20 Burst results for "Howard Hughes Medical Institute"
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on The Microscopists
"Sort of a funny story but I had been in touch with a professor at Cornell when as a win over who was doing. The psychology underlying mathematical thinking in children. And he wanted me to do a survey there for. A mathematical thinking and so at some, you know after a couple months when we had gotten there. I went out in the field with some students to try to. Get some of the data that he wanted an and I quickly realized this is nuts that these. The fact that he sitting in his ivory tower. At his university and has no clue what these kids are experiencing and what these kids know versus don't know in their particular environment really turn me off to the kind of study that was associated. With this field at that time so That I quickly, sort of cut ties with that and realized really dove into being a teacher at this high school and they had no teachers in any of the science classes. So I taught physics, I taught chemistry and I taught health science and. It was and it was a high school. It's called Harambee school. It was student kids who girl actually all girls who were living. Out in the Bush, we were out in a We're surrounded by mud huts everywhere in our in our school had dirt floors no electricity You. Know I basically had to write the lesson plan on blackboard and It was really transformative. It made me realize In order to really help this, you know this community these people. Needed because I could see all kinds of issues with. The way that they are The way they're growing their crops, the the health conditions the. Lack of knowledge of really basic fundamental. Things that could help their community Live in a more comfortable way so. It also transformed my husband because he decided to go to become an international. Going International..
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on The Microscopists
"Sense is that the post Docs and the younger people also feel invigorated in the same way that that I do. Well. What about the pressure? The could again to maintain not that the momentum the you coming into that continue that momentum educate what motivates you how'd You keep not going? Any in my own lab or to it are you talking broadly about the genes themselves out of? Office perspective. Hygiene. Keep that dry onto balanced that Prussia that you have. Well first off, we don't write grants. So that's really nice. So you don't have the pressure of constantly getting feedback or worried about writing a grant. Basically, we write papers or rewrite reviews you do the science and So it's all about the science and actually there's a lot of. Science going on at Genelius, which is really cool and you bump into people and you start up all kinds of collaborations between between different labs. That's that itself is very motivating when you have. A larger set of people that are sort of participating with each other to push things through. For me. I try not to let. outs. Exterior things like. A grant or whatever. Be a motivating worry or concern There's enough things that you can get concerned about to sort of have that. Impact you what I think is. What I try to have motivate me is the science, the segment of the science. Like I don't like doing things that are not significant. I mean. I. Think it's really there's always tell my students I mean they'll they they're happily moving with their experiments and They want to write a paper. And if it's not significant you know my view is look it takes so much effort to get a paper out to get a paper to make it. Really really good that you may as well have it on something that is really changing our perspective of things so. In anything that we work on, we try to look at it from a perspective. That gives a new a new view, a new twist in.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Historical Figures
"As Howard explained. It wasn't that he wanted one particular favor from a given politician. He wanted power and control. That would be there whenever he needed it. He wanted the government on his payroll and while he didn't succeed in hiring the entire Kennedy Organization. He did succeed in getting Larry. O'brien Bobby Kennedy's campaign manager into his book. Keeping a useful man to have in your pocket considering he'd go on to be the head of the DNC but not all of the politicians Howard Hughes sponsored loved his association with that organization. Which brings us to Richard Nixon Howard Hughes supported Nixon throughout his political career. As far back as Nineteen fifty-six when Nixon was Vice President Howard had loaned the Nixon family would amount to more than one point five million dollars today Nixon's brother. Donald used the money to bail out his failing fast food. Chain of course usually when one gives alone it's secured with something of equivalent value for example a mortgage which is secured on the value of your home and of course eventually repaid hughes loan to the Nixon's meanwhile was secured with an empty piece of land valued at thirteen thousand dollars a fraction of the loan value and was never repaid as in. It sounds a whole lot more like a gift then alone no strings attached or perhaps with few strings as soon as the money had changed hands. The IRS approved the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as a tax exempt charity after twice previously having declared it he device for siphoning off otherwise taxable income. This suspicious so-called loan made its way into the press in the final days before the nineteen sixty election when Nixon was first running for president and the scandal may have impacted his chances in the hotly contested race as he put it. I must have answered questions about the Hughes Loan. At least a hundred times the media the story and played it up big because it was so damaging to me still it did nothing to cool Nixon's appetite for Hugh's money during the nineteen sixty eight election season Nixon and Howard connected once again this time. The Hugh's money tying them together was a cool one hundred thousand dollars about seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars today and instead of going right to the Nixon family. It went to a bank account in the name of Charles. Beebe rebozo close associate. In confidante presumably the purpose of this unofficial campaign gift was a personal nature. Nixon could get it from Rebozo when he needed it for his private expenses. As for Howard. It seems to have proven useful too. Soon after the money changed hands. He weasel his way out of some legal issues with his Air West Takeover. He'd been indicted for conspiring to manipulate the airline stock defrauding shareholders of sixty million dollars and airline which it's worth noting was the beneficiary of multiple route franchises and mail subsidies this time the money carefully concealed in rebozo account. Didn't make its way to the press and Nixon finally sailed into the White House. He was sworn in as president on January twentieth nineteen. Sixty-nine meanwhile in Nineteen Seventy Howard gave up on Nevada. He didn't like the nuclear tests that the government were running in the desert to spite his petitions to have them stopped or the fact that despite his extraordinary wealth and power there were other wealthy powerful players bidding on Las Vegas. Perhaps it's no surprise that a man so obsessed with power and control would wanna find somewhere where he'd be the only big fish around. He was waffling between Mexico. And the Bahamas. He wasn't sure which would allow him greater political influence. Has He put it in a memo? Please consider the problems in obtaining empire status in the end. It was the Bahamas despite Howard's lifelong racism and as a result his distrust of a black government paradise island seemed like his only escape from the constant threat of nuclear contamination and rivals in Nevada on November twenty fifth nineteen seventy. He was carried out of the desert in via the fire escape by his Mormon AIDS wearing clothes for the first time since he arrived for years earlier Blue Pajamas. He was six foot four. And just over one hundred pounds emaciated after years of lying in bed and picking it food his hair. Meanwhile was almost twenty four inches long uncut for years. Sorry sight one that would have shocked the media and the mini politicians. He bribed for power and influence at both the DNC and in the Republican White House. This was the man behind the curtain. The man pulling the puppet strings but no one got a chance to see him. He was ushered into an unmarked van under cover of darkness then carried onto a private jet and finally to another Ninth Floor Hotel Penthouse this time in the Britannia Beach Hotel on Paradise Island.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Nature Podcast
