40 Burst results for "Harvard"
Fresh update on "harvard" discussed on Rush Limbaugh
"Here is who talked about. Dr Fauci grabs him by number 23. This is all the way back in July 23rd. The YouTube talk show Value Attainment Waterkeeper Alliance founder, the activist Robert Kennedy Jr. Debated the former Harvard Law School professor Allen, the Durst, Dershowitz. About the Corona virus vaccine, and here is what our F K Junior, said Anthony. How'd she put $500 million of our dollars into that accident? He owns half the baton. Is five guys working for him. We're entitled to collect royalties from so you have a corrupt system and how they of acts in that it is too big to fail. So I'm sorry. It was not Gateway. Maybe Gateway pundit reporting this, but it was Robert Kennedy Jr. You heard that? The doctor found CI. Put $500 million. Our dollars is taxpayer dollars means doctor found. I guess what he means is that Dr Fauci took some of the budget. Of the National Institute for Health and put it into this into this vaccine. And he now owns half the patent. Man. Oh, man. Oh, Miz Robert, this happened on July 23rd just now, just now getting out into the public domain Has anybody seen r F k junior lately? Holy smokes. No wonder doctor found She's not wearing a mask out there at the Nationals game. He got a patent on the Maxine. Okay, look, I got I got to go to the phones. There's there's all kinds of stuff. I've still got The sound byte roster to get to, But I know you wanna weigh in on this stuff. Bill in East Troy, Wisconsin. Welcome, sir. Great to have you with us today. Hello. Rush. It's great to finally get a chance to talk to you. After all these years of listening, my question is is for the president. Anyways, it's safe and response. Thank God It's not 20,000 day like the fake media fake news wanted us to believe, because weren't we supposed to have like piles of dead bodies by now, like 200 million So he could have came back instead. Well, we're thankful it's not 20,000 like a media wanted us to believe I have to tell you. That is a no. Let's review this because that is a good point. The original number. In fact, let's go here. Let's let's go Toe the line five. Grab Marty because of the same thought process her. I think Marty's in Pittsburgh where by the way they're going to try Guaranteed universal income there. One of 15 city is going to try it in in Pittsburgh here is Marty, and I'm glad you called. What is your point here? We were initially told that 2.2 million people are going to die. The CDC told us that 150,000 that's tragic, but it's a far cry from 2.2 million and I think helping the government should be Given credit for at least limiting those numbers. What do you think? Do you think Trump Auto not be saying, Hey, it is what it is. I think you should be taking credit for the people that are still alive. They told us we were losing two million people. You know, that's what Obama would be doing. Obama assurance that by the way, what is this? Another question? I'm getting off on a tangent. Whatthe Hell's Obama surfacing all of a sudden for you know, these guys crashed the John Lewis funeral. Clinton goes in her crashes it Obama went in there, Obama turned his eulogy into a political speech against against Trump. Same thing that happened to McCain funeral. I'll get to that. But this is exactly right. The original number of deaths will be 2.2 million. Remember it was from that bogus computer modeling guy in the UK Nile, somebody And he had not factored in anything like social distance there in 2.2 million. They used that number on Trump to get him to shut down the country. This is important. We will review.
Coronavirus out of control in US
"The United States has become the global epicenter. After the initial shock and the lockdowns that followed. It seemed like we had it under control. Then around Memorial Day, people started going out again. Some states followed the phase reopening plans put forth by the White House Corona Virus Task force. And some did not. Now the world is watching us as the virus surges and spreads from region to region and school district struggle with how to reopen safely. ABC News chief anchor George Stephanopoulos talked about the U. S response with a head of the Harvard Global Health Initiative. Dr Asheesh job They discussed how to turn things around and where the U. S stands now. Good morning. America is so clear that this virus simply is still out of control here in the United States were the richest country in the world. The best medical talent in the world. How do you explain why we're doing so poorly? What must we do to fix it? Indeed we are. We are the global hospital and we have mismanaged his virus in a way that I think much of the world simply can't believe on. The reason is that we just haven't taken us seriously. We have not followed scientific advice and guidance. When we opened up too early. We've opened up too much. We're still debating whether mass work or not, they actually do. There's no debate. So what do we need to do? Moving forward? We need to get mad people. There were maps. We need to fix our testing infrastructure. We have to close down bars and gyms and other things that cause outbreaks, and we just have to start taking the virus. Seriously. I think if we do all of those things, George Within the next couple of months. We can become one of the success stories as opposed to one of the global failures right now. Some optimism right there. Of course, over the next couple of months school is starting again. For so many millions of American Children. We're seeing big school district close stick with virtual All over the country. Everyone want schools to open safely. The question is how to do it. This is not a debate, right? We all want our kids back in school, and this should be priority number one for our country and we don't have a national plan. And we've left it. A state states are leaving at his local towns and officials. We can't have pandemics fought by individual cities, towns and superintendents. I really believe we can get kids back to school, but we need a national plan to suppress the virus. Improve the quality of the buildings of the schools, and we can do this. We can get kids back in. You know, we're seeing hot spots crop up here in the United States, but also coming back to places like China. New cases being reported in China, Australia. They have had great success. Now It's coming back there as well. Vietnam didn't have any cases now they're having is well, what are we seeing This now? Is this still a first way was at the beginning of a second wave. This is a global pandemic. That's going to be with us all the way until we have safe, effective vaccines that are widely available sometime. I'm hopeful and next year until then, countries will continue to battle a most high income countries have managed to suppress the virus. They get little flare ups and they're able to bring them under control. We're the only country with kind of a raging wildfire, and we really have to work on that. But even if we suppress it, we will still have little outbreak so we'll have to do and you're describing our current situation in the United States that were just in the fourth inning of this crisis. Yeah. You know, I was trying to explain to people kind of a timeline and I have thought of this. If everything goes incredibly well as sort of an 18 months pandemic that let's say began around January of this year. That's very optimistic. That puts us in about the sort of the beginning the top of the fourth inning. Just as a way of reminding people we have many more months ahead of us, and we do behind us. And if we don't get our act together, we're gonna have a lot more suffering and death, and none of that is necessary. We really can't prevent all of Dr John Thanksgiving every time and insight.
Fresh update on "harvard" discussed on Lynne Hayes-Freeland
"Anytime, anywhere. This's a Bloomberg money minute. Stock futures are slightly lower ahead of the opening bell. On this Tuesday, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi in Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin head into another round of talks. On a new virus relief package. We get earnings today from Disney after the closing bell, the telecommuting revolution has led to a lot more work. Researchers at Harvard Business School and New York University compared employee behavior over to eight week periods before and after pandemic lockdowns, and what they found was that on average, the workday lasts almost 49 minutes longer. Over all, the number of meetings rose by 13% and at home workers sent more emails. The meetings were a bit shorter. Gasoline prices are rising, ticking up globally by 2.2% in the second quarter from the previous quarter. The average price of gasoline in the U. S in the second quarter was $2.50 a gallon. Once again, the early market indicators are slipping ahead of the open genus Rivetti Bloomberg Radio. 866 for 910 20 Your calls.
Aboard the Diamond Princess, a Case Study in Aerosol Transmission
"The diamond Princess cruise ship turned out to be a bit of a canary in the coal mine for the Corona virus outbreak back in late January 1 infected passenger boarded the ship. A month later, over 700 passengers were sick with covert 19. Others new research out today on how the virus spreads like wildfire across ships like this, and it serves as a major warning for how the virus transmits in everyday setting statement settings that were in like Charles and I in this office building. Dr. Joseph Allen is the director of the Healthy Buildings Program at Harvard, JJ Chan School of Public Health. Co author of the A Diamond franchise study. Dr Ellen. Thanks for joining us on connects in death First of all tell, Tell us about about your research and what we should know people like myself. People like Charles People who are are in situations where this virus can spread. Yeah. Thanks for having me on on. You described it perfectly carrying a coal mine. It caught our attention rightfully early on in this pandemic and should have been an early warning of just how easily this virus spread. If you recall, there were several 1000 people. On the cruise ship, and almost 20% of them got infected. That was even after a lock down. What we did with our study really was used that as a really A perfect experiment. Unfortunately, was an experiment in a bottle. With everything so controlled so well defined. We could really understand how this virus is transmitted and start to quantify it for the first time. With some depth and what we learned is this Airborne transmission. The longer range airborne transmission mean around a room. It is contributing a significant portion of the spread of this virus. Now. This is just trying to get some attention from one of the 239 scientists wrote a letter of the W H O a couple weeks ago. This made headlines that airborne transmission is happening despite CDC. W ll be reluctant to acknowledge its happening. This new shut study shows it's happening. It makes it a big part of the spread, and it has obvious implications for opposite schools and every other Setting. We spend our time indoors and okay, So let's talk about what that translates to in terms of what offices and schools and buildings need to do. As you know most modern buildings. You can't open windows and that was designed years ago to be more energy efficient. So you can't open the window unless you want to throw a chair through it. So what are we supposed to do? That's a good question. So first keep doing the controls that we know what working in Washington absolutely, where mask that helps us all forms of transmission as well. And social distancing is good day one that we need to do more of it. Fewer people pay attention to is bringing in more fresh outdoor air. We're bringing ventilation. So if you do have operable windows, you open him up. Facilitate the movement of air coming in there with the fan the window If you're in a building that has airconditioning on H B C system mechanical system, you want to talk to the building owner get more fresh outdoor air coming in through that system. Any air that's were circulated. Must go three. Merv 13 filter or better? MDRV. Usually they use a murdered eight U Want to murder 13? And you could think about supplementing that in schools Homes office with a portable air cleaner with HEPA filter, the kind you'd buy it, you know, Home Depot, our target or Wal Mart er online. Yeah, but here's the thing, But But But here's the thing, Doctor. Ah, Just to take. You know, Christmas talking like we're in the studio here. So you know, I'm looking. We've got all kinds of stuff. We got Purell. We've got Clorox. We've got Germany. We've got you name it. We've got all kinds of things to scrub surfaces. Uh, but for companies to come in and put in new ventilation systems and new filtering systems That's a lot more money than getting a canister of wipes. Well, look, I mean, the reality is that it's important to wash your hands. Do all that. But the majority of your exposures coming through other means you're gonna have to wear a mask that's not expensive. And the recommendations we've been giving in February not to go in and replace your system or spend $1,000,000 on some new fancy control system is really getting down to the basics here. Your existing system can bring in more air than it's doing. You have a you have a filter on the recirculated air Get a better one. A portable air cleaner's $200. You guys should have one in your studio right now. So I'm not talking about expensive multi $1,000,000 upgrades take many months. You could have your space performing a lot better. In the next 30 minutes. If you want to plug in a portable air cleaner with the mask on, get the ventilation going a bit better. So it's a misnomer that this has to be expensive or time consuming to fix being in office school dental office, you name it. Dr Joseph Allen, director of the Healthy Buildings Program at Harvard's Chance School of Public Health. Dr Alan Thank
Fresh "Harvard" from WBBM Late Morning News
"Responded deadly tornado near the small town of Windsor in northeastern North Carolina. Several other confirmed tornadoes caused widespread damage at North Carolina and South Eastern Virginia. Jim Krystle, a CBS News, Greensboro, North Carolina. A massive explosion has shaken Beirut, wounding a number of people and causing widespread damage. The afternoon blast shook several parts of the Lebanese capital and thick smoke billowed from the city Centre. Residents report windows being blown out and false ceilings dropping. The explosion appeared to be centered around Beirut sport, causing wide scale destruction and shattered windows miles away. And local TV stations reported. The blast was at Beirut's port inside an area where firecrackers were stored and results are finally out on a study of staring stare much psychologists at Yale and Harvard say people instinctually follow someone's gaze to see what they're looking at, except in the socially awkward situation when a person gets cut, staring at someone and looks away. Doctors say that might be because the brain can tell that the embarrassed person is not looking away at anything important. Nancy Chin CBS News will have a check of traffic and weather together on the eights. Next w BB of NEWS time. 11 36. Right now switch your family that T Mobile and get four lines for $25 Align with auto pay and five access included on America's largest five G network, So don't wait, get unlimited and nationwide biology access for the whole family..
Colleges plan for virus testing, but strategies vary widely
"Dozens of U. S. Colleges are announcing plans to test students for the Corona virus this fall. But their strategies vary widely. Colby College in Maine plans to test all students every other day for two weeks. And then twice a week. Harvard University will test students on campus three times a week. But some plan to test students on ly if they show symptoms or come into contact with a positive case. Federal health officials discourage widespread testing and college campuses. But researchers at Cornell and Yale University's say that without widespread testing covert 19 could be spread by infected students who don't show symptoms.
Fresh update on "harvard" discussed on KRLD News, Weather and Traffic
"Game last year to whoever that was the day how whoever it is, they're going to get to keep that skillet for another year. Of a city of rock wall, meanwhile, is mourning the loss of a longtime police officer Harold is LP. Phillips reports on another victim of Covert 19 officer Tracy Gains have been hospitalized with a covert 19 virus since July 11th this morning, he lost his fight. James had been with Iraq while police Department for 15 years, serving as a patrol officer and a school resource officer for both the high school and the Williams Middle School Mayor Jim Pruett. This thing is serious, you know, Hopefully we'll all all get through it, and we all just need to take personal responsibility for us. Prior to joining the police force. Gaines had served 20 years with the Air Force Squad car has been placed in his honor at the Wilkerson Sanders Memorial on towns and driving Rock wall. LP. Phillips News Radio, 10 80 Karel de 9 12 Now Medical News this morning, CBS correspondent Nancy Chen tells us about the results of a new study on staring psychologist at Yale and Harvard, say people instinctually follow someone's gaze to see what they're looking at, except in the socially awkward situation when a person gets caught staring at someone and looks away. Doctors say that might be because the brain can tell that the embarrassed person is not looking away at anything important. So first it was the word master than freeholders. Now another term with racist roots may be on its way out. A Massachusetts appeals court is getting rid of grandfather ring at least the term. The phrase originally referred to provision adopted by some states after the Civil war. In the footnote of a decision involving local zoning. The court notes. It was intended to disenfranchise black voters by requiring them to past literacy tests while exempting descendants of men who were eligible to vote before.
Need some good news about Covid-19?
