35 Burst results for "Harvard Kennedy School"
Shopping for Health Care: How Consumer Can Use Purchasing Power to Get What They Need with Deb Gordon
"Welcome back to the outcomes rockets Sal Marquez here, and they have the privilege of hosting for the Second Time Miss Deb Gordon, she's spent her career trying to level the playing field for health care consumers haven't listened to the first podcasts with DAB. You've gotta go listen to it. It's all about the consumer and healthcare. She's all about you. She's all about your employees and how you can get the most for your healthcare dollar. She's the author of the healthcare consumers manifesto how to get the most for your money based on research she conducted as a senior fellow. At the Harvard Kennedy, School Center for Business and government she's a former health insurance executive and health care CEO. She's an aspen. Institute health innovators fellow and an Eisenhower fellow, her research and commentaries have appeared in USA Today, the Harvard Business Review blog, and on network open. She holds a B A in bioethics from Brown University and an MBA with distinction from Harvard Business School and I'm excited to dive into her work again around the consumer's manifesto deb such a privilege to have you back on. Hey, saw. Thanks so for having me back. Yeah, absolutely. So you've been busy. I have been busy. That's true. I spent probably a year doing research for this book and another year writing a not exactly that split but I spend a good two years of my life producing this baby and it is exciting to come back and tell you about it because when we first met, I was just starting to think about it. I was just starting the research and listening to what consumers had to say. So I'm excited to be back to talk more about it the same here and so dab you know obviously. So listeners goal isn't a DEB's podcast. This you get a deeper appreciation about her time as an insurance executive and what has inspired her work and focus in the consumer sphere but a little bit about the book. Dab. You know what's the focus area? What are the takeaways at a high level? Sure. So I wrote the book mainly to expose the human side of healthcare costs like what is really going on for people when we go to the doctor or were phasing an insurance decision and we have to pay. For it and I was really taken with the fact that so many people of all walks of life come to me and say because I used to work health insurance they know I know something about it and they just say what should I do and you know the most extraordinary people who've accomplished so much in their lives walk into my office at the Kennedy School at Harvard and alike, what health insurance should I buy and I. It just dawned on me that if people like that need help and it's Legitimate that they do. It's very confusing and can be overwhelming like what chance is you know everyone else have of making sense of these decisions. So that's the motivation that I I brought into the book and then in doing my research for it, I heard story after story of consumer. So real people who are trying to get value for their healthcare dollars whether they use those kind of terms or not I say like shopping for healthcare is a thing we could do people don't use those words and they don't even. Know what I'm talking about. But you know I interviewed people about their experiences spending money on healthcare and what I learned is that although it feels really foreign to put that into shopping terms or you know we know how to buy things but we don't know how to shop around in healthcare and. It doesn't mean we're not able to. That's I think the biggest takeaway is that we do actually have more power than we might even realize and that the first step is to just ask the question, what if what, if I could get what I needed? What do I need? Why do I need this? Is there an alternative and just almost like re imagine ourselves as a customer when it comes to healthcare this is Dr is nervous and unhappy by the way, but it's not a slight against doctors. It's just you know what I think consumers need for whatever reason we need permission almost to think of ourselves as entitled to get value for our healthcare dollars.
Has Globalization Undermined the American Working Class?
"America's working class has been cheated is an assertion that has been getting a lot of currency lately are last presidential election went deep on that claim in both parties by the way and the culprit most often blamed for that. It's that monstrous five syllable word globalization, the philosophy and the practice of free trade which has been great for companies and for shareholders but has had a devastating impact. It is argued on the American working woman and. Man Well Economist do agree that in the past four decades the American working class, which we're defining tonight as people who lack a four year college degree. They have seen flat wages and a steady disappearance of good jobs. But is globalization a main reason that that's happening to those workers and for those workers is globalization entirely bad. Well, we think this has the makings of a debate. So let's have it. Yes or no to this statement globalization. has undermined. America's working. Class I'm John Donavan, and I stand between two teams of experts in this topic who argue for and against this resolution globalization has undermined America's working class as always. Our debate will go in three rounds and then our live audience here at the Saint Regis Hotel and Aspen Colorado where we are appearing in partnership with the Aspen Ideas Festival will choose the winner and as always if all goes well civil discourse, we'll. Also win a resolution once again, globalization has undermined America's Working Class Jared Bernstein you have debated with us before. So welcome back you're a senior fellow at the center on Budget and policy priorities. You were Vice President Joe. Biden's chief economist. The last time you debated with US interestingly Jason Furman who is your opponent at the other table tonight was your debate partner as a team you were formidable formidable I, almost want to use the French pronunciation. Formula, so are you planning to use your insiders knowledge of Jason's debate battles against him to very much am the way to do that with Jason is to make a lot of sports analogies because they repealing confusing. All right. Thank you and I see you detail to Aspen. You were a to aspen well I. Think the guy with the tie is the guy you want to listen to, but I'll let you decide. All right. Thanks very much. Jared Bernstein and can tell us who your partner is. This someone I've known for twenty five years she's a dear friend of mine and I consider her my mentor in this topic feely gentlemen feeling. Theo welcome to intelligence squared your president of the Economic Policy Institute. You've spent two decades as an economist for the AFL CIO, which is America's largest federation of unions. It represents some twelve point, five, million working women and men. You've spent twenty five years working on trade policy. So what got you interested in trade? Well, when I came to Washington in the early nineties I got drawn. INTO THE NAFTA debate the North American Free Trade. Agreement. And I realized pretty early on that. This was not some kind of a dry text book discussion about tariffs but it was a transnational battle over democracy good jobs, workers, rights, and regulation. So I was hooked because a lots at stake a lot is at stake. Okay. Thanks very much thelia once again, team arguing for the motion. And motion again, globalization has undermined America's working class. We have to debaters arguing against it, I Jason Firm. Welcome back to intelligence squared Jason you're a professor of the practice of economic policy at the Harvard Kennedy School you're a senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, you were Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers under President Obama tonight. As we said, you're going to be debating your former colleague Jared Bernstein on the impact of globalization. So is this the first time you to have debated the globalization issue with each other jared and I agree on I'd say about ninety five percent of economic issues and my goal tonight is to bring to one hundred percent. Thanks very much Jason and can you tell us who your partner is someone I've only known for a few years and every single thing. He's ever told me I have believed James Manica Legitimate James Manyika. Welcome the first time telling squared you're a senior partner at McKinsey, and company you're the chairman of their economics research arm, the McKinsey Global Institute, your first time debating with us. But not your first debate you debated at Oxford I did you studied robotics and computers earlier in your career you were visiting scientist at NASA. So how do you go from very eclectic from robotics and space to thinking about trade policy? In American. Workers I've always been fascinated by the kinds of technologies that drive innovation and growth, but also affects what will people in the real world actually do. So when you put that together with the economy, these issues around trade and workforce become very, very important. Those are the issues that motive a great perspective to bring here and then once again, thank you. Thank you again to the team arguing against them.
Election Security is (mostly) Solvable
"Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologists. He teaches cybersecurity at the Harvard Kennedy School. I Co host Malcolm Bradwell talked with Schneier about the threats that loom over the vote this fall when we talk about elections being hacked. What does that mean I'm assuming that there are fifty different things that fall into that category. So we'll talk about the hacking the voting process. It's a process by which you cast your vote. We also talk about hacking the broader electoral process so when the Hack Democratic National Committee and posted a dump a lot of information online. They weren't hacking the vote. They were hacking the overall election process, so you can talk about fake news and propaganda and Astroturf, and those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. And that's one very separate branch, the other branches hacking the vote itself or the process by which you and I go to vote and there you have four places where you can affect things sort of affect the outcome. The first registration process. And we've read about and seen different hacks on the voting rolls so that when you go to vote, you can't at that point. This particular kind of hacking. Is it really about taking people off the rolls? A couple of things in California some years ago, people had their party. Affiliation changed from Republican to Democrat. You can change the address of somebody, so they go to vote. And they were told to go to a different Pole, and some of these are easy. Many states have. Online systems to change your registration aren't well indicated. Others is to Pull people off the voting rolls. Others are to erase the voting rolls. What happens if we get to election day? In a certain state in the voting rolls don't work, and we don't know why, so a lot of things against the voting rolls. The second is the thing we talk about all the time. which is vote itself. Is Your vote recorded accurately? The third. Is the tabulation process matter how you vote? There's this sort of automated sort of manual process by which the numbers out of each machine get increasingly aggregated the numbers in the the building the numbers in the precinct, the numbers in the town of the city, the state all the way up to the national, if if that matters. And then the last which I think people don't think about a lot is the reporting process and we have seen, and this was something that we think was thwarted in in twenty eighteen. Erroneous reporting. where the number right, but the press release says the opposite. Of those four things that you've identified. Can we rank them in order of? Seriousness, which is the one that worries you the most I I would not rank them. I think ranking is is dangerous. I think they're all risky know. If I'm a chaos Asian. How did what's the level of difficulty involved in spreading chaos in the American electoral system? It'll depend on the technology. So we can talk about voting machines and some are more secure than others. I vote Minnesota. We use optical scan voting I have a piece of paper. I feel an ovals, and then that is tallied. Use A computer that is the gold standard right is a voter verifiable paper audit trail. Now is real hard to mess with that and you can mess with the tabulating, but there's a paper backup. You can do a recount. Some states vote on touchscreen machines. We've had times. Those machines have opened up and that it's been zero zero zero zero. What does that mean? No votes to no votes. Something went wrong today. Those machines are a lot worse than you want them to be. The company's very secret, but there have been audits at Def Con. Hacker conference couple years ago, we had a bunch of machines in voting village and they were all hacked. Company say they're all flying. They're often. Online is a lot of ways to to go after those machines
Election Security is (mostly) Solvable
"This is solvable. I'm Jacob Weisberg. So you can talk about fake news and propaganda and ASTROTURF ING. All of those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. Election meddling undermines with sits at the foundation of American. Democracy confidence in our voting system. Whether hacking takes the form of masking the original source of a campaign message to make it seem like it comes from the grass roots, so called ASTROTURF. For disseminating intentionally false. It all leads Americans to question the legitimacy of the democratic process. In Two thousand sixteen, we discovered russian-backed hackers will responsible for disinformation campaigns in response Congress directed three hundred eighty million dollars to the fifty states to boost election security, but did it really help. Is it useful to compare electoral outcomes to poll results? You're not gonNA believe it right. The problem of voting as opposed to any other computer security mechanism. Is that after the fact? It's part. Is there a problem with the expectation? We have then that the a winner of election ought to be declared immediately, so yes, a slower process would enable us to do more checking before announcing anything. The American people don't like that. Even going to sleep before knowing is bad. With increasingly long election fees I'd sleep better on election hearing the Mike candidate one, but wouldn't we all sleep better knowing that whatever the result it was guaranteed to be accurate. The tech is real tech assault. None of what you've described is exotic or untried. Why is it been so difficult to convince other states to to put in place some of these already available voting techniques. Cause the problems are not technical, the problems or political. Elections security is mostly solvable. Bruce Schneier is an internationally renowned security technologists. He teaches cybersecurity at the Harvard Kennedy School. I Co host Malcolm Bradwell talked with Schneier about the threats that loom over the vote this fall when we talk about elections being hacked. What does that mean I'm assuming that there are fifty different things that fall into that category. So we'll talk about the hacking the voting process. It's a process by which you cast your vote. We also talk about hacking the broader electoral process so when the Hack Democratic National Committee and posted a dump a lot of information online. They weren't hacking the vote. They were hacking the overall election process, so you can talk about fake news and propaganda and Astroturf, and those things hacked the greater process that conversation around the election. And that's one very separate branch, the other branches hacking the vote itself or the process by which you and I go to vote and there you have four places where you can affect things sort of affect the outcome. The first registration process. And we've read about and seen different hacks on the voting rolls so that when you go to vote, you can't at that point. This particular kind of hacking. Is it really about taking people off the rolls? A couple of things in California some years ago, people had their party. Affiliation changed from Republican to Democrat. You can change the address of somebody, so they go to vote. And they were told to go to a different Pole, and some of these are easy. Many states have. Online systems to change your registration aren't well indicated. Others is to Pull people off the voting rolls. Others are to erase the voting rolls. What happens if we get to election day? In a certain state in the voting rolls don't work, and we don't know why, so a lot of things against the voting rolls. The second is the thing we talk about all the time. which is vote itself. Is Your vote recorded accurately? The third. Is the tabulation process matter how you vote? There's this sort of automated sort of manual process by which the numbers out of each machine get increasingly aggregated the numbers in the the building the numbers in the precinct, the numbers in the town of the city, the state all the way up to the national, if if that matters. And then the last which I think people don't think about a lot is the reporting process and we have seen, and this was something that we think was thwarted in in twenty eighteen. Erroneous reporting. where the number right, but the press release says the opposite.