"Egg-laying is tightly controlled process and insects. And it's something that buried Dixon from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in the US is investigating their true really fascinating things about at one. How they decide where to lay eggs right. They clearly choose outset sites and the other is how they're egg-laying behavior is regulated by making obviously doesn't make much sense for female to start laying eggs until she's made it to get the sperm to fertilize. The eggs berry is trying to map the neural basis of behavior seeing which neurons to fire to trigger an output and he says the fruit fly. Egg-laying is a great system to use. Many people now are trying to understand the fly brain in any brain at the level of circuits right. How does a whole behavior come together? And egg-laying behavior is a pretty good model for this where there's a clear decision when and where to lay and and so we can begin to explain that now in terms of the activities of individual neurons all the way through the females brain as circuits go. This one has a fairly clear input mating. An output egg-laying but the full picture of the wiring inbetween wasn't clear. However one thing that was understood was the role of a particular molecule. We had known some many many years that there's a small peptide that the male provides to the female in the ejaculate and goes by the unfortunate name of the sex peptide and that peptide thin changes female behavior and one of the things that it does is initiate egg-laying. The sex peptide was discovered in the nineteen eighties. But it wasn't until the two thousand that Bowie and his colleagues an idea of what it was doing. They showed that this molecule binds to sensory neurons in the uterus of female fruit flies sending a signal to their brains. That part was relatively easy. But then you get into the brain and it was really difficult right. I mean it's a mess in terms within your own. Wiring is always difficult to figure out where that signal went from that. Despite having a brain the size of a poppy seed fruit flies brains still really complex containing over one hundred thousand neurons. In recent years researchers have been working to build up a three d map to show the wiring between them in fine detail. Using this map. Barry was able to follow the signals route through the fruit flies brains and workout. How it affected egg-laying also known as Avi Position. We identified these descending. You're onto these neurons descending from the brain and these neurons turn out to be command. Type your own philosophy position right. So that means if you activate them in a female whether she's made it or not this will trigger all the motor sequences lovie position conversely when these neurons disrupted fruit. Flies were unable to lay eggs. Even after meeting. Barry concluded that these descending neurons must be key to the egg laying process so that wraps everything up then right well not quite. It sends out the female fruit. Flies are actually very picky about where they lay their eggs and berry also identified a set of neurons feeds into this system. These neurons seemed to be involved in selecting the best place for fruit flight. To lay an egg he suggests these neurons work together to coordinate egg-laying making sure it only happens when a female has mated and found a suitable place delay but given the complexity of connections in the fruit. Fly Brain doubts. This is the whole story. You know when you do the tracing. It's kind of scary. I mean different on characterized inputs. Outputs they're off from all these different neurons. Al Functional Analysis gives us confidence. It was found the key ones at least that we were looking for but all these other things time of day nutrition. Whatever right show they matter. And and maybe those other than you're still other inputs provide some of those additional controls. Barry demonstrated the tight coordination between mating and egg-laying filling in some of the gaps in the neural circuit diagram linking the two. There is a ways to go yet. All the intricacies of the system are uncovered. Barry is hopeful. The fly has a relatively complex brain shore. It's a simple brain by comparison to developments but is that sort of sweet spot. I think if if complexity but tracked ability and in this system we can put together these circuit level. If behavior. That was buried Dixon. You can read his paper over Nature Dot Com later on. We'll hear about a giant survey of bird populations in India and about genomes of rats in New York. That's coming up in the news before. But it's time for the research highlights read this week. By Noah.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"Degrees in the American standard cooling weather center the time is seven thirty six NPR then there's a university at how the Rockefeller University I wasn't aware of Rockefeller University and they have something called the Howard Hughes medical institute and on the wall of the Howard Hughes medical institute in their auditorium there are paintings portraits winners of the Nobel Prize or something of the Lasker award not familiar with it it's a medical price they happen to be white men the university has now taken them down they've taken down the portraits of these winners what they have done the dude wall as the article discusses these winners these Nobel Prize winners these Lasker prize winners all down Tony counts ninety three W. IBC remember that story as we move over to New York City where they want to do away with the schools gifted and talented programs there is a school diversity panel that was created by mayor bill de Blasio who never once run or well book he didn't want to put into practice they want to get rid of gifted and talented programs why because they promote racial inequality because of the programs are comprised mostly of white and Asian students now Harvard if you do now seems to have a real penchant for not wanting to admit Asian students because they just detect due to dang well and well it's not allowing the school to be more representative bill the Blasi L. has long been opposed to these types of things long been opposed to the idea that if you do well you should succeed because it doesn't create enough diversity if diversity is being done for the sake of diversity and we throw out the very concept of merit and earning it of what value is anything now you don't get a college degree because you earn the degree you get a degree because they have to put out a certain amount of degrees in a certain amount of classifications the kids who are smarter should be challenged in school and the kids who aren't as smart should be challenged in school and maybe those challenges can be all weather not you can do calculus but how about many other skills to which they can be challenged and just because you can't do calculus doesn't mean you're not smart we should we should do away with pushing the brightest be intellectually brightest be mathematically brightest the scientifically brightest because it's gonna make somebody else feel bad because there's not enough of that group in there there's not enough of some other group on the wall how about this get yourself on the wall you could tell me that there was a time where people were stopping you you could have that conversation you really want to get into the idea of that times today you really want to tell me in a in