17 Burst results for "Henry Stimson"
"henry stimson" Discussed on Secret Societies
"The Modern Day Council on Foreign Relations was founded in nineteen twenty one from the ashes of a study group known as the inquiry who had worked to create the League of Nations during World War One two decades later in nineteen thirty nine President Roosevelt contact at the council to help create a study group very similar to the inquiry and to help implant strategies for World War Two. This new group was known as the war in peace studies. But it was essentially just a government funded branch of the Council on Foreign Relations in one thousand nine. Forty Roosevelt recruited a founding council member. Henry Stimson to be his secretary of war from that moment. The Council on Foreign Relations became inextricably linked to the government. Stinson didn't go into government service alone. He took John McCloy with him. The coin was a young valued member of the council and he soon became a trusted advisor of president. Roosevelt McCloy was tasked with filling out the president's cabinet. The United States was at war and they needed the best man. John McCloy got to choose who they were. He picked members of the Council on Foreign Relations in less than twenty years since their founding the council had members throughout the federal government. A single phone. Call away from the president of the United States. During the Roosevelt Administration they could shape. Us policy in any way that they liked. They had one clear goal in mind. The council had been a key part of creating the League of nations at the end of World War One but the institution was weak as a result of the United States refusal to join by the time World War Two rolled around it had been all but abandoned members of the council saw the war as the result the United States failure to enter the world stage and they wouldn't let it happen again by nineteen forty three. The League of Nations successor was conceived..
"henry stimson" Discussed on Secret Societies
"To convert the old mansion into a functional headquarters. The council needed more funds. Luckily they were as well connected as ever with the war still raging on John. D Rockefeller Jr. the head of Chase Bank of Manhattan helped organize a fundraiser. In April nineteen forty-five the new headquarters at the Pratt. House opened Edwards detainees. The current secretary of state was in attendance. He said he was there to bear. Witness as every secretary of state during the past quarter of a century to the great services and influence of this organization in spreading knowledge and understanding of the issues of United States foreign policy but statinias was also member of the council himself and he was very possibly making sure that the war ended the way the council wanted it to. They had a new headquarters and they were going to use it to change the face of the Earth on April twenty. Fourth Nineteen forty-five statinias fellow cabinet member secretary of war. Henry Stimson sent a letter to the president. Stimpson wrote we would have the opportunity to bring the world into a pattern in which the peace of the world and our civilization can be saved. He was talking about the Manhattan project and the Nuclear Bomb. Stimpson could see the end of the war in sight. He had a direct say in how and where the bomb was to be used. He was also a high ranking member of the Council on Foreign Relations and had the ear of every member of the Society. While it can't be confirmed it seems the council may have gained control of a nuclear bomb stimpson's connections with the council may have dictated his actions and in doing so forever changed the global landscape in postwar world. The council could rectify all of their failures from the Treaty of her CY. They seemingly infiltrated the government and they were only getting started. They had a taste of power at. It looked like they wanted more. The Council on Foreign Relations would have a member leading the free world..
"henry stimson" Discussed on This American President
"As we covered in our previous episode Truman succeeded to the presidency. Upon the death of Franklin D Roosevelt the longest serving president and one of the most consequential chief executives in American history. It was not easy to follow president as popular as FDR and Truman would spend much of his presidency trying to measure up but for those who neutral and worked with him. There was something about him that people admired in a previous episode about FDR. I noted that he was a bit devious. He was a true politician who often gave his staffers contradictory information and manipulated them. Roosevelt's secretary of war Henry Stimson who served as a cabinet member for two previous presidents described him as quote the poorest administrator. I've ever worked under not so with Truman. This midwestern Haberdasher was refreshingly straightforward even with the media journalists Cable Phillips wrote quote. He used the press. Occasionally as most presidents have done to test the wind but he never tried to condom with flattery and devious favouritism Harry. Truman worked less to ingratiate himself with people but succeeded better at it than any important public figure. I've ever known he did it. I think because he was so utterly honest with and about himself there was something. People found endearing about the feisty. Midwesterner he also had these huge pair of bottle cap glasses that magnified his is White House. Usher J. B. West said quote. I had the feeling he was looking at me. All around me straight through me. Truman's advisers and his staff came to really love the man they admired his integrity and the way he managed his administration his Labor Secretary of State Dean Aitchison wrote quote. He was so fair he didn't make different decisions with different people. He called everyone together. You were all heard and you got the answer together. He was a square dealer. All the way through atchison found that Truman was confident insecure in his own abilities. Even while being surrounded by brilliant men observing that quote he was not afraid of the competition of other ideas but atchison added that Truman was grounded and humble quote free of the greatest vice in a leader. His Ego never came between him and his job and they loved his unpretentious manner. A secret service agent Floyd Boring wrote quote. He never came on as being superior he would talk to anyone. He could talk to the lowly peasant he could also talk to the King of England agent boring later called one of my favourite Harry Truman stories which made clear his devotion to his wife. Bess now best. Truman hated the limelight and hated being first lady and Truman remained totally devoted to her. When Truman was in Berlin during the Potsdam conference he was in a car with a young military officer and agent boring during the ride the officer hinted to him he could get him anything he wanted including a Harem of women in response. Truman gave him the reprimand of a lifetime. He said quote listened son. I'm married my sweetheart. She doesn't run around on me and I don't run around on her. I want that understood. Don't ever mention that kind of stuff to me again when Truman got out he didn't bother saying goodbye to the young officer. In the few months after the Japanese surrender. The world remained euphoric from the end of the war but many feared that a new conflict was on the horizon the Soviets continued to ignore the Yalta agreements negotiated by FDR Churchill and Stalin earlier in nineteen forty. The Soviets promised democratic elections in Eastern Europe. But they were reneging on that commitment. The Soviet Union was imposing Communist. Puppet governments there and in other places like Azerbaijan. The Soviets believed that they were entitled to create a buffer zone in eastern Europe. Something they wanted to do after being invaded twice by Germany during the world wars but that buffer zone meant totalitarian rule over the populations in those countries. The Americans and the Soviets grew more and more suspicious of each other's intentions at the same time. Communist parties were rising and France in Italy and in China the most populous nation on the planet the Communists under Mao Zedong were gaining ground in the civil war. Against Chiang's nationalist government. Many Americans felt that Communism was spreading across the world and feared that it was just as aggressive. A totalitarian government as the Nazi regime was in just a few weeks in February and March of Nineteen forty-six a series of