20 Episode results for "George Davis"

Droid Life Show: Episode 219 - Razr is Back, Disney+ is Here!

The Droid Life Show

1:27:34 hr | 1 year ago

Droid Life Show: Episode 219 - Razr is Back, Disney+ is Here!

"It was going on guys. Welcome back toward life show. Today's episode two nineteen. It is Friday November fifteenth. I'm ruled Kellen with me to say I guys. How's it going tim here for droid life? Thank you for tuning in so a fun show today. Lots of what. Kind of exciting throwback away news on multiple levels like there's a foldable Motorola razor at the motor razor is officially back We're also getting like Disney his knee plus which is in a way. Sort of a throwback. Now you can subscribe and get all of the old movies from Disney and shows and things like that There's other stuff too is on the way While it's here we got stadium news. Some UH Google stuff Not a ton of topics but good Good topics I will say and For those who were on the show last week you notice. I'm looking this way now like Tim. We took your recommendation out. Looks like I'm looking at him even though I don't know blue So so outside of topics As we do every deal show trivia at the end of the show. So if you're new around here five questions at the end of the show and our reward five people with prizes and this week anchor is sponsoring the show you guys you guys know anchor. They make all sorts of accessories from chargers archers to Bluetooth speakers two ear buds. To what else they make. They have like that Nebula capsule lying. I think like they make so much stuff. All good stuff. I got a bunch of charges and things like that around here. But they're going to give us We'll give everyone here Bluetooth speaker so sound core mini to which seven water system fifteen hour battery life. That good stuff sound encore mini twos to everyone thinks to anchor so thank you anchor. Thank you Anchor Bluetooth Speaker. The other thing thing to appoint out get your new around here just a reminder but we we do a charity drive for a few months at a time and right now. We're doing charity. Drive for the Cancer Research Institute so October November December for three months straight. We're taking any donations during the show and donating one hundred percent of what you give during the show to the cancer research institute so at the end of December we will hopefully cut a fat check to the Cancer Research Institute. Nice steph cancer is so many of you have already said in the chat To donate what we're talking about is is basically just sending super chats on Youtube so on Youtube. There is a a little chat box. There's like a little dollar sign and you can click on that and it will walk you through donating and right now the tubes giving people lots of free money and it is before before the show started we had a whole bunch of super chats some five bucks some two bucks. Some people said they had four of these free things to give away. So if you haven't used your super chats that's something in my eye and you don't have another channel you WanNa give to feel free to donate them. They will again hundred kids research institute at the end of the December so speaking of that we try to run through all these there are a ton of these so for the show started Ryan covered 007 dropped forty rupees. He's I believe instead that God no picks four in India bought a one plus seventy pro mcclair instead. I gave two bucks to make sure it works from our are into so there's two P.. Seven forty seven where Charles dropped five five five and five a full twenty instead using. Yeah it said using all my free super chats honored honored to be among the group of nerds willing to donate to fight cancer. Fight to join this fight against cancer. Big Deal I appreciate that Charles And then we had zero Washington soon. Dropped four two dollars. So eight bucks says now. You'll actually have a chance at Trivia and cancer Nick Fisher then dropped four five dollar Sonos also said anyone know why they're giving four of these away. I I actually yeah. We like it though Tyler Linga with two bucks per sheet. That's it's Alex with to spread the love very cool Allen with two says wow F four free Super Chad's GonNa use them here. We we appreciate that Allen. I'm still going here. There are so many Ben Jacomb no-show. Today folks. He's Brown with five boxes F- Cancer George Davis Two Bucks Brandon with two J reese with two f. have cancer loved the droid life crew. We love you to Robert Merrill to appreciate the work you to do Brandon. Slay Kaos two Bucks Tyler. Linga again two bucks brands like us. They gave it to in this. It's just roll out tyler. Here with another to you guys are wild neat Columbus with five bucks is here. It's happening Dug Up with two brandon with another two. I'll see you guys later. Yeah yeah this is. This is pretty wild. Thank you guys. Very much and Yeah get if you knew around here. We're having seen a show in a while we've upgraded some things so like on the on the screen as you donate those super chats. You should see those pop up and say your name give you a little bit of recognition Calvin Clark with two bucks. Hi Guys Great. 'cause thank you so much for office. The jets the little doggy with the little doggies women. Yeah little doggy swimmin- swimming cash now. Swimming donation MM donation. Jody destruct ten pounds. Thank you very much for that. Thank you Jodi yes I over should start or what but it's over ten minutes might as well get train. Yard admits it. I'm ready to talk about android. If you're ready to talk about an anti we can talk about stuff so Kato just dropped twenty. What's what what does that again? Kronors though that's the Swedish kronor Twenty six kronor. How it says it right there he gave you the? Did you read that first and the Timothy just dropped two bucks as well will like your name I was I was GonNa Start but this is this is pretty wild. And what a wild start wild start. Okay we'll catch you guys as we continue along here. If we have to catch up we will Motor Razor was announced this week. Todd of link another two bucks says Mel I. We'll have to mellow yes Portland Trail Blazer News there okay. Authorized Focus thank you. It's another one of my. We'll get to it always. ABC Xavier so Motorola Razor Motorola hosted hosted an event in La. We talked about last week. We were not invited to So hosted event with you know people apple they like apparently and they announced the Motorola Razor So they've brought back from well. I shouldn't say it's kind of weird right. So they bought back the flip version of the razor. We've had plenty of android razor phones from Verizon Somewhere okay some not so good. What if there's there's been multiple? Razor Razor maxes is razor Max. HD's the kind of like helped lead that sort of silly name thing that was going on there But this is the flip phone. So Motorola's first foldable. Will they be teasing this for quite a while they thanks. She said a way early in the year. Like look we have foldable coming. We won't be late to the party. It's probably we're going to be a foldable clam shell style. We don't WANNA do the tablet style and so A showed it off. And it's coming will you can pre-order December twenty six and then at arrives January ninth. I believe January six nine somewhere right when we get to see. Maybe I will finally touch it then. Tam We'll finally get her hands hands on the motor razor. If they let us maybe they'll see me like no not those druid life guys block them get out of our booth. Actually Motorola hasn't had a booth in in a while but may be maybe verizon a lettuce such I've no so what should you know well first of all costs fifteen fifteen hundred dollars so fifteen hundred bucks in the. US exclusive to verizon and it has at least him so they're probably just GONNA lock the hell out of this thing to verizon Rizon in other words like good luck using it on another carrier I'm assuming has the band says sports and other carriers. I think I've seen like bands to four five six thirteen so thirteen the important one to rise and still but those other bands are very much on other carriers. So there's a chance you could spend fifteen hundred use it for a month or whatever. Their new Lock policy as an unlock and try to take it somewhere you could. You could try. We may try. I'm not really sure So fifteen hundred bucks rising exclusive. It's GONNA come to other countries and then who knows how it's going to be purchased there. It could be carriers could be unlocked version. They did not say anything about it unlocked. Version ever coming to the US. So Oh it's verizon. I think I even saw something. That said it's verizon for life which is so weird so fifteen hundred bucks at Verizon specs you. Didn't you need to know those because this is kind of where the story turns a little bit here. It's a foldable. Very cool. The styling of it. It's definitely a Motorola Razor. It looks like the old razors except now it has a small screen on the front and then it has a bigger bigger screen the unfolds on the inside in. That's where the foldable magic sort of happens So on the outside of the two point seven inch screen the calling it like I don't even know I should should should actually know this off. Hand the touch screen the touch view screen or something like that. It's just a little guy but it'll show notifications. You can use Google assistant out. There could be a viewfinder taking selfish because the camera. Obviously when you fold it shut points at you when it's in folded mode then unfold at six point. Two inch plastic alleged did HD resolution so not ten eighty p. Actually eight seventy. Six is kind of where Max's out at so just a little above seven twenty not ten eighty So the folds qualcomm snapdragon seven ten processor. That's by the time. Launches were pushing close to a two year old processor there US Hundred Twenty gigs storage no SD slot six GIG Ram. So Hey we're at least did Pixel Four Ram their twenty five ten million power battery Eh with fifteen watcher but charging a single sixteen megapixel camera that you will use to do the bulk of photo-taking so selfish when it's closed flip it open to take shots sixty makers no optical image stabilization only electric stablization. Definitely point seven. There is also when you flip it open top. There's a little five megapixel camera because you have it open. I I WANNA take a Selfie but I don't know why you would ever use Bluetooth five. USB No headphone Jack does have NFC which we point out because Motorola polls NFC from a number number of votes in the US finger reader on the Little Chin Hump Thing. Bottom firing speaker splash proof. Water Resistant Nanno coating gene which they put on everything which means it's not waterproof and it comes in black plastic. I believe I don't think all made a medal in the box. Get a cool looking box first of all and then you get. USB EAR buds. In there. I think a fifteen watt charger sort of the story so computerize beat Fifteen hundred bucks you not attend. ADP display single sixty megapixel camera with no stabilization. No optical say No D. Slot only rising exclusive. What do you think will you know doesn't probably not going to be any shortage of people that says this phone? So folks you know but I think just speak freely here like without please. Yeah with no judgment from people. I think. Phone looks cool It's my favorite implementation of affordable design. So far like I didn't want while I appreciate what Samsung did with the fold How can it goes into a tablet? I was thinking more like compatibility where I could have. A smaller device in my pocket and then folded cannot clam shell style and then get a larger device. It is it. Is it weird. Yeah for sure. I'm curious how you know watching a youtube. Video will look on it or something you know or or gaming on it which. I don't don't even think you're going to do unless it was like flappy bird. You know like a vertical game threat. So there's weird weird things about its phone. Yeah it's a floppy phone so a fifteen hundred dollars for in the specs you ran down. I mean that's that's certainly not ideal and in late Actually in early twenty twenty you would WanNa have you know some some better specs for fifteen hundred bucks however it's affordable audible phone. And I am sure the technology that goes into that and the RND and the developed whatever. It costs a lot of money and Lenovo wants to recoup the little possibly. I don't know I mean that's up to them. There's not going to be a shortage of people who are going to buy this thing. I don't think there's a lot of people that Thousa- factor you know people who own the original Motorola Arolla or those poor souls. Those early adopter people who really ain't gotta gotTa have is cool by this thing. Oh absolutely absolutely absolutely there. There's those people who just have money by the fold so I guess nothing should surprise me and knowing the early history of the fold people did buy that thing. I think you can buy it anywhere. It sold out anyway so I think it will sell yes. I think it's going to be actually quite hard to come by because unlike the galaxy fold the Moto Razor has like that that Colt following. You know what I mean. People loved the original razor. So and you know and we know that it's a valuable brand simply because Motorola and verizon tried to cash in on it once before with the droid razor line and you know they they kind of Bosch Austat. The original one was all right but then they sort of kept kind of a tweak in the razor it was just never really good phone so that raises the name holds value And it's a frigging foldable. Like is looks cool. It's it's it's my preferred implementation or like the folding tech so instead of a tablet you'd get a smartphone I I'm excited about it. I think before the galaxy fold came out I think it my emphysema hands on it. My thought was what you're just said is I think I don't care about the tablet thing. I want a tiny phone that unfolds into a phone then I played with the fold though and we call it. You know the king of couch phones and I still to this so some guy earlier. This week asked me on twitter. Like I'm thinking of buying the fold. Please talk me out of it And I kind of said to him like GonNa do that. 'cause I kinda miss it I kind of want one. I like because because when you're sitting on the couch but I do a lot open. Phones tablet pack it back together if you WANNA go whereas sure if I was and I work at home my home a lot right and and if I was was a kind of guy that was maybe on the go more where I needed a Tinier phone that just unfolded into a bigger phone. That would make sense. But I'm not really a a a- An on the go guy I'm in the cave a lot so I'm kind of the opposite now although I'm with you It looks cool. Like there's something about noted that just makes you there's about Just makes you want to own one and I don't really know why that is because we just just talked about the specs and the price and it doesn't really make sense to actually by other than you go. That's Kinda cool like it's the old razor these are in. Its God modern stuff and you can fold it like it's Kinda cool. It's because you know that one time of year where you leave the house you go to a restaurant or something no and you pull that thing. Hang out lipid open with the wrist. If you're like holy mother you know and then you got extra skinny jeans on and you're like the report that yeah people are going to know that you're the man and you know it's cool to be the man so especially if they see you pull that initially and go has a flip phone the oh I got it. Yeah yes I do. Yeah this is not your GRANDPA's flip phone so it's cool. It's it's fine to say it's cool. Yeah the specs Can because we're we're all super lead us here you know we have to trash it for that and say it's overpriced but to hand it's affordable. It's a flip phone. It's okay fifteen hundred dollars. It's pretty reasonable for a for a foldable. These days compared to the wall way made eggs and the galaxy fold so the only thing with those phones is they have all the specs right. The galaxy fold as fragile as that may be. It had the fastest storage available the best process available at twelve gig Ram the display is not sub. Hd You know like the little mini display on the front of the fold I think was hd and people were Kinda Matt about that but you unfolded to the squad. Hd thing whereas the this razor unfolds and it's still just hd so like the galaxy fold was two grand but it had everything everything in On that note though the fragile the fragility gylfi. You got it. Motorola doesn't appear here too. That worried about this thing breaking they said it has a slash causing a. They apparently didn't tell any of the media. They're like look you can't press too hard like remember. We all laughed addict Samsung when they said the fold. You can't really press hard. You might put a little nail Ding in there if you dig a nail all that stuff which meant i. Maybe I shouldn't use this thing. Motorola doesn't seem to be that worried. Worry they're like you can fold this thing. You can splash a little water here and there and You should be good. So that's that's good news. I love As Mitchell Weisberg says you love the idea of this phone and that's absolutely correct. I love the idea of phone. Could it be a little better Yasser. Could it be cheaper Berg of course but I think you know this is just one of those steps where we get to that you know were at one day. We're going to be all walking around probably doubly with foldable phones and because of the the graphing batteries in that Samsung or billion and all that stuff everything is going to be bendy an awesome and one day. We're going to get there We just have to take these baby steps and we have to say. Everything sucks though the company's No. Hey here's what the people actually once we got to make it better etc etc.. So we're getting there. I know big step. This isn't even a step. This is a big gap. It's the old old razor and it faults and you open in. They put in like a like an old old school mode or something. Utah go on the turns the inside display into a like like a screen that looks like the old razor with the bad keyboard and subtly. They actually did some funny things like that with sick. Yeah so they did had some fun stuff. The specs aren't there and the price is too high so I don't know that most people should consider this but it's still pretty cool like I can still admit that I want to at least play with one for a while. I know this is the phone for me. Just because of all of that stuff like the fold was fully specked. I could play with that thing all the time and again the couch. Phone this thing like it's cool Wilbert. So this thing you know I also see that it does not need to have high inspects right. This is not a gaming device. It's not a device bill for gaming. It's not a device built for tons sons. I would assume not a ton of multitasking just because the displays and it's a poor resolution compared to what else is available implicit that aspect aspect ratio. Little little awkward. I assume to play APPs on so we need a lot of power. The problem with that is when you don't give us a lot of power but still charge fifteen hundred dollars. That's things get a little wonky but can we all just lake agree that this is like the best looking hardware wise into it. It folds completely. It's old that doesn't friggin. Have a you know little acute angle going on. When it's closed it closes completely? Ed I mean that's that's worth at least a million dollars and think about all of the time Samsung spent talking about. It's hinge at the fold unveiling and later on how they had to redesign the hinge because it was letting dust in and and it still have that giant gap Motorola took this tiny little clam shell and it actually holds. Also they're doing a kind of a cool trick where like as it folds the bat like the display kind of sucks backwards and some plates like move out of the way to make room so it can fold old flat but it's like mobile and they said they worked with Lenovo Engineering team. I think when they did that but of course it actually folds flat. It's sweet I love the idea of this phone chat up to WHO said that again? Mitchell Y- live with the idea of this poem. Yeah so cool so All have one at some point. We're not apparently an offer Motorola but we will find a way we find a way we usually do. So you know it comes comes on January. There's plenty of time. Hopefully as they seed review units to people they don't break a day and a half and hate for that to happen but the way. It's kind of exciting. I mean these things are on right. It's like the future is starting to take shape. We're taking steps. I really eight that I can. I say so. I hate when we keep saying the future is now or the future is here. Uh on now I'm just signed here five G. is not here. There are other people may be in this industry who keep saying the future is now are the future is like It's and you know what's really funny is I'll give you guys a little sneak peek into Kevin's life East probably internally freaking Out Right now because we can all hear that beeping in the background from ease inside ripping his brain out man and they can never leave back nice but yeah so five. Ge's here that's right e- Feiger busy So yeah on that note about the future. We're we just have people showing US where we're going is what I'm saying. 'cause yeah I don't think of we're not at a point. Where like no you should go by this foldable thing? That costs fifteen hundred zero. You should not but it's cool and it shows us where we're going to Did we run a poll on this. No we asked What's the price where it makes it sort of worth buying exactly like this phone? A lot of people say not fifteen hundred dollars all right. So what price would you say I mean for me I already you know. Of course personally fifteen hundred dollars. It seems a little Steve. Just because I'm not going to go and spend my money but like if it was a thousand I might like consider. It may be a bit. More thousand dollars would almost seem like that. Sweet spot for affordable device ever. I am Ben. Jacobs has five hundred or less and make good luck like it's religion his interest. I don't think it's going to happen. You know at least for a while. So Oh he says I'm cheap then mets maybe on black Friday three years from now you might be able to get the razor foldable for five hundred. It's totally possible. I just hope that next year or even if it's the year after that when we get the second version of all of these That hopefully they don't stick to this price tier. Hopefully they go. Are we fixed it. And now it's easier and it might be true but it's not going to be right we're GONNA go toll reserves of two thousand dollars photos because they're gonNA go no no. We put more engineering work to bring this up to speed now. This one really is worth tuned. We're GONNA go come on. You guys can't do that to us. Well we also can. I mean for the past ten years phone prices have gone up. Why are we assuming that all of a sudden because things are folding now? It's the price is going join to go down. I don't think I don't know if we can really safely assume that I feel like maybe prices will just keep going up. I mean the phones if the phones are selling out then obviously there the region the people they need to reach. They're they're getting the numbers they need. I can see you still can't buy a galaxy Ford of mistaken that was gonNA look out. Yeah Yeah so the League they made one batch of them and yeah at which is fine if that's what they wanted to do but this phone I can easily see this phone selling out like just because because of the stall Zsa but then it's a next year if they make it even better with the good specs than like okay. Well now we actually have to charge a real foldable price. Which is two thousand bucks is? That's GonNa have full aged deeds GonNa do cameras of Hawaii as etc.. I don't know why we have to assume the prices are going to go down if anything they might go up. I have big news. Oh Gosh unlocked galaxy fold is back in sock is no. It's on sale. It's fifty bucks off. Aw however it's an in store only purchase still to this day can't order this thing and We'll best buys telling me that there isn't anywhere within two hundred fifty miles of me that has been stock discounted but you know good luck finding wants no. It doesn't click free stocked really but there are discounted for those remaining two units in number or something all right well this. That's a good sign that maybe prices will do just a little bit fifty bucks on two thousand much demand did not was not you know man or whatever right so they made to humint. May maybe it was a total fail which is weird. Because you can't really get them so I'm not understanding like where the discount is necessary. But I WANNA China like I said maybe there's just a couple in Missouri and people didn't buy them or there's something What price makes it worth it? It's one of those things where we're so early that they're just just going to be expensive. So No it's like the guy that asked me on twitter the other day and I said Dude if you have the money and you know that could break at any time. Don't care like just by one. That's kind Anna. What these devices are right now? If you have the money just do it because you have the money to buy a two thousand dollar phone. If that's going to be a big stretch for you you you probably shouldn't so it's Kinda work if the price is going to be a stretch for you either stretching to try to be a part of that near future you probably just shouldn't if the money doesn't matter tertia whatever you WanNa do then Charles W in the chat asked say fascinating question Will the future affordable go to go the razor routes or the galaxy fold route now so this is where things get a little interesting so for android. I think they're going to go. The Razor Route android tablets. That whole experience totally sucks and and that's why I don't think the Galaxy Ford is all that awesome anyway like why do you need something that big besides having a big display to watch a video on but in terms of APPs take advantage of that type of screen real. We'll save not their apple. Once they get into the foldable thing that's going to be like ipad forty nine beds so I've started investing in apple now because once. We have a folding holding IPAD stocks. Only going baby. Yeah I think people will make both I think there's GonNa be a market for people who want the small thing that unfolds and and the people are going to be want the one that's a phone most of the time that becomes a tablet. I get the argument for both of those It's GonNa be weird when someone makes on that unfolds into like a nine inch screen or something just going to be really stupid The thing I don't really want to see is always version ever become a reality and Xiaomi kind of doing this a little bit to where it folds backwards and so you have kind of display on front back that just sounds like the most fragile silly thing ever asking asking for it to be scratched and broken. Whatever and I don't think I need a display that wraps to the back of my phone I don't look at the back of my phone? I'm sure somebody will tell me that. There's a good reason happened. Just don't understand I get the thing where you have a display. How front fold in half close up the big guy and also the one where you have a little guy that unfolds too? So I think I I like bowl. I hope there's both I just I don't know that I like walkways. Version that folds around to the exposed -sposed elements. That seems silly. I'm with you on that. I keep forgetting about wall weighs photo will simply because I mean zero presence in the US. Yeah I think it's available today. Ed React in China. Yes no Google APPs honor thing and it's probably still almost three thousand dollars but that's like four thousand are are like forty million yen. Some rig says a fold that trifled so I think Motorola actually talked about Back when they first teased that they were making this razor. That they said the like the holy grail of foldable 's is the tri fold and I don't understand why I guess because you could make an even bigger one but that apparently Motorola I thought that was the thing of all things and I don't I don't understand that I think he'd Steve Defaults your phone once. If we're folding twice I think were were asking for even more troubled Orion years. Oh so Motorola Razor preorder day after Christmas December. Twenty six arrives January ninth or something like that that only ever is in in the US. We'll get one we hold onto your Christmas bonuses. People don't spend it on a fancy new pool brisket. It's kind of a smart drop time. 'cause people do have might avalanche of cash laying around or gift cards or whatever and they can just send them the next day. It kind of makes sense who's giving horizon gift cards for Christmas. Oh Imagine I would disown that family member air you what would you do. Somebody debut rising if I give them to like pay bills and stuff but are they gave it as a gift to be like here go buy some accessories variety horizon. Get the hell out. Get Out of here. Jesus brought some unnecessary stress in my life thinking about arising gift card. Yeah pretty much all right. Let's move out so in carrier news related Google today today that yesterday they took a stand stand and they said we're releasing our cs into the US right now. Well it'll roll out sort of slowly but some people already gotten it. I I do believe so our CS is here in the US. After are we weren't sure Google would ever have the BA L. L. S. is to do it they did We probably won't ever know the full story here but as you guys know a couple of weeks ago all the carriers came to get well. I could even back up further in June or July. Google said. Hey we're going to start. Pushing are CIS how to to the UK an a couple of other countries and they said look. We can just do this and everyone can have our and we said cool do the. US and they said you know we're we're willing to work with our carrier partners on this and we don't all said that that was a really stupid idea because the carriers will never do this with you google unless so you figure out ways to make them lots of money doing it so yeah a couple of weeks ago then the carriers all came together and said hey we figured out a way to make a lot of money from our. Yes yes so. We're going to make our own. We're GONNA leave Google out and it sounded like the racist thing ever and so. We wondered what Google would do to respond and this week they. He said we're giving to everyone. You have to install Google's messages APP and the rollout will take a little bit of time but it's GonNa prompt you if you use that APP Over the next handful of weeks probably prompt you to use an advanced messaging which they call chat which means read receipts typing being indicators which are all very weird things to have in text messages you can send hi Rez videos and photos. Which is actually a big deal and then your group chats you have more control? Troll of like removing people adding people in some other things like that so it's just better messaging and it just works like over data and you can use it on Wifi and all that stuff. So Oh it's a big deal Yeah I really do wish I could know for sure like I so I asked them when they sent just the news. I ask them Our did you guys do this. Sort of like. Because the carrier's doing their own thing is this separate from them. What's going going on like you guys said Hiroshi law commerce said on like on twitter when he was asked about this like we'd be willing to work with carriers and so I ask them what's the deal and here's the quote they said we've been in close touch with carriers on this step and continue to work with them to provide a consistent and interoperable experience for everyone android. It's technically possible for us to migrate to partner Arsia Services and we are committed to working with our partners to ensure that users have agreed experience and are happy to interrupt with their service including shooting migrating to their service. So Google saying like we'll work with you. Maybe so I don't know if that's ever going to happen. I can't imagine either will want to give in to the other side And so Google just got theirs and The carriers will have their own the only thing that's gotta suck because when the carriers role at their own these are blocking in Google somehow just like they did with google pay or android Google Wallet. Whatever the hell it was called I'm excited I'm glad the Google finally the like I I. I like it when company. Stick it to carriers because there are very few that ever get to that have the power to in the. US carriers have all of the power our and rarely do and it. Does anyone get to like apple. Does a good job saying no carrier. You're going to listen to US your bloat wear. No we're or selling our phone everywhere were doing. I message like they can do their thing. And I appreciate that of Apple. I just wish Google would do more and so this is a good first attempt. I won't use ours. Yes 'cause I use google voice and hangouts but same. What's Darcy Abby for everyone else? This is huge. It's not GonNa fix the Green Bubble You know issue That is currently plaguing The android Nyah nihilist friendships across the world. Yet there's this has nothing to do with Apple. We've seen a lot of people ask well. Does this work now with I message. The answer is no Abdul Apple phones. Arsia the answer there is no. There's no art with your with your apple France. It's just basically an android thing so when you so you have to talk your friends and it's like let's say like my wife has a galaxy note ten now. She probably doesn't have the Google messages APP installed because there's probably just a Samsung messages. Actually I'm lying. She has it but let's just say she's a normal person. She wouldn't have to tell her to install Google Zappia. Samsung phones already. Messed up so you have to do that. Then opt in just make her default and use that in so. That's one of those other hurdles like all these people are GonNa have to overcome phone. Does your friend have have they have to install this if they have to enable it. So there's some things flying around so some things they have to do to get it working being then once they do. That's great. It's still better than where we were. I don't know if this is the most game changing thing ever again there. We're getting their baby steps. Stature is near to and I know are getting their it's only one was the first mention of our CS. CBS from Google. It was at least three years ago. It was either fifteen or sixteen one of those who that were were almost I. I think it's actually almost four years now. I think it was two thousand sixteen was like in January or something or around mw C.. Which I guess is is February so it was like at the beginning of the year two thousand sixteen and so were almost four years and if he use what's APP like ninety percent of the world's population does than just ignore? Can I just say that I think care tying any any sort of messaging service to your phone number is really stupid idea while like why are we doing that maybe to carry thing. Maybe it's because people's phone numbers or attached ask them but you're you're then forever attached to a phone number and if I leave my phone on the other side of the House and I'm sitting on a computer there's only certain services that still let me access that and and so that's why like one of those Google talk and hang out so great I thought is because I didn't need a phone number like your friend end who I keep bringing up people's friends. Let's say your child who is fourteen and you're like you're not. I'm not buying you a phone. Yeah but they have a google account like so you could still talk to them on hangouts through tablet or computer. Whatever I mean? There's so many ways to talk to people without phone numbers that I think having a phone number attached to your messaging life is. It's just a stupid idea so anyway just a little rant there this is an and part of. Why bring that up because you and I are attached to Google voice this because we use google voice for our phone number and then for messaging needs? We could use that. I guess to text message. But we've had hangouts because we made that merger migration so long at the phone number thing is just stupid rig says basically talking about. I message TAVERAS. Do you know how many of your friends phone numbers you know. That's another thing. I barely know my own phone number rates like we don't know oh phone numbers anymore. We don't we sure we might have saved in our contact but there is a time. We had a couple of friends that like because a lot of my friends here actually are from Montana and we all all live here in Oregon now and so we moved from Montana. We all had four. Oh six area code numbers because Montana has one area we moved here and and then when you move to a new place often when you're looking for a job maybe you're trying to date someone. Whatever you're doing you want to have a local phone number and so you change number so if people move they would've changed numbers and then you're screwed like we should not all be attached to each other via phone number? It's just a dumping dude you're like the future is now man man. There's some heavy stuff I'm we I'm we. I'm so with you on that now. I don't call people. People don't tax people so yeah phone numbers are like the last thing I think about plus I have Google assistant make all my calls these days anyway like I don't I don't talk to people is ridiculous and I can do all my bookings for my haircuts and stuff all online even though I don't get haircuts anymore as we know so yeah I mean it's phone numbers are dumb down That's another shirt. We do phone numbers or dumb hashtags take the giants. Somebody needs to keep your qualities. Brilliant ideas we have in the middle of the show that we always forget the minute we hang up come on guys we need your hip okay so before we go on. Let's catch up on Super Chats Xabier. We promised we wouldn't forget about you. Draw five bucks a while ago and said L. for Life Zeta it Zoltan. Zoltin Sultan's chatted two pounds as love. You Guys Mitchell dropped ten bucks. Canadian says in memory of my I father in law. That's awesome. Hell yes in memory of your father in law appreciate that so Chris s dropped five and then another five very cool allen drop to says. I don't use their messaging APP. It so leggy that Google's you're talking about possibly I don't use it because again my whole Ranta just went on Thank you guys so much for all of the Super Chats again. Those are going to cancer. Research Institute at the end of December pickled donations. Show today. All right yeah should talk US stadium briefly stadium. The thing that everyone loves so much that everyone's definitely gonNA sign up for Stadia is approaching launch. Its next week I think nineteenth nine. Am that's right so next four days with on Monday Tuesday Tuesday Wednesday the nineteenth. I don't know what today is I think. That's Tuesday Newsday fifteen so Tuesday Tuesday. Tim and I will not be working because we'll be playing stadium. That's such a lot nobody asks Man So yeah. So let's run through this stadium. Stadiums launching the nineteenth in the stadia team as as we approached Got Closer to launch. They kind of continue to say what is and isn't going to work or be available or the Games and we started out like in. When did they show off in March or April somewhere down there and they they presented this experience have this suite controller with Google assistant button unscreened capturing and immediate sharing streaming to youtube and all the stuff and their controller in this founders additionally preordered you're the first use it you've got to buddy pass? She could bring a buddy along for the ride. It was going to work on. Everything was huge and then as we've gotten closer The the founders edition controllers. Most people won't have them day. Want like goals should be shipping them today for Tuesday right overnight for shipping. So no one's going to have them because they said look look. We're not GONNA be able to ship them out like all at once which I don't even know what that means and so so you may not have your controller So then you're gonna you. How are you gonNA play Games? Do you just have to hope to have an xbox controller laying around. Well you could still play on your chromebook or or On Your chromebook playing your chromebook okay. So ninety-three around you can play with something not a controller. Learn from them because it will be late like ours is scheduled between the twentieth and twenty first and I was one of the first people to order. I'm assuming order in two days so you can play with certain like if you got an xbox one s controller that would work it has bluetooth I do. I have a white one right there. Yeah so if you have a white xbox controller you can play and you know of course. There's like mad cats or there's a whole bunch of everyone will be using non stadia controllers to play stadia because the Troch so restraint. But there's other things that they've talked about since right like the buddy pass because I by the founder rounder. Sing with the buddy pass so I can send it to Tim. Tim and I could play and hang out. Apparently the buddy pass arriving for like two weeks two weeks after launch out weeks weeks they said so. So about two weeks after launch if you own a chrome cast ultra because initially the only device or I should say the only way you can stream into a T. V. is through crass ultra but if your own the seventy dollars ultra that one won't work now because it's running old software so so when you order the founders edition it comes with an ultra that has like newer stadia ready software so you have to like replace Your ultra and they'll update the old ones soon. We don't know when we win. Okay so that's like a thing to To play you have have to. You have to wire the controller into your phone or computer tablet or whatever because there's only pixel phones at launch. I believe in chromebooks chromebooks something. There's a whole bunch of other stuff like I don't even know what stream connected state. Sharing crowd plantings are. But they're not there The achievement system happening happening in the background. Right is that what they said. Yeah so you won't have visible achievement system at launch but because this is Google and they track everything everything the Games you know. The games and Google are going to track the achievements you unlock. And then once the achievement system rolls around the stadia team says you're going to get like a thousand notifications for all the chievements unlocked throughout your previous game. Plays so that should be cool. She's like that sounds awesome like in a bunch of cheese and notifications negations all at once like that. Sounds like F- nightmare to me. But that's just play through a game and don't get any of those things and then you don and it comes back and goes well. Here's all these achievements. You could have done while you were playing and then you have to go back and like rebe. Oh man what does yeah. So a lot of the fancy features show showed off not there Yeah it's Oh and then what. Twelve Games launch. It's what we're expecting. Well Yeah twelve games at launch I I mean you get red dead redemption too. So that's cool. I mean yet it. What do you mean like that? You'RE GONNA have streaming access to its yet only pros. Only the pro subscription is available. Because the free doesn't even launch until next year so these games should be available at launch for people to strain free of charge so destiny to excrete Ozzie. Kill just dance. Twenty twenty kind mortal combat eleven for a different institute thumper reasons saying you still have have to buy IT I. I was under the impression that the games that they're launching with our for the pro users just stream Not that you actually have to buy them separately. I guess that would make sense of the Games. You for sure. have to buy separately. I know they're going to give some free for a time. Like I think destiny Zinni everyone gets gets to play. I think boy but I wouldn't doubt it if if redemption you have to buy separately okay. Whoa uh-huh Stadium blows let people streaming no on Netflix? You don't pay the streaming fit. Yes so I like and when you pay. What they're doing is giving you like a better connection? I think like higher streams. There's a couple of like the the things you get aren't aren't really great except and then there's like there's supposedly. I think it'd be a library games. You'll get somewhere down the road that will like be a part of that. I think I wrote this up someday. But it's been so long and they keep two inches all the way that I can't really keep track over regardless twelve games launch but then another fourteen coming by the end of the a year I one of those things. That kind of like irked me about the something that a steady executive recently was that the cloud you know no no no game. Developer was really going to take full advantage of the cloud until a few years. Hinge of this like He's yeah so like I just don't see what the early adopters are getting besides early access to chrome cast your term. Wear shirt your name like. It's not worth one hundred. I know perfect destiny. A to the collection is not worth a hundred thirty dollars. And you're getting a controller. That has a Google assistant button like y'all getting scammed and that's just. I adopted her life in general. I suppose but I think this is what you get this. Okay get stadium pro ten bucks a month you get three months included free just because he by the founders edition after that it's ten bucks a month you get up to four K.. Resolution whereas the free only up to ten. ADP You get sixty second on bolts. That's fine Sounding a five point one surrounded only stereo in the free With both ones you can buy games and every wants with pro you get destiny to the collection Shen free with the other one no free and then you get a stadium. WPRO exclusive discount on select game purchases with the pro and no discount with the free so like redemption right right. You probably will have to buy that. You might get a discount. The those games are old. They should already be discounted if you have have a console or pc read read. Just launched for P. C.. I'm not sure what the prices 'cause I don't follow but it's not a new game like these games have been Out I think it's only launching with one exclusive if I'm not mistaken Krell or something that doesn't even look interesting. Looks like a little kids game. I don't know man. I consider myself a Gamer AAMER. And like none of this interest me whatsoever and like that's and like an I've been. I've been venturing out man. I'm not just playing a call of duty beauty like I used to back in the day. I was playing apex playing minecraft plano bunch of stuff. I WANNA play a baseball game but playstation has the exclusive. Apparently every good baseball game. Game hate my life stages does not sound All too good for gamers and the fact of the matter is like you know Stadio are these cloud gaming platforms. We'll take once. The streamers are onto right like hardcore. Gamers aren't using these things because it's just not it doesn't make any sense for them to get you have access to I. Just don't understand how many people I guess. Besides Google employees are constantly traveling around the world. The Need to game on the chromebook device. I just don't I don't understand who this is. Four and I know people are still worried about S. P. data caps. And all this stuff. Google said We're not even concerned about it like I don't get what we're streaming four K sixty frames a second AAA titles from the cloud. You're not worried it. There's something weird going on here. I'm onto you google. Where's my tinfoil US around here somewhere? All I'm saying is I think thinks stadiums a rip-off keeps getting worse and worse as we get closer to launch to. That's what sucks like keeps getting so hot for it. I was excited to get my little buddy pass on and like okay. I'll check it out like maybe you and I could play Red Dead Redemption together like Oh wait now. Apparently I have to buy a dead. My Buddy passes passes incoming for weeks after launch like. What's the point I want to choose my name to? I feel like I'm getting shafted nine even by Avia. Oh man the name sucks to like. Let's it's not a great name. I mean you keep phone numbers you happy. This is your stadium moment I guess and we did have we ran in a pool of people signing up and how many people we got signing up for that. I'm GonNa let me guess I'm GonNa go eighty five percents. No you're actually wrong. Thirty three percent said yes like a third of readers fifty two percents no and fifteen fifteen percent so they haven't decided quite yet. I'm extra that's actually a high number. I think the thirty three percents. I still see people who are excited excited for the launch and yeah I hope they are excited man because they spent a hundred dollars on nothing else ours. I think would be presented months. It's in months ago. Looked really cool. It's just seems like we're really far from that vision happening. And that's what's so frustrating. Were railing against it because were four days away and Google told us one day ago that we are not getting any of what any of us paid for and not only that the founders people who were supposed to be your earliest adopters who were there to basically say like. I'm stinking. My claim as a part of Stadia. You're even rewarding awarding them with their stuff day launches like that's really crappy. Yeah this is Google and like the thing was. Is that when the stadium team did this resume. They're they're like well. We can't control the traffic lights or the near the post office trucks. That has anything to do with making sure I give my role in a long day may really should have and they should have guarantee that people would have it online state. You're paying that kind of money in your Google. You have you gotta you got enough money. I think to guarantee that people get through SUP regardless of traffic lights. Yeah that's a really tough issues now at that they. He said that pisses me off no ship earlier because again mine has not shifted. I was one of the first people on the planet or the Damn thing and ours is constantly consistently showed owed arriving the twentieth to the twenty first. And I'm assuming everyone else. They got super early is saying the exact same thing they could've ship them earlier. They made it sound like it was totally cool. Because as long as you `priority you're GONNA get your code on Tuesday the servers are GonNa go live at nine. Am and you'll be able to access access stadium from your chrome browser on whatever computer you got on your chromebook makes me sick. So I will get my co Tuesday and The Game Selection. Yeah that's what I'm looking and I'm like okay I was. I mean if the Games were they were getting some fricken exclusives or so. They don't even have A. I looked on twitch checked all the titles that they're going to offer in terms CBS of Popular Games in the world. They don't have one in the top twenty four so they had the twenty fourth. Most popular game was that I can't remember it. It was even though no it wasn't mortal combat I won't be able to remember right off and I dare not launch at Chrome Tab because because my heart my setup is not built for that but history. Yeah so either I mean they just don't have a lot of those big kind of popular games that people at least enjoy enjoy watching Gameplay Let alone playing so yeah. I don't know which of those I play but I'm I'm really picky when I quit so I don't know you can ride a horse soon. Red Dead Redemption. That's probably what I'll do. Just don't know we'll see what the discount is. Ray that's GONNA be a big time discounts forty percent off red dead redemption to sure. I may picking up if it's five bucks off. Nah I just won't play a game. I don't even know what destiny is. Okay okay So next topic. Let's talk a little bit about Google and checking accounts. We can make this quick but Google through a story I believe in the Wall Street Journal reported that Google Google wants to launch a checking service which is a little weird But they're GONNA use Citigroup Citibank Citigroup city. We see somebody's sitting group and Credit Union that's at Stanford Small Ish Credit Union from Stanford and they're going to launch a checking service. So you could sign sign up for Google checking account and it's curly code-named Cash C. a. c. h. e. and then that will give you a checking account and then that will tie into google peso through Google pay. You would apparently have access to your checking account. I know there's other. Online banks is simple as Arista was simple. And there's there's still like hell online checking account nobody right so it'll probably be similar. You'll have it through Google pay Oh Okay I don't. I don't really know what to think about this. 'cause changing banks never seems like something fun onto me so usually like you get with a bank or Credit Union. Just gotTA stick there for years. That's why you just kind of Said Yeah enforce them so a simple because it's kind of a thing we just don't do so. Google launched checking account. I'm like okay. Great I I can't imagine I changed to that. So we all think they're doing it because there's lots of valuable data in your financial transactions and they already had to say like we're not going to sell any of that for ad purposes and Blah Blah Blah and. It's like you know people already don't trust you google. I don't think people we'RE GONNA run to sign up for your checking accounts poor google. They're just trying to be the nice guy that probably trying to give people like five percent interest rate or something basic checking can accounts. And here's we'd like you just date. You guys need to be nicer to Google. They're trying their data company. That's all they do. That's the biggest. Every time they come out with something people go dude. What data you're going to get from this like just tell us just tell you what daddy so you get your heart rate and like you know the calories? You're burning all it's no big deal. COME ON UNREAL CARES EARS S. I don't really have much to add. Their cools apparently making checking accounts in the launch next year. When that happens? We'll tell you guys if it's worth it I'll probably get it just because like I I mean Google you've got everything I'm ready to get over simple. Yeah as long as Google Bank or whatever. I don't care as long as g bank think has support for Samsung pay. Then I don't care because Samsung pays all in well really exclusive to Kobe. Probably that you're That would suck. And as long as I find out that you know their partner bank or whoever is not an investor in the keystone pipeline. Then then they're not jump on board. It's a Caribbean Stanford. So might not be terrible. I don't know about Citigroup Citigroup. Yeah they sound like one of those questions mark. We'll do Okay so final topic. Get into Trivia Disney plus is here boop the Disney plus the most hyped product launch. I can think of in. I'm talking like across all of Tech Right. Like the word folds it s tens and pixel phones and Google homes and whatever right all these things launch I don't I can't tell you like Disney is just a different thing like they control control a lot of everything I feel like as far as media and it's here and when it launched it was it was kind of a big deal. I feel like it's out. It's six ninety nine a month there's also a bundled package where you can get Hulu and ESPN. Plus I think that's twelve ninety nine a month I think that one is. I just have the six nine. I locked into that thing for a three year period. When there was one of those deals where you could get it for like forty percent off so I saved like hundred and fifty bucks or something My Kid will watch all of the stuff religiously so it's here but now that it's here. Does anyone anyone still look. You still excited about. Plus you'd I've been every night I've been watching something new man so first of all I've already watched Manza Laurean assode one twice so good I just love it let it. Please let me know in the chat. When it's totally cool to talk about spoilers like if you I haven't seen the show maybe she's just log off the next but no I'm not spoil a so so Disney plus his great you know I haven't watched a lot of those old movies he's You know some of them might be a little racist So I haven't seen a lot of these movies along time. One hundred one Dalmatians. Just all these old Disney movies. All these old Pluto cartoons and all that like. I haven't seen this stuff for a long time. So I I've been loving this. Six ninety nine seems like a steal steal for at least like what's right. I mean like I think about all the Times. 'CAUSE I buy a lot of like the avengers movies or like the Superhero movies I am by into the MC see you Like physically digitally So I've been waiting for a service like this market access. All of them and so seventy dollars a month for like four cage. Dr Like just like pretty good content. Because I don't mind watching those superhero movies I've been enjoying the heck of it so Disney plus and you know of of course services had a hard time servers have a Ramadan state. Yeah that was bound to happen But in terms of overall content. I think it's good. I think it's only gonNA get better I'm a little peeved that I have to wait for each week of new episodes of the man's Laurean because like you know if they just drop the whole season I'd be done. Oh yeah so. That's the only thing that Kinda grants gears other than that. I've been enjoying the heck out out of Disney plus Rick Says Cal's GonNa fifteen minute rant on dizzy. I like Disney plus it. I sure I'm glad that I signed up for this. Like super cheap three year subscription to it because it has all the like old school Disney stuff. It has all the cartoon movies and pick. Aren't all that stuff and they're starting to do original content and they have the marvel stuff. I've never been huge marvel universe and I've seen almost all of it but so like the rewatch ability of some of that stuff is fine. Obviously like the star our worst up middle oriented great so far. There's there's like there's another show that it's like Disney Pixar in real life or something like that. That's like one of their originals that they've done and like Mandal Orient one episode at a time so right now there's like an inside out version. You know the movie inside out of that and my kid already already thinks it's fascinating but like the teaser. Picture they show is like wally in real life. And he's like where's the wally episode. And I'm like you have to wait. And he's like what the hell is this like you know what is yeah so I think this is not like an issue with it because I think dizzy blesses a pretty cool service. They need to upgrade some features like like a list and auto plays and things. Your favorite with you need to be able to achieve things something and like restarting an episode. There needs to be an easy. There's much thing anyways they'll get to that. I think right now because it's so early. I want new content whereas like sure I like to watch old movies every once in a while but I like to consume new. Do things that they don't have that yet like. That's one of the things about Netflix. Is How many original shows does Netflix APP. That you can constantly watch something new you've never seen before whereas this we're not there a yet it'll get there. I'm sure so I'm trying not to complain. It seems really cool. I love it and there's an APP on every single platform like it was on TV. The midday ended live on the phones. The APPS work pretty well like I said there's just things they need to add to him but it's a pretty cool thing I mean it's it's always fun to sort of like with hokey grandma got came out to see the world unite around something and go editor same time like this is cool because it doesn't happen very often you know we live in a pretty shitty world. This is one of those things where people have come together on. Yes Disney plus managed to Laurie. Yeah Anyway I'm actually pretty excited for sure. Sure I have signed up I. Just there's some things I would love to see happen but that will take some time. So yeah we're ranting about it jazz Forty three or forty three forty forty-three in the chat says no one's mentioned to the entire Simpson series. Maybe if this was like fifteen years ago I'd be pretty pretty hyped about that. I DID WATCH SIMPSONS FAN like thirty at watched one episode notice that the aspect ratio was off. You know they. They're they're boxing. Something cutting knock the tops and yes I saw. There was people upset about that so I assume they're going to have to go back and kind of I assume no one watched anything. They just Kinda uploaded into the servers and said we're good so I think they need to go back and fix a couple of things other than that And I love that Disney has come back and kind of like warn people like okay as some of our stuff was like kind of racy back in the Day that the crows dumbo or And then what else was there man So My wife was watching Pinocchio. Jio with my son they say some weird stuff and I was like well. What do you mean issues like they just say some weird stopping? Oh Yeah it's all Disney for ya completely arose. Today Disney's autism is a good one but yeah I'm totally cool with it on them. I'm Disney plus for life life. I never thought myself. It was like a huge Disney fan boy but now that I see like you know they kind of rushes all backing like holy moly the rescuers down under like awesome lost off San Lakes animated series. And I'm a huge fan of the animated like the rebels clone wars. I cannot wait a nuclear wars to Anything so so. That's one of those things though new content long we have to wait for so when some of those shows you're talking about go on car do network or whatever their on how long before we get to see those so like there's a kitchen like muppet babies right kids show. My kid likes muppet babies. There's there's like one season from two thousand seventeen on there and there's obviously new episodes of that on the Disney network like the actual channel. So how long before we get new stuff. I don't know is mandatory to out today. No it's not right next week. I thought it was on next week for I just looked in. It's on there. So we're cutting no trivia today. We'll catch you later. Thank you guys so much for. The donations picks were out of here. Yeah I thought it was next week but okay. I don't do that so weird Jack. Is it really available right now. I just checked. It's there that's crazy. We should just get the trivia actually ran a poll quickly said who subscribing sixty two percent of you know what's up you said yes. Twenty percents had no sixteen. Said you don't know yet. I don't know what you're doing. Just you should probably six nine. Oh and if you're on verizon you get free I'm assuming everyone knows that. But if you're on verizon one of their unlimited plans you get it for free for a year so as yes exactly upset. His friars cousin got the hundred eighty bucks for three year deal. That's what I did. I think you could like seem like a Lotta money. I know you're savers. Hey for yeah sure. It's just like you know like upfront costs. I'm holy Jesus Upfront. Costs are just so much harder to stomach than like a monthly cost for me. So Yeah Yeah. Apparently we have to review a Sony phone. Yeah let's let's run through those and we'll get into trivia so a little while Travis half men dropped ten bucks and said nonsmoking. mother-in-law died of lung cancer. Go figure I mean this is why we're doing this because cancer is that off so My stepfather other still alive but Never chewed at tobacco. Smoked anything in his entire life Had salivary gland had cancer. And you know like had to go through a massive amount of surgeries radiation. All of that stuff beasley has had half tongue. Hong cannot taste anything really except for little things here and there years ago. I mean this happened probably over a decade and now he basically asked to drink smoothies for the rest of his life hyphen soft foods and chop things. And it's awful. I mean he's still alive but he so sorry to hear that Travis. That's I mean the eight. Suzy goes to people who do it. Yeah it's fun Eddie Daniels draw five bucks. Mega trope five bucks at first deposit for your Google Bank count. Thank you Eddie. We will use that wisely. megatrend dropped two bucks Mark Hamilton dropped a hundred dollars and says in memory of my aunt and father in law for my wife mom and brother who have fought now review. The Damn Sony's really appreciate that massive donation mark We won't review the but we will make sure every single penny that goes to fight this awful thing. That is cancer really appreciate that googling experience five right now I think we looked it up last week mark. Did you ask about this last week to ticketed it really appreciate one hundred bucks though every six hundred bucks everyone to five ten we've had so many massive donation last two shows we brought in and so much you guys are GonNa. We're GONNA read a big fat check. It's going to be pretty awesome. You guys have been super generous and much appreciated appreciate those mark has spoken off. Hey Man I'll reach out to Sony. I don't mind I got time. He said yes that was last week. I remember it was brought up last week. We're talking about. We got going on right now until we'll see yes comes around so that is true to all right. You got lights or something do I. I think it's I think it's Trivia time I think it is steel trivia time teams getting those lights fired up touring now works. It's mandatory in time. You guys don't really need a Bluetooth Speaker to like we. All we all speak. Everyone Needs New Bluetooth speakers so as Tim tries to get those lights gaunt I want to go. It is deal show trivia time. Og droid edition today because well Motorola brought back the razor. I know it's not the same thing. Think but it's a throwback it's throwback time Motorola. Og droid edition so this week. The fine folks at anchor sponsored the Trivia portion of the show and they're giving away a five of their sound cord mini to bluetooth speakers. Fifteen are better life again. IBM seven waters is. I mean you can take these things wherever the last a long time you you can get him wet all that good stuff everyone who Wins Receives Anchor Samcor Miniature Bluetooth Speaker. Thanks for the two dollars So Howard Trivia works if you're live with us in the chat on Youtube We put a question up. Tim Reads it aloud. You type the answer as fast as you can. If you're correct and we see on our screen that you are first you win it. It's super simple question up. Tim Reads you tied it. Enter as long as you're correct in your first you win and you're GonNa Win Anchor Bluetooth Bluetooth Speaker debate pretty simple stuff. Oh man like I had like a little emoji with his his Sergei with three dollars Canadian and it was like a sweet a pair during a thumbs up on how he did it but he did it. I don't even see that. I I see Tim with two Xavier with another five. I don't see the survey one. I mean they're Sergei. Sergei Xavier will another five. Is that for Sticker Ker. It's a super sticker so super sixers. What's a superior sticker? So they added this thing called super stickers like just this week and they're just like exist which adds up you get to express your thing with a sticker. Oh I know why because the the software we use that yeah. It's not showing. It's showing going over here. It's a super figure it's the problem. Yeah it is. It's a me software. Sir yeah with it. Looks Awesome Super Sticker. Thank you surrogate for the super. Stick Dick the Xavier for another five also thanked him for another two trump. Okay Okay Yeah anyways. That's the that's the show Trivia. Uh we'll see you guys later Savannah Laurie into. Oh you haven't done it yet. We haven't done it yet. The question of You Guys Answer Anyway and Bluetooth Speaker Anchor. Goodness Gracious. Are you ready. I think so all right. Let's do it question number one. Please question number one is up now. who was the CEO CEO of Motorola when the original droid launched in two thousand and nine and we are looking for correct spelling here who was the CEO of Motorola uh when the original droid launched in two thousand nine things get get that Yeah looks good to me Rashad Gaddis with the correct. Answer of Sanjay Jaw Sandra John Wayne County right there right behind right shots verse Sanjak Shop Mob. Boy He was he was. I mean he did the O.. J. droid which made his name Ray. And then he After that it was just like like bad decision. After bad decision he made the dock things the lap dock and the bionic and then he was out a hundred million dollars or something like that. Yeah he probably was involved in the zoom to. That's right. And he got paid for use on. Congratulations Rashawn Rishaad. Gaddis winner us. Raise wait that's right. Mr Moto Blur Sound Horror Miller to anchor. That's right in South Korea mini to all right question number. Two please question number two is up now. What version of ANDROID did the original regional droid launch with again? What version of ANDROID did the original droid launch with? Were looking for like the desert name or we will also take the the the the number and I'm seeing a whole bunch of correct answers which is nice black web. Yeah I'm seeing Accurate web with the correct answer to Dotto Aka android Tomato Aka He's a winner right. Yeah he's won before. I believe Andrew Sued Tim and are talking about this before the show so it was like there was a little bit of drama because launch. It was the first phone with two DOTTO and And then the next one came out like a month and a half later with two dot one and I remember we wrote all these stories about how bad we all were that we didn't have to don where we're going to get it and we actually looked up the tweet Motorola sent into January. Two thousand Tanit said. Don't worry you'll get to one also because it was like the early days of updates the up and it had like forty likes you know back when four. They think anyone really cared thing. Pretty Wild Too. So that's very to brought flash The memories I went to a couple of adobe events. I think you did too. Actually because adobe was really pushing the fact that flash was GONNA come to phones and it was such a huge deal was such you remember you had to like install an APP op and things like that to get for an actual APP yeah and a spreading the flash. AP was like really good traffic for about that. And do the Netflix APP. When we first on when we posted that thing for download I think the Internet's is bloated? Now we might still be riding that traffic ethic wave. Og Netflix PK. Okay anyway Let's go on. Congratulations Zachary Web. Let's go with question number three please. Of course number Three is up now. What was the marketing tagline used in commercials for the original droid again? What was the marketing tagline using commercials for the original droid? Oh nate clements with the super quickness and followed by Ben seen a lot of smart people in the Chats Day the Christ I answer was droid does. Nate clements withdrew away does congratulations nick. Clements whole bunch. You had it really Roy. Ars I on our screen yet. I'm Lovin what was the whole line was like whatever something does droid. Notes doesn't wo- It was. It was in reference to the iphone like. I don't do this. I don't have a five megapixel camera droid does. It was good. I don't drink it does okay. Yeah that's right a world. That doesn't droid does rigs of the world that doesn't droid does classic all right well. Two more questions actions two more chances to win a sweet Samcor many again shout out to anchor for supplying today's prizes greatly appreciated. ooh Oh good okay. Oh Yeah Kinda difficult. Possibly a question number four police questioned before his up to now was that was the alternate name of the original droid in Latin America and Europe. Again what was the alternate name of the original droid in Latin America In Europe I am seeing the correct answer. These people no other. Og droid Trivia. Let's put that out there right now. snick Fisher with the correct correct answer of milestone milestone Eddie right behind him right behind was first yet a milestone own. Had you guys know all that's a good one though that's like that's like some like you gotTa Know Avenue your stuff Golden Hammer with the El Dorado guests. Ouch I know these things. I remember wanting to import one. They got one or not but there was like there was a couple of differences. I thought between them that made me sort of want one as well but what I think the keyboard had headed difference it might have had an extra robots and other little different to or something while they were more silverish Ray. I don't sound like they're yeah. She was a solid ten years. AGO was can't remember that Risi. All Right Nick Fisher congratulations. Let's go with our last final question question. Last chance people question number five question revolves up now. What chip maker was responsible for the production of the original L. droids processor again? What chipmaker was responsible for the production of the original droids Ross Esser taking Ti? I on. Yeah I'll take. I'll take trevor McGrath. I think I gotta go with Trevor McGrath Right. I mean I think we I think we know what Ben Jacob Geico was going for trying to jump to get on a little bit. I think we're GONNA. I think we gotta go with Trevor McGrath on this one store for Texas instruments. Ed Jacobs this pre typed my possibly be thing including Ben Processor. I certainly appreciate what you're trying to do but I think we're going to have to go with just because we didn't ask for the processor we as for who made it so I think I think I'm I'm with you on that. Yeah okay all right. So our ever mcgrigor with Texas instruments. Yeah the same chip that uses him. Three sixty like six Just check in one more time to make sure it was. Trevor E. N.. Yeah Yeah Yep oh man. I another super sticker cheese trousers winners. Feel free to email me. I'm pretty sure all y'all have won before possibly but if you haven't email me we're going to get your prizes sent out to you. Boom Charles with it's five dollar super sticker the pair drop the MIC. Thank you very much. It's so cute in on the superstructure action ready yeah. I'm waiting still waiting waiting to work. Oh what access tonight. That's just not nice. Yes yeah. That's it for Trivia. If you guys need to bounce Agley hang out for a couple of minutes afterwards but you guys congratulations to shod. Gaddis Zachary Web Nate Clements Nick Fisher and Trevor McGrath. You all one sweet sound core mini to bluetooth speaker from anchor featuring it seven. I've been water resistance and fifteen hour battery life if you didn't win one but still want one of these guys. They're up on Amazon. Go Hey grab one Wade County. And if you guys are loving Hassan whiteside a s sarcasm and rigs of course brings up Carmelo. Ami saw the news raking last night from the old washed bomb and I about crap my pants. It's like Oh my God I had like a flashback. Back to win mellow was like you know. A God Yeah it was many longtime ago. Many moons ago I think whiteside can be fine. Fine we all know like he's capable as long as he's engaged the mellow thing. I just I've never been a Carmelo Anthony. Fan like the one and you had college where he led Syracuse Championship. Whatever that was great but he's just you know he's old he doesn't really fit the style of the NBA anymore? He wants to play I so sort of mid post ball and shoot like eighteen foot jumpers like the NBA is three pointers moving. The ball quickly. You can't up and down the court maybe a little inside game. He's doing that and he's played defensive after it's like you know he just really. There's a reason no team picked up. Carmelo oh anthony because he doesn't fit the NBA anymore. He was a great player but he doesn't really hadn't really care the Blazers sock. I guess whatever whatever we can do right. Yeah mean bright. It doesn't matter where we made a lot of bad moves. I think in the offseason. So yes we did. I tried to drive to super. They won't show up. I'm actually really mad or exit. Saying he's a good guy your local. Ymca I yeah. Except he's like jacking shots from a nod dropping him he's like why do you keep shooting it. Pass it. 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Episode 155 The Battle of Bennington

