36 Burst results for "Harvard Medical School"
Fresh update on "harvard medical school" discussed on Radio Surgery
"And well, there's so many stories. That's why we fell these hours with stories that are all true. I take my notes and sometimes I see patients the day after radio show and they come and say, Hey, Dr Lieberman, you were talking about me yesterday and I said, Yes, I Woz and I always say the same thing, and that is was everything that I described about you accurate and every patient has always said Yes. So I know I'm pretty good at describing what's going on. My notes were good and my memories good. And my recollections good in my memory of the patient is quite favorable. So why are we talking about a crisis of cancer during a national crisis? Well, because Patients are suffering and will tell you some real real real stories about real real real people. You can sit back and listen. You could take some notes. If you want. It's always good to have a paper and pencil because they'll be things you want to write down during the show, So please get a paper and pencil. My name's Dr Lieberman. I'll introduce myself in a little bit, but let's just say I'm a Board certified cancer doctor trained at Harvard Medical School, licensed working here in New York for more than 30 years and probably have seen new or your neighbors, your friends or other people that you've come in contact with so many people know about our special work, and we're here to describe our special work to you and to Others. They want to jump right in and tell you why we're talking about cancer. On this day when there's so much crisis in America and the world. Let me tell you about a woman who came to me suffering so much. He's 61 years old. A wonderful woman married three Children. She lives up by the Canadian border so far, far, far away from us, But why would she come so far? For cancer care. There's a zillion hospitals between here and Canada, and she's been a many of them. And while she's unsatisfied, let me tell you why she's unsatisfied Shame with her husband. She came with terrible, terrible pain in her leg and her tibia and she had extensive treatment or history goes back more than two years. She had a hole in the breast. She drew up the hole in the brass had a mammogram. She went to the emergency room. Mammogram, which was okay the year before. Showed all of a sudden a mass And in fact bilateral masses in both breasts. She had a lesion. The skin lesion on the right side biopsy. Positive for cancer shit. Biopsies of both the right and left breast. Both sides showed cancer. She had cancer, and she went to one of the super famous hospitals in New England closer to her home and she received chemotherapy. We know what chemotherapy is chemotherapy, why do they call it chemo therapy? Well, it's really chemicals. Kind of chemicals to poison supposed to poison the cancer more than poisons the body. When chemotherapy is put in the body, the bodies one container, and that's why people have so many side effects. I just got a email from this patient of mine from Taiwan, and we treated her for a cancer and she's had to have chemo. And she's now getting chemo owner doctors not around where around And well, she's getting terrible pains in her hands and her feet. She could barely used her hands and her feet used to use a computer. She can't use your fingers as thieves. Terrible pain that's called in your op Athene. Well, why would someone getting chemotherapy oven neuropathy of the hands and the feet? The cancer in her is not in the hands of the feature Colangelo carcinoma and we treat the Mass and the Liver, Kalenjin carcinomas, a cancer of the bile ducts, the ducks that connect the liver and the pancreas and the gall bladder, tea, intestine And, of course, the pancreas and the gall bladder and the liver have juices in them, and we need those juices to die chest. So she had this cancer of the bile ducts cultic Elijah carcinoma, and we treated the mass in the liver and made it go away. Then she said, Well, I'm going to try chemo could all made doctors who told me to have chemo and why not? So she's had chemo and she's writing me today because you can't get a hold over. Chemo doctor. She's talking about the terrible pains in the hands and the feet. And this is one of the many side effects of chemotherapy that poisons the nerves because the chemo goes throughout the body, and that's for this woman I'm talking about now the 61 year old woman with a breast cancer, she was getting chemo, chemo chemo, and it just didn't work. She had progression of the cancer. She had extensive chemotherapy, aggressive chemotherapy, Cytoxan, a termites and Taxol. And shit in them arrive. Then she went to one of the big super big hospitals and the surgeons tar all you've got to have a mystic to me. Remember, she has advanced cancer. The key. Moe's not working very well. The terrorist has seven emergency. Mastectomy because they're afraid the cancer is going to the ribs. Well, none of those surgeons ever told her about radiation or radio surgery that there are other ways to treat breast cancer, and there are other ways to treat cancer. But Lot of surgeons, it seems, seems like they're rushing patients to do surgery. And a lot of surgeons. It seems like to me are doing a lot of missed activities. Mastectomy means to remove the breast. When I came to New York at the biggest hospitals, most famous hospitals in New York 97% of women with breast cancer, we're getting Miss.
What Your Brain Needs Right Now
"Hello everyone excited to bring you another incredibly special. Untangle as we know in untangled we love to talk about your experience of the world. Unpack it both. What happens emotional perspective a psychological perspective and and narrow scientific perspective and there is no one better that i could bring on to help you understand the experience that we're all going through right now. And why your emotions in your brain be reacting. The way they are and what you may be able to do about it today. We have dr lisa feldman barrett. She's an extraordinary neuroscientist with multiple awards. She's a distinguished professor at northeastern university with appointments at harvard medical school and mass general hospital. And she's also author of bestselling in very surprising book. How emotions are made. And she's a different way of thinking about your emotional experience than you may have considered before she also has a great book. That just dropped seven and a half lessons about the brain and here is dr lisa feldman barrett to share with us her insight on. What's going on inside your noggin. Welcome lisa hake you so much for having me on your show My joy and my pleasure so when you think about the brain you have kind of different perspective on the brain than most people do. Tell us what is brain. How does it work. How does it drive us. I think most scientists for a long time assumed that the most important thing that human brain does is think because thinking is something that humans are very very proud of and people assume that in brain evolution that there was this striving towards more and more and more complexity with the human brain at the very top so of course the thing that we value ourselves thinking in rationality at least in the west. This would seem to be a really good candidate for what brains the most sophisticated brains which people assumed for longtime hours would do but when you look back into evolutionary time which you can see is that and actually when you look at the structure of the brain. It supports this idea that the brains most important job isn't analogy. It's not feeling or thinking or even seeing your brains. Most important job is regulating your body and all the systems in your body and everything that you can you feel and you see and you hear and you smell and so on are in the service of regulating that body now. That is not the way we experience ourselves in our lives but that really does seem to be. What's going on under the hood. Very different approach so our perceptual experience of the world is in service of helping us regulate our body. Yeah pretty much so even vision for example is not free from the influence of. What's going on inside your body. There are many many experiments showed this that. What's going on inside your body influences sometimes. Literally what you see. And if you look at the connectivity in the visual system and its relationship to other systems in the brain you can see really clearly that vision is not like an objective window on the world by any means we have a sense about how our pre existing perception of the world can continue to shape our perception of the world. This is the whole echo chamber of the news that he thinks that everybody else's and currently i'm not an echo chamber but clearly there an echo chamber because you have a preconceived notion of what's going on and then you read information that with what's going on and that creates your tunnel vision of experience. Can you talk to us a little bit about how that's formed in maintained however echo chamber chamber. Yeah wow well. There's a lot to say about that. I think the thing ariel is there are two ways to answer it. There's a superficial way to answer it. Which is to say brains. Don't just react stuff that's happening in the world we're selecting would signal in. What is noise. Nuts i mean on a moment to moment basis and that certainly is true interesting but i think to me the more interesting the answer it has a little bit of setup and that is that your brain runs a budget for your body. What's the most expensive thing that you can do that you can spend on. It's either moving your body or learning something new especially when things are uncertain and so if your body budget is running a deficit you're not gonna spend as much and so you will be comfortably in a silo because it's more metabolic expedient for you and it will feel more comfortable that's why imparted feels more comfortable. So there's a superficial answer but there's also sort of a deeper answer that relates more to the larger culture that we live then. We have to design a cultural context bankrupt. A body budget would be the one that we live in.
Lisa Feldman On What Your Brain Needs Right Now
"Hello everyone excited to bring you another incredibly special. Untangle as we know in untangled we love to talk about your experience of the world. Unpack it both. What happens emotional perspective a psychological perspective and and narrow scientific perspective and there is no one better that i could bring on to help you understand the experience that we're all going through right now. And why your emotions in your brain be reacting. The way they are and what you may be able to do about it today. We have dr lisa feldman barrett. She's an extraordinary neuroscientist with multiple awards. She's a distinguished professor at northeastern university with appointments at harvard medical school and mass general hospital. And she's also author of bestselling in very surprising book. How emotions are made. And she's a different way of thinking about your emotional experience than you may have considered before she also has a great book. That just dropped seven and a half lessons about the brain and here is dr lisa feldman barrett to share with us her insight on. What's going on inside your noggin. Welcome lisa hake you so much for having me on your show My joy and my pleasure so when you think about the brain you have kind of different perspective on the brain than most people do. Tell us what is brain. How does it work. How does it drive us. I think most scientists for a long time assumed that the most important thing that human brain does is think because thinking is something that humans are very very proud of and people assume that in brain evolution that there was this striving towards more and more and more complexity with the human brain at the very top so of course the thing that we value ourselves thinking in rationality at least in the west. This would seem to be a really good candidate for what brains the most sophisticated brains which people assumed for longtime hours would do but when you look back into evolutionary time which you can see is that and actually when you look at the structure of the brain. It supports this idea that the brains most important job isn't analogy. It's not feeling or thinking or even seeing your brains. Most important job is regulating your body and all the systems in your body and everything that you can you feel and you see and you hear and you smell and so on are in the service of regulating that body now. That is not the way we experience ourselves in our lives but that really does seem to be. What's going on under the hood. Very different approach so our perceptual experience of the world is in service of helping us regulate our body. Yeah pretty much so even vision for example is not free from the influence of. What's going on inside your body. There are many many experiments showed this that. What's going on inside your body influences sometimes. Literally what you see. And if you look at the connectivity in the visual system and its relationship to other systems in the brain you can see really clearly that vision is not like an objective window on the world by any means we have a sense about how our pre existing perception of the world can continue to shape our perception of the world. This is the whole echo chamber of the news that he thinks that everybody else's and currently i'm not an echo chamber but clearly there an echo chamber because you have a preconceived notion of what's going on and then you read information that with what's going on and that creates your tunnel vision of experience. Can you talk to us a little bit about how that's formed in maintained however echo chamber chamber. Yeah wow well. There's a lot to say about that. I think the thing ariel is there are two ways to answer it. There's a superficial way to answer it. Which is to say brains. Don't just react stuff that's happening in the world we're selecting would signal in. What is noise. Nuts i mean on a moment to moment basis and that certainly is true interesting but i think to me the more interesting the answer it has a little bit of setup and that is that your brain runs a budget for your body. What's the most expensive thing that you can do that you can spend on. It's either moving your body or learning something new especially when things are uncertain and so if your body budget is running a deficit you're not gonna spend as much and so you will be comfortably in a silo because it's more metabolic expedient for you and it will feel more comfortable that's why imparted feels more comfortable.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"My guest today is professor. Gordon fischel. Who's a professor of neurobiology at harvard medical school and the stanley center at the and secured. He's a developmental noodle. Biologists interested called the architecture brain. Circuits are assembled with a special focus on the diverse populations of inhibitory interneuron though. Come guard great to be here. Yes so thanks for doing this. I want to use one of your papers. Due to sort of set the context for our conversation at it's entitled interneuron tights asset tractors and controllers in bq say cola into neurons display striking differences in shape. Physiology another attributes channing to appropriately classified them. A you save the previously suggested that interneuron types should be defined by the role in quantico processing. But here you revisit the question hub to fly that diversity based on the division of labor and function as controllers and cortex information flow I it's So before we get into do it. Gaudino i kept some interest. Do not typically intelligence Clearly be kevin really progress that lot window. They're sort of hype hype around it and You know. I think a more detailed understanding of the mechanics of the rain is not only useful for neurobiology. But also for other feels so before we get into. What exactly is an interneuron. It's pretty much what it sounds like. It is a noor on that connects to another neuron so and interface between two different neurons in the context. I use it they're also local interneuron. Which is to say. There are lots of neurons talk to other neurons matter of fact that is the characteristic of most neurons in your brain. These ones Restrict their connections both in input output to very local areas so they're part of a computation folk pho sai in the brain rather than being distributed across different functional areas. And in our case they are entirely. Inhibitory in nature so computational just level Because something like humans have something like hundred billion neurons in a typical rain that that is the number of heard. Bantered around yes. Approximately and and these things are Sort of is collected think about neurons sort of communication vehicles sort of cables and the interneuron saw doing the computation is the right way to think about it. I think there's a real danger. Particularly particularly people in computer. Sciences attended think of circuits in the brain like circuits in an electronic board and maybe that is becoming truer. I'm not a computer scientist. But.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we.