events occurred that would solidify. What would be known as the Cold War on February Ninth Soviet leader? Joseph Stalin delivered a speech in Moscow where he recapped what happened during World War. Two and how the victory over the Nazis supposedly was proof of the superiority of the Communist system. It's interesting because I read the speech. And he doesn't directly say much about the United States or the West or about boosting military production but given the tensions of the time it was interpreted as an aggressive speech Stalin said that capitalism inevitably leads to war which is what happened in World War Two and seemed to imply that a future war was also inevitable quote perhaps catastrophic wars could be avoided if it were possible periodically to redistribute raw materials and market among the respective countries in conformity with their economic weight. By means of concerted and peaceful decisions. But this is impossible. Under the President. Capitalists conditions of the world economic development stolen then called for a massive increase in steel iron coal and oil production saying quote. Only when we succeed in doing that can we be sure that our motherland will be insured against all contingencies. Americans were alarmed Supreme Court Justice William. Douglas said it was a quote declaration of World War Three. It's easy to think that this may have been an overreaction on the part of Americans be after a member. They had the memory of arms races in the early twentieth century when Europe especially Britain and Germany engaged in an endless competition to build stronger ships and other weapons of war arms racists that ended turning into war to them arms. Racists seemed to make a war inevitable and then came disturbing news from the north from Canada. A clerk named Eager Zenko who worked in the Soviet embassy defected and exposed a high level. Spiring which was passing nuclear secrets to the Soviet Union about the Manhattan project. The project to build the atomic bomb eventually thirty nine people were arrested in eighteen. Were convicted one of them was an actual member of the Canadian parliament. A man named Fred rose. I remember taking American history classes in college and learning about the paranoia that people felt during the Cold War and I got the sense that my professors and classmates thought that it was silly for Americans to have been so concerned and there were times when in a country of hundreds of millions that paranoia might have gone too far and have led to excesses. But I think it's easy to forget why Americans felt the fear of communism that they did. They had lived through the world wars where they had fought against authoritarian regimes and had a genuine and understandable concern. The Soviets. Were the next great enemy. They had the memory of Hitler in the Nineteen Thirties. How he rose to power and how. Europeans tried to placate him by bargaining with him. They're remember that appeasement only invited further aggression. They remembered how isolationist America had been in the nineteen thirties and how the world fell. Apart without their leadership many Americans felt had they been more involved in the world. They might have prevented things from exploding into global conflict. Far fewer lies would have been lost and now that the Soviets were expanding aggressively into Europe. They wondered if they had to do something now. That if they didn't they'd have to face stronger. Soviet Union later on after all the Soviets were the only true power left in Europe and looming over. All of. This was the fact that the nuclear genie was out of the bottle. America had a monopoly on the bomb as far as they knew but there was a sense that inevitably other nations would soon attain nuclear capability and just north above the United States. Americans were learning that there were people living in Canada actively spying on the Manhattan project on behalf of the Soviets of course. Multiple nations were engaged in espionage America included but the steak seemed higher than ever before with the fear that world war three might be around the corner where the weapons could now threaten the existence of civilization everything even the smallest incidents had geopolitical implications in a time of tension the knowledge that spies were on the continent made it hard to not be at least a little paranoid but these factors in mind. It's easy to see why people were alarmed. It was on February. Twenty Second Nineteen forty-six that a State Department official stationed in Moscow named George. Kennan sent a message to Washington. That would change the course of American Foreign Policy. It would be known as the long telegram. It was an analysis of the Soviet Union. But it was really a kind of psycho analysis of the Russian mind. A mind that predated the communist regime in it. Kenan essentially argued that for years American policy towards the Soviet Union was one big long mistake. According to Canon America under Roosevelt and now under Truman naively believed that it could use diplomacy to cooperate with the Soviets he described Russian leaders as inherently insecure and suspicious of the rest of the world. A kind of deeply embedded paranoia even xenophobia. The telegram reads like a rough draft. It's missing a few articles but bear with me. Quote at bottom.
"henry stimson" Discussed on The Beat with Ari Melber
"Look, you know, when you take a certain kind of job, whether it's a police officer over serving in a military, capacity. This is not that. But there are dangerous associated with the job. And you just have to have the constitution to do it. Sometimes it can be more scary to bring case against someone. Not because you're where they're going to harm you. But because you have to prove your case, and the public is looking at it, and I talked about that in my in my book, also that sometimes you have to worry about the person, not just who's who's trigger happy, but also trigger shy because sometimes injustice can be a result of not wanting to go forward, and that's one of the important function supervisors play in the US attorney's office. And they watched the progress of these investigations in cases, and they pushed them to conclusion when the needed to be pushed. You know, or if you have to encourage assistant to drop a matter and move onto something else that that judgement is made by somebody more senior more experienced, and in theory, they divide up the map, and there's prosecutors for every part of the country, but in practice the office, you ran has a reputation for being more. Fearless and more independent. It's certainly has a different jurisdiction than Idaho in financial crimes in the World Trade Center bombing in what is now Trump Tower issues. I mean, that's just more to deal with. Does that you think make this a different office? Yes. And also the tradition in the office is rich, and everyone starts everyone starts to become a student of it as soon as they start working there. They learn about Henry Stimson, and the fact that in one thousand nine hundred six he was the first US attorney to be required to take a fixed salary as opposed to being compensated by seizures in the port. So he had a cut in pay. But in exchange for that he insisted on independence in hiring. And he went ahead and hired people like Felix, Frankfurter, Emory Buckner and people who are. Iconic in their standing in the bar. Yeah. I mean, it's a compliment mix with some jealousy. And sometimes some criticism when you look at the type of people who come out of this office, James Komi, Mary Jo White David Kelly Rudy Giuliani yourself known to be pluckily independent is that because of the officer are the people just that way. I think it's a tradition of the place. And I think you you hire that place hires strong-minded aggressive people who care about integrity, by the way to independence is a good thing. Those mean, I never went rogue it doesn't mean going rogue. But by the way, right now when you have an investigation going on with respect to Michael, Cohen, independence and independence seems to be in short supply in the Justice department because you have people in the White House essentially trying to steer things in a particular direction. It is good, and it has confidence building with respect to the public when you have an independent office. I think you make such an important point. And but neither I wonder if you agree with pre would the average prosecutor move as quickly on the president's lawyer or is. Is that partly because of its say, it's hard to say..
