundred thousand years two hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on 850 WFTL

850 WFTL

04:54 min | 2 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on 850 WFTL

"Animals in that area. More than one hundred million years before the crashing waves on the beach. They were hitting rocks that have been formed in river valleys and rift valleys one hundred and five million years ago when Australia was still connected Antarctica. It was near the south pole. This was one of the most fantastic aspects of doing this fieldwork was looking for these traces of dinosaurs. That lived near the south pole. Sadly, their bones are very rare in that area. But what it also happened was tracks were very rare too. So we've been searching for nearly three weeks, and we have not found any dinosaur tracks at all. Has we're walking down the beach, though, tic- some little boroughs fossil Burrows that I recognize as being made by insect larvae, and these insect larvae. I also remembered time I've been on a riverbank up in the North Slope of Alaska, and I've seen modern insect burrow, just like this. So immediately I thought this is the right environment. This is the right place where these dinosaur tracks could have been preserved. So my colleagues say walk ahead of me. They're also looking for bones. I'm not that interested him, hence the title of my book. But as I'm walking along a big slab of rock to my left catches my eye. I turn high looks slowly to my left. And I realized that there's this impression in the rock that looks like three fingers had been stuck down into it. Kind of like in silly putty or Plato, and I looked down at it. I put my three fingers into it. They fit almost perfectly. Here was a small diner. Short-track you write that it was seven centimeters two point eight inches long that is chicken size. So we're dealing with a dinosaur. That isn't very terrible. That's right. Yeah. The adult what I put my hand in was the adult tracks. I think and then there were these small tracks right next to them on this big slab of rock that were like, I say, yeah. Chicken sized. So they range really from like, a sandhill crane to chicken in size, and these were theropod dinosaurs, small carnivorous dinosaurs that were walking on a river, flood plain probably after the polar winter had east hand the floodwaters had gone through that valley, and they'd left a wonderful variety of tracks there on that rock it turned out to be that. And a nearby slab of rock was about eighty five percent of follow the dinosaur. Tracks found in southern. Australia twenty four different tracks. Once you put the two slabs together. This was a piece of land that was more towards the south pole one hundred million years ago. So that before the ice formed over Antarctica. And it had moved to where Australia is what is the rock. Look like to walk on it. Is it hard is sandstone? What is how does the surrounding rock? Look the rock around there. And this is very common along that part of the Victoria coast is very sick hard sandstone. And really sick makes for imposing cliffs. So as you're walking along prospecting for these trace, fossils, you're watching out for falling rocks from above and you're watching out for these rogue waves from the seat. So you do depend on one. Another to watch out for one another MP careful while doing this field work. Yeah. Very hard sandstone. There's some other rocks there that are little softer. But you you really watch your step out there detail. This wasn't actually the footprint. It was the under side. Right. How does that? How does it? What does that mean that you're not actually seeing the top of the soil? It was what was imprinted underneath. Get dinosaur tracks a very often were preserved has under tracks and by under tracks. It's kind of like if you are writing and writing on a paper tablet, hand the pages underneath are going to register the impression of your pen. So it's not the actual surface. But the surfaces just underneath where dinosaur walked that will sometimes get preserved in these instances, he's were relatively small dinosaurs, the tracks they were the impressions that you could see in the rock. They did look like real honest kosh modern tracks, but they were probably worn down a little bit before they got buried and preserved. Let's go not very far away to knowledge creek. You were lost this may of twenty nine and you're looking for Burroughs. What does that mean? Boroughs are these are excavations made by animals that could.

Australia Antarctica North Slope of Alaska Burroughs Victoria one hundred million years eighty five percent five million years seven centimeters eight inches three weeks
"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