Why Children Seem To Be Less Affected by Coronavirus
"That kids are not as susceptible to Corona virus as adults. Now we may finally know why one of the viruses that causes the common cold is related to stars Kobe to the virus that causes Cove in 19. Harvard Medical School Genetics Professor Stephen Eli's latest study that shows that cold virus could provide some cross immunity found that there were people who had antibodies that cross reacted at least with parts of the stars. Kobe to protein so We know that there are related sequences of proteins in these cold viruses versus Kobe virus. So the question is, why does this benefit Children more than most others answer that. Maybe they get a lot or cold. They get a lot more infections there interact with each other in less than hygienic ways. Perhaps, and so they get more cold, and they keep boosting their antibody responses over and over. So they have high levels of that about, Dr Rutledge says, while adults might get one or two colds a here Children make it Up to a dozen, which means plenty of opportunities to make antibodies that could also prevent Cove. It.
20 - Children and COVID-19 with Infectious Disease With Expert Dr. Kristin Moffitt
"Of course, I my friend and Co host Dr Steven Tailback. He's a quadruple board certified doctor of internal medicine, Pulmonary Disease Critical Care, and neuro critical care and he's on the front lines of the covert battle out in California, for which we are eternally grateful Steve How you doing. Thanks remotely tuning in. Hey Bill. Good to see. And a very special guest Dr Kristen Mufid. She's an associate physician in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Division at Boston Children's. Hospital. And she's a multiple award winning physician and professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical. School. Christie is also affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital She's certified in general pediatrics and Infectious Diseases by the American board of Pediatrics Doctor Moffett. We'd like to thank you for breaking away in. Joining us today. All right. Thanks for having me. Tell me how is Boston Children's focused change during this virus Boston Children's like every hospital in Boston March and early April were all frenzied months as we were preparing like hospitals I'm sure all around the world for what we were anticipating to be a surge in Cova infected patients. It became fairly clear relatively early in the pandemic with data coming. Out of China that children did not seem to be suffering the same severity from this infection as older individuals in adults did we were not completely sure whether or not that data would hold true as the virus swept across the world. Luckily, that has actually held true but that should not be taken it all to mean that children don't get sick from this some children do get sick. From this some do require hospitalization in some studies up to a third of children who require hospitalization require ICU, level care. So Boston Children's was in a unique position in Boston as you know, Boston has an abundance of hospitals for people to choose from excellent hospitals, all of them, but Boston Children's is the only free standing children's hospital. There are several other children's hospitals in Boston but they all. have their physical spaces, their units, their hospital beds contained within larger hospital systems that treat adults. So a decision was made within the city for Boston Children's to be able you take care of all the after patients in Boston who required hospitalization so that the deatrich beds in those other hospitals that were within adult hospitals could be committed to carrying for adults with cooking seems like a good. Plan well, even you just mentioned that children are substantially less susceptible to this virus than people at risk of the children who do get seriously affected by this virus apparently more than seventy five percent of the fatalities in children related to this virus are those of minorities? Can you explain why that's happening? Yeah. That is very true. The disproportionate effects that this infection has had on black and individuals. That has been seen in adults is playing out very much children as well, and that's true. Both of Acute Kobe infections, and then as you may know, we were all surprised in the pediatric. Rome to start to understand this other entity called MISC or multi system inflammatory syndrome in children that seems to be overwhelming inflammation that occurs in children largely two to four weeks after a covert infection. So both acute colon and MISC are impacting minority populations in pediatrics substantially two ways that the most likely explanation is that children are most likely exposed in their households in in their communities, and those are exactly the households in the communities in which the adults are suffering the most serious consequences in highest incidents of covid nineteen infection. So I think that children really very much are reflective of that. So interesting statistic when you look at it, I know from the adult side, we certainly see in that population, there's a lot of multifamily housing multiple families living under one roof and that sort of social crowding a seems to have an impact but also of those people who are not financially immune. So to speak from the virus in that, they must go to work every day to feed their family. You can't be you know a day laborer and do. It via zoom, you actually need to show up in in any time. There is that expectation. There's not going to be a lot of social distancing at the workplace in. So we think that lower socioeconomic in general would be forced to continue their work in their jobs. In spite of the fact that the risks remain the same and the statistic is not percentages of people who get the virus it is a death toll of people who have the virus. So, is it biological that affects them differently or lifestyle or food or? Those are all definitely hypotheses that still frankly require investigation and I think that there may even be a multifactorial. For it. That is along the lines of what Stephen was mentioning is a difference in access to healthcare for these affected populations as well. It certainly is possible that there may be a biological explanation, our hospital in coalition with. The other hospitals are studying the genetics of children who are impacted by either severe ovid infection or by MISC but there isn't anything clearly being born out yet in terms of solid genetic reasons that make me immune response to these affected populations different. Necessarily, there's still some work to be done there. But as you suggested to bill the underlying potential complicating factors that might be called co morbidity in some are also higher in these populations and make them at higher risk in more susceptible to more severe sequentially of this infection.
The Blood of the Future Could be Made in a Lab
"Okay I'm assuming people just didn't start thinking about making lab producer artificial blood during this pandemic. How long has research in this field been going on scientists have been experimenting with lab, Produce Blood for decades but due to issues of funding or skill ability or just now seeing the start of clinical trials. and. Even though we're all really thinking about corona virus right now, what really accelerated our work blood substitutes was actually another virus. That was the HIV AIDS epidemic in the Nineteen Eighty S. The evidence was that the cause was not only something new. But something transmitted by blood Thousands of people were infected with HIV, through blood transfusions. This was before the blood supply could be tested for HIV in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, five. So it made people really scared there was panic going on I remember my grandparents being fearful about the blood supply people before they had surgery would have their own blood extracted so they could use during surgery. There were all these fears about whether the blood supply was safe yeah, and that's when A. Lot of my sources told me we started shifting our national attention to looking at the blood supply. We realized it had to be tested. It had to be controlled, and we had to dump a lot of blood during that time because it was contaminated I spoke to one of the researchers who's been studying blood since the late nineteen eighties, his name is Dr George Daily. He's now the Dean of Harvard Medical School and he runs a lab there that studies this. Ultimately through various public health measures and very aggressive testing, very sensitive and specific testing. For HIV, the blood supply was made extremely safe. But as we've seen in recent years with the emergence of new pathogens whether it's Zeka war Ebola or. Recently coverted. There's always a worry about new infections that can contaminate the blood again, raising the value and importance of being able to more carefully controlled manufacturer and presentation of blood through a different system. That different system, he's alluding to is one where blood could be made in a lab. Okay and we're going to break down those new developments in just a bit but first Nora can you explain what do you need to make blood? Well just a refresher from probably what we learned in high school biology blood is made up of different parts. You've got the red blood cells, they carry oxygen. You've got white blood cells, they fight infection. Then there's plasma that carries nutrients, salts, proteins, and then there are platelets they make your blood clot when you get a cut. All of these parts are important because they all serve different functions so far no one has come up with a complete replacement, one total package for all of these functions. Instead different research groups are focusing on trying to produce the individual parts of blood. There's been some early testing of red blood cell substitutes including. Jehovah's Witnesses because most don't accept blood transfusions as part of their religion. But. Most of the momentum that I saw in my reporting was with labs trying to grow their own platelets. One of the top researchers doing this is Dr. Cedric of art and he's a consultant hematologist who leads a research group in transfusion medicine at Cambridge University? Rather important seven will be the small cell in the body, but equally if you don't have enough lateness. The bleeding symptom saw a really horrendous. Can I just stop right here and say I am shocked the platelets or the smallest cell in the body there's a lot of small cells in the body I know I know I was shocked when he said that too I had to go back and double check but it's true they are and even though platelets are so small they're really powerful. They're really important for patients undergoing chemotherapy or people who sustain traumatic injuries because they often receive platelet transfusions, but they're also quite finicky. They can only be stored for about five days and they have to be sort of stirred around to keep them from going bad. Leaving Jam Joel, Rubin on New Kitchen surface for five days zero. Gross stuff. So part of the reason he's trying to figure out how to manufacture them in the lab in vitro is because platelets are usually in the shortest supply because they have that shorter shelf life and when you say in vitro, you mean basically in a petri dish. Yep, that's right. That's in vitro. Got It. All right. So this makes sense I mean it's kind of like how you have to buy milk every week while if you drink milk which I don't. But flower can last a month or so yup. Yeah. Exactly. Right. So I get why platelets need a bit more backup but I'm still trying to figure out my head how they actually make more of them in a lab. You know what I mean. Now platelets don't just reproduce own you need stem cells to make them.
The Blood of the Future Could be Made in a Lab
"I'm assuming people just didn't start thinking about making lab producer artificial blood during this pandemic. How long has research in this field been going on scientists have been experimenting with lab, Produce Blood for decades but due to issues of funding or skill ability or just now seeing the start of clinical trials. and. Even though we're all really thinking about corona virus right now, what really accelerated our work blood substitutes was actually another virus. That was the HIV AIDS epidemic in the Nineteen Eighty S. The evidence was that the cause was not only something new. But something transmitted by blood Thousands of people were infected with HIV, through blood transfusions. This was before the blood supply could be tested for HIV in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, five. So it made people really scared there was panic going on I remember my grandparents being fearful about the blood supply people before they had surgery would have their own blood extracted so they could use during surgery. There were all these fears about whether the blood supply was safe yeah, and that's when A. Lot of my sources told me we started shifting our national attention to looking at the blood supply. We realized it had to be tested. It had to be controlled, and we had to dump a lot of blood during that time because it was contaminated I spoke to one of the researchers who's been studying blood since the late nineteen eighties, his name is Dr George Daily. He's now the Dean of Harvard Medical School and he runs a lab there that studies this. Ultimately through various public health measures and very aggressive testing, very sensitive and specific testing. For HIV, the blood supply was made extremely safe. But as we've seen in recent years with the emergence of new pathogens whether it's Zeka war Ebola or. Recently coverted. There's always a worry about new infections that can contaminate the blood again, raising the value and importance of being able to more carefully controlled manufacturer and presentation of blood through a different system. That different system, he's alluding to is one where blood could be made in a lab. Okay and we're going to break down those new developments in just a bit but first Nora can you explain what do you need to make blood? Well just a refresher from probably what we learned in high school biology blood is made up of different parts. You've got the red blood cells, they carry oxygen. You've got white blood cells, they fight infection. Then there's plasma that carries nutrients, salts, proteins, and then there are platelets they make your blood clot when you get a cut. All of these parts are important because they all serve different functions so far no one has come up with a complete replacement, one total package for all of these functions. Instead different research groups are focusing on trying to produce the individual parts of blood. There's been some early testing of red blood cell substitutes including. Jehovah's Witnesses because most don't accept blood transfusions as part of their religion. But. Most of the momentum that I saw in my reporting was with labs trying to grow their own platelets. One of the top researchers doing this is Dr. Cedric of art and he's a consultant hematologist who leads a research group in transfusion medicine at Cambridge University? Rather important seven will be the small cell in the body, but equally if you don't have enough lateness. The bleeding symptom saw a really horrendous. Can I just stop right here and say I am shocked the platelets or the smallest cell in the body there's a lot of small cells in the body I know I know I was shocked when he said that too I had to go back and double check but it's true they are and even though platelets are so small they're really powerful. They're really important for patients undergoing chemotherapy or people who sustain traumatic injuries because they often receive platelet transfusions, but they're also quite finicky. They can only be stored for about five days and they have to be sort of stirred around to keep them from going bad. Leaving Jam Joel, Rubin on New Kitchen surface for five days zero. Gross stuff. So part of the reason he's trying to figure out how to manufacture them in the lab in vitro is because platelets are usually in the shortest supply because they have that shorter shelf life and when you say in vitro, you mean basically in a petri dish. Yep, that's right. That's in vitro. Got It.