American Revolution Podcast

27:09 min | 10 months ago

Episode 155 The Battle of Bennington

"Hello, thank you for joining the American Revolution. Today episode one fifty five. The Battle of Bennington. Last week we left off with General John Starks New Hampshire, militia army, marching to occupy Bennington in what is today Vermont where the Americans maintained a supply depot. At the same time German Lieutenant Colonel Friedrich. Baum led a force of over one thousand loyalists and German soldiers detached from Burgoyne army also to capture Bennington. Alert listeners may have noticed a trend that when two opposing armies try to occupy the same town. A battle usually occurs. And I will be the case today as the two armies clash in what became known as the battle of Bennington. As I mentioned last week? Colonel Bounce column. Moves slowly through the Wilderness. They left. Fort Miller on the Hudson River on August eleventh, Seventeen, seventy seven. Two days later and advance force about fifty Indians had reached Cambridge New, York A small village, a few houses just over fifteen miles away. Bombs main column was still in transit. In Bennington less than twenty miles from Cambridge General Stark received word of enemy warriors in Cambridge, and that they were the vanguard of an enemy column. Stark deployed about two hundred men under the command of Lieutenant Colonel William Greg to reconnoitre the enemy and intercept any advancing scout parties that evening August Thirteenth Greg's force set up camp at a grist mill just outside of Cambridge. The next morning balance column was up before dawn, and on the march. By around eight am on the fourteenth. The advance of his column had reached Cambridge. Greg's Patriots opened fire on the enemy, but quickly retreated into the woods before doing any real damage. Foul reported only one Indian warrior wounded. As the British column repaired the bridge that had been destroyed and optimistic Colonel Boehm said that he had made contact with the enemy, and then he continued to advance on Bennington with an expected arrival in two days. In response to bounce request reinforcements which have been sent several days earlier when he received his I intelligence about the size of the enemy. General Burgoyne ordered the deployment of another German. Lieutenant, Colonel? Heinrich von Brion at the head of about six hundred more brands were soldiers. Primes. Column however did not leave until August fifteenth. The slow moving relief column was on its way, but would not catch up with balance column for several days. Found continue on toward Bennington. He was not certain. The enemy was as large as his intelligence suggested. And even if it was, they were just local Ballista, who would probably not stand and fight? Waiting for reinforcements would only give the enemy time to remove the supplies at Bennington. That bow wanted to capture. As Ballad Vance that day is men ran into another minor skirmish with the militia. One Mohawk, chief, who had led to far in advance of the lines was killed. Found had about one hundred native American warriors with him, but relations were not good. The. Indians tended to be in the forefront and took most of the casualties. They also frequently stopped to loot. What booty? They did not want themselves. They often tried to sell to the army. Bow However did not have cash to pay them. Indians who had captured most of the horses so far simply drove them off or killed them rather than let their allies have them for free. Bounce force continued to advance, but quickly ran into more of the enemy. American Colonel Greg at sent word to general start that they had made contact with the enemy. Stark deployed more soldiers to advance and challenge the German offensive. Also called for more reinforcements from the continentals posted at Manchester. By the end of the day on August, fourteenth Colonel Bom, had placed his men and artillery in a defensive position on a hill, just east of Cambridge. The two sides both set out skirmish irs to probe the enemy lines and determine the position and strength of the enemy. Late in the day, and continuing all day on the fifteenth, a downpour kept both armies contained. At both were waiting for reinforcements, anyway, while there were no major clashes on the fifteenth, the Americans reported killing about thirty Indian warriors. The British speculated that the Americans were targeting the Indians for revenge. The memory of Jane McRae's murder and the slaughter of other locals was still fresh in everyone's mind. Most of the Indians who were not killed thought, this was an opportune time to go home. They had more Luthan they could carry. Their allies were not interested in buying any of their prizes. And they had no interest in hanging around for a major battle where they might be used as cannon fodder by their allies. Those that did remain were discouraged and remain behind with the baggage. At the same time, most of the Indians were leaving. Local loyalists added more than one hundred volunteers to supplement bounce forces on the other side, general, stark pulled in more of his own militia. He had received a group of Stockbridge Indians from Massachusetts who had marched out along with other Massachusetts militia and continentals led by colonel. Seth Warner to support the New Hampshire militia. When the weather finally cleared on the morning of August sixteenth, the two armies prepared for battle. Foul had put his German degree on high ground, forming a redoubt at the top of a hill. His cannons covered the bridge that they would need for their retreat back to Cambridge if necessary. He deployed his few remaining Indians as well as several hundred loyalist volunteers in a second defensive redoubt further to the south. This second readout was somewhat removed and isolated from the main force and would be the first target of attacked by the Americans. General Stark had held a council of war with his kernels on the night of August fourteenth to develop a plan of attack. because. The fifteenth was so rainy they waited until the sixteenth to put their plan into action, stark divided his army into four divisions. He knew that he outnumbered the enemy and hoped to hit the entrenched defenders from multiple sides at once. Lieutenant Colonel Moses. Nichols would lead two hundred and fifty New Hampshire soldiers on March around the enemy's left flank so that they could attack the German readout from the northeast. At the same time Vermont Colonel Samuel Herrick would take three hundred soldiers around the enemies right flank. Ford the wall, move sack, river, and attack the enemy from south. Colonels Thomas Stickney and David What would take more to Hampshire, militia, and directly assault the loyalist redoubt from the southeast. General Stark would personally lead a three hundred man force to storm the German readout in a frontal assault from the southeast as well. By the afternoon of the sixteenth, his men were ready for battle. General Stark gave a short speech to motivate his men. He pointed to the enemy and referencing his wife, said something to the effect of. There are the redcoats loyalists there ours or Molly Stark sleeps a widow tonight. The attack was set to begin at three PM. Colonel Nichols made a last minute request for reinforcements and received another hundred men. Since Nichols had the longest march. The orders were for him to attack when in position. The sound of the gunfire would be the signal for the other divisions to attack. Nichols inherit both hit the German redoubt with a sudden opening volley. Firing on, both sides opened up. Stark described it as the hottest engagement. He had ever witnessed like a continuous clap of thunder. The Americans outnumbered the Germans but the Germans held the high ground and were backed by cannons. The intense fire lasted only for a matter of minutes before the Americans charged the redoubt and engaged in a vicious hand to hand combat with the defenders. The Germans broke ranks and fled down the hill with the enemy in pursuit. The battle devolved into a chaotic single combat between men, fighting with swords, bayonets and using their muskets as clubs. Within a half an hour, the German readout had collapse with all of its defenders either dead or prisoners in the loyalist redoubt about two hundred and fifty loyalists were entrenched on high ground led by Lieutenant Colonel John. Of the Queen's Loyal Rangers. Stafford's Americans approached the redoubt through a ravine that prevented the enemy from seeing their approach. When the Americans attacked. They were practically inside the redoubt already. Colonel Stafford the Americans to charge, but was shot down in the first folly. He soon over realized that he was just hit in the foot and stood back up to continue to rally his men. The fighting at the redoubt was some of the fiercest. These loyalists and Patriots were often men who had grown up together in the region and knew each other well. One, of the men who shot Stafford later said that he knew him personally. But still took careful aim to drop him. He was stunned when Stafford stood up again after he thought he had killed his former friend. As colonel. Peters rallied his loyalist defenders. He heard an enemy shout. Peters you damned Tori. I have got you. As he bayoneted peters in the chest. Peters recognized his attacker as his old schoolmate and now Patriot militia Captain Jeremiah. Post Peters fired his musket at post at point, blank range, killing him instantly with the German dragoon and loyalists redoubts. General Star could focus almost all of his divisions on the remaining central defensive position under the command of colonel bound himself. Valves remaining runs, workers were heavily outnumbered and quickly running out of ammunition. They realized they could not hold out for reinforcements. Bowel ordered a desperate charge into enemy lines in an attempt to breakout and retreat. The Americans did not give way leading to more hand hand combat with swords, bandits and muskets used as clubs in a desperate struggle for survival. Colonel Bound, took a bullet during this fighting and collapsed with a mortal wound. The remaining Germans, still alive had to surrender with only a few scattered soldiers escaping into the woods. By Five PM, the battle was over except for the Americans. Hunting down a few enemy soldiers hiding in the woods. Fouls Loyalist Commander Phillips. Keen had left before the battle began trying to find fund Bremen's relief column and get them to hurry forward. The night before prime and had camped about seven miles from Cambridge. After the battle Brandon would take criticism for not reaching bow in time to support him. Many historians have pointed out that bow and Brian did not like each other and that frame, and might have deliberately moved slowly in order to let bow fail. But Eddie taken bow three days to March as far as he did. Bremen's made the same march in two days. His men were similarly closed in a way that was not suited for the hot wilderness marching. And several large field cannons with him had to be hauled over hills and across streams. Remember also that the fifteenth when he left was a day of hard driving rain. So hard that the two sides did not even attempt battle. Framing relief column had to march through that same storm. Still, a few miles from the battle scene framing met up with skiing and a few other Tories who had escaped battle. Skiing told Bremen's that the battle was still raging, and that he should hurry his reinforcements forward to battle. Bram and began to deploy soldiers when a group of armed men on horses road, toward them. Skein told Braverman. They were loyalists, but it turned out. They were not. The men fired on the Germans killing Bremen's horse and wounding the colonel. Angered Raymond ordered his men forward and brought up his field cannons. Most of the American troops were still miles away engaged in mopping up operations, and by that I mostly mean they were. Looting bound supplies as well as the dead and wounded enemy. The small force under colonel, Herrick that had engaged with Bremen, was far outnumbered and began to retreat back toward the main army. Since the Americans were mostly armed with rifles. They could inflict devastating fire on the pursuing Germans while keeping enough distance that the Germans armed with muskets could not affectively return fire. Frames officers were particular targets for the American rifleman, and took a disproportionate number of the casualties with the superior numbers and the use of artillery the German relief, force move forward. Miles away a messenger reached general start to inform him. The enemy relief column headed his way. Stark how to scurry to reorganize his militia. It not taken many casualties in the first battle, but many of his men were either off looting or removing prisoners back away from the battlefield. Is Army had lost all of its organization, and he now faced a new incoming army of unknown size Colonel Seth Warner had arrived on the scene ahead of his reinforcements, who were still marching from Manchester? Warner work with general start to set up skirmish lines with the soldiers available. Hearing the firing, more militia dropped whatever they were doing and rush back to the sound of battle, giving the Americans more troops. Even so the Germans still outnumbered the American defenders. Frame detached regiment under major von Barner to turn the American right flank. As the Germans attempted to flank the American Line Warner's one hundred and thirty continentals at another two hundred rangers arrived at the battle to push back the Germans. Frame and then sent in another several hundred men to flank the Americans, but found they could not do so. After several hours of fighting the German relief force realized that found horses were already gone. They had taken heavy casualties themselves and were in danger of being overrun. By eight PM The Sun was setting. And ordered his soldiers to retreat. They abandoned their cannons their carts. Even their wounded as their men fled the field. A third of his force was killed or captured. Framing escaped with his wounds and marched with his remaining force back toward coins army. The battle had been a brutal one especially for the Germans. Nearly all fouls army was killed or captured. Fi Bremen's relief column lost a third of their men. Many soldiers had fought to the death. In total. The Americans took over seven hundred prisoners. Thirty officers. Only nine of bounds. Soldiers escaped capture. Another two, hundred or so loyalists. killed or captured? Native American casualties were not recorded, but were a high proportion of those involved as well. Of the nearly two thousand men committed to battle for going's forces took a nearly fifty percent casualty rate. Instead of capturing much needed weapons, supplies and horses. They had lost hundreds of irreplaceable soldiers as well as a few of their cannons. By contrast, the Americans had suffered only about thirty killed and forty or fifty wounded. Among the dead was Seth Warner's brother Jesse. The Americans treated the Germans and a few British regulars captured as prisoners of war. Many wounded when untreated for days and some reported a few prisoners killed by the guards. But most of the germs capable of walking were marched back to Bennington. After a few days, the Americans marched the captives to Boston where they were held as prisoners of war. The Indians and Tories did not fair quite as well. I've read no accounts of Indian prisoners. Any of them wounded on the battlefield. We're likely dispatched where they lay. The loyalist prisoners were considered criminals. Though level of hatred against former friends and neighbors, sometimes, even relatives had reached such intensity that there was no respect for prisoners of war. Many of them were marched back to Bennington to be tried as traitors and hanged. There were also quite a few accounts of large numbers of prisoners, being Tomahawk or shot in the back of the head, rather than being taken anywhere. Some were actually dragged to death behind horses. General. Stark became a national hero. Patriots toasted his victory across the country. New Hampshire's Assembly awarded their hero General Ainu suit. Less than two months later, the Continental Congress Filing Commission start as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army. Stark's army did not fair quite as well. His fifteen hundred man force remained in the area for few weeks. During that time, a measles epidemic swept through the camp. About half of this force either died or was left unfit for duty as a result. For the British, the battle is devastating. It meant the loss of most of Burgoyne remaining Indian auxiliaries. Those who survived returned home. The loss of Brunswickers loyalists eliminated about one sixth of his total army. Soldiers that he could not replace nor afford to lose. The two surviving commanders on the British side, Colonel Von Bremen and Philip Scheme plane, each other for the loss skin was highly critical of how slow brain moved to relieve colonel. Bom. Had He arrived earlier in the day. He could have provided the necessary reinforcements framing attacked skiing for telling him that bound still needed rescuing even though bounds, army had already been defeated. Bremen's said that had he known that he never would've taken his men into battle against a superior enemy. Following Bennington Burgoyne who had up until this time you skiing as a trusted adviser on local issues. No longer sought his counsel. Skien and Colonel Von Draymond both remained with the army, though as it continued its march south. Next week, however, we're going to step away from Burgoyne once again to cover another event that happened in August seventeen, seventy seven down in Virginia. The siege of Fort Henry. Hi. Thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. Thanks to train ans- for his continued support of the show as an Alexander Hamilton clubs supporter on patron. I also WANNA thank a new supporter at the Hamilton Club level this week, George Davis. I very much appreciate your contributions to help. Make this show viable and to keep this important story free for everyone. This week we covered the critical battle of Bennington in what is today Vermont? Now I know last week. I said the British pretty much stayed out of England after abandoning Boston, and except for a few coastal raids, as well as their occupation of part of Rhode Island and now a week later I'm talking about a major battle. Guess where New England. Out To be fair, though the British still considered Bennington and the surrounding area to be part of New York, not New England. This battle also did confirm for the British that any focus on New England before pacifying the rest of the continent was a bad idea. The Battle of Bennington was also an important example of why the Patriots Home Field advantage was so important in this war. For going the British general had a large, well armed professional army. But whenever he lost a soldier in battle or to disease or desertion, he could not replace that soldier. Possibly a British commander might hope to get reinforcements many months later at huge expense to the government. But for the most part, their armies were irreplaceable. By contrast after the Patriot army fled Fort Ticonderoga the continental army was defeated and shrinking. But home field advantage meant that the Americans could replace or supplement that army almost overnight, simply by calling up the militia under a charismatic leader like General Stark. The arms and men were always ready and waiting if the men could be convinced to go. Bennington also spelled the beginning of the end for the British as well. or well, at least the beginning of the beginning of the end. The British defeat left General Burgoyne without a large chunk of his army, and without the supplies and supply lines that he needed for his main army. It was also a great morale-booster for the Americans and contributed greatly to recruitment. This would eventually contribute to the British defeat at Saratoga and that American victory really turn the war on its head by encouraging the French to join the fight openly on the side of the Americans. And France joining the war is what really spell the end for British rule in America. The American simply did not live to fight another day. In this case, they had defeated professional soldiers in the field and held their ground. It was a solid, unqualified American victory. For, the people of Vermont in particular, the battle is still revered. April sixteenth is still considered battle day in Vermont. The people of Vermont fought this battle with their neighbors in the middle of their own struggle for independence from their neighbors. For Mont had. Its new constitution days after. burgoyne captured. Fort Ticonderoga. Politicians had to put aside setting up a government until the following year because of all this military unrest. I hope to cover the setup of that new independent government of Vermont in a future episode. The Battle of Bennington was a fight over the control of Bennington. Since. That was where the British were trying to go. But the battle was not actually fought in Bennington, but rather several miles away. The war memorial that stands today in Bennington is about ten miles from the actual battlefield. But regardless of geographic disputes. The historic importance of the battle should not be forgotten. Other lots of books that cover the battle as part of the overall Saratoga campaign. But, if you want a book that focuses just on this battle, you may want this week's book recommendation. It is called the battle of Bennington soldiers and civilians by Michael Gabriel. It's a relatively short book, only a hundred and thirty pages total, but it's full of interesting details about the battle and the men who fought it. The author Dr Gabriel is a professor at Kutztown University. He published this book in Twenty Twelve and has written a number of other books on early. American history including one about General Montgomery. So, if you're interested, check out the battle of Bennington soldiers and civilians by Michael Gabriel. My. Online recommendation this week is a free e book on Archive Dot Org. It is called the battle of Bennington. I Henry Davis Hall. This also is a very short book. Even shorter than the book recommendation, it's about seventy pages just covering the battle itself and was first published in eighteen, ninety six. Since it's in the public domain, you can read it for free online or downloaded at no cost for offline reading. As always you can search for a battle of Bennington on, Archive Dot Org. Or I have included a direct link to the book on my website at www dot, Amriyev podcast dot com. As a reminder, my website also includes a list of all former book and online recommendations. If you're trying to look something up much later. Well, that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

Bennington General Stark Bennington Burgoyne Army Colonel Seth Warner Cambridge Vermont Colonel Greg Colonel Nichols Lieutenant Colonel John Colonel Von Bremen Bremen skiing Colonel Bounce Colonel Samuel Herrick Colonel Friedrich Patriots Colonel Boehm Colonel Stafford Lieutenant Colonel William Gre
ARP174 Britain and France go to War