in today's world knowing that they're not hiring the black scientists they're not hiring the woman scientist now if you tell me that there are more people who are minorities or women who I'm going to the sciences I'd be curious to know why that is but now we're going to a New York punish the kids because they have an interest in these things because they excel these things because possibly culturally there moved in these areas we want them to be dumber for the sake of equality of that's a quality count me out here's a really interesting conversation going on about Dave Chapelle and a new special that he has and if I can edit the audio enough OB I play for you this one segment but one of the lines of the treated them and we've discussed before we probably set it to each other before and I'm gonna power phrase I cannot live in the world these progressives one for us listen to what they want you should note people who have achieved and you should put down those people who strive to achieve who don't even look like the guys on the wall I can't live in the world you progressives want it's just like we talked about with the second ma'am in those people who want to do away with the second amendment to tell the second amendment the answer is no this world that people on the political left once in this claim of a quality that they put out there the answer is no you're not in charge you don't get to decide I'm I'll share with you I will do what I can to edit it all up Tony Katz ninety three W. I. B. C. good morning robin Amanda heard of her real estate team and they are going to help you sell your house did you need to get your household I get it you have a life to lead you got things to do and you want to do them immediately if not sooner how are you supposed to do that if you don't have your household you can't go on with your life until you get your house sold I get it I understand it running Amanda heard understand it and they're going to help you get that house sold you got to give them a call it's just so easy to do three one seven five two zero twenty seven sixty three one seven five two zero twenty seven sixty talk about your house talk about what you're looking to do talk to them about why it's important to you and let them help you build.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"On the campaign. Although Mailer had some fantasy about winning yet mayor John Lindsay was ultimately elected to a second term that year. It's seventy three degrees cloudy right now here in New York City. The next few days are going to be pretty rainy showers likely tonight. We could even see some thunderstorms. Otherwise cloudy skies through this evening. We'll have a low of about sixty seven degrees tomorrow showers likely through the day. It'll be cloudy through the day as well tomorrow, the high reaching about seventy four tomorrow afternoon for tomorrow night. A fifty percent chance of more rain, more thunderstorms. Mostly cloudy tomorrow night. We'll see lows in the mid sixties, and then mid week on Wednesday again if percent chance of showers and thunderstorms, mostly cloudy, on Wednesday, we'll have a high about seventy four degrees. You're listening to WNYC. It's five thirty five. Support for NPR comes from WNYC members and from the Howard Hughes Medical institute believing in the power of scientists to make basic science discoveries that changed the world. Learn more at HHS dot org. And indeed used by over three million businesses for hiring, where employers can post jobs and you screener questions to build their short list of preferred candidates. Learn more at indeed dot com slash higher. This is all things considered from NPR news. I'm Ari Shapiro Cornish, the Trump administration's having a tough time convincing, many of its allies, that Iran is responsible for attacks on two tankers in the Gulf of Oban last week, several key allies, say they need more evidence in the video of the attack. The Pentagon has released and Jackie north looks at why the Trump administration is having credibility issues..
Diet drugs could halt mosquitoes' blood-sucking behavior, study says
"But one lab at the university Rockefeller had another idea. What have we just could convince female mosquitoes, the problematic ones that they're just not hungry enough to bite us in the first place? What if we can put them on a diet here to talk about this more is Dr Leslie Vassall, professor of neurobiology at the Rockefeller University. And a Howard Hughes Medical institute investigator in New York, New York, also welcome to science Friday. Thanks for being here. Thanks. I'm so excited. So why don't you start by telling us how often female mosquitoes actually bite because it feels like the same? Mosquito comes back. Bites me all the time. So first of all they love us. They have to fill up on your blood and as soon as they failed up and doubled their body weight. They actually will go into seclusion for four days. So the female that's just fitting you you won't see her again for the next four days. Okay. So they bite and they go away for a while. Why are they so attracted us in the first place, you you, you say they they like feasting on our blood y. They just love how we smell. So that the the mosquitoes that spread these diseases are they have specialized on human. So they're super sensitive to our body odor. Every time we exhale we excite them with our carbon dioxide in our brass they loved it were warm-blooded, but basically animals specialize on humans, and that's why they're so dangerous in spreading these diseases among humans, so you decided to see how they would react to human diet drugs. Explain why. Well, we were really struck by this. Phenomenon that they will lose her appetite for four days after taking a blood meal. So our idea was how can we get them to do that without feeding on blood? And so we know a little bit about how appetite works across the tree of life. And so one day we thought why don't we just got some diet drugs and see if we can disrupt the appetite of mosquitoes and that worked immediately this was five years ago and just over the course of the week we were able to turn off mosquito attraction to humans just with a little dose of this drug. Well, so it really worked very quickly. It did. And then it took a five years to figure out how how it was working. And then how how to get drugs that were specific just to insects and not and not people. So why drugs that are specific to insects and not people if if it works to give them human die drugs wanna just feed them human diet drugs. Well, I mean, I think people always worry if you have a bunch of mosquitoes flying around with with drugs that are nonspecific it would it would just be more elegant strategy to get to get drugs that really are just working really effectively on things like let's say ticks and malaria, mosquitoes and mosquito so just want we wanted to to make it the most selective possible drug in. So how did you make the selection? How did you find something that works specifically the mosquito brain? So this was a huge looking for a needle in a haystack exercise. So my whole stuck lower divall looked individually at two hundred sixty five thousand compounds and of though she found six that actually works on a ski. Oh, and those drums do not work on the human version of of the same targets so five years later, we we finally made it to the end of the journey. Do what do we know about how mosquitoes feel hunger? You say that when they have a blood meal they go away for a couple of days. Do we know anything about how they actually experience hunger? So it's it's this interplay between their need for protein. So they need blood to be able to get protein to produce eggs. And so we don't exactly know what's happening in their brains. But there's something about taking in this huge protein meal that leashes a huge series of physiological events that are really understood where the the the basically, the gut communicates to the brain. I am full. And so we think that our drugs hijack that conversation between what God and the brain. And and that's why are drugs are turning off appetite. So