What to Know About Colon Cancer
"Shock of her Chadwick Boseman is death is bringing urgent attention to the second deadliest cancer in the United States. According to the CDC. Both men was diagnosed in his late thirties, much younger than the age. Many doctors recommend for your first screening at the age of 50 2018, the American Cancer Society. Drop that number 2 45. Clearly the recommendations to even start at 45 are not sufficient because it wouldn't have caught patients like Chadwick Boseman. Dr Kim, being with Harvard Medical School points out that many young patients are getting colorectal cancer since they're not getting screen. Chadwick Boseman had been privately battling colon cancer since 2016.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"On basic and trick research to prevent and treat Parkinson's disease and later neurological and eight disorders. He's a founding director of the Neuro re-generation, research institute at McLean. Hospital. Of Neurology and neuroscience at Harvard Medical School. Preface of neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital. and was elected fellow of the American Association for Advanced and assigns. He's the author or CO author of over three hundred scientific research publications in your science technology. And books in his field. Delta Molly. Here. I know that you have done a tremendous amount of loose age in neuroscience neurology. indy picked few papers for to have have a discussion and and one of them s entitled Nola Songs and concepts emerging from Lipid cell biology relevant to degenerative brain aging and to seize. Invite. You say while rare familial forms of Alpha the can cause Parkinson's disease. Lewy body dementia, an easily to dementias. Recent, in-depth studies of Lipid disturbances in the majority of the common forms of this diseases instance suggest a privately genesis in liquid pathways. So. So this is different from conventional wisdom. Isn't it? Would you like to talk a bit about the of Research Direction here? Yes. That's right the. Conventional Wisdom has told us that what you see in a brain autopsy it is the problem what we see in Alzheimer's Disease in Argosy a theology is usually some protein aggregates. In the case of park the they're called buddies. Made aggregate of UPN. Alzheimer's disease we see data, but I won't be searching. Rather than the protein aggregating being the course of the disease. it may be more underlying actress trying that increase the compensatory reaction. to brain so do and so. Consequently, if there are other underlying causes you would need to Expose, Problems I. Right so. So. So in terms of the Lipid Issues are there other specific areas that you are you looking at what types of lipids and you know what the mechanism might be? Yes. So he wasn't surprising. I'm medical discovery.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Welcome to the site of accents podcast. Where we.
Medical misinformation, COVID-19, Big Data and Black Lives Matter
"Welcome to science fiction on medical misinformation, big data and black lives matter in this time of pandemic is in the months since these based of a virus heat. My two guests have occupied all of those worlds all at once. The TESHA Mitchell with you and joining me at two superstars of the world of digital epidemiology. They are mining digital data from all sorts of unusual sources, some very familiar to you to help us. Make sense of things dot Miami. Gender is a computational epidemiologist at Harvard, medical school and Boston. Hospitals Computational Health Informatics Program Adam Dan is associate professor in Biomedical Informatics and Digital Health at the University of Sydney. Etem part of your work as you suggested, investigates have health misinformation sporades on social media platforms in online forums, hell potent. has this pandemic being in terms of appendix of misinformation as well I? kind of feel like appendix Storms I'll take of misinformation for for a few reasons. Really I mean I just the sheer volume of of information that's being generated imposs- on. This some quite interesting studies have been done in computational social science to show that as we increase the volume of information that exposed to the influx throughout timelines, and makes it hotter and hotter for us to be able to discern what's actually credible, and so we're more likely to pass on less credible information to our friends and family and people paper now social networks, which makes it much easier to spread misinformation. And just as an example in a weeping collecting tweets about things like vaccines, all sorts of stuff for a long time, and says the first case where we were completely unable to collect all of the tweets that were related to of the pandemic. You know just attempting to collect it. We constantly ran into all of our API limits. We're unable to do all the stuff that we wanted to do so this absolute flood of information all the time, so there's too much data to work with yeah. Yeah and that makes it really hard for people to discern what's actually high quality information? What's credible information so that they tend to pass on things that may not be credible at all, but this two hundred reasons that I think that this has been kind of the perfect storm uptake of misinformation. You know there's a lot of politicization. When she mentioned already in a for example, it was reasonably obvious to those of us who looked at quality of clinical studies around the drug hydroxy chloroquine. that it was unlikely to be useful on the pandemic that it was some serious flaws in the way, the evidence was being discussed and the the way the study's being done, but when things became politicized around the drug, they quickly became sort of entrenched in the partisan communities that exist online and becomes much much hotter to to use elements to change people's attitudes on something has become politicized I. Think the other reason why is that? We had seen what I think. People become more susceptible to being affected by misinformation and letting it affect the way they make decisions in their behaviors when they're more concerned when anxious when I have a loss of control. In a feelings of uncertainty and loss of control are associated with conspiracy beliefs and. The fact we have is invisible threat that his CO. MAINTAIN A book. Such big differences in the way governments are responding stoneleigh created in Iraq kind of environment from certain feelings. Of Powerlessness, yeah, I mean. A global pandemic is the ultimate loss of control. Isn't it and it's tricky to know. Who attuned to in terms of expertise because science and medicine. Rising to Cape Up with all the variables with the very basics of this virus. Yeah, look absolutely right, and you know we have this kind of environment where there's just too much information making positive for us to tell the difference between what's credible and what isn't we've got strong. Citation makes hard to change people's attitudes, but evidence and we're in this situation. People find misinformation more salient, and then we'll likely to kind of absorb it, and then let it affect decision making, and it's been a really interesting to watch, but it's also sort of a ended a lot of the work that we try and do to study misinformation Maya Atom. maxine interesting observation there that. Misinformation, during this pandemic hasn't just sprung from conspiracy, theories or wellness theorists are wellness gurus. It's coming also from. At least science from scientists during this pandemic to an extent, because research is being done in a record time to try and chase down this corona virus, early results are being shared before they are robustly peer reviewed on so-called preprinted service for all to see. The media is picking up those papers before really they've been properly vetted by scientific colleagues, so it's an interesting phenomenon, isn't it? It is at is definitely an unprecedented time for the development of new scientific discovery and I think that one of the things that's very challenging. Science by design is meant to reinvent itself with every passing day. What we know today should not be what we knew yesterday. It should be better more refined more credible, and I think that because that entire process is not public in a way that it perhaps was not before or at least was not given the attention by the public that it is being given now I think that that definitely influences the way that a lot of early findings are now being interpreted and I think that even early findings that were credible and are now being. Not necessarily questioned, but are being overtaken by newer better science for scientists. This feels like part of the scientific process,
Why Shame Is A Bad Public Health Tool Especially In A Pandemic
"Believe me I get it. I'm frustrated and angry to. After all, it's been four months of this. We know the right things to do. And when you see someone wearing a mask or groups of people hanging out close together, it's easy to get mad, even if in all fairness. Once or twice. Open defiance at this Castle Rock Colorado restaurant large crowds, no social distancing, and there's some news coverage right now. That caters to this anger. You know what I'm talking about. Many Americans are out and about on this memorial day visiting newly reopened businesses seems from the unofficial kickoff to the summer showing many Americans not practicing social distancing measure. I'm telling you to wear a mask where a damn ask, but this Kinda thing anger public shaming the urge to yell at people who aren't doing the right things. That can be precisely the opposite of productive. Yeah, as the researcher I've been. Watching all this unfold through that Lens Julia Marcus is an epidemiologist and professor at the Harvard. Medical School, she said he's HIV prevention. And for scientists Julia, who work in HIV or sexual health or even substance abuse? They know that shame can be a huge barrier when it comes to public health, and in these first few months of the Cova pandemic I was watching this same pattern happen where you know, these kind of absolutist public health messages and moralistic undertones were potentially contributing to what became rampant shaming of people who were flouting public health guidelines or doing things that people felt. Felt were high risk, and when we shame people for their risky behavior in a way that distracts us from where risk is really happening, which is typically much less visible like in prisons and nursing homes and food, processing plants, and those don't inspire the same moral outrage. I think for two reasons one. They're not right in front of our faces, but also to we don't think of those as people having fun and a pandemic which I think people really upset. Matt rage, Julia says might feel good to act on in the moment, but it's not gonNA solve our biggest problems right now. I find that taking that rage home, and really screaming alone has been very helpful for me to. Do that as well or you know my rage these days first of all I would say that knows no bounds, but also. To be honest. My regions more directed at institutional failures than individual ones. To episode Julia Marcus on the role. Shame plays in public health crises. We talk masks. School reopenings in the long road ahead. I'm Maddie's defy, and this is shortwave daily science podcast from NPR. Julia Marcus has written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic about why. Shame is not helpful right now and how we can do things better. She's looked this when it comes to mask wearing social distancing and how we open college campuses, we talked about all those things, but the first thing to say here is that there is a fine line between public shaming and some positive forms of peer pressure. I, yeah I WANNA make a distinction here between social norms and shaming I. think social norms are very powerful and. That can be one of the best ways I think to change. Health behavior is like well. Everybody else is doing it so I'm going to do it because it's more like i. want to feel good when I go in the grocery store and I'm not gonNA. Feel great if I'm the only one not wearing a mask, so, but there's a difference between making people feel bad about their risky behavior and making people feel good about engaging and protective behaviors as a way of like becoming part of What the new social norm is Marie right? Right Okay Julius. You've written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic. Let's talk about your most recent one I. It's you know how to not open colleges this fall. You started out by describing an email that went out to students at Tulane University earlier this month July seventh. What what happened there? Yeah I mean I I I don't WanNa. Pick on two lane here. Becher, that was it just an example of some of the communications that were starting to see toward students who are on campus this summer and have been having some parties. And there was an email that we're not to students that really condemned stat behavior as disrespectful, indefensible, dangerous selfish, and made it very clear in bold all caps that hosting parties of more than fifteen people would result in suspension or expulsion from the university and that if students wanted the school to remain open, they needed to be personally responsible. I'm in their behavior and When a university says, we will hold you accountable for having a party, and actually there will be dire swift punishment when inevitably there is an outbreak at a party. Students are going to be terrified to disclose that they were there. And students have now said this at the University of Connecticut were interviewed and surveyed about what kind of thing is going to work for them what their concerns are about the fall. And they universally said we. We are early close to universally said we're really afraid of how infection and risky behavior are going to be stigmatized such that we outbreaks will not be able to be controlled, so there needs to be appropriate consequences for putting your community at risk, and I would never say otherwise but that needs to be balanced against the need for public health efforts to be separate from discipline. And we've already seen contact tracing start to break down outside of campuses, because people are afraid to talk about having been at event that that they know is something they should not have been doing yeah. So. You know kind of following that thread. The part of this pandemic that's been hardest for a lot of people is is social distancing in in several of your pieces you wrote about how a lot of the advice especially in the beginning was almost like an abstinence based approach like stay home. See Nobody which absolutely made sense kind of at the. The beginning, but tell me about why. That approach doesn't necessarily make sense for the long-term well asking people to abstain from all social contact indefinitely or until we've scaled up. An effective vaccine is just not going to be a sustainable public health strategy, and I think now our messaging has evolved a bit especially as there's been an accumulation of evidence around. The risk is highest like what's settings or higher risk, in which ones are lower risk, but I think we continue to still have a tendency toward absolutist messaging and I think that our goal should be to two inch. People tour to a place where they are living their lives in a way that addresses all aspects of their health, while trying to keep tr- risk of transmission low, and so one way that that could play out is encouraging outdoor activities, especially in spacious areas, opening up more outdoor space for people, and there's been a tendency to close beaches and close parks where people gather, but. But I actually think doing the opposite on could could be helpful, but the essential point is. We can't stay in our homes forever and many people couldn't stay in their homes for the last few months because they were working sure, but it's clear from other areas of public health that asking people to abstain from something that they fundamentally need or strongly desire is not an effective public health strategies, so we have to find ways of making our messaging more nuanced, that allows people to get what they need to be able to live sustainably while keeping the risk of transmission low until you there. There are examples of nuanced messaging from others accessible public health campaigns. Right I. Mean You work on HIV? Can you give me an example of that? Yeah, so