"Been been mostly mostly bad bad when when it it comes comes to to information information about about the the Corona Corona virus. virus. Harvard professor Joseph Allen at Harvard University's Th Chan's School of Public Health. Talk to Carol. These David Rankin and says there is some good news that therapeutic will be vaccine. So people may have heard of the steroid DEC. Method Stone on the antiviral disappear. These are being used to treat patients who are quite sick with Kobe 19. But there are other therapeutics that should be coming on the market, including what we call monoclonal antibodies. Normally when your body has a response to this virus of others that creates antibodies. Well, lot of clonal antibodies are just engineered and a body and they could be used for both prevention and treatment that the data they're looking really promising. On the testing front. We've seen advancement in terms of rapid saliva tests. You could think of these as a home pregnancy test. But for covert 19 and in this case is a strip of paper you put in your mouth and it gives you a test result pretty quickly, and it's cheap. And so while the test isn't perfect, the fact that it's cheap and you can take it back and at home. Even better than a better a good, accurate test, but takes seven days to get the results back. We keep seeing that these rapid tests are not as accurate does that increase the danger a little bit of if you think you are negative, and it comes up positive, it's a false positive or a false negative, really good question and the work that shows that if you get these rapid test that air cheap enough, not the expensive, rapid test. But that even if they have false negatives, the fact that you're taking them every day or even multiple times a day is better than an accurate test that you take. And then seven days later, you find out the result at which point it's too late. That you here is that even on day one. If it doesn't get it, then you catch it. The next time you took the test and worst case, you catch it on the third day, And if everybody starts doing this overall, it would really help too slow. The spread of disease, and we get a lot of people confidence about going back into stores or restaurants or even theaters. When is there going to be a vaccine? Because the vaccine seems to be the turning point whether or not we can get back to normal request. It wasn't that long ago where we weren't quite sure we could produce the vaccine for this Corona virus. On If we produce it within a year, which it looks like we'll be able to do that will be the fastest. A vaccine has never been produced by several years. But this is a remarkable scientific achievement. It looks like we will have a vaccine by the end of this year. But I want to be a caveat that that the real challenge is not just getting the vaccine. It's the distribution. Right vaccine never saved any lives on Ly a vaccination has we actually have to get the people? That's not to say it's really good news. I also think that news on therapeutic is just as important. Therapeutics will beat out vaccine this fall is what I'm seeing in terms of the science, and I think that's really important because people aren't scared of getting sick. There's getting scared of death. On. If you have therapeutic that can keep people that can prevent the worst outcomes. I think that will also helped give them confidence to people that will get through this okay. Professor Joseph Allen at Harvard's Th Chan School of Public Health. The U.
Fresh "Harvard" from Bloomberg Surveillance
"A day. Now try babble free. Just go to babble dot com and start learning a new language. Today. That's babble dot com b A b b e l dot com. This is a Bloomberg money minute Booking holdings is the latest online travel giant to eliminate thousands of jobs after the Corona virus pandemic hammered. The travel industry company says that up to 25% of employees will be cut from its booking dot com business or about 4000 workers. Ralph Lauren is considering revamping the way it operates. As it looks to avoid the fate of several retail rivals who've turned to bankruptcy. The company just reported a laws that was worse than what analysts were estimating the telecommuting revolution has led To a lot more work. Researchers at Harvard Business School in New York University compared employee behavior over to eight week periods before and after pandemic lockdowns and found that on average, the workday lasts almost 49 minutes longer, and over all, the number of meetings rose by 13%. Stock futures are slipping ahead of the opening bell. Well, Speaker Nancy Pelosi and Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin head into another round of talks on a new virus relief package. Genus Rivetti Bloomberg radio. Understanding the people who make and move markets takes skill experience and a willingness to ask. Isn't there an agreement among global superpowers, But there would be sharing Bloomberg markets with funny Quinn and.
Medical misinformation, COVID-19, Big Data and Black Lives Matter
"Welcome to science fiction on medical misinformation, big data and black lives matter in this time of pandemic is in the months since these based of a virus heat. My two guests have occupied all of those worlds all at once. The TESHA Mitchell with you and joining me at two superstars of the world of digital epidemiology. They are mining digital data from all sorts of unusual sources, some very familiar to you to help us. Make sense of things dot Miami. Gender is a computational epidemiologist at Harvard, medical school and Boston. Hospitals Computational Health Informatics Program Adam Dan is associate professor in Biomedical Informatics and Digital Health at the University of Sydney. Etem part of your work as you suggested, investigates have health misinformation sporades on social media platforms in online forums, hell potent. has this pandemic being in terms of appendix of misinformation as well I? kind of feel like appendix Storms I'll take of misinformation for for a few reasons. Really I mean I just the sheer volume of of information that's being generated imposs- on. This some quite interesting studies have been done in computational social science to show that as we increase the volume of information that exposed to the influx throughout timelines, and makes it hotter and hotter for us to be able to discern what's actually credible, and so we're more likely to pass on less credible information to our friends and family and people paper now social networks, which makes it much easier to spread misinformation. And just as an example in a weeping collecting tweets about things like vaccines, all sorts of stuff for a long time, and says the first case where we were completely unable to collect all of the tweets that were related to of the pandemic. You know just attempting to collect it. We constantly ran into all of our API limits. We're unable to do all the stuff that we wanted to do so this absolute flood of information all the time, so there's too much data to work with yeah. Yeah and that makes it really hard for people to discern what's actually high quality information? What's credible information so that they tend to pass on things that may not be credible at all, but this two hundred reasons that I think that this has been kind of the perfect storm uptake of misinformation. You know there's a lot of politicization. When she mentioned already in a for example, it was reasonably obvious to those of us who looked at quality of clinical studies around the drug hydroxy chloroquine. that it was unlikely to be useful on the pandemic that it was some serious flaws in the way, the evidence was being discussed and the the way the study's being done, but when things became politicized around the drug, they quickly became sort of entrenched in the partisan communities that exist online and becomes much much hotter to to use elements to change people's attitudes on something has become politicized I. Think the other reason why is that? We had seen what I think. People become more susceptible to being affected by misinformation and letting it affect the way they make decisions in their behaviors when they're more concerned when anxious when I have a loss of control. In a feelings of uncertainty and loss of control are associated with conspiracy beliefs and. The fact we have is invisible threat that his CO. MAINTAIN A book. Such big differences in the way governments are responding stoneleigh created in Iraq kind of environment from certain feelings. Of Powerlessness, yeah, I mean. A global pandemic is the ultimate loss of control. Isn't it and it's tricky to know. Who attuned to in terms of expertise because science and medicine. Rising to Cape Up with all the variables with the very basics of this virus. Yeah, look absolutely right, and you know we have this kind of environment where there's just too much information making positive for us to tell the difference between what's credible and what isn't we've got strong. Citation makes hard to change people's attitudes, but evidence and we're in this situation. People find misinformation more salient, and then we'll likely to kind of absorb it, and then let it affect decision making, and it's been a really interesting to watch, but it's also sort of a ended a lot of the work that we try and do to study misinformation Maya Atom. maxine interesting observation there that. Misinformation, during this pandemic hasn't just sprung from conspiracy, theories or wellness theorists are wellness gurus. It's coming also from. At least science from scientists during this pandemic to an extent, because research is being done in a record time to try and chase down this corona virus, early results are being shared before they are robustly peer reviewed on so-called preprinted service for all to see. The media is picking up those papers before really they've been properly vetted by scientific colleagues, so it's an interesting phenomenon, isn't it? It is at is definitely an unprecedented time for the development of new scientific discovery and I think that one of the things that's very challenging. Science by design is meant to reinvent itself with every passing day. What we know today should not be what we knew yesterday. It should be better more refined more credible, and I think that because that entire process is not public in a way that it perhaps was not before or at least was not given the attention by the public that it is being given now I think that that definitely influences the way that a lot of early findings are now being interpreted and I think that even early findings that were credible and are now being. Not necessarily questioned, but are being overtaken by newer better science for scientists. This feels like part of the scientific process,
Social Media Takes Baby Steps in Dealing With Hate Speech. Time to Grow Up?
"Hate speech has gone way up since the police killing of George Floyd in May according to analysis out this week from the company double verify hate. Speech has increased by nearly forty percent around the country. facebook continues to advocate a relatively hands off approach to speech twitter this week did take down thousands of accounts related to the conspiracy group. Cunanan, saying it will take action on accounts that could lead to offline harm. And offline harm is something. Researchers have documented and warned about for years. Defying Gauche is Co. director of the digital platforms democracy, project. At Harvard he says. All of this is still moving way too slowly. I don't think that they have the incentive to do so until a public sentiment rises up and they're almost forced to do something. That's just not a good situation I think it's very harmful for society and for public democratic interest to have to wait until people get so angry at these platforms that therefore stacked i. Just need a better regulatory system overlooking them. Well and we've also seen data I mean. There's people getting mad at platforms, but there's also it sounds like recently since the protests over George, Floyd's killing started. There's been a market increase in hate speech. What are the consequences of that and isn't that enough? It should be what we know is that there's so much polarization especially in this country and George Floyd really illustrates that in in high resolution. It's it's really brought terrible people in terrible ideas to the forefront of our media ecosystem today, and what I hope is that yes, while it's engaging for for many people to to see such hateful content, what I would hope is that companies can start to reorganized and restructure the way that they prioritize content and try to hold our attention by thinking more about what people really want to see, not such hateful content. You know I think. Companies often say that this is a problem of. Of Scale facebook has specifically said this that there's just you know. There's just no way to stop this kind of speech at scale across the entire world. Do you buy that? Do you think the companies do or do not have the technical ability to do this? Companies like facebook absolutely have the technical capacity to be able to prevent the spread of. Hey, let's be real about this. facebook pours money lots and lots of money into artificial intelligence and uses artificial intelligence to profile us. Determine our behaviors in our likes and interests and beliefs in routines. Now could use some about cash toward developing artificial intelligence in ways that immediately detect hateful content. I believe it can and I believe it should I also believe that it's not doing everything you can do to to catch that content. Is Author of terms of disservice. how Silicon Valley is destructive by design?
Why Shame Is A Bad Public Health Tool Especially In A Pandemic
"Believe me I get it. I'm frustrated and angry to. After all, it's been four months of this. We know the right things to do. And when you see someone wearing a mask or groups of people hanging out close together, it's easy to get mad, even if in all fairness. Once or twice. Open defiance at this Castle Rock Colorado restaurant large crowds, no social distancing, and there's some news coverage right now. That caters to this anger. You know what I'm talking about. Many Americans are out and about on this memorial day visiting newly reopened businesses seems from the unofficial kickoff to the summer showing many Americans not practicing social distancing measure. I'm telling you to wear a mask where a damn ask, but this Kinda thing anger public shaming the urge to yell at people who aren't doing the right things. That can be precisely the opposite of productive. Yeah, as the researcher I've been. Watching all this unfold through that Lens Julia Marcus is an epidemiologist and professor at the Harvard. Medical School, she said he's HIV prevention. And for scientists Julia, who work in HIV or sexual health or even substance abuse? They know that shame can be a huge barrier when it comes to public health, and in these first few months of the Cova pandemic I was watching this same pattern happen where you know, these kind of absolutist public health messages and moralistic undertones were potentially contributing to what became rampant shaming of people who were flouting public health guidelines or doing things that people felt. Felt were high risk, and when we shame people for their risky behavior in a way that distracts us from where risk is really happening, which is typically much less visible like in prisons and nursing homes and food, processing plants, and those don't inspire the same moral outrage. I think for two reasons one. They're not right in front of our faces, but also to we don't think of those as people having fun and a pandemic which I think people really upset. Matt rage, Julia says might feel good to act on in the moment, but it's not gonNA solve our biggest problems right now. I find that taking that rage home, and really screaming alone has been very helpful for me to. Do that as well or you know my rage these days first of all I would say that knows no bounds, but also. To be honest. My regions more directed at institutional failures than individual ones. To episode Julia Marcus on the role. Shame plays in public health crises. We talk masks. School reopenings in the long road ahead. I'm Maddie's defy, and this is shortwave daily science podcast from NPR. Julia Marcus has written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic about why. Shame is not helpful right now and how we can do things better. She's looked this when it comes to mask wearing social distancing and how we open college campuses, we talked about all those things, but the first thing to say here is that there is a fine line between public shaming and some positive forms of peer pressure. I, yeah I WANNA make a distinction here between social norms and shaming I. think social norms are very powerful and. That can be one of the best ways I think to change. Health behavior is like well. Everybody else is doing it so I'm going to do it because it's more like i. want to feel good when I go in the grocery store and I'm not gonNA. Feel great if I'm the only one not wearing a mask, so, but there's a difference between making people feel bad about their risky behavior and making people feel good about engaging and protective behaviors as a way of like becoming part of What the new social norm is Marie right? Right Okay Julius. You've written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic. Let's talk about your most recent one I. It's you know how to not open colleges this fall. You started out by describing an email that went out to students at Tulane University earlier this month July seventh. What what happened there? Yeah I mean I I I don't WanNa. Pick on two lane here. Becher, that was it just an example of some of the communications that were starting to see toward students who are on campus this summer and have been having some parties. And there was an email that we're not to students that really condemned stat behavior as disrespectful, indefensible, dangerous selfish, and made it very clear in bold all caps that hosting parties of more than fifteen people would result in suspension or expulsion from the university and that if students wanted the school to remain open, they needed to be personally responsible. I'm in their behavior and When a university says, we will hold you accountable for having a party, and actually there will be dire swift punishment when inevitably there is an outbreak at a party. Students are going to be terrified to disclose that they were there. And students have now said this at the University of Connecticut were interviewed and surveyed about what kind of thing is going to work for them what their concerns are about the fall. And they universally said we. We are early close to universally said we're really afraid of how infection and risky behavior are going to be stigmatized such that we outbreaks will not be able to be controlled, so there needs to be appropriate consequences for putting your community at risk, and I would never say otherwise but that needs to be balanced against the need for public health efforts to be separate from discipline. And we've already seen contact tracing start to break down outside of campuses, because people are afraid to talk about having been at event that that they know is something they should not have been doing yeah. So. You know kind of following that thread. The part of this pandemic that's been hardest for a lot of people is is social distancing in in several of your pieces you wrote about how a lot of the advice especially in the beginning was almost like an abstinence based approach like stay home. See Nobody which absolutely made sense kind of at the. The beginning, but tell me about why. That approach doesn't necessarily make sense for the long-term well asking people to abstain from all social contact indefinitely or until we've scaled up. An effective vaccine is just not going to be a sustainable public health strategy, and I think now our messaging has evolved a bit especially as there's been an accumulation of evidence around. The risk is highest like