02:01 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"As the Android. From per meet the alien, covenant is guiding you and showing you these these prehistoric ruminants in the rock David was not Michael bender. But David was excellent. He was a really really good guide, and this place, we came to where we were walking on fossils. This was the mount Stephen trial by beds. It is a graveyard of organisms from the Cambrian period about five hundred million years ago. Now mount Stephen is in an area that's home to the Burgess shale geological formation, which is one of the most important sites of Cambrian period fossils in the world. And if you ever get a chance to do one of these hikes, I highly highly recommended I think it literally might be the coolest thing I've ever done. You have to book them through this organization called the Burgess shale geoscience foundation. And they pair you with a guide our guy, David the paleontologist was an excellent science communicator. He was really good with the kids on the group, and he was a great hiking guide. So if you get a chance to go with David big thumbs up to him be warned if you do try to do this. It's a tough hike. It's like eight kilometers round report on only with the seven hundred ninety five meter elevation gain, which is like a two thousand six hundred feet, and and that's starting at like twelve hundred or thirteen hundred meters of elevation at the at the base of the mountain. So the air is thin and it's worth doing some other hikes at higher elevation to get yourself accustomed to the lack of oxygen. But I also don't want to scare you too much. Obviously, I will I am no kind of athlete or experienced altitude hiker or anything like that. And I survived advising listeners to where their best flip flops. To just be prepared have some layers have some water do a little practice. If you can make the trip it. It is absolutely worth it to see these fossils firsthand. You can pick them up. You can feel the ribs of these Cambrian organisms. You can you can feel the contours of their bodies as they printed on this ancient shale, but also it's really cool to be there. Just because the area around field, including.

David Burgess shale geoscience found mount Stephen Burgess shale geological Cambrian Michael bender seven hundred ninety five mete two thousand six hundred feet five hundred million years thirteen hundred meters eight kilometers
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Michael Knowles Show

The Michael Knowles Show

02:57 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Michael Knowles Show

"That the solution here is all this two hundred million year kicking off of Twitter, the the ten million or the two hundred percent more that you're kicking off the the eight to ten million that you regularly questioning the half a million that you're preventing from logging on. That's the problem. The solution that he proposes is the problem. Transparency is another problem, but that is the problem I was there. I was recently reading a an essay or a speech, I suppose by John Milton, he's the guy who wrote paradise lost and it's called the areopagus, and it's it is one of the greatest defenses of free speech ever. He gave it. He gave it before parliament and it is this resounding defense of free speech on on seriously, considering posting all nineteen thousand or twenty thousand words of the areopagus to Twitter tweet by tweet because there is a total misunderstanding, lack of Britian of the free exchange of ideas and free speech and what makes us testimony. So we're welling is the whole introduction is how this. We want Witter to be a free open platform, a free open platform. BS pal clearly not be as all the rest of your testimony. Negated that the reason they're so insistent on this is because they don't wanna get regulated like publishers. They don't wanna get regulated, like political actors. They wanna get regulated out of business, but you've got to live up to what you're to what your platform is supposed to be, what it was founded to be. Because coincidentally, while all of this was happening, we witnessed the biggest one day drop in tech stocks in months, dragged the NASDAQ down. It hit Twitter, especially hard. A Twitter was down five point, two percent Google's down. One point, seven percent at the highest. I think they've rebounded a little by now and by the way, I'm not saying that this is caused by the testimony a, we're not even sure if the testimony has is priced into this yet. But certainly it is the case that all of the scandals that have plagued big tech in recent months, all of which by the way or related to how freely information is exchanged. The. For the privacy issues, the censorship issues, the shadow of any all of that creates unter uncertainty and tech stocks because the the tech stocks are not doing what they're supposed to do. Either Twitter is going to be an open platform and it's going to be Twitter or there won't be Twitter. It's not going to be something else. The left always goes in and perverts these institutions either either Twitter will do what it does or or there won't be a Twitter. It will just disappear and we know this by the win look at the the decline in users. So a new study came out from Pew Research, forty, two percent of Facebook users have taken a break from the platform in the past year. Forty, two percent. That is a shocking, man. I mean, I, I use it all the time. Obviously, we broadcast on these platforms. These platforms have given conservative such an opportunity. That's why the left is so angry by the left is pressuring them to censor all of us because he could give him a such an opportunity to get our views out unvarnished to the American people, you know, for decades and decades and decades..