we you know we don't tell people don't have sex. Because that's the best way to not get HIV, we may save the safest thing you can do to avoid HIV transmission is not have sex, but we understand that many people are going to have sex, and that it's a you know a part of a healthy life, and so here are some safer ways to have sex, both in terms of certain sexual acts in in terms. Terms of protection different ways you can protect yourself and you know becomes a more nuanced message, but it's much more sustainable for people and realistic and the long term, and it also acknowledges people's basic human needs right, and there's also this idea that talking about ways to reduce risk encourages people to take those risks, even though from a public health standpoint. We know that isn't true. So I'm wondering Julia like. Why do people hold onto this concern? Like what is this really about yeah I, mean this is definitely not new. It comes up a lot. I think especially around drug, use and sex. And I think the reason it especially comes up in those settings is that those are behaviors that we have a lot of moral judgments about particularly in this country, and there's this kind of moral outrage that happens when we think about people engaging in risky, which is often pleasurable, behavior, sex, drug use, and these days going to the beach like. it's kind of playing out in this new way now with social contact and partying and people having a good time in a pandemic, which it's actually a public health win when we find ways to support people in enjoying their lives, and and getting their basic social or sexual needs, met while remaining a safest possible, and you've made the point that we've. We've already seen this play out with the corona virus, public health officials, hesitating to give people detailed ways to protect themselves instead of avoiding risk altogether, I mean I remember. We reported early on in this pandemic when Dr Burks of the White House Coronavirus Task Force said. We don't want people to get this artificial sense of protection because they're behind a mask. This lack of consistent messaging is one of the reason that a lot of people still aren't convinced that masks are helpful, so you know. Julia, how do public health officials effectively reach? Those people yeah I mean I. Think in general we always see some resistance to any new public health intervention, condoms, and you know pre exposure prophylaxis for each V. I mean every intervention that comes out. There's resistance. There's challenges with implementation. There are moral concerns you know. This is all kind of par for the course, but I think what's new here and a bit different is not necessarily just the polarization which we do, see an Ciaran things like vaccines, but the politicization. Politicization I don't think there has been I can't think of an example where a sitting president has flouted public health recommendations and I think that that has created kind of a politicized around masks. That wouldn't have necessarily been there and so how do we overcome that? And how do we reach people I think again it comes back to hearing people's concerns, acknowledging them, and then working to overcome those barriers in our messaging and I. Think there are some good examples of that there have been a couple of great mask campaigns that have come out of California acknowledging that people dislike wearing them and acknowledging the reasons why people dislike wearing them. And I would guess that they are more effective in reaching certain populations than campaigns that that are more focused on this. Just wear ask. It's really easy kind of messaging. Yeah and don't you care about your community and don't you want to not kill people and That kind of messaging is like early days of AIDS. Messaging around condoms that I think was not as successful as the messaging that really focused on what the barriers were, and how people could overcome them. Yeah, yeah, with all this stuff that we've been talking about colleges masks. You know keeping safe distance. It's pretty tough because the stakes feel so high like this is really a nasty virus, and when we see people, you know not doing the right things, the instinct there to shame them to get mad for a lot of us at first instinct and I. I guess it's just that we need to take some patients to push past them. Yeah, I mean I, think it's really. Valid to feel angry about what's happening right now, and for people who are not necessarily taking care of themselves or their community and putting other people at risk. It's very frustrating to see, but I think especially for public health professionals. It's on us to do the work to avoid the shaming and the anger and the moralizing in our messaging. Because we've learned that that doesn't work in other areas of health and really try to take the time to craft messaging. That is going to be more effective. Julia Marcus. Checkout episode notes for a link where you can find her writing to the Atlantic. Can say the Atlantic is crushing it these days, but the magazine, not the ocean. I mean
Does Size Matter When It Comes To Health
"Dr Stanford is an obesity medicine, physician, scientists, educator and policymaker at Massachusetts General. Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She also lectures at Brown and Teaches Med students at Harvard. Hello, and welcome well. Thanks for having me. It's an absolute delight to be here today with both of you. We're just we're the most accomplished person ever had this podcast like I cannot even begins. Batum were all you have. You guys are the best and this is. This is what I need to me through the rest of the day as I conquer the world. Yeah! We're honored that you made have the time the time to come talk to us just a little, so thank you so much. Did I get all of that right? You did I I. Guess What I can do is explain it to people because people are kind of like is all of that absolutely so? I'm obviously a mathematician, so the MD is the easiest part I think to understand on my completed my masters in public health nineteen years ago, so it shows you that I'm older than I appear. And that was in health policy management. My masters impose ministration was from the Harvard. Kennedy School, government and government. Currently working on my MBA executive MBA, so that hasn't quite made it to the end of my name, but I may lead US next year. Let me tell you guys. We'll have more to talk about. The the all the that you see after not team for fifteen, but it is nice that it goes with that, so those are all fellowships, so my fellow of the ANC, which is the American Academy pediatrics I'm a fellow of American College of Positions. American college positions represents all Physicians for adult so internal medicine, a fellow of the American Heart Association so basically. I'm looking at cardio metabolic health and being the fellow in the American Heart Association what represents that and then a fellow in the obesity society. Society which is the F. Toss? So you know these fellowships come you know after having accomplished in those different on areas domain, so I see children I see adults I work in this kind of Cardio Metabolic, health space obviously as obesity medicine physician I work in that space, so it really is a combination of kind of who I am, and just looking at Vegas, the letters that come after my name really talks to the work that I really care about and working with my patients patients across the wall. That's amazing. Wow -gratulations. What inspired you study obesity. One of the things that I was always very concerned about as a black one in a black woman who was born and raised in Atlanta Julie obviously in Boston is that's where mastermind Harvard are? I'm I was really. Perplexed I think is the word I WANNA. Use about the disproportionate impact obesity on communities of color particularly I'm the black community. That was what really brought me to this work, so if you go back twenty years ago, I think you've as you're in your twenties for twenty years ago. When I was doing my m H, you're not okay. Across. Our loved anyways Oh! That's Cute I. Love it still have you guys by? Decades! but one of the things I was really interested in seeing was like. I felt like there was a lot that we weren't doing to understand why. Obesity obesity disproportionately impacted certain groups and the groups that are more likely to kind of tackle these issues or the people that are representative, so those scripts so as a black woman and the group that is most disproportionately impacted by obesity I felt compelled to really approach and tackle this headline, so the projects that I was doing back at emory school of Public Health, back in ninety nine two thousand etc, We're looking at specifically obesity in the black community one project I was doing was. Was Looking at obesity in the Black Church community was looking at obesity among African, American, adolescent girls and one was looking at obesity within those that are law resources within the wick programs. It'll women's and children's for Ram, and how could we fix their Their plight in terms of recognizing that we can in some ways with the limited resources that they may have available to enhance their role house. So this was something that was kind of lingering. I didn't anticipate that I would choose obese medicine. 'cause that was not a field when I was twenty years ago. It really was not a field. There was no board certification in obesity medicine. The first Brit sort of patients directly. No Be Madison didn't start until two thousand well, which was well after I finished medical school, but I can tell you I was on. Call in the pediatric ICU when I was in residency and I as internal medicine pediatrics and I literally just googled obesity in medicine at about two thirty in the morning after I just intimated three kids in the ICU in a new. I was going to sleep at nights. I figured I'd just need to keep myself busy. And, the fellowship here at Mass General at Harvard popped up and I was like. What is this? You know I I really interested in obesity. I had no idea there was a fellowship, indeed the first ship and so I came and I spent three years. Doing a fellowship dedicated to understanding the disease of obesity.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Outcomes Rocket
"Welcome back to the outcomes rocket Sal Marquez his hair and today have the privilege of hosting Dr Gail Gazelle. She's a faculty. At Harvard Medical School a thirty year, practicing hospice physician and a Master Certified Coach for physicians and physician leaders in addition to publications in the New England Journal of Medicine, O, the Oprah magazine and the Journal of American, Association for Physician Leadership Dr Gazelle is a certified mindfulness teacher, a former consultant for the United States Department of Justice and one of the nation's preeminent physician coaches having coached. Five hundred physicians. She's the author of every day. Resilience slated to release August of twenty twenty, and in these times with a lot of the challenges that we have around the pandemic, but even before the pandemic we've been plagued with issues around physician wellness and burn out the OPIOID epidemic. There's there's there's issues all around that require expertise in and guidance and so today it's just such a privilege to have you here today, gail and and war. We're. We're going to focus in on on the work that you do to help care for the people that care for us such a privilege to have you on the on the podcast today. Thank you saw really a pleasure and a privilege to join you today. Absolutely, and so before we we take a step toward exploring the work. You do the outstanding work that you do I. WanNa learn a little bit more about what inspires your work in healthcare. Great Question I would have to say that. It is making a difference in the lives of vulnerable individuals that has always inspired May. What I stayed back on my career I was drawn to the practice of meddlesome bonded to help individuals at the end of mice and hostess and end of Life Care was not really a field when I finished medical training. In nineteen ninety, there was so much pain and suffering physically emotionally on a psychosocial level, obviously for the individual who was terminally ill, but also for their families, and furthermore for people working with them and care, and so I was drawn to that vulnerable population and wanted to be able to make a difference. As I cared for patients near the end of life. I began to notice that I myself was Burning House I was doubting my judgment experiencing self criticism. I was feeling guilty guilty when I was home that I wasn't working when I was working guilty that I wasn't with my son and my family. And I began checking in with colleagues around the country.
How the Pandemic Has Changed the Way We Sleep
"According to preliminary results of a study of sixteen hundred people from sixty countries, forty six percents of people reported poor sleep during the pandemic. That's up from just twenty five percent before the pandemic insomnia and vivid weird dreams, both caused by the increased stress of the time we're living through has been evident anecdotally and as indicated by a fourteen percent uptick in sleep. Medication Prescriptions Melatonin sales in over the counter supplement for the natural hormone that induces sleepiness are up forty four percents. Philip Musket a professor of Psychiatry at Columbia University Medical Center said he's avoiding prescribing medications to patients preferring to offer sleep hygiene tips. He's seen that actually staying asleep is the biggest problem for most people and says some of the primary factors causing that is that people are lacking in structure and exercise. Stain active can help you sleep more soundly and boost your immune system Dr Musk's also advises sticking to a regular sleep schedule and avoiding naps during the day. The good news according to Kathy Goldstein physician at the University of Michigan and an associate professor of neurology at the Schools Sleep Disorders Center is that what most people are experiencing is acute insomnia or quitting the Wall Street Journal having difficulty for or staying asleep a few times a week for three months or less and quotes, the third of people will experience acute insomnia at some point in their lives usually caused by some stressor. stressor in their life like say a pandemic the key doctor. Goldstein says though is not letting the issue. Become a chronic one quote. It's important to avoid associating your bed or bedroom with a place where you were awake. Experts recommend that if you can't fall asleep or wake up in the middle of the night and are unable to go back to sleep after twenty minutes get out of bed and do something, relaxing and quotes. Natasha Bouillon a Phoenix based family physician at one medical, says most people's sleep problems right now either stem from a lack of normal schedule or general anxiety about the pandemic. Some tips she recommends mindfulness through meditation, exercise or cognitive behavioral therapy. To maintain a consistent sleep schedule, turn devices off an hour before going to sleep and make your sleeping space a device free zone, consider even ditching your smartphones alarm and getting an actual alarm clock, as for anyone, experiencing vivid dreams or nightmares Melinda Jackson, a senior lecturer at the Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health at Monash University in Melbourne, says quote. During Times of stress, there's a release of narrow chemicals that can trigger these vivid dreams and nightmares in some people end quotes. And, Dearly Barrett a dream researcher at Harvard Medical School notes that waking up frequently throughout the night can also cause people to remember their dreams better. Contribute to the sense that your dreams are more vivid than usual. guardless of how? Your sleep has been disrupted. Or why here are a few more sleep? Hygiene tips to leave with quoting the Wall Street Journal eat at regular times than snacking day. Avoid, napping or compensating for poor night of sleep by going to bed, unusually early limit caffeine and avoid alcohol avoid electronic devices one to two hours before going to sleep, but if you do use a blue light filter and try to look at content that is not stressful. Get Bright Light in the morning. Try to find a workspace that isn't in your bedroom and stop working at a specific our and make time for relaxing activities end quote.