American Revolution Podcast

30:36 min | 5 months ago

ARP174 Britain and France go to War

"Thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one seventy four. The british change strategy the winter of seventeen seventy seven. Seventy eight was a difficult turning point for the ministry in london. News of general burgoyne 's surrender at saratoga shocked officials who never seriously considered such possibility. Many had figured the worst case would have been ferber goings army to retreat back to fort ticonderoga for another try the following year. Even before word of the surrender reached london officials were growing increasingly skeptical of an easy way out of the american quagmire in august. Prime minister lord north wrote one of his undersecretaries of state. That quote it has been for many months. Been clear to me that if we cannot reduce the colonies by force now employed under how and clinton and burgoyne we cannot send and support a force capable to reduce them british army in america. In seventeen seventy seven was already much larger than the entire british army around. The world had been before the war began. Normally britain kept between twelve thousand and fifteen thousand soldiers in ireland in order to discourage revolts there. Because of the war in america they had reduced the garrisons to around three thousand in seventeen. Seventy six. After one of two regiments jamaica sailed for new york to support general. How officials had to put down a slave insurrection. That got its motivation. From the reduction in military on the island much of the british empire remained in peaceful obedience because subjects believed that defiance would not lead to victory but to a brutal suppression with britain removing so many soldiers from other posts around the world to support the suppression of the american rebellion. Britain was pudding. Its other colonies at risk house calls for more soldiers in america would only make the situation even more precarious in other parts of the empire britain had already sent the largest transatlantic military force ever deployed up until that time to america in seventeen seventy six. The point of that force was to shock and awe the colonists into submission more than a year later. The american seem neither shocked nor all their armies continue to defy authority and their claim for independence did not seem to falter north and others believe that if they could not crush the american rebellion with that large force sent in seventeen seventy six. Then britain could not crush the rebellion at all in another letter preparing for the king's speech to parliament to be presented in the fall of seventeen seventy seven lord north wrote quote. How shall we mention america. Shall we be very stout. Or shall we take advantage of the flourishing state of our affairs to get out of this damned war and hold a moderate language in other words im- before the loss at saratoga north was seriously debating the idea of an exit strategy if there was one stalwart leader in london who is not looking for a way to resolve the war other than complete victory it was known other than king george the third on november twentieth. Seventeen seventy seven. The king made his speech to the new session of parliament. The sole focus of his speech was the rebellion in america and the need to restore peace order and loyalty to his american colonies. When rumors of burgoyne surrender. Reach london awake or so later and were confirmed by early december. The landscape of the war changed dramatically. This was the first time in history. An entire british army had surrendered and been taken prisoner. It made very clear that crushing the american rebellion was not inevitable that the plans to do so had failed thus far and that there were no good plans for turning things around it was in early december that lord north sent paul wentworth to paris to talk to the american commissioners about a negotiated peace. Something i pointed out last week. The american commissioners only use those negotiations to get france to move along its negotiation of a treaty of alliance with the us about the same time. That london was getting word of burgoyne surrender. It also received general house resignation letter back in mid october. Even before he received word of forgoing surrender. General william how wrote to lord germain in london to express his wish to resign his command and return to london. How believe that. Your main and other officials in london had refused to take his advice on strategy and that they refuse to provide him with the soldiers he needed to carry out any effective operations. It's hard to say for certain of how genuinely run to resign. Whether he was bluffing in hopes that it would get the ministry to give him the reinforcements and command authority that he thought he needed to win. Or more likely somewhere in between how said that he did not think he could win without more reinforcements. If he was not going to get them he did not see a path to victory. London could either supply the troops or vicky new leader. Who thought he could do. Better secretary of state lord germain had already made clear that he was not going to raise more armies in any substantial numbers beyond those sent in seventeen seventy six loss of an army of over eight thousand and the saratoga campaign. the british army would have an even smaller force to work with going forward by this time. Most of parliament was laying the blame for this debacle on lord germain. He was the man responsible for authorising for coins campaign. And for making sure that burgoyne received the necessary support to complete his mission including making sure that general house army woodwork with burgoyne as originally planned germain had allowed general how to sail off in his attempt to capture philadelphia while the philadelphia campaign was successful. It also meant that. How was unavailable to assist going. Many officials in london believe this support could have prevented burgoyne surrender house letter of resignation. Made it easier to try to make him the fall guy for this whole mess. Germain insisted that general howe had failed to support burgoyne as planned and that house should take responsibility for his decision to sail off for philadelphia. Officials also laid blame on general house brother. Admiral richard how for the navy's failure to control the coast and deal with smugglers and privateers that supported the rebellion. They argued that. The admiral spent too much time helping his brother. In support of the army. By early january the ministry also had a request from admiral. How that he be relieved of his command. In north america lord germain who never really liked the house was offer replacing them in early january he was pushing for such every amherst to take command. The sixty year. Old general at brought victory in america during the french and indian war. He was highly respected and was a higher ranking general than how in fact amherst at been germain's preference before the ministry selected william how the reason amherst did not get the job in seventeen seventy six was that he did not want it. Amherst did not really want to put down a rebellion in seventeen seventy six and he certainly did not wanna get handed this mess in seventeen seventy eight. It's hard though to say no. If the king requests that you take command therefore amherst had to make clear to the ministry that he was not on board with their plan in order that he did not get the offer. Amherst insisted that he would need an army. Of at least seventy five thousand in america more than double the current troop levels without that amherst believed there was no chance of success. Since the ministry was not willing to build and deploy such a large army to america they ended up passing on amherst even if germain wanted them gone. The how brothers had many powerful and influential supporters in london. The king was not ready to accept. How's resignation and lay the blame. Their the king also did not want to get rid of lord germain or lord north both of whom were implementing the policies he wanted. The king did not think he had any alternatives. Who would prosecute the war more forcefully. As a result the ministry made no personnel changes as they argued through january. Seventeen seventy eight about what they should do. Next by the end of january though it was clear that either lord germain or general how had to take the blame for the mess in america. The king told lord north to decide which of them should go. North opted to keep germaine. This decision as expected created a political firestorm the chancellor lord bathurst threatened to resign in protest. Bathurst was a childhood friend of the hell brothers and possibly even a distant relation. He clearly was in the how camp and did not support north's decision to remove them to keep the cabinet from falling apart. The king ordered germane to write a letter to how which was vague in its purpose. Germain's letters said that how was to come back to london for consultations but that the king remained confident that general. How could win the war and instructed him to prepare a series of attacks on new england ports for the coming year in the meantime since all the military. Commanders seemed to think that winning would require more soldiers than the government could afford to produce. The ministry began looking at other strategies that would not require holding large swaths of land in america before they approved the seventeen seventy six shock and awe campaign led by the hell brothers. Many in london had pushed for a more naval centric operation where the british navy would maintain a blockade of the continent performing only coastal rates. The hope was that the misery of no trade would eventually result in popular opposition in america to the patriot cause and lead to a negotiated peace. The ministry was again considering. This approach is january turned into february. The ministry waited to see. France would actually sign a treaty with the us and go to war with britain. The king even suggested that they abandoned new york and philadelphia they would retain garrisons only in quebec nova scotia and the florida's from there they would simply maintain a naval blockade with no army presence within the rebellious colonies. British spies reported treaty negotiations at versailles. London as i said had numerous spies on the staff of the american negotiators so london receive reports of all progress almost as soon as it happened. Lord north had complete copies of the secret treaties. That france had signed within days of their completion on february. Sixth the only question for london was whether france would keep the treaty secret for an extended time or announce them quickly. London thought the treaties might stay secret for months. Thus averting open war between france and britain. This would give london a short window to concentrate. Its forces in america on one. Final push to focus on. Suppressing the american rebellion once france declared war or publicly. Release word of the treaty. Which would require britain to declare war. Britain would have to redeploy much of its army and navy to protect other colonies around the world and even prepare to defend against a french invasion of britain itself. Britain would no longer be fighting to win a war in america rather it would be fighting to limit the potential damage to their empire. The first lord of the admiralty lord sandwich had been pushing for this naval centric war for some time and yes he is the guy that we named the food that we put between two pieces of bread. Lord sandwich had been with the admiralty for decades. He saw how the navy had successfully controlled the atlantic in the seven years war making the british victory possible in the seven years war begun nearly two decades earlier. France had to focus much of its forces in europe to fight with prussia and the other german states in the war to come. France would be able to focus. It's much larger army on britain. France had also spent several years building a much. Larger navy with worships prepared to contest britain for colonies anti transport. Its armies wherever needed. Britain would not only need much of its army to defend the mother country but would also need to recall some of its fleet to protect the island against a potential french invasion on march eighth. London issued orders to the commander in america that he should abandon offensive operations if he could not bring the continental army to an immediate decisive action instead. War planners in london would have the navy spending much of the seventeen seventy eight fighting season attacking the new england coast. Then in the fall they would move south to recaptured georgia. The carolinas and possibly virginia thus establishing royal control of the southern colonies where they thought there was a much larger tori population. That would support the king's troops. This would allow the navy to focus its blockade on new england and starve out the inhabitants there on march thirteenth less than a week. After sending these orders to america. France publicly announced its treaty with america and informed king. George the third four days later on march seventeenth britain declared war on france. By this time the decision to replace the military commander in america was more than a month old in early february. Germain had dispatched a letter to general how accepting his offer to resign his command and recalling him to london at the same time he sent a letter to general henry clinton in new york informing him that he would be the new commander of north america. While clinton's reputation was still intact in london. following the disgrace of generals jalan burgoyne. It was not like the ministry didn't have serious doubts about him. In fact at the time germain had written to clinton to inform him of his new command. No one in london was quite sure if clinton might already be on a ship bound for london to try to resign his command once again. Clinton had never really gotten along with the hal brothers and always had an opinion that he could do better than them but he had also never held such large independent command. His last independent command resulted in the failure to capture fort sullivan. In seventeen seventy six. That incident actually led to his ongoing dispute with commodore. By this time. Admiral peter parker. Who would eventually replace admiral. How as the new american naval commander one reason. There was reluctance to replace the. How brothers was that. It would end the unprecedented cooperation between the british army and navy. Even when several other admirals were proposed to replace how officials knew that the army navy cooperation would not be the same. The relationship between clinton and parker virtually assured that the relationship between the two services would go back to being a rather cold antagonistic. One although clinton would finally have the independent command he wanted. He would find himself with a much smaller army than general. How oversaw for going's army was dispersed in pow camps and therefore unavailable for combat. London was not going to replace it. Further many regiments of regulars would be needed in other parts of the empire to protect against the new french threat of attack in march. London ordered the transfer of five thousand regulars to the leeward islands. Well we today call the eastern caribbean another. Three thousand would go to east florida. These forces would capture the french island of saint lucia and protect britain's island colonies from french attack lord sandwich also recalled several dozen ships of the line to protect the waters around england with as much smaller army clinton received orders to end offensive operations and consolidate his forces for a potential southern campaign to begin at the end of the year further. London instructed him to abandon philadelphia and consolidate his army back. In new york city. There were even contingencies to abandon new york and moved to halifax if needed. The war with france also made officials more realistic about a negotiated peace with america. As i said sending agent paul wentworth to france to meet with american representatives had gone nowhere in fact it probably helped to move along. Us negotiations with france. Despite that failure lord north still believe that some accommodation would be possible in america and that coming to terms was necessary so that britain could focus on its new war with france as early as december. Seventeen seventy seven soon afterward. Saratoga arrived in london. Lord north for a new peace commission and for new laws that would convince the americans that they would get all the reforms that they had originally wanted the king of to this policy. He believed that peace talks would only divide politicians in london and strengthen the opposition at the same time. The king believed these concessions would fail because the colonies were not willing at this point to accept anything less than full independence. Also the king noted that the elector of bavaria had just died and that it was quite possible that france would have to go to war with prussia and austria over the selection of his successor with the king opposed to concessions lord north table discussion of peace commission until february when intelligence made clear that france was about to sign the treaty with the. Us north once again resurrected the idea of negotiated peace. He finally got the king to accept the idea that making these reforms might lead to a political compromise with america. North pushed through parliament. Laws that repeal the tax on tea that repealed the massachusetts government act which declared that parliament would forever forgo authority to tax the colonies except for external customs duties. Parliament also approved the formation of a peace commission. Unlike the how brothers peace commission which had no authority to offer anything other than pardons this new piece commission put on the table except for complete independence commissioners could offer protection of colonial charters repeal of all objectionable taxes guarantee of no peacetime standing armies in the colonies restoration of trade essentially everything. The first continental congress had requested in its petition and more further. The commission could negotiate directly with the second continental congress as if it were a legal entity in april. The commission headed by the earl of carlisle left for america and their negotiations will be the topic of a future episode next week however we return to valley forge as a prussian officer named von steuben brings professional training to the continental army. Hi thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show thanks as always to train nance and george davis for their continued support at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patron. Thanks also to howard germain. Who made a one time donation via pay pow and kurt of art. Who made a generous one. Time donation via venlo. Kurt you may recall recently. Spoke to me in a special episode about his new book. I do no harm. Kurt is also a friend of the show and a longtime listener. This week we heard about the politics in london over the winter of seventeen. Seventy seven seventy eight. Even before france entered the war the north ministry was seriously debating an exit strategy. The shock and awe campaign of seventeen seventy six had clearly been a failure. Britain did not have the money nor the military resources to send a larger army that the generals wanted now to modern era. This may sound strange. How can seventy eighty even one hundred thousand troops be a big deal to a country with a population of over eight million. A general rule of thumb is that a country can sustain an army for at least a few years that constitutes ten percent of its population. You have to consider that half. The population was women who were considered noncombatants and rarely worked outside the home during this period. Another larger portion of the population was children at the time. Most parents had large families. Since fair percentage of their children would not survive to adulthood. Even so britain had probably between two and two point five million men of fighting age out of that an army of eight hundred thousand probably would not be considered unreasonable today but the eighteenth century was a different world. This was still before the napoleonic era when the great powers of your found ways to produce armies that number in the millions in the seven years war just a few years earlier most major european powers marched with armies that numbered in the tens of thousands before the industrial revolution changed the economy nations. Had real difficulties sustaining large armies. In the field more men had to remain on the home front producing food and other necessities that the army needed british policy throughout the war relied on the idea that a sizable percentage of the local population would flock to the king standard and supplement the regular army in america. That never happened anywhere near the numbers they needed. So britain needed to raise a much larger army from its home islands. A britain had managed to produce an army of about three hundred thousand during the seven years. War the number of british soldiers fighting in america was only about one tenth that size during the revolution. The cost and difficulty of shipping in army across the atlantic ocean was a part of the reason for this. The other part was that britain itself was divided. Many whig leaders in britain either supported the cause in america or at least were very sympathetic to the rights for which they were fighting getting the political support to raise taxes through the roof and to build an army designed to crush. Their cousins in america did not exactly appeal to many englishmen. Even while the ministry was second guessing its policies. There was one stalwart in london pushing for aggressive military solution. That man was king george. The third himself the king found himself having to buck up. Lord north lord germain and others who were beginning to see that britain's simply was unwilling to make the massive sacrifices necessary to raise and deploy a larger army against the colonies. The king saw himself as a stalwart leader who was going to save the empire by the sheer force of his will. He had to hold steady the backbones of his ministers who were just too weak willed to see through these difficult times. At least that would have been the narrative. If britain had ultimately prevailed the north american commander. General william how and the head of the naval forces admiral richard. How had long been whigs. Who felt sympathy for the colonists complaints when they hope to return law and order. They were not willing to crush and punish the colonists for rebellion whether a more aggressive and brutal policy would have worked or would only have embittered later. Us british relations is hard to say. We only know that the policy that they did try did not work. As the failure of that policy became clear. We see britain making big changes accepting general house resignation and inviting admiral. Hal to resign were two of those changes. The only reason lord north did not resign was because the king could not find qualified leader. Who was willing to pursue an aggressive policy in america on top of all that war with france did come in early spring making a nearly impossible situation even more hopeless britain was now faced with the prospect. Not only of losing her north american colonies but losing other colonies all over the world as well it even faced a potential invasion of england itself the replacement of the how brothers anne entry of france into the war marked a new phase in the war where britain was really no longer trying to win instead it was trying to minimize its losses from the war. If you'd like to read more about general how and admiral how to better understand how and why they prosecuted the war. The way they did. You will wanna get this week's book recommendation. It's called the how brothers and the american revolution by ira d gruber. This is not a biography of the hal rathers. It focuses very specifically on the years that the house served in america. Seventeen seventy five to seventeen seventy eight. It looks at the war from the perspective of general. How and admiral. How during those important years. The book itself is just over three hundred and fifty pages not counting appendix and index. It's an older book. First published in nineteen seventy two. The author ira gruber is a longtime history. Professor who has written a number of other books related to military history. He still a professor emeritus at rice university. So if you're interested in house leadership of the war. Get a copy of the how brothers and the american revolution. My online recommendation is a pamphlet. Written in seventeen seventy eight and titled a letter to lord george germain written by an englishman who purportedly lived in america. This is an eighty five page pamphlet published and distributed in london in seventeen seventy eight which called for an end to the war and a compromise and political reconciliation with the colonies. Although in the end this pamphlet is just one man's opinion. I think it gives a good flavor for wigs sentiment in london during that time as always you can search for the pamphlet on archived dot org or just use the direct link on my website or in the blog entry for this episode. Just go to blog dot amriyev. Podcast dot com. If you're looking for this after future episodes are released you may need to search for the episode number one seventy four to find the information on the blog. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

lord george germain london america britain burgoyne amherst british army france american commissioners germain navy clinton paul wentworth philadelphia London Germain Britain general burgoyne General william how lord north
ARP168 Forts Mercer and Mifflin

American Revolution Podcast

30:30 min | 7 months ago

ARP168 Forts Mercer and Mifflin

"The American Revolution podcast is brought to you today by the new historical novel first Do no harm. I received an advance copy of this book and found it to be something quite revolutionary in seventeenth-century Vienna nightwatchman Dietrich discovers a body outside of Steven Stone Cathedral as he examines the body out further. He discovers the ravages of a new disease and foul play as the infection spreads across the city and more victims succumb Dietrich must change both killer and cure in an effort to save a city devastated by fear and death in a world teetering between medieval spirituality and the new age of enlightenment author Kurt a varts debut novel takes readers on a journey of catastrophe and courage in first Do no harm Don't wait for the book's release on September 25th pre-order your copy on Amazon or wherever books are sold today. Hello, and thank you for joining the American Revolution today episode 168 Ford's Mercer and Mifflin the last week. I went over the extensive Delaware off of fences that continue to keep the British Army in Philadelphia from being able to connect with the British Navy further down river without control of the river. And with the Continentals cut off access to food and supplies from the countryside the British army occupying Philadelphia face, the possible danger of being starved out as such opening the Delaware River became a top priority. All of this was happening at the end of September and early October while General Burgoyne was still struggling to save his Army near Saratoga. General how in Philadelphia would not give any consideration to that issue until he had opened up the Delaware River and forced Washington's Continentals to withdraw from their positions threatening Philadelphia after the British took for billing support without much of a fight as I discussed last week. The only real barrier between the Navy and Philadelphia wage was forced Mercer in New Jersey and Mifflin on an island just off the Pennsylvania side between the two forts. The Americans had placed several rows of underwater chevaux-de-frise, which has explained last week were really just large pointy sticks with metal tips attached to the bottom of the river by boxes of rocks. These prevented any ships removing up River without being punctured the fort cannons on both sides of the river prevented the British from trying to remove these underwater blockages month after the Continental attack at Germantown General how spent the next couple of weeks Shoring up his land defenses. He pulled his army out of German Town and moved them behind a trench lines closer to Philadelphia. Once that was complete he could turn his Focus back on opening the river on October 21st, Seventeen seventy seven General deployed a division of Hessians under Colonel Carlos and on up his mission was to capture for Mercer Colonel Dunlop swore that he would take the fort or die trying. And that was exactly the sort of bravado that had brought him this far Colonel Von. Up came from a noble family in hesa, which is what gave him a path to a commissioned as an officer. However, he rose through the ranks within ambition that led him to take conspicuous acts of Bravery on the battlefield. He had served with distinction in the Seven Years War song volunteered for service in America. As soon as that became an option, then Dunham had a very traditional and almost exaggerated attitude toward the military command structure thought he was always highly deferential and polite to his superiors and rather short with those beneath him. He had a reputation for having a very short temper. He also very liberally used floggings to enforce his orders with his soldiers even had a standing order in America to take no prisoners soldiers under his command who brought back live prisoners could expect to be flawed fun. I've had served with distinction during the New York campaign. However, his reputation took a hit at the Battle of Trenton but donut commands in an outpost near Trenton, which should have been able to support his fellow Hessians on Christmas 1776 instead. The Americans had lured him away from Trenton down to Mount Holly in order to isolate the Trenton Outpost after the Continentals captured Trenton Thunder had to retreat back toward New York City would save his command. On the Philadelphia campaign fund up sought to restore his reputation. His Jagr was conspicuously out in front being as active as possible General bow noticed fund on its efforts and tasked in with the capture of Fort Mercer. This was another opportunity for the colonel to prove himself fun done up crossed into New Jersey wage. Mm Hessians, including three brigades of grenadiers, and for companies of Highly valued Yeagers. He also brought several pieces of field artillery to use against the 14th opposing fun. Up was the Force Commander Continental Colonel Christopher green of Rhode Island. Colonel green was a very distant cousin of General Nathanael Greene Colonel green had entered the war as a major when he led Rhode Island volunteers to Cambridge in May 1765. He served on Benedict Arnold's Wilderness march to Quebec and led troops under Arnold at the attack on Quebec City on December 31st, like most Bots attackers in that battle cream was taken prisoner and held in Quebec finally exchanged in August 1776 in February 1777. He received promotion to Colonel and took command of what became known as the first Rhode Island regiment in the Continental Army. Colonel green commanded about 400 Continental soldiers this included both his regiment and the second Rhode Island, which was under the command of Colonel Israel angel who also served as greens second-in-command at the Fort another maybe two hundred New Jersey militia were also at Fort Mercer in October. The Garrison had not been there very long Washington had only deployed the Continentals to Fort Mercer less than two weeks before the battle two days after deploying the two regiments Washington recalled Angels regiment II Rhode Island back to service in Pennsylvania on top of that Washington ordered Colonel green to deploy any members of his Garrison with experience aboard ships to join Commodore hazelwood's on the Delaware River. He also said orders to send more of his men over to Fort Mifflin where Washington's intelligence indicated the attack might occur. It was only a few days before the battle that Washington sent back Angels regiment to supplement the severely depleted Garrison at Fort Mercer at that same time Washington also send a French officer Thomas Antoine a game yet to plessis who had recently arrived in America and received a commission as Captain of artillery du plessis had engineering experience in Washington hoped he could be of assistance in the last minute improvements to Fort defenses. Even with the last minute reinforcements The Defenders of Fort Mercer would be horribly outnumbered by the cash and attack. Wen du plessis arrived. He immediately recognized that the Garrison was far too small to defend a fort that was nearly 350 yards long and a hundred yards wide open a suggested that Colonel green placed the Garrison in a small section at the southern end of the fort then they would build a wall between the two sections since the fort was made birth and walls simply dug up and piled high. It was easy enough to create an interior wall in the northern section. That would be vacated The Garrison built a booties Lounge basically pointy sticks placed in such a way to make it difficult for anyone to move quickly around the area The Garrison took the Wiggles Fruit Orchard to make the Abbot he's dead. The Defenders mounted all their cannons on the southern portion of the fort but kept a few soldiers on the wall of the northern side so that the attackers would not realize that the northern portion had been abandoned on October 22nd has been Colonel Vandana organized his troops into two columns totaling about twelve hundred men. They broke Camp Before Dawn at 3 a.m. To make the Eight Mile march to Fort Mercer, but because the locals had destroyed a bridge that they needed to get to the Fort The Columns had to make a detour and did not arrive until about 1 p.m. That afternoon the Hessians made no attempt at surprised but began to form lines just outside of rifle shot of the fort they sent a messenger to divorce and the surrender of the fort which was refused after that the Hessians launched their assault. As the Americans expected the attackers came over the walls at the Northern end of the fort the first sessions into the fort were surprised that there were no Defenders and they began making her way through the Abbot. He's toward the interior wall that was dividing it from the southern portion. Once the enemy had fully occupied the northern portion of the fort the Americans opened up on them with both cannons and muskets turning the fort into a slaughtering field. The Hessians struggled to maneuver around the Abbot. He's but could not move easily many fell off the few who reached the Southern Wall found that they could not climb it without scaling ladders, which they did not have eventually the survivors pulled back out of the Fort Worth. Up personally led the second column against the southern part of the fort his approach also faced Cannon and musket fire as well as fire from American ships on the river wage. During this assault fun done up fell hit in the leg the remainder of his attackers withdrew. The entire attack had only lasted about forty minutes that happens later reported a total of 371 casualties. However, American reports indicate, the number was closer to 500 among these were more than a hundred killed off right and more than 80 captured among the captured were twenty Hessians found hiding under the Southern Wall. These men did not want to risk retreating Through The Killing Zone again, when the Army withdrew and preferred to be taken prisoner among the wounded. As I said was Colonel done up who had refused to be carried from the field. He was taken off dinner and left to recuperate in the Widow house next door despite receiving care there. He died from his leg wound a few days later. With most of the officers killed the surviving Hessians ended up fleeing into the woods and made their way back toward the ferry to Philadelphia the New Jersey militia under General silence Newcomb was in a position where they could have run down most of the fleeing sessions and captured them. However lacking direct orders from Washington to attack the enemy know come down to remain in position and do nothing criticism of his lack of action would lead to his resignation just over a month later despite the lack of follow-up Fort Mercer approved a great American victory The Garrison reported only fourteen killed and twenty-three wounded you complement the Hessian land attack the British had moved. He Fleet of five ships down river to fire on the fort Commodore hazelwood's and his naval fleet against the British combined with cannon fire from Fort Mifflin. The British ships were forced to retreat one British vessel the Merlin ran aground and had to be burned and abandoned a larger ship of line. The Augusta also ran aground but was able to escape after taking severe damage the following day fires still burning aboard the Augusta caused the ship to explode with the loss of crew and off of the ship the failure to take Fort Mercer May General house occupation of Philadelphia even more tenuous. The British were concerned that if they failed to open up the dead air before winter set in and the river froze they could be without sufficient Provisions until spring there was even some discussion of abandoning the city and marching back to New York. The loss also came around the same time as news arrived of General. Burgoyne's surrender at Saratoga on the same day as the Battle of Red Bank, October 22nd. General Howe wrote a letter to Lord Jermaine in London saying that he would need many thousands of reinforcements for the following Year's campaign and that they did not appear to be forthcoming how therefore sought permission to resign his command and return to London house resignation was not the result of failing to open up the river as easily as he might have thought rather. It was in response to a longer-term concern that London absolutely refused to give him the number of troops. He thought needed to bring the war to a successful conclusion about how new it would take many months to receive a response to his request and even if it was accepted he needed to take further action to secure Philadelphia for the winter. It was also about this time that how ordered General Henry Clinton in New York to send another 2,000 soldiers from New York to Philadelphia as reinforcements. These were the authors that Force General Clinton to abandon Fort Montgomery and Clinton on the lower Hudson Valley and returned to his defensive posture in New York City since the attempt to capture phone number sir was a bust how focused his attention on Fort Mifflin. As I said last week Mifflin was a small fort on Mud Island just off the coast of Pennsylvania on the Delaware River. It had a rather small Garrison, which Washington had increased to about 400 just before the attack on Fort Mercer. Before Washington sent reinforcements in late September the Garrison consisted only of about sixty militiamen many of whom were invalids and none of whom were even trained to fight the artillery at the fort on September 23rd Washington gave command of the fort to Colonel Henry Dart an officer from the Prussian Army who came to America and volunteer and received a commission as Colonel of the German regiment in March 1777 Colonel their rent who had been ill did not arrive at 5:40 until October 21st the day before the attack on Fort Mercer while surveying the Ford for the first time with Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Smith and a French officer named her a the men entered a block house. That was mostly destroyed when Darren asked what had happened Smith told him that the Blockhouse was a regular Target for the British Bake Off. Navy and that they had blown it up the day before upon hearing that Durand fled out of the Blockhouse diving through to Windows which the others took as an actor of unnecessary an extreme cowardice after that parents illness returned and Lieutenant Colonel Smith assumed practical command of the fort on November 9th was General how Lieutenant Colonel George Osborne with taking Fort Mifflin for the British the following day Osbournes men occupied Providence Island just to the north of Mud Island and there they installed several large cannons. They also brought up a floating battery of cannons down the river bringing the total to several dozen really long twenty four and thirty pound cannons designed to reduce the fort to Rubble. The British Unleashed a near continuous bombardment on the fort which lasted for five days the Americans returned fire, but were vastly outgunned most of the Garrison spend days and nights hunker down right behind the fort walls. They quickly discovered that moving into the interior of the fort made them a target for the many shells that the British logged into the Sports Center or the second day of the bombardment a British shot hit a brick chimney, which collapsed onto Colonel Smith his injuries required that he be evacuated to Fort Worth leaving major Simeon thier in command. The Americans continued to resist the onslaught taking more casualties each day on November 15th, the British Navy brought up several more large ships and managed to get one of their smaller ones into the shallows between Mud Island and the Pennsylvania Coast. From there the British cannons could fire almost at point-blank range into the fort around the same time. The Americans lost their large Cannon destroyed by enemy fire. They were also used to running through the courtyard of the fort to grab British cannonballs, which they needed to fire back at the enemy Commodore Hazelwood attempted to use his Pennsylvania Fleet to support for kathlynn. However, he was easily overwhelmed by the British Navy and forced to withdraw the British Attack Force Under Osborne plan to launch an assault that same day November 15th to capture the fort. However General how declined to approve the attack that night on the 15th, the American Commander they're also realized that the fort was lost. He moved his surviving Garrison across the river in the dark to Fort Mercer with a 40-man rear guard there then burned what was left of the fort Spike the Cannons and shoved his guard across to Fort Mercer as well on the morning of the sixteenth Osborne landed on Mud Island only to find the fort abandoned. He found only one American deserter who had remained behind and gave him a report of the casualties. And then Retreat the man said the Garrison had suffered about fifty killed and seventy or eighty wounded all those other estimates put total casualty rates at closer to 250. The British Marines lowered the American flag, which The Garrison had left flying and took possession of the fort ruins the British reported only thirteen dead and 24 wounded up with the fall of Fort Mifflin General how dispatch General Lord Cornwallis with two to three thousand British regulars to capture for Mercer on the New Jersey side. Louis landed his Force south of the fort and marched North inside Mercer Colonel green also received for reports of two thousand British approaching from the north as well wage. Washington had considered reinforcing for Mercer. However, his generals advised abandoning the fort and maintaining the Army north of Philadelphia since 4 a.m. And was already gone the Strategic value of Fort Mercer had also disappeared. At this time Washington was consolidating his forces for another possible attack on Philadelphia itself. So on November 20th Colonel green opted to burn Fort Mercer off vac. You ate the Garrison and Destroy, whatever the Army could not carry away the Garrison marched North along the New Jersey side to join up with other American forces cordoned off his army marched on the fort only to find an abandoned the British occupied the fort rebuilt the defenses and installed their own Garrison having taken both forts. They first set about removing the chevaux-de-frise that block the Navy from moving upriver Hazelwood realized that his small Continental Fleet would be no match for the British Fleet soon had his way he burned his remaining ships and marched his Cruise North to link up with Washington's Continentals with the river cleared Admiral Hal finally sailed up to Jersey. His brother in Philadelphia of the house had achieved their goal of taking control of the Delaware River and restoring access between the Army and Navy but that did not mean an end to the fighting there after how deployed Cornwallis to New Jersey Washington deployed General Nathanael Greene with a forced to contest or harass the enemy even though with Cornwallis was able to take the Fort Washington did not want to let them feel comfortable roaming around the New Jersey Countryside grain was joined by the Marquis De Lafayette Who had most recently wrote covered from his wounds at Brandywine two months earlier on the night of November 25th, Lafayette LED an advance force of around 350 soldiers against a force of about 4000 hands kept at Gloucester just north of cornwallis's Main Army around Fort Mercer the Marquee launched a surprise nitrate against the actions driving them back to the main British wage. Camp the attack resulted in little more than a skirmish with the Americans killing or wounding about 40 Hessians and capturing another 20. The Americans only lost one dead and had about five wounded lafayette's gallantry in the fight combined with his performance at Brandywine LED Washington to recommend that he'd be put in command of an entire division General Adam Stephen who had been accused of drunkenness at the Battle of Germantown lost his command and left the Army Lafayette would replace him as division Commander. Meanwhile General Cornwallis resolved not to leave smaller units garrisoned around southern New Jersey other than the Garrison at Fort Mercer Cornwallis returned his Force to Philadelphia next week as the war rages all around Philadelphia the Continental Congress in York finally gets around to finishing the Articles of Confederation. mission hey, thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show my continued thanks to train aunts and George Davis for their support of the podcast at the Alexander Hamilton club level as well as everyone else who Provide support on patreon or through one time payments via Paypal. I also wanted to remind anyone who is enjoying the show me that you can follow me on Twitter at em rev podcast or Join the Revolution podcast Facebook group. It's a great way to connect with me and others who enjoy the podcast this week the British completed their methodical capture of the Delaware River taking forts Mercer and Mifflin the Americans. However, forced a setback by holding at it for it Mercer. Thus delaying the overall progress of the campaign. For Mercer was built in Red Bank, New Jersey the owners of the land where it was built James and Ann widell continued to live in the home right next to the Fort the Widow Quakers and tried to remain neutral during the war. Although Ann's brother. John Cooper was a member of the Continental Congress and will remain in the house during the attack on phone number sir, which was also known as the Battle of Red Bank according to the local stories a cannonball flew into the room where Anne was working on her Spinning Wheel. She calmly picked up spinning wheel and carried it to the basement to continue her work after the battle the Widow house became a field hospital for the many wounded particularly many Hessian Soldiers Home who comprise the bulk of the battle casualties. The Widow's did what they could to help the wounded including the commander Colonel Von. Up who died in their care today Red Bank is a national park month before it itself is gone except for a few mounds of dirt where you can vaguely make out the lines of the walls the little house though is still intact and has been turned into a historical monument and Visitor Center across the river for Mifflin also still stands the federal government maintain the fort on and off mostly during wartime until nineteen fifty-six today. It is owned by the city of Philadelphia and managed by a non-profit historical group. You can visit the fort although there is a fee for it regularly holds living history and other events on the site. So if you live in the Greater, Philadelphia area or plan to visit you might want to make red bank or Fort Mifflin. One of your stops how much of what we know about the Battle of Fort Mifflin comes from the Memoirs of Joseph Plumb Martin. He was one of the soldiers who garrisoned the fog during the British attack, his book gives a riveting and graphic description of the British efforts to reduce the fort if you haven't read Martin's book, I still heartily recommend it as a great perspective on the war from an enlisted Soldier my book recommendation this week though is one that focuses very specifically on the British effort to capture or destroy the forests along the Delaware and open up the river for the British Navy to get to Philadelphia. This book is called fight for the Delaware 1777 buy something you'll still Smith. The book begins with the British Army's capture of Philadelphia in July and goes through the final clearing of American defenses in November. Although the book is only about fifty pages long. It's in kind of a strange format where the pages are really huge. At least the version I have is printed that way it's in terms of height and width the size of a coffee table book, although since selling fifty Pages. It's rather thin if the amount of text that was in the book was printed on normal sized Pages, it would probably be more than a hundred and fifty pages long the book though is not very well footnoted or documented. So if you're looking at it for more research purposes than just general interest, you may want to look somewhere else. It was published in nineteen seventy along with a barrage of other books that were produced in anticipation of reader interest during the bicentennial. I haven't found much details off on the author Samuel Smith. Other than that he produced at least half a dozen other similar books in the nineteen sixties and seventies most of them on various battles of the resolution and all of which involve things in or near the state of New Jersey the book on the fight for the Delaware is about fifty years out of print now and appears to be crazy expensive even for a used copy on Amazon, but fortunately my library had half a dozen copies on their shelves so I could access it there. So if you want to read more on the topic and can find a copy fight for the Delaware 1777 is an interesting read my online recommendation. This week is a free online ebook called Ann widell the heroine of Red Bank by Isabella and Wallace McGeorge calling. This page book is maybe being a little generous. It's a series of really short essays of about 5 pages each totally about twenty pages long and it covers a lot of local history surrounding Red Bank and the Revolutionary War era. It was published by the Gloucester County Historical Society in nineteen Seventeen personally. I find life histories like this interesting because they often capture facts or information that gets missed in other works. As always you can search for the book on archive.org or you can use the direct links to it on my website or blog at em, rev podcast.com off. That's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

Fort Mercer Philadelphia Fort Mifflin New Jersey Washington Garrison Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Smit Fort Mercer Delaware River Fort Mercer Colonel green Fort Worth British Navy Mercer British Army Fort Mifflin Fort Mercer May General house Army Hessians Delaware
ARP187 Evacuation of Philadelphia