"henry stimson" Discussed on 77WABC Radio
"Now echo devices. Book is pasta the end of World War Two and the remaking of your church is gone. The new prime minister Truman sitting there with a very short agenda. Get Russia involved in Japan. Make sure we don't have to pay for everything. In nineteen forty five the way, we did in nineteen nineteen and Stalin his agenda. Now, Stalin's agenda has to do with reparations. That's why he's been writing it on the doodle pad in front of him during the conference reparations for Stalin is a very different word than it is for Truman and Churchill first of all a my understanding of the Russians at this point is that they had wreck vengeance on Germany, everything had been destroyed stolen abused a complete brutality towards the civilian population. In addition to the mass murder that it's been going on. But they strip everything they can get their hands on and take it back as well. They want twenty billion dollars. They say from the Germans, how do they want a gap twenty billion dollars? What's left to give them twenty billion dollars, Michael? Yeah. That's exactly the crux of the issue. This is what John Maynard Keynes had argued in one thousand nine hundred and he's arguing it again in nineteen forty five that you can't demand reparations from a. Country that doesn't have them to give so canes doesn't necessarily want to flood Germany with capital, but the fear is if the United States Britain, other countries, put humanitarian assistance or money into Germany, the Russians will then just pull it straight back out. And that's something that the United States had done before with the Dawson young plan in the nineteen twenties. And that's that's the nightmare. That's what James burns the secretary state, especially wants to make sure does not happen that American money ends up, in fact in Russia the way they're going to compromise. Here is has to do with the sectors. As I understand it. The the Soviets had a vision of Germany after the war was going to be the Protestant north the Catholic south and the Rhineland the industrial part that doesn't quite fit with what comes to be four sectors. How did they get four sectors for the four? Nationalities. Well, what they end up doing it in my view. What what happens at Potsdam if they decide to do this to solve the reparations question more than to solve the political question that that the plan you're talking about? Was designed to solve. So in other words with the Americans are looking at is the Russians as you said are taking absolutely everything out of eastern, Germany, if we also let them get reparations. We also let them get cash, then they're gonna get all the goods, they took out of eastern Germany, and they're going to get our money in effect because it's money will have to either give Germany in advance or money will have to feed in behind in order. So that the German people don't starve to death over the winter. So burns the solution is to just let each country take out of its sector, the reparations that it wants to take out and in his mind. This will recognize what is defacto happening in the east anyway, and at the same time it will protect American money. So that American money in British money, if it goes into the western part of Germany will stay in the western part of Germany, and in his mind, you're not you don't even have to divide. Germany, all you have to do is accept that principle that reparations will come out of each country sector, and that's what he's thinking. He's not thinking of it as cutting Germany into two countries. He's thinking of it as a way to solve the reparations problem. Do you have an ironic note here that pasta the conversations about what is to be done? With Germany a Ken seem lifted from the Paris hotel Creole nineteen nineteen Wilson, Lloyd, George Clemenceau, did these men or their foreign ministers. Did they have that eerie sense that they were repeating themselves twenty six years later? They absolutely did. I think to me that's the most important thing about Potsdam. It's the thing that had me most interested they are aware that except for the atomic bomb everything that they talked about everything they talked about at Potsdam, Lloyd, George Clemenceau and Wilson what have recognized right away, and that's the nightmare. What they can't do is have another conference in twenty five years with another group of statesmen looking back and saying, hey, Truman, Stalin and Churchill would have recognized these problems too. That's that's the problem that you've got us off we come to. We've talked about the reparations, and they'll decide for each sector how that is. And of course, the Germans and the British and the French the French a sector carved out of the germ. And American part of the British and American part because the Russians won't give up. What becomes eastern Germany, and why east Germany was such a ruin for the fifty years sixty years after the war until the fall of the wall has to do with the fact that the Russians never understood investment or recapitalization where as the Americans and the British and the French and the rest of Europe did and that's why west Germany became a powerhouse. And all of Germany is now a powerhouse in Europe. We come to the matter that was the divisive at the conference war, criminals detoxification. If I understand that the Soviets wanted to arrest everybody above a mail clerk and put them in prison camp forever. Just about just about the Soviets have view. It's different from the American view that the problem is Germany. The problem is this society. It is this group of people, whereas the American view tended to be a classically American approach that the problem is the government. It's not the people. If we can give these folks a democratic government, get rid of the worst of the worst of the war criminals. We can give Germany a fresh start in Germany will be fine. The problem is not the Germans the problem is the system of government that they've been forced to live under the Russians had a very different view of this. And wanted a much deeper and much more thorough process of denazification the ten names that are delivered by eaten. This is early in the conference before Edens dismissed with the defeat at July, July twenty six Eden doesn't return as foreign minister. But these are the names that even put forward for prosecution Hermann Goering of the lift Fafa yoke a yokum fund Ribbentrop, the foreign minister, I've always loved Michael the line from Churchill that was the last time I saw on Ribbentrop before he was hanged. I've always liked for that live foreign deputy Fuhrer Rudolf Hess who remained in prison the rest of his life. The last man in Spandau, and he'd been in British custody since nineteen forty one when he tried. To make a separate peace with Germany, perhaps Robert lay the labor minister film, Frick of the Nuremberg laws home Kaital who is a military advisor, Rosenberg Kaltenbrunner, striker and Franck the governor of Poland, those were the ten names that seems inadequate to Stalin. Does it seem inadequate to Truman does Truman want more names? Well, it it's a question of what you do to solve the problem in the in the Justice problem, and what you do to solve the political problem. So historically, of course, it's ridiculous to say big ten people in Germany created all of this havoc. Politically the question is what do you now want to do moving forward? And as you know, this is controversial in the ensuing decades in Germany and France in Italy in Holland the question of who exactly is to blame. And how many people do you really wanna punish for this? And