what's settings or higher risk, in which ones are lower risk, but I think we continue to still have a tendency toward absolutist messaging and I think that our goal should be to two inch. People tour to a place where they are living their lives in a way that addresses all aspects of their health, while trying to keep tr- risk of transmission low, and so one way that that could play out is encouraging outdoor activities, especially in spacious areas, opening up more outdoor space for people, and there's been a tendency to close beaches and close parks where people gather, but. But I actually think doing the opposite on could could be helpful, but the essential point is. We can't stay in our homes forever and many people couldn't stay in their homes for the last few months because they were working sure, but it's clear from other areas of public health that asking people to abstain from something that they fundamentally need or strongly desire is not an effective public health strategies, so we have to find ways of making our messaging more nuanced, that allows people to get what they need to be able to live sustainably while keeping the risk of transmission low until you there. There are examples of nuanced messaging from others accessible public health campaigns. Right I. Mean You work on HIV? Can you give me an example of that? Yeah, so we you know we don't tell people don't have sex. Because that's the best way to not get HIV, we may save the safest thing you can do to avoid HIV transmission is not have sex, but we understand that many people are going to have sex, and that it's a you know a part of a healthy life, and so here are some safer ways to have sex, both in terms of certain sexual acts in in terms. Terms of protection different ways you can protect yourself and you know becomes a more nuanced message, but it's much more sustainable for people and realistic and the long term, and it also acknowledges people's basic human needs right, and there's also this idea that talking about ways to reduce risk encourages people to take those risks, even though from a public health standpoint. We know that isn't true. So I'm wondering Julia like. Why do people hold onto this concern? Like what is this really about yeah I, mean this is definitely not new. It comes up a lot. I think especially around drug, use and sex. And I think the reason it especially comes up in those settings is that those are behaviors that we have a lot of moral judgments about particularly in this country, and there's this kind of moral outrage that happens when we think about people engaging in risky, which is often pleasurable, behavior, sex, drug use, and these days going to the beach like. it's kind of playing out in this new way now with social contact and partying and people having a good time in a pandemic, which it's actually a public health win when we find ways to support people in enjoying their lives, and and getting their basic social or sexual needs, met while remaining a safest possible, and you've made the point that we've. We've already seen this play out with the corona virus, public health officials, hesitating to give people detailed ways to protect themselves instead of avoiding risk altogether, I mean I remember. We reported early on in this pandemic when Dr Burks of the White House Coronavirus Task Force said. We don't want people to get this artificial sense of protection because they're behind a mask. This lack of consistent messaging is one of the reason that a lot of people still aren't convinced that masks are helpful, so you know. Julia, how do public health officials effectively reach? Those people yeah I mean I. Think in general we always see some resistance to any new public health intervention, condoms, and you know pre exposure prophylaxis for each V. I mean every intervention that comes out. There's resistance. There's challenges with implementation. There are moral concerns you know. This is all kind of par for the course, but I think what's new here and a bit different is not necessarily just the polarization which we do, see an Ciaran things like vaccines, but the politicization. Politicization I don't think there has been I can't think of an example where a sitting president has flouted public health recommendations and I think that that has created kind of a politicized around masks. That wouldn't have necessarily been there and so how do we overcome that? And how do we reach people I think again it comes back to hearing people's concerns, acknowledging them, and then working to overcome those barriers in our messaging and I. Think there are some good examples of that there have been a couple of great mask campaigns that have come out of California acknowledging that people dislike wearing them and acknowledging the reasons why people dislike wearing them. And I would guess that they are more effective in reaching certain populations than campaigns that that are more focused on this. Just wear ask. It's really easy kind of messaging. Yeah and don't you care about your community and don't you want to not kill people and That kind of messaging is like early days of AIDS. Messaging around condoms that I think was not as successful as the messaging that really focused on what the barriers were, and how people could overcome them. Yeah, yeah, with all this stuff that we've been talking about colleges masks. You know keeping safe distance. It's pretty tough because the stakes feel so high like this is really a nasty virus, and when we see people, you know not doing the right things, the instinct there to shame them to get mad for a lot of us at first instinct and I. I guess it's just that we need to take some patients to push past them. Yeah, I mean I, think it's really. Valid to feel angry about what's happening right now, and for people who are not necessarily taking care of themselves or their community and putting other people at risk. It's very frustrating to see, but I think especially for public health professionals. It's on us to do the work to avoid the shaming and the anger and the moralizing in our messaging. Because we've learned that that doesn't work in other areas of health and really try to take the time to craft messaging. That is going to be more effective. Julia Marcus. Checkout episode notes for a link where you can find her writing to the Atlantic. Can say the Atlantic is crushing it these days, but the magazine, not the ocean. I mean
China is "No Friend to United States"
"Is no friend to the United States. That fact is clear to everyone except the Democrats. China tries to undermine the United States with every chance they get, Let's just look at the recent headlines. The Chinese Consulate in San Francisco is harboring a Chinese military researcher wanted by the FBI, who was accused of visa fraud and who lied about her connection to the Chinese military. We recently discovered the photos of her and the Chinese People's Liberation Army. We also found out that they have been spying and committing espionage from within our own borders in the consulate in Houston, now set fire to documents and would not even let the Houston fire Department in Makes you wonder what they're hiding or even what they are burning. A few months ago, U. S authorities arrested a Chinese researcher in Boston and charged with trying to caught him were trying to smuggle 21 vials of stolen biological research back to China. Just last month there caught another individual. At L A x trying to fly back and then we just found in January this year top professor at Harvard being paid by China. Think of that. The very country that created this problem is now trying to sabotage our effort to save the lives. That's why introduced legislation earlier this week to hold these criminals accountable.
Are you communicating enough with your employees?
"For this week's episode I WanNa talk about communication. Over the last few decades there've been countless studies on measuring and predicting workplace performance and one of the traits often found at the top of those studies as conscientiousness. Consciousness is simply a commitment to doing your work. Well, whatever that work is, it's measured differently depending on your job. Of course, a janitor, a doctor, a freelance journalist, and a leader of people would all have to exhibit different things in order to be considered conscientious, but the level of conscientiousness each of them showed would still be a pretty reliable predictor of job success, and even a recent study at Harvard. University showed conscientious people tend be healthier and live longer, too. But this is the leadership podcast. So if the definition of conscientiousness is simply a commitment to doing your job well, we need to look at the job of a leader in order to determine whether they're conscientious and one of the most important parts of a leader's job is communicating with their employees. Many years ago, I had one of those light bulb moments I arrived at my job as I was walking in I, said hi to my boss, he didn't look up acknowledged, I'd said anything or even my existence and he just kept doing what he was doing. I kept walking for the next several minutes. There was a part of me thought I was about to be fired. Why I think this? I hadn't done anything wrong. I had no reason to think it. But a response for my boss that was vastly different than he had reacted dozens of times in the past led me to that conclusion in reality. He just didn't hear me. Say Hi, that's it. That's all it was, but my imagination briefly ran with it, and it took an emotional toll until I rebel to connect later that day. It was all think about. The light bulb moment for me. Came when I realized how important it is for us as human beings to make sense of things, and consequently how we tend to fill in holes with worst case scenarios, instead of thinking optimistically or even objectively. And that experience made me WanNa. Make sure I never allow an employee reporting to me to feel similarly if I could help it. There are many reasons communication is important, but this one is paramount. If you consider yourself an advocate of your employees, and you're committed to giving them a great environment, a prerequisite of that is over communicating until your employees asks you personally to dial it back a notch. And if you this was important in two thousand nineteen, it's crucial and twenty twenty when employment, status, operating, model and future plans can change literally by the day. Some employees announced will so they don't need or want constant communication? What they mean is they don't want to be micromanaged and they'll have to feign interest in what you're saying. If they've heard it before, but if your reasons for over communicating to make sure your employees feel confident, their leaders have their back. You can't go wrong. So if your leader people, what does it mean to have great communication with your employees? Well I means being transparent as possible. The less information you hold back the less holes. There are for the employees to fill in themselves. Don't be afraid to say you don't know. There's a lot of uncertainty at the moment, and your employees will likely show you some grace when you aren't able to answer. Some of their questions we should never do is hold off having the conversation to begin with. Simply because you're were, you won't have all the answers. Many times a short conversation even when it doesn't share profound developments in strategy is enough to keep employees engaged in productive. Lastly set up a minimum communications schedule and stick to it. Many employers won't ask for the information, but they'll still judge you harshly for not communicating it. The best way to combat this is to put meetings at an interval on your schedule. Even if there is nothing new to share, and you're meeting fifteen minutes, it resets the clock on what the employment be feeling and helps them maintain trust in you and your
Election Security is (mostly) Solvable
"Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologists. He teaches cybersecurity at the Harvard Kennedy School. I Co host Malcolm Bradwell talked with Schneier about the threats that loom over the vote this fall when we talk about elections being hacked. What does that mean I'm assuming that there are fifty different things that fall into that category. So we'll talk about the hacking the voting process. It's a process by which you cast your vote. We also talk about hacking the broader electoral process so when the Hack Democratic National Committee and posted a dump a lot of information online. They weren't hacking the vote. They were hacking the overall election process, so you can talk about fake news and propaganda and Astroturf, and those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. And that's one very separate branch, the other branches hacking the vote itself or the process by which you and I go to vote and there you have four places where you can affect things sort of affect the outcome. The first registration process. And we've read about and seen different hacks on the voting rolls so that when you go to vote, you can't at that point. This particular kind of hacking. Is it really about taking people off the rolls? A couple of things in California some years ago, people had their party. Affiliation changed from Republican to Democrat. You can change the address of somebody, so they go to vote. And they were told to go to a different Pole, and some of these are easy. Many states have. Online systems to change your registration aren't well indicated. Others is to Pull people off the voting rolls. Others are to erase the voting rolls. What happens if we get to election day? In a certain state in the voting rolls don't work, and we don't know why, so a lot of things against the voting rolls. The second is the thing we talk about all the time. which is vote itself. Is Your vote recorded accurately? The third. Is the tabulation process matter how you vote? There's this sort of automated sort of manual process by which the numbers out of each machine get increasingly aggregated the numbers in the the building the numbers in the precinct, the numbers in the town of the city, the state all the way up to the national, if if that matters. And then the last which I think people don't think about a lot is the reporting process and we have seen, and this was something that we think was thwarted in in twenty eighteen. Erroneous reporting. where the number right, but the press release says the opposite. Of those four things that you've identified. Can we rank them in order of? Seriousness, which is the one that worries you the most I I would not rank them. I think ranking is is dangerous. I think they're all risky know. If I'm a chaos Asian. How did what's the level of difficulty involved in spreading chaos in the American electoral system? It'll depend on the technology. So we can talk about voting machines and some are more secure than others. I vote Minnesota. We use optical scan voting I have a piece of paper. I feel an ovals, and then that is tallied. Use A computer that is the gold standard right is a voter verifiable paper audit trail. Now is real hard to mess with that and you can mess with the tabulating, but there's a paper backup. You can do a recount. Some states vote on touchscreen machines. We've had times. Those machines have opened up and that it's been zero zero zero zero. What does that mean? No votes to no votes. Something went wrong today. Those machines are a lot worse than you want them to be. The company's very secret, but there have been audits at Def Con. Hacker conference couple years ago, we had a bunch of machines in voting village and they were all hacked. Company say they're all flying. They're often. Online is a lot of ways to to go after those machines
Election Security is (mostly) Solvable
"This is solvable. I'm Jacob Weisberg. So you can talk about fake news and propaganda and ASTROTURF ING. All of those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. Election meddling undermines with sits at the foundation of American. Democracy confidence in our voting system. Whether hacking takes the form of masking the original source of a campaign message to make it seem like it comes from the grass roots, so called ASTROTURF. For disseminating intentionally false. It all leads Americans to question the legitimacy of the democratic process. In Two thousand sixteen, we discovered russian-backed hackers will responsible for disinformation campaigns in response Congress directed three hundred eighty million dollars to the fifty states to boost election security, but did it really help. Is it useful to compare electoral outcomes to poll results? You're not gonNA believe it right. The problem of voting as opposed to any other computer security mechanism. Is that after the fact? It's part. Is there a problem with the expectation? We have then that the a winner of election ought to be declared immediately, so yes, a slower process would enable us to do more checking before announcing anything. The American people don't like that. Even going to sleep before knowing is bad. With increasingly long election fees I'd sleep better on election hearing the Mike candidate one, but wouldn't we all sleep better knowing that whatever the result it was guaranteed to be accurate. The tech is real tech assault. None of what you've described is exotic or untried. Why is it been so difficult to convince other states to to put in place some of these already available voting techniques. Cause the problems are not technical, the problems or political. Elections security is mostly solvable. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologists. He teaches cybersecurity at the Harvard Kennedy School. I Co host Malcolm Bradwell talked with Schneier about the threats that loom over the vote this fall when we talk about elections being hacked. What does that mean I'm assuming that there are fifty different things that fall into that category. So we'll talk about the hacking the voting process. It's a process by which you cast your vote. We also talk about hacking the broader electoral process so when the Hack Democratic National Committee and posted a dump a lot of information online. They weren't hacking the vote. They were hacking the overall election process, so you can talk about fake news and propaganda and Astroturf, and those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. And that's one very separate branch, the other branches hacking the vote itself or the process by which you and I go to vote and there you have four places where you can affect things sort of affect the outcome. The first registration process. And we've read about and seen different hacks on the voting rolls so that when you go to vote, you can't at that point. This particular kind of hacking. Is it really about taking people off the rolls? A couple of things in California some years ago, people had their party. Affiliation changed from Republican to Democrat. You can change the address of somebody, so they go to vote. And they were told to go to a different Pole, and some of these are easy. Many states have. Online systems to change your registration aren't well indicated. Others is to Pull people off the voting rolls. Others are to erase the voting rolls. What happens if we get to election day? In a certain state in the voting rolls don't work, and we don't know why, so a lot of things against the voting rolls. The second is the thing we talk about all the time. which is vote itself. Is Your vote recorded accurately? The third. Is the tabulation process matter how you vote? There's this sort of automated sort of manual process by which the numbers out of each machine get increasingly aggregated the numbers in the the building the numbers in the precinct, the numbers in the town of the city, the state all the way up to the national, if if that matters. And then the last which I think people don't think about a lot is the reporting process and we have seen, and this was something that we think was thwarted in in twenty eighteen. Erroneous reporting. where the number right, but the press release says the opposite.