Does Size Matter When It Comes To Health
"Dr Stanford is an obesity medicine, physician, scientists, educator and policymaker at Massachusetts General. Hospital and Harvard Medical School. She also lectures at Brown and Teaches Med students at Harvard. Hello, and welcome well. Thanks for having me. It's an absolute delight to be here today with both of you. We're just we're the most accomplished person ever had this podcast like I cannot even begins. Batum were all you have. You guys are the best and this is. This is what I need to me through the rest of the day as I conquer the world. Yeah! We're honored that you made have the time the time to come talk to us just a little, so thank you so much. Did I get all of that right? You did I I. Guess What I can do is explain it to people because people are kind of like is all of that absolutely so? I'm obviously a mathematician, so the MD is the easiest part I think to understand on my completed my masters in public health nineteen years ago, so it shows you that I'm older than I appear. And that was in health policy management. My masters impose ministration was from the Harvard. Kennedy School, government and government. Currently working on my MBA executive MBA, so that hasn't quite made it to the end of my name, but I may lead US next year. Let me tell you guys. We'll have more to talk about. The the all the that you see after not team for fifteen, but it is nice that it goes with that, so those are all fellowships, so my fellow of the ANC, which is the American Academy pediatrics I'm a fellow of American College of Positions. American college positions represents all Physicians for adult so internal medicine, a fellow of the American Heart Association so basically. I'm looking at cardio metabolic health and being the fellow in the American Heart Association what represents that and then a fellow in the obesity society. Society which is the F. Toss? So you know these fellowships come you know after having accomplished in those different on areas domain, so I see children I see adults I work in this kind of Cardio Metabolic, health space obviously as obesity medicine physician I work in that space, so it really is a combination of kind of who I am, and just looking at Vegas, the letters that come after my name really talks to the work that I really care about and working with my patients patients across the wall. That's amazing. Wow -gratulations. What inspired you study obesity. One of the things that I was always very concerned about as a black one in a black woman who was born and raised in Atlanta Julie obviously in Boston is that's where mastermind Harvard are? I'm I was really. Perplexed I think is the word I WANNA. Use about the disproportionate impact obesity on communities of color particularly I'm the black community. That was what really brought me to this work, so if you go back twenty years ago, I think you've as you're in your twenties for twenty years ago. When I was doing my m H, you're not okay. Across. Our loved anyways Oh! That's Cute I. Love it still have you guys by? Decades! but one of the things I was really interested in seeing was like. I felt like there was a lot that we weren't doing to understand why. Obesity obesity disproportionately impacted certain groups and the groups that are more likely to kind of tackle these issues or the people that are representative, so those scripts so as a black woman and the group that is most disproportionately impacted by obesity I felt compelled to really approach and tackle this headline, so the projects that I was doing back at emory school of Public Health, back in ninety nine two thousand etc, We're looking at specifically obesity in the black community one project I was doing was. Was Looking at obesity in the Black Church community was looking at obesity among African, American, adolescent girls and one was looking at obesity within those that are law resources within the wick programs. It'll women's and children's for Ram, and how could we fix their Their plight in terms of recognizing that we can in some ways with the limited resources that they may have available to enhance their role house. So this was something that was kind of lingering. I didn't anticipate that I would choose obese medicine. 'cause that was not a field when I was twenty years ago. It really was not a field. There was no board certification in obesity medicine. The first Brit sort of patients directly. No Be Madison didn't start until two thousand well, which was well after I finished medical school, but I can tell you I was on. Call in the pediatric ICU when I was in residency and I as internal medicine pediatrics and I literally just googled obesity in medicine at about two thirty in the morning after I just intimated three kids in the ICU in a new. I was going to sleep at nights. I figured I'd just need to keep myself busy. And, the fellowship here at Mass General at Harvard popped up and I was like. What is this? You know I I really interested in obesity. I had no idea there was a fellowship, indeed the first ship and so I came and I spent three years. Doing a fellowship dedicated to understanding the disease of obesity.
Students may not get "the true college experience" this year
"International students in Massachusetts and across the country may be forced to leave if they're university goes virtual. More from w TVs. Louisa Moeller full classrooms in person debate that used to be Valeria Mendy old is experience at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government. I was in shock. I was like, I can't the can's right like he has now the grad student from Mexico says Uncertainty from the pandemic has turned into hyper uncertainty with a new directive from Immigration and Customs enforcement that international students in the U. S will have to leave the country or risk deportation. If their school switched online on Ly Learning. Harvard, for example, had just announced it would hold on ly virtual classes in the fall. What am I gonna do with my with my lease on my apartment when I'm going to go with my furniture? Go back to Mexico. Where am I going to say international students are basically confronted between two choices between risking my own health and, you know, attending in person classes or be deported from the US. Maya Nasser, a PhD student at MIT worries that if she leaves, she won't be allowed back on top of the challenges she could face trying to learn from her home country of Lebanon. Right now open on its passing through an extreme economic crisis. The country is on a brink of Herman. We do not have access to power electricity, InterNAP. Ice is expected to release more guidance later this week. But Sarah Sprites her with the American Council on Education, which represents over 700 colleges and university, says the impact could be huge. So we have over one million students in the U. S that come from other countries on they actually have $41 billion impact on the U. S economy. That was the estimation from
Consumer Confidence Rising After Deep Plunge In April
"Learned this morning from the good people at the Conference Board Business Research Group. We learned that consumer confidence in this economy is up of this month after tanking in April the reaction to that good news because it is good news prompted this reaction from White House economic adviser Larry cudlow on Fox News. This morning. The third quarter could be the fastest growing quarter in. Us history. The whole second half is going to be very strong and here comes the reality check on their reaction to that good news first of all let us remember. We are in the second quarter right now. April may June where the percentage decline in Gross Domestic Product is expected to be epic worst ever retail sales. Were down last month. The unemployment rate is upward. Hasn't been since the Great Depression and they're still. Oh so much uncertainty about what's going to happen next now. Why am I saying? This economists. Megan Green a senior fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School helps us out with that. For example if you say An economy is running at a level of ten. It's producing ten things. Let's say and there's a fifty percent decline then that brings it down to five okay but then and let's say the next month. Actually things go really well. And you've got a fifty percent increase. Sounds great right. It's from a lower numbers so that doesn't bring you back up to ten at actually only brings you back up to seven point five. So the percentage changes can be really misleading. Mr Kudlow this morning it has to be pointed out and as you said is talking about Q. Three July August and September. So I think that as the economy opens up we should see the economic data improve and depending on how you're looking at that data it will either improve a little or it will improve a lot for instance. The Congressional Budget Office figures. There will be a better than five percent increase. Gdp growth in that third quarter. Mr Kudlow was talking about but to review a lot of that. Depends on what you're comparing it to now. Why are we telling you this? I realized that's the second time we've asked this. But this matters that third quarter. Gdp number is going to come out just five days before the election. I think the Republicans will come out and say look we've got the best GDP data ever And we've got the best job state at ever looking at percentage changes in. They'll be right actually. Technically that's true but at the same time the Democrats will be saying we'll but we're still really far below. We were before this crisis even started. And there's a lot of room for improvement and they'll also be right and show. I think people will be getting these mixed messages on what the state of the economy is in. Actually both of them will be correct. You just need to learn how to read the data at understand what it all means
Racial Slurs And Swastikas Fuel Civil Rights Pressure On Zoom
"In Zoom meetings racists slurs and hate speech. Keep showing up today. A civil rights group is meeting with the company to demand. Do something about that. Npr Tech correspondent Shannon. Bond has the reporting but first let me know. Zoom is an NPR sponsor Rashad Robinson I encountered the term zoom bombing on social media. We started seeing people posting things and Particularly knee and others aren't at color of change in what they were. Experiencing Color of change is a nonprofit that advocates for racial equality and Robinson is its president. People were tagging him in reports of Zuma tax because so many of them involve racist slurs and harassment. Black Lemay having a church gathering and have people come in drawing You Know Genitalia and calling them. The Edward Robinson's group and others found evidence of organized campaigns out in the open on twitter and Instagram as well as message boards popular with the far right there people shared links and passwords to coordinate attacks on unsuspecting zoom users. This all comes as zoom is being increasingly used for online school Passover Seder town halls. Now Color of change says zoom must take more responsibility. You know we want them to release a specific plan to combat. Racial harassment on the platform among Robinson's list of demands. A chief diversity officer who would focus on how technology impacts bowl normal people also better security and he wants a formal apology to victims in a statement. Npr Zoom says it takes security extremely seriously and it looks forward to the discussion with color of change but other groups are renewing alarms to the anti-defamation League has traced to attacks to a known white nationalist both involved virtual events held by Jewish groups. As more and more people are spending time at home. So are the extremists who are looking to find ways to leverage the technology to harass people. Oren Segal runs the anti-defamation League's Center on extremism. He spoke during a presentation. The group gave Zoom bombing. These are moments where people are trying to find community trying to find opportunities to create normal discussion with colleagues with friends with family. And that's why this is particularly disturbing law enforcement is watching Michigan. Prosecutors worn hacking videoconferences is a crime and there could be jail time in recent weeks. Zoom has taken steps to make it harder for intruders to get into meetings the company blocks Ip addresses of attackers when people report harassment. But critics say it should be more proactive given these are problems that plague so many tech platforms zoom CEO Eric. Yuen appeared on. All things considered where he was asked whether he should have anticipated such attacks by harassers. I never thought about this seriously. That answer reflects how you en envision zoom in the first place it was designed for business meetings but now it's having to grapple with what happens when society at large logs on even more troubling this new form. Virtual harassment doesn't end with zoom meetings themselves. Joan Donovan Studies Online extremism at the Harvard Kennedy School's Shorenstein Center. A lot of these folks are taking video or taking screen shots and then sharing them in other places. So we're seeing the artifacts of Zimbabwe. Show up on Youtube and on takeoff and another video sharing platforms and that happens. It's hard for zoom or any single company to end the vicious
Pelosi: House 'close' to striking deal with Trump on coronavirus response package
"Breaking news from Capitol Hill as House Speaker. Nancy Pelosi announced that she is close to an agreement to legislative deal with the trump administration on a package that could be passed tomorrow to deal with mostly the economic effects of the Corona virus and Donald Trump has not been involved in the negotiations is treasury. Secretary has done the president's job for him because the president is not in the mood to speak with Nancy Pelosi and reportedly believes that Speaker Pelosi would humiliate him if he involved himself in the discussions. This is of course one way of looking at the other way of looking at it as Donald trump humiliates himself whenever he opens his mouth as he did last night. While Donald Trump was addressing the nation last night for ten minutes from the office stock market futures trading started to drop dramatically and then when the market opened today proceeded to crash by the largest amount since nineteen eighty-seven losing almost ten percent of its value today. Harvard economics professor and former Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers tweeted hostess sets. What I believe is a new world record for presidential market value destruction. Joining us now. Is Jason Furman? The former chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers. The President Obama. He is now professor of the practice of economic policy. At Harvard's Kennedy School. Thank you very much for joining US tonight. Professor Ruin what. What would you suggest the government action that could be taken now? What action could be taken to deal with what we're seeing as the economic effects of this crisis? Lawrence this is the most serious economic crisis. This country may have faced since the Great Depression bigger than what we faced in two thousand eight. Two thousand eight was terrible. It was devastating but most people kept their jobs. Many people kept spending right now. Everyone is cutting their spending large swaths of the economy. People's jobs are at risk. And so once you start to think about that the answer to your question of what we should do the more. We can do the better so my next question was going to be. Is this one thousand. Nine hundred eighty seven or is this nineteen twenty nine which you've already answered that it's closer to that of maybe about six months ago. I reread John. Kenneth Galbraith book the Great Crash About The nineteen twenty nine stock market crash. And when you read the things people were saying As it was already underway as the crash was happening others so many people who sounded like Donald Trump that saying it will bounce back as the president said today the stock market will bounce back. Don't worry about it Larry cudlow the other day saying invest As it's going down you know you'll be very happy with that. Of course it's dropped dramatically since Kudlow said that so just to set this of for our audience perspective you are comparing this now to the nineteen twenty nine crash of the stock absolutely and you know the difference is it depends on what happens if we get through this virus and the next two months then maybe it bounces right back if it takes us nine months even at that point if we find a cure for the vaccine a lot of damage a huge amount of damage will be done to companies to workers on to unemployment of type. That would persist. And you could take a long time to to recover from so I I'd love to have more reassuring things to say for Lawrence but I just I am. I am worried right now. Well you're confirming what. I've been feeling in my my amateur way about this but so this presents an enormous policy-making challenge because when you talk about things like payroll tax cut which the president mentioned a few days ago and it died instantly when the Senate Finance Committee chairman said he wouldn't even consider it. That could come back. But a payroll tax cut to a person. Who's no longer on payroll Doesn't work the way it bye-bye in the stimulus way. You might have wanted it to a while. That person was still on the payroll. That's absolutely right so what I think we should do. Is Number one everything. We can do on health free testing which is in the house legislation. I think that's terrific. We're GONNA eat a lot of hospital beds. A lot of ventilators. We're going to need that fast
How worried should we be about COVID-19 and the economy?