the American approach is to go a little bit lighter to to think less in terms of punishment for the sake of punishment and to think more in terms of rehabilitation to think more. In terms of bringing Germany back into a community of nations, although into a community of nations where Germany's independent power will go away. So Indian suing years the United States will allow west Germany to rebuild its army. But that army will be part of a NATO command structure, so that it can't operate on its own things like that rebuild the Europe the German economy but tied into the European Union. So that it can act alone things like that he's kind of the model that the Americans have in mind and the Russians have in mind. Just absolutely devastating Germany and making sure that Germany can never do anything to threaten the security of Russia. Right. They made the Morgenthau plan. Look half-hearted understated. Yes. Yes. They wanted to pasture with only sheep, that's fine. Now, we come to Poland. And this is the the part of the Potsdam conference that still weighs on us because Poland is necessarily fearful and anxious that it can be sacrificed again to Russian aggression polish. Poland is now on the Russian. Frontier, but in at Potsdam they had to decide what the polish border was the border. They most worked on the most concerned about was the border with Germany at this point, upper Silesia Pomerania and and upper Silesia powder upon marina and the third part Michael helping Russia East Prussia. Yes. East Prussia were part of Germany. They gave those back to Poland. That was the way they were going to settle what became a provocation in the first war a East Prussia was a major battlefield in the first war, but the line against Russian frontier is always in debate. There are three different possibilities here. The regal line the Curzon a the Curzon b the Russians want the most territory they want everything that can get as far as close to Germany as possible. How do they win that point Michael while they win it by sheer force on the ground? They went by just having the the the absolute power on the ground and by moving extremely quickly. So that things are happening. That the Americans and British are not fully aware of. And and the classic case is the city of Stettin, which is German that goes over to polish control, and at Potsdam Lahey, and others are talking about that city is if it's still under debate, whether it will be German, or whether it will be polish and at the same time, the pulse of I think removed all but one thousand Germans that were living. There had moved all the Lutheran churches have now become Catholic churches all the German language site inches down and that all happens before Potsdam even begins. So if he thought that was still under negotiation or up for debate. He clearly had missed the boat things were happening much faster than the Americans could could figure it out and the Russians are also doing this by physically moving people an estimated thirty or thirty five million refugees in eastern Europe, and the Soviet approaches rather than redraw borders. We're gonna read you our borders, and we're going to move people. We're going to physically relocate people and the United States and Britain knew what was happening, and we're either depending on the official you're talking about powerless to do any. Thing about it or felt themselves powerless or believe that. Although this is rough Justice. This is a way to solve the problem permanently. Stimson Henry Stimson is the secretary of war and the serve many presidents. He comes forward with a loyally observation phlegmatically that the Russians don't fight on Poland because the Russians already have ninety nine and forty four one hundreds of the law they possess it. So there's no fight there. And yet you can see here in the twenty first century the exile of the polish people after all what what Russia done to them and invaded them with Hitler in nineteen thirty nine and took its half of Poland. And then the cotton forest massacre.
"henry stimson" Discussed on Intercepted with Jeremy Scahill
"And then if you read the charter, one of the interesting things about it is we all know it is the document that promises self determination. Of course, these exceptions are going to be smuggled in, but you don't know probably the fourth point of the Atlantic charter and maybe fact check me on that and it's not exactly for maybe it's five is the access of all nations to all the resources of the earth. So what is that about? That's about, we're gonna be. We're going to be able to continue in spite of the prospects of self determination to be able to get what we need for our capitalist machine. Now within the us, there's a still deeper debate about the nature of postwar power. Henry Stimson who's getting quite old in his witness, the dropping of the atomic bomb on the Japanese and is filled with remorse and regret about it. Enters a cabinet meeting with Harry Truman right after Roosevelt's death. And he says to Truman, we must share information about nuclear weapons with the Soviet Union. If we don't do so we will encourage an arms race of a feverish and desperate character. Stimson goes on to say the only way to make someone trustworthy is to trust them. It's a really remarkable moment. Henry Wallis who is at that time, the secretary of commerce and who had been the vice president before he was asked it in the Roosevelt administration called it the most dramatic cabinet meeting in all his years in Washington Wallis argued for Stimpson's position as detaching, although action would later recant his position, the person that oppose them though was the secretary of the navy James forrestal, and this is what forrestal said. And this was the argument that won the day. He said the Russians are essentially like the Japanese. They are oriented in their thinking. And they are only attuned to the language of force the bomb and the knowledge that produced it are the property of the American people and forest all went onto make another similar kind of argument about the Japanese mandated islands that the United States had one during the war. He said these islands must be kept in perpetuity. For they were one through our blood. And so here you have the moment where you've promised the end of colonialism and the end of white supremacy. What are you doing. You are seizing new colonies, which are then going to be the staging ground for American nuclear testing for the next decade at the expense of all the Pacific islanders who live across that region. It's forestall protege. George Kennan, who would author the single most influential policy leading to almost half a century of Cold War. And the policy of course is known under the term containment. But underneath the containment of the Soviet Union Kenan offered a more brutal and Frank rationale. And he said this in a policy memo that he authored in nineteen forty eight. We have fifty percent of the world's wealth and six point. Three percent of its population are task in the coming period is to devise a pattern of relationships which will permit us to maintain this position of disparity without positive detriment to our security. Now, does that sound like self-determination? Does that sound like the Universal Declaration of human rights desires even sound like a new deal Bill of rights? No, it doesn't sound like any of those things. The aspirated dreams of a society centered on the demands of the d. moss which actually both the United States and the Soviet Union promised in different ways is going to be truncated and traduced in this new great power rivalry..