American Revolution Podcast

29:19 min | 2 months ago

ARP187 Evacuation of Philadelphia

"Lou thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty-seven the evacuation of philadelphia. As i've discussed over multiple episodes general william house major initiative for seventeen seventy seven was the capture of philadelphia. As was his usual practice. How white about the process slowly and methodically leaving new york in july then he sailed down to the chesapeake and march north to philadelphia fighting several battles before finally entering the city. Two and a half months later in late september he then had to spend even more time defending the city against tax and clearing out two fences along the delaware river to allow the navy to link up with the city and bring in supplies. Philadelphia was as close as the patriots had to a national capital. It was the largest city in the colonies and the seat of the continental congress. Its capture seemed to evoke only a collective yawn. On both sides of the atlantic congress simply moved to york pennsylvania and continued its work. The continental army continued. Its efforts to keep the british pinned down in the city. More importantly house focus on philadelphia divided british forces and this allowed the continental northern army to capture general burgoyne army at saratoga. The capture that army of course was a major setback to the british war effort and also encourage france to enter the war which completely changed events They discussed in more detail last week. The entry of france into the war completely did plans of war strategists in london instead of simply focusing on putting down the rebellion britain suddenly had to defend colonies all over the world as well as a potential invasion of the british isles itself. That is why. The carlisle commissioned that. I discussed last week pretty much wanted to wrap up the war. At this point under whatever terms they had to shortly after capturing philadelphia general how had submitted his resignation to london. He'd been frustrated for over a year that the ministry would not provide them with sufficient troops to launch multiple campaigns and capture larger areas of the continent without such reinforcements general. Hal thought the whole strategy was unwinnable and he wanted out. It's not clear if general how really wanted to resign or whether he thought his offer might wake up some folks at london to the need for a substantial increase in soldiers to take and hold north america but shortly after his resignation request arrived in london. News of saratoga also reached the ministry. The king told prime minister lord north that someone had to go as a result either. How or secretary of state or germain firing germain might have brought down the whole government leading to new elections so it to accept how's resignation and recalled him to london. North had tried to replace. General how i asking general jeffrey amherst to take the north american command. As you may recall general amherst had served as commander during the french and war amherst however wanted an army of seventy five thousand in north america before he would agree to the command. That was more than double the number of troops in north america. At the time the ministry was going to pay for an army of that size for general how and it wasn't going to do so for general amherst either so instead the king promoted amherst to full general what we would today call a four star general and gave him a title of commander in chief of forces a position that had been vacant for nearly twenty years and which gave general amherst a seat in the cabinet amherst would remain in london organizing the worldwide against france and providing military advice directly to the cabinet the ministry only then turned to general sir. Henry clinton touche command in north america. Clinton of course had been second in command under how for many years. He had famously chafed at this position and attempted to resign several times with this change however he finally got the full command that he had so long wanted but his army became a shell of its former self and nowhere near large enough to retake control of north america. Along with his orders to take command the ministry ordered clinton to send thousands of soldiers from his existing army. Some of his best soldiers to florida and the west indies to protect british colonies. There from possible. French invasions lord germain had sent orders to deploy five thousand men to take the french island of saint lucia and another three thousand men to saint augustine in east florida. That was about forty percent of the total force that was in philadelphia at the time between those transfers and the loss of burgoyne seven thousand man army a few months earlier the british had a much smaller presence in north america from the numbers they had had a year earlier when general. How was still complaining. Even then that they did not have nearly enough soldiers to get the job done to prevent these reduced troop levels from being spread out too much and subject to an attack like the outpost on trenton. The military planners in london ordered clinton to abandon philadelphia entirely and moved the army to new york clinton even had discretion to abandoned new york and rhode island entirely and take his army to how a fax if he deemed that appropriate. This was about the same time that the ministry formed the carlisle commission that i discussed last week. The commission was there to try to see if there was any possible diplomatic solution that would just end hostilities. In north america. Britain was writing off control of north america for the time being and focused on not losing more of its empire to france sir. Henry clinton received his orders in new york and traveled to philadelphia to take command of the army. He arrived on may eighth. Seventeen seventy eight spending the next few weeks with general. How before how left for england either. Before general house had sale at the end of may clinton focused on packing up the army in philadelphia and getting ready to move to new york for the loyalists in philadelphia. This was their worst nightmare. These people had remained quiet during the early years of the war trying to avoid being attacked or harassed by patriot mobs so when the british finally arrived in the fall of seventeen seventy seven the loyalists were finally able to come forward. They had publicly profess their support for the british and even assisted the buying army so now when the british made the decision to leave the lewis knew that they were going to have to answer for what. The patriots considered to be their treason. If for the army made public its plans to abandon philadelphia. Rumors abounded that it was about to happen one loyalist who had joined the police force in philadelphia that the british army had established also attended the machines party for general house departure at the party. He asked the general what the local should do. How suggestion was that. They should try to quote make peace with the continental congress. That of course was a frightening prospect. The pennsylvania patriots considered the loyalists actions to be criminal at best. Their property could be confiscated. They could also face prison or even the gallows the time for making peace with congress was long gone. A may twenty fifth the day after how actually left philadelphia the city's leading loyalist. Joseph galloway submitted a petition. To general clinton asking the army to remain in philadelphia galloway recommended a force of several thousand loyalist soldiers with the backing of british regulars so that they could hold philadelphia against the continentals. Of course galloway had suggested raising a loyalist army. When the british i arrive it had not happen because lewis in the area were unwilling to enlist other than out of a sense of desperation. It's unclear why galloway or anyone else thought that. Another attempt on the eve of evacuation would inspire more loyalists to put themselves on the line and make themselves and their property. A target for patriot wrath loyalists. Of course were not the only ones who objected to abandon in a city that the british had work so long and so hard to capture generals gray and fine still wanted to go on the offensive. They proposed an attack on valley forge. Push in the continentals to retreat across the susquehanna river and allowing the british to take control of the region erskine said the prospect of retreat made him quote ashamed of the name of a britain additionally the recently arrived peace commissioners who were blindsided by the retreat. Orders told clinton that the decision to retreat completely undercut any attempts to bargain from a position of strength. It just made the british look weak and desperate. The army had to remain and put up a strong front in order for the negotiators to succeed. The commissioners requested that clinton at least keep an army in philadelphia until the commission could negotiate an agreement with the continental congress despite all these objections from loyalists from his officers and from the commission clinton had very clear and non-discretionary orders to abandon philadelphia and even delay was dangerous. The french navy was expected to arrive soon. If the french bottle up the british by occupying the delaware bay the british might find itself trapped and face a prospect of surrender. Just as general burgoyne had a year earlier. The one concession that clinton did make was to free up. Some of the british ships for civilian evacuation he offered loyalist families the opportunity to board ships with a limited amount of property that they could fit on the ships and sail with the army to new york. Most of the soldiers in the army other than those wounded or sick or at risk of desertion would not take up space on the ships but instead would march to new york across new jersey on may twentieth the same day as the army marched out to barren hill in hopes of capturing the marquee lafayette. General clinton is orders to remove artillery and stores. That could be not carried back. When the army marched. The heavy ordinance will be loaded aboard ships. Clinton continued to defense of for as out of the city toward the american lines in hopes of keeping the enemy from realizing that an evacuation was underway. Washington of course was well aware that the british relieving on june tenth. He wrote to his brother saying that he had been expecting the british to leave for the prior two weeks and could not figure out why they hadn't left yet. Washington also suggested to congress that it offer a conditional amnesty to the loyalists in philadelphia. An amnesty would allow the continentals to benefit from these artisans and skilled workers. Who are ready to jump at the chance of continuing to work in philadelphia. Congress however was unwilling to consider such a plan at the same time. The loyalists in philadelphia hoped to send a delegation to york to ask for terms from the continental congress general. How had recommended that they be allowed to do this. But general clinton refused if the philadelphia loyalists sought and received amnesty. What would prevent the new york loyalists from. Doing the same thing for clinton the loyalists would have to leave with the army or suffer the full wrath of the patriots when it retook the city in total between three and five thousand loyalists boarded british transports or merchant ships and sailed to new york. Some remained in new york while others went from there to london or other parts of the empire the thousands of other loyalists unwilling to give up their homes opted to remain in philadelphia and just well their chances under patriot rule. Meanwhile the army began the process of destroying its defenses and any supplies that they could not take with them. Rumors spread that the army plan to burn philadelphia as it left although those prove just to be rumors thousands of extra blankets tons of food even several ships. That were still under construction. Were all burned. Some of the fires ended up burning a few houses but these were unintentional. Even some large cannons were spiked and dumped into the river to make more room for civilians and their property aboard the ships. Many refugees ended up sitting in the delaware river aboard these ships for several weeks waiting for departure. They couldn't get off the shelves for fear that they would lose their spots but at the same time they were just sitting there getting sick and running out of food before they even left port. Many of these folks would arrive in new york in very poor condition. Prior to the evacuation the pennsylvania executive council had a tainted hundreds of named individuals of committing treason by cooperating with the enemy. The vast majority of these people remarkably remained in philadelphia. And just hope that they would receive mercy for many well to do philadelphians the thought of abandoning all their property just aboard ships and live as refugees at another colony was simply too much to bear by june fifteenth the last of the rearguard british and hessian regiments began crossing the delaware into new jersey from various ferries in or near the city. It had taken days to cross thousands of soldiers and their supplies. All the while facing the fear of an enemy attack as the process continued by the morning of june eighteenth. The ships had set sail and the army was fully in new jersey a- ten. Am on the morning of june. Eighteenth lieutenant colonel. Cosmo gordon a british regular woke up in philadelphia. After a night of heavy drinking. He quickly discovered that the city had been completely abandoned is unit along with the rest of the army was marching away in new jersey. The final british ships in the river had already set sail and were away from port. The product officer quickly grabbed his things and rush down to the port there. He found a friendly boatman who he paid to take him across the river. As far as we know. Gordon was the last officer to leave philadelphia around eleven. Am admiral how who was already aboard his flagship. The eagle in the middle of the delaware river weighed anchor and sailed away that same morning. A militia scout aimed george roberts out valley forge to report that the british had abandoned philadelphia about the same time. That colonel gordon was making his escape across the delaware river to new jersey. Washington received roberts's report another group of delaware militia on horseback had entered the city that morning and had captured about thirty enemy soldiers. Who had not left in time. Washington dispatched major general benedict arnold with a brigade of about four hundred soldiers to take control of the city. Arnold you may recall was still recovering from his leg wound at saratoga when he turned up at valley forge about a month earlier. Ready to return to duty. Still not really ready. For combat washington designated arnold to serve as the military commander of philadelphia following the british evacuation. Riding with arnold into philadelphia was washington's aide to camp colonel. Tench tilghman who had been a philadelphia before the war as well as washington's former aide to camp joseph reed who had been a philadelphia lawyer before the war at that time read was a delegate to the continental congress continental general henry knox and philadelphia militia. General john cadwalader also road with the first occupying force to enter the city. The comments of everyone who was that it was a complete and utter mess piles of garbage lay everywhere in the streets in public buildings in private homes occupying troops and others had used houses public buildings and even independence hall as a place to relieve themselves. The smell of human feces and urine was everywhere. Some occupying soldiers had he been taken the winter to fill entire basements with their own human waste. Many churches had their gravestones knocked down. So that churchyards could be turned into horse riding areas. Church pews at a great deal. Other furniture had been used for firewood. Almost no wooden fences had survived the occupation. In some cases entire houses had been dismantled and burned for firewood. Even some of the better houses have been looted. Major john who had occupied. Benjamin franklin's house left with a full length portrait of the founder and also with his music and scientific equipment and most of his library. Andre blamed franklin for bringing france into the war and forgetting general how recalled he defended his looting as a form of payback against his enemy. As i said the damage to the city overall was severe and it would take months to clean up and repair to make philadelphia functional again aside from assuming former control of philadelphia. The purpose sending arnold and other key officers was to take control of any supplies that the british had left behind that the continental army needed the following day. Arnold issued proclamations of martial law and ordered all citizens to provide an inventory of any items held in the city. The continental congress still out in york had passed resolutions ordering the army to put up an embargo on all trade and secure all valuables within the city until joint committee made up of delegates from congress and the executive council could determine which items were british property and therefore subject to seizure without compensation continental and state forces secured. Warehouses deployed guards to prevent looting. They locked down the city to prevent any goods from entering or leaving philadelphia until there could be an accounting general. Arnold set up his headquarters at the penn mansion where general how had kept his headquarters for the prior nine months. Arnold spent considerable money refurbishing the mansion and hiring a domestic staff to run it despite the condition of independence hall which had been used as a prison as a hospital and even toilet during the occupation. The continental congress voted to adjourn. Its session in york on june twenty seventh and resume work in philadelphia the following week although congress had planned to resume on july second. They didn't get a quorum to do business until july seventh. Although general arnold took control of the city with a few hundred soldiers the bulk of the continental army did not waste any time with any sort of grand entrance back into philadelphia instead. General washington deployed his army directly into southern new jersey in pursuit of his foe. The continental army began at summer campaign with an aggressive pursuit of the british army as it retreated toward new york. And that is where we're going to have to take up the story next week. Hi thanks for joining. The american revolution cast after show. Thanks again to trae. Nance george davis and louis wait for support of this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriot. Thanks also to lisa for support. At the robert morris circle level. Also thanks to my new bearer level supporters who joined last month peter graf douglas stanley. Brian roach and win webster. All of you will be receiving your first monthly flagged it soon i also appreciate the one time gifts via pay pow from caroline would matthew domer- and maurice walton matt. Best of luck with that master's thesis also. I just opened an account on by me. A coffee dot com. I really haven't put any links for up anywhere but if you've used that site and wanna buy me a coffee or give me support through that site feel free to do so. Look up amaranth. Podcast everyone who supports this podcast. Either through a one time contribution or ongoing contributions helps me to cover my expenses and keeps everything free for everyone else who is not any position to provide financial support. I greatly appreciate everyone who has been able to step up this week. I covered the british evacuation of philadelphia in many ways. The british occupation of philadelphia was the high water. Mark of the british effort to reassert control over. America during the war evacuation marked the slow decline. They would drag out over the next five years. I suppose one could argue that. The british temporarily captured some larger swath of territory in the south in the later years of the war but those were really lightly populated areas and the british really could not establish authority outside of a few camps. The purpose of the philadelphia evacuation was to remove soldiers from north america and put them to use in other parts of the british empire so the size of the british army in the thirteen states never again reached the size that it had in seventeen. Seventy seven and early seventeen. Seventy eight philadelphia was the second largest city in the british empire behind only london general. How had captured the city in hopes that it would symbolize american feet and bring the war closer to an end instead. The capture only ended general house career. The british army left the city in a mess. Independence hall was filled with human excrement and people spent weeks trying to get it cleaned out. Returning members of congress had to live with the stench for quite some time. Of course the rest of the city was a complete mess as well. Invading armies have a way of devastating their host cities just by living there and not having much concern for what the place will look like after they leave the other. Massive scar that the british left behind was the division between patriots and loyalists the calls for vengeance or justice. I guess depending on your view against the other side led to years of recriminations and further suffering. Some people have criticised my decision to use the term patriot as away. Favoring one side in this conflict rather than maintaining a neutral perspective in point of fact the term patriot is the term that both sides recognized at the time as referring to those who were seeking independence. British politicians soldiers and other loyalists likely referred to the patriots as rebels. But if someone used the term patriot at the time everybody would understand which side they met. Also the term patriot did not necessarily have the same positive connotation than it does today in some seventeenth and eighteenth century contexts. The term was used in a derogatory way. A patriot was someone who supported their country but it often applied in a context where people thought a country had an illegitimate ruler and that the patriots supported the overthrow of that ruler. In favor of the one they considered the legitimate ruler so the term patriot was sometimes used as a term for a zealot who is looking to throw the established piece. Okay enough about that. Onto this week's book recommendation. I've already recommended several books. On the occupation of philadelphia and have not found any that deal specifically with the evacuation. So this week's book recommendation has nothing to do with my topic this week. I'm going to recommend a book that talks about a town. That's near philadelphia. The book is revolutionary princeton. Seventeen seventy four to seventeen eighty three by william l. kit her the book the town of princeton new jersey throughout the war including the british occupation and aftermath of that town. I think it gives a good account of what it was like for a civilian to live through an occupation and liberation during the war. I had the opportunity to interview. Larry kit or about his book which i plan to release as a special episode later this month. He just the book few months ago. It's an interesting read at just over three hundred pages covering the entire war from a civilian perspective. The author larry kidder has a number of other really good books about the american revolution including ten crucial days which covers the days from one crossing the delaware through the battle of princeton and was a book recommendation of the week a little over a year ago. So if you're interested look for revolutionary princeton. Seventeen seventy four to seventeen eighty three my own recommendation. This week is an article. Called assessment of damage is done by the british troops during the occupation of philadelphia. Seventeen seventy seven to seventeen seventy eight by anthony. Cuthbert this was first published in the pennsylvania magazine of history biography in ninety one. It's really just a list of the monetary claims made by people after the occupation. But i find it interesting. Because it gives some idea of the level of destruction that the british army inflicted on the city. My linked to the article goes to archive dot org. But you can also find the article on jay store. I used the archive link rather than the j. store link because jay store requires you to register for a free account before you can view it but as i've said before if you don't have j. store account you may wanna sign up for one. There is an amazing amount of really good reading there as always you can search for the article yourself or just use the links that i've included on my website and blog go to blog dot amer podcast dot com for more details. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution pride cast.

philadelphia army north america clinton new york london congress general clinton Henry clinton delaware river france patriots saratoga continental army galloway new jersey william house atlantic congress york pennsylvania germain
ARP183Doan Brothers & Crooked Billet

American Revolution Podcast

30:18 min | 3 months ago

ARP183Doan Brothers & Crooked Billet

"Thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty three the dough and brothers and crooked billet by this spring seventeen seventy eight. General washington had fought off the political attempts to replace him and was ready to put the training of his new army which had drilled under general von all winter to challenge their british in occupied philadelphia. The news had already arrived in april that france had joined. The war against britain hopes ran high. That perhaps french supplies and soldiers would soon arrive to assist the continentals as a result. Washington did not want to risk his army in an all out assault on philadelphia. Like at germantown. Many wanted to wait and see if the french would arrive to supplement an attack that would have a greater chance victory if the british remained in philadelphia until the french fleet arrived at the delaware. The british might be trapped at that point a combined. American and french attack on the city would have far more impact but until the french arrived. That couldn't happen at the same time. Washington was not a man to sit around and do nothing. British supplies in philadelphia were dwindling. Washington focused on efforts to prevent people from the countryside from selling food or other supplies to the british in philadelphia. If the americans could cut off food supplies from land and a french fleet in the delaware could block off supplies from water. They might even be able to starve out the british. The americans deployed small units all around areas near the city to interdict any attempts to bring food or anything else into the british lines. Much of the control of these soldiers around philadelphia fell to the local militia. The continentals were struggling to survive out at valley forge. The local militia knew the area better. And where most useful in such missions as blocking civilians rather than going into combat against the british the man in charge of the pennsylvania. Militia north of philadelphia was general. John lacey the young militia general. A quaker from bucks county was not very experienced. He had only been twenty years old when the war began. Shortly after fighting broke out in lexington lacey had set aside his quaker principles to join the local patriot militia. Coming from a pacifist community. There was little enthusiasm for the military nor much of a militia. Tradition in january of seventeen. Seventy six lacey raised a company of sixty four men from his community and that was enough to confer upon him. The rank of captain lacey's company served in regiment under the command of then. Colonel anthony wayne the regiment joined the continental army and lacey received a continental commission as an officer. He served under wayne during the quebec campaign as the americans were forced to retreat back to new york. It's not clear exactly what happened. But lacey and wayne had some sort of dispute and lacey ended up resigning. His commission and returning to pennsylvania there lacy took a position as lieutenant. Colonel in the local militia. The war returned to the area as general began his philadelphia campaign at the end of the summer. Seventeen seventy seven colonel. Lacey took command of a regiment of militia draftees to go to the support of the state pennsylvania raised about three thousand militiamen for the campaign lacy fought germantown and in some of the smaller skirmishes that fall another militia commander general john armstrong led the militia army during this campaign. You may recall that. Armstrong had command of one of the four divisions that washington deployed at germantown lacey also fought under armstrong at white marsh. At the end of the fighting season after the continentals retreated to valley forge. Armstrong received an appointment to serve as one of the pennsylvania delegates to the continental congress. He turned over command of the militia. To general james potter general potter served as commander for only a few weeks before he requested to leave to go home and care for his sick wife. A potter's decision to return home was not unusual. Militia were not expected to remain in the field after an immediate danger had passed. That was what the continentals did with the british now in their winter quarters in philadelphia and the continental settled into valley forge the pennsylvania militia mostly went home for the winter. This made perfect sense. There was no food or shelter to keep an army in the field. The officers and men could return home. Rest up over the winter and feed themselves then turn out again in the spring when the fighting season began again even so some militia needed to remain in the field during the winter in january. Seventeen seventy eight. The pennsylvania executive council promoted john lacey to brigadier general and put him in command of the militia. Lacy was just twenty three years old. At the time there was however not much of a militia army to command the militia dwindled. Down to about six hundred by the time lacy took command and the primary mission of those still on-duty was interdicting. The supplies that civilians were attempting to take into philadelphia for sale lacey. Received word of his promotion got word from general potter to report to his camp by the time lacy arrived in camp potter had already left for home with no one in charge. There were only sixty men in the camp guarding the guns and equipment for an army of three thousand lacey took command and received instructions from general washington to focus on interdicting commerce into the city. The state had promised lacey that he would receive another one thousand militia to support these efforts. Those promised reinforcements never came. Lacey's total force of about six hundred actually fell to under two hundred and fifty over the next few weeks. In addition to interdicting food lacey's militia had to deal with emboldened tories who still roamed through the greater philadelphia area. Although the british army did not venture up into bucks county many loyalists who lived in the area. Assume that the arrival of the british would mean that the patriots would soon be gone. Many of these stories were either out for revenge for the way they had been treated or were seeking benefits from the british first showing their loyalty. Some good examples of this was a group known as the doan gang. Almost every element of the dolans story is disputed. Some tend to view them as heroic robinhood types while others portray them as bloodthirsty outlaws as with many things. The truth probably lies somewhere in the middle. I want to tell their story because it is interesting but my version is simply based on reading the versions of others many of which have a rather sketchy providence. So please don't take my interpretation as definitive. There were five. Brothers moses aaron levi may line and joseph as well as a cousin who formed the core of what became known as the doan gang before the war in seventeen. Seventy moses got into a fight with his father left the family farm in bucks county pennsylvania for some time after that he lived with a indian tribe and there he learned to live off the land and got to know the unsettled areas of the county rather well. According to doane family lure the father of the family joseph doan was a quaker and a loyalist when the patriots took control of pennsylvania. They demanded that he pay taxes to them. Doan refused to recognize the taxing authority of these rebels and would not pay as a result the patriots through the family off of their land and reduce them to poverty others dispute this story saying that pennsylvania records show that it did not seize the farm until near the end of the war however it is possible that the eviction took place years before and the paperwork was filed much later whatever. The cause moses opposed the patriot cause and enlisted his brothers and his cousin into a group that would wreak havoc against the patriots in july of seventeen seventy six. Shortly after the british landed at staten island moses and his brother levi met with general howe on staten island and offered their services as spies by some accounts. It was moses who discovered the failure of the americans to secure the jamaica pass on long island and provided the british with that intelligence. This allowed the british to move behind the continental lines and easily flank them at the battle of brooklyn. The british nicknamed moses as eagles spy for the accuracy of his intelligence. Another story says that moses learned of washington's crossing of the delaware on christmas night. Seventeen seventy six and rode out to see hessian colonel role at trenton. The colonel refused to see who instead left it. Note for him about the attack. According to that story raw put the note in his pocket and continued playing cards. The dolans also may have worked to free. British prisoners after british prisoners began disappearing from lancaster. And we're not found again. The americans put an officer into the prison pretending to be a captured british prisoner after several weeks. He was spirited away from the prison traveling at night and hiding in the secret rooms of loyalists during the day the officer identified the leader of this escape mission as abraham doan as the group prepared to cross the delaware river back into british occupied new jersey. Abraham confronted the officer whom he suspected of not being a real prisoner. The two men fought and the officer escaped later. The undercover officer identified the safe houses and arrested fifteen people who cooperated in the escape of the british prisoners. The dolans once again escaped capture. In addition to serving as scouts and for the british the dolans mostly made a living by engaging in home invasions and stealing horses. There are stories of the gang breaking into houses at night then beating and threatening the homeowner to give up whatever gold he had hidden on the property. those who want to portray the dolans as louis heroes say. They only went after the property of known supporters of the patriot cause and particularly targeted tax collectors. Others save their attacks were more indiscriminate. Whatever the truth. The and developed a reputation among locals in pennsylvania as ruthless outlaws after the british took philadelphia. The group focused primarily on stealing horses to sell to the british by some accounts. The group stole over two hundred horses in the region. The dolans whose faces were well known to locals tended to move only at night and spent days le'veon caves or other remote sites where they could avoid detection in february seventeen. Seventy eight officials in bucks county raised a posse to capture the doan gang. The posse however came up empty. The group was to effective in avoiding detection. There are many stories that paint moses doan as a local hero one story from this time says moses doan came across a woman from philadelphia who had snuck out of the city to purchase some flour for her starving family. Her husband was a patriot. Who was serving in valley forge at the time as she was returning to the city. She encountered moses doan and explained her plight despite the fact that she was the wife of a patriot. Moses gave her a purse full of money and warned her that a british guard was just up the road. Although the woman tried to avoid the british guard he discovered her and attempt to confiscate the flour dough and then reappeared and appealed to the soldier to let her go with her flower when the soldier refused doan grabbed him by the throat and told the woman to run when she was out of sight. He shot the soldier in the head with a pistol and disappeared back into the night. The death of the soldier brought out guard to hunt down the killer. Doan allegedly killed another pursuing soldier and an officer that night as he made his escape. Another story puts sto- more of a mixed light. The gang engaged in a home invasion. Although the dolans made up the core of their group many times the group grew as large as several dozen men on this night one of their company was a man by the name of foxy joe as the group threaten the life of the homeowner demanding that he turned over his gold. Foxy joe made advances on. The man's wife presumably in an attempt to rape her moses discovered. The man beat him nearly to death and threw him down a flight of stairs afterward. Moses apologized to the husband for the incident. His men were thieves not rapists. The doan gang continued to harass the people of bucks county for years after the british left the area as i said some considered them to be loyalists simply stuck on the wrong side of the war. Others saw them as nothing more than brutal criminals taking advantage of the chaos of war but the legend of the dolans is one that remains a part of local history. The dolans of course. We're not the only tories in the area. While there were many pacifist quakers. there were others. Who were willing to resort to violence for the cause of canned country a key target of the loyalists or the patriot leaders and their families. When john lacy became commander of the state militia loyalists threatened to attack his family and burn his farm lacy hedge project not only his own family but those of other prominent patriots as well as other potential targets. Captain richard hoven who had raised a loyalist group. Called the philadelphia. Light dragoons rated a million bucks county in february. The group stole or destroyed material. That was expected to be made into about five hundred uniforms for the patriot. Army the rate also led to the death or capture of several dozen continental soldiers who were guarding the mill. Hoven dan would go on to serve under bannister tarleton. During the southern campaign. general lacey's lack of experience contributed to his problems. There's one letter from general washington advising the young general lacy to keep on his guard and stay on the move and not be stationed in any one fixed location. Doing so would give the british and easy target and would also allow smugglers to know to avoid specific locations on another occasion. Lacey had to write washington to inform him that his men had accidentally mishandled some cartridges leading to an explosion which destroyed six or seven thousand cartridges and injuring. Five of his men. Also during his first week says general. The militia continued to return home. Lacy reported that at one point he had only one hundred sixty men left for duty in the entire region and this was not entirely lacey's fault not only did bad weather keep them at home. Pennsylvania had failed to pay the militia that had turned out the prior. Fall this failure to provide any compensation did nothing to encourage the man to turn out again for additional winter duty. The man who did continue to serve got most of what they needed from the goods. They confiscated from the people smuggling goods into the city. This of course also led to a complaint that men were claiming goods that were being smuggled that they simply stole from local farms. You may recall that back in episode one seventy eight. I talked about general wayne and commodore barry distracting the british in new jersey so they could drive a herd of cattle back to valley forge as that heard pass through bucks. County lacy was directed to provide a guard. He did not have the manpower and failed to do so. The british under captain hoven denied. Royal royalty greunen's manage to steal most of the hurt and redirected to the british in philadelphia by spring lacey. At least had a few months of experience and the militia were beginning to return to duty in greater numbers. On april twenty-seventh general lacy was in command of about four hundred militia which encamped near the crooked billet tavern. This is near the present town of hat borough which is about sixteen miles north of philadelphia. It was close enough to the british lines to invite an attack. The british frequently rated into this area over the winter despite this lacy kept his militia in camp for several days. Local tories informed the british of their location. And lieutenant. Colonel john graves. Simcoe of the queen's loyal rangers organized an attack party made up primarily of lowest militia but also included some regulars simcoe divided an attack force of about eight hundred and fifty men. The two groups marched out of philadelphia. On the night. Of april thirtieth. Simcoe plan to attack from the northeast while the second group under lieutenant. Colonel robert abercromby would attack from the south west. The militia had put out pickets. Who discovered the attackers just before dawn. On may first. The pickets refused to fire a warning shot instead hiding to avoid capture themselves. The two groups descended on the main militia. Camp opening up a ruthless attack on the surprised militia. Lacey attempted to mount a defense but quickly realized that his men would not stand the majority of the outnumbered and surprise militia fled into the woods abandoning everything to their attackers. The militia lost about twenty percent of its force with about twenty six killed eight wounded and fifty eight captured. According to the americans the british massacred many of the wounded including setting men on fire and watching them burn to death after the battle. Washington ordered an investigation in the murder of the prisoners and wounded in order to make a complaint against general. How the lieutenant who had been in command of the pickets was discharged for failure to follow orders a little over a week. After the battle general potter return from his winter at home. Relieving general lacy of command lacy continue to hold his militia title as general but did not seem to serve in any active capacity. After that a year later lacey would return to politics and served the last three years of the war as the bucks. County representative to pennsylvania's supreme executive council battle of crooked billet became forgotten just another example of the incompetent local militia defeated by professionals about a week after the attack at crooked billet. The british sound out another small expedition across the delaware river into new jersey. The americans still had several ships and smaller boats up river in bordentown new jersey. They also had some small supply. Depots there on the night of may seventh. The british sent a small rating party up river landing at whitehill new jersey today called fields borough who landed the next morning. This was a search and destroy mission. The british burned any boats that they found as well. As the houses of several leading patriots. As identified by local loyalists americans got word the raid and thinking the british might be capturing boats rather than destroying them scuttled several boats themselves in order to prevent them from falling into british hands. The local new jersey militia also turned out and face. Down the british raiders as they marched north toward bordentown. According to local accounts the militia fired one volley then turned and ran. The british continued on into bordentown there. They burned several more houses including that of joseph borden. Son of the town's namesake as well as any ships and boats that the patriots had not already destroyed having satisfied themselves that they destroyed any enemy property that they were going to find the british returned to their ship and sailed back to philadelphia before the end of the day. The bordentown raid sometimes called the battle of crosswalks. Creek was another minor raid. That simply showed that militia could not stop the regulars but they were still not afraid to turn around and take a few potshots at them next week. The british through a going away party for general how and general. Lafayette almost gets captured at the battle of barren hill. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution podcast after show my thanks to alexander. Hamilton club members on patriotic train. Aunts george davis and louis wait thanks also to lee. Crm at the robert mora circle level and welcome to christopher nugent at the standard bearer level. Also thanks to my longtime supporters. David rice thomas heath and chris roy. Everyone should remember that you can help. Support this podcast for as little as two dollars a month by signing up on patron thanks also to matt williams. Paul cowan burger james deer and virginia starks. For one time gifts the paypal for those of you who want to help out with no ongoing commitment pay pal is a great option. Visit amriyev podcasts. Dot com for more details. And as always. I am grateful for everyone who can help out. I also have a couple of corrections. this week. A couple of weeks ago. I talked about thomas matching an engineer. Who worked on defenses at west point. I noted that he was an english engineer who came to america shortly before the war that he participated in the boston. Tea party and bunker hill. Jail bell pointed out to me shortly after the episodes relief that the history accorded from was ridden in the early nineteenth century. And that it is complete. Bs there's no evidence that any of matches claimed engineering work in england is correct. There's no evidence that he was at the boston tea party. There is a chance that he was at bunker hill but not defending it if he was there. He was charging up the hill with his fellow. Regulars it turns out that matching was a british regular who deserted from boston in july. Seventeen seventy five years after the war someone put out a shall we say less embarrassing history. That did not involve fighting for the enemy and desertion. In addition to being an excellent fact checker all things revolution jail. Bell is the author of a book called the road to concord. Which of course is a passbook recrimination of the week. He also rates daily plug called boston. Seventeen seventy five. Which i've also recommended before if you search for matching that's mac h. I. n. You can read where. Mr bell debunked matching story in several blog articles. Back in twenty thirteen by thanks to mr bell for setting the record straight in the after show for that same so i went on to rant about j. store keeping all its articles behind a paywall. I failed to notice that sometime in the past few months. J. store changed. Its policy so that you could actually read up to one hundred articles per month at no charge. The limit used to be only three articles. So you still have to register for a free account and you still can't download any view articles so there are some annoying limitations but i am pleased that the public does have better access to these great academic articles all right so this week we heard about the doe and gang which still has local legendary status as long as in the bucks county area moses doan was killed in a shootout near the end of the war to other jones were hanged as outlaws and the other two fled to canada. The two that were hanged levi and ham are buried at the plummeted meeting house in doylestown pennsylvania. The meeting allowed them to be buried there but because they were outlaws had them buried just outside. The cemetery was today. you can still visit their gravestones. Which mark them. As outlaws moses doa is buried in plumpton township on what used to be the farm of his uncle israel doan there's also a local legend about the thousands of pounds of the gang robbed from local treasuries some say their buried treasure still lies undiscovered somewhere in bucks county in many ways. The story of moses doan reminds me of jesse james and his gang of outlaws both started out on the losing side of a war doe in in the revolution and james in the civil war both refused to make peace and turn to outlawry eventually being shot down both had brothers who had fought with them but who survived and lived out their natural lives. Anyway the dolans live on in local lore. I heard that a doan gang. Distillery recently opened in quakertown taking its name from the famous outlaws. If you enjoy these sorts of local histories my book recommendation. This week is hidden history of bucks county by jennifer rogers. It was published in two thousand. Nineteen if you're looking for more indepth discussion of today's topic. This is not the book want hidden. History is a relatively short book under two hundred pages and covers a wide range of stories from bucks county. there is a chapter on general john lacey and another chapter on the doan gang but all of the many stories covered in the book are just a few pages long each but if you like learning stories that are not part of the mainstream history. I think this book is an interesting read. I may be biased. Because my family has lived in bucks county for nearly three centuries so i have a biased interest in these local histories. The author is a local historian. Who lives in bucks county. believe this is her first book if it sounds interesting to you checkout hidden history of bucks county my online recommendation. This week is a more in-depth book about the dough and gang. It's an online book from archive dot. Org called the doan outlaws or bucks county cowboys in the revolution by john. Rogers i have no idea if john rogers is in any way related to jennifer rogers the author of this week's book recommendation but the doan outlaws was published in eighteen ninety five although the work is listed on archive as a book of over four hundred pages. It appears to have been published originally as a newspaper column in the doylestown democrat. It appears that someone simply cut out the newspaper columns each week and pasted them into the pages of this book that said it is clearly an in depth and detailed. Look at the doe and gang so if you want to read more about the dolans check out the doan outlaws on archive dot org as always you can search for yourself or go to the blog entry for this week's episode for a direct link it's at blog dot com rev. Podcast dot com. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution broadcast.

philadelphia lacey pennsylvania bucks county john lacey militia army patriots moses doan washington Lacey doan delaware valley forge germantown Washington patriot militia captain lacey Colonel anthony wayne continental commission germantown lacey
ARP192 The Wyoming Valley Massacre

American Revolution Podcast

29:55 min | Last month

ARP192 The Wyoming Valley Massacre

"Thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one ninety two the wyoming valley massacre after the british evacuated philadelphia. They consolidated their forces around new york city by early july. Seventeen seventy eight. General clinton's army was still settling into new york. Following the battle of monmouth in northern new jersey. General washington moved his continentals into camps in northern new jersey where they could challenge any movements by the british out of new york city. Although the british regulars were taking up defensive positions that did not mean. Americans were safe from attack. British agents had been trying to encourage indian tribes in canada and upstate new york and along the western frontiers to support the kings efforts to suppress the rebellion. The british warren tribal leaders that unchecked the colonists would take more of their tribal land they also gave some tribes hope of reclaiming lands that had been taken from them especially to tribes. Who helped the king during this rebellion. Back in episodes one fifty one and fifty two. I talked about the mostly native american force. That was assembled. under general. Barry saint leger to assist burgoyne army by capturing ford stan wicks in western new york. That army plan to meet up with the main british army at albany the patriot militia. Stop this advance at oriskany. Then general benedict. Arnold forced the british and their native allies at fort. Stan wicks to flee back to canada that however was only one setback in a larger effort to use local tribes. British agents remained active all along the frontier trying to encourage warriors to join in a continuing campaign against the rebels. One such agent was colonel. John butler who would go on to form butler's rangers butler had been born in connecticut but moved to upstate. New york as a boy is father. Who held a commission. As captain in the british army settled the family in the mohawk valley as a teenager butler had interacted with native tribes. Getting involved in the for trade. He learned to speak several native languages and often found work as an interpreter. In seventeen fifty five. He received a commission as a captain in the newly created indian department of the british government during the french and indian war. Bilour had served as an officer under indian agent. Sir william johnson commanding a native american force of mostly iroquois warriors following the war butlers venture in for trading and farming had put him at the head of a wealthy and powerful family in the region. By the seventeen seventy s butler had become a prosperous landowner with over twenty six thousand acres the second largest landowner in the area next only to sir william johnson bilour had become a pillar of the community. He served as a judge as representative to the colonial legislature. And lieutenant colonel. In the tryon county militia. After william johnson's deaf and after johnson successor guy johnson traveled to london for an extended. Time butler became acting superintendent of the iroquois six nations when the revolution began butler spoke up as a leading loyalist. He soon had to flee to canada to avoid capture by patriots. Although his wife and several of his children were captured his family would remain in custody for nearly five years until they reunited in seventeen eighty one as part of a prisoner exchange a going from respected community leader to war refugee only made butler eager to bring the fight back to new york and put down the rebellion. When the war began british policy was to keep native tribes neutral or to use them primarily as scouts butler was an early advocate of using loyal tribes. Like the koi as warriors in battle by seventeen seventy. Six butler was organizing loyalists and natives to assist with resistance to the continental army's invasion of canada. In seventeen seventy seven. He helped to organize the warriors. Who marched with general st leger to capture fort stan wicks and he was involved in the battle of risk any and the subsequent retreat following the army's withdrawal to canada butler traveled to quebec. Their general guy carleton commissioned him to maintain a permanent regiment of loyalist butler organiz both refugees from new york as well as native warriors and the regiment tone as polars rangers following the capture of coins. Army butler's rangers went into winter camp around niagara with plans to go on the offensive. The following spring the entry of france into the war and london's decision to evacuate philadelphia and go on the defensive did nothing to deter butler from launching an offensive with his native forces in the spring. Seventeen seventy eight bay. Look south for possible targets to strike. The wyoming valley is a large area in what is today northeastern pennsylvania around modern day. Scranton at the time control of this area was still a matter of dispute between pennsylvania and connecticut. During the colonial era royal charters often gave vague or contradictory information on borders of various colonies as a result. Colonists often had to fight to assert their legal claims to land connecticut claim that it was entitled to all of what is today northern pennsylvania and even parts of what is today northern ohio indiana and illinois at the same time pennsylvania had claimed all of that same land as well as most of what is today western new york king charles. The second had granted this land to connecticut back when the dutch still controlled new netherlands. What later became new york. The grant seemed to be an attempt to challenge dutch control of the area after the british took new york. This grant mattered much less to those in london. Since these lands were all now british colony's near the end of his reign. Charles the second granted much of the same territory to william penn. Since at the time the area was controlled by the susquehanna indians. No colonists were really moving there anyway. Although the iroquois lived further north in new york they asserted control over the natives. Who were living in the wyoming valley. Those tribes living in the area were not members of the six nations but they did speak iroquois in asserting its claims to the land connecticut. Deal with the erc. Oy for control of the wyoming valley and the right to settle there. They signed the agreement just before the french and indian war began with the outbreak of that war. Connecticut did not really try to settle that area near the end of the war. The local delaware under td using resisted encroachment by settlers. I discussed those events way back in episode eighteen. T do you. Sing was attempting to broker a deal with pennsylvania to keep the valley for the local tribes after td using was killed probably by fellow indians who opposed his attempts to start a war is son massacred a small outpost of about forty connecticut settlers in the valley the attackers tortured and then murdered ten of the men to send a message that settlers were not welcome there. The attack had its intended effect as connecticut did not send any more settlers in the years following the war later. The iroquois reneged on the deal with connecticut and sold the land once again to pennsylvania colonists from pennsylvania known as mites again to settle the wyoming valley the seventeen sixties mostly in relatively isolated farms along the susquehanna river alarmed by this development connecticut yankees once again. Form their own colonization plan. Establishing the town of wilkes-barre in seventeen sixty seven this kicked off. What is known as the first peta. My yankee war in seventeen sixty nine. Pennsylvania militia tried to force the connecticut settlers to leave both sides established forts had guns and tried to force their will on the other. But it wasn't really a full-scale war. Only three people were killed over the course of two years. The violence however once again largely deterred further immigration from connecticut. In seventeen seventy one king george. The third confirmed connecticut's claim to the land. Things remained relatively calm for a few years. Then in seventeen. Seventy three with the support of the king's privy council ruling connecticut's sent another group of colonists who founded the town of westmoreland once again kinda mites resisted what they saw as an incursion on land that they owned in seventeen seventy five. The fighting flared up again in what became known as the second peta. My yankee war. On christmas day. Seventeen seventy five. A of might force of about six hundred militia attacked a connecticut fort at what became known as the battle of rampart. Rocks the yankee defenders managed to hold off the assault and keep their position. This inspired the connecticut legislature to establish moorland county which soon grew to a population of over three thousand connecticut. Transplants when the revolution began most of the connecticut yankees joined with the patriots while the penalites largely backed the loyalists aware of this division. Colonel butler attempted to recruit panama lewis to attack the connecticut outposts in the wyoming valley when local loyalists combined with butler's rangers who were new york loyalists and with the seneca and delaware warriors. They created a pretty imposing force for the region. Connecticut militia in the wyoming valley had four forts with only a few hundred militia to garrison them in times of emergency. These were wilkes barra. Forty winter moot and jenkins none of these forts were of substantial size to fight off large. These were more stock. Aids designed to provide some protection against smaller attacks that were common in the ongoing fighting between the yankees and panama. It's the patriots in the area. Were already at lower strength. Many of the connecticut militia in the area had volunteered with the continental army and were off fighting in new jersey. those who remained behind or often younger or older men who could not endure the longer military campaigns this reduce militia would quickly find itself. Well outnumbered on june twenty eighth the same day as the battle of monmouth and advance team from butler's column attacked a grist mill capturing later killing three locals a few days later butler's force of over six hundred men arrived supported by another four hundred or so local penn might loyalists butler's first action in the area was to demand the surrender of fort winter. Move the garrison had to surrender their arms and supplies but were then permitted to leave on the promise that they would not take up arms for the remainder of the war. The small garrison surrendered the fort and departed following. That butler sent a message to nearby fort. Forty two men the surrender of that garrison as well in case you're wondering for forty was named for the forty settlers from connecticut who had built at us earlier at ford forty colonel zebulon butler no relation to the british commander jon butler commanded a militia force of three hundred fifty two four hundred patriots. Zabulov was also a veteran of the french and indian war. He had come to the wyoming valley in seventeen sixty nine from connecticut. He had fought the penalites in earlier. Disputes capturing fort wyoming in seventeen seventy one and leading the successful defense at rampart rocks in seventeen. Seventy five at this time. Zevulun butler was actually a continental colonel from the second connecticut regiment. He happened to be home on leave and was attempting to recruit more volunteers for the continental army when the war came to his home in the wyoming valley given his rank and experience. Tabula took command of the efforts to defend against the invasion at a council of war. The more senior officers wanted to wait for more reinforcements. Others however wanted to attack right away as i said most of the men of prime fight the age were already away in the continental army. The militia was made up of men who were older too young to serve on those campaigns. The older men wanted to wait for more reinforcements. They expected the arrival of at least a hundred more neighboring militia shortly and had also sent riders to philadelphia to get continental support. They also had good intelligence. About how large a force. They actually faced the experience butler agreed with this group and cautioned restraint others however strongly advocated for an immediate attack against the invaders particularly among the younger soldiers. They called butler a coward and said that they would march without him. If he's not wanna fight in the end. Those calling for an immediate attack prevailed on july third. A force of nearly four hundred yankee militia marched toward for winter mood at the time it seemed plan was to get near the four but then form a defensive line to determine just how large a force they would actually be facing as they approached the fort a few men announce they were marching into a trap and fell out of the column a back of the fort. The british force received word of this advancing enemy column the british commander at the fort or it burned but then formed his men outside of the fort mostly in the woods to prevent the enemy from counting their numbers. He sent his indian warriors to hide in the forest near fort. The american militia saul the fort on fire and took it as an indication that the british were abandoning the fort and retreating. So they quicken their pace to catch up with the british. They hope to find a retreating column that they could hit in the rear that however was not what they found as they approached the burning fort. The attackers indicated that they were aware that the enemy was still in the area and called them to show themselves on the field. The undisputed yankee militia began firing from about two hundred yards out as they advanced on the british line. They were both too far away for their muskets to hit anything by some accounts the yankees fired at least three valleys advanced with almost no effect when they got to within about one hundred yards. The rangers rose up and fired back. The seneca warriors rose up from their position on the right flank fired and then with loudwar roofs charged the militia. The americans panicked at the surprise of the charging indians field. Commanders attempted to keep the lines formed and facebook the rangers and the indians the militia. At least by some accounts tried to hold their lines but were quickly overrun. They turned and fled the field in disorder. The entire engagement had lasted only thirty to forty five minutes. Only a small portion of the nearly four hundred american forces escaped the field that day about sixty men were able to outrun the attack by the rangers and the indians the rest were either killed or captured and we don't know exactly how many died on the field because those who were captured did not remain prisoners very long as with many battles between loyalists and patriots or between settlers and indians combatants showed little respect for the enemies. Life or for any generally accepted rules of warfare many years after the battle a story and wrote down accounts based on oral history. He recounted what happened next quote. Men were transformed into demons and while indian marksman skillfully wounded the flying yankees in the thighbone. Thus disabling them yet saving them for future tories. Both tories and indians clubbed and scout them as they tried to conceal themselves nearby or in the water. Many of the yankees fled to a nearby swap or dove into the susquehanna river seeking to hide themselves from their pursuers but the tories and indians followed after them killing them without mercy. When account is of a militiaman named had a pencil who hit in the willows. After being wounded by an indian arrow his brother john pencil who was fighting with the loyalists found his wounded brother. Henry cried were his brother to spare him. John replied quote mighty will but you are a damned rebel raised his musket and shot his brother dead. The writer commented quote. Even the indians were struck with horror at this deed others reported lansing men in the river allowing their corpses to float away. Even the soldiers who were not killed immediately on the field did not fare any better over the course of the night. The loyalists and indians tortured and murdered their prisoners. One account describes militia captain bid lack. His captors threw him into a campfire that night then held him down with pitchforks as the screaming. Struggling man burned to death. Another account reports of an indian queen named esther who forced eighteen prisoners to kneel around iraq she chanted and danced s. She bashed brains of each victim. One at a time any nbc. British reported only five prisoners surviving that night. The british commander reported that his men took two hundred and twenty seven scalps. many more. Were missing who were also likely killed. British casualties amounted to two loyalists. And one indian killed at another eight indians wounded following the massacre the local surrendered fort forty and two other small forts the rangers disarm the garrisons and permitted them. Parole the british commander said little about the massacre of prisoners in his reports but did stress that noncombatant women and children were treated with utmost dignity by this. He meant that they were allowed to live but really not much else. Over the next few days the loyalist forces destroyed over one thousand houses and barns in the area forcing all the patriot inhabitants to flee with almost nothing they confiscated their property. Including thousands of cattle sheep horses and harvested grain. What they could not carry away. They destroyed the effort had the intended effect. It forced virtually all surviving connecticut settlers or others. Who back the patriot. Cause to abandon the wyoming valley the massacre became a rallying cry for the patriots. It would eventually lead to retribution. But that would happen. The following year and will be the topic of future episodes. The seneca tribe later strongly denied accusations of these atrocities. Whether true or not the stories of the atrocities had the effect of spreading fear and a desire for revenge among the patriots. Next week we're going to return to philadelphia. A silas deane attempts to clear his name before congress. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show my thanks to train. Aunts george davis lewis white and robert hunter for support of this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriotic also. Thanks to lisa ham for support. At the robert morris circle level on patriot. Thanks also to chip brenner. and steve. Berger for their continuing support on patriot. I also appreciate one time contributions via paypal from bruce. Recant everyone who can chip in even a few dollars helps keep this podcast freely available for everyone else who cannot. I also wanted to remind everyone again. That i have a weekly newsletter which provides more reading materials that are relevant to each week's episode. You can sign up on my website at. Www dot am rev. Podcast dot com in my newsletter. I also include a list of live online events related to the american revolution that are happening each week. Many of these are free events by great speakers one of the groups putting on these events is a group called history camp. Which i've mentioned before a couple years ago. I was trying to bring history camp to philadelphia. It's daylong long event of great speakers on a wide variety of history topics we were all set to have our first event in may twenty twenty when the pandemic cancelled everything all history camps were cancelled for twenty twenty and it looks like all of twenty twenty one is going to be a bust as well. The good news is that the folks who run history camp are adapting. They hold weekly virtual events every thursday evening which are free to attend. I'm also pleased to announce that they will be holding a virtual history camp america in july. This will be a day long event with multiple speakers just like the in person events that we hope to return soon but this of course will be a virtual event and i hope anyone who's interested will consider attending the american revolution. Podcast has partnered with history camp to help make this event. A success and i will provide more details as they become available so this week. I covered some of the fighting between loyalists and patriots. That took place away. From the main army's this case it was an ongoing between connecticut and pennsylvania that had been going on for well over a century over which colony controlled the wyoming valley. This was just the sort of dispute that loyalists to the conclusion that the colonies needed a king. Without a king to decide such porter disputes. They would inevitably devolve into war and mass slaughter even if everyone did not always lake judgments in london. Those judgments at least provided a conclusive and peaceful resolution to such disputes. Others of course would argue that when the privy council in london declared something that didn't always really settle the issue and fighting continued anyway but even these ongoing disputes were likely to be more muted than an all out war when the revolutionary war began. British officials tried to use these enter colonial disputes to sow division between the now states. It is probably the main reason why local panama sites in this area became loyalists. Their enemies from connecticut were patriots and they were not going to serve on the same side as their enemies. Now i have to admit i struggled to keep the two sides straight in this story because my family has lived in pennsylvania for three hundred years. And i've always thought of the pennsylvanians as supporting the patriot. Cause i well. I knew paramedics were loyalists. I kept wanting to think of them somehow in the back of my head as the good guys and the connecticut invaders as the enemy well at the same time conflicting with my bias to think of the patriots as the good guys against the loyalists. Of course try to present the facts neutrally but we all have our inherent biases in our heads. And i suppose my pro pennsylvania bias is just a holdover from when such things mattered typically in such disputes. Those who sided with the loyalists often lost their claims to those who sided with the patriots. In this case however the continental congress eventually backed pennsylvania's claims to the territory in seventeen eighty seven. There was actually a third yankee. Penna my war. That broke out in seventeen eighty four. After the revolutionary war had ended. That one did not fully resolve the dispute either. Pennsylvania attempted to resolve the fighting by recognizing some of the private land claims by connecticut settlers in seventeen eighty seven however. The disputes remained a matter of contention for many years. Following final resolution. Really wouldn't happen until seventeen ninety nine when the federal government conclusively published that the area did belong to pennsylvania and ordered reimbursement for private land claims held under connecticut claims or allowing the connecticut settlers to continue living there as pennsylvanians. There is not a good deal of reading material on this dispute. However if you want to read more my book recommendation. This week is a biography. It's called zebulon butler. Hero of the revolutionary frontier by linda. A fosler and james r williamson sabio on butler of course was the leader of the connecticut. Defenders in the events described in this episode. He was also involved in the ongoing disputes for many years. Both before and after the events. I covered today. His biography covers these events in more detail. The book came out in nineteen ninety-five. But it's pretty hard to find already. It's also less than two hundred pages and more than a third of those pages are taken up by notes and index so. It's not a huge amount of content. But it is very well researched and gives the best window. I can find into the longstanding fighting between pennsylvania and connecticut settlers in the wyoming valley. So if he can find a copy zevulon butler is worth a read. My online recommendation is an e book available on archive dot. Org called the massacre of wyoming. The acts of congress for the defence of the wyoming valley pennsylvania. Seventeen seventy six to seventeen seventy eight with petitions of the sufferers by the massacre of july third. Seventeen seventy eight for congressional aide as you can probably guess by that lengthy title. This relatively short work contains original petitions of victims and other legislative proposals regarding the massacre of these gives some good firsthand descriptions of events even if written many years later and with a bias toward receiving government assistance. The booklet was assembled from various sources for the wyoming historical and geological society in eighteen ninety five. It's an interesting resource based on the testimony of those who were there for this relatively obscure event as always you can search for the document on archive dot org or just use the direct link that have included at the bottom of the blog entry for this episode to blog dot amriyev podcast dot com for more details. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

butler connecticut wyoming valley new york pennsylvania stan wicks patriots continental army connecticut yankees canada william johnson fort philadelphia General clinton yankee militia british army army Barry saint leger burgoyne army patriot militia
ARP175 Von Steuben at Valley Forge