"You know. Much as stock markets have built circuit breakers to put a stop to panic selling and recalibrate the mood. Which by the way happened today. Not Long. After the open when the S. and P. Five hundred hit seven percent on the downside. So too will we use the program today to recalibrate the mood to explain. Why all of a sudden the economic realities of the corona virus seemed to have gotten so much more real to start us off economists making green from the Harvard Kennedy School Megan's to have you back on the program. Thanks for having me. Why as best you can figure out did. The bottom seemingly fallout today. What happened so I think it was a confluence of two things? Mainly one is northern northern Italy. Pretty much shut down so it just fed the idea that even if cases or slowing down within China they're actually accelerating outside of China. And that's a big deal and then the second issue actually isn't directly related to the corona virus. It's more related to the OPEC meeting on Friday where Saudi and Russia decided to flood the market with oil. And so I'M OIL. Prices of fallen pretty precipitously and that creates huge credit problems for a lot of companies related to the energy industry which are actually pretty highly leveraged inert generally rated just above junk level. And so if you start seeing defaults than they'll be downgraded and there will be four selling so that's also provided a lot of drama today highly leveraged lots of borrowing more on oil coming up from Scott Tong in a minute. Let me ask you about a word you use though Things are accelerating outside China. Speaking broadly are you surprised at the speed with which this whole thing has come to this moment. Sue Him nine just given how incredibly interconnected. The world is both in terms of global supply chains but also more importantly in this case in terms of people traveling around and I think that China really did great work in buying the rest of us time In that they had really draconian measures to try to keep people in their own towns in their own buildings. It's much more than most people realize. In addition to quarantining and social distancing. You know there's an APP that the government runs where you can see you as corona virus. So that enforces social distancing so China about us a lot of time and a lot of us could have completely squandered it most of all the US so our response to this crisis has been pretty embarrassing. I think for a developed country with a highly competent health system. How much of that American response contributes to what I perceived to be the changing nature of this crisis. It's going from a supply shock which we talked about when apple had its earnings warning to now people worried about demand shock and the credit markets. And all of that. So the demand shock. I think we're really worried about and rightly so but we don't actually have any data that suggesting it's happen. So the demand shock we know is coming out of China Rate. The second largest economy in the entire world was at a standstill for at least five weeks for for the. Us demand shock at home. It's just perceived at this point right it involves people not going out to dinner not going out and spending and we can certainly get there but at the moment I think it's just concern about. It's not we're not getting any data that suggesting that that's the case really It's just something that seems like it might be coming and I think it's absolutely reasonable for us to worry about this. And then that's feeding over into the financial markets of course is confidence is is been bled from them. And so you've seen these huge moves over the past couple days if and let stress that this is a big if but if we do turn into a recession in this economy given the underlying fundamentals as politicians like to say we're strong right. The labor market strong consumers are really confident. What might a recovery look like on the other end of this thing depends entirely on epidemiology and None of us really have answers there so it really depends on how far this virus spreads if the viruses eventually contained and we have inappropriate policy response with some fiscal stimulus. You know a year from now the we might remember this entire experience but know we'll have forgotten about the economic implications of it traits. So it could just be transitive. We saw that. With the SARS virus for example. There is a big drop off in demand and then you know it picked up pretty immediately once the virus was contained. So that could be the case here but if it actually is spread further and is more deadly than of course we might not get a v-shaped recovery. It might be much more gradual and require more policy intervention Megan Green and economist. Also a senior fellow at the Harvard Kennedy School. Thanks a lot of really. Appreciate your time and your
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School Policy Cost. I'm your host Tumble Moyle. The Code Nineteen Corona virus has spread from Asia to Europe and the Middle East and appears to have the features of a pandemic. But it's not the first global crisis humanity has faced an expose. It won't be the last man storm. Cyber threats rising seas. We'll have a world. Were planning for the next. Disaster is a key to survival. So is there a playbook for responding to a global crisis? Are Disinformation an irrational fear? Making things harder for disaster planners today we're joined by Harvard Kennedy School Senior Lecturer. Julia Qaim Dude. It teaches consult some crisis preparedness and Response and she joins me to talk about the best ways to prepare for the worst..
Apple warns on revenue guidance due to production delays in China because of coronavirus
"Apple has let it be known. It's not going to make its earnings numbers. This quarter. Because it's mostly china-based supply chain has been slower to bounce back than the company had been guessing. Nintendo is worried as well. Nissan and Hyundai have closed down entire car plants. Because they can't get the parts they need from China. And the longer this goes the more these shortages become a big deal which gets us and marketplace's Scott Tong to the phrase that is on a whole lot of people's lips supply shock every day. Four million smartphones get sold somewhere in the world half a million. Tv's changed hands. So what happens if the supply of saw for for a long enough time economists? Carmen reinhart teaches at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government. The way supply shocks work is they have a negative effect on quantity and a positive effect on price. The most notorious of the supply shocks of course was the oil shock. Goes the seventies the oil embargo against the US quadruple? Desperate and fuelled hyper inflation now. Hardly anyone expects that kind of impact at least for now but cornell economist. Issoire things price tags could go up for certain products namely Electron IX cell phones and other wireless devices as well as TVs computers. Those sorts of things that are almost certainly going to be affected if the epidemic last into the spring there could be a longer term supply shock multinational firms could revamp their supply chains away from China which could raise costs and prices for all kinds of things. Agathe Demery forecaster at the economist. Intelligence unit is watching closely. We don't see any signs at the moment that Western companies are going to go out of China that being said if the outbreak is not contained by end March it will be much more difficult to address for global companies. Demery is monitoring ships leaving Chinese ports. Right now she says some are just ten percent full. I'm Scott Tong for
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Eight -ment that we're living through very interesting times just about everywhere you go in the. US and outside people are trying to make sense of the confusing political times with lots of questions like is populism about to slay. Democracy is public support for democracy flagging in favor of authoritarian leaders. How can democracy function with the decline of truth and proliferation of conspiracies? Well Harvard Kennedy School Professor Arkan Funk has been looking into these questions his research explores policies practices and institutions. That helped make democracy work better. His latest work focuses on today's American political climate. He's is my guest today. You've written a paper that examines the political moment differ and you're exploring a period that we've entered the posture for years which is dramatically different from the previous. Say Forty years and you call it appeared of wide aperture low deference democracy. Let's just start with first piece white aperture. What does that mean? What talking about that? Yeah so you know I I Start writing this paper a way to sort out in my own head. What I thought about how the State of democracy that were in and probably like a lot of people around the Kennedy School and maybe some people listening to this podcast? We're a little confused and feeling a fairly high state of anxiety about looking around at the democratic. Seen that we're in but what exactly is different. I'm from the moment that came before. And what is the moment that came before and this is in the. US annacone tonight. Mostly I'm thinking about the US. But I think many of these ideas or the sensibility also applies to what's happening in places in Europe especially England but also other places and the first characteristic that I see happening is I describe it as a wide aperture world and some of your listeners. Who who are a little bit younger? Maybe you don't know what an aperture is. The aperture is a hole in an old film camera and the wider. The whole is more light it lets in and the narrower the whole is the less light it lets in and I'm thinking of the prior era in Democratic Democrat governance which I'm thinking of roughly one thousand nine hundred eighty two two thousand and sixteen in the United States from Reagan to the end of the Obama era as a fairly narrow aperture aperture world in which in the halls of Washington or among political leaders are experts. There's a fairly narrow range of debate. Ah between the centre left and centre right. And after two thousand fifteen in two thousand and sixteen that is after Brexit and the election of Donald Trump to the president of the United States and in our current Democratic primary season. It's very wide aperture world in the sense ends that the range of political and policy ideas that are on the table is much much broader than in that prior era and indeed in that prior prior era many many of these ideas by leading national figures would have been regard indeed were regarded as ridiculous more or rather absurd certainly not feasible not worthy of discussion among serious policy. Give me an idea of some of these ideas that just would not. aww made it to the table. Sure so one idea. I'll begin with a couple of them. One is Andrew Yang's idea the universal basic income. which was it's not his idea? Actually the one of the first people to propose it in a rigorous way is a philosopher named Felipe. Vampire easson famous article famous among philosophers. I called should surfers be fed and he's FSP should surfers Bafana's question was well. Would it be the right thing to do in public policy for Ramallo boost surfer. Who all he or she wants to do is surf? All Day has no interest in working to receive a universal basic income that is from the government a check of love. However much you want you know maybe five ten thousand dollars a month so that he or she could continue surfing? Would that be a good public policy. And Philippe said yes indeed. That would be a good good public policy. We should adopt the universal basic income. And I remember talking about the universal basic income to friends at the Kennedy School and to a one all of them regarded As absurd why would you even be talking about that. And now one of the Democratic primary candidates it's his major platform proposal is a universal basic income. Andrew under Yang of course is not one of the two or three leaders in the Democratic primaries according to polls right now but senators warn and Sanders our Senator Warren earn has notably proposed a significant proportion of seats on corporate boards be representatives of Labor and Organized Labor that proposal so I think is novel for the United States not for Europe but novel for the United States and I I hadn't heard anybody in the Obama administration our prior administrations. I consider that proposal seriously and my my intuition is that it would not have been taken seriously in the pre two thousand fifteen two thousand sixteen. The era as like similar to a wealth tax or indeed Medicare for all is it is a itself a novel proposal and on the right wing of the spectrum backtrack and of course you have a lot of proposals. A lot of policies now being pursued by the trump administration which center right administrations and centre-right leaders. I certainly didn't regard is very sensible policies prior to the election of Donald Trump. And he's saying you'll pay for that. A lot of summation institutions have been leapfrogged wronged by this course of events. What what does that mean? What what do you mean by that so? I think it's interesting that well. They're mainstream institutions like the Democratic Party and the Republican Publican Party and policy intellectuals in social policy and foreign policy and economic policy and social policy. We've all keyed Our thinking to that prior era of you have to if you want to engage in serious policy debates with the policy thinkers and available politics of the day and so have reformed groups like the more conservative side the American Enterprise Institute or the Heritage Foundation on the more Progressive Side Center for a new America or for American progress or reform groups like common cause of which I am on the board full disclosure. We all AW. He'd our discussion and our thinking to center left and center right policy discussion. And if you're a conservative advocate you're trying to pull the the centre-right a little more to the right and if your left or progressive advocate you're trying to pull the center left a little more to the left but in a lot wide but it's a lot wider now and if you look at the national debate in the United States I believe what's happened. Is that the national debate and discussion on both the right if you like and certainly on the progressive side have leapfrogged the advocacy groups and policy intellectuals of that prior era and so organized labor even organized labor wasn't talking about seriously. It wasn't a major proposal to advance the idea of of Labor representation on corporate boards right so in that sense they've been leapfrogged by Senator Warren and so they don't know how to react to that. I think they're adjusting adjusting some of them. But I think for all of us who have been accustomed to that to the prior decades a rare of a relatively constrained debate it is stretching our intellectual muscles and sometimes emotional muscles. So we'll see we'll come back to a minute off to talked about the difference. How we yeah? She got here but I'm just curious to hear we talk about this. I mean what are the implications of this. I mean surely one hearing the idea of wider range of ideas at the table wide inclusion of more diverse perspectives. One could say is a good thing. What are the implications? What do you think about all of this happening? Well how how you come down on whether the wider aperture is a good or bad thing and I think they're good and bad aspects to it depends on whether you think. Thank the views that are were excluded from. The narrow aperture were excluded for good reasons or bad reasons. So if you think you know with the wisdom of hindsight hindsight and everything you can muster to bear on the question that yes the the reasonable positions that would be discussed in advanced industrial industrial. Democracy are those positions that are covered by the center left to the center. Right between one thousand nine hundred and two thousand and sixteen that yeah. We basically had the debate right and that was what could should reasonable people. Well informed people should discuss. Then you think the white aperture world is a disaster because all all of these views come in and they're either irrational views or wildly implausible views or discriminatory views and they were excluded in the prior era. And you you think on this from this perspective. They were rightly excluded. And now it's it's a terrible thing that all of these views are coming in. I happen to think that usually usually all things being equal. A wider debate is better for Small D democracy than a smaller debate and that some of the views entering the debate. Right now how are views that were improperly disregarded during the more stable period from one thousand nine hundred eighty two two thousand and sixteen and we'll examine that in a bit more detail talk about. How do we actually get here? What were some of the features that she led us to to this current situation? But it's the second piece of paper which is the low deference. So what are you talking about that. And what do you mean so this. I'm a little bit less sure about and I'd be interested in what your listeners think. I think that a a second major change a second characteristic of the Post Two thousand sixteen era. And it's been coming for a long time is that we live in quite a low deference deference world in which many people from many walks of life are deeply suspicious of organized institutions and into hierarchies of data's or intellectual achievement or expertise or political accomplishment. So just in the political domain nine one way in which this is a low deference world is that many of the leaders ascending to the national stage or close to it are people who come outside died of from almost from the margins of the political apparatus and the political parties that they nominally serve so I regard. Donald trump is definitely political insurgent from the point of view of the mainstream of the Democratic of the. I'm sorry Oh the Republican Party. At that time mm-hmm I regard senators warn and Sanders as coming from the fringes of the mainstream of the Democratic Party. I regard Dr Jeremy Corbyn in the UK in the UK. And even Boris. Johnson is not the candidates that the party stalwarts would have immediately pro preferred and even although relatively centrist in policy terms manual McCall and France. His Great Ah political achievement. What happened in that election is he decimated the main political formations that had dominated French politics for most of the postwar period? And so this is politically right now for the last few years. The era of the insurgent insurgent candidates on the national stage and that insurgency is a manifestation of a low deference politics and that low difference politics reflects low load deference for many received institutions in the United States Public opinion polls show very low trust in mainstream media I think the average respondents in a win one pew survey something like a quarter to thirty percent of Americans trusted mainstream media a lot. And it's something like twelve or thirteen percent of Republicans and thirty three percent of Democrats or something like that. So so trust in media is very very low trust I in Congress has been low for some time but is in I think the teens on a on a good day So trust in a lot of these institutions to swallow that. There's there's no trust in some quarters of the net positive of universities and colleges yeah Puke conducted an interesting survey a couple of years ago in which they asked asked maybe it was only a year ago in which they asked. Do you think colleges and universities are have a net positive or negative effect on the nation and the result. It was something like sixty seven percent of Democrats and Democratic Party..