Authorship Attribution of Lennon McCartney Songs
"Mark Glickman and I'm at Harvard University as a senior lecturer in statistics, statistics is a topic that the audience really loves hearing about before we get into the main topic. Can you give us a little bit of background on the areas of stats that you studied or maybe those that interest you the most? Yeah, well. What got me into statistics in the first place? Actually was my interest in the Game Chess I've always been interested in how chess players get rated when they play in tournaments in other. Other words when you go to a tournament, you get a numerical rating. Where if you have two players have ratings, you could actually determine the profitability that player defeats at other, and that was something that I was always interested in these chess rating systems, and I ended up getting really into statistics and the mathematical aspects of these kinds of systems and I developed a couple systems that are in use these days, especially in online gaming called the Licko system. So that's really got me into statistics in. In, the first place and I really have a passion for teaching, so that's a big part of my statistics life, and then much more recently got into the intersection between statistics and music, and this Beatles authorship attribution project is one of the bits of work also got involved with a student who is really the primary driver of this work on basically how to use statistically generates music that sounds like Corrales, and so we have a paper. That's GonNa, be coming very shortly in that area so. So, yes, a music's become a much bigger focus in my statistics like these days. Is there anything obviously interest could drive it but I'm curious if there's any computational component to it may be the availability of computers to run big simulations, and that sort of thing has that influenced the ability to ask interesting questions along these lines? Yeah, generally it helps I. mean I tend not to gravitate to problems which can only be solved by having the appropriate hardware to be able to crank through the data? Having access to good computing definitely makes a big difference I think we can take for granted that any listener must be aware of the Beatles and their influence on music. Regardless of what they like should they could a few, but tell us a little bit more background for those that don't know the discography. What were the types of problems you were looking to? To approach this whole project essentially started when I met my main collaborator for this project Jason Brown. When the two of US happened to be at this conference in Prince, Edward Island! We just happened to be talking. After I gave a talk some material. Actually that's related to rating systems for chess players, and we just happened to stumble on our mutual interest. Interest in music, and in the Beatles, and he was telling me that he had gained a little bit of infamy about fifteen years ago, where he used essentially a forty-eight analysis, decomposing the sounds from the starting court of a hard day's night to figure out the actual instrumentation of the cord, because that really been something that was in pretty serious dispute so. So he published a little article audit and got him some attention, and he was telling me since then one of the things that he was particularly interested in was being able to represent Sohn's particularly Beatles songs in particular format in his area of math, which is graph theories, essentially representing music in the form of essentially graphs or networks and he wanted to. Be Able to use it to be able to distinguish authorship of different Beatles songs like maybe there'd be stylistic differences that would be evident in these representations, anyone really making a lot of headway and whole problem of being able to sing wish authorship is something that's much more firmly in the wheelhouse of a statistician, so I told him it sounds like he probably something I would want to be heavily involved in and so we ended up starting this collaboration, and that was kind of started it all, so we tried lots of different sorts of things. Things to take the music and be able to figure out. How can you predict authorship from musical features, and that's essentially what led us down the path to the work that eventually got published so from my perspective, wearing my data scientist hat, I would say you have a fixed data set that is partially labeled. Does that feel like the right framing for you? The main question of interest really and just to take a step back is that there are a handful of songs by the Beatles and again there's nothing about this problem that has to. To be specific to be spent for our interests there handful songs by the Beatles that or of disputed authorship, and so the idea is that you start off with a data set where the labels which is to say the authorship of Lennon McCartney songs is known that's known because the Beatles Bayside interviews in various information that's been gathered over the years is of note authorship, so we have a data set where the labels are no, and then in addition to that we have for all of those songs. We have a whole bunch of features A. A whole bunch of information about various musical aspects of the songs and idea is to form a statistical model that uses those features to predict the labels, and then once you establish that relationship then you apply to the songs of disputed authorship to see the predictions going to be based on that relationship, so for non composers who might be listening? Perhaps they could be intimidated by this problem. Saying music is all about creativity and unpredictability in these sorts of things. Is this truly assault problem from that point of view well? Yes, solvable a loaded word. I mean we certainly made our best attempt by Best Ibiza? After making lots of attempts that were not terribly predictive, we finally stumbled on said features and a statistical approach that seems to do a pretty reasonable job. Making predictions, the simple answer I suppose is yes, it's possible at solvable in the sense that there is information that you can extract. That is predictive of other ships. I could be pretty. Pretty concrete about this one thing that we knew before going into this work, and this is something that has been well known by musicologists studying. Beatles, music, which is that Paul? McCartney songs in particular tend to have melodies that tend to move around a lot like Paul McCartney, had a musical vocal range, fairly wide and part of that tended to be reflected in his moving melody by contrast John Lennon. had a reasonable vocal range tended to write melodies that didn't move around very much like he used a lot of repeated notes, or the vocal movements would stay very close and pitch, and that's characteristic of a lot of John Lennon songs, and so we knew even going into the problem that you know. musicologists have identified differences in the way that each of these songwriters would write music, so we knew that there were features that could be quantified and picked up. Up and used as distinguish irs in these classification models.
Report: Unpublished White House document puts 18 states in the coronavirus ‘hot zone’
"Learning new details about an unpublished report from the White House Coronavirus Task Force. It runs counter to the happy talk. Constantly hear from this administration instead. This previously unreported document warns that eighteen. Eighteen states are now in the red zone and that they need to enact much stricter public health measures, including mandating masks, limiting gatherings to less than ten people and ramping up testing in areas where coronavirus cases have spiked doctor. She's The director of the Harvard Global Health Institute told the Center for Public Integrity. Quote the fact that it's not public makes no sense to me. Why are we hiding this information? From the American people? This should be published and updated every day. Joining us now is Dr. as she saw director of the Harvard Global Health Institute. Welcome back to the show. For being with us. Thank, you for having me on. When you look at these three vital of information needed at any point in the pandemic, but certainly while much of the country sees their caseload spike. What is your theory on taking the CDC out of that hospital patient reporting data on not releasing the White House Coronavirus Task Force recommendations for those states that are surging and on shielding or keeping the CDC officials who could offer scientific advice to everyone as Chris as said at the end of issues so eloquently everyone is struggling to figure out the back to school pace. Is Really Hustling. What the strategy coming out of our federal government is! We are in the middle of the pandemic. Things are getting worse clearly in the United States, and we need to be guided by science and evidence, and we need to be hearing from our government scientists, and these reports that that coronavirus task force report, which I think is a really high quality report. It was produced by American tax dollars. The American people have a right to see the American. People have a right to hear mar scientists the American people have a right to the knowledge that they have aid for. We're not getting that right. When you hear Dr Fao, and you see the forums in which he is having to turn to communicate directly with the American people, or we also hindered by the fact that this White House is putting such a heavy emphasis on disinformation that the good information has to struggle and seep through the cracks to get to us. Well there's no doubt about it that there is a lot of misinformation out there. Some of it propagated by the white. House. But a lot of it coming through various channels on facebook, etc, and misinformation in my mind is the sort of we are facing two big challenges, virus and the misinformation around the virus and some days I think I can't decide which one is worse than the other. It's a huge problem and fighting misinformation while we're fighting pandemic makes it much much harder to protect the American people and keep people safe. You know it's such an interesting point to just just muse on I mean where would we be? If everyone had trusted all of the scientists from the beginning I mean. Where would we be if we'd really heated all the stay at home orders if everyone were wearing a mask, today and social distancing. Do you think our numbers would look different? Oh my goodness I think if we had done with the scientific community has been arguing for if we had ramped up testing and tracing from early on if we had started wearing mass when the evidence became clear that mass wearing was work. And where would we be with? have far fewer cases. We have much more of our economy open. We'd have far fewer Americans dead and we would be looking forward to opening up schools this fall with social distancing and with controls, but it would be very different economy in a very different country. We this is all self inflicted wounds as far as I'm concerned.
Implicit Bias Training in Health Care
"What practical rule do we have as mental health professionals in creating a more fair and just society, Doctors Javaid, Sucre and Chris waddling published a framework for integrating implicit bias recognition in medical education that makes a lot of sense. Here's their six point framework, point, number, one, creating a safe and non-threatening learning context. The authors recommend setting the stage by acknowledging that bias is everywhere any discomfort, guilt or resentment participants may feel is a common human experience, and those feelings can be openly addressed in a safe non judgmental learning environment. Point number two increasing knowledge about the science of implicit bias bias as a result of neurobiological mechanisms and psychological processes outside of our conscious awareness understanding, this research sets apart this kind of training from typical diversity training. You might find in corporations. Point number three emphasizing how implicit bias influences behaviors and patient outcomes, a key component of this framework is citing statistics and research on implicit bias in medical education as well as discussing the impact of internalized by Assan stereotypes. This helps to motivate learners to take the next step point number four increasing self awareness of existing implicit biases. It's time to take an implicit bias association test or AIT. Put the link to Harvard's project. Implicit version in the show notes. It's a computer based exercise demonstrates in association between groups of people and stereotypes. There are valid criticisms of. Nobody should look at their score as a definitive metric of their biased, it's simply a demonstration of the facts already laid out an opportunity to reflect and think quote biases everywhere, and to some degree I also biased. So, what can I do about it on quote? And that leads to point number five improving conscious efforts to overcome implicit bias. This is where we practice thinking about our thinking or mindfulness training as we make conclusions, we periodically take the time to interrogate the thinking behind each conclusion to determine if it's fact based or bias, based and point number six enhancing awareness of how implicit bias influences others. Now we use the awareness. We have our own bias to focus on empathy. It's time to put ourselves in our patients shoes, and in their families us for that matter. The. Authors demonstrate this by citing a research study of nurses who were shown pictures of either white or black patients with expressions of pain. The nurses who were to recommend doses of pain medication based on their best judgment, gave more pain medication to white
College hoops coaches move to eliminate standardized testing
"Number of head coaches in both men's Women's basketball, proposing that the eliminate standardized testing results like the from its initial eligibility requirements. In a statement released last night, several coaches, including former Michigan Head coach Tommy Amaker, who now coaches at Harvard, said that those standardized tests quote no longer have a place in college sports or in education.
Why the pandemic is getting worse, and how to think about the future
"Okay Richard, so there are about forty seven different things we could talk about to unpack the story of how we got here in where we're going, but we chose a few of the big ones to focus on in this episode, so testing was a mess at the beginning. It seemed to get better for a little bit, and now it seems like it's a mess again, so what happened? Well it is complicated. Let's take you back to the beginning of the epidemic when the decided to develop its own test for the corona virus, which is standard practice for them, but honestly they bungled it, and instead of reaching for tests developed in Germany and distributed widely by the World Health Organization the CDC fix this quickly, and they kept trying, but really that turned out to be a big mistake, and it cost us a lot of time. I think the CDC didn't really realize the scope of this epidemic early on federal health officials should have done what South Korea did for instance what they did overseas immediately spur commercial companies to produce large quantities of tests. The US eventually got to that point, but you know it was really late, and now, of course we are in better shape. The US is averaging something like six hundred thousand tests a day or sometimes even more than that, but. It's still far short of the amount of tests that experts say we should be doing. Yeah, and let me ask you about that. Because I've seen estimates that we need to be doing like double or triple, the amount of tests to really control the virus right and you know the number of tests you need to do is really relative to the number of infected people, so we have so many infected people, and that number is growing. We really need to be doing a lot more testing. For example scientists at the World Health Organization uses a rule of thumb that you should have enough tests that your when you get the results back only about five percent or coming back positive. That, means that most of the people are negative, which is what you'd hope what you'd expect right now. Unfortunately, we have states like Texas and Florida in Arizona where the number of percent positive is like seventeen, eighteen or even twenty five percent, and you know the percent positive rates keep going up, which means it's definitely not true as the president has frequently claimed at the cases are only writing, because we're testing more. No seeing more positive cases as we see more tests so okay. Let's talk about the case numbers of it back in April we were at about you know thirty thousand cases per day and now we're. Sixty thousand new cases a day, which is objectively worse and to put that in perspective, sixty thousand people wouldn't even fit in dodger stadium, which is the biggest baseball stadium in this country, so we're talking about you know. Give you a visual image of what we're talking about it right right and you know. Some of that is driven by big outbreaks in places like California, Texas and Florida. Let's talk a little. Little bit more about why cases are up in those places. Yeah, it's complicated series of reasons, but some of it is that we're what we were talking about a little bit earlier. Some of these were in states like Texas and Arizona that were determined to open really early, and we're a lot of people including politicians thought you know starting. Their economies was more important than being really cautious about the virus. Could also be other stuff at play here because you know it is summer, and those are places that very hot, so more people are spending more time in air conditioning that is to say indoors and one thing we know about this virus is spread more likely indoors among people who are stuck together for at least fifteen minutes or longer in an indoor space. Yeah, honestly like this idea of being indoors is something I've been thinking about. Because I'm looking ahead right and we're looking at the fall in the winter when you're going to have the exact same thing happening all over the country like more people forced indoors. That correlates with of course, the beginning of seasonal flu, circulating some people in the hospital. That kind of stuff right it's going to. We're going GONNA have both epidemics happening at once. It's going to be a real mess. Okay, let's talk a little bit about mortality or people dying from the disease, so the president and others have pointed out in the last few weeks that the numbers of people dying per day are down from early on in the pandemic, and that is true back in mid April. There were days where we had well over two thousand people dying each day, and in the last week or so the US is seeing more like hundred people dying every day on average, although that number seems to be rising again. Let's talk about a few reasons why that could be why we're seeing fewer deaths now than earlier right well, certainly, one of the biggest reasons is not the biggest reason that the death rates are so low now compared to the spring when New York City got clobbered as you recall is nowadays the viruses infecting mainly younger people, and they just frankly less likely to die in Arizona for instance of these days, half the cases are in people aged twenty to forty four years old and only. Only eleven percent of cases and people over sixty five, and of course people over sixty five, or really at the highest risk of death, and you know that that shift younger age groups is both good and bad. The good part diseases hitting a population that can more easily survive, though we should say some people do die should bad part is that the spread is accelerating and putting vulnerable people at higher risk, because now the virus is traveling far and wide and putting more older people and. And people with underlying health conditions in harm's way right and you know one thing to note though is that especially in the younger demographic? This is where we see a lot of the huge racial disparities up, basically which young people are surviving and dying a paper out of Harvard June showed that in this twenty five to thirty four age group, the mortality rate for black people was seven times more than for white people really matters. Who are the those young people are right? It absolutely does. Does the overall risk of death is very very low in this age group, but it does absolutely hit some people harder than others, particularly because more people of color are at risk for contracting the disease because of their jobs, they have to be out and about and also underlying health conditions may also be playing a role here. Yeah, so it appears more young people are getting sick. Fewer of them ultimately die, but to be clear. Young people do get