American Revolution Podcast

29:55 min | 5 months ago

ARP175 Von Steuben at Valley Forge

"Thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode 175 funds store ben at valley forge for the last couple of weeks. We covered events in france and britain as the us signed its first foreign. Treaty and britain declared war on france before that we left the continental army cold hungry and slowly falling apart in valley forge in february of seventeen seventy eight. A prussian officer made his way to valley forge pennsylvania. I mentioned friedrich wilhelm augusta's phone story been back in episode one thirty six when he met with benjamin franklin in paris seeking a commission the forty seven year old bunch toibin had served as an officer in the prussian army. As a young man. He spent much of his early years in russia as his father served. As a lieutenant in the russian war against the turks by age fourteen he was serving with his father in the war of austrian succession and by age seventeen. He had his own commission in the prussian army and served in the seven years war now records of stove and service in the seven years. War are somewhat sketchy but he was wounded in two different battles during the war and we know that he served as an adjutant for a couple of generals by the end of the war. He was an coming young officer. Who had risen to the rank of captain and was serving as an aide. Decamp on the staff of frederick the great when the war came to an end in seventeen sixty three though so did von soybeans military career. The size of the army shrank dramatically. Some officers remained in the peacetime army. But fun story been did not make the cut after leaving. The army story been got himself a position as a hof marshal or what the british call chamberlain for a minor german prints in this role. He would be responsible for arranging events trips and supervising household staff. It could be a pretty good job with the right house. Unfortunately the prince who hired him was broke story been accompanied the family to france where they tried to live rather simply while trying to raise cash in seventeen. Seventy one a grateful. Prince bestowed the title of baron on his loyal assistant. Despite their efforts the prince and bunch toibin remained broke by seventeen seventy five months job and was looking for a commission in any army. That would take him. He applied to the british french and austrian armies. All with no luck. There is some speculation that rumors of his homosexuality may have prevented his appointment. There is no solid evidence to prove this. But they're apparently were rumors of such activity circulating. It's seventeen seventy seven fun. Story been got word that the americans were looking for officers and went to see benjamin franklin by this time the american commissioners in paris had already gotten pushback from congress about all the commission's that they had already offered so they weren't ready to send punch toibin to america with a preapproved commission. Franklin did send joy to america with a letter recommending a commission and saying that he had been a lieutenant general. Under frederick the great this mistake was later attributed to a translation error since he had never held a rank above captain but it also could have very well been franklin just puffing up a young man's resume that he really liked even so prussia had a reputation for one of the best train armies in the world and franklin believed that the continentals badly von store bins experience funds bins shipped reached portsmouth new hampshire on december. First seventeen seventy seven. After spending ten days there. His party made its way to boston there. He got a hero's welcome meeting with john. Hancock and samuel adams what he did not get though was any money. He had arrived in america on some borrowed funds and had to cover his living expenses and those of his small staff as he awaited word from congress about commission. Well he was in boston. He met with several french officers. Who congress had already rejected. And we're trying to find a way. Back to france that point von show been began to worry that he might have made a terrible mistake. Incoming undeterred he set out for york pennsylvania in mid-january hoping to make his case directly to congress as it turned out congress had received word of his arrival and was interested in his services. Even so funds joy found himself navigating the politics of the ongoing conway cabal as the head of the board of war. Horatio gates and the commander in chief of the army. George washington were barely on speaking terms. Bunched we been met with gates to assure him that he would not become a washington. Partisan there was also the issue of continental officers resenting foreign adventurers getting commissions over them as well as the continental congress. Not having any money stolen agreed to serve as a gentleman volunteer not taking a rank or salary in the army at least not until he had proven himself he only saw to have congress cover his expenses instead he offered to work on commission asking that if after congress won the war and believed that he had contributed that he be paid six hundred guineas per year for his service plus interest again he was gold and at the time was worth just a little bit more than a british pound sterling account of course always like the idea of paying later and accepted the offer. Congress generally welcomed on stolen and found his agreeable flexibility on rank and pay rather pleasant. Von story. To you of congress was a little different. Most of the delegates had gone home for the winter. By the time he arrived in york there were less than two dozen delegates still in york and they were mostly the b. team. Many of the more prominent delegates were not happy with york accommodations. Not expecting much to happen over the winter. They found it a good time to take leave and go home. That said congress was still operation and trying to keep everything. Running as part of negotiations funds. Store been requested that two french officers that had been denied commissions and whom he had met in boston when they were on their way home in fact be granted commissions as his aides. Congress agreed and granted commissions to francois adriaan de romanet at an engineer named pierre charles. Lefebvre the ladder might be a recognizable name to some of you. As he went on to design the new federal city at washington after the war although bunch toibin did not demand a former commission congress gave him one anyway that of captain von storyline saw this as worse than no rank at all since it was far below what he was seeking even one of his aides had received a commission as a major congress however believed that it was important that he have some nominal commission in case the british captured him. They wanted to ensure that he would receive the courtesy given to other imprisoned officers with that been had the support of the board of war under horatio gates and the tentative support of the continental congress but all of this seemed to be a probationary trial. Everyone wanted to see what this man could do before. They were willing to bestow rank and money on this unknown quantity by the end of february bunch. Toibin left york for valley forge. General washington met punch toibin on the road with an honor guard to escort him into camp. Washington was pleased to have the new officer who very much looked the role of a european general. He wore his prussian uniform. With ribbons and medals on display. He was a large barrel chested. Man whose physical presence exuded leadership washington of course also was impacted dressed and also impressed european visitors with his appearance as a commanding officer. However von story have been described his first encounter with washington as rather awkward. Washington did not create him as a friend nor did he show any deference to him but even took this as getting a bit of a cold shoulder in fact it was washington's personality to crete. Virtually anyone with a formal reserve the fact that washington's rival horatio gates had just said funston to him at least 'cause washington to be a little wary of this new officer again bunch toibin would have to prove himself on visiting valley forge fun. Stolen had to wonder what he'd gotten himself into. He saw men in camp naked and starving. And on the verge of mutiny. It may have looked more like a refugee camp than an army. Desertions were on the increase. The main thing keeping many in camp was that they were too weak from hunger and cold to go anywhere on top of that. The top military and political leadership was divided into team washington and team gates with no real certainty that they would and could work together. became the informal inspector general for the army. It had to be informal. Because general thomas conway still formerly held that role after washington had really given conway the cold shoulder and refuse to work with him beyond that absolutely acquired by his orders to do so congress had shipped conway off to peekskill even so conway retained his rank and position until he resigned or congress terminated him launch been could not become the inspector general that said he took on the role and duties of inspector general with plans to add more military discipline to the camp and to train the soldiers in the practice of former military field drills despite the challenges fun story seemed optimistic and was excited to begin his new role. It had been warned it. All off servers were living in crude huts but on his arrival he received as his quarters a nice stone house that had been recently vacated by general to call fun storyline was limited in his ability to get to know. Noah's fellow officers by the fact that did not speak english. He did speak french pretty well. The president of congress henry. Laurens advised funds toibin to seek out his son john. Lawrence who was serving has washington's aide to camp lawrence spoke french and having spent many years in europe was hungry for good conversations with men of education and breeding lawrence and his fellow aide camp alexander. Hamilton found themselves spending a great deal of time with on striven their positive view of this new officer helped on story bins standing with washington trusted the judgment of his aides. The relationship also helped on store standing with congress since john lawrence's ongoing letters to his father helped assure the president of congress that bunch toibin would be a real asset to the army general washington gave free rein to the camp and had him as a dinner guest on most nights for the first two weeks of his stay. Punched took careful notes and eventually reported his findings to washington is final. Report was a rather blunt. Assessment of improper can play out unfinished defenses at an ill equipped and poorly trained army. Washington did not give much of any response to bunch jordan's report nor did he pass it along to congress. Some were concerned that washington was offended by this blunt assessment. That however does not appear to be the case. Washington was still looking for the best way to use this new asset. Some in congress one advance. Joy have been to become the new quartermaster general. After mifflin had left the position it served in that role in the prussian army. However an american quartermaster would have to work with many civilians and merchants on the purchase of food and supplies a german speaking officer without any experience in american mercantilism might not be the best choice so washington put him to work drilling the soldiers in march as i said he became acting inspector general. The role of drill master brought with it. Its own hurdles. I many of the soldiers were too sick to ill fed or lack clothing to march outside bunch. Toibin requested that the army give him a special company. Of one hundred men drawn from across all the regiments who were sufficiently fit and dressed to drill outside. He also took fifty men from washington's elite. as part of his first group of trainees. The goal was that bunch toibin would train these men in basic drill and that they would intern go back to their regiments and train the others in the one hundred fifty man group that he began with was too much restored been selected twenty of those men to drill while the rest of the group watched they started with the very basics how to stand at attention and march in step although prussians have a reputation for strictness and the lack of sense of humor punched. I've been quickly adjusted. His demeanor to laugh with the men as they screwed up. Well gently correcting the smallest in detail. Even with just the small group on ben still had his problems one of the biggest ones being that he's don't could not speak english he had to give commands in french to an officer who then translate into english. The training was slow. Going at first funds been would curse shout when the inexperienced company screwed up a command. There's a fun story of story. Been calling over his translator and telling him to swear the men in english for him over the next few weeks vence job and learn the english swear words himself but the model company also got better at the drill on story but also quickly gained a favorable reputation. It was one of the few men in the american leadership who would regularly interact with the ranks and let them complain to him. He also held parties at his house for junior officers. According to one story he said that no one could come into a party who had a fully intact pair of pants. This was in response to the fact that many men had tattered clothes that were literally falling off their bodies. He wanted those who are suffering the most from this deprivation not to feel ashamed about coming to his home for entertainment. This group quickly became known as the sans culottes. Which in french means without breaches. This is not to be confused with the radical group of the same name during the french revolution. That group took its name from the fact that it's radical members chose to wear more modern trousers rather than the old-fashioned knee breeches inventory bins case. The men had no pants at all. Given that vince job and was believed to have been homosexual. There may have been other reasons why he enjoyed having young men hanging around his home without pants. During the drill. Many officers and men from other regiments wandered over to watch the training camp. Life was dough and the men got a kick out of watching bounce stove and scream and rant when the men's screwed up at trill bunch toibin recognize that the source of amusement work for him and began exaggerating his temper. Tantrums been focused on march and moving in lines rather than firing their guns. He one of the men to look and feel like an army when marching onto a field. The men already knew how to fire a gun and doing that imprecise. Steps was not as important of unshaven also did not have training manual for the continental army. He would later write the manual. Which would be used until the end of the war of eighteen twelve but for now he was just using the memory of his old prussian military drill and adapting it on the fly as he saw fit on story been also quickly realized that the american character would not accept an overbearing officer. After the war he wrote to a european colleague and commented that unlike a european soldier where you simply told them to do this or that and they obeyed in america. You had to explain why it was important to do this or that. And then they obeyed fun. Story opens trading began in late march. Seventeen seventy eight. After only a few days. General washington saw the progress. He ordered his regimental commanders to cease any training until they had received experience with fun stories methods. He also called a nominations from his officers. For an inspector. General ignoring the fact that general conway in peekskill still held that office as established by congress a week later washington began referring to on store. As the inspector general. The bottle company began spreading the training. Throughout the regiment's april much of the army had received at least some training in the new drills. Not only was jenner washington impressed with stories results. The entire army seemed to fall in love with the new drill master. He became highly popular with officers and men despite the language barrier between most of them late april when congress accepted general. Conway's offer to resign. Washington immediately wrote congress requesting that fundsto not only be given the position of inspector general but that he also be commissioned as a major general with the full pay that was accorded to that rank within days. Congress approved both of those recommendations washington however did not inform fun story immediately about his promotion on may first valley forge received the news that france had signed the treaty of alliance. The army was celebrating that soon. France would give them the much needed supplies money and armies they needed to defeat the british once and for all washington called for a grand review of the army on may six to celebrate the french alliance and give bunch toy. Been an opportunity to show what the men could perform. The review went off well and afterwards. The officers had a celebratory party and offered toasts all around washington. Us this opportunity to inform bunch to heaven that he was now major general von toibin and that he was officially the continental army's inspector general. The new general would receive a full staff of aids and inspector general's to assist him with his mission. The continental army put its faith in him as a leader next week. We're going to step away from valley forge again to hear about the continental navy and the sinking of the randolph. Hey thanks for joining. The american revolution podcast. After show my continued thanks to train. Aunts and george davis for their continued support at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patron. Thanks also to mike. Hager support at the robert morris circle level as well as everyone else who can chip in on patriotic. Everyone who supports this podcast on patriot. On at the ten dollars per month level or higher receives a monthly magnet with a different flag from the american revolution. I think at this point. I've printed about twenty different flags so far and i have plans for about a dozen more. At least i'll admit i'm getting into some pretty obscure flags from the era but each magnet comes with an explanation of the flag including its description and history. People seem to like them anyway. It's my way of saying. Thanks for your support of the podcast. If you don't want to commit to that much you can support the podcast on an ongoing monthly basis on patron for as little as two dollars a month and of course if you don't wanna make a long-term commitment i'm more than happy to accept a one time. Contribution bee pay pal ven mo or variety of other sources all which are listed on website and blog. Thanks also to george hunter who make a one time donation via pay pal recently. Also this week. I wanted to take a moment to note the closing of city tavern in philadelphia the original city tavern opened in seventeen seventy three it fed and provided drinks for the continental congress in those early years that original building burned down in the mid nineteenth century but in preparation for the bicentennial in nineteen seventy six congress authorized the reproduction of the original building to be built on the same location. Now initially in the bicentennial era a modern restaurant opened up in that building. But in nineteen ninety-four chef william stop took over and created a new menu based on eighteenth century recipes so the tavern really return to its roots offering the public a chance to experience eighteenth century dining. But i think with better sanitary standards sadly the tavern announced it has closed permanently a victim of the restaurant closures and drop off in tourism due to the covid nineteen epidemic personally. I've enjoyed many drinks and meals at the tavern with friends over the years. It's been a great place to dine for those of us who liked to focus on the founding era my thanks to everyone who kept tavern running for years and i sincerely hope that once all these difficulties are behind us someone will be able to restore the tavern to its former greatness anyway. This week's episode took another look at valley forge. General friedrich funds store. Ben was one of those european adventurers who came looking for opportunities for military leadership and found it in america and not only did stolen create. The i army manual. That would be used throughout the war and the first decades of the us army he would also go on to serve as a division commander in the continental army during the war after the war story been settled in america the state of new jersey. Gifted him a mill- with the condition that he lived there stolen did live there for a few years but his financial situation forced him to sell it back to the son of the loyalist from whom it had been confiscated during the war story been lived for a time at a country. Estate in upper manhattan then moved to a cabin out. Near where rome new york is today. He lived on a pension from congress for war service and also served as a regent. For new york's university system. I mentioned in passing in the main show that was believed to have been homosexual. There is no explicit statement of this fact from contemporary sources but that was because during the time when von been lived homosexuality was a capital crime. One simply could not live openly as a gay man. In the eighteenth century that said people tended to treat story been on a don't ask don't tell basis during his time in america. He did form to close friendships. With two continental captains benjamin walker and william north the latter of which later became a major general in the army himself. After the war steroid formally adopted both of these adult men which was the only legal family relationship that they could have at the time. And upon bunch. Been steph these. Two men inherited the bulk of his estate. Funster been is remembered as one of the most important foreign officers in advancing the cause of america during the revolution the area where he once lived upstate. New york is now known as the town of stupid new york. Now you may notice. I've pronounced him stolen throughout this podcast and the modern pronunciation is stupid. Based on what. I've read in the eighteenth century. His name was pronounced. Staunton if you'd like to read more about him this week's book. Recommendation is the drill master of valley forge. The baron bunch toibin and the making of the american army by paul la carte. This biography gives some background on his early years but focuses on the generals years in the continental army at about three hundred pages not counting notes and index. It gets into pretty good detail about the man and his contribution to the american cause the author. Paul lockhart published the book in two thousand eight. Professor la carte teaches history at wright state university in ohio and has written a number of other books on warfare in sixteenth and seventeenth century europe as well as a book on bunker hill. So if you want to read more about punch toibin you may wanna get the drill master of valley forge for my online recommendation. I'm going to recommend von storylines army manual. It's called regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the united states. A store continued to make changes to this manual. Both during and after the war the version i found is from seventeen ninety four. It's not exactly riveting reading but if you're a reenactor or just want to understand. Better drill worked in the revolutionary war. This manual is a good primary resource. You can search for the online document on archive dot org just search for the title regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the united states. But of course the easier ways probably just used direct link on my website. Remember if you're listening to this and looking at up the week of the release of this episode you can find it right at the top of the website. If you're looking later. I have a link to a list of former online recommendations. And you just look up the recommendation for this week. And there's a direct link there also for the blog episode. i include a link there as well. So you can just go to the blog episode and click on the link to go to the online resource. My blog of course is at blog dot m. rev podcasts dot com. If you would prefer to have a paper copy of the manual rather than just read it online. I've also included an amazon linked to buy a hard copy of the manual. And you can find that also at the bottom of the blog episode. Remember that if you click on any of my amazon links you help benefit this podcast. As i get a small commission from amazon at no additional cost to you and just between you and me if you go there and you buy other things completely unrelated to the original link that you use to get amazon. I still get a commission on whatever you buy. Says this is a great way to support the podcast. If you're buying items on amazon anyway and wanna help support the show without paying anything extra. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

congress washington toibin horatio gates army bunch toibin prussian army punch toibin continental army france Toibin america friedrich wilhelm augusta forty seven year benjamin franklin seventeen seventy five months conway american commissioners Washington york
ARP184 Mischianza and Barren Hill

American Revolution Podcast

30:43 min | 3 months ago

ARP184 Mischianza and Barren Hill

"Hello and thank you. For joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty four machines and barren hill for the last couple of weeks. I talked about the british occupation of philadelphia and the experience of the local militia immediately outside of philadelphia during the winter of seventeen. seventy seven. seventy eight take away from that. Is that the british were secure in the city and that the militia were not terribly helpful and nearly got wiped out at the british attack. Crooked billet the only thing that prevented the complete destruction of the militia was the men's ability to run and hide over that winter. The continental army was focused on. Its own survival out. At valley forge and not interacting with the british very much at all americans real enemy that winter was the chronic shortages of just about everything despite the shortages the army was drilling under baron von story been and hoping to emerge in the spring as a credible fighting force with the pennsylvania. Militia dispersed following crooked billet and with the coming of warmer weather. General washington grew concerned that the british might attempt at offensive on valley forge itself to make sure this did not happen. He deployed a division to move closer to philadelphia to keep an eye on the british and he handed command of this division of continentals to major. General lafayette i recall that the marquis de lafayette had been a continental officer for less than a year. The nineteen year old french army captain with zero combat experience had received a commission as a major general based primarily on his willingness to work without pay. And the hope that his family connections with the french quarter might help to secure the much-needed alliance after he had first joined. Lafayette served as an aide to general washington. Certainly an honorable position but not one normally performed by a major general after all he was serving alongside two colonels alexander hamilton and john lawrence washington genuinely liked the young man but was not sure he was quite ready to command an entire army at brandy wine. Lafayette showed bravery under fire and received a battlefield injury this help to enhance his reputation with both washington and the continental congress the injury however meant that lafayette spent the next couple of months convalescing up in bethlehem pennsylvania when he returned to duty in november washington assigned him a small independent command. Lafayette lenny minor raid on british camp and gloucester new jersey near philadelphia. Something i discussed earlier episode and that was enough to win command of a division after congress dismissed major. General adam stephen for his conduct at germantown washington gave lafayette command of that division after that congress assigned lafayette to lead a new offensive to retake quebec. The thought was that a french leader might inspire the local quebec qua- to rise up against the british and join the movement for independence. That mission began with great intentions. It ran smack into the reality that there were no supplies to begin the campaign. The whole plan fell apart before it even got started. Lafayette had to return to valley forge having accomplished nothing with all that experience and with the young general no longer a teenager having a birthday in the fall. Washington turned over one third of his active army about twenty two hundred soldiers to lafayette so that he could lead them toward philadelphia and protect the rest of the army at valley forge from a surprise attack. When we consider the marquees meteoric rise to power in the continental army. It might be a good idea to consider the entire top leadership of the army at this point. The army had begun by assigning top leadership posts two men of. Let's be generous and call it mixed experience. The first three years of the war edge shaken out many of the bad ones and led to the loss of many good ones. Lafayette was the eighteenth. Major general commissioned by the continental congress the most senior major general in the army when the war began artemis ward was a new england officer. Who resigned shortly after the war left new england in the spring of seventeen seventy six. The next most senior officer. Charles lee was a british prisoner of war number. Three general philip schuyler had lost his command just before the battle of saratoga and was at this point still living at home. Although technically still serving as general number four israel putnam had not inspired much faith as a commander and had been pushed off to a relatively unimportant command in upstate. New york the next two generals. Montgomery and thomas both died during the quebec campaign. Montgomery was killed in the attack on. Quebec and thomas died of smallpox number. Seven general horatio gates was still an important commander but was on the outs with washington. After the circumstances surrounding the conway cabal number eight william heath had lost washington's confidence after a series of botched commands at the time he was in command of british prisoners from saratoga The next general joseph spencer had resigned in january of seventeen seventy eight following an investigation into a botched attack on rhode island. Although he was acquitted the general had had enough of the army. Spencer had always been more politician than soldier and he returned to a prominent role in connecticut. Politics number ten. John sullivan had just faced a court martial for his actions at brandy wine and his attack on staten island. However this general still had washed confidence. Washington had just deployed to providence rhode island to replace general spencer following that resignation. A summit wanted number eleven general nathaniel greene to take that post in rhode island since he was from rhode island. Our washington had recently pressured green to become quartermaster general of the continental army meaning that at least for the moment he was no longer in a position to assume command of soldiers. In the field general benedict arnold had only recently moved up to number twelve list recall that congress had appointed five other major generals in february seventeen seventy seven skipping over the more senior brigadier general arnold when it finally granted the commission after arnold's leadership at danbury arnold was number seventeen on the list arnold had tried to resign just before heading off to saratoga because congress would not make him more senior after his more critical role in winning saratoga. Congress finally granted his request for retroactive seniority. Putting him at number twelve on the list however arnold had severely injured his leg at saratoga and this prevented him from assuming any command for the time being number thirteen on the list. William alexander a k. Lord sterling was one of the newest major generals that still had washington's favor he commanded one of washington's divisions for other generals who had received their points the same day as sterling. Thomas mifflin was the failed quartermaster. Who is now serving on the board of war. With general gates arthur sinclair was court martialled after giving up fort ticonderoga although he did not get another field command he did continue to serve as an aide to general washington. Adam stephen as i just said had been removed from the army for his performance at germantown benjamin lincoln was still respected covering from injuries after saratoga so that brings us to number eighteen on the list. Lafayette who had made his way to becoming a division commander. Now just around out. That list were you. There were six more major generals by the spring of seventeen seventy eight philip day. Cowdrey had surfer about a month before drowning. Johanna cobb who had arrived with lafayette was now also a division commander robert how of north carolina was serving as commander of the southern department. Alexandra mcdougal was running the show in upstate. New york along with israel putnam and thomas. Conway had received his commission in december. Seventeen seventy seven but had resigned by april following his tiff with general. Washington friedrich von story been who had done such a great job training. The soldiers at valley forge finally received recognition in may seventeen seventy eight with his own commission as major general as he continued to serve. As inspector general of the army fudge. Toibin would be the last. Major general to be commissioned for the next two and a half years congress would not commission anyone else until late seventeen eighty in case you were wondering that left general william thompson of pennsylvania as the senior brigadier in the army thompson. Who had been. The twelfth brigadier appointed have been taken prisoner in seventeen seventy six. Just after he received his commission he would remain a prisoner until late. Seventeen eighty and snow promotion to general john nixon who had been so badly wounded at saratoga that he could never take command again. The senior brigadier that was still on active. Duty was samuel. Parsons who had originally been number. Twenty four on the list by this time aside from thomson and nixon. All of those above parsons had been promoted killed or had resigned. Parsons was serving in upstate. New york and he would finally break through to major general in october. Seventeen eighty when congress finally resumed promotions. So that's basic summary of how the continental command stood in the spring of seventeen seventy eight. Meanwhile the british leadership was also undergoing a major change. General william how had tendered his resignation the prior fall frustrated by london's failure to herreid him with sufficient soldiers to run all the military campaigns that he thought necessary to crush the rebellion back in london. As i discussed back in episode one seventy four the leadership was dealing with the loss of burgoyne army at saratoga and the entry of france into the war the administration had accepted house resignation and order general henry clinton to take command in north america in march clinton received his orders to take command and sent much of his army off to protect the west indies and abandoned philadelphia when general clinton in philadelphia in early. May he brought his orders from london and work with general how to transition the leadership. The two men spent the next couple of weeks discussing the state of affairs and their next steps. Meanwhile most of the british officers were sorry to see how go despite his inability to bring the war to an end. How remained a popular leader with the officer corps. Two of the junior officers. Captain john andrei and captain. Oliver delancey raised a collection of three thousand three hundred and twelve guineas from the rest of the officers to throw a massive farewell party for general. How that would be about seven hundred. Fifty thousand dollars in inflation adjusted. Us dollars of course. Many people purchase their own costumes and other items for the event with total expenses for the party reading several million dollars in inflation adjusted terms. Andre called it the santa which derives its name from the italian word for medley. This was to be the party to end all parties. They scheduled it for may eighteenth to begin at four pm and would run until four. Am the following morning among the events was a regatta of decorated barges down the delaware river with cannon salutes. The lead barge was general. How along with is brother. Admiral lord howe and general sir. Henry clinton along with them were guests including general house mistress. Elizabeth loring at least twenty seven barges moved down the delaware from nights wharf near vine street to a point near old swedes. Church south of the city about a mile and a half in total accompanying them were at least three bands aboard the barges as the flotilla past navy worships were regiments lined up along the shore. Cannon salutes marked their passage when the lead ship reached his destination. All the ships stopped. Well the bands played god. Save the king next. The arteries and their guests led by the military marching bands. Paraded through the streets to the estate of joseph warton known as walnut grove. Just south of the city again they paraded pass regiments that lined up to honor their commander and thousands of locals who turned out for the parade. The group passed under two triumphal arches. One bill to honor admiral. How and the other bill to honor general. How at walnut grove. The participants enjoyed a mock tournament of nights with fourteen young maidens dressed in silk. Dresses may just for this event. The knights on horseback also wore white satin garments. So yeah there were nights. In white satin. There was also a mock jousting tournament where soldiers engaged in pretend jousts and single combat proclaiming their love for certain young ladies on the stage. It was here that john andrei declared his love for a young woman named peggy. Many of you. Who know about andrei may think that this was peggy shippen. In fact no it was peggy. Chew the daughter of benjamin chew the colonial chief justice whose house had played such a prominent role at the battle of germantown. Peggy shippen and her sister had planned to attend however are quaker. Father sold the set and costume that the girls intended to wear and found them indecent. He forbade his daughters from attending. And peggy responded by what her father called quote a bout of hysteria following the tournament. The party moved to a grand hall of the home which was extravagantly decorated for the event using what was described as a turkish theme celebrants enjoyed drinks and light. Snacks then enjoyed playing cards for some time with real gold house card. Game of choice was a game called pharaoh after dark. The guests along with the rest of the city. We're treated to a fireworks display. That took place near the victory arches south of town at midnight. I guess sat down for a grand banquet in a city that had been perpetually short on rations. The banquet was especially extravagant. Aban played through the night. And captain andrei read a poem to honor general how the celebrations continued until dawn. On the nineteenth when revellers finally made their way home a celebrants aside. Most of the locals found the event inappropriate. Mrs henry drinker a quaker wrote in her diary quote. This day may be remembered by many from the scenes of folly and vanity promoted by the officers of the army under the pretext of showing respect. You general how. How insensible do those people appear while our land is so greatly desolated and death and sore destruction has overtaken an impending over so many was drinker was not alone in thinking. The extravagance was inappropriate. Ambrose searle the secretary to admiral lord howe wrote in his journal quote our enemies will dwell upon the folly and extravagance of the machines with pleasure every man sense among ourselves though not willing to pay due respect was ashamed at this mode of doing it that said it was a night that few would ever forget just as the british began the machines on the evening of me eighteenth. Lafayette had already moved. Division out of valley forge crossed the schuylkill river and set up camp on barren hill. Just outside the british lines washington had ordered him to quote march toward the enemy lines so that he could be used as a buffer for the rest of the army at valley forge and to stop any smaller incursions into the area. He was also supposed to obtain intelligence about enemy movements. This was lafayette's first independent command of any size lafayette's continentals for the schuylkill river and took a position on the high ground known as barren hill near the schuylkill river washington had advise lafayette. Not to camp in one place since the british would almost certainly launch an attack. Lafayette set up camp on may eighteenth and the british discovered their new neighbours. Almost immediately on the evening of may nineteenth only a few hours. After the end of the michigan's the british commanders received word of the force under the command of general. Lafayette they view this as an opportunity to capture some prisoners as especially the boy general. This would be an embarrassment to both america and france within hours the book of the british and hessian forces around philadelphia had turned out around sixteen thousand soldiers part of the reason for the overwhelming force. Was that the british hope that washington might march from valley forge to try to rescue lafayette's division. If he did it might give the british one. Final chance to defeat the continentals entirely before abandoning philadelphia. The soldiers deployed in the predawn hours of may twentieth expecting to bag their quarry quickly and returned back to the city. The same day general. How had even made plans for a victory dinner in philadelphia hoping to have lafayette as a guest of honor lafayette's on heights just east of the schuylkill river preventer day retreat from that direction the british sent a division of about five thousand soldiers under general grant to the north so that the continentals could not escape from the direction they came. They said another division under the command of general charles. No flint's grey to attack the american left flank and keep them pinned against the river. Meanwhile general how was given the honour of personally leading the main force along with general clinton that would assault barren hill from the south and demand. Lafayette surrender the capture of general lafayette and one third of the continental army would have been a crushing blow. Fortunately for the continentals that would not happen. The continentals pick the physician because the heights gave them a good view of the surrounding area. Centuries were able to see the british army marching toward them from far away even though it was a nighttime advance. Lafayette deployed his pennsylvania militia. Who as i said were by this time. Back under the command of general potter james lacey. Having left a few weeks earlier as i discussed last week so while that happened. Lafayette sent general enoch. Poor with the bulk of his army along a sunken road. That was out of the view of the british. They would move north back toward a ford across the schuylkill river and make their escape now. These was dependent on potter's pennsylvania militia putting up enough of a defense to halt a british under general grant and prevent them from cutting off the escape route potter with his six hundred militia. Took one look at the five thousand regulars advancing on him and decided yeah. I'm not doing this. His troops scattered into the woods and made their escape without a shot fired as lafayette put in his report. General potter quote thought proper to retire and quote from the field however lafayette remained on the heights with a rearguard. He ordered a small number of troops to march towards grants regulars appearing to be the of a larger column this forest grant to halt his advance and put his men in line for battle. Another group of british dragoons tour the continental lines only to run into a company of fifty oneida indians who were serving in the continental army. The indians gave a war whoop as they jumped out of the bushes. The british dragoons fearing an indian ambush turned and fled the audience then caught up with the escaping column before the british figured out that they were such a small force that the british could have easily easily overrun them. As the british halted their advance and prepared for battle lafayette and the remaining rearguard high tailed it. Out of there making their way down the sunken road and across the schuylkill via afford to the other side. The british finding the americans had escaped. We're not prepared to chase them across the pennsylvania countryside instead. They withdrew back to the city. The battle of barren hill therefore only lead to some very minor skirmishing. Some reports indicate. Three americans were killed and british washington was pleased to hear of lafayette's escape the british leadership where frustrated at their inability to surround and capture this inferior force with its back against the river a few days later general. How boarded a ship for london. Never to return next week. The british conduct several spring rates in the rhode island area which we collectively as the mount. Hope bay raids. Hi thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show thanks to train. Its george davis and louis. Wait four supported this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriot. Thanks also to george hunter for support at the robert morris circle level. I also want to congratulate sean eliason. Who won the join or die. Tankard and len williams. Who won the seventeen. Seventy six t shirt in our raffle. Everyone who signed up for the podcast. Mailing list had a chance to win. If you still want to sign up just go to my website or blog and look for the mailchimp link. The mail list will keep you up to date on the podcast and send you an update whenever a new episode is available. I'm also including other information about live events and links that are relevant to which ever week's episode there is. I just sent out my first email to the list recipients last week if any of you have any suggestions about what else should be included or excluded from the email. Let me know so this week. I caught up everyone on the status of the continental generals. Then we heard about the biggest party of the war. Possibly the biggest party of the eighteenth century that a not involve royalty. Let's face it. How many parties get that much discussion more than two centuries. After the fact one point. I thought i should mention when i make these episodes. There are often conflicting sources with different sets of facts. Sometimes i note that when i'm telling the story sometimes i just present one source and move along after all. I'm trying to tell a story. Don't want to get caught up in an academic debate about which sources more likely accurate just pulls the whole story off on a tangent for example. Today i was relating the story of the machines. A and i noted that peggy shin's father prevented her from attending and that she threw a fit as a result out other sources. I've read indicate that peggy did in fact attend the machines with her sister though sources. Say that peggy did not attend are alleged to be part of the ship and family efforts to minimize their reputation as stories after the war ended. Although peggy later moved to england the rest of her family made in philadelphia. I can't really say for certain. Which version is true. I thought i would pass along at least that there is that dispute. The other thing we covered today was young general. Lafayette still tried to make a name for himself once again though. His independent command amounts to well much of nothing. His big accomplishment in this case was his ability to escape without getting captured. While i may sound like a making light of lafayette's military accomplishments and i guess i am. Lafayette did becoming key component of the war effort. Fia his efforts to further the french military alliance even if lafayette was not by any means single handedly responsible for the alliance he did come to personify alliance in many ways that alive with several key tours of america after the war to cement his reputation helped to make lafayette the iconic figure of the revolution that he has become if you try to find barren hill. Where lafayette his accountant. You won't find on any modern maps that is because they named it lafayette hill after the war. Lafayette hill is a township just outside of the modern city limits philadelphia is between two other towns named for heroes of the revolution wayne. Pennsylvania named for general anthony wayne and for washington pennsylvania named for while. Guess who the war around philadelphia certainly left its lasting impact if you want to read more about the british occupation. This week's book recommendation is called with the british army in philadelphia. Seventeen seventy seven to seventeen seventy eight by john w jackson. This is an older book. First published in nineteen seventy nine. I recommended another book by jackson a few months ago called the pennsylvania navy jackson wrote a number of other books all related to the american revolution in the philadelphia area. This book focuses on the british occupation itself and life in the city during those nine months. It's a good read but as far as buying it despite the fact that it's over fifty years old. There are not many used copies around. it's pretty expensive. If you find a copy at all maybe you'll get lucky like me in your library has a copy. If you can get a hold of it you will find it interesting again. The name is with the british army in philadelphia. Seventeen seventy seventy seventeen seventy eight. My online recommendation. This week is a pamphlet. Called strictures on the philadelphia machines or triumph upon leaving america on conquered by israel mauduit and. This was a pamphlet that was published in london in seventeen seventy nine around the same time. The general how was being pilloried for his failed strategy. In america the pamphlet includes pains crisis number five as well as other attacks on british war effort as this pamphlet was published during the war. I think it gives a good taste of the rising whig antiwar sentiment in london opponents seemed to be becoming more critical of the war and blaming it for the larger war with france. I think this is an interesting look. At how civilians were becoming more vocal about government failures in carrying out its war policies. You can search for the document on archive dot. Org or use the direct link on my website just go to www am rev. Podcasts dot com. This week's recommendation. And i also have a link on the page to a google document which contains all of my prior recommendations. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

lafayette washington Lafayette army saratoga philadelphia congress continental army adam stephen arnold pennsylvania schuylkill river quebec upstate peggy shippen rhode island baron von general clinton General lafayette john lawrence washington
ARP195 Courts Martial of Lee St Clair and Schuyler