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"So this year's tagline was time for action and it does come at a time when there's been more and more scientific evidence to show that they are devastating effects of climate change on land oceans and societies. So we started off by saying that you thought it was a moderate moderate success. Let's talk a little bit about the sort of hopes expectations of goals of the meeting. Going in so they were twofold. I mean there were the popular popular press and from the activists expectations and hopes and those. We're four statements in what is called. The decision was just means. The statement statement comes out at the end of the COP with no legal force statement. That comes out at the end. The decision that they wanted a statement that countries where committed to coming up with much more ambitious targets a year from now in two thousand nine hundred eighty when the next set of targets will be submitted at the next cop so that was for them and that definitively did not happen. And that's why those individuals I think much of the press because that's a pretty obvious sort of thing to talk about is. What are the targets? What's the aspiration have characterized it as a terrible failure? I Know The New York Times did this morning but for those people both negotiators and for those of us on the outside in NGOs and universities who are very engaged in the process and in research what we were looking got much more was the actual text of the Paris Agreement. What wasn't completed and what needed to be completed just in order to achieve the targets that they already have pledged let alone thinking about the next set of targets and that was something very specific in particular and it ties in the note with the notion of international personal carbon markets? So there's one portion of the Paris agreement which is article six or you need to be more picky article. Six point two that provides for countries to cooperate with one another so that one country can help another country to accomplish something and then the a country that does the helping contain credit for that against. Its pledge that it's made okay so said another way if you are performing poorly on your targets. It's you could set up a deal with a country. That's over performing their targets. And Somehow get I mean how they wouldn't necessarily be. The country was performing poorly. They might be performing perfectly but nevertheless that they could finance. What's taking place in another country so it's a matter of finance in fact it's as a means of foreign direct investment so it just means that the incremental costs when economists call the marginal cost of reducing co two emissions vary tremendously mendaciously across different countries? And that's because the modern economies were already very energy efficient and so there isn't a lot of low hanging fruit but if if you go to other parts of the world there is low-hanging fruit their lot. That can be done at relatively low cost. So that means if you're in one of these countries where it's very costly you could finance finance things being done and one of those other countries that's to everyone's benefit if it's voluntary on both sides and it's a means of foreign direct investment into those countries which of course they're very happy about the big issue there though is to make sure that both countries don't take credit for that same emissions reduction. Okay that there isn't double-counting counting right. That's where the Paris agreement comes in. That's what article six point two is potentially about our accounting measures to prevent double-counting counting that was not completed. That's the one part of the Paris Agreement. What's called the rule book? which is the text of the rules that was not completed last year in Katowice? It was punted to this year. So for the condescending for those of us who are really involved a lot in the Paris agreement in the negotiations the goal all was to complete article six. That's what it was about and was it completed. An article six was not completed. But I'm going to tell I'll give you a caveat an important caveat. I was not completed because Brazil and Australia. Saudi Arabia in particular wanted some aspects in in there that would have introduced loopholes that would allow double-counting. And so what I take as the good news. That's why I say you know. Qualified success is that rather than producing what would have been a bad deal They produced no deal. And I'm very serious about that. We did research here Eh. At Harvard years ago with colleagues at at Tufts University and and MIT in which we said what needed to be in the Paris Agreement on this issue of sharing responsibility bringing down costs. And we said the first important thing is that they not put in the following kind of items which would make everything worse uh-huh and that didn't happen so in that sense that I think it's a qualified success that we even though there's no deal. There's still a possibility for it at the next meeting at the next meeting. So you think that something had happened in the next twelve months before Glasgow to get to a point where you have the sort of accounting rules or standards that could get article six done. That's exactly right. I think that that can happen. I wouldn't say that I think will happen because there's political opposition to it happening so let's talk a little bit about the voices at these talks so the most obvious sort of divide as it were would be between developed and developing nations. How does that play out? I mean who who who gets a talk here and and who gets listened to so that's an exceptionally important point as it is in the United Nations in general so you know as an economist whereas normally most of the analysis we do and whether it's teaching in the classroom or its research on the outside or it's conversations with government are focused on on efficiency issues but when you get get into climate change the international aspects the the aspects of equity of distributional equity are extremely important. Going all the way back to the beginning nineteen ninety-two to Brazil. Summit there is a very important principle in the overarching document. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Which is Although Woods Global Commons problem? Were all in it together. Nevertheless there there are common but there are differentiated responsibilities. Different countries have contributed different amounts to the accumulated stock. United States is number one China's second and there are different capabilities different wealth so that principle is exceptionally important and everyone in the negotiations recognizes. That having said that as you said Ed that there has been in the past polarization between the industrialized countries in the developing countries and that was codified in the Kyoto Protocol because only the industrialized countries series has responsibilities under Paris. It's much more of an even playing field. Although obviously some countries particularly the European Union take on much much more aggressive targets than do poor countries certainly countries in sub Saharan Africa from my point of view Nina. Do anything I mean their contributions are small and they're mired in terrible poverty so there is that differentiation remains but there are lots of other constituencies at play a very important one are the small island states. Because you know for most countries in the world ranging from the United States to the European Union to even the Gulf oil states when we talk about addressing climate change. We're talking about an increase in cost to our economy or a reduction in productivity for the small island states climate changes existential. Oh so it's at a whole `nother level of concern so their voice is very important in although they are very small in terms of population although although they are very small in terms of their share of global gross domestic product. They're actually very vocal and very effective. I'd say in the talks folks remember one. Last point is that under the rules of the United Nations Voices are all one country. One vote The united nited States has the same vote as the smallest country in the world. So just one more question just looking at the actual meeting so another thing. That's being that we're getting used to seeing the protests and demonstrators and I know in Madrid. One session you had. Protesters actually stormed the session. And you we read a lot about the protas oh to sell on the streets. Is that actually having an impact. Is that sort of pressure. Having an impact on the deliberations and the progress that that could be made. Well I think it certainly provides support for example for the small island states in the countries that wanted the most aggressive pledges to be made because because they feel tremendous support there i. I don't think it had any effect on the pace of the negotiations themselves except that you know they were disrupted opted for a few hours that one afternoon other than that. I don't think it has any particular influence. I'm not making a judgment with that. Maybe it should. Maybe it shouldn't I didn't but I don't think it does okay and so we've talked a little bit about your an environmental economist. Why is the economic perspective important in environmental issues? And what are some of the things that you think about an necessarily what's in your research. Well what I'd start by saying that. The causes of environmental environmental problems whether it's economics or has local hazardous wastes. The causes of environmental problems are essentially economic. It's a result of the fact that that there are unintentional Negative aspects consequences factors that are result of fundamentally meritorious. CBS activity by private firms. Making the products or the services that you and I want to buy and sometimes the result of consumers when they're using those products. aww They are external to the decision making which is why economists referred to environmental pollution as an extra analogy and if the there are also then consequences of environmental pollution that have economic dimensions so surely if the causes of environmental pollution are fundamental economic which they are and if the consequences of environmental pollution of important economic dimensions than that would suggest that an economic perspective can be helpful for understanding ending those problems fully. But you know we're sitting here at the Harvard Kennedy School Not at the Department of Economics in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences so it's not understanding just for understanding handing sake. It's understanding so that we can make the difference And the way that this understanding can make a difference is to identify public the policies that are effective mb effective. I mean they reduce pollutant emissions. They don't simply demonize the bad guys that they are economically. Sensible by which I mean. They're cost effective that we don't shoot ourselves in the foot and spend more than we have to after all we don't really care about environment we care about the cost list of education healthcare food fuel and a thousand other things and that perhaps they're more likely to be politically pragmatic. I think this economic perspective Jeff although it's not the only legitimate perspective surely can be helpful in those regards. So you mentioned the private sector in that actually and we haven't talked about that one. What role does the private sector have? Instead of. The the solutions in a changing world sort of actions are required. And what sort of actions that private sector taking well the private sector plays an extremely important role because that's where the emissions for the most part. Come from either actually from private industry from manufacturing electricity. Here's the degeneration or from products that they produce such as motor vehicles so their role is exceptionally important. I've long Viewed had the view that Only working through the market can much be accomplished. You know that's why if I may say back in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight when I first joined the faculty at the Kennedy School Previous Dean Graham Allison.
New European Central Bank chief holds her first rate meeting
"Thank you up next we get a policy decision from the European central bank plus Christina guards first press conference as president analysts expect no change the policy but the guard could face questions about how to deliver more stimulus with rates already in negative territory Paul sheared is a senior fellow at Harvard Kennedy School when the central bank is running low on interest rates ammunition that is a surefire sign that the time has come to bring in fiscal policy not in a temperate basis but you know to help monetary policy out and for the two of them to work together in the same direction until it's mission accomplished the guard and former president Mario Draghi have both pressed for additional government spending the guards communication will be closely watched today after a career as a lawyer and politician she's the first ECB leader to have never worked as a
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"These districts really matter because they determine who wins elections. And so if you are drawing the districts Tsk and you draw them for your own partisan advantage it can change election outcomes and change who controls a state legislature or who ooh controls congress. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School Policy Cost. I'm your host Togo Moyal. It is seventeen ninety-six farewell address. The President George Washington warned against what he called the continual mischief of political parties. Just sixteen years later. The Massachusetts Governor Eldridge Gerry underscored Washington's point by approving a partisan election map with one district so monstrous misshapen that critics compared it to a mythical beast they adopted the Gerrymander and the name stuck. And since.
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"It's important to look at where we succeeded in. The past that growth for for one and a half decades from Holland was not a fluke. If it were fluke it would have been for one year two years. It showed that Africa is capable African policy-makers because capable of taking measures that can generate growth. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School Policy Cost. I'm your a host Togo. Moyo today joined by renowned development economist Godsey or conjure. She's the former managing director of the world. Bank think on a former finance minister of Nigeria. She's here the Kennedy School to give the twenty thousand nine hundred nine Robert S McNamara Lecture on Warren piece a talk focused titled the Changing Face of Poverty. Can Africa surprise. The world. gauzy.