you got these drugs, they work they're turning off the appetite is the idea that this would eventually kill the mosquito that they would die of hunger or you just trying to deprive them of that one house the supposed to work. So our jobs are not forever. So we don't kill appetite forever. So they lasts for two or three days. And then when the drugs wear off they will go back and either come back to our traps and drink more. Of our drug or they will find you invite you. But where we think this is an innovative way to control disease vectors is that anytime you have a mosquito take two or three days from biting. That's some number of people who are not going to be bitten by infected mosquitoes. So we don't these drugs are not gonna kill mosquitoes. They're not gonna radical mosquitoes. They will just take a population that will take a break from biting people. You mentioned having them come back to to get more of this stuff. How are you dispersing this? How would this work is a practical solution getting this diet drug to mosquitoes? That's the really key question. So we need them to drink. It just like when you take pills you need to take it into your mouth. We need the mosquitoes to drink it. And so the plan is working off of existing technology to lure mosquitoes to traps us every day to to figure out what the epidemiology of infected mosquitoes as and we lured them in and then waiting for them. There is a Cup of our drug mixed into. This elixir that they love to drink which is basically salty water with ATP. And so that the land on the trap. They love the taste of that stuff. And they'll take the drug, and then they will go away for two or three days and things that they're full of blood. We're talking about mosquito science here. And I know Dr Voss all the others have been looking at ways to just eradicate mosquitoes altogether. To edit them out of existence or find ways to just get rid of the species do wanna just try that why don't you try to get rid of mosquitos altogether? What do you see is the consequence there? So the whole community the whole mosquito communities working really hard on lots of ideas to deal with this very old and very complicated problem, and the ratification team is doing amazing work. I think that it will be difficult to eradicate all of the different species that are spreading diseases. Those approaches will have an impact what I'm a believer in integrating multiple different approaches. So vaccines team affair? Ps and repellents and then our strategy of behavioral appetite control. So I always get a little bit worried about a radical getting species on earth because we do have a web of life. And and I don't know what will happen if we did succeed in killing all mosquitos. I'd rather not do the experiments. Have you have you thought a lot about the unintended consequences of the work that you're doing now putting them on a diet and having the not feed the same way, what are the potential consequences there? So we don't know what it's a good point. We don't know about the potential consequences are, but again, we're not killing them. It's a temporary effect. So it may have some small local effects on populations. But the main benefit is that there will be fewer female mosquitoes flying around and biting people. What are the things we need to be thinking about to really solve the mosquito disease problem, not just mosquitoes, but all the diseases they carry mean, what are the what are the public health needs here in the United States and elsewhere around the world that we might need to we need to avail ourselves. To help to solve this. Big problem. And it is a huge huge problem as long as there's been humans. There's there's been mosquitoes spreading diseases to them. And so, you know, there's a lot of areas the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the national institutes of health are putting huge amounts of money into making vaccines improving repellents bednets, the GMO approach our behavioral control, all of these different technologies. Need to be brought to bear. Because we have not the mosquito wins every time the mosquito keeps winning and so I don't think that there's any one approach that will put humans into a win earlier. I talked about deep turning seventy five this year. This is thought of as a repellent. What do we know about how these repellents actually work a mosquitoes? What's remarkable is that scientists cannot agree on how repellents work? So you have in your day to day experience. You know, that deep would off works really, well, so insect repellents work incredibly, well, there's still a lot of discussion in scientific circles about how they work and the work from my lab, and many others is trying to figure out how does it work. And then once we know how it works. We could perhaps improve on it and come up with repellents that are longer lasting and not as nasty to put on the skin. But believe it or not it's still a huge scientific controversy seventy five years later while so seventy five years, we know that it works. But we don't know exactly why works. I can only imagine that if you rebel to crack that code. You might be able to come up with a repellent that really really works. That is the dream exactly. That is the dream. And it's been, you know, science sometimes it's tricky this has been a long it's been a long relative figure out how it works and many labs. They're still working on it. So there's repelling mosquitoes were still trying to solve a seventy five year long. Mystery about that, there's you know, trying to a radical them something that obviously has its own unintended consequences, potentially. Are there? Other ideas about manipulating mosquito behavior other than what we've been talking about, you know, trying to put them on a diet. How else might we manipulate the way they just they live in go feed? You know, the the GMO approach can be used to to kill mosquitoes. There's also people thinking about GMO purchased just to change the behavior of the mosquitoes like a science fiction cool idea could remake mosquitoes that lose interest in people and really specialize on on animals that that would be another way of using modern crisper technology to to change mosquito behavior. But again, these are these are such incredibly complicated public health problems that that anybody that has an idea that would be willing to try it out. I think we would be all ears. Some of the mosquito borne illnesses. We're talking about the cause these gigantic public health problems like malaria, are they more difficult to prevent it manage than things like the flu. Such a complicated question. I mean because all of these diseases are so different all of these different areas. People are trying to raise vaccines and effective vaccine exists for yellow fever and yellow fever is very rarely seen. So I think it depends on on which critter you're talking about malaria. It's been extremely difficult in every way to to conquer because it's been very difficult to get a vaccine. But but each of these diseases has its own unique problems and flew the problem and all of the mosquito diseases are a big problem, but we've we've gotten rid of malaria in the United States. It can be done. It can be done, and that was a huge coordinated public health effort that only succeeded in nineteen sixty a lot of people think that malaria is not relevant to the US but through most of the twentieth century people in the southern US were being sick and by malaria. So it can't be done you need to have a you need to invest heavily in in in public health infrastructure. And and many other infrastructure issues. But we are a high resource country. So it's it's much easier to pull off in a hurry source country. Well, thank you for keeping on this. Mosquito beat for us, Dr Leslie Vassall, professor of neurobiology at the Rockefeller University here in New York City. Thank you so much.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on EconTalk