American Revolution Podcast

29:45 min | 2 weeks ago

ARP195 Courts Martial of Lee St Clair and Schuyler

"Hello and thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one ninety five the court martials of generals lee sinclair and schuyler. When the second continental congress created the continental army in seventeen seventy five. It appointed charles lee as the number three commander behind only george washington and artemis ward general ward had been command of the new england army prior to this as a lieutenant colonel in the british regulars and as someone who served as a general in other european armies. Charles lee seemed to be the most experienced officer in the new continental army and many people thought he would be a better commander than george washington. Lee certainly counted himself among that group when the british captured generally in late seventeen seventy six many on both sides thought that the war was finished. The americans had lost their only general with any real experience. The army however managed to struggle on when lee returned to the army after being exchanged in the spring of seventeen seventy eight. He returned to a much different army. The generals who had only been militia commanders at the beginning of the war by seventeen seventy eight had nearly three years of combat experience. The soldiers had received training under general. Von stolen at valley forge. They looked and felt much more like a professional army. Lease time in british. Titi was perhaps responsible for the fact that he did not appreciate the changes that had taken place. He was unwilling to concede the idea that perhaps he was not head and shoulders above all the other continental officers as we heard back in episode one eighty eight lee opposed washington's wish to attack the british as they retreated from philadelphia to new york in june of seventeen. Seventy eight washington however was not quite as starstruck as he once was by lease military experience and proceeded with the attack. Anyway he put general lafayette in command of the lead force and followed behind himself with the rest of the army at that point not wanting to be left out of the action lee request that he be given command of the advance force that he had refused to take earlier. Washington seated to this request and general lee led the army into an attack at monmouth courthouse in new jersey. On the morning of june. Twenty eighth generally move forward with his army taken front. The british rearguard within hours though lee and his army were in full retreat. Jenner washington was stunned to see his army running away from what had not even really become a battle yet. The usually imperturbable washington was well perturbed. He angrily confronted lauer on the field. A stunned lee said almost nothing. Washington asserted command to the field and battled the british army for the rest of the day when the fighting ended at monmouth lee had to defend his actions after a loss in battle or even poor performance in a winning battle. It was not unusual for officers to face court martial or at least some sort of inquiry major general john sullivan had recently faced a court martial and been acquitted for his actions at brandy. Wine in cases generals requested or even demanded a court martial in order to dispel lingering doubts or derogatory gossip about their performance that said the consequences of a court martial. Could be pretty serious. Congress had recently cashiered major general. Adam stephen for his less than stellar performance at germantown a few months earlier some articles of war even called for the death penalty. Although no continental generals were executed during the war. Admiral john bing of the british navy faced a firing squad twenty years prior for his failing to do his utmost before the enemy at minorca lee could have faced similar charges that carry the death penalty things however did not go that far for him. Li actually did request martial. Although i think that was in the heat of the moment he probably regretted doing so thereafter rather than work out. The matter with the commander lee chose to make the dispute into a contest with washington to decide. Who was a better military commander when the court convened several weeks after the battle of monmouth. General alexander also known as lord sterling served as the presiding officer of the court martial sterling also was known to be a washington loyalist sterling have been the first officer to alert washington to the conway cabal and had helped him put down that attempt to replaced him as commander in chief normally then as now a court martial would consist of officers who were more senior than the accused however since george washington was the only commander more senior to lee general ward had previously retired that was impossible in fact several brigadiers and even colonels sat on this court martial. The prosecutor was an officer named john lawrence. The same man who had ended general stevens career at a court martial a few months earlier as was the norm generally defended himself without council. The court considered three charges against lee. I disobeying orders to attack the enemy. Second misbehavior before the enemy and making an unnecessary disorderly and shameful retreat and third disrespect to the commander in chief into letters written after the battle lead defended himself reasonably well. The first charge disobeying orders to attack seemed to come from the idea that washington had ordered this attack and that lee was opposed nevertheless li took command but then failed to make any serious attack after advancing toward the enemy as a legal charge against him. However this really couldn't stand i. Washington never gave lee absolute orders to attack as washington always did. He left his field commander with discretion to use his best judgment based on the situation that he found in the field as lee. Put it quote to disobey discretionary. Orders is absolutely impossible as to kill a dead man and quote in other words. Discretionary orders permitted him to use his discretion. The second charge of making an unnecessary disorderly and shameful retreat came from the notion that washington had come across men streaming away from the enemy and no one seems to know what was happening. There was a rather disorderly. Retreat that day but lee probably was not responsible for it. General charles scott who was in charge of the center of the continental line. That day seemed to think that lee was retreating. When in fact lee was advancing scott then ordered his men to retreat and convinced his superior of the field jenner william maxwell to join his retreat by the time lee discovered that the center of his line was missing. He had no choice but to retreat himself or have his army captured by a superior force. The third charge disrespect to the commander in chief was probably the easiest to prove. I lee had been rather disrespectful to washington almost since the beginning of the war. Lee was always disrespectful to all of his superior officers even when he had served in the british army it was a common practice for officers to indicate they could do a better job than those above them. That was the path to promotion but such criticism required a certain amount of subtlety and respect shown to their superiors while they were doing it. And we had a real problem with. Subtlety lee argued that the to disrespectful letters that he had sent to washington the battle or a response to the unfounded charges against him. He believed that he had a right to be indignant at the accusations and basically ask for some at his temper tantrum. The trial took several weeks and had to be adjourned and restarted several times. As the army moved it concluded in mid august with a finding that lee was guilty on all three counts. The court martial ordered that lee be suspended from service for one year. Experts have noted that the one year suspension is rather like given the charges general. Adam stephen was cashiered for less only a few months earlier and theoretically these charges against lee could have carried the death penalty then. Historians believed that the court found lee guilty on all three charges mostly out of loyalty to washington but that the punishment was really just for the third charge disrespect of the commander since washington was an interested party to the trial. He did not approve the finding himself instead. He forwarded the results to the continental congress for approval a few months later. Congress upheld the conviction and the penalty. The matter was of great debate and delegates were divided many opposed to leagues conviction but in the end congress opted toback. Washington and lee returned home to virginia in the end lease punishment. And perhaps even the court martial itself seemed to be less about lee's performance at monmouth and more about his unwillingness to show deference to the commander in chief washington was still working to solidify his command following the conway cabal. He needed to establish his authority over the army. He was still contending. With general horatio gates general conway had only resigned a few months earlier why she could not add lead to his list of opponents among his top commanders following the suspension lee did not learn his lesson. He continued to try to justify his actions by badmouthing congress and washington. He published his defenses in the newspapers. And these caused great offence to a number of other officers. Washington's a colonel john. Laurens challenged lead to a duel. For the attack on the commander in chief. The two men fought a duel on christmas eve. Seventeen seventy eight with colonel alexander hamilton. Serving as lauren's second lawrence wounded lee on the first shot lee said that the wound was minor and called for a second round of firing however the seconds at the dual managed to calm tensions and ended the duel after the first round of shooting. Lee also nearly got into duels with general spill. Ham bunch toibin. Anthony wayne lee however managed to calm tempers with those two men and avoided appearing on the field of honor with either of them. Lee even challenged a member of the continental congress charles creighton of south carolina to a duel. The two men had a bad history and drayton had repeated. The accusations made against lee at the court martial drayton however to mirrored and did not accept lee's despite the duals and other criticisms generally continued to write publicly attacking washington and other leaders during his one year suspension. A year later as his suspension was coming to an end. congress proposed terminating lease services permanently. The motion was close but failed. Meaning that lee would return to service league however heard about the motion and dashed off an angry letter to congress including an offer to resign a few days later. Lee thought better this angry letter and wrote back saying that he had been intemperate and wished not to resign. The letters however convinced congress. That lee had not learned his lesson and would never show proper respect for washington or congress. The delegates voted to accept lee's resignation and terminate his services in the continental army when the army conclude the league court martial. It turned his attention to two other major generals who were still facing judgement the loss of fort ticonderoga a year earlier without a shot fired head resulted in great national indignation particularly in congress for the military commanders in charge at the fort arthur sinclair. Who had been in command at the fort. And who ordered the said. At the time he had to choose between saving his reputation and saving his army he chose the latter but then had to deal with the blow to his reputation. Philip schuyler who had been an overall command of the northern army at the time also had to answer for the command decisions that led to the loss of four ticonderoga in august. Seventeen seventy eight. A court martial took up the matter of sinclair. The tone of this court martial seem to be very different than that of general. Lee's one of the big differences was that sinclair still had general washington support the loss of fort ticonderoga. In seventeen seventy seven sinclair had been an incoming officer in the continental army served as a captain in the british regulars during the french and indian war and had been an early supporter of the patriot cause in pennsylvania sinclair did not receive a commission in the continental army until august of seventeen. Seventy six went. Pennsylvania began to send significant numbers of soldiers into the continental army which was by that time in new york is leadership in the new york campaign and the princeton campaign led to his promotion to major general less than a year later is independent command at fort ticonderoga. In mid june seventeen seventy seven was a sign of confidence in this up and coming officer. Three weeks later sinclair believed his military career was over as his men marched away from the fort escaping the british attackers under general burgoyne. Since that time sinclair did not receive another command. He remained with washington at valley forge advising the commanders and serving as a staff officer. He remained under a cloud for his actions at ticonderoga. Unlike the league court martial which began just a few days after the battle of monmouth sinclair's fate lingered with congress for a year in august. Seventeen seventy seven. Congress formed a committee to investigate what had happened. The committee reported in february. Seventeen seventy eight. Then there were a series of other delays so that congress did not direct washington to conduct the court marshals until june of seventeen seventy by that time. Washington was in the middle of planning his attack on the british who were retreating from philadelphia. Following the battle of monmouth washington. Wanted to get the lead trial done first before finally giving the court time to begin sinclair's trial in august general. Benjamin lincoln presided over the court martial which took place in new york at the time. Continentals were besieging british occupied new york city. Lincoln had his appointment as a major general on the same day as general sinclair. He had been among the officers. Who took command of the northern army. Under general gates following the loss of ticonderoga four brigadiers and colonels also served on the court. John lawrence the same officer had prosecuted lee also prosecuted sinclair sinclair faced five charges neglect of duty cowardice treachery in attention to the progress of the enemy and shamefully abandoning his posts at ticonderoga and mount independence. The court spent several weeks evaluating the evidence and taking testimony from witnesses in the end. The court found sinclair had acted properly. Sinclair had only arrived at for ticonderoga weeks before the british attacked. The fort's defenses. Were not capable of mounting a defense any attempt to do so would have resulted in the destruction or capture of the garrison sinclair had acted properly in ordering a retreat and saving most of the army. Those men will be needed to win the battles at saratoga a few months later the court unanimously acquitted sinclair on all counts and with the highest honor. Despite the acquittal though sinclair would never receive another independent command during the war. It would continue to serve as a staff aide to general washington having completed the sinclair martial. The army next turned its attention. To general philip schuyler like sinclair congress had investigated schuyler for his role in the loss of fort ticonderoga and after an extensive investigation instructed washington to hold a court martial on october. First seventeen seventy eight. The court began. Its hearing against schuyler once again benjamin. Lincoln presided in fact. The members of the court martial were the same as those who sat for general claire with the replacement of just one. Colonel john lawrence also continued in his role as prosecutor. The court only preferred one charge against schuyler neglect of duty for failure to be present at fort ticonderoga in the weeks leading up to the surrender scholars defense was a pretty simple one. He wasn't present at fort ticonderoga not because of neglect of duty. But because he was commander of the entire northern department he left major general sinclair in charge of fort ticonderoga while schuyler worked in albany to get reinforcements find supplies negotiate to keep local indian tribes out of the fighting and a host of other duties. The trial lasted three days. After which time the court found scholar not guilty and acquitted him with highest daughter. The court sent the findings of both sinclair. And to the continental congress in philadelphia and congress confirmed both acquittals unlike sinclair schuyler was not content to remain with the army with the suspension of charles lee. Schuyler became the number two commander in the army with only washington as his superior schuyler however had never really been a military man although he had been a colonel in the new york militia and had served the french and indian war his appointment. As one of the continental army's first major generals was primarily due to the need to have a prominent new york leader represented in the army schuyler. Strength lay in politics and diplomacy in military command in december. Seventeen seventy eight. After congress confirmed his acquittal schuyler submitted his resignation congress actually rejected that offer of resignation several delegates as well as general washington personally encouraged schuyler to remain in the army washington offered to return command of the northern department to schuyler as a show of support for his abilities but schuyler was insistent finally in april. Seventeen seventy nine. Congress accepted his resignation. Charges were still pending against him. New york had voted to send schuyler back to the continental congress where he had served prior to his military appointment following his acquittal schuyler accepted his seat and traveled to philadelphia to serve as a delegate around the same time. The army lost another major general. Thomas mifflin who had been caught up in the conway combined all decided to resign if lynn had been quartermaster and then served on the board of war with general gates in his attempt to usurp command authority from washington mifflin faced accusations of embezzlement from his time as quartermaster. He demanded a formal inquiry but never got one. Finally in february seventeen. Seventy nine mifflin also resigned. His commission unlike schuyler. He would continue with his career in politics next week. We're going to look at another campaign on. That actually leads to the resignation of yet. Another major general. John sullivan leads the continental effort to retake rhode island. Hi thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show thanks to train. Ans- george davis lewis white and robert hunter for support of this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriotic. I also want to thank christopher eager and pete rebel aka baron to call for joining the privy council last month and to brian. Sure for joining as a standard bearer. All of you will be receiving your first flag magnet this month. Also thanks to patriot. Minutemen stephen low maryland robarts and chris bestow and sons of liberty edward francs and robert cook. Who will join last month and of course thanks to everyone who support this podcast for as little as two dollars a month on patriot on your supports really helps to cover my costs and makes it possible for this podcast to continue this week. We covered the court martials of three major generals and the resignation of a fourth all which took place within a few weeks of each other with the conclusion of these events. Three of the four major generals who were appointed at the beginning of the war were now gone. The fourth israel putnam of connecticut had already kind of been pushed aside to inconsequential duty and he would suffer a stroke later in seventeen seventy nine which would completely take him out of services. Well that left. General horatio gates as the number two commander in the continental army behind only george washington and since he and washington didn't really get along after the conway cabal or perhaps even before it. It was an uncomfortable situation. And fact of the eleven major generals who were commissioned before seventeen seventy seven only gates william heath and faneuil green would still be serving at the end of the war gates of course would later get a southern command and fight the battle of camden later in the war only to embarrass himself terribly. Yeah we'll get to that at some point. General heath by seventeen seventy nine had pretty much been banished to logistical and support roles and would not participate in combat again. So of that. Mo- senior group of major generals only nathaniel. Greenwood would finish the war with a reputation as good general. Oh this i guess shouldn't be terribly surprising. The continental army especially at the beginning had to rely on largely untested top commanders. Someone prove their worth but of course many would not. There were never going to be changes. As different generals prove their value removing generals who did not make the grade was not always easy. Many had received their appointments for political reasons and removing them could create political problems. We see some like schuyler willing to resign and go back to political positions where they felt their skills were better suited others. Like sinclair accepted more administrative roles. And did what they could to support the cause in the army without holding a field command still others had to be pushed out of the army lee of course was probably the most prominent but not the only one. I'm surprised gates never got pushed out. Especially after camden adam. Stephen was rather uncertain. Omonia sleep dumped and still other general slaked. General mifflin differ more or conway resigned after the support of their commander in congress had pretty much dried up. of course. i'm just talking about generals. These sorts of things happen all through the officer corps wore tests leaders. Some pass the tests and others. Don't the army must act. Accordingly in order to keep the war effort on track a court marshals were important tool in all of this they not only provided away to remove an officer who had lost the faith of the commanders. And who would not resign but they also provide a forum for the officers to justify their actions and often explain why a loss on the battlefield was the only option where the best option given the circumstances because of general lee's rank and the leadership implications his court marshal was probably the most notable inconsequential court martial of the war. General lee as i've mentioned before would retire to his plantation in virginia and would die rather suddenly in philadelphia before a final peace treaty with britain was signed. There are lots of great biographies about lee. But if you want to read a book specifically about his court marshal my book recommendation. This week is george washington's nemesis the outrageous treason an unfair court martial of major general charles leak during the revolutionary war by christian mcburney. If this book sounds familiar to you. It's because i interviewed the author shortly after the release of this book last year. I don't make book recommendations as such during special interview episode. So i guess this one was still available to make a recommendation of the week. The book focuses on lease court martial as you might guess from the title. It makes the argument. That lee was not really guilty of the charges against him. A mcburney is a lawyer from washington d. c. he's also a member of the american revolution roundtable and has written many other books and articles about the revolution. I've recommended one of his earlier. Books kidnapping the enemy about the capture of british general. Richard prescott was used to exchange for general lee in the book george washington's nemesis rick bernie gives a brief background on lee. Look at some of his. Shall we say questionable activities while a prisoner of war and then his performance at monmouth and the ensuing court martial. The book is just under three hundred pages. Not counting notes and index plenty of room to dive deeply into these issues. If you haven't gotten it yet. I heartily recommend it wanted more details about any of the three court marshals. I discussed this week. There are also links to more detailed records about each of the cases on my blog episode for this week. If you just go to blog dot an rev podcasts dot com and look up this week's episode. The further reading section at the bottom contains a list of all these links. My online recommendation though is going to a biography of one of the other generals. I discussed this week. It's called the life of general philip schuyler. Seventeen thirty three to eighteen. Four by bayard tuckerman. General schuyler is largely overlooked general. Who has been getting some attention lately due to his relationship with alexander hamilton schuyler starter of course married hamilton. The author of the schuyler biography bayard tuckerman wrote a number of historical books including one about lafayette. Tuckerman was a lecturer at princeton university. Is biography about general schuyler. I think was his last major work published in nineteen thousand three because it is in the public domain it is available for free online at archived dot org as a downloadable e book as always you can search for schuyler on archive dot org to find it or just use the direct link on my website at www dot amriyev. Podcast dot com. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

lee washington army congress schuyler continental army sinclair conway cabal General horatio gates george washington Adam stephen Charles lee Lee Washington fort ticonderoga monmouth philip schuyler lee sinclair artemis ward general ward new england army
ARP158 Battle of Brandywine

American Revolution Podcast

29:18 min | 9 months ago

ARP158 Battle of Brandywine

"Hello thank you for for joining the American Revolution. Today episode one fifty, eight. The battle of brandy wine. Last week I left off with the British army commanded by general how having landed and Maryland skirmished with the continentals in Delaware and then moved westward into Pennsylvania in a toward Philadelphia. The continentals under general, Washington pivoted from Delaware into Pennsylvania where they deployed Brady Creek prepared to confront the British advanced their. Brandon Creek is a relatively small waterway that begins with the merger of two smaller creeks about thirty miles west of Philadelphia. It then flows down into Wilmington Delaware before merging with the Christianity. Creek and then into the Delaware River. The waterway was not big enough to sail ships. But. It was deep enough in most places during this era to prevent men from fording across. That said there were a number of fords along the creek where the army could cross. The continentals deployed around those fords and plan to force the enemy to cross that water in the face of enemy fire if they wanted to advance. General Washington believe the most likely crossing point would be at Chads Ford a small village in Pennsylvania about two miles north of the border with Delaware. I September ninth seven, hundred, Seventy, seven is continentals, had secured Chads Ford as well as two other Ford's just upstream from Chad's. They also secured piles Ford to the south in Delaware. This left flank of the Kontinental. Included divisions commanded by major, General, Anthony Wayne and green along Pennsylvania militia. Major General John Sullivan Adam Stephen and Lord Sterling took command of the heights above Chads Ford where they covered the army's right flank the on their divisions further. North colonel. Moses, hazen cover to smaller Ford's further up river, Buffington Ford and West Stars Ford Aka Chunks Ford. In the event of an enemy movement toward those fords. The nearby reinforcements of the army's right flank could be deployed there. Buffington Ford was actually north of the place where the brand wine splits into two small branches. To reach that the enemy would have to Ford both the West Branch and east branch of the creeks in order to reach the continental side. On the British side General Ville Hanff on Naipao Season Marshes Hashes to Kennett square only a few miles from Chad's Ford where the Americans were already deployed. General how did not realize that night? Thousand one so quickly and expected hinder camp several miles further back. A by the time night housing received General House orders he had already set up camp at Kennett Square and had no interest in packing up and marching back several miles that night. Instead. He ordered his army to can't without campfires in hopes of keeping their position a secret from the enemy. By the morning of September, Tenth House regulars also reached Kennett Square. The army of about fifteen thousand combined regulars in Hashes was united and ready. General Hal was not going to charge into battle without first getting the lay of the land. Although he landed in Maryland with few detailed maps or About the area He had been working with local Tories to get what he needed. Joseph Galloway who opted to confirm his loyalty to the king after attending the first Continental Congress had fled his home in Philadelphia to join the British in New York City. He traveled with how to Maryland and served as a local guide. How also received guidance from other local residents including many quakers who lived in the area and knew it well. On top of that, how sent out scouts to determine enemy positions? So the two armies sat on September tenth as how gained intelligence and finalized his plans. On the morning of September, Eleventh General Von Naipao Zain, marched his army of about sixty, eight, hundred, mostly Hessian soldiers toward brandy. Wine Creek. Day would be a hot one. The morning was still chilly at a dense fog, hid much of the two armies from each other. The hilly terrain made it difficult to track the enemy. Leading nine thousands column was Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers, a loyalist regiment. Both Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers were Green Coats, resulting in them, often being mistaken for Haitians during much of the battle. That say morning as the British. Inheritance began their march. American General William. Maxwell had sent scouts across the brandy wine to track enemy movements. An American company was eating breakfast at welches tavern when Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers approached. The two sides exchanged fire as the Americans withdrew. These were the first shots fired at around nine a m. Maxwell's continentals continued to harass the advancing British in a series of ambushes as the column move toward the brandy wine. The few hundred Americans could not halt the British. That's their intent was to harass the enemy until they reach the brandy wine where the Americans would make their stand. As the battle moves slowly toward the creek. Fo- sides took casualties. Ferguson's riflemen proved their worth and the worth of Ferguson's newly invented breech, loading rifle with which they were armed as men picked off retreating Americans. Among those wounded was a young captain from Virginia named John Marshall The future chief justice of the United States. By around ten thirty, a M night thousands main column had reached brand Wine Creek. Rather than attempt to cross, he brought up his artillery and simply fired across the creek at the enemy. General Washington was observing the battle through telescope from a house, a short distance from the battle. It became clear that the force attacking them was not the entire British army. Many of his generals feared that the army in front of them was simply meant to amuse them, while another force marched around and flanking maneuver to attack them from a different direction. That was exactly the same tactic that General Howe had used against them on Long Island. Washington sent out scouts in search of another enemy column. For received frustratingly inconclusive intelligence. In fact general how? D- camp before dawn, and before General Knipe housing even began his march. How moved his regulars northward. Washington considered several options. One was that how was attempting a flaky maneuver on the continental right flank? Another was that how was simply keeping the continentals busy? While he marched his army out to Lancaster to seize food and supplies that were stored there. A third possibility was that how marched north in order to get? Washington descend part of his own army north to find how? Then, general. How could double back? Choi Knipe, thousand and crush Washington divided army. By noon Washington decided that if House army really had marched north. They would not participate in the day's battle. It would take them too long to find an unguarded. Ford upstream and then March all the way back, south. Washington maintained a strong right flank. In case they did show up there. But also began to send regiments across the Brady wine to engage with the enemy. If he could defeat night thousands, division before General Hal arrived. He could then focus all of his army on just house division and defeat the divided army in detail. Before, he could commit his army to attack. General Sullivan sent intelligence which he received from a major spear. That there was no sign of the enemy to the north. If, that was true. How likely doubling back to meet up with KNIPE thousand? Fearing that possibility Washington opted not to commit his army to attack across the creek. HELD IN HIS DEFENSIVE POSITIONS! Washington also recalled. Lord Sterling General Stevens Divisions to move from the right flank back to the center. So that the army could be united against an expected full on British assault across the creek. Washington's intelligence however proved incorrect. General, how had in fact marched more than half of his army north leaving in the predawn hours before von Naipaul's and began to march to the brandy wine. As many officers guest venite thousands attack. Wasn't fact a faint to distract the continentals while house? Larger force could move into position to attack the American. Right, flank. How took advantage of local information from the Tories to March his army, six miles to the north along back roads. He crossed the brand new line creek north of where it forked into two branches. He crossed both the West Branch and the east branch of the brandy wine at completely unguarded Ford's. One of the Hessian officers leading his column. Johan Evil noted that the army had to pass through a narrow ravine where a few hundred defenders could have held the army at pay for hours. He was concerned about a possible ambush as he marched his men through. But the Americans were nowhere to be found. General had moved his entire division of about eight thousand soldiers on to the east bank and prepared to attack the American right flank from the north. How had marched north about eight miles to get around the army. By the time, how had gotten his army across the brandy wine? It was a little after one PM. Local who supported the Patriots spot of the army and Gallop down to, inform General Washington. A I Washington was convinced of his earlier intelligence that said the British were not to his north, and brushed off the civilians comments as an excited local. who was exaggerating what he saw. However after receiving several more reports. Washington realized he was in trouble that how was about to crash into his weakened right flank and crush the continental army. Washington quickly redeployed the divisions under Stephen and Stirling to move back to the north and reinforced the right flank. He ordered General Sullivan to Advance House army and engage the enemy. The continental divisions that had been recalled earlier had to run back to their positions to the north in order to meet the enemy. Stephen and Stirling marched their men over three miles in less than half an hour. The American defenses were still in chaos when the British advance core came within eyesight of the Americans by this point, they were less than a mile away. General! How could have ordered a charge and scattered the disorganized continentals? Instead, though how ordered his army to rest and have lunch? House that with his officers for half an hour to an hour, they enjoyed tea and talk over their options. Instead of taking advantage of the surprised and disorganized American defenses. How gave them time to organize their lines? This is just another example of general. How taking pause? Just when he is about to deliver the deathblow, and why of his detractors argue that? How had no intention of actually winning this war? Again I don't think how deliberately sabotaged the British 'cause. His men had just marched a grueling seventeen miles and were tired and hungry. Giving them a short rest before charging into battle might help fight better. Further, it's unclear whether how appreciated disorganized the Americans lines were and how much that time would give them to set their defenses. Taking advantage of the short reprieve, the Americans deployed a defensive line along Birmingham. Hill General Stephen commanded the right flank. General. Lord Sterling commanded the center. and. General Sullivan commanded the left flank. Stephen and Stirling got their men into place relatively easily. Sullivan's division had to march through heavily forested and rocky terrain meaning that it took the soldiers longer to get into position. And they could not see the other divisions positions as they were forming. By the time Sullivan had establishes line. He realized that he was too far forward and had left a large gap between his division and Surly Center. Sullivan wrote off to meet with sterling and make sure they were coordinated in their defense. He left his second in command. The French General Prudhomme. In Command of his division. General Deboer did not speak English and did not really command the respect of his subordinates, leading to further command problems. While Sullivan was still away from his division. General Hell launched his attack around four thirty PM. Sterling, and Stevens Divisions stood firm and repelled several assaults on their positions over the next hour and a half of intense fighting. How had left most of his artillery with Knipe housing meaning that he had to primarily use infantry assault to take the position. British creditors and others among House best regiments push back the soldiers from Sullivan's division and threatened the American left flank. A during this fighting general Washington along with General Lafayette arrived on the scene and assess the situation. At the same time house forces were storming Birmingham Hill. General Knipe thousand who had been distracting the Americans all day near Chads. Her, the distinct on fire and understood that how was attacking? With that Knipe housing ordered his division, which was nearly half of the entire. British Hessian Force. To storm across the brandy wine and take the American position. Since Washington had moved most of his defenders to Birmingham Hill. KNIPE housing only had to contend with a smaller force composed of mostly militia. This force under the command of General Anthony Wayne and supported by Generals Maxwell Armstrong. Could not hold off nipe housands assault. Washington realized that the two pronged attack meant that both lines were about to fail. He had held in Reserve General Nathaniel Greene's division to reinforce whichever lie needed it. But even if he deployed green to one of these two lines, the other would almost certainly fall. Instead Washington ordered green to move to a defensive position where he could form a rearguard action for his retreating army. Green Russia's men into position. Again marching about three miles in just over half an hour. As the American divisions defending Birmingham Hill gave way and retreated. House forces advanced. At the same time Wayne's defenders along the brand new Wine Creek also retreated giving knipe thousand control of the battlefield there. As how continued his advance hoping capture the American army? He ran into Greens. Rearguard line, which had been reinforced by many of the soldiers who were retreating from Birmingham Hill. How tempted to roll up the right flank of Greens, Defensive Line as the soldiers put up a solid defense. CASIMIR Pulaski Polish soldier with the continentals, saw this and organized and to American cavalry charge into the British infantry advance. Thus, forcing the British to halt their attack. Polaski had arrived in America a few months earlier. On the day of the battle congress was still debating whether to give him a commission so technically he had no command authority. But at Washington's request, he organized and led this critical. Careful charge anyway. With the surprise, owing strong America Defensive Line, and with dusk, approaching how called off his offensive and allowed the continentals to retreat from the field. With nightfall, Battle of brandy, wine came to an end. With about thirty thousand soldiers engaged on both sides. This would be one of the largest battles of the American revolution. The British reported nearly six hundred casualties, which is probably an undercount. The Americans estimated that they had inflicted over two thousand British casualties, which is probably over count. The true number is probably closer to the British number, but likely a little higher. Especially, hard hit was Ferguson's Regiment and the loyalist regiment of Queen's Rangers. These units had lead knipe thousands column and took the brunt of the American ambushes as the column advanced. Captain Ferguson himself was shot in the arm and amputation for several weeks. His arm never fully recovered. There are no good records of the American casualties, but most estimates are that they were about double that of the British between one hundred thirteen hundred. About a third of those were captured prisoners, although almost all of the captured were also wounded on the feel. Thanks to General Greene's rearguard action almost all the Americans who were able to walk or run where able to escape capture. The Americans did lose quite a few cannons, including several that they had captured from the enemy. In a few months earlier. Perhaps the most significant casualty of the day was that of General Lafayette who took a ball in the leg late in the day? It proved to be a relatively minor wound that would allow him to return to duty rather quickly. After the battle Captain Ferguson reported that he had seen two American officers on the field whom he could've shot from his position with his rifle. However since the officers had their backs turned toward him, he considered the shot to be dishonorable and did not take it. Later from the description and the known position in the battle, Ferguson became convinced that he had had general Washington in his sights, possibly while conferring with Polaski. Even, so he said later, he did not regret his decision not to shoot. Sniping at officers was considered murder by many professional officers. At the time. The highest ranking officer who died over the encounter was not even on the field. On the day before battle, French general to Cordray, who sought to become the continental commander of artillery, jumped on a horse and Philadelphia and rode out to join the continental in the field. As? He crossed the Schuylkill river either on a ferry or a pontoon bridge accounts differ. His horse got spooked and jumped into the river. With, do cordray caught in the horses, stirrups both the Horse and rider drowned. Later his body was recovered and buried in Philadelphia. With the battle editor and general, how General Knipe Howson made camp near the battlefield and rested their army. General, Washington and the continentals spent another sleepless night making their escape from the British army. Despite the loss Washington put the best face on the day reporting to Congress. Despite the day's misfortune, I am pleased to announce that. Most of my men are in good spirits, and still have the courage to fight the enemy another day. Next week I'm going to discuss the continental army's attempt to fight with the enemy another day. IN THE BATTLE OF CLOUDS Hi thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. As always I'd like to thank Trae Nance and George Davis I supporting this podcast on patriotic at the Alexander Hamilton Club level. Everyone who supports this show for as little as two dollars a month helps me to keep the show free for everyone who cannot afford to support it. If you support the show at the standard bearer level or higher, which is ten dollars a month you will also get a cool flag magnet with a different flag each month from the American revolution. Thanks for everyone who listens and especially to all the new listeners who join this week. I've always seen an increase right after independence day I guess the holiday gets people thinking about the American revolution and prompts many to search out this podcast. The week of July. Fifth was no exception I got more downloads in that week. Then I got in the first ten months combined that this podcast. I really appreciate everyone who takes it interest. And especially if you take the time to make it this far into the podcast. For anyone, who's interested I did an interview with Michigan Judge Michael Warren, who's also the CO founder of Patriot week about the ideological origins of the American Revolution! The specific topic of our conversation was was the American revolution fought for liberty. It was an interesting chat and the full interview is now available on the mio. There's a direct link to it on my website at www Amriyev podcasts dot com, so feel free to watch it if that sort of thing interests you. Also I've been posting more online events that other people are hosting and presenting as long as they relate to the American revolution. If you joined by American Revolution podcast group on Facebook, you'll be able to get these posts. I've been debating whether to start an email mailing list for this kind of thing and I may do that at some point, although the anti spam laws make it difficult to do correctly. I have one correction from two weeks ago when I discussed the CJ Fort, Henry! After the first ambush I said that Captain Ogle road out with his company to assist the survivors. But that he and several of his men were killed with the remainder trading back to the fort. In fact, while almost all of Ogle's company was killed in the ambush, the captain was able to take cover and survive the attack eventually making his way back to the fort. Captain Ogle survived the entire war and moved out to what is today in living into his eighties. One of his descendants Jim Angler pointed out my error and for that I thank him. This week I talked about the battle of brandy wine. In addition to being one of the largest battles of the war. It's always held a special place in my heart, because I grew up only a few miles from the battlefield. I could actually see brandy wine. Creek from my high school window. Many military historian slaked to divide the revolutionary war into two eras. Brandy wine was the last major battle of the first era when the continental army was still considered rather amateur. After the coming winter at valley forge with a better trained and men with longer enlistment, having an impact, the continental army. Come to be seen as a more professional army. The battle at brandy wine involved tens of thousands of men and was fought over many miles. The British used a successful flanking maneuver just as they had done a long island a year earlier. Even so Washington had been on look out this time. For just such a move is intelligence was not as good as it should have been. But. He learned enough to leave himself an avenue of escape. Washington had learned that more important than holding a piece of ground was keeping his army intact and being able to come back for another attack another day. To foreign officers greatly improved their reputations at this battle. Both General Lafayette and General Pulaski would grow in the esteem, Congress and the commander. As discuss more next week. It also greatly damaged the reputation of French, General Deboer. Each battle not only gave the continent l'armee more experience. It also informed the commander about which of his top officers could get the job done, which could not. Brandy wine was important for that reason as well. My Book Recommendation This Week Not surprisingly is about the battle of brandy wine. Other. Several good books on the battle, but the one I'm recommending. Today is called. Brandy wine a military history of the battle that lost Philadelphia but saved America September eleventh, Seventeen, seventy, seven by Michael C Harris. The book does a great job laying out events that led up to the seventeen seventy seven campaign. It then goes into the battle itself in great detail. It's over five hundred pages and includes several helpful. Appendices with extra information. The author Michael Harris has worked for the National Park Service. He also served as a guide for the Pennsylvania Historical Museum commission at Brandy Wine Battlefield. So He's devoted much of his professional life to just this one battle. He's also working on another book. That is due out later this year about the battle of Germantown. I was fortunate enough to meet Mr Harris when he did a presentation on brandy wine for the American Revolution Roundtable of South Jersey last year. He clearly knows his stuff and he does a great job in presenting it. So if you want to read more about the battle of brandy wine checkout harasses brandy wine, eight military history of the battle that lost Philadelphia but saved America. My online recommendation this week is another e book on Archive Dot Org. This is an eighteen forty-six book called some account of the British army under the command of general how and of the battle of brandy wine on the memorable September eleventh, seventeen, seventy, seven and the adventures of that day. By Joseph Townsend. The book gives a short summary of the battle, but also provide some interesting local profiles of people who were involved. Another big chunk of the book. includes the original correspondents about the battle. For that reason I found it quite helpful in understanding the battle of brandy wine. As always you can search for it on Archive, dot org, or use the direct link on my website at www dot. Am Ref PODCAST DOT, com. And, of course, link also appears on the blog I. have for this episode at Blog Dot Amera PODCAST DOT COM, Well. That's offer this week I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

army General Washington Washington British army continental army General Sullivan Philadelphia Wine Creek Captain Ferguson Ford General Anthony Wayne Congress American army brandy wine General Deboer Ford General House Maryland General Howe Lord Sterling General Stevens
ARP180 John Paul Jones Raids Whitehaven