Federal Reserve cuts rates again amid trade and growth fears
"Sadly are going to have to wait because the macro economic headline of this Wednesday is the Jay Powell and the Federal Open Market Committee wrapped up a two-day meeting on interest rates today they lower them as everybody had been saying they would everybody accept me on this program on Monday two other things to have on your radar this week number one the Federal Reserve meets on interest rates kind of think it's a coin toss whether they cut or not but I should tell you I'm an outlier what the Fed does about interest rates fundamentally how much money costs in this economy is big deal and it tells you a lot about where people some of the best economic information out there think things are going so we have of late been checking in with our own little panel of economists is to see what they think the Fed is thinking here's what they predicted yesterday and this morning that is before the announcement about what the Fed was going to do today who here almost certainly going to get a rate cut seems pretty much inevitable looks like pretty much a done deal that the Fed is going to go ahead and cut rates there was Tim Dewey professor economic Except University of Oregon Megan Greene she's a senior fellow at Harvard's Kennedy School and Kathy bus gigantic she's the chief financial economist for Oxford Economics the confidence level I am ninety five percent confidence ninety percent chance I I would say ninety five percent barred I did say I was out lie the fact is the Fed does not like surprise markets or anybody but look no guts no glory if they don't cut rates than Hi will certainly look brilliant alas was not meant to be here with chair pal this afternoon today we decided to lower the interest rates for the third time this year it quarter percentage point cut just like everybody sent me had been saying there is some global weakness Powell said trade is still a problem but when economic push comes to Shove the chair the Federal Reserve said you know who's carrying the load the consumer facing companies that we talked to in our vast network of contacts report You know the consumers doing well and are focused on on the job market and rising incomes and that's the principal focus so that is the thing that's pushing the economy forward and it doesn't seem to who have been affected so far by weakness in the other areas after the announcement we got Megan Green at Harvard's Kennedy School Dewey at the University of Oregon and Kathy Bus Johnson get connects back on the phone to see what they said I didn't think it was surprising it all that not not totally surprise I think it was mostly in line with my expectations like I said the feds not big on surprises should say here number one I should probably keep my mouth shut but number two there is pretty broad consensus that the subtext of the Fed Statement ensure pals press conference today is that barring some unexpectedly bad data coming in over the transom this was probably it for rate cuts for the
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Just aware want solve the problem think of healthy e being are exercising just being aware that we shouldn't eat more than two thousand calories or one thousand five hundred calories depending on on people size is not always easy for us to live up virtuous intentions hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cost I'm your host Moyle today I'm very pleased to welcome irrespon- It who was the CO director of the Women and Public Policy Program here at the Kennedy school she's also academic Dean Ariza's a behavioral economist and a leading research into gender bias as she's giving out some tough advice recently to government anti-big corporations stop wasting your money on traditional diversity training programs because they don't work it turns out that the matter how enlightened we think we are researchers that regardless of race agenda we are all pretty much affected by unconscious bias however there's some good news to using behavioral design and organizations can create better prices that help prevent US imperfect humans from making bias decisions welcome to policy cost in your work Qalat about unconscious bias being one of the drivers of the reasons that we don't have as many women in leadership positions would want this is start at the very beginning what is unconscious ice and how is it affecting women the first of all thanks very much for having me it's a pleasure to talk more about our work on how can debiasi how we live how we learn in how we work so unconscious bias is very much part of the human mind sets and that's in many ways good and bad news in that good news is that this is about all of us had noticed that is about all of us I I'm saying that in the sense that the unconscious the shared by people this is not about pointing fingers at particular people exclusive to one group no not at all not at all and it has to do with DS images that we have of certain individuals today fit the category that I have in mind when I want to hire a conductor whenever hire an assistant to hire physician as a seeing very much believing and if we don't see people can fitting into certain cats agrees we don't imagine that is right for them so let's make a more concrete so when we talk about women in the workplace give me an example of what the research of the evidence shows in terms of unconscious bias and how it affects women so in our universities now use of Harry Simple Exercise to help our students understand what unconscious bias es in a matter of minutes really we do a case study with them about Heidi Royston. Heidi Rosen is a venture capitalist real person Wilko's enter capitalist in Silicon Valley and is the case that he that most of our listeners would have seen before that describes what she did how she built it enterprises how she network invalid center and then if you colleagues of ours took discuss that each was written by Kathleen Mcginn of the Harvard Business School originally and replaced lady's name of Howard and now we give half of our students to case idealistic protagonist being cold Heidi and the other half protagonist being called Howard and students don't is prepared case but also evaluate how well Heidi and Howard did and students agree that both Heidi and Howard did a great job in fact because the same person there same person that's exactly right there's nothing different really auditor names but men and women and that's important to note men and women agreed that height is it's not quite as likable as Howard we less likely to want to hire her I want to work with her well and this is based on the same information that's based on the exact same formation and the reasoning that Heidi doesn't quite conform with our stereotypes of what typical venture capitalists looks like Grosso stereotypes for a good woman does has interesting and this was both men and women because you'd expect that maybe men would say that but women held the same view about what a woman what a venture capitalist could be what a good woman is yes exactly so there are nuances so there are some gender differences in terms of the sex or gender of the observer but they're much much smaller than most people think so most people in fact I would think that men are more likely to associate things men women are more likely are more lenient judging women but we don't actually find that so is it possible I mean that that's that's quite something so is it possible then to change minds excite imagine that you'd want to try and work on changing people's idea of what a venture capitalist is You know what a good woman is I mean can you do that yet sadly is real the hard so the first part of my research focused on research not my own on just evaluating the research out there on whether in fact diversity training is possible take train out by from our mindsets and unfortunately at the time and I wrote the book my book what works in Two Thousand Sixteen I had found one single study evaluating diversity training that works now you know could be to explanations one is it really doesn't work and I'll give you some reasons why I think it might actually not work so well but secondly an important message it also is that we don't measure nearly enough you know most organizations just do diversity training so to speak finely ever evaluating impact is it possible that the diversity training that you look that was just bad I mean better diversity training might have resulted in that that's possible that is totally possible that somebody has come up with diversity training that wasn't evaluated that number has discovered the secret sauce but table economist and in behavioral science we have been trying to so to speak fixed mindsets not just in terms of gender bias but lots of other is is cognitive biases so we've been trying to fix mindsets for a very long time with relatively little success and the problem is that we don't typically of our better better selves Superego so to speak sitting on our shoulders and whisper into our ears whenever you want we are about to fall into those traps I find that quite scary actually and I we're GonNa get to good news piece but you always imagine that there's a possibility to change someone's mindset in that you know you do enough of the right things that you could do it but if you're starting from the premise that I see you can't so where do we go from there so let me maybe for some nuances I'm not saying that we cannot at least open some hearts and minds and making people aware of some of these shoes and I think that's in many ways kind of good news I think the more complicated news is that just awareness want solve the problem and you know think of an example an totally different example from a different domain as in healthy eating or exercising just being aware that we shouldn't eat more than two thousand areso one thousand five hundred calories depending on people size day doesn't necessarily mean that we won't have ice cream tonight and that's the same problem that is intention action gap is real for human beings and that is not always easy for us to live up to our virtuous intentions so in that sense does nothing ah very different about gender bias compared to many otherwise it's just hard then to move beyond awareness we have to give people the tools to make those virtuous intentions and reality that's quite an idea I mean the estimates say I think about eight billion is spent in the US diversity training so that's quite a mine shift what sort of things are you advising when you talk to Corpus NGOs et Cetera the money that they're spending on diversity training what are the things that do work yes it's definitely um literally checking the box as having short half hour one hour online training to to longer types of interventions but yes it question is how how do we move beyond diversity training what more can we do and there I would very strongly argued that we have the Debiasi our systems instead of trying to de by our mindsets okay so let's talk about that some more what what does that look like him so maybe it's easy you just go oh no in fact let me start with a concrete example and then maybe we can talk a bit about the workplace but I wanted to take a bit of a detour and just give an example of how uh-huh simple these interventions can be so one of the Very salient examples comes from orchestras in the seventies of our bigger symphony orchestras in this country have introduced curtains and have had musicians audition behind the curtain these blind audition nhs have in fact increase the fraction of human musicians in our major.
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"I actually think it's not about trust. I think it's about respect the people across the table from you have interests you may not think they're legitimate interest but they have interests and they have politics that they have to deal with and I need to understand that and I want them to understand my interests and my politics and see if we can find a place where some of their interests can be addressed but I never lose sight of the objective which in the case of Iran was to make sure they never have a nuclear weapon the hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cost. I'm your host talk. Moyo today joined by Ambassador Wendy Sherman who is professor of the practice of public leadership and the Director of the Kennedy School Center for Public Leadership Ambassador Sherman served as Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs at the United States Department of State between two thousand eleven and two thousand fifteen during her remarkable career. She has been at the table for some of the most. It's challenging negotiations in recent history. She's held talks with the late. North Korean detail Kim Jong Il she sat across the table with Iranian officials to hammer route the twenty fifty nuclear weapons deal and she's bought what she's learned about authentic leadership diplomacy and succeeding as a woman in a male dominated field to a new you book which is titled. Not for the faint of heart lessons encourage power amp assistance. Welcome to policy cost embassador chairman. It's great to be with Talker so my first question given your diplomat has to be about protocal. May I call you Andy Ambassador so let's let's start with the reflections so you've worked as a diplomat. You've been at the table and some of the most challenging negotiations what's the common thread. What a some of the things things that you think about nausea look back on those times in the work that you've done particularly in the context of you coming to the Kennedy School teaching courses on negotiation and leadership well. It's very interesting that you ask that because about to teach my first course here at the Kennedy School in the second half of the fall semester and it's called leadership. I've been negotiations away from the table. Everything you need to know to get the job done and the reason for the courses that a lot of students think that the way you really get a deal done is to be in the room at the table. The table when in fact it is all the things that happen away from the table that really get the job done in any negotiation and what are some of those things some of those things include the history the norms the culture of the parties sitting at the table. people negotiate differently depending on their culture. The history among and between parties may have a lot to do whether there's any respect at the table let alone alone trust it has to do with politics and power Do you understand the power relationships. Do you understand all the stakeholders. Do you understand the politics that are playing out not only in in our country been in any other country or with any other party in the context of their organization Tation. It has to do with policy development. what's going to be your objective at the negotiation. What are the right and left guard rails. How will you know if you succeed and it also has to do with setting the table all the tools that archer disposal to set the table including your arena which is communications and public affairs affairs can very much shape what happens in the room so this a little bit about some of those elements in detail so culture. I know when I was reading your book talk a little bit about the cultures of interplay that came into the negotiations for the Iran nuclear deal and you talked about one specific example about how women and men don't shake hands and you did the you put your hand to your chest in a little bow. That's an example what other examples of of culture and sort of interplay and impact that that you've seen happen. I'd start in the Iran situation with history. Most Americans think that history begins in nineteen seventy nine when the Iranians took Americans hostage for four hundred forty four days at the start of the Iranian revolution in fact for the Iranians history starts back in the nineteen fifties when the United States working with British intelligence knocked off democratically elected prime minister are because we were afraid that Iran was going to nationalize all the oil and make it difficult for us and for Great Britain so the Iranians hostility towards the United States historically started long before hours because we put in place the Shah of Iran who was whereas very good to the United States but truly a horrible dictator to his people and brought about the Iranian Revolution in the case of with North Korea. The United States obviously fought a war on the side of South Korea against the north the north at at the time of the Korean War was the growing economy in the southwest the poor economy now the south is the behemoth in Northeast East Asia along with of course Japan and the north is the poor cousin so where you start what the history is how how people negotiate differently. Some countries are very transactional. I'd say the North Koreans are more transactional than the Iranians are the Iranians artist transactional. I mean means. They're ready to do a deal if they can get what they need and you can get what you need. They're quick to quicker to do a deal. I think than some uh-huh the Iranians are much more sophisticated negotiators very legalistic very complex. It's not to say either of these. Negotiations are easy. They're quite quite difficult but people have different negotiating styles some countries negotiate top down others negotiate bottom up and the same would be true for businesses and any organization so the history matters so when you walked into for example Iranian negotiating table. It was fairly hostile EILLY. You looked at with distrust I mean how do you get from that given the history to a point where you're actually talking and bill developing some trust that are you working towards common ground which we'll talk about later on. I actually think it's not about trust. I think it's about respect. I don't think that given the history between the United States in Iran that one can really have a basis for trust and I think it is however about having some respect act that the people across the table from you have interests and you may not think they're legitimate interest but they have interests and they have politics that they have to deal with and I respect that they have interests and that they have politics and I need to understand that and I want them to understand my interests and my politics and see if we can't find a place where some of their interests can be addressed but I never lose sight of the objective checked which in the case of Iran was to make sure they never have a nuclear weapon and a which point. Did you feel that you've got to a place where there was respect. And how did you know you would there. We got to know each other quite well. Because we spent hours and hours and hours with each other and remember this was a multilateral negotiation so I not only had to get get to know the Iranians but I had to get to know the English. I had to get to know the French I had to get to know the Germans the Russians the Chinese and all of their delegations what all of their interests were the European Union. I had to understand. US politics I I joke all the time that I negotiated inside the US administration. I negotiated with Capitol Hill. I negotiated with interest groups in the United States. I negotiated with each one of the partners in the negotiation and bilaterally and with them as a group I negotiated with Israel which had a huge interest in what we were doing it and negotiate with all the Gulf countries I negotiated in any country that had had an interest in this and yes occasionally even negotiated with Iran. It is a very complex time intensive process and all the while I was doing the negotiation I was the under secretary of state responsible for all the rest of the world so one of the things that you would do one of the things that I was doing but not the the only thing I went to fifty four countries while I was the under secretary over four years from twenty eleven to two thousand fifteen some of them more within once so it was a privilege to have the job but in exhausting job it was and you were saying that you got to know the other party at the table fairly well and that the relationships that you built over the time started to develop into respect yes I think respect for each other's positions and interests even if there was not agreement agreement respect that we couldn't get to a solution unless we all sort of came to agree on what with the objective was during this negotiation a Russia for instance invaded Ukraine and took over Crimea and and that was a situation where the United States was going to have to take some significant action to sanction Russia for this but at the same time I I was negotiating table with the Russians trying to solve another problem and I had gotten to know Sergei Rehab cough my counterpart quite well because we had actually work together with Secretary Kerry and Secretary and Foreign Minister Lavrov to negotiate the Syria Chemical Weapons Agreement so I know new Sergei rather well by now as a negotiator and he I was had great respect for his skill and you went up to him at a cocktail. I think I think in your book you mentioned that it was actually morning coffee. A coffee said it was a very busy room and I went over to him and I said Sergei. How could you possibly do what you have done and it took him a moment to realize is when I was talking about and then he realized it was Ukraine. He looked at me for a moment. He said nothing is Amiss and he walked away and the reason he walked away was to say to me. If I stay here we you're going to have a fight and that will not serve our purpose in this room. We will have to deal with this issue for sure but not right now not right this moment while we're trying to ensure that Iran doesn't obtain a nuclear weapon so it makes sense yes makes perfect sense and you have to be able to walk and Chew Gum and run and skip all at the same time right and and that's what we did as a essentially. He compartmentalized yes he was able to say there's something else that we're working on. Its focus on that and we'll come come back to two that. Did that. Increase your respect for him or was that just it you know Did you feel very very skillful diplomat so it increased is my respect for his skill right okay so let me just come back to sort of getting to know the parties at the table and building up to a point of respect. It didn't always go through very smoothly. MD's apart in your book that you describe where you said something in a Senate hearing I think it was and you said that deception is in the DNA to the Iranians and that made it all the way to Tehran and how that affected and how we when you look back on that what's the lesson there you stop there..