A coronavirus-related disease is now hitting children
"About new development or new word of element I guess I should say it's an inflammation that seems to be linked to covert nineteen in particular doctor they call it pediatric multi system inflammatory syndrome what should our listeners know about this well this is something new and we're really just trying to learn as much as we can as fast as we can about it but a number of children have been identified both in in Europe and in the U. S. who have a very severe illness with a lot of information sometimes the hard is infected sometimes other organs are infected they they can be very sick they require care in an intensive care unit and it seems to have some link to code that although not all of the patients have been positive for coverage so the the symptoms that these kids are experiencing the if they're unusual and that's what's making them stand out and then the possible link to cove it is a secondary issue well I think both things are important we want to understand the nature of the illness itself and of course if it's if it's related to cope with that would be very important to how concerned should our parents in listening audience be well I think they have to keep in mind two things one this is serious mysterious illness but the other is that it it appears to be quite rare at this point we're talking about only probably about a hundred cases or so that have been accumulated from around the world so it does look like it's it's pretty common I need pretty uncommon and for the most part it seems that code in children is a very very mild illness but these did this new condition that you're seen in these one hundred cases it's similar to Kawasaki disease but it is not and I guess that's my point is that this is something unusual that has scented itself at this time so you're trying to see if it has anything to do with cove it yes it has some relationship to what we call callous sake disease we had some relationship to toxic shock syndrome but it seems to be somewhat distinctive really a little different from either of those so we are trying to get a handle on on just what it is by cooling experience around the world and seeing what are the common features among the cases no Dr we are very concerned about code nineteen as a respiratory syndrome or also learning that it seems to affect organs and there's something going on through the internet called cove it tower or something like that where you know people are taking a look at images of disfigured toes as a result of covert nineteen can all that possibly be true yes I think it can be I think this is a virus that has the number affects on the body effect to number of systems early the losses yeah hi causes a severe pneumonia and the and the bad cases but we've learned that it can also affect the kidneys it can affect the heart it seems to cause the tendency to form blood clots sometimes the very sick patients will have blood clots the long that complicate their course and in the case of coded to that may I code the code that may reflect some inflammation of blood vessels in the extremities such as the toes and fingers Dr Mandeep Mehra of Harvard Medical School it was quoted in The Seattle Times and also the Washington post that cove it begins as a respiratory virus and kills as a cardio cardio vascular virus and that's why we're seeing people with cove it with low oxygen levels yet inexplicably conscious still but then suffering from maybe stroke or pulmonary embolism toxic shock damage blood vessels and and skin rashes and is that what we're seeing more and more that it's affecting the cardiovascular system more than we initially thought yes I think that's fair to say I think when we started seeing Kobe cases we thought it was primarily in the bone yard and section of the law but it's clear that these other organs are frequently involved and and especially the bad cases and really contribute to fatal outcomes and in some cases well we've been talking to for almost two months right now about covert nineteen but on Monday in St Louis city and St Louis county some businesses are going to open up malls for example dine in restaurants June first we hear the state's gonna open up casinos all right you're a professor at the wash University school of medicine what are your thoughts about these developments well I do think that the virus is declining in the Saint Louis area not nearly as fast as soon as we would like it to but I think there are a lot of promising signs that we're on the downhill side of things but it's not gone by any means and so we have to be very careful as we start re opening we have to move slowly we have to watch what the outcomes are and be prepared to change course if necessary importantly people have to keep in mind their own risk profile and if a person is elderly specially over sixty five war has serious underlying medical conditions then they need to be particularly careful they probably should not be the ones going out to restaurants or are doing a lot of shopping and and things like that what are your thoughts on schools re opening in the fall you know I think that's a very difficult issue at this point I don't think it's the right time to make a decision R. right now I think we have to see what the course I think it is as we start to open up if things continue to go down it might be possible to cautiously opened schools but if things go the wrong direction we may the right decision making to keep him close I think it is too early right now very important issue in a very
Understanding the COVID-19 Data Quality Problem with Sherri Rose
"Welcome to the PODCAST. Thank you for having me. It is great to have a chance to chat with you. I'm looking forward to digging into your background and your research and The things you're doing related to cove it to help out there you know. Let's start at the beginning. How did you become interested in machine learning and in the intersection of that and Healthcare I always was very interested in science and mathematics and physics and I didn't really have a good sense of how you could use that to solve problems when I was going to college and it was during college that I was exposed to this summer. Program called the Summer Institute for training in biostatistics and it really sounded like what I was interested in which was bringing quantitative reasoning thinking to problems in health and public health and I realized very quickly that I needed more than my bachelor's degree in statistics in order to really solve a lot of those problems and I didn't actually get any training in machine. Learning in my bachelor's degree I graduated in two thousand five and the curriculum definitely did not include it at that point and so when I went to graduate school at UC Berkeley in biostatistics. That's where I saw. The the benefit of having really general frameworks in which solve problems. And that's when I started working on non parametric machine learning and having these kind of big picture ways to attack big problems in population health and that was for me. That's been both machine learning in non parametric models for prediction but also causal inference and the driver for me was really the ability to use these flexible tools to solve problems in in healthcare in medicine it must have been helpful having that. Undergrad in stats. It's it's been very helpful. Actually I actually started as a mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Major. And I did not feel very invigorated by the coursework there and I very room and I also was a little frustrated that I was often the only woman in the classes and it just it. There was a lot of reasons why didn't feel like the right fit for me. I ended up taking my second semester in college. Statistics course and I immediately saw how statistics could be used for solving lots of different problems and Engineering Ken as well but for me. The statistics was really how I saw bringing all my interests together. You mentioned non parametric machine learning. What is that? And how does that relate to Both the broader field as well as the healthcare field. If somebody talk about non parametric I mean it. In the very broad statistical sense a non parametric model is a larger model space. Where we're making many fewer assumptions and whereas with parametric models more standard parametric models. We might be making strict assumptions about the functional form the underlying unknown functional form of the data with non parametric. I WanNa really have a large model space. I have a much better opportunity to uncover the truth with my machine learning estimator so many like you're not assuming a normal distribution which has a couple of parameters and a standard deviation it could be anything definitely not definitely not that would be a limiting gumption in your work. Yeah absolutely and most of the data that I work with does not conform to those types of strict assumptions. Talk a little bit more about the scope of your research interests and where you apply machine learning. It sounds like you are interested. Both in the of the systematic issues the healthcare system with the relationships between the providers and the payers as well as clinical issues absolutely so in health services research were really interested in the whole broad scope of the healthcare system that includes cost quality access to providers and services and also health outcomes following care so that clinical piece comes into the health outcomes following care and some of the major areas that I've worked in intersect with the health spending aspects the financing aspects like mental health and Telemedicine and cardiovascular treatments. All of these things intersect within the system that relies on you know the the cost the quality the access to providers. So it's a really having a research program that encompasses both pieces of that can allow you to ask and answer questions in more integrated ways. It's difficult but I find that you if you understand those underlying systems and try and bring them into your work when you're looking at clinical work It can help you inform better answers and when you are looking at those kinds of questions are you primarily trying to understand or influence great questions so a lot of the work that I do. We're trying to understand some kind of phenomena in the system but influence yes in the sense that we're trying to inform policy so understanding the comparative effectiveness of multiple. Different types of treatments. I I would like to understand which treatments have better health outcomes but if we find a particular treatment has a very bad outcomes we want to inform policy to the FDA or to the relevant stakeholder in order to potentially have that treatment removed from market and we're talking towards the end of April Many of us have been some form of another of locked down due to co VID. Did you mentioned that? Your dog may start barking. He may He may my neighbor. Just I think my neighbor is finished cutting the grass. Now you know this. Is You know the Times but it sounds. Like your work intersects with Cova. Did as well. Can you talk about that intersection a little bit? Absolutely a large focus of my work because I'm so integrated in starting with the substantive problem in bringing either existing machine learning tools or developing new machine learning tools to answer those questions. It really there has to be the strong grounding data and the virus pandemic has really eliminated for a lot of people how much we need to care about data. And I I I mean we have misclassification. We have Missing nece in the types of data that we're collecting for Virus both for cases and mortality counts. And these are things that are very very common and most of the electronic health data that we use in the healthcare system where a lot of my work has focused on dealing with some of these types of issues. I mean we use billing claims we use Clinical Records Registry data an on and on and these data types were not designed for research. And so we need to be really aware of the issues in these types of of data and some of the newer forms of data like wearable implantable technology. That people have been very excited about measuring physical activity were now using the current virus pandemic of smartphone location data to try and understand how people are Social distancing with potentially with contact tracing and then digital types of data like Google search trends and twitter data which has been used for different types of research questions in the past now. Google is developing and has released this location. History website. Where they're showing out. Know how we can understand social distancing and so a lot of the data related work that. I've been focused on very relevant to the pandemic understanding our data sources and trying to bring rigorous flexible methods to them specifically. I had been working the last two years with my now former post-doctoral fellow an infectious disease expert myemma gender. Who's now faculty at Boston? Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. We had been looking at news media data. Cdc Data Electronic Health data. To understand the generalize ability of these data sources for both infectious disease and chronic disease. And now this become a very relevant the virus pandemic we had one of the conditions we've been studying was was flu like illnesses and understanding what electronic health data sources like billing claims an electronic health records what we can really understand from these data sources and we've seen people many people now start modeling making projections about cases and a death. Count's what we're going to start seeing next. Once people start. Having access to different types of electronic health resources is trying to use this data understand. You know to predict outcomes maybe to predict clinical courses were trying to causal inference which is even more difficult And it's very important that people understand the limitations of these data sources and so that's one of the things that we're working on and hopefully the the first paper from that work will be able to release in the next coming weeks but this is this is something that's relevant for the virus pandemic but has been a problem going back. Decades is using data. That people don't understand and that's been a at the forefront of my work is really making sure especially with the theme of one of the themes of this podcast machine learning a lot of people get very excited about machine learning and they throw a tool at data without understanding the data. And we're now in the midst of something where it's really crucial. That people do not do
The Evolution of ML and Furry Little Animals