American Revolution Podcast

29:07 min | 4 months ago

ARP180 John Paul Jones Raids Whitehaven

"Hello thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty john. Paul jones raids whitehaven francis decision to enter the war with britain drastically. Change the situation for the americans who were already in europe up until that time. The american diplomats and naval officers had to dance around french efforts to keep the peace with britain while at the same time trying to provoke as much trouble as possible. Britain finally declared war on france after france signed the treaty of alliance in early. Seventeen seventy eight. Once they were at war. American worships could unleash unrestricted warfare against britain and use french ports for repairs and safe harbor. Of course the declaration of war also meant that the british fleet would be on high alert and would dominate the waters around britain against any potential enemies. One of those enemies was a young man seeking to make a name for himself in the continental navy by the name of john. Paul jones since jones later becomes affectionally known as the father of the us navy. We should take a moment to understand where he came from john. Paul was born to a scottish family near the border between england and scotland. His family surname was paul. He added jones later for reasons that i will address in a moment. His father was a gardener on a large estate. Although probably a more accurate title today would be landscape architect. He managed the construction and maintenance of large elaborate gardens for a wealthy lord. John paul had no interest in the family business and wanted to become an officer in the british navy. I like the army. British naval commissions were possible for commoners and did not require a family fortune. They did however usually require connections which the paw family did not have instead at age thirteen. Paul sign aboard a merchant vessel. His enthusiasm and an understanding of mathematics encouraged one of the officers to teach him some maritime navigation skills. Ordinarily officers did not want sailors to understand navigation. They might be more likely to mutiny if they did not need officers to get them home again but paul was clearly destined for something more than just a sailor after serving on several ships cruise on trips to the americas. Paul got his big break. When the ship's captain and first mate aboard the john died from yellow fever while returning from the west indies. Paul successfully navigated the ship home and was rewarded by the owners by giving him command of the ship. It was seventeen. Sixty eight and paul was only twenty one years old captain. Paul got a reputation as a strict and festus ships. Captain merchant vessels at the time often resorted to violent force to control their crews. Corporal punishment was common on one voyage to the west indies captain. Paul had cause to have a carpenter's mate by the name of mungo maxwell flogged while the ship was in tobacco. Maxwell filed a complaint against paul for assault and abuse. A local admiralty court held that the beating was reasonable and acquitted. Paul maxwell then left the ship to take another ship back to scotland. Paul also returned to scotland with his cargo. Upon arrival the sheriff met him and arrested him. Maxwell had died on his return voyage. His family believed his. Death was the result of paul's flogging and wanted him arrested for murder. Paul was able to obtain bail and return to tobacco to get a copy of the admiralty. Court's verdict there. He also obtained the testimony of the captain of the ship on which maxwell had died. That captain testified that maxwell had died from a fever and low spirits not from the flogging. Therefore paul eventually got. The charges dismissed the couple years later. Paul found himself back. In the west indies facing another problem. Crew paul's cargo had spoiled and he was unable to pay his crew. Several sailors broke into the ship's store of liquor got drunk and violent and demanded their pay. One of the larger sailors. Came after paul with the club ball grabbed a sword from his cabin and after being backed up by the crew member ran the man through killing him this time paul did not trust the legal system to acquit him. The dead man was a local on small island and had a great many friends upon advice from some of his own friends. Paul abandon the ship and found passage on another ship to virginia. He arrived there on the run and almost broke in seventeen seventy four. He adopted the name. Paul jones in order to avoid anyone looking for a fugitive murderer named john. Paul jones attempted to start a new life in america. His older brother had moved to virginia years earlier but he had died before john's arrival jones also made new connections relying in part on his masonic. Membership has an introduction. He eventually settled in philadelphia. When war broke out. In seventeen seventy five jones probably could have gotten a lucrative position running a privateer vessel but instead he wanted a commission in the continental navy thanks to the patronage of virginia delegate richard henry lee. The marine committee offered jones. The command of the providence of worship in the new fleet jones rejected the offer out of concern that he was inexperienced with type of sale that the ship used he later said that he regretted that refusal instead. Jones took an assignment as a lieutenant aboard the larger ship the alfred which was commodore hopkins's flagship. The alfred was a relatively new ship. Built as a merchant ship in seventeen seventy four. Its owner robert morris who served on the marine committee so ship to the navy. In seventeen seventy five captain doubly salt and staw. The alfred salt install had been an experienced merchant captain and he was also the brother in law of silence teen as lieutenant. Jones sailed the alfred to the bahamas for the raid that i discussed back in episode eighty four. I mentioned in that episode that on the return trip the fleet encountered a british worship. The glasgow but was unable to capture it. Commodore hopkins took great criticism for that failure and one of his critics was john. Paul jones although he tried to be respectful to his commander jones made clear that the leadership during the mission was definitely lacking. He wrote to a member of the marine committee in congress about both commodore hopkins and captain salt and stall following that raid. Congress commissioned several more ships after the captain of the providence moved to a larger ship. Congress once again offered command of the providence to jones. This time he accepted with his own command. Captain jones spent the summer. Seventeen seventy six around long island. New york transporting soldiers and escorting merchant ships as everyone waited the british fleet which prepared to invade new york. That fall later. Jones sale down to the west indies capturing several british merchant ships and dodging them much larger british worships in the fall he sailed northward around nova scotia to avoid the hurricane season to the south and there he captured several prizes. Unlike your average privateer though jones was interested in more than just prizes he rated the fishing village of canseco destroying fishery and taking on additional sailors. He also captured sixteen fishing ships. Six of which he was able to sail back to new england jones received word that more than one hundred american prisoners were being used as slave labor in the coal pits on cape breton. He tried to organize a fleet to rescue them in pursuit of this he was given charge of the alfred and hamden along with his own ship. The providence however he couldn't find enough crew to sail all three ships. Initially he put crew aboard the larger and sailed off along with the hampton leaving the providence behind but after the captain of the hampton crashed his ships on some rocks. The ship returned to leave the hampton inn for repairs and they all departed again. This time on the alfred and the providence. As jones sailed north in november he encountered an american privateer vessel called the eagle. A search of the ship turned up. Two deserters from the continental navy jones took the two men as as twenty others as punishment for hiding the deserters later they captured a valuable british transport ship by this time though it was mid november and sailing off the coast of canada was getting pretty miserable in those wooden unheeded ships one night the providence simply turned around and sailed for home leaving jones on the alfred on his own jones preston. Although the crew of the alfred was getting more mutinous each day the alfred captured three more ships carrying coal for the british and learned that the prisoners at cape breton were already gone. Joan sent the coal ships to new england and rated can't so once again to destroy an oil warehouse there as they were returning to new england the alfred and her price ships encountered another british worship since it was almost dark. Jones put a lantern on the alfred and sent the prize ships off in another direction as he hoped. The british followed his ship at allowed the prizes to escape jones then random british who gave up the after another day when jones finally returned to boston in late september. He had another greeting. The sheriff had a complaint for his arrest. The owner of the eagle had launched a complaint for the sailors that he had kidnapped at sea. Jones drew his sword on the sheriff and made clear that he would not be arrested. He did however agree to remain in town. While they're jones filed a countersuit against the owner for inducing sailors to desert the navy eventually the courts throughout both lawsuits. In the meantime though jones had a more important fight in october congress had issued a seniority list of naval captains jones was number eighteen of twenty four on the list behind many men that he regarded as inferiors. Jones did not learn about the list until january. Seventeen seventy seven jones had taken command of the providence in may seventeen seventy six but only as acting captain when he took command of the alfred august. The marine committee had written on the back of his commission that he had been made captain in august. While in boston he met with john hancock and requested his commission be rewritten to reflect that he had become captain in may when he took command of the providence over when he got his commission back the day before he was about to leave boston he discovered that his commission date was listed as october tenth. It was based on that date that congress drew up it seniority list. Jones was understandably upset. But he really couldn't do anything about it. Command of the alfred went to a more senior. Captain and jones spent several months in boston without any ship at all there. He got involved with one of the local masonic lodges and struck up a friendship with phillis wheatley. The former slave who had become a well known poet. Jones fancied himself a poet as well and the two enjoyed an exchange of poetry. It's unclear if they had a romantic relationship. Although some have speculated that there was in may seventeen seventy seven. Congress ordered jones to make his way to france. they're the american commissioners had contracted to build several larger worships and he would finally be given a respectable command however a disagreement with the captain who was supposed to take him to france delay jones's departure finally in june congress granted jones command of the twenty gun ship ranger and he used that to sail to france however when he arrived in portsmouth in july he found that his ship had been stripped by a more senior navy. Captain jones had waste more time trying to refit the ranger which proved difficult given the lack of supplies available in new england. It wasn't until november that the ranger finally made its way out to sea as it crossed the atlantic. It discovered a merchant fleet. The men sailed toward the ships hoping for some prizes only to discover that the fleet was under the protection of the seventy four gun. Invincible jones wisely pretended to just be part of the fleet until dark and then quietly slipped away without a fight. Finally in early december jones reached france there. He found more frustration. The british had threatened in amsterdam schiphol. Ter- who was building the ship that was to become jones's command that the builder would suffer consequences if it turned over the ship to the americans so instead france purchased the ship jones made his way to paris and then per se awaiting a command while there he befriended edward bancroft who served as a secretary to the american commissioners. You may also recall from other episodes at bancroft was a british spy over that as jones waited for a larger ship. He had the ranger re outfitted with better rigging and had other improvements made in april. Seventeen seventy eight. The rangers set sail by this time. France and britain war and there was no longer the need to play any diplomatic games to satisfy french officials. Jones plan to sail up the channel between ireland looking to cause as much fear and chaos as he could unlike earlier raids though. John's was not just after shipping. He wanted to conduct raids on the british mainland as well. During his months in france jones had learned about the many american sailors who were being held prisoner in britain most of them were from captured privateer ships and were being held as criminals on charges of piracy friend was not executing any of them mostly out of fear that the americans would retaliate with their prisoners but the men were being held in miserable condition. Further the navy desperately needed more sailors. Jones concocted a plan to land near his childhood home on the scottish border. His first goal was to destroy the ships. they're mostly smaller fishing vessels next he would sail across the inlet and kidnapped the local layered in scotland as a peer. The british would likely trade. Many american sailors for the return of the scottish laird before he can do any of this. Though jones had to convince his own crew most of his men wanted to go after prizes so they would get a share of the booty kidnapping and destruction brought no prophet. Even jones's own first mate. Lieutenant simpson was not happy about the plan. the original plan that had when the ranger sailed from america was the jones would take command of the larger worship in france and that simpson would become captain of the ranger so when that large ship did not materialize. Jones remained in command of the ranger and simpson remained first mate. The new england officers and crew were not happy with the scottish captain who they saw as more interested in settling old scores in his hometown. Then in seizing prizes. After only a few days at sea jones's crew mutinied an attempted to take over the ship. Jones had received advanced tip from a loyal member of the crew and the tipster. Let him know that while the officers did not participate in the mutiny. They agreed to make themselves scarce while it happened. When the attack came jones was armed with a sword and pistol and was able to force the mutineers to back off. He did not try to lock up or punish anyone for the incident but tried to put it behind him and continue on with the mission before jones reached whitehaven. He got word from a local fishermen that the hms drake was nearby just across the sea. Although the drake was a larger ship with more guns than the ranger jones hope to sail up next to it at night board her and take the crew by surprise. The ranger sailed into the port that night jones gave the order to drop anchor right next to the ship so they could board the man responsible to drop the anchor to not do so until the ships were too far apart to board by the time they turned around to try again. The winds had shifted and dawn was approaching. They opted to sail out to sea and escape rather than be discovered a few days later the ranger reached whitehaven. Again under the cover of darkness the crew landed in too long boats with the intention of burning the two hundred four hundred ships and boats that were in the harbor. Landing party surprised the guards of the fort and spike the cannons. The landing had taken longer than expected and the lanterns. They plan to use to start the fires. On the boats had run out of fuel the crew then broke into a tavern to find more fuel. Instead the sailors opt to remain in the tavern and get drunk by the time they returned. It was almost done as the crew began to set a larger ship. Full of coal on fire and alarm rang out. In the village one of jones's crew was an irishman who had signed up pretty much for the sole purpose of getting home deciding that whitehaven was close enough. The man slipped away from the landing party and started banging on doors to alert locals to the burning ships in the harbor with the locals turning out the crew had to jump back in their long boats and robak to the ranger once a board. The rangers sailed across the firth for the final stop. In jones's plan to kidnap the earl of selkirk jones went ashore with his crew pretending to be a british press gang jones interrogated one of the locals. It turned out to his disappointment. That the earl was not at home. Jones at that point wanted to return to his ship but his crew had other plans the crew which had still captured nothing of value on the voyage insisted on going to loot the earls home jones in his later recollections said he did not want to allow thinking it would harm his reputation at the same time he thought the crew might kill him and go luther home anyway if he completely refused so instead he permitted the man to go the home without him and demand that they turn over the family silver. And that's what the men did. The lady selkirk who was home at the time and pregnant complied with their demands and turned over the silver. Everyone returned to the ship and sail away necks. Jones encountered the british worship drake again. This time though they were in open sea and the british were ready for them. The british had two hundred men aboard ship and hope to board the ranger and capture. The ship and crew jones was able to keep them at a distance as the two ships exchanged fire. The british captain was killed in this exchange and the ship eventually struck her colors. So jones took the largest ship as a prize. He gave command of the drake to lieutenant simpson as they went in search of other ships in the area almost as soon as he got aboard though simpson had no interest in looking for other ships and instead sailed away for france leaving the ranger on its own jones sailed after the drake. Eventually catching up with it. Only when the two ships had returned to france jones handled tenant simpson thrown in jail and brought up on charges of insubordination. Simpson reached out to john. Adams who by this time was in france as a member of the american delegation adams supported. His fellow new englander got simpson released and the charges dismissed. Adams's account of the event was that jones had simpson arrested so that he could take all the glory for the mission despite the failure to burn the fleet at whitehaven and the failure to capture the earl of selkirk patriots celebrated the mission as a success for the capture of the british warship. The drake well. At least the french and franklin celebrated the event the other american delegates arthur lee and john adams mostly gave jones a hard time over the treatment of his officers. Ed for spending too much money on the crew. They turned over the ranger to the command of captain simpson and jones. Once again found himself in france awaiting the command of a new ship it would be almost another year before jones received a new ship to command. So we'll have to pick up jones's exploits in a future episode. After he receives a new ship. In the meantime next week we return to upstate. New york to talk about the west point. Hi thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show. My thanks is always to alexander hamilton club level supporters on patriotic. Trae nance and george davis thanks also to david staple who made a one time contribution via pay pal. It also occurred to me that while i give a shout out to supporters who make a substantial donation to the show. Many of you have been giving much smaller amounts for a long time. Eric larsen deborah wallison. Alison scott and desmond. Johnson are among my longest supporters on patriot. And i greatly appreciate your continued support as well this week. I introduced john. Paul jones while he was not the first continental navy officer to threaten the british in their home waters. He did manage to step up the pressure by attacking the british mainland. The threat from american raiders. Not only fell on ships at sea but now also on seacoast towns which had reason to worry as well word of jones's raid created even further panic among many englishmen for their security. The british navy even had to deploy a fleet to the irish sea in order to help calm local fears of course jones's most famous exploits would come. Later and we'll be the topic of future episodes. I did mention in this episode. The home invasion on the earl of selkirk jones was ashamed of the theft of selkirk silver. Shortly after his return to france he wrote a letter to lady selkirk apologizing for the attack he also promised to buy back the silver and return it to her. Lord selkirk wrote an response telling them to keep the silver jones had threatened his pregnant wife and now seem to want to be pen pals selkirk that he very much down to the king. George would have traded american prisoners for a minor scottish lord who had generally been friendly to the liberties of america. The two men traded a few more letters over the next few years. It which lord selkirk calm down a little bit and express some appreciation that the rate had been relatively disciplined and appreciated jones's efforts to return his silver jones eventually did return the selkirk silver years. Later after the war had ended following jones's returned to france and the loss of his ship jones spent considerable time in france. He would spend several months of that time planning attacks against britain with marquee. Lafayette young generals returned to france from america. This would have been a much larger raid on britain than the rate on whitehaven. Their plan so ever got scuttled. After france plant. In even larger fullscale invasion of britain. France did not want a smaller attack. That might cause britain to strengthen its coastal defences while france was planning its full-fledged invasion of course france scuttled that larger invasion as well so nothing ever came of any of it. Jones would eventually get command of the ship. The bon homme. Richard which he used in his most famous naval action later in the war. And of course we'll be a topic of a future episode jones's later life spins out of control after the. Us shuts down. Its navy and jones goes back to europe looking for work there. There is a disturbing event later in his life where jones is accused of raping a twelve year old girl. It's sometimes hard to deal with the character flaws of men who contributed so much to the founding of the country. I think we need to be aware of both the good. And the bad. Celebrate the good while acknowledging the bad. If you want to read more about john paul jones. My book recommendation is one of several biographies about the men. This one is called john. Paul jones hero father of the american navy by evan thomas. The book's been around a while I published in two thousand and three. It's just over three hundred pages not counting the notes and index and it gives a pretty good detail about jones's life the author. Evan thomas is probably best known for being editor of newsweek magazine for many years as well as his appearances as a tv commentator he's written a great many books most of which had to do with more recent topics or people jones's fame received a boost in the early twentieth century when the us moved his body from its burial place in france to a new tomb built for him at the naval academy in annapolis maryland. Capitalizing on this fame. There are a great many twentieth century biographies about demand which you can find on archive dot org. However for my online recommendation. I went to his original members. Near the end of his life jones published a set of personal memoirs that became a two volume book about his life of course like all memoirs this is rather one-sided and self serving account of his life but it does provide an interesting insight into the man. I've included links to both volumes which are available on archive dot org under the tidal memoirs of rear admiral. Paul jones. you can search. Were there yourself or use the direct link that i've provided on my blog or website go to www dot m. rev podcast dot com for more details. Well that's offered this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

jones marine committee Paul Paul jones Jones france paul britain john continental navy west indies commodore hopkins providence Captain jones new england scotland whitehaven francis navy Captain merchant mungo maxwell
ARP194 Battle of Ushant

American Revolution Podcast

32:39 min | 3 weeks ago

ARP194 Battle of Ushant

"Hey i want to remind you. Limited time deal by tyson. France who runs the site liberty and co. He's got a great t shirt preorder sale which ends this week. Libyan coasts preorder sale. Lets you tell him exactly what shirts you want ahead of his print order. This means less waste for him and more savings for you to take advantage of this deal. You must place your order in march. He's got eight brand new shirt. Custom designed the stamp tax protest shirt. Uniter die shirt one for the signers one for we. The people Sons of liberty shirt and appeal to heaven flag shirt. The famous take notice recruiting poster shirt and one for john hancock shipping and these are high quality shirts which are both designed and printed in america. And there's also free shipping as a final push before the sale date which ends on march thirty first. Tyson has added an additional coupon code. That will work on the sale. It lets you take an extra ten percents off if you type in extra ten. That's e x t r a one zero as the coupon code. When you check out the more shirts you buy the less you pay per shirt so order all eight and save big. I've already ordered mine. The catch is that you have to order by the end of march after he places print order. You'll be stuck paying full retail price so preorder shirts today go to liberty and dot co for more details. Hello and thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one ninety four. The battle of ood sean. After britain and france went to war in the spring of seventeen seventy eight america became a sideshow to the main event. Britain and france had been traditional enemies for centuries part of it was the whole catholic protestant rift that had divided europe part of it was conflicting claims over each other countries. George the third still held the title of king of france a claim that dated back more than four hundred years. Although the channel kept the two kingdom separated there was a continuing rivalry between the two countries. That simply would not end in the prior decades. Most of the fighting had been over colonies around the world. Britain and france traded colonies in wars back and forth. North america was only one pawn in that larger game of chess in the hundred years prior to this war. Britain and france had faced off in at least five major wars which totaled thirty. Nine years of fighting these were a continuation of centuries more fighting between these two kingdoms. During the seven years war. British navy had dominated the french at see. This was a big reason. Why france lost north america in the intervening years france for on rebuilding her navy to compete with the british france. Which had three times. The population of britain thought that britain could fall if france could crush its navy. The first major naval engagement took place in the english channel. The fight took place about one hundred miles west of the island of who shot. The battle gets his name from the island because well calling it a battle in the middle of the ocean. Just doesn't have the same ring to it. The two fleets pretty evenly divided each having about thirty ships of the line. Plus some smaller vessels. The battle was not particularly decisive. But it does give me an opportunity to talk about the two navies and the role. They played in britain and france to help with that background. I want to talk more about the to fleet commanders. Who fought the battle of shot admiral. Augustus keppel and admiral louis. Qa the comte dough va in seventeen. Seventy eight the fifty eight year old. Admiral keppel was a highly experienced officer with over four decades at sea with the british navy. His grandfather had emigrated to britain from the netherlands. As a top aide to william of orange. When william and mary took the throne and britain capital continued his service to the new king and received an appointment as the first earl of albermarle. The second earl of albemarle. Admiral keppel's father continued to serve the crown as a british diplomat and was a friend of caitlin the second the euro commanded british forces at columbine putting down the jacobite rebellion in scotland after colliding as a military commander in scotland putting the area under tight military control effectively destroying the highlander leadership. That had ruled scotland for so many centuries. He also served as governor of virginia although he never bothered to actually visit the colony. The earl married lady. Anne lennox who would become admiral keppel mother. She was the daughter of the first earl of richmond. Who wasn't turn the illegitimate son of king charles. The second so despite the family only having arrived in britain two generations earlier keppel was tied to some of the most important families in britain keppel however would not inherit his father's title. That would go to his older brother. George keppel who fought in the seven years war and eventually became a general. His brother would die relatively young but not before bearing a son william who would take the family title. Augustus keppel went to see in seventeen thirty five when he was only nine. Ten years old he served on a variety of ships as he grew to adulthood is early adventures as an ensign included service in the mediterranean under commodore. George clinton the father of future general sir henry clinton. He also participated in a cruise around the world during which he became an acting. Lieutenant at age sixteen just over two years later as the war of austrian succession began couple at age. Nineteen became captain of his first ship. Capital continued to do well as a commander and by the end of the war. He was a commodore of his own. Small fleet in seventeen fifty. Four keppel served briefly as commander in chief of north america and had the responsibility of delivering major general. Edward braddock with his army to virginia where they would press british claims in the ohio valley. Around the same time. Keppel's father died living his brother george to the house of lords captain keppel took the family seat in the house of commons. But as the seven years war began keppel return to the fleet in his second war. Keppel once again performed with distinction leading the light of battle against the french along with captain richard. How at the battle of kevin bay in seventeen fifty nine later. He would command the jamaica station with a fleet of ships and would oversee the return of cuba to the spanish at the end of the war. Following the end of the war capital return to london where he received appointments as lord of the king's bedchamber and also as a lord of the admiralty. He retained his seat in parliament. He speak much unless the issue involved naval matters keppel. Ted lineup politically. However with the whigs who oppose the administration's policies in north america is political views resulted in him losing most of his political appointments and finding himself without any naval command when the american revolution began in january of seventeen. Seventy eight with war with france eminent. The crown once again needed his skills as a naval commander. He received appointment as admiral and took command of a fleet at portsmouth there. He had to rush to repair ships and assemble a crew to face the new french threat. His fleet put out to sea in search of french. Fleets the fleet that he would find was commanded by louis gateway they comp day or view the cop they reveal came from a noble. French family is father served as governor of french guiana which is where he grew up at the time. The south american outpost was tiny with only a few hundred colonists and a few thousand slaves. It changed hands several times between the french. The british and the dutch over the course of its history as a young teenager. Dear ville join the militia at age eighteen. He opted to join the navy and go to see the young officers served with distinction in the war of austrian succession and visited various parts of the french empire including the antilles and canada. By the beginning of the seven years war. He had captain several ships and had commanded several small fleets. Because deauville did not have family or other close connections at sei is move up. The ranks in the navy was rather slow even so he married the daughter of his fleet commander and began to move up in rank in seventeen fifty seven. His fleet traveled to lewisburg to help and the british siege there. Despite the weaknesses of the french navy in the seven years war torvill came out with his reputation intact. He became a commander in the order of saint louis and had become a key leader francis naval elite. He was by this time though getting up. In years and seventeen seventy eight dorville was sixty eight years old but commanded a fleet of ships protecting the french coast on july eighth seventeen. Seventy eight feis admiral. The comte de ville left brest on the coast of france is fleet of thirty. Two ships of the line and nine frigates had sailed into the atlantic in hopes of disrupting trade between britain and its colonies. At the same time. British admiral keppel was tasked with finding and destroying the french fleet in order to keep. Britain's trade routes open keppel originally left portsmouth in june with a handful of ships in search the enemy. While it c- he was able to stop a ship that told him that. The french had a fleet of thirty two ships of the line at brest. That was more than double what keppel expected to find so he turned around and went back to portsmouth looking for reinforcements. A britain at this time had extended its navy with all the fighting going on around the world or sandwich tried to maintain a calm demeanor and had assured parliament that they had dozens of ships in line. Just ready to go capital found. The reality was that there were only six ships. Ready for service when he took command at portsmouth in may when he set out again on july ninth the day after the royal had set sail keppel had collected a fleet of twenty four ships of the line. A few days later six more ships joined his fleet already at sea after about two weeks at sea the two fleets caught sight of each other about a hundred miles west of shot. The french had expected to find a much smaller fleet so even though the two fleets were about equal in size. The french began evasive. Maneuvers two of the french ships managed to sail right back to brest before the french got in between the fleet and the french coast for the next few days both fleets sailed southwest with the french tried to keep the british at a distance on the morning of july twenty seventh the winds shifted and the fleets were only a few miles apart. British second in command. Admiral john campbell ordered a contingent of the fleet that was under the command of the third in command. Admiral sir hugh palliser to sail toured the french fleet admiral palliser who was also lord of the admiralty had not been given notice to these orders and took offence when he found out that another admiral had ordered part of his fleet into battle ships on both sides had trouble getting into position. Soon shifting winds and fog that limited visibility made the lines a complete mess for those unfamiliar. A ship of the line gets its name from the fact that traditional naval formation at the time was the form the ships up in a line one after another and the two lines of enemy ships would pass by each other as they sailed past the gutters wood fire broadsides from the side of the ship that was facing the enemy. The point of sailing in a line was to inflict maximum repeated damage in firepower on the enemy ship. As each ship in the line sale past usually the goal was to get the site of your ship with all of its canons pointing at the enemy ship. While the enemy ship was out of position so that they could not easily fire back to do all this. Good formations were absolutely critical to success. You also wanted to try to stay up win to the enemy so that you could more easily get into formation faster than the enemy could so as i said on this day the formation for both sides were a complete mess by the time the fog cleared enough for them to see the enemy the two fleets were practically on top of each other Confused firefight raged for about two hours. Palacios ships took the brunt of the french fire. Well keppel's flagship. The victory went after the french. Flagship as the fleet's jockeyed for position d'urville ordered an attack on the five most damaged british ships the french captains however were slow to respond and the british realize what they were trying to do. Capital repositioned his ships to protect the damage ships and continue the battle later in the battle. Keppel individually signaled the ships under palaces command and ordered them to join his lines thus once again cutting palliser out of the chain of command. Eventually darkness fell couple. Spent the night working on repairs and keeping an eye on the french fleet nearby at dawn. The following day the british realized that the lights from the french ships came from only three ships. The rest of the french fleet had sailed away that night and were making their way into brest capital. Figured he could at least capture. The three damaged ships left behind but he discovered those strips were in relatively good condition and that they were three of the fastest friendships and they quickly escaped the pursuing british in terms of damaged. The french seemed to come out of the fight. A little bit better. Fighting from the previous day had resulted in about four hundred british dead and eight hundred wounded. No ships had been sunk but most of them had to limp back to portsmouth for repairs. The french reported one hundred twenty six killed and just over four hundred wounded. Their ships also managed to return to port for repairs so by most accounts. The battle was pretty much considered a draw. Following the return of the french fleet to breast doraville permitted one of his officers. The duke day chartreux to deliver the news of the battle to paris and for side. The duke was a distant cousin of the king. He arrived early in the morning and requested. The king be awoken so that he could announce the victory. Great celebration of the french victory at sea swept across paris. A few days later when dorville official reports arrived french officials not only learned that the battle was at best indecisive but that doraville was critical of the dukedom chartreuse failure to obey orders to engage the enemy while his relation to the king protected him from court martial. The event effectively ended chartreuse military career. The two french captains from the fleet who had fled back to brest days before the rest of the fleet fought the battle fe state court of inquiry captain rocha court came from a powerful french family and was cleared of all charges. Captain tremolo was admonished but continued to serve. He would actually go onto commanding much larger ship later in the war but would be killed in battle if the reaction to the battle in france was confused. Mess the reaction to the battle in london was a much much. Larger confused mess. Capital was unhappy with the performance of palliser. But since admiral palliser was lord of the admiralty and a favourite of lord sandwich capital decided to be political about the matter and praised palliser his reports to the admiralty he thought that a critical report would only divide the ranks at a time when everyone should be united in the war effort. If he'd kept big mouth shut he probably would have ended the matter there and everyone would have been happy but keppel spent some time badmouthing palaces. Performance to his wig friends london in unofficial conversations capital and palliser were both members of parliament. Who sat on opposing political factions. Although they had been on pretty good terms personally up until this time in october palace heard the rumors circulating that keppel was critical of palacios performance during the battle and wig newspaper ad published articles. Which vaguely accused palliser of cowardice or intentionally sabotaging the battle for political reasons palliser confronted keppel and demanded that he sign a document praising his contact at who shot couple of course refused in response palace published his own version of events in tori newspapers. His account stated that keppel's actions in the battle were worthy of censure. The dispute between the two officers blew up in parliament. Creating greater divisions between the political factions. The earl of bristol in the house of lords called on the earl of sandwich to conduct an inquiry into the charges sandwich still hoped the whole thing would blow over. He argued that the shot was pretty much a british victory and that the leaders should not be squabbling with each other. He also got capital to keep his mouth. Shut saying no more than that. He was content with the course and result of the battle. Although he did say that he would never serve pallister again. Palliser would not let the matter go. He said that he had nothing to fear from a court of inquiry and that he had obeyed. Olive keppel's commands that day. That was just too much for capital. Who then made clear that pellicer had refused to respond to his flag to join the fleet after it had been flying for five hours with that palace got approval from sandwich to bring charges against capital. The charges accused capital of failing to marshall is fleet fighting in an un officer like matter making scandalous haste in quitting making sail away from the enemy and giving them an opportunity to rally and presenting. The appearance of a flight disgraceful to the british flag at least charges were reminiscent of charges. Brought twenty years earlier against admiral. John bing in that instance admiral being had fought a half-hearted battle against the french at minorca before retreating back to granada keppel as a younger officer had sat on a court martial that found admiral being guilty and sent him to the firing squad since being had been a tory and keppel was a whig some so this as a time potentially for some political pay back so admiral keppel was literally fighting for his life. Most whigs saw the trial as despicable political attack. Some naval officers took leave and refuse to fight while the trump were seated in january. Seventeen seventy nine. The navy conducted its inquiry against admiral. Keppel most of the ship captains who participated in the battle served as witnesses at trial and mostly backed keppel. The court exonerated kapil and generally pointed the finger at palliser for his failures. On that day the acquittal of couple brought celebrations in the streets of portsmouth in london the celebrations violent as a mob used it to highlight their unhappiness with the ministry. A mob broke the windows at lord. North's residents they attacked other tory homes and specifically broke into palacios house at paul mall neighborhood. Removing his furniture to start a bonfire in st james's square. They also burn pallister in effigy at tower hill and tore down the gates of the admiralty all over england polyps painted portraits of admiral keppel on their signs as a symbol of opposition to government policy and support of the whigs sandwich eventually persuaded pallister to resign his government offices and his seat in parliament. But by this time the whigs were smelling blood they condemn the admiralty for failing to provide keppel with proper intelligence and support before the battle. Then unfairly blaming him for a less than complete victory the house. Also narrowly voted down a motion to kick palliser out of the navy. The king even suggested that lord north might consider replacing sandwich with admiral. How who had recently returned from america north demured and stood by his first lord of the admiralty in april. Seventeen seventy nine though with pressure still blowing. The navy bowed to pressure and court martial palliser. Wigs accused the admiralty stacking the deck in this court martial in favor of pal sir by sending out to see all the officers who were against pallister and putting only his friends on the court martial keppel though also just really want this matter to go away at this point. He refused to prosecute the case against palace her and only appeared as a reluctant witness. The court martial became more of a court of inquiry that in the end exonerated palliser with a li few minor errors in judgment. The couple of fair revealed growing political cracks in the british government. That only got worse over time. It also created divisions among naval officers. That left scars for a generation for a relatively indeterminate naval battle. That did not sink a single ship. The battle of who shot would have political ramifications. That would last for years next week. We're going to turn to another court martial. His win in america as charles lee must answer for his behavior at the battle of monmouth. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast my thanks to train. Ans- george davis lewis white and robert hall for support of this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriotic. Now i mentioned these four names each week and it's almost become a matter of routine but these guys have stepped up to support this podcast. At the highest level on patron they've become critical to cover a bunch of my costs. And while i often say that even a contribution of a few dollars a month helps these large. Contributors are a huge help to me. And this podcast. Even though i thanked them each week i did want to stress. How much their support matters. And how much i appreciate it. Also thanks to. Mike hager for his support at the robert morris circle patriot on the robert. Mora circle is also for high donors. It's the second highest level on patriotic. When i first set up a patriot account. I never dreamed that people will be this generous to support my podcasts at these levels and i really didn't even bother to set up these levels until much later but their support has allowed me to avoid putting annoying commercials into my podcast something. I hope everyone appreciates. I also wanna thank edward diaz who subscribed on subscribe star. I set up. Subscribe star as a alternative for patron because some contributors expressed a distaste for some of patriots policies. So subscribe star is an option. If you don't like patriot you get exactly the same benefits as you would. If you subscribed on patriotic including the flag magnets that i send out each month for donations of ten dollars or more i will note. That subscribe star does not automatically collect a payment each month without your specific approval. So this is good for you if you don't like automatic payments although i admit it's not great for me since most of my subscribe star subscribers and paying for a month or two before giving up patriotic also let's keep a slightly larger percentage of each donation so in my mind i prefer patriot. But of course you're welcome to contribute however you like also of course arm set up to receive one time gifts via pay pal and then mo a few others but those two of the most popular and you can find the details if you wanna do that on my website or my blog. I appreciate everyone who helps get the word out by leaving five star reviews or mentioning the american revolution. Podcast on social media. Although the podcast has already exceeded my wildest expectations. I still kind of hope. It will continue to grow more. And more of the most successful podcasts out there have corporate sponsorships or are in networks indie podcasts. Like this one are under real pressure as we fight for an audience. But i really hope there remains a place. Four podcasts. like this one. This week i covered a naval battle between the british and french. Fleets that did not involve the americans at all. Although my podcast has an obvious american centric viewpoint these battles had a big impact on the war overall. This battle also had a lasting impact on both france and britain. One of the french officers. I mentioned almost impasse. Ing would go on to bigger things the duked. Hr trump who's deba career ended after. His shot went on to become a radical jakobsen during the french revolution. He would inherit his father's title of the duke day or lean. But when it became unfashionable to use such titles in revolutionary france. He took up the name. Philip egalitarian. if you're familiar with the french revolution you've probably heard the name. Felipe gallo tei before he became a leading advocate for the principles of the revolution and was a strong advocate for the rights of the poor. All this unfortunately was not enough to save him when his son. Who was a french. General plotted visit with australian leaders. Philippe gillete condemned his son on the floor of the national assembly but having a trade. Her son was still enough to see him. Arrested tried and sent to the guillotine during the reign of terror in seventeen ninety three. His son who had tried to speak with the austrians was louis philippe and he escaped into exile after the restoration. He would go on to become king. Louis philippe of the french in eighteen thirty. In britain the palace keppel dispute would impact the course of royal navy for generations. Palliser win reelection to parliament for a few years but he had no naval command instead he received a financially lucrative appointment as governor of greenwich hospital. Despite the lack of any naval command nearly a decade later is friends and government rewarded him with a promotion to full. Admiral keppel also left active duty. Shortly after the affair ended. He retained his seat in parliament. And after the north ministry fell became first lord of the admiralty a viscount and a member of the privy council. All these offices were short. Lived as he resigned them. A few months later objecting to the peace treaty that recognized american independence. He died less three years later. Admiral keppel pub signs remained all over the country for well into the twentieth century. And a few even to this day. Few people remember that the origin of these signs was opposition to british policy in america. If you wanna read more about the british navy britain during the revolution well. There's a book for that. This week's book recommendation is the royal navy in european waters during the american revolutionary war by david cigarette as you might surmise from the book title. The book focuses on the royal navy in europe during the american revolution. There's a whole chapter on the couple of fair but it also looks at later events as british and french naval fighting heats up over the course of the war. It's not a very long book about one. Hundred and seventy pages not counting notes and index but it makes the point that british missteps in its use in the navy so the seeds of failure in the revolution unlike earlier. Wars britain could not very well control the flow of arms supplies and even european soldiers from the european continent to america. The author david threat is the son of historian. Harold et who you may know from his work editing. The alexander hamilton papers. David's focus has been more on the british navy over a series of various books. David surat published this book in nineteen ninety eight while he was still a professor at queens college in new york. Sadly professor sara died in two thousand. Four as i said it's a short and succinct book but gives good coverage to this important but overlooked aspect of the revolutionary war. If you don't wanna buy it there's also a borrow for the book on archive dot org again. The title is the royal navy in european waters during the american revolution. My online recommendation. This week is an online book that was published in seventeen seventy nine called the trial of the augustus capital. This is one of those current event books that was rushed out right after the trial to an interested public. The publisher is one of my favorite english radicals of the time. John wilkes because it was published at the time it relies on primary sources an actual witnesses to the events. If you are interested in this topic you'll want to check out this one. You can search for honorable. Augustus keppel on archive dot org. Or you can use the direct link on my website at www dot amr. Podcast dot com. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

keppel france britain Admiral keppel navy Augustus keppel portsmouth admiral keppel palliser Keppel brest Britain royal navy admiral palliser pallister liberty and co ood sean north america scotland
ARP196 Rhode Island Campaign