"Disclaimer this article or something to be pessimistic about science was in some ways almost the opposite. Where we we think it could be so much better. And we think it is so important that if it is possible for it would be better for it's going to get there. We really think we got engaged with this question. And I think you're gonna dry, but that framing in terms of separating as it of contingent institutional or. Sociological explanations for this design from those that are somehow about the administrative knowledge the nature on reality versus I would say the rules the game. And I want to mention by the way that one of the one of the more obvious implication of your work. If you take it just barefaced is that we're spending too much money subsidizing graduate education and science, and we have too many scientists that would be I don't think that's your. That's not your goal but could easily bro that conclusion as well. Yeah. Am. Well, I really think such a conclusion would be mature at very clear, and that that is not the case for making. But yes, I do think there should be. A more robust discussion about how it is that we should be allocating our efforts and how a lot input as should be structured under this core. Question of like, okay. Is this the nature of reality? Or is about the nature of just you know, how we're doing things. I really think that it's very difficult to know. And you know, people who've been sort of making the case people like Sean Carroll have made the case in physics that. You know, we the there is a sense in between kind of gotten there and really explained very large fraction of which is to be explained. And of course, you push back on that. And you know, they're, quote, some, you know, realism apocryphal of people who sort of ad thought to be kinda reached the end of this frontier in the past, but you know. Well, even if those assessments wrong in the past doesn't mean they're necessarily Ron today. And obviously, you know, I mean, I think there's kind of some described to that argument, however, Michaels, and my view is that even if it is the case, I think it is surely the case at depending on the fields that some of the story is kind of positive low hanging fruit, and some of the story is sort of these kind of more contingent factors and. We're pretty convinced. I guess that a non trivial part of the story entails these again, sociological institutional considerations. And so I think you don't actually need to answer the question of while is it eighty twenty this way, twenty other way in even if it is only twenty percents factors like the return to science is so enormous, but it's still overwhelmingly worth fixing those and then as fix them, and as we experiment there. And so on perhaps, we'll learn more about which truly is. And you know, I think you really it's it's not hard to kind of discover that or to come to realize that how we produce knowledge today. How are you know, scientific industrial complex works is not optimal. I have yet to be the scientists who who's even called it. Pretty good. Whether that's gonna be conservatism of funding mechanisms and parabas or the an the kind of assessment criteria, and so on or the time horizon of them or the kind of them rigidity with which feels and sort of career tracks prescribed and so on there's I think the really is a lot that holes scientists back and to I it's been widely reported that NIH are when grants an age, of course, being the largest fundra science in the US, the average age of kinda them first receipt of an HR when grant has been kind of a steadily increasing. In indicating the kind of in some sense. It's getting even worse to be said of a new scientists writing the scene, and this very suggestive evidence that kind of perturbations in some of our sort of institutional axioms can really yield hyper turns there's a a great paper on on the Howard Hughes Medical institute H M I, which is a really neat funder of..
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Brain Matters
"Ready to serve the city. I was I was listed on Amazon and because Amazon just moved their headquarters to Queen somebody clicked on the button. I had no choice. I had to come up here. Yeah. If. A fill the doctor shortage. But so, yeah, I mean, lots of things have changed. I got a new name amid a new place. But you know, one thing that hasn't changed -ment. What's that? Anthony. That's good episodes, brain matters. And this is definitely one of them. Oh, you got another great episode for us. You took the lead on this interview. And I assume that you talked to somebody interesting fascinating. It was a great conversation. So can you please tell me who it was what it was about? And how you felt about it. Yeah. So yeah. Of course, it was a great conversation that I had with Dr Roderick MacKinnon who is a professor at Rockefeller University as well as the Howard Hughes Medical institute. And Dr McKinnon has been studying how electrical signals are transducer in neurons, and he's interested in this from the level of of ion channels, and I. On channels. We talked about these in previous episodes, but they are proteins that are embedded in the neuron, and they sort of function as the the gate way or the highway in between the inside and the outside of neurons, and they're really interesting because they are the thing that changes, the electrical properties of those neurons because there are these charged particles that go through these channels, and that causes your neurons to fire, and they caused them to not fire. And so they govern a lot of the activity in our brain for this reason, Dr McInnes been really interested in how do they open? How do they close? And also, what do they look like? Yes. So they're extraordinarily small to the naked eye, but they're complicated. Proteins, right. They're they're kind of big they're bulky, they're the multiple sub units and they have moving parts. So at imagine it's challenge to deduce what the structure. Of these things are and structures important, exactly. Like, you mentioned they're incredibly small to the naked eye, but they're actually very complicated structures. And so understanding how they open and close has been a mystery because we are really challenging to visualize. And the reason they're so difficult is that these proteins exist within the lipid BI layer, which is fatty component. That is is basically outside of ourselves, and they sit in between them and getting proteins out of that fat has actually just really difficult. And for that reason, we don't know what a lot of them look like, but Dr McKinnon has embarked on a career long effort to try to isolate them, and then do these complicated techniques. One of them is known as x Ray crystallography that allows you to see what these very small molecules look like, and they create these very beautiful three dimensional images of. Of you know, what they look like you can actually use those images to understand how they move or what what are what are the constraining factors of of how they could move or how even the ions can pass through them. And we talked a little bit about this in the episode because he's he's very well known for this. Yeah, I've seen I've seen some of those these ion channel structure images in papers. And it's actually kind of cool you can find certain representations of them that you can get a three D affect by the sort of magic is crossing crossing your eyes type of thing. The they'll have to images next to each other that are slight slightly rotated or different colors are do it. And you can actually see this structure in three d on like a printed paper. So that's kind of a fun little thing. I would recommend looking that up just to see just to see that cool three D affect. Yeah. And so Dr MacKinnon also at the end of the episode. We talked about a new ish technique that has really revolution. Is the field, which is known as cry. Oh, EM or Kreil electron microscopy and this technique we go into it a little bit in the episode. So I'm not gonna talk about it now. But it allows you to much more easily isolate these proteins, and so this has actually caused us to be able to visualize so many more I on channels and other proteins, and so he's been using that actually currently and some of his work at the moment. Yeah..