"henry stimson" Discussed on Intercepted with Jeremy Scahill
"I wonder if anyone knows the water cure the water cure, which is essentially. Waterboarding it engenders huge public outcry hearings are held about war crimes. This is what I mean about being condemned to repeat. I never learned about the Philippine war until I went to graduate school. Expansion into the Carribean in the Pacific created a whole new map making craze and the maps. If you look at geography textbooks from the early twentieth century, show something called greater America in greater America. What you see is the Philippines parts of the Caribbean, the hemisphere over which the over which the United States reigned as a kind of informal imperial power. And even in nineteen forty when the population of the United States was one hundred thirty, two million people. It held some twenty million people outside the United States in these overseas territories. In a state of subjection, combine that with the twelve million African Americans held in second class citizen and the millions of Mexicans and indigenous people in Asians who are eligible to become citizens or in various states that alien edge. And you're still looking at a situation in which about twenty five percent of the country. Much like the founding. Is in a state of subjection governed without their consent. That in my view is the definition of what it means to be an empire. So nineteen forty is not that long ago. So if we're talking about something in the distant past, we're seeing how it carries forward. So that brings me to my second historical arch- and this will be somewhat more familiar to all of us and that's historical arch- that begins with what we call the postwar period post war. It's a funny kind of euphemism. We all know what we're talking about right World War Two, the post-war. It's it's an interesting formulation because we think we live in the postwar, but we live actually in the permanent war and yet we narrate it back always to this moment of World War Two. And why do we do that? Because World War Two is thought of as a good war. But one of the reasons. Reasons. World War Two is thought of as a good war is because it was a war that was fought against a monstrous evil, namely Nazi Germany, and it was a war that was fought in the name of democracy in it was a war that was fought with the promise that we were entering a period in which there would be noon norms of world behavior. Some of the documents that come out of that war are some of the greatest documents of the twentieth century, the Atlantic charter, which promises self determination for all peoples. The new deal Bill of rights in which the Roosevelt administration promises to build on the new deal with a promise of guaranteed health care, housing and employment for all Americans, a Universal Declaration of human rights. It's as a charter for all the world's people a document that's meant to stand against the evils of racism. There's even what the US administration called in the run-up to World War Two, a good neighbor policy towards Latin America where there's a recognition that the history of military intervention gun gunboat diplomacy is now illegitimate Sumner Welles who's the under secretary of state in World War Two uses this exact phrase in nineteen forty two. He says, we are witnessing the death of white supremacy on the planet that is nineteen forty two. That's a US State Department official making that pronouncement about the collapse of the French empire in southeast Asia, the collapse of the Dutch empire, the impending collapse of the British empire and saying, there's a new world coming. The new world coming was. A book written by ROY out Lee who was an African American journalists in Harlem. The new world a-coming was going to be the world that saw the end of fascism the end of colonialism and the end of racism. These were the promises that came out of World War Two and even imperial statesmanlike. Henry Stimson, who is the secretary of war during World War Two who wrote a very interesting essay right at the end of the war called the challenge to Americans said, we are entering a period in which the United States must have a new relationship with the world and a new relationship to itself and to its own history. But not so fast. So what happens of course, before the ink was dry on the Atlantic charter and you can go to the archives and see these notations that Winston Churchill co signitaries co-signatory with Franklin Roosevelt made in the margins not to apply to the dominions of the British empire..
"henry stimson" Discussed on American History Tellers
"Sale of ten cent buttons, donations and church collection plates across the country. The March tapped into the belief within black communities that access to good jobs was the key to social and political equality. The March was an opportunity that was too important to miss. The marchers insisted upon their right to be full participants in the nation's workforce. As March statement of purpose, declared Lee, our citizens, we have one, our citizenship by every test that can be applied for this our country. We have worked and indefens- of this government. We have offered our lives. We March as. Americans seeking that equality of opportunity which the boast of this democracy. The White House continued to ignore the March organizers throughout the spring of nineteen forty. One convinced at a mass movement of this kind could never materialize, but in June that year with a March scheduled just a few weeks later president Roosevelt grew increasingly concerned that this was more than just impassioned rhetoric. The March might actually happen. Roosevelt insisted on a meeting with Randolph the president also requested the presence of Walter white. One of the marches most prominent supporters and the leader of the nation's largest civil rights organization. The national association for the advancement of colored people or the end AA c. p. they met at the White House on June eighteenth, just twelve days before the March was opposed to happen. Randolph white entered the room. Outnumbered Roosevelt was flanked by secretary of war. Henry Stimson secretary of the navy Frank knocks, the president of General Motors, William Knudsen, and three other prominent federal. Officials, the president tried his best to get Randolph to call off the March, but Randolph in white rejected the vague promises that Roosevelt offered in return for the March organizers to meet their demands. Nothing less than an executive order would suffice. The president was adamant cancel the March, and then we can talk Randolph refused to budge. By this point, the president was fuming. The room descended into silence Randolph had to make a difficult calculation. Should he risk making an enemy of the man just elected to his third term as president of the United States? Or should he sacrifice the power of a mass protest Bill through months of hard work for nothing more than political promises Randolph new? His answer. He politely told the president that without an executive order, he should expect one hundred thousand visitors to Washington in July. Six days later, Roosevelt issued executive order eight. Oh two, it declared that there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers and defensing histories or government because of race, creed, color or national origin. Roosevelt also formed an agency called the fair employment practices committee or EFI p. c. to help enforce his order. This was not a cure all discrimination would continue, but he wasn't important step no presidential administration. Since the aftermath of the civil war nearly eighty years earlier had taken action like this to ensure the civil rights of African Americans Randolph cancel the March after TV this victory, but the movement was in motion. March supporters had demonstrated the power of collective action and imaginative organizing to create change. In fact, the organization itself now call the March on Washington movement would continue mobilizing black communities over the next few years, though the figureheads of this activism were men like Randolph and. White much of the work was spearheaded by black women. They played a crucial, but under appreciated role in building the movement, e Pauline Myers was an experienced activists who took over as executive secretary of the organization and became the group's longest serving national staffer. She planned mass meetings help build.