very sick and die from the virus. So that's one reason we're seeing fewer deaths right now. Compared to the beginning of the pandemic as far as why the numbers of deaths don't seem to be matching up with the increase, in cases, yet is partially due to the fact that deaths are what we call a lagging indicator Derek Thompson at the Atlantic wrote a really nice piece on. This will make sure to put in. The episode notes for Richard Let's talk about that a little bit right. Yeah, it's a very plainly put. There's a gap in time between the day someone test positive until the day the either recover or unfortunately die, and then of course. Course there's another lag in which that death is reported health officials. So what you're seeing now. It really in-depth really reflects people who got sick. You know two or three weeks ago or even longer than that, so that's one reason why deaths have not followed in lockstep with a big spike in cases. Yeah, and then there's also this thing called lead time bias right right, and that's basically a phenomenon where data can make it seem like something new is happening, but actually just about how you're collecting. The data with the increases in testing. We've seen in these past few months. We may simply be detecting more this. This virus earlier in people than we did before, people may have been really sick and not get tested to the hospital now people are driving up in their cars right and doing okay, and so there earlier on in the course of disease, but that doesn't really change the percentage of cases that wind up being fatal. It will just take longer than it did early on in the epidemic for those fatalities to show up and of course Richard there a ton of complications that we didn't have time to get into more hospital capacity ventilators, so what sheep the hospitals in actually plays a role in who survives and who? Who doesn't and then you know even though there isn't a cure, of course, doctors have had more time to learn how to treat this disease, so we don't have a lot of data on this yet. In the United States, but it seems like perhaps more people are surviving this disease than right in the beginning right, I think that is clearly the case and you know as long as hospitals aren't totally overwhelmed with patients. They can make use of what they've learned so far to improve treatments. I'll give you just one example steroids which are used to reduce inflammation. Turn out to be quite useful in many instances. So Richard I'm curious like overall how you're feeling looking at where we are compared to. Let's say April, there are ways in which I feel like are a lot more prepared like we understand the virus. A little better were obviously farther along on a vaccine and some potential treatments, but we still don't have adequate testing. Cases are at an all time high. We're heading into the fall, which means we're GONNA, have this consolidation of cold and flu and corona season, plus the schools potentially opening up your really cheering me up here. But maybe the most concerning fig just to keep you just to keep you down. Richard is that I? Just don't feel like we are a country with like one central goal to fight this thing together. Yeah well I think. I would agree with that first off a corona virus vaccine is not going to help much at least not in this coming flu season. Even if one is amazingly enough approved by the end of the year, we'll take really a long time to vaccinate enough people to make a big difference. What really could help would be a good flu vaccine. I think only about half of Americans typically get the flu shot every year and public health officials say if they can dramatically increase that it would really help a lot against this sort of one two punch that we're going to have to be confronting. But you're right about the country, not working well together on this starting with leadership both at the federal level, and also tim states, but also including people who are ignoring all the guidance that's going all the good advice from scientists and people are hesitant to get vaccines because of misinformation. As for testing you know by the fall. There will be some help. I expect doctors offices should have a supply of Rapid Kobe tests. They're like rapid strep test, or whatever the aren't super accurate, but they can help relieve some of the testing bottleneck and sort of looking down the line a little bit farther. Scientists are also working on next generation of tests that you might even be able to do. Do at home and you know those might be ready sometime. Next year next year seems pretty discouraging, doesn't it? It's pretty far off, but you know I'm pretty well resigned to the fact that we're going to be in this for the long haul. covid nineteen is going to be with us for years so even technology that seems far off right now. We'll still be needed
Trump administration backs down on restrictions for international students
"The Trump Administration is backing off a plan to revoke student visas for international students enrolled in schools offering classes online only from member station who are in Boston. Fred Tie, says the story, the government announced the decision in federal court in Boston. It reverses a policy announced last week that band international students if they studied at online on LY colleges. Simba Capella Glue Harvard student from Turkey, who can now stay in the United States was watching the court hearing on Zoom. It's a relief and I feel like just come on. The sounds pretty railed, actually, so it shouldn't have come as a surprise. Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology had sued the federal government. Just as oral arguments were about to begin in court. Attorneys for the government and the colleges told the judge the government would lift the restrictions for NPR news. I'm Fred Thais in
Does Size Matter When It Comes To Health
"Dr Stanford is an obesity medicine, physician, scientists, educator and policymaker at Massachusetts General. Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She also lectures at Brown and Teaches Med students at Harvard. Hello, and welcome well. Thanks for having me. It's an absolute delight to be here today with both of you. We're just we're the most accomplished person ever had this podcast like I cannot even begins. Batum were all you have. You guys are the best and this is. This is what I need to me through the rest of the day as I conquer the world. Yeah! We're honored that you made have the time the time to come talk to us just a little, so thank you so much. Did I get all of that right? You did I I. Guess What I can do is explain it to people because people are kind of like is all of that absolutely so? I'm obviously a mathematician, so the MD is the easiest part I think to understand on my completed my masters in public health nineteen years ago, so it shows you that I'm older than I appear. And that was in health policy management. My masters impose ministration was from the Harvard. Kennedy School, government and government. Currently working on my MBA executive MBA, so that hasn't quite made it to the end of my name, but I may lead US next year. Let me tell you guys. We'll have more to talk about. The the all the that you see after not team for fifteen, but it is nice that it goes with that, so those are all fellowships, so my fellow of the ANC, which is the American Academy pediatrics I'm a fellow of American College of Positions. American college positions represents all Physicians for adult so internal medicine, a fellow of the American Heart Association so basically. I'm looking at cardio metabolic health and being the fellow in the American Heart Association what represents that and then a fellow in the obesity society. Society which is the F. Toss? So you know these fellowships come you know after having accomplished in those different on areas domain, so I see children I see adults I work in this kind of Cardio Metabolic, health space obviously as obesity medicine physician I work in that space, so it really is a combination of kind of who I am, and just looking at Vegas, the letters that come after my name really talks to the work that I really care about and working with my patients patients across the wall. That's amazing. Wow -gratulations. What inspired you study obesity. One of the things that I was always very concerned about as a black one in a black woman who was born and raised in Atlanta Julie obviously in Boston is that's where mastermind Harvard are? I'm I was really. Perplexed I think is the word I WANNA. Use about the disproportionate impact obesity on communities of color particularly I'm the black community. That was what really brought me to this work, so if you go back twenty years ago, I think you've as you're in your twenties for twenty years ago. When I was doing my m H, you're not okay. Across. Our loved anyways Oh! That's Cute I. Love it still have you guys by? Decades! but one of the things I was really interested in seeing was like. I felt like there was a lot that we weren't doing to understand why. Obesity obesity disproportionately impacted certain groups and the groups that are more likely to kind of tackle these issues or the people that are representative, so those scripts so as a black woman and the group that is most disproportionately impacted by obesity I felt compelled to really approach and tackle this headline, so the projects that I was doing back at emory school of Public Health, back in ninety nine two thousand etc, We're looking at specifically obesity in the black community one project I was doing was. Was Looking at obesity in the Black Church community was looking at obesity among African, American, adolescent girls and one was looking at obesity within those that are law resources within the wick programs. It'll women's and children's for Ram, and how could we fix their Their plight in terms of recognizing that we can in some ways with the limited resources that they may have available to enhance their role house. So this was something that was kind of lingering. I didn't anticipate that I would choose obese medicine. 'cause that was not a field when I was twenty years ago. It really was not a field. There was no board certification in obesity medicine. The first Brit sort of patients directly. No Be Madison didn't start until two thousand well, which was well after I finished medical school, but I can tell you I was on. Call in the pediatric ICU when I was in residency and I as internal medicine pediatrics and I literally just googled obesity in medicine at about two thirty in the morning after I just intimated three kids in the ICU in a new. I was going to sleep at nights. I figured I'd just need to keep myself busy. And, the fellowship here at Mass General at Harvard popped up and I was like. What is this? You know I I really interested in obesity. I had no idea there was a fellowship, indeed the first ship and so I came and I spent three years. Doing a fellowship dedicated to understanding the disease of obesity.
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Walk into the Hobbit. Kennedy School Policy Cost I'm your host Togo morial. Judy Today on Kenny school professor's and Jacqueline Baba both at the Harvard Kennedy, School Carson Tougher Human Rights Policy, not not history governments of US crises to consolidate and cement power. Yet while some official actions, Nyquist Britain movement ramping up surveillance curtailing freedom assembly emplacing this can be a cause for concern. They also helpful in trying to manage control catastrophes such as the Code Nineteen pandemic. Professors risks and Baba say that while some of these measures may be temporarily necessary to prevent loss of life. Safeguards must be put in place to.
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"With them officials in the Western Cape. What's the role of politics in all of this? I mean this is sort of competing. Motivations that politically driven The question I can expand in terms of what? I'm mean you know we see here in the US that you know. They are interests that are being used to in terms of the decisions. Made when I think of some countries in Africa where you into the issue of politics She May You winning the next election. They are actually be that important initiative for leader. Because you if you're an incumbent you're most likely going to be turned so maybe less of a motivation who to do the lightnings in the crisis because the stakes that high How about politics in this context? I think it's really difficult because I think that actually we had we had zoom cold earlier and one of the questions that was raised was like. What do you deal with spoilers? What do you deal with politics in the case that you're going to have a bunch of people actually even incumbent party's who gain to see this as an opportunity and and you could potentially have people in the opposition party? Your party. Who are instructing the people not to listen who instructing the people to do different things and one of the things you're trying to do is get a single trusted message that everybody is behind the other thing that is interesting and other dimensions. Sometimes we we actually had an opposition party official from country on the call and he said but what happens. If you think spoiler but all I'm trying to do is put what I think is legitimate idea. So that was that was something people race where they said you know. We are trying to do this work and we have people telling us we're doing it wrong. And they're getting in the way all they obstructing the message or they obstructing the supply chain. They doing something to spoil the process That that's kind of what the term is and this person said. Look I'm trying to. I have some ideas that I'm trying to communicate into government from the opposition party on not at the table. No one would invite me to table high to bring my dear to the table so I think this is actually tremendously complicated. Because I think you do have you do have a politics right now. That can get in the way if people start to play too much politics right now. It can get in the way one idea that I have for some people as I say look. I think that parties should try to invite people from opposition parties into these discussions into these advisory processes. The people who empower the president or the provincial premia or the school district commissioner. They'll they'll get the ones you have to decide and we need to. We need to leave them to decide that they would probably be very well positioned all very very well advised to try and bring people from opposition parties and opposition voices because sometimes even within the NGO communities. They organized politics but they have different voices. Bring them into that advisory process. Bring them into that discussion process so that they at least part of the process the process. Mattis. What is that? Is that realistic. I guess you know these are unprecedented time. So one hopes that you know your lead behaving in a different way for holiday list equity is if very often in the number of countries. Ngos civil society position ponds up one at onto the job. Not Talking to gather or sharing ideas in constructing way. How in your experience? How competitive she happened. So you know. Here's what I will say. Is You know whether you say it's realistic. Lit say on a scale of what percentage likelihood is again to happen in most times. We'd say this kind of thing. I'm suggesting there's zero percent chance that this is going to happen now. I think we need to move into the into into the world we. I think you're GONNA see this happening but it's not gonNA happen as much as we needed to happen. That's that's the truth. It's very very hard to do. I think that when you have seen gigantic crosses in places before you do find that people's thoughts leave aside the The the The differences and they do come together because they realize that people are dying and I do think that that does happen. I have spoken to people this week. Who have said that Even even when the country faced the two thousand eight crosses across the Middle East some countries faced the Arab spring later on and they had crossed season. Those crosses did not bring people together. They telling me that this is looking a little different in quite a few countries right now. That people coming together. I do want to suggest that one of the key ingredients for this is leadership. I think the people who have power need to extend olive branches to people and say come and be part of this with us. I think that if you a forcing those other voices two shots at you from the outside and to criticize you they will do those things and they will party do those things because they themselves off your full. They will partly do those things. Because they know that politics can be about stoking fear but if you bring them into your tent and if you include them in those conversations and this is going to require humility by the people who are in power I think that it is it. Is You who needs to be the first movement in doing this. How many countries will do this talk? Oh I don't know how many countries need to do this because this is something that is a virus that is not hitting people based on their political for the Asian. This is Equal Opportunity Virus. Everyone is going to be affected by this. And if we clock get people together than it is going to haunt us nine some cases just to say I think there is a role full outside is if the government is really routinely not doing the right thing if the government is putting its own political fortunes ahead of others if the government is not responding if the government is not engaging experts if the government doesn't seem to be providing clear messages. I think that is actually a very uncomfortable. But important role Rut now four civil society and for opposition parties to take a position on that and to come with their their truth and to speak their truth to their people. It should not be done is in a cheap way though. It should not be done in a way to say we are going to bring you down. It should be done in a way to say we all get to force you to be truthful with the people right now. That is a role that is important where governments are not being truthful and not engaging accurately with their people and Matt when you look at on some developments that we've seen from bake multilateral financier such as will bank setting aside billions of Donna's for Kobe nineteen response if you advising them not as a global public health expert but as you know sort of thinking about some of the other areas that meeting thinking about where would you say some of that Funding could be used in the context off target ship in critical rule. That you might find right here so I'm actually not a public health expert at all. My work has more in public management and leadership. So but I I would say firstly The awesome great pieces. That will be written right now by some economists at Harvard Ricardo Hausmann has done something very interesting this week. The is a A series coming out Through some affiliates Danny Rodrick with multiple articles in the school but also leverage faculty all over the world who are trying to advise on where we need to be to be spending money in the future what we need to support. I have a very simple message is. We need to support state capability states matter. What I have seen in in development in a long long period of time is that a multilateral have said we'll support you if you deregulate we will support you if you decrease the size of government. We will support you if you if you produce results. And we'll we'll tell money to results. The results are short-term things. What we don't want is more short term results. We want long-term capability wants states that have systems that can that can achieve an example of what I think. The kind of change you need in development is relates to health care. We have made huge advances. And I don't want anybody to him. Criticizing people cheaply have made huge advances in health in developing countries. Whoa kids immunized them wherever immunize before the the The the mortality rates of kids.
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School Policy Cost. I'm your host Tumble Moyle. The Code Nineteen Corona virus has spread from Asia to Europe and the Middle East and appears to have the features of a pandemic. But it's not the first global crisis humanity has faced an expose. It won't be the last man storm. Cyber threats rising seas. We'll have a world. Were planning for the next. Disaster is a key to survival. So is there a playbook for responding to a global crisis? Are Disinformation an irrational fear? Making things harder for disaster planners today we're joined by Harvard Kennedy School Senior Lecturer. Julia Qaim Dude. It teaches consult some crisis preparedness and Response and she joins me to talk about the best ways to prepare for the worst..