Twitter John Milton Pew Research welling Witter Google Britian Facebook two percent two hundred million year two hundred percent seven percent one day Milton
"hundred million years" Discussed on The How-To Heretic

The How-To Heretic

05:04 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The How-To Heretic

"It's kind of amazing how kind of small town carnival it looks chance delightful the hinge from spinal tap yeah it's got a hinge to it that's pretty charming so for one final time he changed his name this time to our own ferro netter a f at tomb ray coming the first and maybe last agip shin pharaoh of rural putnam county georgia never say so now that he arrived at kind of his last almost last stop let's let's take a little dive into his beliefs so the the the beliefs of the new avi nation as it kind of settled in georgia he insisted that native americans were actually descended from black africans who moved to that part of panja that would later become north america before the continents drifted apart just a brief two hundred million years ago also like david icu we talked about last week he was obsessed with the aluminum in the bilderberg and all those kind of classics right sure and then again he's here's where his kind of racist excuse me his his amazing race theory comes into play in in two thousand four he wrote the concave caucasian has not been chosen to lead the world they lack true motions in their creation we never intended them to be peaceful they were bred to be killers with lope reproduction levels and short lifespans another explanation has did a shit job of engineering us if that's what happened they did the world's most piss poor job of engineering because frankly we ended up doing all the things they didn't want us to write whose fault is that right right we we gained selfawareness at some point and fucked it all up that's why you don't fuck around with this stuff have you seen how many children we can have it's amazing exactly yeah i love he never met a mormon family i guess so another another of his his racial theories was that caucasians descended from our old friend kane yes just took all white nationalist bullshit and just replay like did a word search white with black find and replace added a record scratch he just turned that frown down in these so right adam and eve were sent this is me quoting him adam and eve were sent to the augean islands between asia and europe where they started having children and each couples firstborn child was an l bino and those albinos were called kane in the bible and kane is short for caucasian oh that so in biblical times they were using english then well he had some really interesting language ideas which cover in a sec but because this was happening around the same time as the the heaven's gate people the superficial similarity of your beliefs to those of the heaven's gate cult led some to worry that the group's mass suicide during the appearance of the comet hale bopp in ninety seven that york and the new orleans we're planning a similar forever sleepover with didn't occur yeah so however he would self destruct in a comparably horrible fashion soon enough so this is this is really one of my favorite parts you'll let this he taught a kind of hilarious notion of pseudo tamala giese or pseudo language okay basically there are truer hidden origins of common words that differ from the understood definitions oh here's here's a few believe the word believe actually is b ly eve which means to lie to eve's children and it gets better i taught sorry as cuc asian actually comes from carcass asian degenerated asians oh man i just wanna i'm just picturing all of his people sitting in a room and just yelling out words for him to deconstruct ooh do mountain comes from mounting ten people so every mountain has ten people underneath it so it's amazing how hidden in plain sight all this meaning is right could have known this all along so it had such a good interpreter but we are carcass asians and therefore also i'll buy no cane p right from from the mediterranean i suppose so the word god geo d comes from as he says the hebrew letters go mar and do bar signifying wisdom strength and beauty the.

two hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

04:22 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

"The dog the central dogma of like come on but it's always an exception out there right so it's a yeast they found a yeast that translates and it's just one trying to clear tied one of the three letter codes so they're the segio normally ct buying to the coach with immune acid loosing but in this species of yeast it translates into searing or allah need one or the other at pretty much fifty fifty at random so wait so this species can't make lucienne at all we'll know something else coach for losing its redundant those multiple coach for each each acid but instead of lucienne there's either a searing or analogy that's because and they found out that that's because of the the transfer are in a makes two different kinds of transfer aren a one will pick up the syrian won't pick up the the owning and so it's still predictable that's really neat it's unpredictable unprintable so for the first time you cannot predict the protein from the dna because it depends on what transfer are in a they can figure out what transfer are in a is involved than each time makes a protein just pick one at random picks one of those randa i say they also find that so this is some kind of weirdo mutation right in the in the yeast and and you would think that these would kill themselves off pretty quickly right that they wouldn't work and also in the the these amino acids have very different properties so it would dramatically change the structure there for the function of the protein it's wouldn't be a silent mutation right these are different you know assets once hydro phobic in the one the other one beyond the outside but what they found is that the yeast deals with the problem but because it developed away of basically skipping over the sections that have c t g in it so it tries to avoid those parts of the protein that would be screwed up by soho translates using the redundant is just works around it that but like it still makes those amino acids such as young other code does it does interesting so they think that this use about one hundred million years old so this has been doing this for a while but it just evolved a fix while the jury rig it thinks it's a hundred million years old and there's not been a secondary evolution nary event at all in one hundred million years i guess just one species of yeast this is so hard to believe it was hard to believe single species of them or genus of them about it think of how phenomenally conserved the genetic code is so from that perspective it makes sense so even when these weirdoes awry arise rarely they they have to they don't spread and proliferate they wipe themselves out yeah but what we're saying here is that it's a neutral mutation this this is not this is not a neutral mutation though but the thing but it had to it had to simultaneously evolve a fix or it had eventually evolved the fix so that could survive yes so the net effect is neutral it's not yet here so it's interesting to me that you wouldn't at least some differentiation like that you wouldn't see a couple other species again it's used maybe there are but they've only found one so far yeah start looking they're gonna find a bunch and i'm gonna try and get my win back up this is true for right now but they may find it is the i didn't say the last right i mean maybe in your pedantry there may piecyk dash species that they discover that also it's interesting that it just quickly enough evolved a fix that could survive with this persisted it was a now to endure but yeah it makes sense that we don't see a lot of these things because it's such a highly conserved feature of all life on earth all right having a quote all right science is not yet mastered prophecy we predict too much for the.

one hundred million years hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

04:22 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe

"The dog the central dogma of like come on but it's always an exception out there right so it's a yeast they found a yeast that translates and it's just one trying to clear tied one of the three letter codes so they're the segio normally ct buying to the coach with immune acid loosing but in this species of yeast it translates into searing or allah need one or the other at pretty much fifty fifty at random so wait so this species can't make lucienne at all we'll know something else coach for losing its redundant those multiple coach for each each acid but instead of lucienne there's either a searing or analogy that's because and they found out that that's because of the the transfer are in a makes two different kinds of transfer aren a one will pick up the syrian won't pick up the the owning and so it's still predictable that's really neat it's unpredictable unprintable so for the first time you cannot predict the protein from the dna because it depends on what transfer are in a they can figure out what transfer are in a is involved than each time makes a protein just pick one at random picks one of those randa i say they also find that so this is some kind of weirdo mutation right in the in the yeast and and you would think that these would kill themselves off pretty quickly right that they wouldn't work and also in the the these amino acids have very different properties so it would dramatically change the structure there for the function of the protein it's wouldn't be a silent mutation right these are different you know assets once hydro phobic in the one the other one beyond the outside but what they found is that the yeast deals with the problem but because it developed away of basically skipping over the sections that have c t g in it so it tries to avoid those parts of the protein that would be screwed up by soho translates using the redundant is just works around it that but like it still makes those amino acids such as young other code does it does interesting so they think that this use about one hundred million years old so this has been doing this for a while but it just evolved a fix while the jury rig it thinks it's a hundred million years old and there's not been a secondary evolution nary event at all in one hundred million years i guess just one species of yeast this is so hard to believe it was hard to believe single species of them or genus of them about it think of how phenomenally conserved the genetic code is so from that perspective it makes sense so even when these weirdoes awry arise rarely they they have to they don't spread and proliferate they wipe themselves out yeah but what we're saying here is that it's a neutral mutation this this is not this is not a neutral mutation though but the thing but it had to it had to simultaneously evolve a fix or it had eventually evolved the fix so that could survive yes so the net effect is neutral it's not yet here so it's interesting to me that you wouldn't at least some differentiation like that you wouldn't see a couple other species again it's used maybe there are but they've only found one so far yeah start looking they're gonna find a bunch and i'm gonna try and get my win back up this is true for right now but they may find it is the i didn't say the last right i mean maybe in your pedantry there may piecyk dash species that they discover that also it's interesting that it just quickly enough evolved a fix that could survive with this persisted it was a now to endure but yeah it makes sense that we don't see a lot of these things because it's such a highly conserved feature of all life on earth all right having a quote all right science is not yet mastered prophecy we predict too much for the.

one hundred million years hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

02:02 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Doctor's Farmacy with Mark Hyman, M.D.