Cyber security expert: US hasn't experienced serious cyber security attacksyes... Yet.
"Bruce Schneier is a security technologist and lecture at the Harvard Kennedy School well they're gonna intrusions into our critical infrastructure systems cyber security consultant Erin bales says the US hasn't experienced a serious attack yet there is kind of a watershed moment that occurred in Ukraine in December of twenty fifteen the electric grid for a specific part of the country was disabled via remote attackers it was Russia Schneider says nation states are already in our system working and he can only help we are also in their
Donald Trump, Iran And Tehran discussed on Dr. Drew
"Yeah. We're talking about Iran. Are we going to go to war in Iran? It sounds really really if look I'm gonna get your phone calls in just a minute. I just want to mention a couple of things. So Donald Trump takes office. He pulls us out of the joint comprehensive plan of action. This this was the nuclear deal that the Iran nuclear deal and part of that was because he really wanted to have these sanctions just this ongoing economic embargo that he could impose on Tehran to bring it to it's knees because they figured the Trump administration figured that would force some sort of fundamental change in the Iranian regime or maybe even regime change itself. And then recently, they double down they call this maximum pressure. They recently announced that they will no longer grant sanction waivers to any country importing, rainy and oil that essentially clamps a an oil embargo on. Dan. This week the White House tightened that squeeze they imposed additional sanctions on Iranian steel, aluminum and copper Tehran. Then responded by announcing this week that it would no longer fully comply with limits on uranium production imposed in the P O A that Iranian nuclear deal. Even though the United States pulled out of it. The Iranians were still adhering to the deal because there were other countries who are still participants in it. But this week Tehran announced that they're not no longer going to comply with limits on uranium production. And it was because of these additional sanctions this additional economic pressure. That's been put on them by the United States of America. And in April, the Trump administration as I said before designated the Islamic revolutionary guard as foreign terrorist as a foreign terrorist organization, then Tehran countered and labeled US military forces as part of a terrorist organization and all of this has. Simply been escalating escalating escalating, the Iranian economy right now has gone into a deep recession. According to the IMF, the International Monetary Fund rans gross domestic product has fallen by six percent over the past year. The inflation rate is nearly forty percent and the Iranian currency has lost nearly two thirds of its value. So, you know, this I guess maybe Trump thinks are Bolton thanks that. They're weakened now. Maybe it's the time to strike. I don't know Wendy sherman's, the director of the center for public leadership at Harvard. Kennedy School and the former lead negotiator of the JCP away for the Obama administration. And she points out that the Trump administration's maximum pressure campaign has not succeeded to date. She says although Iran has continued to comply with the terms of the nuclear agreement that is until this week. It has actually stepped up its maligned behavior in the region Americans remain in. In prison and the Iranian people have no more freedoms. So Trump's campaign so far has greatly increased the possibility that Iran shifts gears and moves once again to try to acquire nuclear weapons bringing us right back to the crisis that the JCP away was designed to avoid only a much worse crisis. This time around we're in an escalation cycle that is incredibly dangerous. I echo those thoughts and ask you is war. What's coming? And would you support it? I mean, would you put on the uniform to go fight in Iran? Do you think we're fighting for America's interests? Would you want your sons or daughters to go to war
At odds on many fronts, US and Russia hope for better ties
"Was sunny and warm in the Russian resort city of sulky today secretary state, Mike Pompeo travel there to meet with his Russian counterpart and with President Vladimir Putin. Unlike the city where they met the US Russian relationship is probably better described as overcast and chilly in any case Pompeo was looking on the bright side, he told reporters I am here today because President Trump is committed to improving this relationship, but as the world's Matthew bell reports actually resetting US. Russia ties is a long shot when Putin wants to host foreign guests in relaxed atmosphere. He meets them in Sochi where Russia hosted the twenty fourteen Winter Olympics, ladies and gentlemen, the president of the Russian federation. Putin. Putin spends a good amount of time in this city that was rebuilt in part to glorify his presidency. It's the perfect setting for Putin's first meeting with a high level American official in nearly a year. It is important that Mike Pompeo is visiting. He was as a director of the CIA one of the first officials from Trump administration to actually pay visit to Russia, and then he hosted Russian intelligence, insecurity. Chiefs in Washington semen, Sarah, John is director of the Russia matters project at Harvard's Kennedy School of government. He says Pompeo has an established relationship with the Russians and the timing for this meeting is good too. With the Muna report already published this. Duck clout has looked dissipated, but has has changed color, and Sarah, John says there are areas where the US and Russia want to work together counter-terrorism is one both governments want to lower the threat posed by international terrorist groups like. Isis arms control is another one neither country wants nuclear war, and Sarah, John says extending the new start treaty aimed at preventing an arms race between the US and Russia is something that's achievable.
Does the Deficit Matter?
"As evil number one fat, sandy not wanna eat fat. It was bad. There was no such thing as good fat. It was just all bad fat. And so in the store there was low fat everything there were these Lafayette cookies your snack cookies cardio. Yes. Like hockey pucks like had the consistency of packing phone. We're like frozen yogurt. Then it was like a low fat alternative to ice cream, which also kind of had the consistency of packing foam eighties. Eating a lot of stuff with the consisting of packing foam, like even low fat butter. You could've mentioned cholesterol, good, cholesterol, and bad cholesterol. Is at all bad. You know, that's that's another one for your list. That is Jason Furman. He's a professor of economic policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, and he also worked as an economist for the Obama administration. And we wanted to talk to Jason because he writes anything's a lot about another kind of universal evil that we had back in the eighties deficits the deficit is the shortfall between the tax revenue. The government collects in a given year and the money it spends when the government spends more money than it takes in. It has to borrow money to cover the shortfall that is the deficit, by the way, the deficit is not to be confused with the national debt. So the debt is like the amount of water in the bathtub and the deficit. Is like the amount of water. That's coming out of the tap in a given period of time and flowing into the bathtub to the debt is you're running total. The deficit is what you do in any given year politicians on the right on the left in the center. The one thing they could all agree on was the deficits were bad. It came up a lot deficit spending should not be a feature of budget. We have to cut the deficit because the more we spent paying off the debt the less tax dollars. We have to invest in jobs and education, the massive national debt, which we accumulated is the result of the government's high-spending diet. Well, it's time to change the diet and to change it in the right way. Government spending is a dangerous road. The deficits the people of America have been overcharged and on their behalf. I'm here asking for a refund, but now attitudes about budget deficits are evolving a lot. There's even a whole sort of tr. Trendy school of thought economics now, saying budget deficits, don't matter nearly as much as we thought that unless budget deficits lead to inflation. We can rack up all the deficits we want. No big deal. Jason Furman is not in that camp. But he says, you know, just like fat deficits are not the universal evil that we used to think they were. Although he did say that he didn't think it was an exact analogy it's a little bit different in that there. Probably is some timeless truth about dieting undefeated. I don't even think there is an underlying timeless truth because the world actually is changing and financial markets are functioning one way in the eighties and other way now and you need to. You know, change, your your an update, your ideas with with us changes in the world this indicated for planet money, I'm carseat, and I'm Stacey Vanik Smith. Dan, the show deficits why did everybody used to think deficits were bad, and what changed? Support for this podcast in the following message. Come from Jimmy Nye, the regulated exchange making it easy to add bitcoin and other crypto currencies to your portfolio, protecting your investments with oversight and state of the art cybersecurity open a free account at Jim ni- dot com slash indicator. Support also comes from WordPress dot com with powerful site building, tools and thousands of things that she was from users can launch site that's free to start with a room to grow. Get fifteen percent off any new plan. Purchase at WordPress dot com slash indicator. Today's indicator is a trillion as in a trillion dollars this year. The budget deficit is set to hit a trillion dollars. Jason Furman urine economist with Harvard's Kennedy School, you also served as an economist under President Obama trillion dollar sounds like a lot. That's scary Ohno's lot and that'll be popping for people absolately. Do I wish the deficit was smaller? Yes. Would I feel better about our economy? We had a lower debt as sheriff are Konami. Yes. So I feel like when I was growing up in eighties. The deficit was just this universally acknowledged terrible thing like the deficit was was bad. I feel like that his changed. But why has it changed? I mean, why did I mean it was really talked about. I think sort of this universal evil. Like, the one thing we could all grand was that the deficit was bad. Sometimes deficits can be good. Sometimes they can be bad. And sometimes they can be just not nearly as important as you'd like to think the time when they're good is in a recession you need to get yourself out of a recession. A'deficit means you're spending money or cutting taxes, that's helping the economy and in the nineteen eighties deficits back then really were a problem now deficits aren't causing high interest rates. So I don't think they're causing nearly the same magnitude of problems for the economy as they once were. Feel like they're kind of two parts of the deficit that people tend to worry about one is this kind of like there's almost sort of a morality like a moral principle at stake about deficits and the other one is just that sort of drags are Konami down. You could think about it in terms of morality because it can affect the distribution of income between generations. They're it depends on what you're doing it for if you're running a deficit to invest in infrastructure. You might actually be helping a future generation if you're running a deficit to give big tax cuts to people who are going to just run out and spend it today, you might be hurting a future generation. So I think there is a morality play between how this affects different generation. So what do you think is the best approach to the deficit right now? I mean, it sounds like maybe one extreme the other extreme don't like neither of those are good idea. What's a good idea? I can't give you. Scientific certainty. Exactly what the right way to handle the deficit is if you have a great new idea for college or a great new idea for social security or a great new tax cut. You wanna do then, you know, cut spending or raise taxes so that you're not adding to the deficit and making even higher than otherwise would have been that strikes. Middle course, it says you're not making a major exit for deficit reduction. You're just doing no harm. What I wouldn't do though is pass a law that makes that deficit even larger what are some good things about running a deficit. You know, the good is in a recession. It can help stimulate demand. Get people in businesses to spend more and help you get out of the recession in normal times. If you're using the deficit as a way to spend money on good things like infrastructure like scientific research, then it can actually make you richer in the future. Not. Poorer the flip side, the bad is if you're spending money on bad things, it can make future generations poorer, and it can drive up interest rates. Probably only happens a little, but it can that results in less business investment unless economic growth, you mentioned that like the economics of deficits have changed. How how have they changed? What has changed? And what is what does it mean for deficits the single most important number to know in? Judging country's fiscal situation is the difference between its interest rate and its growth rate 'cause if your interest rate is higher than your growth rate, your debt is going to be spiraling up as a share of the economy. If your interest rate is lower than your growth rate that helps contain how much your debt is rising relative to the economy right now in the United States growth rates are higher than interest rates, and that's helping us. To grow out of some of our debt burden and it's that key variable or minus Chee watching how that changes over time is I think a real key to understanding how much you should be worried about deficits at any point in time. Jason furman. Thank you so much. Thanks for having.