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"So this year's tagline was time for action and it does come at a time when there's been more and more scientific evidence to show that they are devastating effects of climate change on land oceans and societies. So we started off by saying that you thought it was a moderate moderate success. Let's talk a little bit about the sort of hopes expectations of goals of the meeting. Going in so they were twofold. I mean there were the popular popular press and from the activists expectations and hopes and those. We're four statements in what is called. The decision was just means. The statement statement comes out at the end of the COP with no legal force statement. That comes out at the end. The decision that they wanted a statement that countries where committed to coming up with much more ambitious targets a year from now in two thousand nine hundred eighty when the next set of targets will be submitted at the next cop so that was for them and that definitively did not happen. And that's why those individuals I think much of the press because that's a pretty obvious sort of thing to talk about is. What are the targets? What's the aspiration have characterized it as a terrible failure? I Know The New York Times did this morning but for those people both negotiators and for those of us on the outside in NGOs and universities who are very engaged in the process and in research what we were looking got much more was the actual text of the Paris Agreement. What wasn't completed and what needed to be completed just in order to achieve the targets that they already have pledged let alone thinking about the next set of targets and that was something very specific in particular and it ties in the note with the notion of international personal carbon markets? So there's one portion of the Paris agreement which is article six or you need to be more picky article. Six point two that provides for countries to cooperate with one another so that one country can help another country to accomplish something and then the a country that does the helping contain credit for that against. Its pledge that it's made okay so said another way if you are performing poorly on your targets. It's you could set up a deal with a country. That's over performing their targets. And Somehow get I mean how they wouldn't necessarily be. The country was performing poorly. They might be performing perfectly but nevertheless that they could finance. What's taking place in another country so it's a matter of finance in fact it's as a means of foreign direct investment so it just means that the incremental costs when economists call the marginal cost of reducing co two emissions vary tremendously mendaciously across different countries? And that's because the modern economies were already very energy efficient and so there isn't a lot of low hanging fruit but if if you go to other parts of the world there is low-hanging fruit their lot. That can be done at relatively low cost. So that means if you're in one of these countries where it's very costly you could finance finance things being done and one of those other countries that's to everyone's benefit if it's voluntary on both sides and it's a means of foreign direct investment into those countries which of course they're very happy about the big issue there though is to make sure that both countries don't take credit for that same emissions reduction. Okay that there isn't double-counting counting right. That's where the Paris agreement comes in. That's what article six point two is potentially about our accounting measures to prevent double-counting counting that was not completed. That's the one part of the Paris Agreement. What's called the rule book? which is the text of the rules that was not completed last year in Katowice? It was punted to this year. So for the condescending for those of us who are really involved a lot in the Paris agreement in the negotiations the goal all was to complete article six. That's what it was about and was it completed. An article six was not completed. But I'm going to tell I'll give you a caveat an important caveat. I was not completed because Brazil and Australia. Saudi Arabia in particular wanted some aspects in in there that would have introduced loopholes that would allow double-counting. And so what I take as the good news. That's why I say you know. Qualified success is that rather than producing what would have been a bad deal They produced no deal. And I'm very serious about that. We did research here Eh. At Harvard years ago with colleagues at at Tufts University and and MIT in which we said what needed to be in the Paris Agreement on this issue of sharing responsibility bringing down costs. And we said the first important thing is that they not put in the following kind of items which would make everything worse uh-huh and that didn't happen so in that sense that I think it's a qualified success that we even though there's no deal. There's still a possibility for it at the next meeting at the next meeting. So you think that something had happened in the next twelve months before Glasgow to get to a point where you have the sort of accounting rules or standards that could get article six done. That's exactly right. I think that that can happen. I wouldn't say that I think will happen because there's political opposition to it happening so let's talk a little bit about the voices at these talks so the most obvious sort of divide as it were would be between developed and developing nations. How does that play out? I mean who who who gets a talk here and and who gets listened to so that's an exceptionally important point as it is in the United Nations in general so you know as an economist whereas normally most of the analysis we do and whether it's teaching in the classroom or its research on the outside or it's conversations with government are focused on on efficiency issues but when you get get into climate change the international aspects the the aspects of equity of distributional equity are extremely important. Going all the way back to the beginning nineteen ninety-two to Brazil. Summit there is a very important principle in the overarching document. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Which is Although Woods Global Commons problem? Were all in it together. Nevertheless there there are common but there are differentiated responsibilities. Different countries have contributed different amounts to the accumulated stock. United States is number one China's second and there are different capabilities different wealth so that principle is exceptionally important and everyone in the negotiations recognizes. That having said that as you said Ed that there has been in the past polarization between the industrialized countries in the developing countries and that was codified in the Kyoto Protocol because only the industrialized countries series has responsibilities under Paris. It's much more of an even playing field. Although obviously some countries particularly the European Union take on much much more aggressive targets than do poor countries certainly countries in sub Saharan Africa from my point of view Nina. Do anything I mean their contributions are small and they're mired in terrible poverty so there is that differentiation remains but there are lots of other constituencies at play a very important one are the small island states. Because you know for most countries in the world ranging from the United States to the European Union to even the Gulf oil states when we talk about addressing climate change. We're talking about an increase in cost to our economy or a reduction in productivity for the small island states climate changes existential. Oh so it's at a whole `nother level of concern so their voice is very important in although they are very small in terms of population although although they are very small in terms of their share of global gross domestic product. They're actually very vocal and very effective. I'd say in the talks folks remember one. Last point is that under the rules of the United Nations Voices are all one country. One vote The united nited States has the same vote as the smallest country in the world. So just one more question just looking at the actual meeting so another thing. That's being that we're getting used to seeing the protests and demonstrators and I know in Madrid. One session you had. Protesters actually stormed the session. And you we read a lot about the protas oh to sell on the streets. Is that actually having an impact. Is that sort of pressure. Having an impact on the deliberations and the progress that that could be made. Well I think it certainly provides support for example for the small island states in the countries that wanted the most aggressive pledges to be made because because they feel tremendous support there i. I don't think it had any effect on the pace of the negotiations themselves except that you know they were disrupted opted for a few hours that one afternoon other than that. I don't think it has any particular influence. I'm not making a judgment with that. Maybe it should. Maybe it shouldn't I didn't but I don't think it does okay and so we've talked a little bit about your an environmental economist. Why is the economic perspective important in environmental issues? And what are some of the things that you think about an necessarily what's in your research. Well what I'd start by saying that. The causes of environmental environmental problems whether it's economics or has local hazardous wastes. The causes of environmental problems are essentially economic. It's a result of the fact that that there are unintentional Negative aspects consequences factors that are result of fundamentally meritorious. CBS activity by private firms. Making the products or the services that you and I want to buy and sometimes the result of consumers when they're using those products. aww They are external to the decision making which is why economists referred to environmental pollution as an extra analogy and if the there are also then consequences of environmental pollution that have economic dimensions so surely if the causes of environmental pollution are fundamental economic which they are and if the consequences of environmental pollution of important economic dimensions than that would suggest that an economic perspective can be helpful for understanding ending those problems fully. But you know we're sitting here at the Harvard Kennedy School Not at the Department of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences so it's not understanding just for understanding handing sake. It's understanding so that we can make the difference And the way that this understanding can make a difference is to identify public the policies that are effective mb effective. I mean they reduce pollutant emissions. They don't simply demonize the bad guys that they are economically. Sensible by which I mean. They're cost effective that we don't shoot ourselves in the foot and spend more than we have to after all we don't really care about environment we care about the cost list of education healthcare food fuel and a thousand other things and that perhaps they're more likely to be politically pragmatic. I think this economic perspective Jeff although it's not the only legitimate perspective surely can be helpful in those regards. So you mentioned the private sector in that actually and we haven't talked about that one. What role does the private sector have? Instead of. The the solutions in a changing world sort of actions are required. And what sort of actions that private sector taking well the private sector plays an extremely important role because that's where the emissions for the most part. Come from either actually from private industry from manufacturing electricity. Here's the degeneration or from products that they produce such as motor vehicles so their role is exceptionally important. I've long Viewed had the view that Only working through the market can much be accomplished. You know that's why if I may say back in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight when I first joined the faculty at the Kennedy School Previous Dean Graham Allison.
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Just aware want solve the problem think of healthy e being are exercising just being aware that we shouldn't eat more than two thousand calories or one thousand five hundred calories depending on on people size is not always easy for us to live up virtuous intentions hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cost I'm your host Moyle today I'm very pleased to welcome irrespon- It who was the CO director of the Women and Public Policy Program here at the Kennedy school she's also academic Dean Ariza's a behavioral economist and a leading research into gender bias as she's giving out some tough advice recently to government anti-big corporations stop wasting your money on traditional diversity training programs because they don't work it turns out that the matter how enlightened we think we are researchers that regardless of race agenda we are all pretty much affected by unconscious bias however there's some good news to using behavioral design and organizations can create better prices that help prevent US imperfect humans from making bias decisions welcome to policy cost in your work Qalat about unconscious bias being one of the drivers of the reasons that we don't have as many women in leadership positions would want this is start at the very beginning what is unconscious ice and how is it affecting women the first of all thanks very much for having me it's a pleasure to talk more about our work on how can debiasi how we live how we learn in how we work so unconscious bias is very much part of the human mind sets and that's in many ways good and bad news in that good news is that this is about all of us had noticed that is about all of us I I'm saying that in the sense that the unconscious the shared by people this is not about pointing fingers at particular people exclusive to one group no not at all not at all and it has to do with DS images that we have of certain individuals today fit the category that I have in mind when I want to hire a conductor whenever hire an assistant to hire physician as a seeing very much believing and if we don't see people can fitting into certain cats agrees we don't imagine that is right for them so let's make a more concrete so when we talk about women in the workplace give me an example of what the research of the evidence shows in terms of unconscious bias and how it affects women so in our universities now use of Harry Simple Exercise to help our students understand what unconscious bias es in a matter of minutes really we do a case study with them about Heidi Royston. Heidi Rosen is a venture capitalist real person Wilko's enter capitalist in Silicon Valley and is the case that he that most of our listeners would have seen before that describes what she did how she built it enterprises how she network invalid center and then if you colleagues of ours took discuss that each was written by Kathleen Mcginn of the Harvard Business School originally and replaced lady's name of Howard and now we give half of our students to case idealistic protagonist being cold Heidi and the other half protagonist being called Howard and students don't is prepared case but also evaluate how well Heidi and Howard did and students agree that both Heidi and Howard did a great job in fact because the same person there same person that's exactly right there's nothing different really auditor names but men and women and that's important to note men and women agreed that height is it's not quite as likable as Howard we less likely to want to hire her I want to work with her well and this is based on the same information that's based on the exact same formation and the reasoning that Heidi doesn't quite conform with our stereotypes of what typical venture capitalists looks like Grosso stereotypes for a good woman does has interesting and this was both men and women because you'd expect that maybe men would say that but women held the same view about what a woman what a venture capitalist could be what a good woman is yes exactly so there are nuances so there are some gender differences in terms of the sex or gender of the observer but they're much much smaller than most people think so most people in fact I would think that men are more likely to associate things men women are more likely are more lenient judging women but we don't actually find that so is it possible I mean that that's that's quite something so is it possible then to change minds excite imagine that you'd want to try and work on changing people's idea of what a venture capitalist is You know what a good woman is I mean can you do that yet sadly is real the hard so the first part of my research focused on research not my own on just evaluating the research out there on whether in fact diversity training is possible take train out by from our mindsets and unfortunately at the time and I wrote the book my book what works in Two Thousand Sixteen I had found one single study evaluating diversity training that works now you know could be to explanations one is it really doesn't work and I'll give you some reasons why I think it might actually not work so well but secondly an important message it also is that we don't measure nearly enough you know most organizations just do diversity training so to speak finely ever evaluating impact is it possible that the diversity training that you look that was just bad I mean better diversity training might have resulted in that that's possible that is totally possible that somebody has come up with diversity training that wasn't evaluated that number has discovered the secret sauce but table economist and in behavioral science we have been trying to so to speak fixed mindsets not just in terms of gender bias but lots of other is is cognitive biases so we've been trying to fix mindsets for a very long time with relatively little success and the problem is that we don't typically of our better better selves Superego so to speak sitting on our shoulders and whisper into our ears whenever you want we are about to fall into those traps I find that quite scary actually and I we're GonNa get to good news piece but you always imagine that there's a possibility to change someone's mindset in that you know you do enough of the right things that you could do it but if you're starting from the premise that I see you can't so where do we go from there so let me maybe for some nuances I'm not saying that we cannot at least open some hearts and minds and making people aware of some of these shoes and I think that's in many ways kind of good news I think the more complicated news is that just awareness want solve the problem and you know think of an example an totally different example from a different domain as in healthy eating or exercising just being aware that we shouldn't eat more than two thousand areso one thousand five hundred calories depending on people size day doesn't necessarily mean that we won't have ice cream tonight and that's the same problem that is intention action gap is real for human beings and that is not always easy for us to live up to our virtuous intentions so in that sense does nothing ah very different about gender bias compared to many otherwise it's just hard then to move beyond awareness we have to give people the tools to make those virtuous intentions and reality that's quite an idea I mean the estimates say I think about eight billion is spent in the US diversity training so that's quite a mine shift what sort of things are you advising when you talk to Corpus NGOs et Cetera the money that they're spending on diversity training what are the things that do work yes it's definitely um literally checking the box as having short half hour one hour online training to to longer types of interventions but yes it question is how how do we move beyond diversity training what more can we do and there I would very strongly argued that we have the Debiasi our systems instead of trying to de by our mindsets okay so let's talk about that some more what what does that look like him so maybe it's easy you just go oh no in fact let me start with a concrete example and then maybe we can talk a bit about the workplace but I wanted to take a bit of a detour and just give an example of how uh-huh simple these interventions can be so one of the Very salient examples comes from orchestras in the seventies of our bigger symphony orchestras in this country have introduced curtains and have had musicians audition behind the curtain these blind audition nhs have in fact increase the fraction of human musicians in our major.