"henry stimson" Discussed on C-SPAN Radio
"Jeffrey angle if you had to describe George Herbert Walker Bush to someone who had never met him a never seen him. What would you say about him? I would say he was a gentleman. I would say he's a person who came up with traditional American values. But also values of being part of the elite when we think about the term Noblesse obeys that really describes George Bush's a person who was born well off had the best education had the best of training and yet Spence's entire life trying to work in public service to give more back. And and really was was a gentleman of the kind that we really don't see much anymore. American politics where did it start for him? Start with his mother. His mother was a person who constantly told him, you know, your responsibility as a person to the manor born was to give back. And in fact, she oh he stressed that the team was more important than the individual, which is of course, very important for Bush who was really into athletics throughout his life played baseball in college. And no matter how many times he would say mom, here's how I did. She was how the team do. And I think that really infusing him a sense of the broader success be more important than the individual. His dad was born in Columbus, Ohio. How did he get tonight northeast, and where did where was he born? And where did you grow up? Well, he was highly manufacturing family, but then he made the important switch into banking. And in fact, both George H W Bush's parents come from really, well established will esteemed lineages, and he grew up essentially in the center of New York, and in Connecticut, and in Maine as communication time. But really? New York financial orbit. He worked for Brown brothers Harriman and really the central financial institution. If you will for American foreign policy in particular. Where did he go to school? George Bush went to private school. For his high school. But then more importantly went to Yale after he came back from college. So the jump back the high school for a second. He of course, spent a few years in the middle crucial years for his life in World War Two in the in the South Pacific, and in fact upon graduation. He and his friends all rushed to register. I'll rest before they got drafted. I'll rush to volunteer, despite the fact that George Bush's parents, and even the graduation speaker who is none other than the secretary of war. Henry Stimson, by the way, close family friend of the bushes encouraged Bush and those like him to go to college spend a year or two getting a little bit more seasoning. The expectation was that these type of people would become officers and a good officer would have a little bit more understanding of the world. Bush and his comrades had no interest in that the United States have just an attack a few months before. And they want to get into the fight before it was over. Ironically, not realizing quite how long it would go. How old was he when he enlisted and was he must've man aren't officer. Now, he was eighteen and he actually here's a good place where his family connections pay off having been unable to essentially keep him from enlisting listening to the navy. His family was nonetheless able to get him a really coveted spot as a naval aviator. In fact, he ultimately becomes one of the youngest naval aviators in the entire Pacific theater. In fact, we used to say that he was the youngest naval aviator in the Pacific theater till one other gentleman who's a week younger showed up. So now, we have say one, but either way remarkably young for having that sort of responsibility, he spent several years in training, and then ultimately gets sent off to fly torpedo bombers off of an escort carrier and also. So you know, as an officer take care of the men under his command. And it's remarkable. I think that at this point he's only nineteen twenty years old when you interviewed him. Did he talk about this? No, he talked about. Yes. I can tell everything else. Every other question. I ever asked him. He was very forthright wonderful multiple conversations more interviews than I can remember. But when I asked him about this particular moment, and I was really curious about what his experience, we're in fact, we were on a plane together. I thought this is a perfect moment. Ask about his World War Two experience. He turned to me and handed me a cookie was actually a double stuffed Oreo. I remember very clearly and said what else you got the idea being? I'm not talking about this with somebody one third my age, you know, this is just off off topic. Why? It was a searing lifetime event form in particular. The fact that he was shut down on September seconds of nineteen forty four. He and his crew on a bombing mission over the island of chichijima. They were trying to take out a radio tower that they had attacked the day before but unsuccessfully and his plane was hit by enemy flak and Bush was able to hold the bomber aloft and keep it on track for the bombing run. And then after dropping the bombs moved out to sea and tried in told his crewman now time to bail out time to go hit the silk. And then he himself jumped out actually hit his head on the tail as it came by. And he parachuted down and realized as he was in the water, all alone on the Pacific Ocean. That there were no other parachutes that he realized that moment that he was the only one of his crew that actually survived and in fact that thought haunted him to this day. I'd say he says is not a day that goes by that he doesn't think about his two crew members under his command. And why he was spared, and they were not why didn't they survive? You know, it's it's that is largely one of those things that's impossible to answer with full certainty. It's pretty clear from the evidence that we have that they were most likely killed by the animals enemy shrapnel as as a came in that they were not able to get out of Hugh years ago. Bush actually had the opportunity to go visit the island of chichijima really as part of a making amends tour. He was famous for reconciling with the Japanese his former enemy he was learned at that point that they spotted a second parachute. Which at least told him that one of his crewman was alive long enough to have gotten out of the plane. And of course, he is really wondered whether or not he should have kept the plane aloft longer. Should he have stayed in the cockpit longer? There's really no way to answer these questions, but nonetheless, a person who did something sacrificial left feeling guilty the rest of his life. How was he rescued? He was in a in a small raft on the ocean bobbing up down had taken on in a tremendous amount of seawater was vomiting. Actually, he writes home to his parents subsequently that he was crying precipitously. I think about the adrenaline having left his body at that point. And then he noticed something particularly bad, which is that his raft was beginning with the current to move towards the island. That was really not a good place where American pilot to go. In fact, we subsequently found out wish to know this at the time, but we found out that other pilots who have been shot down on the island. We're not only killed by the Japanese. But there was some cannibalism that went on as well. From the Japanese troops there so Bush not knowing knowing capture is not a great thing for an American at this point paddles furiously the other direction, and ultimately an American submarine, the feedback picks them up, and he spends the next month underwater with the crew doing submarine missions until they could get back to base when does he get out of the service? Nineteen forty five. He was fully expecting to. He had rotated back had some more training had flu fifty eight combat missions had really deserved time. In fact, after he was shot down. He could have taken a break at that point. But he's go. No instead right back to his unit to keep the fight up. And then not his comrades down nineteen forty five. He had just married. Barbara Bush and news comes out that the war is over. Of course, the atomic bombing of of herash amount of Nagasaki brought the war to a quicker end than people were expecting and within three months. He was out of the service and onto his next step of life, which for him was yell. What happened at Yale? He was part of a interesting Qadri of students that came in after the war because there, of course, was essentially five years of students who had not been there and many of them came back with a flurry after after World War Two and so much. So that essentially the university had to build huts for them to live in. They were so packed on campus. And therefore, they gave them an accelerated program of study. So he was able to graduate Yale in three years. Graduated PHI beta Kappa in economics was part of the skull and bones. Society, essentially, the single most prestigious society that a person could be at graduating from Yale. But of course, he also was there with his wife, and then ultimately with his small son, George, in fact, one of my favorite discoveries of the entire book is that Barbara Bush, George and you're both Georgia's actually lived in of apartment complex that was next door to the official residence for the president who very kindly came over one day and asked her to stop putting out the laundry of Georgia's diapers dirty diapers when he was having parties at least. So it really gives a sense of how person could go within six months from the terror war to into the bucolic life of of New Haven in the forties Prescott. Bush's father served in the United States Senate nineteen fifty two two thousand nine hundred sixty three what impact did that have on his life? I'm George George Bush's life. It really demonstrated. An example, if you will of the kind of service that his mother had been describing her entire life. But also the kind of service that his father exemplified, which was service of compromise service of negotiation. George actually me Prescott. Bush was no firebrand. He was what we would call classic. Eisenhower Republican in fact, he was one of Dwight Eisenhower's favorite golfing, buddies. Although one of the reasons is interesting Eisenhower said liked I like to work with Bush. I like to play with Bush because he's one of the only people that won't let me win when you're president. You get a few mulligans in any event. He was the kind of person that was willing to reach across the aisle. And so we really have extraordinarily little legislation that was authored by Prescott Bush, but an extrordinary wealth of tales of him going behind the scenes in back rooms getting the two sides to come together in a way, again, that's very difficult even. To conceive of today. Why did George Herbert Walker Bush moved to Texas? That's where the money was Texas was part of the adventure. So at the end of nineteen forty eight having just graduated from Yale. He has the opportunity to go to New York. He has the opportunity to work in his father's investment house. And he instead decided I need to go and make my life on my own make my own fortune. Make my own way, hops, a Studebaker brand new one and drives cross country and vines up in Odessa, Texas because he had a friend of the family who had an oil company out there,.