"You are listening to talking machines Catherine Gorman Lawrence and Neil. We are again taping an episode in front of a live audience digitally recorded though on on talking machines. And if you want to be part of our live. Studio audience big quotes. You can follow us on twitter at Ti Okay. N. G. M. C. H. S. Or hit us up on the talking machines at gmail.com and our guest today for this interview on talking. Machines is Dr Terence. Annouce key doctors and thank you so much for taking the time to join us today. I really appreciate it Great to be here so we ask all of our guests the same question I. How did you get where you are? What's been your academic and industrial journey. You're also very involved in the reps conference. Tell US everything well. A wise man once told me that careers are only made retrospectively and I have no idea how he got here. There was no plan. It went through a sequence of stages starting with graduate school at Princeton in theoretical physics. From there when I finished that I for reasons that have to do with the field of physics. At the time which was a little bit more bummed I went into neuroscience so that was a post doc and then from there that's when I met. Geoffrey Hinton and had changed my life because we met him at a small seminar here in San Diego and set nineteen seventy nine. We hit it off and From that over the next few years you know blossoms the the Boehner Sheen and back prop and you know. The rest was history. Terry who you post talking with where you post talking in San Diego no no. This was a post doc at Harvard. Medical School in the Department of Neurobiology with Stephen Kofler who was widely considered to be the founder of modern neurobiology and It was an experimental post. Doc I actually recorded from neurons. Subic seventy nine. You mentioning physics. It was a little bit more bond a in some sort of connection modeling. That was also a very quiet period. That wasn't a lot going on it. Was this sort of age of classical. Ai Right you're absolutely right. This was in fact. It was the neural network winter. The seventies and it was primarily because of the failure of the perception. That's neat because you say failure of the percents on I read about that a lot. Do you really did fail. All was the men's ski paper little. What the mid ski books are in Minsk. Eighty books have killed it but was it a fair representation. Well you know it's interesting. I think that that's the myth that that book killed it but I actually think that there are other things going on and and Rosenblatt had died as well which seems pretty significant. Yes well He. He was a pioneer. But you have to understand that digital computers were regally primitive back. Then you know that even the most expensive you know the biggest computers you could buy. Don't have the power of your wristwatch today. Rosenblatt actually had to build an analog device. It a million dollars in today's dollars to build a analog device that had potentially otters driven by motors for the weight sums the learning. Wasn't it potentially because you know digital computers? Were good at logic but they were terrible. Doing a floating point is amazing so he built that at Cornell. Right that's right yeah Funded by the owner. Any case by by the time that we were getting started computers was the vaccine era. It was becoming possible. Do Simulations You know they were small-scale by today's standards but but really meant we could explorer in a way that Frank Rosenblatt couldn't so what you're saying around the perceptual and so just forbid of context for Central and sixty one. Is that right? It was fifty nine. I think it was the book but you know it was in that era of early sixty zero and so then there's this period where the digital computer actually wasn't powerful enough to do much and then digital kind of overtook and divinity but these analog machines would just now impractical from a point of view of expense. So you're saying it's less the book and more of a shift to the Digital Machine. That in those early days wasn't powerful enough to simulate the perception. Yes so I I have you know. I have a feeling that history will show that A. I was like the blind man looking under the Lamppost. His keys and someone came along and said where did you lose your keys He said well somewhere else. But this is the only place right can see. I was reading Donald BACI quote. I recently At the beginning of his book about the I which is just a fascinating area and I guess he spent a lot of his career and he did work in in the wool on radar and he was talking about the Radio Club. Which is these early Cybernet assist and the potential of the analog or digital computer to be what represented the brain and his perspective was he. He was sure it wasn't a digital computer and he wasn't sure it was an analog computer either and he thought it was kind of somewhere in between but it feels like that in between is what you're saying is that was the difficult bit to look and perhaps a police were able to look now. That's right I you know. It's I think it's being driven. This is true all science that what you cannot understand is is really determined by the tools that you have for making measurements for doing simulations in it's really only this modern era that has given us enough tools both to make progress with understanding how the brain works and also with a because of the fact that we have a tremendous amount of power now but just to go back to that early era. I think you know I once asked L. Annual you know who is at Carnegie Mellon and it was a time when Geoff Hinton was an assistant professor and I was at Johns Hopkins and I you know he was at the first fifty six meeting at Dartmouth or a I was born and I I said well. Why was it that you didn't look at the brain and for for inspiration and he said well we did. But there wasn't very much known about the at the time to help us out so we just had make doing our own and he's right. That was a era. You know the the fifties was kind of the the beginning of what we now understand about the signals in the brain. Actually potential synoptic potentials. So you know in a sense. What what he was saying was that we basically use the tools we have available the time which was basically computers but what they were good at. What were they good at? They were good at logic at rules. A binary programming. So that you know that was In a sense they were forced to do that. That's a really. WanNa come back to nine hundred seventy nine in a moment but this is an interesting context to that because of course. Vena initially was someone who spread across. Both these areas of Norbert Vena who was at mit founded cybernetics spread across both these areas of the analog and digital he did his PhD thesis on Russell and Whitehead's book but one thing I was reading about recently is there was a big falling out between Vina. I'm McCulloch Pitts. And it's sort of interesting. That Vena wasn't there at the I. E. T. in fifty six and I sometimes wonder was that more about personalities and wanting this sort of old guard to stay away because you always feel veto with someone who who bridge these worlds it. You know that's the fascinating story. I actually wrote a review of a book about Warren McCulloch came up. They were friends. They actually had had been friends yet. It has something to do with their wife's. Yeah I think the lifestyle McCullough was not line with its a side story but but I guess the point you're making which I think is an I'd like us to take us back to seventy nine and the meeting with Jeff is and I think that that's true. Despite the story between humans the real factor that drove things then was the sudden available at a t of increasing cheap digital computer. And no longer the need to do this work that Rosenblatt and McCain and others had done having to wire together a bunch of analog circuits. That you couldn't reprogram to build system. Yeah I think that was a dead. End It for the very reason you gave. Which is that you know you. It's a special purpose device. That isn't good for anything else. And and really if you're trying to explore you need the flexibility of being able to try many ideas and that's in that really is a digital simulation allows you to
The Secrets of Wellness With Dr. Jeffrey Rediger
"Welcome to episode two hundred fifty five of live happy. Now I'm your host Paula Phelps. And I'm happy to have you back here again with us this week. This is a time when all of us are thinking a lot about healing and wellbeing. We have a lot of questions about wellness and today's guest is uniquely qualified to talk about that. Dr. Jeffrey Redder is on the Faculty of Harvard Medical School and his medical director of Mclean Hospital southeast adult psychiatric programs. He's a board certified psychiatrist with a Masters in Divinity from Princeton theological seminary and in two thousand fifteen he walked onto a tek stage and proposed a revolutionary idea to an audience of doctors. He challenged them to join him and create an a new kind of medicine built on hope and possibility rather than focusing on sickness and disease. His new book cured. The life-changing science of spontaneous healing provides a fascinating look into healing and how changing our beliefs about ourselves can change our outcomes. Let's hear what he has to say. Jeffrey thank you so much for joining us today on live happy. Now Glenn Beer well. We really wanted to talk to you because you have written a fascinating book and it looks at how people with illnesses. That were allegedly incurable. Were somehow spontaneously healed and I found this book so fascinating it really difficult to put it down and I wanted to know how you got started on this research. To begin with in. Two Thousand and two and oncology nurse at mass general in. Boston came to me and said that she had just been diagnosed with pancreatic cancer and she wanted to help her son about this. And so then she called me from a healing center saying that she was seeing some amazing recoveries and she alleged look into it and that time. I was a new medical director new faculty personnel harbored. I had just graduated from residency. Not that long ago the year before and I said No. I didn't think anything likely was going on there and refused but Nikki was persistent. She began having people. Call me from around the country and elsewhere saying that they had medical evidence for their recovery and did I want to hear their stories. I continued to say no for a while but letters were coming in and as I began to look at some of the stuff. That's being sent to me overtime. In spite of my resistance and my skepticism I began to become confused. Frankly because it looked like something in at least a few of these stories was going on and so long short of it is. I did begin researching the stories and that's been seventeen years now so things have gone a long way since then and how hard it sounds like. It really was difficult to reconcile what you were seeing with your medical education. That's very true. It was confusing to see stories coming in and having lab tests and by APPS results come in with cheers from cancer that I knew very well from my medical training were possible and so what I did was established three criteria and said that I wouldn't even look at the person story or listen to their story unless it really met these criteria so that I buy cherry was the person that had to have genuinely incurable illness. According to all the we currently understand number two they had to have medically indisputable evidence for accurate diagnosis and clear evidence for recovery and then number three there needed to not be any complicating factors such as an experimental medication or anything else that could potentially explain how the better so that helped me begin separating things out because certainly a lot of the story is a scheming and the data that was pouring in it was hard to know what really was going on because you know person can think that they got better but if they were also getting some kinds of chemotherapy and had certain kinds of diagnoses wasn't clear what was happening and so. I tried to just make the criteria really clear for the sake of efficiency and so I could figure out what's going on. And how many cases you say that you studied so this point of seventeen years. I've gone into over one hundred cases. It takes a long time to go into each case to separate out which of the cases that are genuine incurable and then to see if there is really good medical evidence to make sure there's not other complicating factors. Once you get through that level that removes a lot of cases and then from there to go deep into their lives and try to understand what are the factors that are associated that recovery takes a lot of work and so these cases are much more common than the research literature says. I've yet to give a talk where I'm not approached by someone afterwards at least one person who says either you need to talk to this patient where you need to talk to my aunt new talk to my cousin and most of the cases in company. I have not had time to go into this just because I have a job and responsibilities. So yeah how do you fit this research in with the fact that you do have a job as an RA small dog? How do you do all this well? This has been a very personal hashing for me at has grown over the years. I think I've always been driven by questions. And a stories raised a lot of questions for me and so it became something that I have spent a lot of early mornings on a lot of late nights and weekends over time and it's changed the way I think about a lot of things both as a human being and as a physician Woohoo or some of the commonalities that you found in the cases that you've been researching so feared I talk about the four pillars of healing and wellbeing and. I tried to tell stories that illustrate really well how these factors played a role in people's lives and I tried to choose stories from my research that illustrated really well how this works for people so the first pillar is nutrition. Nutrition is a big part of most people stories. Actually and it's not a one size fits all it's not like everyone became vegetarian or everyone followed the Atkins Diet or something like that. It's really a unique journey for each person. About what helped them feel better and feel their best and we all come from different parts of the world with our ancestors and that sort of thing and so I think different diets weren't better for different people. Some people went completely vegetarian. Other people chose a more ketosis diet. But what's true? Is that in nearly all of these diets? The commonalities were very real whether it's one type of nutritional plan or another almost. Everyone eliminated processed foods. They eliminated the vast majority of sugar foods from their diet. And also enriched flowers so they really began eating much more plant. Based Diet by enlarge. A number of people did eat meat but they tended to eat meat. That one person talk about eating animals had been happy when they were alive. Not with not with stress Hormones grass-fed so they get the healthier fats and knock on full of chemicals and so even though the diets looked different on the surface underneath there is a lot of similarity so that's efficient. The second pillar is that you need to heal your immune system so one of the really exciting things. That's just starting to happen. In medicine is that we're starting to realize that we've missed the real story about illness for decades as doctors. We are trained in body parts. If you're a cardiologist you studied the heart if you're a psychiatrist he studied the brain if you're a gastroenterologist he studied a GI system the gastrointestinal system excetera. But what we now are learning. And what these people with such remarkable recoveries have shown me with such clarity is that illness doesn't exist in these body. Parts as much as in the chronic inflammation that's created by our diets and lifestyles. And so if you want to heal your immune system then you need to lower the chronic inflammation in your body. That's really interesting as especially right now with people being concerned about the krona viruses and other things where they talk about. I need to jack up my immune system. I need to boost it up and no insane. I need to reduce inflammation. Yes but show. Chronic inflammation is immune system gone awry and is attacking your body for example. If you're causing little micro cuts in your endovascular system because of the kinds of food and sugar. You're ingesting constantly into your body. Then your immune system goes into repair mode constantly trying to repair all these little micro vascular cuts and injuries and not only. Are you expanding a lot of energy for your immune system to do that? You also are setting up. This scarring cycle in your endothelium. That is over time going to create hardening of the arteries so. It's not really a cholesterol problem than deeper level is it's an inflammation problem and the cholesterol is just a symptom of deeper chronic inflammation. And so we had this amazing immune system with all these brilliant cells and cell subtypes that want to do their job crisply and efficiently. But you have to give them the proper conditions so that they can do that and so I tell people to address the nutrition to avoid toxins to knock over. Medicate to flush lymphatic system regularly with lots of water to spend time with people. You love. Who Make you laugh? Because we know that laughter and positive authentic emotions are great for your immune system and to make sure you get plenty of rest. A lot of the things are things are moms told US growing up. She just kind of present it differently and didn't realize that she was giving. Us medical advice asks right. It's very true because your mom probably knew some common sense things that were more about seeing the forest for the trees in terms of what creates vital immune systems then what we were thinking about for a long time when we are just looking at the individual body parts. So it's not a diabetes problem. It's not a high blood pressure problem. It's not a cancer problem. It's not our problem or
Why Do People Have Dreams and Nightmares?