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"I actually think it's not about trust. I think it's about respect the people across the table from you have interests you may not think they're legitimate interest but they have interests and they have politics that they have to deal with and I need to understand that and I want them to understand my interests and my politics and see if we can find a place where some of their interests can be addressed but I never lose sight of the objective which in the case of Iran was to make sure they never have a nuclear weapon the hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cost. I'm your host talk. Moyo today joined by Ambassador Wendy Sherman who is professor of the practice of public leadership and the Director of the Kennedy School Center for Public Leadership Ambassador Sherman served as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs at the United States Department of State between two thousand eleven and two thousand fifteen during her remarkable career. She has been at the table for some of the most. It's challenging negotiations in recent history. She's held talks with the late. North Korean detail Kim Jong Il she sat across the table with Iranian officials to hammer route the twenty fifty nuclear weapons deal and she's bought what she's learned about authentic leadership diplomacy and succeeding as a woman in a male dominated field to a new you book which is titled. Not for the faint of heart lessons encourage power amp assistance. Welcome to policy cost embassador chairman. It's great to be with Talker so my first question given your diplomat has to be about protocal. May I call you Andy Ambassador so let's let's start with the reflections so you've worked as a diplomat. You've been at the table and some of the most challenging negotiations what's the common thread. What a some of the things things that you think about nausea look back on those times in the work that you've done particularly in the context of you coming to the Kennedy School teaching courses on negotiation and leadership well. It's very interesting that you ask that because about to teach my first course here at the Kennedy School in the second half of the fall semester and it's called leadership. I've been negotiations away from the table. Everything you need to know to get the job done and the reason for the courses that a lot of students think that the way you really get a deal done is to be in the room at the table. The table when in fact it is all the things that happen away from the table that really get the job done in any negotiation and what are some of those things some of those things include the history the norms the culture of the parties sitting at the table. people negotiate differently depending on their culture. The history among and between parties may have a lot to do whether there's any respect at the table let alone alone trust it has to do with politics and power Do you understand the power relationships. Do you understand all the stakeholders. Do you understand the politics that are playing out not only in in our country been in any other country or with any other party in the context of their organization Tation. It has to do with policy development. what's going to be your objective at the negotiation. What are the right and left guard rails. How will you know if you succeed and it also has to do with setting the table all the tools that archer disposal to set the table including your arena which is communications and public affairs affairs can very much shape what happens in the room so this a little bit about some of those elements in detail so culture. I know when I was reading your book talk a little bit about the cultures of interplay that came into the negotiations for the Iran nuclear deal and you talked about one specific example about how women and men don't shake hands and you did the you put your hand to your chest in a little bow. That's an example what other examples of of culture and sort of interplay and impact that that you've seen happen. I'd start in the Iran situation with history. Most Americans think that history begins in nineteen seventy nine when the Iranians took Americans hostage for four hundred forty four days at the start of the Iranian revolution in fact for the Iranians history starts back in the nineteen fifties when the United States working with British intelligence knocked off democratically elected prime minister are because we were afraid that Iran was going to nationalize all the oil and make it difficult for us and for Great Britain so the Iranians hostility towards the United States historically started long before hours because we put in place the Shah of Iran who was whereas very good to the United States but truly a horrible dictator to his people and brought about the Iranian Revolution in the case of with North Korea. The United States obviously fought a war on the side of South Korea against the north the north at at the time of the Korean War was the growing economy in the southwest the poor economy now the south is the behemoth in Northeast East Asia along with of course Japan and the north is the poor cousin so where you start what the history is how how people negotiate differently. Some countries are very transactional. I'd say the North Koreans are more transactional than the Iranians are the Iranians artist transactional. I mean means. They're ready to do a deal if they can get what they need and you can get what you need. They're quick to quicker to do a deal. I think than some uh-huh the Iranians are much more sophisticated negotiators very legalistic very complex. It's not to say either of these. Negotiations are easy. They're quite quite difficult but people have different negotiating styles some countries negotiate top down others negotiate bottom up and the same would be true for businesses and any organization so the history matters so when you walked into for example Iranian negotiating table. It was fairly hostile EILLY. You looked at with distrust I mean how do you get from that given the history to a point where you're actually talking and bill developing some trust that are you working towards common ground which we'll talk about later on. I actually think it's not about trust. I think it's about respect. I don't think that given the history between the United States in Iran that one can really have a basis for trust and I think it is however about having some respect act that the people across the table from you have interests and you may not think they're legitimate interest but they have interests and they have politics that they have to deal with and I respect that they have interests and that they have politics and I need to understand that and I want them to understand my interests and my politics and see if we can't find a place where some of their interests can be addressed but I never lose sight of the objective checked which in the case of Iran was to make sure they never have a nuclear weapon and a which point. Did you feel that you've got to a place where there was respect. And how did you know you would there. We got to know each other quite well. Because we spent hours and hours and hours with each other and remember this was a multilateral negotiation so I not only had to get get to know the Iranians but I had to get to know the English. I had to get to know the French I had to get to know the Germans the Russians the Chinese and all of their delegations what all of their interests were the European Union. I had to understand. US politics I I joke all the time that I negotiated inside the US administration. I negotiated with Capitol Hill. I negotiated with interest groups in the United States. I negotiated with each one of the partners in the negotiation and bilaterally and with them as a group I negotiated with Israel which had a huge interest in what we were doing it and negotiate with all the Gulf countries I negotiated in any country that had had an interest in this and yes occasionally even negotiated with Iran. It is a very complex time intensive process and all the while I was doing the negotiation I was the under secretary of state responsible for all the rest of the world so one of the things that you would do one of the things that I was doing but not the the only thing I went to fifty four countries while I was the under secretary over four years from twenty eleven to two thousand fifteen some of them more within once so it was a privilege to have the job but in exhausting job it was and you were saying that you got to know the other party at the table fairly well and that the relationships that you built over the time started to develop into respect yes I think respect for each other's positions and interests even if there was not agreement agreement respect that we couldn't get to a solution unless we all sort of came to agree on what with the objective was during this negotiation a Russia for instance invaded Ukraine and took over Crimea and and that was a situation where the United States was going to have to take some significant action to sanction Russia for this but at the same time I I was negotiating table with the Russians trying to solve another problem and I had gotten to know Sergei Rehab cough my counterpart quite well because we had actually work together with Secretary Kerry and Secretary and Foreign Minister Lavrov to negotiate the Syria Chemical Weapons Agreement so I know new Sergei rather well by now as a negotiator and he I was had great respect for his skill and you went up to him at a cocktail. I think I think in your book you mentioned that it was actually morning coffee. A coffee said it was a very busy room and I went over to him and I said Sergei. How could you possibly do what you have done and it took him a moment to realize is when I was talking about and then he realized it was Ukraine. He looked at me for a moment. He said nothing is Amiss and he walked away and the reason he walked away was to say to me. If I stay here we you're going to have a fight and that will not serve our purpose in this room. We will have to deal with this issue for sure but not right now not right this moment while we're trying to ensure that Iran doesn't obtain a nuclear weapon so it makes sense yes makes perfect sense and you have to be able to walk and Chew Gum and run and skip all at the same time right and and that's what we did as a essentially. He compartmentalized yes he was able to say there's something else that we're working on. Its focus on that and we'll come come back to two that. Did that. Increase your respect for him or was that just it you know Did you feel very very skillful diplomat so it increased is my respect for his skill right okay so let me just come back to sort of getting to know the parties at the table and building up to a point of respect. It didn't always go through very smoothly. MD's apart in your book that you describe where you said something in a Senate hearing I think it was and you said that deception is in the DNA to the Iranians and that made it all the way to Tehran and how that affected and how we when you look back on that what's the lesson there you stop there..
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Months? With respect to the way that these different agreements are coming out with the focus on the implementation and more details coming up. My expectation is that we're gonna see a lot of these high level top down type of approaches to getting these statements and declarations out. We're going to see more emphasis on what these processes until the core processes mentioned. Denuclearization process the their friend does mechanism. So DNA, graduation mechanism, permanent peace mechanism. And this idea of essentially ways to improve inter-korean relationship. Those are the areas that expect to see more details. The idea that we're also going to see some tangible signs along the way is another area that expect to see in in greater fashion. One in the one that's coming up quickly is dismantling of the nuclear test site, Gary. This is one that is going to be done with international servers. With journalists, and also as it looks right now, some UN inspectors as well. Also imminently were expecting the release of three US detainees North Korea's wall. So these type of movements happening very quickly particularly before the summit between President Trump and Kim Jong UN gives you a sense of the differences as as we compare it to other cycles of trying to gauge North Korea. And so overall in this is a type of process that is taking many by surprise. One thing though I would put out as a caveat is that it's important to see it through the context of this broader game plan and these three critical mechanisms as opposed to single events in single summits. And then trying to read the tea leaves. There's a lot of play right now and so trying to keep track of how these different pieces are moving forward is a big part of the research analysis. Well, H lecture, John park director of the Korea working group. Thanks so much. So much for joining us. Thank you very much. Polcy cast is a production of Harvard Kennedy School. I'm Matt had Waller. That's met cat on Twitter. Jacob is our provides technical and editors support. We'd love to hear from you. Send us your thoughts via email to policy cast at H dot Harvard dot E D cenex tweak.
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"It's there is protection, not as a major instrument of social change. It's they're just like the first amendment as an anchor to make sure bad things don't happen in the future. One equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex to the congress shall have the Power to enforce by appropriate legislation. The provisions of this article three, this amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. What I've just recited is the full text of the equal rights amendment or the ER. It's amazingly simple concept, but the fight to add it to the US constitution in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties was anything but simple after countless pitched political battles across the country. The amendment ultimately came up just three states short of ratification by the congressionally mandated deadline in nineteen eighty two for decades. It was assumed that was the end of it. But in March last year, Nevada became the thirty six state to ratify bringing you just two states short of the required thirty eight in between the women's March and metoo movements. The idea of resurrecting the ERA doesn't. Seem so far fetched. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cast. I'm your host had water in joining us today. Today's H professor Jane Mansbridge who originally authored the book why we lost the ER a in one thousand nine hundred. Six also served until very recently is chair of the American political science association fresher Mansbridge. Thank you so much for joining us. Thank you. Would seems really interesting about the is that in its history, it is kind of defied our our partisan lines. You know, when it was first proposed, it was opposed by progressives when it was first put into a party platform. It was the Republican party. Absolutely. Can you trace us through the history of how this developed over time y'all? The Democrats Jamba critic party and the Democrats oppose the area at the beginning because they were, I think, correctly that it would. Eliminate the protective laws for women in this country. A lot of labor legislation began, and indeed that sometimes as far as it got was laws saying that women couldn't were more than X number of hours or bear X more than X number pounds or whatever. Because the country was very anti labor legislation. And so the only way labor legislation could get in was by being legislation for women and children. And so the Democrats were afraid that that was going to this would eliminate that special legislation and it would have so they opposed it. But then what happened was the those laws got changed to include men and two wasn't as necessary. There have been Eva Lucien in the law and the administrative law. So that actually before the era came to the congress. Or. The the discriminations. The special provision for women had been upgraded to be provisioned for men or or eliminated. So those issues were were sort of began to be gone by the time. The then the Democrats took took the array into their platform, but but it was definitely a Republican issue for awhile when it first came before the states, it was absolutely a bipartisan issue. It was bi-partisanship ill. Ronald Reagan, didn't put it in his platform in nineteen eighty. But before that both parties headed and their their political platforms, what actual effect would it have on legislation especially today? Well, we don't actually know, and there was a section in my book about what it would do. It's a little bit. Like as I said, the first amendment you put the principal in and then you know, all sorts of strange things might happen. For example, under the first amendment, we have citizens. Netted, which keeps us from having any reasonable campaign finance laws, but we hope there wouldn't be that kind of what I consider perversion actually of the amendment. You put you just you put an amendment in because it you think that there's a principle that ought to be in the constitution, like free speech or that that equal rights for women, and then you can't completely predict what the court will do with it, but you assume that
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"When you suddenly decide that your loved one needs to go into serious inpatient treatment, you suddenly become frantic. I've got to find a place to put this person, And each addict is different. The opioid epidemic is frustratingly difficult to untangle. There's little doubt that have reached a crisis point in the United States some time in the last few years. And there seems to be political will on both sides of the aisle to tackle. But how our guest today is no stranger to complex challenges after military career culminating into tenure as vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He's very familiar with marshalling the resources necessary to overcome formidable obstacles. And so when his son fell victim to addiction, he leapt into action ranging for the best possible treatment he could find. But even then it wasn't enough. Now a father's grief for his lost son has transformed into a mission to help save other families the same fate. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy gas. I'm your host Mak had water in this week. We're joined by retired US Navy Admiral James Sandy winner felt He's currently a professor at Georgia Tech in a senior non-resident fellow. Here at the Kennedy schools Belfer Center Fesser Admiral. Thanks so much for joining us morning, Matt. It's really a pleasure to be your Thank you for having me. This is a subject that has touched so many people around the country. It's something we see in the news, and it's also something that seems to have no easy answers. Of course, we're talking about the opioid crisis in the United States. You just as we were speaking right before this interview started. You say you have not found a problem that is as complex as this. Can you talk a little bit about that? Sherma The the opioid epidemic is indeed probably the most complex public policy issue that I've ever dived into. The dimensions are all over the place. The the cultural problems, The the interrelatedness of the solution threads are is terribly important. And it's it's if it weren't such a tragedy in my own family will be one of the most interesting and and rewarding things I've ever done. And unfortunately. It lives inside this background noise of sadness that we have now half because we lost our son in September. We decided at that point that we could either Curl up on a little ball and wish this away, or based on some of the experiences we've had an and getting things done, people we know that sort of thing. We felt that we should try to contribute to the solution. So I feel terrible if I didn't try to do something about this. And so we started our foundation That's designed to attack some of the complexity that you're talking about. Can you tell us a little bit about your son Jonah? Jonathan grew up in a military family seemed like a fairly normal kid, good athlete, very smart, very creative. Younger brother had a mischievous bent to him All. I'll never forget when we got a phone call one day from his second-grade teacher informing us that he had been selling school supplies to his students and lending them the money and charging interest in order to do it. So he's an I didn't know whether to be, you know, happier sad about that. But John was was a really, really interesting kid. A good baseball. Pitcher, unfortunately, he also grew up with a anxiety and depression, which so many young people these days have a I think the there's a large number of God, teenagers in particular who have this, you just don't hear about as much because there is a little stigma associated with that. And we found that John's started to self-medicate in that regard in it was that was contributed to by the fact that he was misdiagnosed as having Attention Deficit syndrome and was prescribed Adderall, which is a methamphetamine, which is probably the worst thing you want to give to somebody who has anxiety. And so John gradually grew in through a alcohol eventually weed and then Zan acts. And who knows what had a series of unfortunate events that cause us to become more and more are concerned. And then it culminated in a major event where we decided that he absolutely needed to go and inpatient treatment. Now, of course you by virtue of your position had access to treatment options that may not have been available to others, But even. Even then it sounds like from your experience, It was difficult to find those treatment options. Well, two dimensions that problem, First of all, when you suddenly decide that your loved one needs to go into serious inpatient treatment, you suddenly become frantic. I've got to find a place to put this person. And each addict is different at different dimensions of age gender, how they got into addiction in the first place And what their insurance is like. So there was a frantic week there while John was detox in where we were very lucky to find a good place in Pennsylvania to take him. The challenge was through the military healthcare system non-striker at the time. They really did not have a grip on what this was all about. They just didn't understand the disease of addiction and in particular what you call the the dual or a Komor bitterly of a a mental challenge, uh, anxiety depression and addiction at the same time, that has to be treated very, very carefully in a very special way. And there aren't very many places that can do that and track. You're just didn't understand. On top of that, John was one months shy of his eighteen th birthday. And there are some places that only take people younger than eighteen others than only take them older than eighteen and you're, we really didn't have a place to take him. Uh, until we were fortunate to discover a this again, this place very good place in Pennsylvania. Very complex trying to get into a treatment system. We were very fortunate in that, uh, we were able to afford this ourselves because insurance Just didn't understand. I think I read a EU wrote about this in the Atlantic And, uh, you mentioned that this The further fifteen months that Jonathan spent in this care system. I, it cost more than four years of of Harvard. He have private highly divergent. Yeah, It really did. Have you spoken with people have been in similar positions is yourself except for who didn't necessarily have access to the resources that you might have? Well, we we are. Loves light. Looks gives me website wet live on now the twenty nine th of November. At the same time, reduce CBS News interview in the Atlantic article came out. So we got a, a torrent of emails, and I would divide those emails into three categories. Some people just cheering us on a lot of people willing to help who said, I'm good at this. I want to help you. But a large number of people crying for help. I have a loved one who's in addiction. I don't know what to do. I don't know where to take him or her for treatment. And so many people can't afford this or don't have insurance that will cover it. You find a lot of people are are brought into safe thirty days of inpatient treatment, or even only a week of inpatient treatment. What I tell audiences is that if you put your son or daughter and thirty days of inpatient treatment, You know what it's going to get you thirty days of sleep, and that's about it because it's just not enough for the brain to really began its recovery from the changes, its undergone, uh, in the course of becoming addicted. So this is a big problem. We have a a shortage of capacity for treatment in the country. We have a shortage of capability for treatment. Treatment Centers That really understand the problem. And then of course affordability as a real issue, I believe I read that in 2017 its estimated that more We'll have died in 2017 alone from opioid overdoses than in the Vietnam Afghanistan Iraq wars combined. Well, I think that's the country. A yo in 2016 around sixty four thousand people died from overdoses, Not all those were opioids, but a substantial majority were. And that in that, that one year for the whole country is more than people who who died of Vietnam War and presents in combat. That just indicates the true human nature. This tragedy, the scale of this crisis, and how terribly important is that we as a nation, invest in the capability to to treat people. Now, that's only one of the lines of operation the country needs to take aren't, but it's probably the most expensive one in terms of dramatically scaling up our ability to bring people and and give them the treatment that will work. In most cases. When you put Jonathan into treatment center, how. How confident Did you feel though it during that time, while he was undergoing treatment that there was a way out? How would n- what was the process for you as a as a family? Well, it began with having no idea. We were just desperate that put Johnny on a place where where he had a chance to stay alive. And as we, we really didn't understand addiction until we actually got him into the treatment. And they have these parents symposiums where they've literally described to, uh, uh, The Journey of addiction, how it really physiologically works in in the brain, which is part of public-awareness raising our knowledge of that. But as we gradually began to both understand that and watch our son recover. We gained a lot of confidence that maybe this is going to work Now ultimately in the end it didn't. But, but we really did have a lot of confidence as he got further and further into his treatment. He decided to get his emergency medical technician qualification as the empty Call. He was very excited about that. He was more excited about that than anything I've ever seen him do other than maybe get on the mound and pitch a baseball. He wanted to help other people like himself. So that was very encouraging to us. He had a gap year from the University of Denver that we were fortunate enough to have a and uh, he decided as he got towards the end of his treatment that pay, You know, I can do this. Denver main asked him asked every incoming freshman to write an NSA. And in the the question posed in the essay was, who has had the most profound influence on your life And what Jonathan throat this very profound essay about an ambulance ride that he took during his empty qualification that involved him finding himself performing CPR on a heroin addict, undergoing an overdose in a McDonald's bathroom. And that moment was very seminal for him. It cost him to realize that this guy had a family. What about my own family? And at that point, he decided to dedicate himself to other people. Will we didn't know is how deeply the opioid molecule had burrowed into his brain. And even as we had rapidly gained this great confidence, 'cause he wrote this amazing essay. He was just starting his relapse. And
"harvard" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"In 2016 in 2017 false information spread like wildfire across social networks around the globe especially in lead up to elections and democratic countries while disinformation campaigns are nothing new democracies in elections the scaled the seemingly new phenomenon was unprecedented soon it earned nickname fake news it's a term that since been repeated far and wide most notably by politicians and autocratic seeking to discredit legitimate journalists but also by the news media itself as they attempt to grapple with what's going on but if there's one thing two days guests implore you to do it's to stop saying fit f start star start in stars stars star hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mak had water in joining us today or shorenstein send a research fellow claire ward of leads first draft in organization recently brought under the auspices of the kennedy schools shorenstein center as well as writer and researcher who seemed iraq sean her they're both coauthors of the recent report information disorder toward an interdisciplinary framework for research in policymaking the to that in show nuts claire thanks so much for joining us thank you for having health so we're going to have hussein he's he's he's traveling to the studio right now we're going to have him with us very very soon on but until then i let's just open up in talk a little bit about this report is a fascinating i would really encouraged all of our listeners to go and read it it's a fastening breakdown of information disorder do you spend a lot of time in this report canvas tablet zhang and defining terms for the various types of information disorder why was that important from the outset.
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"In in eighteen 75 a bribery scandal threatened to derail the administration of ulysses s grant or grant himself wasn't implicated his personal secretary was creating an obvious conflict of interest so grant turned to a novel concept at least at the federal level he appointed a neutral special prosecutor to investigate the matter shortly thereafter grant set yet another precedent by firing the man he had boy had appointed but in doing so he caused a political uproar forcing him to hire yet another prosecutor to take the place of the original today we find ourselves and not too dissimilar territory as former fbi director robert muller engages in one of the most important investigation since watergate the rest of the world's left piece together clues about where the case might end up in with every new development speculation has intensified about whether president trump will attempt to quash the issue by firing moeller earn all who might stand in the way hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water in today we're going to try to make heads or tails out of where things stand with the help of each case lecture juliet kayem previously served as assistant secretary for intergovernmental affairs at the us department of homeland security during the obama administration and in dishing teaching heritage gas is also ceo of zemke i should also note in full disclosure that up until recently i served as juliets producer by the skift her erstwhile podcast at of g w g v h news it's great see i know it's good to be back in the studio with yearly eta we had to say goodbye to the podcast not fair well that goodbye is given some of my other work commitments fed is good to be back here i can imagine given all of your what your portfolio is raid now it's a little overwhelming and i think in general if for anybody who's following the news ram.
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"Her provisions in this bill than just about anything else if i right not bad on the tax bill i'll say this the bad bill and it has a terrible passed through profession i'm a republican friend of mine will right not dead no be like this is a great bill and we could make it even better if weeds rocked the passer provision and the reason for that is that a basic principle of taxation is you he wanted tax similar activities at similar rates you want people doing what makes the most sense economically not what makes the most sense to exploit differences and loopholes in the tax code and what the past supervision does is says depending on how you label your income you might end up paying at a higher rate might end up paying at a lower rate if i go out on the side and do some consulting and give people economic advice should i be paying a lower tax rate on that because that's pastor incumbent on the small business or you know i should be paying the same amount on that that i get paid um to teach here at harvard i think there's not a lot of justification for saying you're gonna tax different activities at different rates similar activities at different rates so before we say i want to invite all the folks who are watt watching on facebook live as well as i believe periscope along those lines i want to ask one question by jacob eiser a person who i really don't know and i don't meyer.
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"Last month when we first sat down with professor jason firm to talk about the gop tax reform effort a specific bill hammond even been me public yet yet now just a few weeks later not only have we seen a bill but several bills two of which have already been approved by the house and senate respectively it's a what to have taken place in such a short amount of time especially considering the farreaching consequences of the landmark piece of legislation so if your head still spinning and you're looking for some perspective whole tight we've got you covered hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mak had water and as we wait for the final version of the builder who emerged from the conference committee we ask professor furhman the former chair of the white house council of economic advisers under the obama administration to join us once again give us an update on where things stand this time in a live broadcast on the kennedy schools facebook page as a side note were open a livestream more of these interviews going forward so if you'd like to ask one of our guests the question should follow us on twitter policy cast to find out when will be going live next okay here's professor firm that the speed of this has been dizzying i'm five weeks ago there was no draft legislation at all we didn't really know what this was gonna look like and fast forward tiny bit over a month later on both the house and senate have passed bills a final bill hasn't been passed for the president's signature but the house and senate are similar enough that i certainly would expect that to happen in terms of what's in here of the most important things to know with any tax bill our number one how much does it cost and here the estimate is that after accounting for economic growth this would cost one trillion dollars over the next decade.
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"Millions amazon than their own rating system okay are they upset the we gave all this product slide scars if so than maybe they shouldn't have products that don't rate fox hey health la held layer up but so it was a brilliant idea by barkley and we had a ton of fun with it and believe it or not we had a la to people who took notice of it and it allowed the other thing that was really cool it was a way for the citizens of kansas city to chime in and get them to tell google that we want it or amazon amazon that we wanted him to conquer going entrusted to google now we'll take him both why i'm interested in that because obviously this was a pitch for amazon yeah but something tells me that you are just talking to add or more people who knows something about kansas city today than there was that's what everybody wants in that was a way to market the city even if they didn't read the reviews they heard about it and they thought it come from kansas city all kansas city maybe on a think about going there seeing what's going on in kansas city um and it worked thank you so much for coming on policy casadei really per rabbits great talking to your rule out things that matter and stay away from all the political nonsense and squabbles that don't achieve policy cast is production harvard kennedy school i met cad walter that's at met canada on twitter my coproducer natalie montaner sara abrams in becky whicle have something to tell us about this or any other episode let us know on twitter policy cast or via email it policy casted h care start harvard dot eu in visit us at each case policy cast dot org cnn ext week.
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"As 2016 the us census bureau estimates that more than eighty percent of the us population now live in urban areas americans have become by and large city slickers of course that doesn't mean most americans live in super dense areas like manhattan but if you think about it in terms of the development of public policy city governments are playing an important role in the daytoday lives of the vast majority of americans in while the federal government seems stuck in partisan gridlock many municipal leaders if embrace their role as incubators for innovations and governance hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water and joining us today is one of those leaders kansas city mayor slide james who was first elected in 2011 then reelected in 2015 he's on campus as a visiting fellow at the institute of politics swells the ash center for democratic governance and innovation before we get to mayor james i just want to note that unfortunately i ran into some technical issues with the recording of this interview and while i've tried to smooth things out and preserve as much of the interview as possible you'll probably notice a number of odd jumps that were unavoidable despite my best editing efforts under and 78 episodes in in you'd think i'd have nailed this process by now but i appreciate your bearing with me is mayor thanks so much for joining us less bigger bat first of all did you always want to be mayor you seem like you are you were made for it i may have been made ford but it wasn't something i always wanted to do some of the only thing that i knew i always wanted to do was to be a lawyer and that a lot of other opportunities sprang from that and was going into the election that you one that you decided i need to be a need to be in that role no you know it's kind of like you know what they say about frogs if you toss of frog into boiling water the hop ride out but if you toss a frog into the water warm up whoa the.
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"Oh ho ho low last week the kennedy school center for international development launched a brand new version of its atlas of economic complexity before you go searching for it let me warn you can be slightly addictive the atlas is at its core a database of decades worth of economic data from every country honor imports exports industries products but if you picturing a series of snoozing do sing spreadsheets you'd be wrong the atlas manages to bring all that data to life through interactive visuals ations that for me at least often turn into rabbit holes of esoteric fascination of course the visuals ations aren't just a novelty near illustrations of complexity economics a field pioneered in part by ricardo hausmann that has proven and reliable predictor of future economic growth hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host knack had waller in this week in honor of the atlas his 20 launch we're pulling from the archives to feature an interview i conducted with professor housman in 2013 where he explains what economic complexity is and how both investors and makers can use it to better inform their decisionmaking thanks for joining us thank you for having me can you describe what exactly economic complexity is and why it's an important measure for countries around the world well essentially economic complexities related to how much does a city a state a country knows how to do in the essential ideas that the the fundamental ingredient to be able to do something is to know how to do it and an economy is characterized by what it knows how to do a and then in poor countries than to know how to do fuel simple things and rich countries dental know how to do more things and among them more complicated things you we've sometimes used the metaphor over scrabble so the economies like a game of scrabble and the if you have very fuel letters you can make very few words and short words and the more letters you have a the bigger the variety of the words that you could cook up and the long were those words so the variety and complexity of the things that come on economies able to make is a measure of their productive knowledge of their knowhow saudi measure those specific god scrabble pieces well.
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"When we identify with the protagonist of a story we're not just learning about what happened we're are actually getting some of the experience of what did him and so the moral that history teaches is to the heart much more so than to the head beck when he is a graduate student at the university chicago famed author kurt vonnegut it submitted a thesis pausing that stories had shapes and could be plotted like sign waves on graft paper going one step further he also claimed that most stories followed just a handful of shapes giving each schori a name boymeetsgirl man in whole old testament and cinderella the thesis was rejected of course monte gets shapes are now cited often by storytellers which is in and of itself an example of a man in whole story and not least in part because there's a wide recognition of both the power of storytelling in simplicity at the heart of our stories hello and welcome the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water in joining us today's h a senior lecturer marshall guns under legendary grassroots organizer who cut his teeth in the civil rights movement before becoming an integral part of cesar chavez successful campaign to unionize farmworkers in california today he teaches organizing and leadership peered kennedy school fesser thanks so much for joining us this morning so when you speak about organizing you often emphasize the importance of narrative the concept of public narrative he why is that.