"About the different regions bio regions of you know the oceans and the the rain forest and the polls and man's impact on those areas and it was a very dire straight real conversation where they were sharing you know the the amount of desecration that we've done to this planet and the last guy who spoke spoke was guy by the name of graham sate and he basically spoke about the biological principles of how for the last five hundred million years the planet has cooled and heated and gone through ice ages and then come back to you know all the different phases over that period of time and basically communicated that photosynthesis had been the driver to really cool the planet that the way that we don't have more carbon with the conversation of climate change we don't have more carbon now on planter than we did before there's just a lot of it released in the atmosphere and all that carbon it's where the carbon is that matters exactly that it's just out of balance it's carbon is not our enemy carbon is not a problem it's just when it gets out of balance it's out of balance and the beautiful nature of nature and the most important function on the planet photosynthesis actually has the potential to pull enough carbon out of the atmosphere back into the soil and that each individual who eats three meals a day could catalyze that function and martin food and our food choices and our diet could not only be the source for regenerating the health of our bodies but actually could be the source of regenerating and reverse in global warming a huge and i was like wait you're telling me that i've been selling.

graham five hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on I Need My Space

I Need My Space

01:45 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on I Need My Space

"Scares you to think about stuff that's going to happen in a hundred million years you know that can be disconcerting and sometimes you know sometimes when you tell people like you'll be long that doesn't reassure true i don't i don't know there are certainly people who contact me and say that that they are really upset by thinking about science some of these big ideas i mean you know our our minds are not really like prepared i think for some of these these really like massive cosmic concepts it can be a little troubling to think about stuff like the sun turning into red giant and and swallowing up mercury and venus and you know that stuff can be unsettling or or like we're just thinking about like other stars going supernova and like maybe they had fun it's like what happened to those that's not good things i understand why it can be troubling but i think it i think it's neat though i think it's it's fun and exciting to think about these big things and to do it you know in the comfort of this nice little habitable planet the that is sort of set up perfectly for the life that exists here you can think about these these big scary concepts but be in a situation where you don't have to contend with them at least not immediately i dunno i find it fun i like thinking about the end of the universe i love spike death yeah like how how the entire universe will come to an end and be destroyed i think that's and that's probably a bad sign up there with you i agree yeah it's kind of it's going to need to think about like ultimate causing destruction and they know that there are some people who do not like to think about that.

hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on MacBreak Weekly

MacBreak Weekly

01:41 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on MacBreak Weekly

"Do that though right they you don't think apple to that but that doesn't mean that they can't and wouldn't possibly have the potential to i i mean i agree i don't think would do that but tim cook isn't going to be the ceo of apple for one hundred million years things change what's what's going to happen in the future and so it's just our job to keep an eye on it that's all and to the degree weekend the thing that really bugged me about facebook is it was so pay there was no way of no i mean we could've guessed but really there was no way of knowing how lackadaisical they were being with privacy protections we now know that or android was being extremely lackadaisical with privacy protections they have since tightened up those privacy and low controls so that that thing facebook did a few years ago can't be done on current versions of android i think people have the ability to like saying control access understand the transactions that are making it's okay because this is this really is all about transactions we make transactions with apple because we trust them i make transactions with google because i believe that what i'm getting from them is worth what i'm giving them and i also believe that they take seriously within their within the limits of their business model than the to maintain my privacy facebook i do believe that just as again core value of the company is that everything is meant to be shared the people got drawn closer together the more information is free floating out there and i don't believe that there are a lot of internal breaks against saying no we should not collect this or no we'll be us to observe.

apple tim cook ceo facebook google one hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on Something You Should Know

Something You Should Know

02:02 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on Something You Should Know