What if social media treated extremist content like junk mail?
"For the past two days. We've been looking at how people get radicalized online how they may start out as trolls making what they think are tasteless jokes and get sucked deeper into increasingly radical communities, and maybe take the step to commit violence in the real world. Like the Christ Church shooter in New Zealand. Today's question is what can the biggest social media platforms in the world due to interrupt this process? Depend gauche used to work on global privacy and public policy issues at Facebook. Now, he's a researcher at the Harvard. Kennedy School, he says, yes, it's hard for big platforms to both monitor huge amounts of content online and also make difficult decisions about blocking or minimizing that content. But he said it's also not that hard when they do decide that they they wanna throw their money behind some commercial effort. Let's say, for example, the development of AI to better target ads. They're throwing dollars behind that. Now. I would argue that that they should be doing this. Exactly the same capacity at exactly the same level in the case of thinking about content moderation, especially as we are dealing with examples of tremendously damaging content. What about the incentives question, let's say Google as an example, Google search knows that not all information is equally important, and has attempted to stop giving you junk based on the origin the trustworthiness, but YouTube and Facebook and Instagram and Twitter give you the thing that you really want including, you know, potentially divisive propaganda because it's really engaging at what point do you think companies will really confront that set of incentives? It's an excellent question when we think about g mail sorting out junk mail versus YouTube both owned by Google actually raising up junk news. Or misinformation or a conspiracy theories. Google does not have an economic incentive in pushing fake news or misinformation or these other kinds of content at us over over g mail. Well, you've given us this kind of great metaphor for this information, which is junk and recently actually, just in the past couple of weeks we've seen platforms essentially classify led by Pinterest. Surprisingly, essentially, classify antibac-, sir information as junk as information that is not good for people. Is that a baby step toward what we're talking about these these are all these all represent baby steps, but there's nothing that's that's really going to get to the industry until and unless we have a real economic incentive in place for them to actually take action. Are you saying the engagement model? Got out of hand. Like, it just went too far and people didn't necessarily antecedent. How extreme it would get? That's precisely right. We don't have to break down this business model entirely, but through competition reforms to to push back on the on the engagement factor of these platforms and their and their implicit power in the market and privacy reforms to push back on their uninhibited nature of data collection to to advise their behind behavioral profiles on us. I think that that kind of regime can start to get us back becoming coming back to a more secure American democracy. Do the companies recognize this. You know, when you talk to your former colleagues is there an internal debate happening about this or the company's feeling increasingly like, this is their responsibility. Absolutely. I think there is no doubt that the industry's understanding of the public's discomfort with the industry. And distrust, and if they don't change themselves if they don't voluntarily take action to to really do what's right here. Then the government is going to come in. And we've seen this in not in the United States where politics is so crazy these days, but in the United Kingdom where where politics is crazy. They have put out a series of white papers that are strident against this industry. In germany. The government has has pushed for the break-up of Facebook. I'll step back for a second. These companies do not recognize the problems that they have put forward to the public and come to the US. Congress ready to meaningfully negotiate at the table. They are gonna get broken up and are going to get so ridiculously regulated by foreign markets that they're going to then come back begging US congress to actually. Develop a more reasonable regulatory regime that that the US can then advocate for in other countries outside the US.
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"Months? With respect to the way that these different agreements are coming out with the focus on the implementation and more details coming up. My expectation is that we're gonna see a lot of these high level top down type of approaches to getting these statements and declarations out. We're going to see more emphasis on what these processes until the core processes mentioned. Denuclearization process the their friend does mechanism. So DNA, graduation mechanism, permanent peace mechanism. And this idea of essentially ways to improve inter-korean relationship. Those are the areas that expect to see more details. The idea that we're also going to see some tangible signs along the way is another area that expect to see in in greater fashion. One in the one that's coming up quickly is dismantling of the nuclear test site, Gary. This is one that is going to be done with international servers. With journalists, and also as it looks right now, some UN inspectors as well. Also imminently were expecting the release of three US detainees North Korea's wall. So these type of movements happening very quickly particularly before the summit between President Trump and Kim Jong UN gives you a sense of the differences as as we compare it to other cycles of trying to gauge North Korea. And so overall in this is a type of process that is taking many by surprise. One thing though I would put out as a caveat is that it's important to see it through the context of this broader game plan and these three critical mechanisms as opposed to single events in single summits. And then trying to read the tea leaves. There's a lot of play right now and so trying to keep track of how these different pieces are moving forward is a big part of the research analysis. Well, H lecture, John park director of the Korea working group. Thanks so much. So much for joining us. Thank you very much. Polcy cast is a production of Harvard Kennedy School. I'm Matt had Waller. That's met cat on Twitter. Jacob is our provides technical and editors support. We'd love to hear from you. Send us your thoughts via email to policy cast at H dot Harvard dot E D cenex tweak.
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"It's there is protection, not as a major instrument of social change. It's they're just like the first amendment as an anchor to make sure bad things don't happen in the future. One equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex to the congress shall have the Power to enforce by appropriate legislation. The provisions of this article three, this amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. What I've just recited is the full text of the equal rights amendment or the ER. It's amazingly simple concept, but the fight to add it to the US constitution in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties was anything but simple after countless pitched political battles across the country. The amendment ultimately came up just three states short of ratification by the congressionally mandated deadline in nineteen eighty two for decades. It was assumed that was the end of it. But in March last year, Nevada became the thirty six state to ratify bringing you just two states short of the required thirty eight in between the women's March and metoo movements. The idea of resurrecting the ERA doesn't. Seem so far fetched. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy cast. I'm your host had water in joining us today. Today's H professor Jane Mansbridge who originally authored the book why we lost the ER a in one thousand nine hundred. Six also served until very recently is chair of the American political science association fresher Mansbridge. Thank you so much for joining us. Thank you. Would seems really interesting about the is that in its history, it is kind of defied our our partisan lines. You know, when it was first proposed, it was opposed by progressives when it was first put into a party platform. It was the Republican party. Absolutely. Can you trace us through the history of how this developed over time y'all? The Democrats Jamba critic party and the Democrats oppose the area at the beginning because they were, I think, correctly that it would. Eliminate the protective laws for women in this country. A lot of labor legislation began, and indeed that sometimes as far as it got was laws saying that women couldn't were more than X number of hours or bear X more than X number pounds or whatever. Because the country was very anti labor legislation. And so the only way labor legislation could get in was by being legislation for women and children. And so the Democrats were afraid that that was going to this would eliminate that special legislation and it would have so they opposed it. But then what happened was the those laws got changed to include men and two wasn't as necessary. There have been Eva Lucien in the law and the administrative law. So that actually before the era came to the congress. Or. The the discriminations. The special provision for women had been upgraded to be provisioned for men or or eliminated. So those issues were were sort of began to be gone by the time. The then the Democrats took took the array into their platform, but but it was definitely a Republican issue for awhile when it first came before the states, it was absolutely a bipartisan issue. It was bi-partisanship ill. Ronald Reagan, didn't put it in his platform in nineteen eighty. But before that both parties headed and their their political platforms, what actual effect would it have on legislation especially today? Well, we don't actually know, and there was a section in my book about what it would do. It's a little bit. Like as I said, the first amendment you put the principal in and then you know, all sorts of strange things might happen. For example, under the first amendment, we have citizens. Netted, which keeps us from having any reasonable campaign finance laws, but we hope there wouldn't be that kind of what I consider perversion actually of the amendment. You put you just you put an amendment in because it you think that there's a principle that ought to be in the constitution, like free speech or that that equal rights for women, and then you can't completely predict what the court will do with it, but you assume that
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"When you suddenly decide that your loved one needs to go into serious inpatient treatment, you suddenly become frantic. I've got to find a place to put this person, And each addict is different. The opioid epidemic is frustratingly difficult to untangle. There's little doubt that have reached a crisis point in the United States some time in the last few years. And there seems to be political will on both sides of the aisle to tackle. But how our guest today is no stranger to complex challenges after military career culminating into tenure as vice chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He's very familiar with marshalling the resources necessary to overcome formidable obstacles. And so when his son fell victim to addiction, he leapt into action ranging for the best possible treatment he could find. But even then it wasn't enough. Now a father's grief for his lost son has transformed into a mission to help save other families the same fate. Hello and welcome to the Harvard Kennedy School policy gas. I'm your host Mak had water in this week. We're joined by retired US Navy Admiral James Sandy winner felt He's currently a professor at Georgia Tech in a senior non-resident fellow. Here at the Kennedy schools Belfer Center Fesser Admiral. Thanks so much for joining us morning, Matt. It's really a pleasure to be your Thank you for having me. This is a subject that has touched so many people around the country. It's something we see in the news, and it's also something that seems to have no easy answers. Of course, we're talking about the opioid crisis in the United States. You just as we were speaking right before this interview started. You say you have not found a problem that is as complex as this. Can you talk a little bit about that? Sherma The the opioid epidemic is indeed probably the most complex public policy issue that I've ever dived into. The dimensions are all over the place. The the cultural problems, The the interrelatedness of the solution threads are is terribly important. And it's it's if it weren't such a tragedy in my own family will be one of the most interesting and and rewarding things I've ever done. And unfortunately. It lives inside this background noise of sadness that we have now half because we lost our son in September. We decided at that point that we could either Curl up on a little ball and wish this away, or based on some of the experiences we've had an and getting things done, people we know that sort of thing. We felt that we should try to contribute to the solution. So I feel terrible if I didn't try to do something about this. And so we started our foundation That's designed to attack some of the complexity that you're talking about. Can you tell us a little bit about your son Jonah? Jonathan grew up in a military family seemed like a fairly normal kid, good athlete, very smart, very creative. Younger brother had a mischievous bent to him All. I'll never forget when we got a phone call one day from his second-grade teacher informing us that he had been selling school supplies to his students and lending them the money and charging interest in order to do it. So he's an I didn't know whether to be, you know, happier sad about that. But John was was a really, really interesting kid. A good baseball. Pitcher, unfortunately, he also grew up with a anxiety and depression, which so many young people these days have a I think the there's a large number of God, teenagers in particular who have this, you just don't hear about as much because there is a little stigma associated with that. And we found that John's started to self-medicate in that regard in it was that was contributed to by the fact that he was misdiagnosed as having Attention Deficit syndrome and was prescribed Adderall, which is a methamphetamine, which is probably the worst thing you want to give to somebody who has anxiety. And so John gradually grew in through a alcohol eventually weed and then Zan acts. And who knows what had a series of unfortunate events that cause us to become more and more are concerned. And then it culminated in a major event where we decided that he absolutely needed to go and inpatient treatment. Now, of course you by virtue of your position had access to treatment options that may not have been available to others, But even. Even then it sounds like from your experience, It was difficult to find those treatment options. Well, two dimensions that problem, First of all, when you suddenly decide that your loved one needs to go into serious inpatient treatment, you suddenly become frantic. I've got to find a place to put this person. And each addict is different at different dimensions of age gender, how they got into addiction in the first place And what their insurance is like. So there was a frantic week there while John was detox in where we were very lucky to find a good place in Pennsylvania to take him. The challenge was through the military healthcare system non-striker at the time. They really did not have a grip on what this was all about. They just didn't understand the disease of addiction and in particular what you call the the dual or a Komor bitterly of a a mental challenge, uh, anxiety depression and addiction at the same time, that has to be treated very, very carefully in a very special way. And there aren't very many places that can do that and track. You're just didn't understand. On top of that, John was one months shy of his eighteen th birthday. And there are some places that only take people younger than eighteen others than only take them older than eighteen and you're, we really didn't have a place to take him. Uh, until we were fortunate to discover a this again, this place very good place in Pennsylvania. Very complex trying to get into a treatment system. We were very fortunate in that, uh, we were able to afford this ourselves because insurance Just didn't understand. I think I read a EU wrote about this in the Atlantic And, uh, you mentioned that this The further fifteen months that Jonathan spent in this care system. I, it cost more than four years of of Harvard. He have private highly divergent. Yeah, It really did. Have you spoken with people have been in similar positions is yourself except for who didn't necessarily have access to the resources that you might have? Well, we we are. Loves light. Looks gives me website wet live on now the twenty nine th of November. At the same time, reduce CBS