"When you're asleep. Sometimes strange things happen. You fly through the air like a bird but you don't have wings but then all of a sudden you do have wings and you go all the way to Antarctica and float over the ice watching Penguins Waddell over the edge into the water and seals swim up just below. Sometimes after you've gone to sleep you travel to a magical place. Sometimes scary things happen. After I stay down the hill I went into a cave near the bottom of the hill and I was super scared Saw The bay on his hind. Why and then after that. I put up my covers over my head and that helped me stop making that. Lean Jameson from Walpole Massachusetts. Sent us that dream that scared him but as he points out. Then you wake up and you're actually still in your bed. Everyone Dreams and dreams play an important role in the way our brains function. But we don't always remember our dreams today on but why we're GONNA listen back to an episode. We made about dreams. Here are some of the questions you have sent us recently about. How AND WHY WE DREAM? Hi My name is Nikki. And I'm six years old. I live with faceted California and my question is how do we get dreams? And why Hello? My name is seven years old. I'm from Turkey stumble. My question is why do we dream an have two mayors my name is listed and I will live and hair. Some Burke Virginia and I'm seven years old. Why DO WE DREAM? And can you control your dreams? My name is Anne. I'm from California and I'm seven years old. My question is why do you? Sometimes I feared trips mining this connor. I am in nine years old and I'm from Menlo Park California. My question is why. Did you sometimes have dreams? That have nothing to do with your day. My name is penny. Sure I'm ten years old. Eleven thinks burden Maryland. And my question is why when you watch things or scary things get bad. Dreams about. Halloween was real anna from Passer California and three years old and my question is at what age do keister having dreams harmonies my name is Liam. I'm eight years old. I live in New Jersey and my question is how do we wake up this? We have a nightmare today. We're going to get answers from Dr David Kahn. I'm on the Faculty of the Harvard Medical School in the Department of Psychiatry. A psychiatrist is a doctor who studies the way our brains make us feel and think and behave and a psychiatrist helps make sure your brain is keeping your mood stable and your emotions healthy. That's often called mental health. Dr Kahn got interested in medicine. Partly because like so many of you. He was really interested in dreams. I dream and I said Oh my God I dream a lot. And what is that all about? Why am I dream so different than when I think during the day? Let's see if I can learn something about it. I'm a physicist by training and so I decided that's a really good new area to investigate. And it's very personal. Sometimes physics can be impersonal. Dreaming is very personal so I decided to learn more about it. Here are a few more of your questions for Dr Com. Hi My name is Colin. I'm seven years old. I live in Phoenix Arizona. And my question is why do people have dreams and nightmares? Any is luke got MS seven year. Old Girl. And I live in New York City. My question is why do you have daas nightmares? And why do you have good thoughts? Good Dreams dreaming is thinking when we're asleep when we're awake up. Rain is actively able to think but when we go to sleep. The brain doesn't stop being active. It's just as active in sometimes more active than when we are awake. So dreaming is the way the brain thinks so if dreaming is the way the brain thinks when we're asleep why does it seem so different from the way we think when we're awake? I mean I don't know about you but even when I play pretend it's not quite the same as the magical worlds. I live in when I'm dreaming. James can be very strange because parts of the brain change compared to the way the brain is when we are thinking and awake what happens. The emotional parts of the brain are very active when we are asleep and dreaming often our dreams therefore who be scary or joyful or affectionate or even nightmarish because the emotional areas of the brain become highly active when we go to sleep and start to dream however. Why don't we say okay? This is a nightmare. I don't want to happen nightmare. I'm going to stop it. We can't because another part of the brain when we go to sleep and trim the logical part stops working. It's off line so in other words. I can't tell my brain to stop having dream whether it's bad or good because that part of my brain is shut down while I'm sleeping the part of the brain. That's logical and rational and tells you you should do this. I should do that checks out when you go to sleep. And you're dreaming so right now you're listening and you can decide. I'M GONNA listen or I'm not gonNA listen to Dr Kahn or I'm going to go and get an apple from the refrigerator or a cookie. You decide but when you go to sleep and you dream you don't decide vitrine just goes on as if you weren't there of course you are there but the part of the brain that lets you decide to do this or not to do. This is offline checks out is not working. That might sound a little frightening. A part of your brain isn't working but think back to our last episode. All about sleep sleep is an important time for your brain and body to recover from all the hard work you do. All Day while you're awake and it's also a time for your brain to reorganize itself so some parts of your brain need a little time to go offline as Dr Khan calls it to get a chance to recover and clean up but those other parts of your brain. The emotional parts are still very active. And so your dream continues and Dr Khan points out. That's actually pretty cool. Anything could happen. Which is not bad because you get experiences that you wouldn't have if you're a weight because your logical mind would say or this can't be. I can't fly sometimes. People fly in their dream costs. They don't know they can't fly when you're awake. No you can't fly so essentially when I'm dreaming if I'm flying in my dream or if I am a lion in my dream my brain actually thinks that I am that thing or can do that thing. Because there's no part of my brain that's telling me it's wrong when you're dreaming the part of the brain that knows you're not a lion or you're not a tiger or you can't fly fat part of the brain coast to sleep so to speak meaning. It's not working the way it works when you're awake when you're awake if you imagine you're a lion you can imagine that but you know that you're not a lion you can imagine you're flying like Superman but you know that you're not when you go to sleep and dreaming that part of the brain isn't working the same way and so you believe you're flying you you're superman or tiger. It's great to have all these interesting experiences when your dreams are good but if you've ever had a bad dream you know that they're not always fun. Hi Lendings Friday. I'm five years of Dover Massachusetts it island. Now why are they have scary deums? I'm Mac I four years old. I live in Michigan. I question why people have bad dreams. Wait was waiting for us. Owed I was an pence. Oh Bay Neha and I'm Wendy. While he getting night why do we have bad dreams that make us feel terrible and sometimes wake us up scared or crying? Dr Com when we were asleep and dreaming the emotional areas areas of the brain. That make us feel feel good feel bad. They're highly active. And since we can't control what the dream is going to be like. Sometimes it's very joyful and we're very happy. Sometimes it's scary. Sometimes a monster might be there or a bad person is chasing us. But we don't have the brain that tells us no. There is no bad person like we do. When we're
80 Is Not the New 70: Age May Bias Heart Care, Study Finds
"Medical researchers are looking into whether there might be an age bias when it comes to offering a heart bypass surgery and patients who've reached the age of eighty Jackie Quinn reports so study led by a Harvard Medical School researcher finds five percent of heart attack patients who just turned eighty received by pass surgery compared to seven percent slightly younger even just weeks shy of that milestone birthday it's led to suspicions of something called left digit bias which is
All Your Sleep Questions, Answered
"Guest. This Week is Dr Matthew Walker Who who earned his neuroscience degrees over in the UK and then became a professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and is right now a professor esser of neuroscience and psychology at the University of California in Berkeley He wrote a bestselling book called. Why we sleep and we're doing a two part episode this week in the first part were talking about All the things all the unfortunate things that can happen to you when you don't get enough sleep up to your heart to your brain to other parts of your body were talking about the Link between sleep and mental health. What kind of impact? Meditation can have on asleep and the stigma in our society around sleep and then we so we did have an hour together on that several months ago actually we. I recorded that first hour our and then we took a couple of months break and I started to wear a sleep tracking ring and so we go back to Matthew for another chunk of this interview where we talk about my data and many other questions. That are fascinating so here we go with part one of the interview with Matthew Walker on sleep pleasure to meet you. I kind of feel like I know you after having listened to somebody podcast will likewise to you. I have to say so. Our relationship goes by my gears at this stage to see old friends and and you have had As I was saying to you earlier you really had an impact of the way I think about sleep so I'm excited to pass that along to our listeners and viewers so let me just ask some biographical stuff. How did you get interested in sleep in the first place I don't think anyone you know when the five or six years old and you go around the classroom you say. What would you like to be when you grow up? No one shoots. The differences have lived to be asleep research. Yeah and I think we're all accidental sleet researches and I was the same so back join late. Phd Work I was looking at brainwave patterns in people with dementia early early stages and I was trying to differentially diagnose what form of dementia that they had was it sort of vascular dementia or Alzheimer's Disease and was failing thing miserably and he used to go home at the weekends with the stack of journals. And I put them in my doctor's residence Igloo of information around me and when we can I was reading that some of the centers that certain types of dementia would eat away at in the brain was sleep generating centers and then for other types of dementia the left those centers untouched. So I thought well I'm measuring the brainwave pattern of my patients at the wrong time. which is when they're awake should be measuring it? When they're asleep sleep started doing that? Great Results and at that point I thought maybe the sleep disruption is not just a symptom of the dementia. I wonder if it's actually a causal causal trigger and that's when I just fell headlong into this field of sleep research and at that time no one could answer the question. Why do we sleep? This is twenty years ago. The crass answer was that we sleep to cure sleepiness which is the factors equivalent of saying to cure hunger. It tells you nothing about the biological benefits of nutrition. We really do nothing about why we why we sleep. Twenty years ago we just had very little understanding other than that. It was deathly if you removed it and they did these cities Um some studies that probably will never be replicated again for ethical reasons in rats. Let's and they decided to deprive the rats completely off sleep. I'm what they found. Is that those. Rats would die as quickly from sleep deprivation as they would from food deprivation within ten eleven days and so we own the on the cusp of realizing how fundamentally necessary sleep was i. Then I thought well if nobody knows it right now I'll just come along and for two years out. Go to America and I went to Boston. I thought I'll crack that question with total naievety not Hubris. I'm not realizing that. Some of the most brilliant minds it failed to crack the question and as I said that was twenty years ago and I think hard license little about who asks them they will meet her out their lessons. Difficulty all the same And I've been schooled over the years. So what do we know about why we sleep. Well it's fascinating over the past twenty years. We've fat explosion of knowledge. In fact we've had to upend that question rather than saying. Why do we sleep? We've now had to ask Is there anything that sleep doesn't serve in terms of a benefit for either the brain the body and the answer seems to be no. There is no single tissue within the body nor process of the mind but isn't wonderfully enhance when we get sleep demonstrably strictly imposed when we don't get enough so walk me through the reasons why we should be attending so carefully to our sleep. If we don't get enough sleep what happens so let me start in the body and we'll just go through may be the major physiological systems. So firstly I'm reproductive-health health what we know is that men who sleeping just four to five hours a night. We'll have a level of testosterone. which is that of someone? Ten years their senior so a lack of sleep will age by decade in terms of that aspect of wellness realty. We see Quin pumps and female reproductive health caused by lack of sleep. I'm stepping away from the reproductive system. We also know that. A lack of sleep dramatic impact on your cardiovascular system there's a great example From perhaps the largest sleeps that he ever done. It affects one point. Six billion people it is undertaken across about sixty different countries twice a year. And it's called daylight savings time now in the spring when we lose one hour of sleep we see a subsequent subsequent twenty four percent increase in heart attacks the following day which stuns me In the autumn in the full when we gain an hour of sleep we see a twenty one percent reduction in heart attacks. That's how fragile and vulnerable cardio-vascular systems out by the way you see exactly the same profile for road traffic accidents on Australia. Even suicide rates following daylight savings time. I'll speak about the immune system though because that's something else. That's fundamentally regulated by lack of sleep. It doesn't require whole night of sleep deprivation I can take an individual and we can deprive you you. Let's say a four hours of sleep so you get four hours that one night and then the next day. We measure some critical anti-cancer fighting immune cells called natural killer cells. And they're almost like the secret service agents of your immune system. They're very good at identifying malignant humans and destroying them after one night eight of four hours of sleep we see seventy percent drop in these natural killer cells these critical anti-kaunda fighting cells and we could just sort of keep stepping through The body but let me just take a moment to go upstairs in the brain because sleep is not just feel body. It's in fact by the brain of the brain. And perhaps most importantly for the brain one of the most favoured diseases in developed nations is outside this disease and what we've discovered over the past five years now is that there's a remarkable sewage system in your brain that kicks into high gear at night light while we sleep and that sewage system is called the glymph attic system. Now you have a similar system in your body that everyone knows. It's called the lymphatic system. But we didn't realize the brain also has a cleansing system gleam fat exist and one of the sort of toxic metabolic byproducts products. That sleep using the system will wash away at night is a sticky toxic protein. Cool beat amyloid. Beta amyloid is one of the protein protein culprits underlying Alzheimer's disease. And so what we see is that even after one night you can bring perfectly healthy people into the laboratory. You can actually remove the sleep or even just selectively remove the deep sleep which is when that sort of system. That's a good night's sleep. Clean kind of power. Cleanse is actually happens you can selectively. Remove that type of sleep and the next day you do. What's called spinal cord puncture and you siphon off some of the fluid who volunteers for this kind of study you have to pay them rather a lot of money and be very nice to them and they never do this study the again? Probably so what we find that measure of cerebrospinal fluid that we take from the spinal cord tells us what's going on in the brain and you see an immediate next next day rise in the amount of this beater amyloid toxic protein circulating in the system and this is in healthy people have to just one night so who now you can imagine what happens if you scale that across weeks years. It's like compounding interest on alone every night that you'll show changing your brain of sleep. You're not cleansing. The brain of that be to amyloid toxic Alzheimer's protein and so it starts to scale and it doesn't scale in a linear fashion. Because it's an an exponential and that's exactly what we see with Alzheimer's disease as a patent of pathology and as a of cognitive decline and just last year we published. There's evidence that those two things that as you get older your sleep gets worse and as you get older your memory gets worse those two things on simply coincidental they're actually closely closely interrelated then so really understanding so much more now about The fundamental role that sleep placing every one of these physiological systems systems in the body and operations of the mind we can also speak about sleep and mental health. Hopefully at some point that link is incredibly
"harvard medical school" Discussed on 760 KFMB Radio
"This is the Harvard Medical School LGBT Q. out reach tractor it's about re writing the stories and the language we use built around a better understanding of how sex and gender really work in people's lives in today's changing times so this this whole thing is infiltrated Harvard Medical School so I guess I'll I will no longer accept any anyone else ever saying you're making a big deal out of nothing or this isn't you know what well I would just talk about the Harvard Medical School things move fast one hundred seven sixty KFMB Jim shower in advance president trump says his pick for national intelligence directors decided to withdraw from the running citing unfair media coverage in a tweet today trump said Republican congressman John Radcliffe of Texas had decided to stay in Congress questions about reckless experience have dogged him since trump announced his candidacy five days ago congressman allies you coming says he scared off an intruder at his Baltimore home early last Saturday morning in a statement the Maryland Democrat said he was notified of the intrusion by a security system Friday president trump tweeted about the reported incident saying too bad Bronx prosecutors say they need more time to investigate the heat stroke deaths of one year old twins left in a parked car by their father before deciding whether to proceed with charges there's been no grand jury action so far against the victim's father another hearing was set for August twenty seventh when Juan Rodriguez could learn whether he will be prosecuted for what is lawyer calls a tragic mistake.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on 710 WOR
"This is data from Harvard Medical School me saying this on the relating the facts that exist. That eighty percent of men who opened surgery will have urinary problems and eighty six point eight percent hub robotic web sexual problems. You automatically know that most men will have urinary problems or sexual problems who have had surgery. I don't have to tell you. And I see that all the time. I see many many patients had many of my patients, we have men and women equal numbers of our men. Patients have had surgery at fortunately the man who called me today. And now not only most likely does he have the sexual neurotic, but his PSA's rising strike one strike to strike three his PSA's rising. Well after surgery opener robotic surgery, the PSA should be zero. The surgeon was supposed to remove all the prostate or move all the cancer. So why is this man who went to a super duper place? Why is this man's PSA rising? There's only one reason. And that's reason is that the cancer is back. So. He paid the price with surgery paid the price with sexual issues paid the price with urinary issues. He paid the price financially opened up his wallet and paid and probably his insurance company paid much more. And now the cancer is back. Well, he has one more chance to be cancer free. That is to come to us for pinpoint treatment to try to kill the cancer cells that the surgeon left behind so the PSA should be zero. After radical surgery. I'm not advocating radical surgery. I really don't believe in it. I think that established stating for most man, I think it changes men's quality of life in a very very bad way. I think that our results, and you can look at the data if you believe in data, and if you believe in facts that you can see the data, and for example.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on 710 WOR
"Maybe you can you tell you who I am. So you have a sense of who I am before. I started talking about what we talk about. Which is learning about cancer and medicine how this whole medical system works. And we're here every day every day on the radio to educate. There's only one reason why solid anything there's no money. No. We're not asking you to send in twenty five cents for DVD, though. We're here to educate. My name is Dr Liederman born and raised in Iowa educated university medical school MD and went to university of Chicago trained in internal medicine at university of Chicago. And Michael Reese went to Boston trained in. Medical oncology, which is chemotherapy work at Dana Farber Harvard, Medical School, then radiation, the joint center for at Harvard Medical School nine years after medical school. So people kept on saying gal jump in the water get to work already. I said why I wanna learn I want to be the best doctor I can be and learn as much as I can possibly learn that was important to me and still important to me to give the most information to you. And now I can be here with you on the radio and educate you, yes, I'm triple board certified MD Harvard trained one of the few in the world with that designation. And I'm here for you. So every day, I see patients with cancer every day. I take notes in every day. I prepare the notes to come and talk to you. And that's we're gonna do the purpose is to educate you, and to it probably be entertained by it, but believe me, many people are suffering and their suffering because they have the cancer and they have to make the decision, and it's might be entertaining. Until God God forbid you have to make that decision. And that's really why we're here today. So that you are better educated to make a decision about cancer treatment. You can understand what to do. With a certain tells, you you have to cut off your foot or your arm or your leg or your breast or your long or your prostate or bladder or your liver. Pancreas, you're going to sit back and say, well, okay. You can say what he wants her. She can say what she wants. But the fact is that there are choices. And there's probably choices for me, and by educating you, you can pass on the information to your neighbors and friends and family, and even that person down the street who you know, is suffering and you're gonna Pat on the back and say, you don't have to lose your, arm or your leg..