"What that means and has experienced that why is that the fact of it is really clear to everybody but why goes into how the brain evolved over six hundred million years actually of the whole evolution of the nervous system that's what scientists call the negativity bias of the brain or i kind of cut to the chase and call it we've got a brain like with its belco for the bad baton for the good in this because for our ancestors they had to get carrots the good and but they had to avoid sticks the bad the differences if you don't get a carrot today food mating opportunity whatnot you'll have a chance to win tomorrow but if you fail to avoid that stick today that predator that aggression inside your band or between bands whack no more carrots forever so we've got a brain that's just designed to scan for bad news overreact to it and fast track the whole package into memory so for me mother nature's tilted toward survival but against quality of life and if we are interested in longterm quality of life and long term health and happiness we've got a tilt toward the positive just to level the playing field so if that is the natural inclination and everyone knows that that it is you were you worry about what can go wrong you never think about what's going to go right then if that's the inclination how do you fight it i mean it is what it is yeah that's tilting comes in and so for me i've worked backwards from what does it take to grow resources inside like mindfulness compassion confidence grit and gratitude how do you actually grow them inside yourself and it's a two step process to hard wire them into your own brain i you need to experience whatever you wanna grow like gratitude or confidence or determination and then you need to take a few seconds with it take a breath or two or three feeling in your body and see what.

six hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

01:32 min | 3 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Objects of varying quantities yeah and obviously that plays into survival advantage to be able to to determine these differences yeah or if that's not the case if it's not convergent evolution separate solutions leading to the same conclusion they must have gotten these numbers skills from their last common ancestor as we mentioned earlier that last common ancestor between mammals and birds lived three hundred million years ago yeah so so or the terrorists before the dinosaurs yeah three hundred million years ago with number skills i mean before the age of the dinosaurs that's very creepy but i think we've got one that's even crappier and that's theory of mind yes and this is where i definitely think back to standing on one side of the glass and watching the ground hornbills and and looking into the eye of the ground hornbills they walk up and and we'll often show off a dead mouse they'll have it in their beak and they'll on a show it to me or if they don't have really think so they seem to be showing it off yeah they want to show that that dead mouse to me and if there's not a mouse they'll have a wood chip and they'll pick that up i want to show it to me well but but to what extent is that hornbill actually could possibly be perceiving me as an entity that is proceeding it yeah this is where we get into theory of mind and it's a pretty big deal in human cognition and the human experience overall theory of mind allows us to see the world or attempt to often quite poorly through another person's eyes.

three hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Starters

The Starters

01:51 min | 4 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Starters

"Doesn't biggest visa guess early to it well i mean something similar happened with the waiters this weekend as well with andre drummond going down kinda around his legs i just don't know if you can say what's dirty and not based on intent because if you're diving at people's likes maybe you're not aim into heard anybody but somebody's gonna hurt if you're diving legs that's just how it as has happened with chris bosh and who owner a one hundred million years ago you just don't dive of people's needs that's a pretty simple thing here but he's i mean we we didn't didn't meet from him at the time he dives yeah but again to me the if he's really trying to andrew so many then you're just flying out there diving it's meetings is done in for a loose ball that horsely roles into that of the way go on he's reaching for the ball and an an a man right these roles into them has a stop on a dime always vaughan continue going falling down i believe win i believe brent barry lead lines from the boston herald it says about two stars celtics push winning streak to twelve this this yeah this is the boston celtics are starting to resemble spurs east to me in that they just churn out these support players that can do the job win number one when guys go out and they can just hop into the 234 roles you know jaylen brown doing this thing is a defensive stopper marcus smart i don't care that he's shooting poor he makes up foreign all the little things that he does on the floor jason tatum obviously and terry i mean they're they're taking a chance flew i'm naming all these guys because they're good at what they do it defensively offensively and then when they can get into their perfect roles as you know four or five six guys when gordon hayward and kind of your finger in the light up good night and god speed and let the other guys do the offense in jaylen marcus smart you take care of the de we've got a nice little balance lineup after the first game of the season when i lost would brad stevens anchor having said you have to forget about it and just move on a play whoever's available.

celtics boston celtics spurs jason tatum andre drummond chris bosh andrew vaughan brent barry boston jaylen brown gordon hayward brad stevens one hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Starters