Dragonflies And The Predicting Brain
"Done. Have you ever watched? Dragonflies hunt years have y'all they wait on a piece of vegetation or in mid air and to an insect flies past when one does zoomed action snatching prey outta mayor and devouring it intercepting insect in mid air as hard but dragonflies succeed ninety five percent of the time by comparison, a solitary lions attempts to catch prey succeed. Only about a quarter of the time. Dragonflies most have quick reflexes hand. Good is. Yes, but research conducted by scientists at the Howard Hughes Medical institute found that their hunting skills involves something more the scientists made high speed videos of dragonflies as they exercise their hunting skills in the lab, they found that as the animals approach their prey from below. They turn their heads to keep the prey fixed in their visual field. They corrected for the movements of their body. And the praise trajectory with almost zero delay Royal vents impossible, it takes more than five milliseconds for insect muscles to even begin to contract for the Dragonfly to respond with zero delayed need to be able to predict in advance. What head movement was needed? That's right time does nonsense making the prediction would involve trigonometry. Dragonflies? Don't know trigonometry countdown. Dine dragonflies Dono trigonometry. But the research shows that their brains are organized to perform the needed computations. Your rain is to the human brain can predict the consequences of your movements in the same way, the Dragonfly findings show that this ability is widespread and that all brains might be predicting machines. This moment of silence comes from Indiana University. I'm Don glass and Cassandra.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Miss Information: A Trivia Podcast
"Niagara Showalter told in an interview that because he frequently met with Peter's Hughes's men threatened to ruin his career if he did not leave. Her alone. So man. Yeah. If I can't have her I'm gonna make my guys follow her around, which is very healthy. Hughes was shall we say eccentric? Yes. And suffered from severe obsessive compulsive disorder close. Friends of Hughes reported that he was obsessed with the size of peas, which was one of his favorite foods, which just I mean offi be crazy to love peas. No, mental illness. At a time. He uses special fork to sort them by size. God bless them. And I mentioned this before. But I'm gonna say it again in nineteen fifty eight Hughes told his aides that he wanted to screen some movies at a film studio near his home. He stayed in the studios darkened screening room for more than four months. Never leaving. He ate only chocolate bars, and chicken and drank only milk and was surrounded by dozens of Kleenex boxes that he continuously stacked and rearranged he wrote detailed memos to his aides giving them explicit instructions. Neither to look at him nor speak to him unless spoken to throughout this period. Hugh set fixated in his chair often naked continually watching movies when he finally emerged in the summer of nineteen Fifty-eight. His hygiene was terrible. He had neither bathed nor cut his hair nails for weeks, and this may have been due to allegany which results in a pain response to stimuli that would normally not cause pain. So that's like I mentioned in the previous episode. Like that was the reason why he was naked because even like clothes on his body costs him such pain, and cutting your hair or nails like you have that perceived idea of like is like so much pain. No. Don't look at me. Your eyeballs are earning. After the screaming room incident. He's moved into a bungalow at the Beverly Hills hotel where he also rented rooms for his aides his wife and numerous girlfriends he was naked in a bedroom with a pink hotel, neck and placed over his genitals watching movies. This may have been because he's found the touch of clothing painful, due to allegany as I mentioned before he may have watched movies to distract him self from his pain, which is common practice among patients with intractable pain, especially those who do not receive adequate treatment, which he obviously did not in one year. Hugh spent an estimated eleven million at the hotel. You mean, the orange juice incur-, the orange juice didn't do a single goddamn thing. Yeah. It's really it's a shame. He really abandoned that orange juice at the end. He also began purchasing all restaurant chains in four star hotels that had been founded within the state of Texas this included if only for a short period, many unknown franchises currently out of business came obsessed with like, I gotta bil- everything. Founded in Texas. He plays ownership of the restaurants with the Howard Hughes Medical institute and all licenses were resold. Shortly..
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on AM 1590 WCGO
"Pretty. You know, what makes it grow CO two? No grandpa's. No, no. It isn't bad. Let me explain. What? Exactly. No. I like that lesson. That's awesome. I also saw another article I was explaining earlier I saw an article that really it made me nervous in so many ways Gardasil, I just wanted to mention this on Gardasil now by the Associated Press. This ended up this article in most of our newspapers across the United States today. And it now is saying that they're going to take what what they're kind of pining off to to teens as vaccine they're going to take this and extend it to up to forty five years old. And this is what I. Oh boy. So I just want you all to know when everything comes from the Associated Press like does Associated Press the health and science department that these articles come from is bought and paid for by the Howard Hughes Medical institute department of science education, which is bought and paid for since one thousand nine hundred six by the Rockefeller family. You if you can list one thing that the Rockefellers have done has been a good thing for our society, Aghia dollar. It's that bad. And let me let me say this this article is talking about now, you can get it up to forty five and they're telling you to get it. And it's one of the most dangerous vaccines we've seen. I can't believe people are clamoring to get this. If they are I'm I'm a poured by this thing two thousand six.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on This Week in Science
"Okay. So the thing about talking about probiotics is you're talking about just adding them to a very crowded system? Yeah, mitch's their well-defined. We're roles have been in play possibly for decades. You know, they're not. They're not going to. If you've been given antibiotics, you've had that system. Name out, right. Then you're replenishing. And what was interesting I didn't bring this won't talk to too much Lang. It was a study. I read recently that the order in which you add, if you add one at a time, these probiotics to a clean system will determine what that final microflora will be changed. The order that you introduce them in, for instance, you will end up with a different stable system at the end. So even even though probiotics and the micro biota is the cutting edge of knowledge in science, it's cutting edge because we don't know what's across the cut. There's we. We're still learning a lot. So I have, I have an anecdotal account that I think is related to this. Maybe who knows. That I used to get the entire time growing up. I used to get when I would get colds, though worst sinus symptoms, I would have a runny nose blowing my nose couldn't breathe through my nose, four weeks. And I had this very hippy, dippy yoga instructor in college who I came to class once with one of these runny noses. So this persistent to adulthood. I was a young adult, but I was still definitely full grown at this point and she suggested use a Netti pot. Now we've talked about this on the show before the Netti pot and and the the pros and cons and all this kind of stuff. I use that thing religiously twice a day for a month, and I have never knock on all the wood had the same responses. I used to have to colds that I had now. I could have just grown older. There could have been other things that hap-. Opened. It