"henry stimson" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Right so the peace pact is purely and negative doc caimant it says no longer will states wage war as a way of enforcing their rights now what happens when that prohibition itself is violated states can exactly use war to enforce the prohibition on worthy had just gotten rid of that tool so the first idea hear that is developed is by united states secretary of state henry stimson henry stimson happened to have been the yell college classmate of salmon levinson two years before the invasion of manchuria levinson had sent an arctic gold to stimpson where he laid out what he called the sanctions of peace namely that if the right of conquest in the old world order was based on the idea that states have the right the legal right to wage war the outlawry of war should remove that right to engage in con qwest so stimpson delivers chew diplomatic notes to japan and china in january 1932 where he says that the policy of the united states going forward will be not to recognize any territorial conquests from hero annan and the united states follows the simpson doctrine but the league nations also adopts the simpson doctrine so already in 1932 just three years after the kelli grant packed the peace pact comes into force virtually all the states in the world renounce normally the the rights wage were put the right of states to engage in conquest but the league of nations does very little along those lines after italy invades ethiopia turns out sanctioning far off japan is one thing italy another the league collapses in the.
"henry stimson" Discussed on WHO NewsRadio 1040 AM
"Than the wish to punish the germans in 45 while the interesting thing is the key concrete britain and the united state police around in tokyo often loyd georgia british prime minister in nineteen eighteen on ninety two one really want to put the game kim and legal on crime i'm like if he said chow from uh you can get a wall two i'm the american through again second time round the british say no we're not having any more all the time trial if it uh age in fact would be quite happy to have family court martial he chairman leaders and he added hand it the americans who want to go through a whole group right there all prosecution walls of aggression crimes against humanity day thinking motion at yearend say that continued right through to the present day we thought again revived the open old yugoslavia be vaunted yet in mold and portland in judicial that that brings with it lots of problems let's main name one of them henry stimson the secretary of state very aged at this point but in any event still in the game publishes thanks to his ghostwriter mcgeorge bundy february nineteen forty seven in harper's magazine an expert nation in which he's trying to he's trying to link the warcrimes tribunals the evil of the of the germans the nazis those have been hanged in those are in jail and linked sad with the effort of the war the crusade the good war but he's also trying to rationalize the death yes of one hundred thousand japanese using the nuclear weapons i i confess professor it doesn't convince me now it might be something you had to be there to see because it all seems very expedient morality that met that hendry stimpson's using well into need either way we did huge malo paul boom old will our and will that could be either you may end up committing email you'll fell andy he read all you thieving with neck oh great eat it uh the argument with regard to the the loss of japanese lie it did walled a way to end the war quickly to avoid considerable additional america law is to avoid a war in japan japan going on for another year two in order to deal with acquitted he uh and he tried to gag curate the possible i get that might in huge the.
"henry stimson" Discussed on WHO NewsRadio 1040 AM
"John john that showed deng joined his new book is american war roosevelt's high command at america the victory in world war two the ruins in pearl harbor point to a dramatic change in world history churchill is sailing to the white house to conferred directly with winston churchill a whiff fdr in december of 1941 they are all aware however that the japanese are launching attacks now routinely against the philippines macarthur is treating he sends word that he will to retreat to correct a door a baton and then caribbea door to hold out as long as possible oh you ever seen i believe it's and early nineteen 42 john when stem send an eisenhower and marshall confer asking the question can mcgarth therapy save what is their answer their conclusion and and this is one that uh that that henry stimson of vocalise and few uh very few politicians will say this he said tom there are times when men half to die and they recognize that uh that fdr the only man who could make this call had a choice we can either uh did we can either nutro essentially akber neutrality of the philippine and that was the suggestion put to roosevelt or we could fly the flag and and go down swinging and uh the the belief uh for him i think a lot of military men was roosevelt would pick the uh would would picked a safer option he would see if we could neutralize the philippines but but fdr said no there are nations around the world looking at us they believe that americans will not fight if it means taking casualties so we are not going to neutralize the philippines we are going to fight as long as the flag can wave and uh george marshall later said ah i put aside everything that i held to roosevelt discredit when i heard that i knew he was a great man because he could make that decision and and ultimately uh stimpson and.
"henry stimson" Discussed on 77WABC Radio
"C i'm john batchelor this is the john batchelor show jonathan jordan's new book is american warlords how roosevelt's high command let america the victory in world war two this is the second world war from the point of view of the command fdr was the commander buddy had around him loyal and argument have lieutenants marshall at the army now stimson at war secretary of war was that's the language we use today for a secretary of defense so he commands all this access to all the services but also has to represent his president to congress after fdr makes a decision to run for a third term he also has to come up with ways to transfer destroyers and munitions and weapons and ev churchill needs everything they've lost everything and dunkirk he he comes up with some fancy language lend lease sin even steven all of that however has to get passed congress in an election year who the most important representative to congress for the president john for the president the ball really had to be carried by general george c marshall by henry stimson and crank knock the two incoming navy and wars secretary our work for a time persona non grata among the republican leadership uh george marshall had the credibility with congress he he even remarked that he had to maintain our good relationship even if they were quiet relationships with republican so that those republicans in congress could go back to their constituents and say i voted for this because general marshall said it was the right thing to do not because it was a a uh another roosevelt plan uh fdr was knew that in an election year uh he he was not going to be the right person to take on highly difficult highly contentious issues such as lin li and then later the graff so he knew that he had.