News interview in the Atlantic article came out. So we got a, a torrent of emails, and I would divide those emails into three categories. Some people just cheering us on a lot of people willing to help who said, I'm good at this. I want to help you. But a large number of people crying for help. I have a loved one who's in addiction. I don't know what to do. I don't know where to take him or her for treatment. And so many people can't afford this or don't have insurance that will cover it. You find a lot of people are are brought into safe thirty days of inpatient treatment, or even only a week of inpatient treatment. What I tell audiences is that if you put your son or daughter and thirty days of inpatient treatment, You know what it's going to get you thirty days of sleep, and that's about it because it's just not enough for the brain to really began its recovery from the changes, its undergone, uh, in the course of becoming addicted. So this is a big problem. We have a a shortage of capacity for treatment in the country. We have a shortage of capability for treatment. Treatment Centers That really understand the problem. And then of course affordability as a real issue, I believe I read that in 2017 its estimated that more We'll have died in 2017 alone from opioid overdoses than in the Vietnam Afghanistan Iraq wars combined. Well, I think that's the country. A yo in 2016 around sixty four thousand people died from overdoses, Not all those were opioids, but a substantial majority were. And that in that, that one year for the whole country is more than people who who died of Vietnam War and presents in combat. That just indicates the true human nature. This tragedy, the scale of this crisis, and how terribly important is that we as a nation, invest in the capability to to treat people. Now, that's only one of the lines of operation the country needs to take aren't, but it's probably the most expensive one in terms of dramatically scaling up our ability to bring people and and give them the treatment that will work. In most cases. When you put Jonathan into treatment center, how. How confident Did you feel though it during that time, while he was undergoing treatment that there was a way out? How would n- what was the process for you as a as a family? Well, it began with having no idea. We were just desperate that put Johnny on a place where where he had a chance to stay alive. And as we, we really didn't understand addiction until we actually got him into the treatment. And they have these parents symposiums where they've literally described to, uh, uh, The Journey of addiction, how it really physiologically works in in the brain, which is part of public-awareness raising our knowledge of that. But as we gradually began to both understand that and watch our son recover. We gained a lot of confidence that maybe this is going to work Now ultimately in the end it didn't. But, but we really did have a lot of confidence as he got further and further into his treatment. He decided to get his emergency medical technician qualification as the empty Call. He was very excited about that. He was more excited about that than anything I've ever seen him do other than maybe get on the mound and pitch a baseball. He wanted to help other people like himself. So that was very encouraging to us. He had a gap year from the University of Denver that we were fortunate enough to have a and uh, he decided as he got towards the end of his treatment that pay, You know, I can do this. Denver main asked him asked every incoming freshman to write an NSA. And in the the question posed in the essay was, who has had the most profound influence on your life And what Jonathan throat this very profound essay about an ambulance ride that he took during his empty qualification that involved him finding himself performing CPR on a heroin addict, undergoing an overdose in a McDonald's bathroom. And that moment was very seminal for him. It cost him to realize that this guy had a family. What about my own family? And at that point, he decided to dedicate himself to other people. Will we didn't know is how deeply the opioid molecule had burrowed into his brain. And even as we had rapidly gained this great confidence, 'cause he wrote this amazing essay. He was just starting his relapse. And
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"In 2016 in 2017 false information spread like wildfire across social networks around the globe especially in lead up to elections and democratic countries while disinformation campaigns are nothing new democracies in elections the scaled the seemingly new phenomenon was unprecedented soon it earned nickname fake news it's a term that since been repeated far and wide most notably by politicians and autocratic seeking to discredit legitimate journalists but also by the news media itself as they attempt to grapple with what's going on but if there's one thing two days guests implore you to do it's to stop saying fit f start star start in stars stars star hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mak had water in joining us today or shorenstein send a research fellow claire ward of leads first draft in organization recently brought under the auspices of the kennedy schools shorenstein center as well as writer and researcher who seemed iraq sean her they're both coauthors of the recent report information disorder toward an interdisciplinary framework for research in policymaking the to that in show nuts claire thanks so much for joining us thank you for having health so we're going to have hussein he's he's he's traveling to the studio right now we're going to have him with us very very soon on but until then i let's just open up in talk a little bit about this report is a fascinating i would really encouraged all of our listeners to go and read it it's a fastening breakdown of information disorder do you spend a lot of time in this report canvas tablet zhang and defining terms for the various types of information disorder why was that important from the outset.
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"In in eighteen 75 a bribery scandal threatened to derail the administration of ulysses s grant or grant himself wasn't implicated his personal secretary was creating an obvious conflict of interest so grant turned to a novel concept at least at the federal level he appointed a neutral special prosecutor to investigate the matter shortly thereafter grant set yet another precedent by firing the man he had boy had appointed but in doing so he caused a political uproar forcing him to hire yet another prosecutor to take the place of the original today we find ourselves and not too dissimilar territory as former fbi director robert muller engages in one of the most important investigation since watergate the rest of the world's left piece together clues about where the case might end up in with every new development speculation has intensified about whether president trump will attempt to quash the issue by firing moeller earn all who might stand in the way hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water in today we're going to try to make heads or tails out of where things stand with the help of each case lecture juliet kayem previously served as assistant secretary for intergovernmental affairs at the us department of homeland security during the obama administration and in dishing teaching heritage gas is also ceo of zemke i should also note in full disclosure that up until recently i served as juliets producer by the skift her erstwhile podcast at of g w g v h news it's great see i know it's good to be back in the studio with yearly eta we had to say goodbye to the podcast not fair well that goodbye is given some of my other work commitments fed is good to be back here i can imagine given all of your what your portfolio is raid now it's a little overwhelming and i think in general if for anybody who's following the news ram.
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"Last month when we first sat down with professor jason firm to talk about the gop tax reform effort a specific bill hammond even been me public yet yet now just a few weeks later not only have we seen a bill but several bills two of which have already been approved by the house and senate respectively it's a what to have taken place in such a short amount of time especially considering the farreaching consequences of the landmark piece of legislation so if your head still spinning and you're looking for some perspective whole tight we've got you covered hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mak had water and as we wait for the final version of the builder who emerged from the conference committee we ask professor furhman the former chair of the white house council of economic advisers under the obama administration to join us once again give us an update on where things stand this time in a live broadcast on the kennedy schools facebook page as a side note were open a livestream more of these interviews going forward so if you'd like to ask one of our guests the question should follow us on twitter policy cast to find out when will be going live next okay here's professor firm that the speed of this has been dizzying i'm five weeks ago there was no draft legislation at all we didn't really know what this was gonna look like and fast forward tiny bit over a month later on both the house and senate have passed bills a final bill hasn't been passed for the president's signature but the house and senate are similar enough that i certainly would expect that to happen in terms of what's in here of the most important things to know with any tax bill our number one how much does it cost and here the estimate is that after accounting for economic growth this would cost one trillion dollars over the next decade.
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"Millions amazon than their own rating system okay are they upset the we gave all this product slide scars if so than maybe they shouldn't have products that don't rate fox hey health la held layer up but so it was a brilliant idea by barkley and we had a ton of fun with it and believe it or not we had a la to people who took notice of it and it allowed the other thing that was really cool it was a way for the citizens of kansas city to chime in and get them to tell google that we want it or amazon amazon that we wanted him to conquer going entrusted to google now we'll take him both why i'm interested in that because obviously this was a pitch for amazon yeah but something tells me that you are just talking to add or more people who knows something about kansas city today than there was that's what everybody wants in that was a way to market the city even if they didn't read the reviews they heard about it and they thought it come from kansas city all kansas city maybe on a think about going there seeing what's going on in kansas city um and it worked thank you so much for coming on policy casadei really per rabbits great talking to your rule out things that matter and stay away from all the political nonsense and squabbles that don't achieve policy cast is production harvard kennedy school i met cad walter that's at met canada on twitter my coproducer natalie montaner sara abrams in becky whicle have something to tell us about this or any other episode let us know on twitter policy cast or via email it policy casted h care start harvard dot eu in visit us at each case policy cast dot org cnn ext week.
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"As 2016 the us census bureau estimates that more than eighty percent of the us population now live in urban areas americans have become by and large city slickers of course that doesn't mean most americans live in super dense areas like manhattan but if you think about it in terms of the development of public policy city governments are playing an important role in the daytoday lives of the vast majority of americans in while the federal government seems stuck in partisan gridlock many municipal leaders if embrace their role as incubators for innovations and governance hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water and joining us today is one of those leaders kansas city mayor slide james who was first elected in 2011 then reelected in 2015 he's on campus as a visiting fellow at the institute of politics swells the ash center for democratic governance and innovation before we get to mayor james i just want to note that unfortunately i ran into some technical issues with the recording of this interview and while i've tried to smooth things out and preserve as much of the interview as possible you'll probably notice a number of odd jumps that were unavoidable despite my best editing efforts under and 78 episodes in in you'd think i'd have nailed this process by now but i appreciate your bearing with me is mayor thanks so much for joining us less bigger bat first of all did you always want to be mayor you seem like you are you were made for it i may have been made ford but it wasn't something i always wanted to do some of the only thing that i knew i always wanted to do was to be a lawyer and that a lot of other opportunities sprang from that and was going into the election that you one that you decided i need to be a need to be in that role no you know it's kind of like you know what they say about frogs if you toss of frog into boiling water the hop ride out but if you toss a frog into the water warm up whoa the.
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"Oh ho ho low last week the kennedy school center for international development launched a brand new version of its atlas of economic complexity before you go searching for it let me warn you can be slightly addictive the atlas is at its core a database of decades worth of economic data from every country honor imports exports industries products but if you picturing a series of snoozing do sing spreadsheets you'd be wrong the atlas manages to bring all that data to life through interactive visuals ations that for me at least often turn into rabbit holes of esoteric fascination of course the visuals ations aren't just a novelty near illustrations of complexity economics a field pioneered in part by ricardo hausmann that has proven and reliable predictor of future economic growth hello and welcome to the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host knack had waller in this week in honor of the atlas his 20 launch we're pulling from the archives to feature an interview i conducted with professor housman in 2013 where he explains what economic complexity is and how both investors and makers can use it to better inform their decisionmaking thanks for joining us thank you for having me can you describe what exactly economic complexity is and why it's an important measure for countries around the world well essentially economic complexities related to how much does a city a state a country knows how to do in the essential ideas that the the fundamental ingredient to be able to do something is to know how to do it and an economy is characterized by what it knows how to do a and then in poor countries than to know how to do fuel simple things and rich countries dental know how to do more things and among them more complicated things you we've sometimes used the metaphor over scrabble so the economies like a game of scrabble and the if you have very fuel letters you can make very few words and short words and the more letters you have a the bigger the variety of the words that you could cook up and the long were those words so the variety and complexity of the things that come on economies able to make is a measure of their productive knowledge of their knowhow saudi measure those specific god scrabble pieces well.
"harvard kennedy school" Discussed on Harvard Kennedy School PolicyCast
"When we identify with the protagonist of a story we're not just learning about what happened we're are actually getting some of the experience of what did him and so the moral that history teaches is to the heart much more so than to the head beck when he is a graduate student at the university chicago famed author kurt vonnegut it submitted a thesis pausing that stories had shapes and could be plotted like sign waves on graft paper going one step further he also claimed that most stories followed just a handful of shapes giving each schori a name boymeetsgirl man in whole old testament and cinderella the thesis was rejected of course monte gets shapes are now cited often by storytellers which is in and of itself an example of a man in whole story and not least in part because there's a wide recognition of both the power of storytelling in simplicity at the heart of our stories hello and welcome the harvard kennedy school policy cast i'm your host mac had water in joining us today's h a senior lecturer marshall guns under legendary grassroots organizer who cut his teeth in the civil rights movement before becoming an integral part of cesar chavez successful campaign to unionize farmworkers in california today he teaches organizing and leadership peered kennedy school fesser thanks so much for joining us this morning so when you speak about organizing you often emphasize the importance of narrative the concept of public narrative he why is that.