The Starters

01:51 min | 4 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Starters

"Doesn't biggest visa guess early to it well i mean something similar happened with the waiters this weekend as well with andre drummond going down kinda around his legs i just don't know if you can say what's dirty and not based on intent because if you're diving at people's likes maybe you're not aim into heard anybody but somebody's gonna hurt if you're diving legs that's just how it as has happened with chris bosh and who owner a one hundred million years ago you just don't dive of people's needs that's a pretty simple thing here but he's i mean we we didn't didn't meet from him at the time he dives yeah but again to me the if he's really trying to andrew so many then you're just flying out there diving it's meetings is done in for a loose ball that horsely roles into that of the way go on he's reaching for the ball and an an a man right these roles into them has a stop on a dime always vaughan continue going falling down i believe win i believe brent barry lead lines from the boston herald it says about two stars celtics push winning streak to twelve this this yeah this is the boston celtics are starting to resemble spurs east to me in that they just churn out these support players that can do the job win number one when guys go out and they can just hop into the 234 roles you know jaylen brown doing this thing is a defensive stopper marcus smart i don't care that he's shooting poor he makes up foreign all the little things that he does on the floor jason tatum obviously and terry i mean they're they're taking a chance flew i'm naming all these guys because they're good at what they do it defensively offensively and then when they can get into their perfect roles as you know four or five six guys when gordon hayward and kind of your finger in the light up good night and god speed and let the other guys do the offense in jaylen marcus smart you take care of the de we've got a nice little balance lineup after the first game of the season when i lost would brad stevens anchor having said you have to forget about it and just move on a play whoever's available.

celtics boston celtics spurs jason tatum andre drummond chris bosh andrew vaughan brent barry boston jaylen brown gordon hayward brad stevens one hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on The Infinite Monkey Cage

The Infinite Monkey Cage

02:05 min | 4 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on The Infinite Monkey Cage

"And there were quite a little creatures on earth that had never seen oxygen different counted i couldn't take it was mass mortality on earth is a poison and the creatures identify survive by burying themselves us why in the possums muddy lakes when you can if you dig in there is a bit smelly and strange because all the creatures that kong coat with them without suggest that she is there and and it's also by the way why we thoughts because the the creatures that he make the methane inside i guts have buried themselves to try and get away from oxygen so so it was a big poison it was a big poison but he's really cool thing about it as the oxygen began to build up more and more and more in the atmosphere eventually about six hundred million years ago you've got the very first animals he got the first multi sell creatures he got the first is and teeth and legs and cells and brains and had and everything they've it in interesting i creatures that could move around the first creatures that could do stuff and that's because they had oxygen it has to be something really powerful to be as big and vigorous and inventive as we are so the current think he would vote vital for life would you say the current think here's the oxygen for complex slowing the a with a conserve of life and other planets and the possibility that basically as far as we know if you want to be bigger than a pen had i dare you only big lump in at any don't wanna be slime as i do think alicia saying thank you breathing i will this is very good advice run today president in case of forget news resolutions rick what does it made it so successful i part of your new the the auction to be the third most common your the point of of the big bang we have hajime of helium and then you're things continued to increase approach on such a what is about auction which means this universe the system is.

president alicia rick six hundred million years
"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

Stuff To Blow Your Mind

01:30 min | 4 years ago

"hundred million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind

"Spiders is carr's spiders have been added for a long time they have been noted there there some pretty old predators pretty successful predators found on every continent except antarctica yeah uh they've been on earth for some four hundred million years and while the number keeps going up i believe the most recent species count was in excess of forty five thousand spider species now we've covered aspects of spider anatomy behavior on the show over the years so we'll see the most recent one lead we did one on no we deal what it would be liked guests by giant spider dragged that last october for our halloween season because with the giant spider movies they always cutaway right bride the spider gets to the part where it eats he'll move like well what would that look like visit stick the fangs in and drain your blood like a vampire and the answer spoiler alert no they mostly like drool all over you and inject to you with the with dissolving enzymes in turn you into motion than they turn into bowl lesson it well just go listen to the episode via now met i think everyone knows what a spider is the basics are eight lags veneman fangs spinner at the produce highlyspecialized strands of silk some spiders use these two hunter maneuvering there environments but a great many of them dill traps webs and there are several types of webb's you have a triangle webb's funnel web mesh webb's cobwebs sheet webs and of course a traditional orb webs.

carr webb halloween four hundred million years