could be totally anecdotal, but it's interesting that that's that's that potentially could have changed the balance of things going on in that space and you. Eluding tests subject then to be given a cold virus and to maybe add one of these microbiomes to see if that could reverse what the Nettie. Perfect test subject. You have to now go and volunteer and get this cold. The question that question is at this point. I mean, scientists can we? Can we recreate what has been created in nature? Right? Can we figure that out so so maybe in the next stage of this when they give antibiotics, they also try a sinus rinse version where they're physically trying to remove or change the unity. Biotic. It'd be a physical, yeah, Netti pot chain. We should talk to them and tell them what they should do for their next study. Get him on the phone. Dial dial on your old rotary phone there. Well, there was it was one that I did think it was interesting is that they. The the probiotic was was a drink. There's no reason that should help your nose. Oh, my so so. That's what you gotta do. That's where it's at. And the researchers like we consider that, but we didn't think it'd be affective, try. That's how you know. So. Yogurt in your nose. Well. There's there's like instead of a flu shot, there's a flu nasal spray, right? So you could get a probiotic nasal spray. That's totally possible. Sure. In fact, we're Dr Justin's not a real doctor nasal spray. Well, you know, CES. Oh, Gert in a Harrison break-in. Give out the secrets. Did you sign the non. I think it was implied by us talking. Moving on. Here's a study out of the journal science from this last week, researchers, inventing new biology. That's right. Oh, synthetic biology. We're trying to create some that organisms. One part of that is we basically need synthetic control systems for these organisms. Let's put together dire systems of enzymes and and the controllers that work with them. And so in the laboratory of Michael Lewitt's, he's a professor of biology and biological engineering and a Howard Hughes Medical institute investigator. They have been figuring out how they can create a synthetically based synthetically engineered tool kit, kind of like Legos for the cell to program new behaviors for cells. Yeah. And so normally to change behaviors, we edit the cell's genome, right? There's gene editing, and that can get past but downs, ration- generation because handing a hand tool to each microbe is a pain staking cast..
Researchers capture high-resolution image of a complete fruit fly brain
"In this week's health news, scientists at issue is jamilla research campus have taken detailed pictures of the entire brain of an adult female fruit fly using what they're calling transmission electron microscopy to high-speed electron. Microscopes took seven thousand brain slices over twenty one million images for a team of scientists at the Howard Hughes, Medical institute's genetic research campus in Ashburn, Virginia, these numbers add up to a technical. I a high resolution digital snapshot of the adult fruit fly brain researchers can now trace the path of anyone neurone to any other neuron throughout the entire brain. The entire fly brain has never been image before this resolution that lets you see connections between neurons that detail is key for mapping out the brain circuitry, the precise webs of. Neural connections that underpinned specific fly behaviors. The genetics teams data offers a new tool for scientists racing to map these connections, and in a memory center of the brain, the data also revealed a new cell type and other surprises. Fruit flies may be best known for buzzing around right bananas, but these tiny little insects are surprisingly sophisticated. They can learn and remember, they know which places are safe and dangerous. They have elaborate sequences of courtship and grooming the fruit fly brain, roughly the size of a poppy seed contains about one hundred thousand neurons. Humans have one hundred billion, each neurons branches into a starburst of fine, wires that touch the wires of other neurons. Neurons. Talk to one another through these touch points or synapses forming a dense mesh of communication circuits. Scientists can view these wires and synapses with an imaging technique called serial section transmission electron microscopy. I, they infuse the fly's brain with a cocktail of heavy metals, these medals pack into cell membranes and synapses ultimately marking the outlines of each neuron and its connections. Then the researchers hit slices of the brain with a beam of electrons which passes through everything except for the metal loading parts. The resulting images exposed the brains once hidden nooks and crannies and eventually will give us the insight to correct even more health problems that plague the human race.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Capital Allocators
"Corporate executives here we had a very select number maybe three folks on the investment committee folks that ted you know in david swinson who was there from yale we had the cio from general motors and the former cio at ibm so there we had a very decentralized focus on that and i think it provided us with greater latitude to explore some of the things that i think we ultimately put into place in terms of balancing out some of the risks that you have when everything is managed by a centralized pool of folio manage so it's kind of an interesting dynamic where on the one hand if you just looked at assets and liabilities you could say okay at the corporate pension fund you have actual raider return but maybe that was i don't know what it was at the time six seven eight percent the hospital is spending five percent so yeah there's a difference but how much of the what drove the difference in the investment profile came from the structure and how much came from kind of as you intimated a difference in the understanding of the governance board i think it was a blend i think that we were always on the hook and because you had corporate shareholders with the pension fund to make sure that you were trying to hit that actuarial assumption and to make sure that those liabilities were paid off at the lowest cost the howard hughes medical institute you didn't have that same kind of pressure it's a it's a private organization heck the you know the neighbors around the neighborhood didn't even know what this place was and so you really just reported into a while we had the investment committee then you had a larger board and they ran that in a much more closed in fashion so there wasn't the same kind of pressures in my opinion that you had to hit these liability payments every year you knew you had to be fulfilling grants but there was a pretty significant pool of assets to do.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Capital Allocators
"So this is washington dc and they said the firm is howard hughes medical institute and i had never heard of howard hughes medical institute but like howard hughes it flies below the radar screen and it turned out that it was a wonderful place it was the second largest medical foundation the world besides burroughs wellcome they were running everything internally at the time of about i think at the time was about eleven billion ten or eleven billion dollars and the new cio there was looking for me to come in to help him restructure that pool of capital to diversify it so that we had a combination of internal and external exposures and then build out the hedge fund side of things and so i went there on a three year deal and at the end of the three years the instituted degreed you can either stay on or will help support you find another cio role somewhere sounds like a great call option to me and so that's what happened so what were the key differences when when you're overseeing corporate pension and now you move to a hospital endowments structure so as a medical research organization howard hughes was really run as a pure endowment so you didn't have liabilities in the same manner that target corporation or dayton hudson had so we didn't have to have actuary all assumptions i don't think that we had the same types of liability payouts you know we we were responsible for making sure that we were able to provide grants of about four to five percent a year and for those that know about howard hughes medical institute if you're in medical research to get a grant and become an investigator howard hughes is like hitting the lottery and it's a great organization for what it does and so we were really just responsible for building up the corpus of that capital in order to sustain all these investment research projects throughout the country i think that in addition to that the type of investment committee that we worked with was very different than internal.