"henry stimson" Discussed on WHO NewsRadio 1040 AM
"1930s with a product of a time when uh americans did not want to get involved in another war in europe the president needs help congress is not going to help him he needs cabinet help and the man who was the secretary of the war at this time is named woodring he's from kansas he's a governor he's an isolationist and roosevelt knows that would ring is not the man to go to war with so he reaches out for a republican to republicans in fact william frank knox the publisher of the chicago tribune which has beaten up roosevelt for ten years now and most importantly henry stimpson henry simpson as 72 years old he's a republicans republican he's the son of a of a of a of a lord us the son of an american lord during the gilded age most importantly served every president as john points out since teddy roosevelt what is fdr one from stimson what does marshall one from stems fdr is looking for some political balance he knows that harry would ring a kansas would rather see america's factories turning out combines in tractors rather than bombers than howitzer tubes uh he needs somebody also who can bring credibility to what is fast becoming a coalition war time cabinet as he sees it he saw in advance that he was going to need a lot of republicans support because many of the liberal new dealers who had been his base for so many years we're not the type to want to uh get america into war with with uh germany so henry stimson was the type of person who could bring uh a lot of credibility to the cabinet but the important thing from this uh the least choices is that both roosevelt on one hand and then stimpson a knocks on the other were taking enormous political risks democrats obviously were irate with report with roosevelt for uh reaching out across the island finding two prominent republicans frank knox was the 1930s six republican vice presidential candidate in fact campaigning actively against roosevelt uh this would be today uh not like say president obama nominating robert gates as defense secretary it'd be more like obama nominating paul why and as defense secretary it was an enormous.
"henry stimson" Discussed on KBOI 670AM
"I'm john batchelor mike of hosts of johns hopkins is here we are discussing how america views itself here in the twentyfirst century 1945 the transition under harry truman jimmy burns was the secretary of state of time henry stimson still secretary of war this is the trend opposition from hot war to cold war when stalin fell away as an unreliable murderer and winston churchill weekend dan was pushed out of office in the summer of forty five by a labour government demanding socialism in great britain and the united states subtle low those years and made a successful translation a transition so that we were the enforcer for the balanced the twentieth century but now south china sea michael china believes and you sent me a very helpful piece of the thinking of staff officers in china of the of the chinese navy they believe that they have successfully grabbed the south china sea militarize the spratlys in the paracels and our info we're seeing a regional power against the smaller adverse adversaries our allies they also believe that the us will not directly confront the militarily though they're going to be opportunities for this smaller powers to cross swords with china and that the us may or may not get involved however china very much sees itself as the rising power this is the facilities trapped that you speak to remind us that it is neither through cities nor trap at his vision of yourself but sought china's has vision of rising power the us is drifting we just established that does that mean that we're in trouble when we try to assert ourselves as the one and only because we've lost confidence well we've lost confidence for sure but what we've lost something more elemental ben carson kushner uh in terms of our our play and identity in the world we have uh handed over uh been the narrative initiative um to our adversary and and the problem is that uh if the us is challenged in the south china sea that it has no uh story of that american scott can respond to an import about what we should do this doesn't mean that there aren't commentators and plenty of of scrip blurred and and shrill voice it will fail we've got to do something we've got to do something but that doesn't equate to uh the power of a cold elective understanding of what we need to do because of what we need to do have to be.
"henry stimson" Discussed on WPRO 630AM
"I'm john batchelor my keble hudson johns hopkins is here we are discussing how america views itself here in the twentyfirst century 1945 the transition under harry truman jimmy burns was the secretary of state time henry stimson still secretary of war this is the transition from hot war to cold war when stalin fell away as an unreliable massmurderer and winston churchill weaken dan was pushed out of office in the summer of forty five by a labour government demanding socialism in great britain and the united states subtle low those years and made a successful translate a transition so that we were the enforcer for the balance of the 20 th century but now south china sea michael china believes and you sent me a very helpful piece of the thinking of staff officers in china the of the chinese navy they believe that they have successfully grabbed the south china sea militarized the spratlys in the pera cells and are in forcing a regional power against the smaller advance adversaries our allies they also believe that the us will not directly confront the militarily though there are going to be opportunities for the smaller powers to cross swords with china and that the us may or may not get involved however china very much sees itself as the roy rising power this is the facilities trap that you speak to remind us that it is neither facilities nor trap at his vision of yourself but sought china's has vision of rising power the us is drifting we just established that does that mean that we in trouble when we try to assert ourselves as the one and only be because we've lost confidence well we've lost confidence for for short book but we've lost something more elemental than simple consciousness uh in terms of our our play and and and our identity in the world we have um a handed over uh than the narrative initiative uh to our adversary and and the problem is that uh if the us is challenged in the south china sea that it has no story uh that americans can respond to and support about what we should do it this doesn't mean that there aren't commentators and plenty of of scribblers and and shrill voice will sail we've got to do something we've got to do something but that doesn't equate to uh the.
"henry stimson" Discussed on WTMA
"Let us take care of your head i'm john batchelor mike keble hosts of johns hopkins is here we are discussing how america views itself here in the twentyfirst century 1945 the transition under harry truman jimmy burns was the secretary said time henry stimson still secretary of war this is the transition from hot war to cold war when stalin fell away as an unreliable massmurderer and winston churchill weekend dan was pushed out of office in the summer of 45 by a labour government demanding socialism in great britain and the united states low those years and made a successful translation as transition sell the we were the enforce for the balance the twentieth century but now south china sea michael china believes that new sent me a very helpful piece of the thinking of staff officers in china the of the chinese navy they believe that they have successfully grabbed the south china sea militarize the spratlys in the power cells and are enforcing a regional power against the smaller advanced adversaries our allies they also believe that the us will not directly confront the militarily though they're going to be opportunities for the smaller powers to cross swords with china and that the us may or may not get involved however china very much sees itself as the.