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Move Forward Radio
"Things that were really, really fascinating and, and this, you know, just could jump started my my interest in science, even more. I was fortunate enough to when you do your your, your doctoral work, you have to get together a committee of really, really a wonderful smart professors that sort of gift you this. This rite of passage into into this having the PHD in among those people was another very dear and extraordinary professor Hussein is Albert prescribing Oni. At Harvard Medical School, and he was in my committee and he asked me some really, really interesting questions. He contributed a lot to to to shape and the quality of of of my thesis that were going on at the moment. And at the end of that interaction, he offered me up the possibility to go do a postdoctoral fellowship to further my training and and science at Harvard Medical School. And so I went to Boston. I spent a little bit of time there, and then I came back to the university of Miami. I currently, I'm an assistant professor. I straddle in between the the department of physical therapy, which is my main hearts, my main home, but I also have an appointment in medical neurology where I have a research lab. I mentor other wonderful students through to this journey of their doctoral work there peachy and I'm really, really interested in questions and answering using science to answer. Questions that essentially help people need more functional independent lives. And so I had started this work back back in that time where I was I was I was here working in spinal cord injury, and I was trying to understand how we can make. We have patients therapies more effective, for instance, by combining it with with nerve stimulation. Noninvasive brainstorm ration-, and I did a lot of really interesting parts related with that. But then something interesting happened in my in my life, which was I experienced the the, the reality behind the statistics, the statistics related with the aging population and the the number of people that that exhibits as related cognitive decline. And so my grandpa I actually lost him to complications associated with with with Alzheimer's disease and. And so this was a pivotal moment in my life because it made me become more interested in this scenario. And so right now, many of the research studies that I lead here, I lead them also concurrently I still maintain the solution with with the best Israel Deaconess medical center with the with a Berenson Allen center for noninvasive Branston relation up at Harvard Medical School. But in collaboration with the studies that I do here in my lab and over there, I am really now focused on better understanding how we can promote brain health for individuals where aging and a big part of this piece, which I think is a piece that physical therapists, our position that very, very special place.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on WCBS Newsradio 880
"Rick, Edelman show Now here's wick welcome back to the RIC Edelman show triple eight plan RIC for. Your financial questions really fascinating study that came out recently by research paper by professor at. Harvard Medical School that said that husbands and wives tend to retire at. The same time but that wives tend to be two to three years younger, than their husbands which means they're retiring two to. Three years earlier and the study said that women because, they live longer they need financial aid to retire at just, older than men which is exactly what you've just. Been talking, about the study of course completely. Ignores behavioral finance the author would seem to be scratching, his head saying why are? Women doing? This, so foolishly well Sally explained why this. Is very clear her husband is seventeen years older and Sally wants to enjoy his retirement years before. It's too late it. Makes perfect sense Sally is smarter than those professors at. Harvard Medical School, in other words it's emotions that are guiding our decision making It's not rational but we are. Not, rational creatures. We are emotional creatures and we apply metrics that are not necessarily economically efficient because. There's more to life than money right as my wife Jean loves to say personal finance. Is more personal than finance but in some ways although Sally gets it. Right and it's looking at this correctly sometimes our emotions actually get in our, way as opposed to being beneficial and it's possible. That your emotions are getting in the way of your, ability to make good investment decisions so I want you to, come to our new seminar mind over money we're. Bringing it, around the country within forty events..
"harvard medical school" Discussed on The Pulse
"But have you ever met a doctor who has a disability I haven't or at least not that I know of doctors are expected to be perfect, right? Superhumans of sorts really smart physically fit ready to work around the clock and perform miracles every day. But more and more current and aspiring doctors, say this narrative is a disservice to providers and to patients can they change the culture Alana Gordon reports when Stacey Jones got to med school, she was prepared to struggle. She'd always been aware in the back of her mind that certain aspects of academics were tough for her. She figured she'd just have to work even harder. She had made it all the way to Harvard Medical School, but that were just even. Harder strategy didn't work out. So, well, I basically almost failed a lot of my classes, and I just doing that time felt very ashamed, and I felt very lonely shoot avoid professors, terrified that they were thinking. She was lazy the summer after her first year in two thousand fifteen. Stacey went to get evaluated. She realized she had a learning disability and ADHD is very validating when my neuropsychologist actually sat down with me and said, Stacy, you're smart, you know, like Stacey like, look at all of these things that your brain does. Well, it must be so frustrating when you read or when you listen to lectures like your brain's not processing language in the same way. It was a relief to hear that, but it also wasn't a relief because I think there is this perception in medical education and in the culture in general of not really admitting vulnerabilities and not admitting. Thing like disability is in word that I often heard Spokane, that's because disability hasn't been something that's talked about a lot when it comes to medicine. Doctors often like to think of themselves as the fixers, not the ones wherever in need of care profession historically has viewed themselves as able bodied in the extreme, Lisa is only is very familiar with this culture. I am a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the director of the manga. It's to toot health policy center at the Massachusetts General Hospital. She uses an electric wheelchair or scooter to get around. You have to really sprint to keep up with her really going fast. She likes to move at rabbit speed. There's the rapid right there, and there's the turtle. There's a literal rabbit internal on your scooter. Yes, they're little tiny images of a rabbit. And a turtle and rabbit is fast in the early eighties when Lisa was in medical school at Harvard herself. She was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis..
"harvard medical school" Discussed on WLOB
"And i got involved in the debate and argued about and try to talk from my experience also from my knowledge is a doctor about what is possible what's not possible so i mentioned and there's a column in the book about my mentor the professor at harvard medical school i mentioned who helped me out when i was injured in which just a wonderful generous and creative way that helped me to get through medical school so it does show up in the book is isn't something i particularly want to hide but i've always thought that you know once personal story is one story and then there's a world out there that is much more interesting to me and that's what i've been involved writing about talking about so this special which is gonna be on at the end of the week on friday i believe is new is a first for me and i'll be hiding under a bed for about a week and by the way you're out to wait for the special you can get the book now it's called things that matter three decades of passions pastimes in politics so charles if you don't mind just to one more question on this it's hard short careers and then think about you doing it in a wheelchair and not in a wheelchair but in a chair you aren't able to to walk you're making this transition but every day is for me of looking at you as challenge so you're asking people to accept you in a brand new profession with no net with that inhibited challenge of you got to go cover stories but it's going to be hard for you to go cover these where i think that's why my dad was a little skeptical because i did do change after i'd been hurt but look when i i was injured as a first year medical student and i instantly knew what had happened what had met with the future was so i had the knowledge i never had any illusions this was gonna be it either had to accept it or not accepted in the sense that i never had any illusions that those are going to be anything else accepting it you know and so it was either you're gonna live a life of dignity or ruin there's no other way in fact the one thing that did happen with this professor that i write about in the book this herman lists go who was my dean he came to visit me few weeks after i was injured i was in the surgical intensive care is in pretty bad shape and he said you know the.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on Decrypted
"Jen started looking for help jarrett he'd been seeing therapist but that therapist told jen the constant gaming was just a face and hadn't taken seriously i didn't want my child to end up being you know on a wall and police department or post office when he grew up anyone them to be a statistic like that she pulled him out of school and enrolled him in the day program for three weeks it helped jared self esteem was still low he was still grappling with his depression and still spent most of its time online that's one a recommendation from a coworker put jen in touch with a new dr michael rich duck's rich is energetic with silva hair and quick smile he's a professor at harvard medical school and specializes in something he calls pi mu problematic interactive media use fifteen years ago he found at the center on media and child health to study it so he prefers not to describe it as an addiction doctorate said it's medically inaccurate and more broadly for me as a pediatrician is the stigma we attach the word addict or addiction of we think of ums on skid row or junkies in a shooting gallery we don't think about our ten year old his flipping out because he has to stop playing fortnight and go to pet doctor says he sees four main categories of harmful media youth that gaming which affects mostly boys social media which affects mostly girls and then porn and inflammation binging right that's where you might get lost watching one youtube video after another pawn and information binging effect boys and girls.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on 710 WOR
"I'm so you can understand who i am and where i come from and why i'm here and how you can hopefully trust things that we're talking about so i was born and raised in waterloo iowa went to school there went me university there went to medical school got an md degree graduated medical school rose twenty five then went on trained internal medicine that's training specialty of the medical world at the university of chicago michael reese for three years and board certified in that after three years then went to boston trained at harvard medical school in dana farber cancer institute that's the prestigious cancer institute of the dana farber cancer center so it's named at harvard medical school three more years in a board certified in that court certification means you're passing a boarders studying in the areas of that field whether it's turtle medicine or cancer radiation cancer and then there's a board of experts who certify that you are qualified to be in that field so i'm board certified this number two and then went on to harvard medical school joint center for addition therapy port certified there after three more years so nine years triple board certified traded harvard medical school.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on BizTalk Radio
"Infinity twelve but that still remains in my mind about that article that i read by by doctor robert too long pro saddam medical ethics anesthesiology and pediatrics at the harvard medical school and as c associated in critical care medicine salem's hospital in boston and this optical them somehow you know kept in my mind and i thought it was a video entrusting ought to envy permit watch that guy share the gist of far what i read and understood the so that the dismissed can also have i i did you get the opening now i want you to understand that i am not in a analysis critique of the contents of his article but shedding what in the article many in the devil public usually do not lead scientific journal articles i thought this one not too interesting both from its content and its purpose to educate and informed the general public about that medical ethics and efficient physician relationship what i understand nor temple 1960 the emphasis was on the obligations of physicians solely in terms of promoting the welfare of the patient while not mentioning about the patients to light that has changed drastically since nineteen sixtyfour festival let me start with the evoke decodes that deficient state this old nessus defines the conduct physician to a patient and the ethical and motto attributes in treating a patient in 9064 that was modified by.
"harvard medical school" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"He was financial donor relations but she knew how to give it to her so we set up an appointment in the next day i showed up and she introduced me to one of the people who requests corneas dr james ski he's a professor of ophthalmology at harvard medical school and i stood in his doorway she explained who i was and he was eating fee whole foods salad at his desk and he stood up and he thanked me for the donation and he shook my hand and he said you have any questions for me and it was so emotional meeting him i said how many corneas g request in a year and he said my lab requests about ten a year we would request more but they're hard to get in infant eyes are like gold to us in my heart was just throw it in i could barely like choke out the word today said could he tell me why and he said will infant eyes first of all there unusual because most of us her older when we die and that's when you donate your eyes but also infant eyes have the potential to regenerate in the lab and if you don't mind meal skiing how long ago that your son die ina said about two years ago and he said were likely still studying your sons i cells right now they're probably in this land right now selects his tour concluded may tour guides such an e she said i'll never forget you please keep in touch with me and i felt something any started to change and i felt that my son had found his place in the world in that place was harvard.