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Not graphically violent and the audience sees the attack it in the distance on just one pleasing occasion when we finally hit the sound of the helicopter overhead wanted the campus declares its the press not the police of bishop reminder of how the media coach to the scene before the rescue services usually on scrambled online won't world director eric property the media curry suits on responsibility of you are treating the survivors of course during of attack with also after a talk with the film doesn't do without tool is what happens afterwards when they meet at a stunning of the land side waiting for them crazy together combines the film cuts to black as a local resident steers a boat full of injured teenagers to the mainland oldest seven is on the film tries to reclaim the store for the victims and reminds the audience that thoughts and prayers are more than just a tweet from pr knees i am as munico som invited him the technology the drive science forward accelerates all the time that signs communication um not so much the basic process still holds many vestiges from its early days the seventy century that is npr's richard harris reports on efforts to modernize this critical part of the scientific enterprise when researchers studying the biology of disease make a discovery it typically takes nine months for them to get the results published in the journal one reason for that delay as it goes through a process of peer review that is both necessary and antiquated the fate of that paper rest on just two or three scientists who have been asked to review it and decide whether it's worthy of being published michael eisen a howard hughes medical institute investigator at uc berkeley offers an online shopping analogy.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Faculty at the road institute professor at harvard and investigator of howard hughes medical institute welcome to science friday thank you so it's north but thank you dr liu i'll let me ask you first so first we have these scissors are now we ever molecular pants on what what makes this gene editing technique more like a pencil then say a pair of scissors standard genome editing methods including the crisper cast nine tool that you mentioned may doublestranded cuts in dna and that's especially useful when the goal is to insert or delete dna vases but when the goal is simply to fix of point mutation which actually accounts for thousands and thousands of the human genetic variance that are thought to cause certain diseases than a different approach that we called base editing offers a more efficient and cleaner solution in base editing uh we directly rearrange the atoms in one based to instead resemble a different face without cutting the dna doublehelix and that has some advantages in terms of both efficiency and avoiding undesired by prod products of the at it serves so in other words you don't have to you leave the original as an original so he sort of the original template but you can edit the in the tiny little pieces of correct we don't have to bring in a new piece of dna that we hope to incorporate into uh the site of of the targeting instead we literally bringing a molecular machine to the target basepair pair and rearrange the atoms in that base spare so that they instead resembled a different face there so how important is that to sort of sort of combating diseases well there are more than fifty thousand human genetic changes that are currently associated with disease and the majority of those changes currently about thirty two thousand are pointing mutations the simple swap of one dna base pairs for another so from a minimalist perspective we thought that.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Data Made To Matter
"I don't want my work to influence how individual scientists are evaluated or perceived because we have a way of doing that and that ways actually to read the work and to form an opinion and his wife peer review is so important so that would be a great misuse of what i do i think what might work can the useful for is just thinking about how we should reform the institutions of science going forward now in the united states we are extremely lucky that in the post world war two era we inherited an ecosystem ready for science data as had no equal elsewhere in the world or at any other point in history right in the us system the government tends not to write really big checks too few institutions and then letting those institutions set of sprinkle right are the big c dust on their favored people as happens in my native country france often but instead most of the eight years their grassroots right scientists apply and then the worth of those eight years is being evaluated by other scientists this is how most of the age budget and yannis have budget is actually yellowkid right so that was an american invention and then the other pieces there's there's any go system so people have heard of the gates foundation for example than before the gates foundation no we had the burroughs wellcome foundation and we have the howard hughes medical institute and now the as the chances are koeberg initiative and the list goes on and on and on that aspect of that there are multiple funders is really important as well because that means at gillette he's some diversity of funding approaches your goal is to turn the scientific method back home science but not everyone is on board with this some people in the scientific community worry that gambles with careers are that it could provide excuses to take money away from science what you say to these fears.
"howard hughes medical institute" Discussed on Inc. Uncensored
"I i don't know what to tell you people eat launch it's good that's all i gotta say it's oposite refreshes you know and apparently known drink string lynch name or which is fine because that takes a lot out of your but food is good john john taking a very very hard stands hurtled national grid very very hard counter i will my like button is uh insect drone so what up that think we could wrap it right there yeah that's it that's the whole show insect drugs delivering lunch yes yeah they ours will wondering yet to to wonderwoman uh they also deliver beer nozoe a program called dragonfly and it was started as a research programme with a draper in howard hughes medical institute and basically researchers are taking live dragonflies and they make these tiny backpacks with the solar panels no real know israel tiny back by or palace yeah honor newark advice drag nor had a goania depending on what your brand affiliation has no at their tiny electronic backpacks that basically send a light signals to the nerves of dragonfly i'm i'm simplifying this and i think the the researchers can control the dragonflys and so they can make them fly around in and do things i have a question yet so i've seen bay dragonflies and i've seen little driving five to me know if there's like a size requirement for that a good call i knew that you're gonna like him ariel kind at the you're going to go you're going to go on like reagan dragonfly twitter unlike told them while you guys you know if within eight inches long it's safe it's like the rollercoaster rides to show you can go on yacht but i don't know size requirements but the applications range from being an incredible to terribly frightening of yeah obviously eminently gagging with dr vanessa is a insects surveillance insects but also it can help.