American Revolution Podcast

30:15 min | Last week

ARP196 Rhode Island Campaign

"Hello thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one ninety-six the rhode island campaign by late summer. Seventeen seventy eight. The british forces in north america were mostly restricted to their major garrisons around new york city and quebec. The next largest force in north america was in and around newport rhode island back in seventeen seventy six. When general how had ordered his second in command general clinton to capture newport clinton had been upset because it removed him from the primary campaign in new jersey against washington's retreating continentals after capturing aquidneck island clinton went back to london to resign his commission. The king refused to accept his resignation and sent him back to new york city. The british garrison in newport then came under the command of general richard prescott. The continentals manage to kidnap. The general has discussed in episode one forty seven and the british sent general robert piggott to take his command in rhode island because the soldiers were needed elsewhere rhode island never really got enough soldiers to go on the offensive in new england instead they fortified equipment island and kept the waters around it as a port for the navy. Occasionally the americans in the surrounding areas would run minor raids against the island but this was really just harassment than the mission to kidnap general prescott. There was not really a whole lot. They could do actually retaking quick island without being able to control the waters around the island was just not possible in the spring of seventeen. Seventy eight general piggott if you british raids against the mainland which i described back in episode one eighty five but again those were day raids designed as a quick search and destroy mission to be over before the enemy could respond enforce these minor raids aside. The occupation was pretty much a standoff for nearly two years with the british in control of equipment island and the patriots controlling the surrounding mainland general pickett commanded between two and three thousand british regulars in henson's along with a handful of loyalist militia thrown in july. Just before the french fleet reached new york general clinton now. Commander forces in north america and operating out of new york sent an additional two thousand regulars to newport under the command of general richard prescott. Although prescott was returning to his old command the more senior general piggott remained in overall command at newport. A short time later clinton dispatched another two regiments passions. All of these reinforcements travelled by sea and arrived troop transports rounding out pits. Command were general francis smith and heche general friedrich wilhelm von loss berg with all these reinforcements general gut had close to six thousand soldiers under his command in defensive equipment island and the british navy also still had at least a dozen smaller worships in the waters around quid nick. In order to protect against any american assault on the island from the mainland the americans had been frustrated with this british outpost in new england but the continental navy was no match for the burnish. Gus leading to this nearly two year standoff. Once the french navy under admiral d'estaing was able to threaten the british navy. Washington finally saw a chance to remove the british from newport a year earlier. Washington had sent general joseph spencer of connecticut to challenge the british presence in rhode island spencer had called up new england militia for an attack on equipment island but then cancelled the attack at the last minute fearing that he had lost the element of surprise. The continental congress had censored spencer for his failure to attack although a court of inquiry later. Exonerated the general. He resigned his commission and left the army. As a result of the controversy. Washington then sent general. John sullivan with similar orders. Sovan had spent several months trying to build up an assault force but at really accomplished little other than try to parry against the british raids on the american mainland washington seeing the opportunity to use the french fleet to resolve this deadlock sent his aide alexander hamilton to meet with admiral stang at sandy hook at the southern end of new york harbor. Hamilton who spoke fluent french advised estaing of washington's plan to capture newport with the french navy's assistance. The french admiral then set sail for rhode island at the same time. Washington sent sullivan about twenty five hundred continental reinforcements as well as the assistance of generals. Lafayette and green. The daniel green was of course from rhode island even though he was serving as quartermaster of the army at this time washington hoped his presence in the military command would help inspire local militia to turn out. The bulk of the continental army remained at white plains. New york just north of new york city and perhaps a week's march from newport washington was not going to break his siege of british occupied new york city his position. North of the city also prevented clinton from trying to march any british reinforcements overland to rhode island washington had called on sullivan to raise five thousand new england militia to supplement his army but to keep the involvement of the french fleet. A secret washington had hoped to keep the french fleets arrival a secret from the british sullivan had difficulty getting the militia to turn out in great numbers until the actual rival of the french fleet on july twenty ninth for eight by the presence of the fleet. New england militia began making their way to the continental camp. Congress also ordered three continental navy ships in boston to work with to stanks fleet to on the ships could not muster enough sailors to even leave port all the sellers. Of course we're serving aboard privateers a third ship the thirty two gun. Warren did manage to leave port. The ship's captain john burroughs hopkins much like his father. The now disgraced. Commodore east hopkins opted to disobey orders and set out in search of a merchant fleet sailing from ireland new york city. Washington's aide colonel. John lawrence had been attached to general sullivan for the campaign. Lawrence received sullivan's instructions then waited for the french fleet. When it arrived at point judith at the mouth of narragansett pay lawrence. Who also spoke french. Fluently met with admiral to stang. The meeting did not go particularly well. Lauren's informed mustang. That sullivan only had about sixteen hundred soldiers. Ready to go. He was still awaiting the arrival of the continental reinforcements under lafayette and green. He was also still awaiting the arrival of most of the new england militia. D'estaing learned that the british had destroyed most of the continental boats in there may raids sullivan wanted to wait for the arrival of more reinforcements and the manufacture of more boats before he could begin his assault. The french fleet should guard the entrance to narragansett bay and await further instructions. The french were not happy about having to wait. It's simply gave the british time to improve their defences. There was also the danger that the british could send a relief fleet before they could take out the defenders adequate nick island also the french sailors and soldiers aboard. The ships had not been a sure since sailing from france. The men were suffering from scurvy and lack of fresh water on top of all. That disdain was perturbed. That general sullivan was issuing orders to him like he was some sort of subordinate officer. The british did in fact take advantage of the delay. The french fleet was much larger than the small british of ships around newport. Admiral hal had issued orders to make sure british ships were not captured. The british navy unloaded and scuttled the ships in narragansett bay where they would serve as obstacles to an advanced by the french fleet. The cruise mounted the cannons and batteries around various islands. Narragansett bay prepared to contest any french advance. The day after his arrival disdain sent two of his ships into narragansett to the west side of connecticut island which sat to the west of acquitted island. They're british defenders. Connecticut spiked their cannons. Blew up their powder magazine and retreated back to acquitting the following day. The french landed a small party and raised a french flag on connecticut. A couple of days later. They placed their own canons on the island to cover the entrance to newport harbor. They did not land on the island. Enforce though fearing a british counterattack would lead to the soldiers being trapped on the island. French ships also attacked several british warships. That were still unloading onto a quitting. The british abandoned their ships and set them on fire their primary goal keeping the ships from falling into the hands of the french august. First general sullivan came aboard the languedoc. to meet. personally with admiral d'estaing. The leaders agreed that once they were ready. The continentals would land on equipment from their bases on the mainland east of the island. The french would land on the west coast at the same time. The french also landed some of their sick to be cared for on the mainland turned over several hundred prisoners from price ships to be held as american prisoners and sent to boston nine price ships that they had captured since leaving france on august. Third two small british ships took advantage of fog and sailed past the french fleet into newport. They carried word from admiral how that he was assembling a relief fleet with that general piggott ordered several remaining ships to put their cannons back on board in order to protect equipment from any attack before the british relief fleet arrived the french. Seeing these ships back and position came after them after trying to sell away from the french. The british commanders ordered their ships set on fire and destroyed them. General pigott became convinced that the french were planning to assault newport at any moment. The british commander attempted to enlist more local loyalists even slaves to assist with the town's defense most locals however did not like british ses and did not want to be captured on the losing side of the battle. Pigott also virtually abandoned the northern part of equipment island concentrating his forces and supplies in the area immediately around newport on the south of the island as all. This was happening. The americans under sullivan. We're trying to build up their forces in response to the call for militia massachusetts had called up about three thousand soldiers of these about a thousand of them were already in the field and just had their terms extended another two thousand were drafted and sent marching connecticut only centimeter five hundred soldiers leaving another four thousand militia in the state to protect against any british invasion from long island. New hampshire neglected to send any militia despite new hampshire general sullivan. Being in command rhode island called three thousand militia but only for service of fifteen days officials were concerned about getting men home in time for the harvest pitch addition to the militia and the twenty. Five hundred continentals still making their way from white plains. Sullivan had command of several. Regiments of state regulars these included. The first and second rhode island regiments to massachusetts regiments and one regiment from new hampshire in addition to the infantry massachusetts also sent a regiment of artillery by the first week of august. The bulk of the american forces had arrived the rhode island militia. Were some of the last given that they did not even bother to muster until august six. The other big concern for delay was the lack of boats to transport. The army to quit. Island sullivan did not get authorisation to pay for replacement boats until july twentieth. Now he was rushing to buy borrow or build enough flat bottom boats to transport his army to the island by august. Eighth though sullivan had the fleet that he thought he needed with his forces. Ready to go. Sullivan called on distinct to attack aquidneck island as a feint to draw defenders thus making the main american landing on the other side of the island easier. The french leader once again offended by sullivan. Giving the french forces a secondary role insisted that both armies land simultaneously in point of fact though about distinct had claimed to have four thousand french forces ready to fight. He only had about a thousand regular soldiers and sixteen hundred marines. The remainder of his forces were fourteen hundred sailors. Who were not even armed with guns. Much of this crew was also too sick for battle to supplement. The french forces sullivan sent lafayette commanding. Three hundred continentals and nine hundred militia. Land alongside the french. Lafayette not actually arrive until august. Seventh sullivan had planned this attack for august eighth. However most of his expected militia was still a day or two away so he ended up delaying the attack until august tenth even so stang sailed several of his larger ships past newport. The eighth forcing the british to burn to more of their ships to avoid risk of capture pigott also recalled the remainder of british forces from the northern end of the island. Completely abandoning his defenses. There on the morning of august ninth the day before the big invasion sullivan cold. A council of war to discuss override intelligence that the british had abandoned their defenses on the northern part of the island. The council agreed to begin landing right away before the british thought. Better of their decision to withdraw and possibly returned sullivan setting messenger to afford to stay while he deployed. The first rhode island regiment to land and confirmed the intelligence. When the intelligence proved true sullivan began landing in full force. The french had begun landing soldiers on connecticut island that same morning. They had planned to cross over to acquitted nick the following day. Which was the original invasion date about. This time to stang receive sullivan's message that he was already landing and inviting the french to move up their assault on equipment as well. The french landing force mostly on connecticut island by this time was getting ready to move on a quick by the afternoon as the french prepared for their landing. Disdain receive word of a fleet appearing in narragansett bay fearful of the arrival of a large fleet from england distinct the french landing and began recalling his forces back to the fleet these ships it turned out. Were not from england. But were part of a fleet that admiral. How was cobbling together from ships arriving in new york harbor. How had been waiting for a larger fleet. Under the command of general john byron but by august six how had eight ships of the line seven smaller ships with at least forty four guns each and a flotilla of smaller ships. How figured that even if he could not defeat the french fleet decisively it was better to go disrupt the assault on newport than to await the arrival of the rest of the fleet that night under cover of darkness. Disdain took his fleet out of the narrow channels preparing to sail into open see where his larger ships had a much greater advantage against the british. The admiral hope he could defeat the british fleet before more reinforcements arrived. Then return to assist with the assault on acquitting house. Smaller fleet having succeeded in drawing the french away from newport tried to get the best position up win from the enemy before engaging the french pursued the british who managed to keep their distance for the rest of the day the next morning the two fleets resume the chase but also noticed that the wind has picked up considerably over the course of the day. The winds got worse along with heavy rain and fog. The store was the remainder of a hurricane. Making its way up the east coast by evening. Both fleets gave up the idea of a battle and focused on writing out the storm over the next two days. General house fleet got scattered with several ships. Losing their masts and taking other damage. The french fleet took serious damage. And we're also scattered the languedoc to flagship not only lost several of its masts but also broke. Its rudder leaving the crew. Unable to steer on the morning of august thirteenth with these storm having passed a smaller british ship the renown spotted the language languedoc and attacked a normally. The larger friendship would have had the clear advantage but after realizing the amount of damage the renowned moved in to attack the french. Manage to keep the enemy at bay. For most of the day and overnight we're able to signal other friendships to join her and chase away. The british attacker to british ships also attacked the damage marseille. But the larger french ship of the line managed to get off several broadsides. Despite damage to her masts and chased off the burnish attackers several other engagements took place. As damaged ships on both sides struggle to regroup their fleets as the fleet struggled at sea solan forces dug in on the heights on the northern part of quitting island sullivan had over ten thousand soldiers on the island. The army had to hunker down and endure the same storm that had hit the fleets at sea soldiers tense. Were blown away and everyone was soaked. Most of the gunpowder was ruined by water. Making any battle plan much more difficult by the morning of august. Fifteenth the army had recovered sufficiently from the storm to begin. Moving south towards the british lines around newport. The americans moved within a mile of the british. Then over the next couple of nights moved within a few hundred yards in artillery range of the lines. The british defenses at this point were pretty formidable. The reason that pig had given up the northern part of the island without a fight was so that he could concentrate his forces on entrenched heights just north of newport. The british laid out two lines with water protecting their flanks and artillery covering the open fields that the americans would have to cross the americans. Outnumbered the british probably by two to one at this point. Sullivan tried to bait the british into leaving their to advance on the americans but it remains safely inside his defensive perimeter for several days the two sides just traded artillery fire each side waiting for their navy to return on august twentieth. The british garrison happily caught sight of the british ship. Senegal returning to narragansett bay. Their hopes were dashed after learning that the senegal was now a price ship under french control. Several other ships from the french fleet also soon appeared. They were badly damaged. But the french fleet was returning to narragansett not the british. If the french controlled the waters around newport the british could only hold out for a short time before inevitably having to surrender their only hope. Was that a british fleet would arrive before. They reached the end of their supplies. The americans appeared to be on the verge of victory. Then the senegal landed a messenger. At point judith. With a message for general sullivan to informed solvent that the fleet was too badly damaged and that they were leaving right away headed up to boston for repairs sullivan immediately. Dispatched generals lafayette and green and colonel. John langdon to persuade to stang to remain the fleet's presence in for just a few days might be enough to convince the british garrison to surrender if to stankute. Deploy his four thousand french troops into the island. It would either convinced piggott to surrender or at least a vied. His defensive lines making an american attack more likely to prevail to staying however would not be swayed. His fleet was too badly damaged to do any good. His lookouts had identified a few british ships. The line which they knew were part of byron's relief fleet. The french did not want to get caught in narragansett bay facing a superior force especially with their ships and such poor condition on the evening of august twenty first. The french fleet set sail for boston with the french. Departure sullivan saw the american victory. Slip away. He had already had to deal with several hundred militia. Leaving the island when they're fifteen day elicits ended these. Militia were draftees not volunteers. Nothing would compel them to remain a minute longer than required sullivan face. The imminent departure of all of the thousand rhode island militia and the other soldiers who remained were demoralized by the abandonment of the french fleet following another council of war. The americans withdrew back to the northern end of the island where they occupied the defensive heights there upon receiving word from washington that a fleet of over one hundred ships was gathering in long island. Sound a likely relief force for newport sullivan began preparations to evacuate the island entirely. He began removing his supplies. Heavy equipment and some of his larger artillery off of aquidneck island and back to the mainland by the evening of august. Twenty eighth the continentals had completely evacuated their lines in front of newport. The british then sent out to divisions under general von loss berg and general smith to move to the northern part of the island and test the american lines there. The americans held stiff resistance on battles at quaker hill and turkey hill. The back and forth fighting cost the americans about two hundred casualties with the british and hessian attackers. Taking about two hundred and sixty the british back in control of the waters brought up several frigates to support the attack. On the night. Of august thirtieth. The americans abandoned their position entirely on the island and road. Back across to tiverton to take up defenses on the mainland with that withdraw situation pretty much returned to the status quo. The british held quitting island while the americans remained across the water. On the mainland the militia returned to their homes and the standoff remained the morning. After the withdraw. A british relief fleet of about seventy ships was spotted. Off point judith. The british once again took control of the waters around acquitting island. In the days. Following the french withdraw and angry general sullivan and his officers hurled invectives. At the french the eighteenth century equivalent of cheese eating surrender monkeys general. Lafayette nearly got drawn into several duels while trying to defend the honor of his home country. Some feared that the angry words might damage. The new french alliance sullivan had to put out a public declaration. Praising the efforts of the french the continental congress praised both the efforts of the americans and the french these diplomatic statements papered over the hard feelings but once again the americans had failed to take their intended target. Next week we're going to head back up to upstate. New york where battle still with the indians and loyalists cobo skill and german flatts. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show my thanks to train. Ans- george davis lewis white and robert hunter for supported this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patriotic also. Thanks to him for his support on patriotic. In the robert morris circle. I'd also like to thank my longtime patriot. Supporters lester mallet and eric wiggin. All of you. Help support this podcast and help me to cover my this week. We covered quite a bit. The military buildup in rhode island the american invasion than the naval battle and the finally the retreat from aquidneck island. I actually thought about breaking this up into two episodes in order to get into even more details but decided in the end to cover it as i did. That also means that. I'm trying to keep this after show short because the main show went a little bit long this week. The rhode island campaign was a really large campaign though it involved. More than ten thousand soldiers on the american side alone as well. As all the british and french soldiers it really was a massive undertaking comparable to some of the other larger campaigns of the war. The reason it probably gets less attention is that the consequences of the campaign were that it really didn't change anything. The british continued to hold acquitting island and the americans kept them pinned down to that island. So that the british could not move into the rest of new england following the american withdrawal from the island and the arrival of the british relief. Fleet the british dispatched a few more raids to the mainland. The british relief fleet chased a french up to boston but found the defense is. There were too formidable for an attack. The british navy anchored outside of boston unwilling to enter but also trying to keep the french trap. There if you want to read more about the rhode island campaign. You'll want to get this week's book recommendation. The rhode island campaign the first french and american operation in the revolutionary war by christian and mcburney. If that name sounds familiar the author is also the author of my book recommendation from last week about the trial of charles. Lee mr mcburney. I think is the first author to get back back book recommendations on this podcast and i believe is also the first person to get three recommendations in total when you count his book kidnapping the enemy which i recommended quite some time ago. I guess it's a combination of the fact that i like his work and that he writes about some topics that don't get much attention from other books anyway. His book about the rhode island campaign gives great coverage to the event. So book is over. Four hundred pages long but over one hundred fifty of those pages are a considerable end note section. It's a great read on the topic so if you want to read more. Get the rhode island campaign by christian mcburney for my online recommendation. This week i'm going to go a bit off topic. There are a number of good online resources about the rhode island campaign that i mentioned in my blogs further reading section for the episode but none of them are particularly comprehensive or ones that i really think need to stand out so instead this week. I want to mention another podcast that i've been enjoying lately. It's called the history of north america. Podcast by mark vinet for the moment. This podcast is actually a prequel to my podcast. Mark starts with some of the ancient history of the continent for a few episodes and then jumps into the age of exploration. If the subject matter interests you might wanna check it out. I found the podcast to be well produced and a good listen. He's only got about twenty five episodes so far that he's publishing weekly and coming out with new content all the time so that that sounds interesting search for the history of north america. Podcast on your favourite platform. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

sullivan newport richard prescott general sullivan rhode island narragansett bay general clinton washington rhode island new england new york city general piggott british navy clinton british garrison Washington stang army french navy north america
ARP166 Surrender at Saratoga

American Revolution Podcast

33:06 min | 7 months ago

ARP166 Surrender at Saratoga

"The American Revolution podcast is brought to you today by the new historical novel I do no harm. I received an advance copy of this book and found it to be something quite revolutionary. In seventeenth, century Vienna night watchman dietrich discovers a body outside of Stevenson. Cardinal. As. He examines the body further he discovers the ravages of a new disease and foul play. As the infection spreads across the city and more victims succumb dietrich must chase both killer and cure in an effort to save a city devastated by fear and death. In a world teetering between medieval spirituality and the new age. Of Enlightenment. Author Kurt eight yards debut novel takes readers UNA Journey of catastrophe and courage in first do no harm. Don't wait for the books release on September Twenty Fifth preorder your copy on Amazon or wherever books are sold today. Hello. Thank you for joining the American Revolution Today Episode One Sixty six General Burgoyne surrenders. Last. Week, we covered the battle of beams heights the final effort by General, Goin- to push his British force down the Hudson Valley and cut off. New England from the rest of the continent. Instead per going found his own army, cut off from Canada and unable to reach Albany. Following his defeat on our tober seventh seventeen, seventy seven for going's army moved into a defensive posture. The Americans had remained in the field that night prepared to resume their attack the following morning. For going however removed his army about a mile north during the night. The British abandoned their field hospital and around four hundred wounded to be captured by the enemy. They could not carry the wounded and did not have food for them. The British leadership believed that the wounded will be better off in the care of the Americans as prisoners of war. The Americans woke up to find the battlefield was there's A cold driving October rain drenched everyone has they recovered from the battle. Burgoyne going spent that day and the next retreating further north to Saratoga Heights where his army had built entrenchments as they had advanced weeks earlier. From his entrenchments for going desperately-awaited word from General Sir Henry Clinton and Clung to the hope of a relief column marching north from New York. City. On the American side Benedict Arnold leg was so badly wounded that surgeons wanted to amputate. Arnold refused to allow it and endured months of suffering as he slowly recovered. At first he moved to. Spend most of the winter. Later, he returned to Connecticut where he would continue his rehabilitation. Without Arnold to urge more offensive action. The. General Ratio Gates one again settled into his defenses on Venus Heights. General Benjamin Lincoln raised the concern that Burgoyne and his army might try to escape north and returned to Fort Ticonderoga. Gates permitted General Lincoln to lead a group of militia north to hold the Ford across the Hudson River Near. Fort. While Lincoln was moving north on October eighth the day after the battle at Heights, he wrote a head of his militia personally scouting the area head. While riding through thick woods, he ran into a group of soldiers who he thought were local militia. Lincoln road within a few yards of the group before he realized, they were actually British regulars and some of their German allies. As Lincoln wheeled his horse around to escape the group fired on him shattering his leg, the wounded general manage to right away and return to his own forces. Lincoln's wound was rather serious. Like Arnold the army evacuated him to Albany where surgeons recommended amputation. After three months in Albany, Lincoln was transported to Boston to continue his rehabilitation. There he underwent several more painful surgeries to remove bone fragments from his leg. The injury would keep Lincoln away from active duty for nearly a year returning to service, in August of Seventeen, seventy eight. Meanwhile General Gates sent militia under the command of militia Brigadier General John Fellows to take thirteen hundred men northward to contest any British attempt to cross the Hudson. River. While a British army retreated at least one Briton refused to go. Lady Harriet, acland had been with Burgoyne army since it had left Canada. Her husband. Major. John. ACLAND had been shot in both legs and taken prisoner. During the British retreat lady acklin decided that her place was with her husband. ACKLIN was also pregnant with her second child at the time. In the middle of the night on October eighth again, there was a driving rain then. Lady Acklin, traveled downriver to meet up with the continental. Army. General Burgoyne provided her with a note and sent her aboard ship under a flag of. Truce. Several Miles downriver she came upon sentinels under the command of Colonel Henry Dearborn. By this time, it was after one o'clock in the morning. Dearborn convinced the young woman to spend the rest of the night in a small house that he had commandeered as his headquarters. Dearborn assured lady acland that it was too dangerous to travel at night and that he had met with major acland and that his injuries were not immediately life threatening. The next day gates, his aide accompanied lady Acklin along with her made and major accolades Valet back to headquarters. There she met with General Gates. The American commander seated to her request to be reunited with her husband. She would help nurse her husband back to health while he remained an American prisoner. Two days after the battle on October Ninth General Gates Learn that the British under Henry Clinton had taken Fort Montgomery. Gates now feared that a possible relief force was on the way to rescue. Burgoyne. He advanced north and confronted going army before any possible relief force could arrive. The Americans kept the British pinned down on Saratoga Heights for several days. Morgan's riflemen picked off any British. Soldier who dared raise his head out of the entrenchments. On October Eleventh, Gates received word that per coins army had crossed the Hudson and had retreated back to Fort Edward. Gates, now believed he was only facing a small rearguard on Saratoga Heights. With. This information gates deployed much of his army under General Nixon and General Glover along with Morgan's riflemen to advance on Sarah Toga Heights through a dense fog. The problem was gates's intelligence was wrong. As the army advanced, they came across a British deserter. General Glover personally interrogated the regular and asked about the forces that had marched to. Fort Edward. Deserter informed glover that a small detachment had attempted to move to Fort Edward. But found all passes blocked by American defenders. As a result they had turned back and that the entire army remained at Saratoga Heights. Out The deserter could have been giving him misinformation. Glove told the man that if he lied, he would be hanged as a spy. The man stuck to his story. If true it meant the Americans were marching right into the most heavily defended British. Lines and would be cut down. In fact, the deserter story was true. Except about the informer being mistaken about why the detachment to Fort Edward had returned It the detachment actually probably could have made it, but General Burgoyne had recalled them. General Glover was able to call off the advance and pulled back the continental soldiers before they marched into a deathtrap. Instead the Americans continued to blast away at the American. Defenses from a distance. The increasingly desperate British soldiers were out of food. They lack access to water and were almost out of ammunition. Were concerning to some the army had run out of rum. On October thirteenth. General Burgoyne another council of war to decide on next steps. Even burgoyne accepted that another attack was impossible. The army's line of retreat was also now cut off as general. Star had brought his militia army to block any northern passage for the British. For going proposed, dissolving his army and allowing each man to try to make his way through the woods back to Fort Ticonderoga. The other officers balked at the idea. They then got down to answering some serious questions. Had, Arbi, surrendered in similar situations. Would it be dishonorable to surrender in this situation Everyone seemed to agree without debate that surrender at this time would neither be unprecedented nor dishonorable. The final question was whether surrender was absolutely necessary. After some debate the council agreed that it was. If they could obtain reasonable terms from the enemy. For going sent a messenger under a flag of truce to request a discussion with General Gates the following morning about ending the hostilities. General. Gates already felt assured of final victory the day before he had written a letter to Congress informing them of his great victory. He did not bother to write to general Washington his immediate superior. With this victory combined with Washington's loss, of Philadelphia. Gates seem once again focused on his dream of replacing General Washington as commander of the Continental Army. On October Fourteenth Major. Robert. Kingston carried rejoins terms to General Gates. Kingston informed that are going was willing to fight another battle. But he was also willing to agree to a ceasefire to discuss terms. Gates was having none of it. He knew burgoyne situation was desperate. He announced his terms to the major, which essentially amounted to unconditional surrender. The. Army would ground their arms and surrender as prisoners. When Kingston Return for going convened another council at which everyone agreed that the terms were ridiculous and that they would rather fight to the death that accept them. After they calmed down, we're going sent another counterproposal. The British would march out of camp, ground their arms and marched to Boston. They would be permitted to retain their baggage. An officers would retain their swords. From there, they would be allowed to embark for. On the condition that no officer or soldier would again return to fight in North America, the remainder of the war. Burgoyne may of like these terms but this was certainly a bad deal for the. Americans. The British army had lots of soldiers all over the world. For going with simply suggesting that his army would be deployed elsewhere in the world thus freeing up soldiers there to return to America and continue the fight. Amazingly. Though general gates accepted the proposal. Only with the stipulation that it be completed by two PM that day. Out Gates US quick acceptance of these terms made burgoyne suspicious. Why did gates go from demanding unconditional surrender to agree to all of per going terms as long as it got done quickly. For going suspected that Gates had received word of a Clinton relief force and that he wanted to finalize the surrender before that relief force arrived. For going in fact was right. Gates had received word that a fleet was moving up the Hudson River and he feared that a relief force wasn't fact on its way. This was the military force under General John Vaughan that Sir Henry Clinton had deployed up river after the British capture of Fort. Montgomery. The intelligence gates received was sketchy. He feared that a relief force was much larger than it really was and that it might pose some real threat which it did not. Clinton had sent the offensive to be a distraction and it almost worked. For going however did not take advantage of the moment to finalize the generous terms. Instead, he asked for a postponement which gates granted. As a delay tactic for going proposed that each commander sent two officers to negotiate the exact details of a final surrender. On October Fifteenth Continental Cardinal James Wilkinson, and militia Brigadier. General. William whipple met with British Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Sutherland and Captain James Craig to work out that final agreement which both commanders would then review before final approval. That evening, the British said they would agree to everything except one word. Rather, than call the agreement, a treaty of capitulation, they wanted to call it a treaty of Convention. Not Getting hung up on that one word general gates agreed. That same night, a loyalist entered the British camp with a rumor that the British had captured Buzney and that part of Gates's Army ed moved south to engage. Once, again, General Burgoyne gathered his top officers to decide whether they should break the agreement they just made and fight on. The majority voted that even if the story was true, they had already agreed to terms and that it would be dishonourable to go back on that agreement. For going however was still not convinced. He knew that he could not mount an attack or pull off a tree. But his could defend his entrenchments long enough for a relief force from Albany to arrive. The next day Burgoyne sent a letter to Gates saying that he had received intelligence that much of the American army had been detached and that their agreement had been based on the numerical superiority of that army. For going insisted that gates allow the British to see if the army was as large as general. Gates. claimed. By the time gates received burgoyne latest demand he was assured that there was no real threat from the south and had reason enough to back out of the agreement himself. Instead, he sent a note back to going saying that there would be no more discussion. For going could agree or not within the next hour. Burgoyne once again, called another council of war at which all of his officers objected to pulling out of the agreement. Even if Clinton had taken. Albany. And there was still no evidence that he had. There was no way for the army to hold out as long as it would take for Clinton to fight his way to Saratoga. Only General Burgoyne himself seemed to be reluctant to end this thing. Out of Patience General Gates sent word that His Messenger should return with the sign convention or he would launch an attack immediately the Messenger returned with the convention containing burgoyne joins signature. That same day October sixteenth British General John. Phone was doing his very best within his limited resources to help her. FAWN had taken seventeen hundred soldiers up the Hudson River as far as Kingston new. York. This was more than a hundred miles up the Hudson River from New York City but it was still fifty miles south of Albany. Von Had hoped to provide a distraction with his small force which he did. The town of Kingston had served as the Patriot capital of New York. Earlier that year, the first Patriots state legislature had begun meeting their. Governor George Clinton had taken his oath to become the first Patriot governor in Kingston. As Vaughan's fleet approached the legislators fled. Governor. Attempted to march a militia force of about one thousand men to Kingston to confront the. British. But as the fleet approached, there was only a handful of local militia to meet them. And they fled after a brief firefight. Fawn landed his force and marched up the hill to the town. There, he heard a rumor that Burgoyne army had already surrendered. But had no way to verify it. Moving forward, he ordered all the buildings, put to the torch burning the homes of over four thousand people. The attack took about three hours. After that the fleet continued north to the home of Robert Livingston, a signer of the Declaration of independence at that time Chancellor of the Patriot government of the state of New York. The British burned Livingston's mansion and all neighbouring buildings around the estate. VAUGHN's force remained the area for about a week. He did not try to advance any further up river toward Albany. After receiving confirmation of forgoing surrender, he sailed his fleet downriver to New York City again. Is. Only. Stop was to burn forts Clinton and Montgomery which is army had captured earlier. On October seventeenth the British and German forces at Saratoga Heights marched out of their camp. grounded. Their. Weapons and prepared to be, marched as prisoners to Boston. The brunswickers gave their regimental flags to the Baroness Von re days. Well, she sewed them into a pillow and eventually smuggled them back to Brunswick. General going changed into his dress uniform. Had planned to wear on his entrance into Albany. He. Along with general, ridicule and General Phillips and a few others rode out to meet with General Gates. For going gates had known each other since they were both lieutenants in the same British regiment thirty years earlier. cates greeted his own comrades saying it's good to see you. Her going responded that it actually wasn't so good to see him and offered his sword in surrender. Gates took the sword, but then returned it and invited the enemy officers to a banquet. As part of the Convention General Gates had promised that the British and Brunswick Armies would be marched to Boston and then sent back to England. That however was not in the cards. Et First General, Glover marched the Convention army, as it came to be called to Cambridge just outside of Boston. It remained there for nearly a year. During. That time about thirteen hundred prisoners escaped and most of them established new lives in America. The. Continental Congress and General Washington did not like the terms of the convention and found excuses not to fulfill its terms. Congress instructed general. Burgoyne to provide them with a list of all officers in order to ensure that none of them ever returned to North America. When we're going did not provide that list congress used it as an excuse to hold the army. Later Congress, voted to hold the army until King George the third directly ratified the Convention which was unlikely since that would recognize the independent authority of the Continental Congress. After. A year in Cambridge that continentals marched the prisoners to Charlottesville Virginia which gave another six hundred or so prisoners the opportunity to escape and also begin new lives in. America. The remainder of the convention army stayed there until seventeen eighty when the war moved to Virginia and the prisoners were taken to a more secure location in Frederick Maryland. As was typical captured officers were given parole and could live in whatever accommodations they liked. Soldiers were kept in miserable, poorly constructed barracks and held there until the end of the war in seventeen eighty three. Those who had not escaped by then or died finally returned to England. Almost immediately, after the surrender for going began writing a series of letters back to London flaming his loss on the strict instructions he had been given and the lack of support from the main army in New York. City. At first, he became a guest of General Philip. Schuyler. Who had returned to the army for the surrender even though he no longer held a command position. Schuyler might have been able to offer going accommodations in his luxurious upstate mansion. But for the fact that Burgoyne had ordered, it burned to the ground a few weeks earlier. Instead the Schuyler took their new guests and took up accommodations in another country manor. As. A prisoner regain actually apologize for burning scholars home but Schuyler dismissed it as fortunes of war. burgoyne would then travel to Cambridge, and after a few months received parole to return to England and began his political battles over the blame for the loss. Schuyler also took in the Baroness von Ra- diesel, and her two daughters. General rebel approved of this knowing that a gentleman would take proper care of his family. Both would leave after a few days and traveled to Cambridge to be with the army. The baroness spent the rest of the war with her husband as a prisoner on parole with the Convention Army. General Burgoyne Returned Home General William Phillips became the ranking officer in the Convention Army. He remained with the army along with the ridicules and became a popular guest in Virginia at elite social. Circles. Phillips would be exchanged in seventeen eighty and returned to duty. and. We'll see his involvement again in future episodes. The Victorious General Gates became the toast of America. Gates as I said, seem to want to replace Washington as commander and resumed his attempts to snub Washington and criticize his leadership. This would also create problems. will be subject of future episodes. But for now, he was the conquering hero who had defeated the British army. The victory at Saratoga was, of course, major turning point of the war for many reasons, not the least of which was its effect on France's decision to join the war a few months later. The war further south around Philadelphia however pressed on. Next week general. How seeks to clear the Delaware River an open up Philadelphia for the Royal Navy. Hey thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. Thanks as always to train aunts and George Davis for their continued support of the podcast at the Alexander, Hamilton Club level and for Mike Hager who supports the podcast at the Robert Morris Circle Level on patron. Also. Thanks to France stew us for her one time contribution via pay pal. This week, we finally got to the surrender of general. Burgoyne army. The general dragged out the surrender for weeks hoping against hope that something would happen to get his army out of this jam. Certainly surrendering to an army that you had dismissed as rank amateurs a few months earlier was a reality that he probably didn't really want to contemplate. But consider that every day of delay meant more suffering and death by the soldiers who were literally starving and dealing with disease and exposure he had to do something and he couldn't wait forever. Even after the surrender, these men had to march hundreds of miles to Boston where they were supposed to be returned to London under the terms of the surrender. And let me just say that those terms were quite frankly ridiculous. Horatio Gates gets portrayed as being the hero of Saratoga, for the final victory. But remember gates took command of the Kontinental Northern Army just weeks before the victory. General Philip Schuyler had set up the winning strategy. We could analogize this to the quarterback who comes in when the ball is on the one yard line, and then pushes it over the goal for the winning touchdown. Of course, that analogy is probably giving gates more credit than he deserves. As I discuss last week I credited Benedict Arnold with the victory at only four disobeying gates is orders. So maybe a better analogy is gates being the coach who calls in a play. The quarterback ignores him and scores the winning touchdown anyway then the coach takes all the credit for the win. And since I'm using a football analogy, let me just say that a fall without big ten football is just very disconcerting. But it at least gives me my Sunday afternoons back to work on this podcast. Anyway Gates is the commander when the Army Win Saratoga. and. The country gives him credit for it but then gates pretty much gives it all away by promising coins army safe passage back to London. General Washington and the Continental Congress had to use some rather shall we say loyally tactics to back out of gates, his promises and keep the army as prisoners? So while Gates Gretz, the credit for this victory, he did not set up the strategy officer serving under him one at tactically by violating his orders and he attempts to give away the main benefits of the victory at the surrender. and. This gates is greatest moment in his life and in the war, he will prove himself to be disastrous commander later in the war after he literally abandoned his army after a major loss and rides by himself back to Congress. I've said it before and I will say it again gates us a weasel and is overrated. So even though we're going army remain prisoners general Burgoyne only spent a few months in America before receiving parole to return home. When General Burgoyne returned to London in seventeen seventy eight, he reentered politics as a member of parliament and join the position piece wing within parliament. Parliament. Of course, held hearings over the loss at Saratoga and per goin- wanted to be in London in person to defend himself. For going though never got the direct inquiry into his leadership. In fact, leaders in. Lunden suggested he go back to America to remain a prisoner along with his army. And option burgoyne declined. However parliament did hold a larger inquiry into the matter in seventeen seventy nine going over all the events and decisions that led to the loss. Claim. At those hearings primarily fell on general how for his lack of support Tibur goings army as planned. And also fell on Secretary of state. Lord Germain in part for giving her going to little discretion and forgiving general how too much discretion I'll cover London's Saratoga inquiry in a future episode. The immediate results though were that general how would lose his commanded? MERICA and of course, also the war changed dramatically as France openly entered the conflict. Once France entered the war Britain was no longer looking really to win the war it was looking to minimize it causes. And again, I'll talk about all that in future episodes as well. As a capstone to the Saratoga Campaign, I recently interviewed author and Professor James Kirby Martin. He recently wrote a chapter in a new book called the ten key campaigns of the American. Revolution. The book covers the course of the war in ten chapters each one covering a different military campaign. The books editor is Edward Liangel but after is written by a different expert and as I said, Dr Martin wrote the chapter about the Saratoga campaign and I expect to release our conversation as a special episode sometime in the near future. My Book Recommendation. This week is the generals of Saratoga by Max Mints. The book focuses on the events leading up to the surrender. Our It gives a great background on the lives of both generals, Burgoyne and gates. It's a relatively short book at just over two hundred thirty pages, not counting notes index. Professor Mints is a Professor, Emeritus Etiquette State University. He's also written a book about the war with the era, Koi during the revolution as well as a biography on founder Gouverneur Morris. I believe that Dr Bents is still living and recently added his one hundred and first birthday. Is Book. The generals of Saratoga was published in nineteen ninety. I think this book is a nice complement to some of the other books have recommended in previous weeks about the Saratoga campaign. This one I think is a good supplement because it focuses on the two generals who won or lost the battle. So, if you want to check it out, it's called the generals of Saratoga by Max mince. My online recommendation. This week is a more general one. Website. Called history author talks. This is a relatively new site that holds discussions with authors of history books about various issues. You can watch videos of past discussions or get information on upcoming live discussions. Each episode lasts for about an hour. I found the topics and speakers to be quite interesting. As I said it's great that you can participate for free and the live discussions or if you can't be around for a particular one, the recorded videos are also available on the site. Although history author talks, dot. com is a very generic name I think that every single one of the topics thus far has been about the American revolution. So as I said, check it out history author talks. Dot. com. Well. That's all for this week I. Hope You will join us again next week for another American revolution. PODCAST.

General Burgoyne General Gates Army Burgoyne army British army General Sir Henry Clinton Albany Saratoga General Gates General Washington commander New York Boston Convention army Benedict Arnold America General Glover Hudson River Saratoga Heights Congress
ARP186 Carlisle Peace Commission

American Revolution Podcast

29:43 min | 2 months ago

ARP186 Carlisle Peace Commission

"Low and thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty six the carlisle peace commission a couple of weeks ago. I covered the british as they sent. General william how back to london following a big party in philadelphia. A couple of weeks after how departed another ship. The trident arrived in philadelphia from london on june. Six seventeen seventy eight. It carried a group of peace commissioners. The three commissioners led by the earl of carlisle arrived with substantial bargaining power from london. Hoping to at long last bring this rebellion to an end over the winter of seventeen. Seventy seven seventy eight following news of the capture burgoyne army at saratoga political leaders in london feared that perhaps they really underestimated the military capacity of the americans. Perhaps a political compromise could resolve this matter. Many british leaders believed that speed was of the essence. London was already receiving word. That france was seriously considering entry into the war through a military alliance with the united states. Britain's bargaining power would be much greater before that happened parliament however went on recess in december shortly after word of the defeat at saratoga arrived in london and would not meet again for six weeks. Members debated a short recess to deal with events that were quickly developing into war with france the members however voted to retain their extended recess and put off any decisions the following year. When parliament returned on january twentieth. Seventeen seventy eight. The north ministry was ready to get to work. The ministry got parliament to support the taxation of the colonies. Act of seventeen seventy eight. In that act parliament repealed the t- tax it also disclaimed the declaratory act which had maintained parliament's right to tax the colonies going forward. Parliament would only levy tariffs related to the regulation of trade and never to raise revenue. This was exactly what the patriot leaders have been demanding about a decade earlier the bill also repealed the massachusetts government act. This was the seventeen seventy four law that altered massachusetts colonial charter to reduce the colonists power of self government and it was one of the main reasons that the colonists had taken up arms at lexington and concord back in seventeen seventy five. The ministry also got parliament's approval to send a commission to america to make any further necessary concessions and hopefully reach a peace with the colonies. If london could give into demands that had originally started the war perhaps they could reach this political settlement before france entered the war. The man behind this push for a peace commission was william eden eden was the son of a baronet. Though since he was not the first porn he could not inherit the title. William did however get a top notch education and trained to be lawyer. His career soon veered into government service in the areas of diplomacy and trade in seventeen seventy two at the age of twenty seven. He received at appointment to serve. As under secretary of state in the north ministry. This was due to family connections. He was related to solicitor. General alexander wedderburn years later eden won a seat in the house of commons but also retain his position as under secretary of state after another two years and seventeen seventy six. He took a third position. As a lord of trade. This was a position on the board of trade that was one of those honorary positions that pay two thousand pounds a year but did not require the salary holder to show up for work ministries way of rewarding members of parliament for political loyalty eden took the unusual step of showing up for meetings of the board of trade and taking an active role in debate through his government positions. He also created for himself and informal job of intelligence officer eden began making contacts and sending agents all over europe to obtain intelligence of interest to the ministry. One of his agents was paul wentworth. Who i've mentioned before went to paris to keep tabs. On the american commissioners it was through edens intelligence network that the north ministry received word. That france was seriously considering entering the war in early. Seventeen seventy seven was no radical whig in parliament. He had supported taxation of the colonies before the war. He also supported the use of large military to put down the rebellion but with war with france. Imminent in became a vocal proponent of peace commission and not one of those bs commissions that had gone before with the power to do nothing other than forgive the americans for their treason. This commission had to make real concessions and as quickly as possible. So during parliament's winter recess even was the one who put together the proposals for those legislative changes and for the creation of the peace commission. He got prime minister. Lord north's approval as well as that of conservative attorney. General thurlowe parliament began debate on the conciliatory laws and authorization for the peace commission in mid february a few weeks after it actually returned to business by early march both the house of commons and the house of lords had proved the bills and the commission. They're relatively speedy approval of the plan. After about three weeks should not belie the fact that it was quite controversial within parliament. Many conservative tories thought that the ministry was essentially giving up on the war after a minor setback at saratoga and was surrendering to all the colonial demands at the same time radical. Whigs thought that the reforms and the commission did not go far enough leader of the opposition lord rockingham recommended during debates that the commission be empowered to grant independence to the united states rockingham and his faction believe that these were the only conditions that would end the war immediately. This would allow britain to negotiate a favorable trading relationship with the us and might successfully short circuit a war with france. Even a france did still go to war. With britain. The us would not be france's ally. The radicals were even calling for lord. North's resignation. They felt that the americans needed new leadership to accept a real change in policy. The call for american independence began with a few radicals but as parliamentary debate continued. The war with france began concerned about the war with france led the pro independence movement within parliament to grow conservatives. Had to convince the dying. William pitt lord chatham to return to the house of lords to make a final speech in favor of holding onto the colonies. Chatham called the independence. Of america the dismemberment of the monarchy chattan would actually die a few weeks after the speech but his speech was effective in forestalling. Any continued debate over recognizing american independence. Even as parliamentary debate on the commission was getting started in february lord north sought to have eaten serve on the peace commission that would go to america however was not so crazy about the idea. He feared he would lose his lucrative government positions so he preferred to stay in london instead. He requested an appointment to the king's privy council the king however nixed the idea. He did agree to edens request for thousand pounds sterling to pay for his duties as commissioner. The ministry also agreed that he could continue to hold his position as under secretary of state and on the board of trade while he was away in america. Edens other big worry was that lord north might resign while eden was often america trying to negotiate a peace so he demanded a promise from north. He would not resign. While eden was still away he also got the ministry to promise that it would support a major military operation in america in order to help convince the americans to accept this negotiated end to the war so with all that eden was on board the ministry then had to look for some other commissioners eden did not think that he should head the commission his past positions in parliament in favour of colonial taxation and the use of native americans to help suppress the rebellion. Might make him rather unpopular in the eyes of the americans. Instead the head of the commission went to frederick howard fifth earl of carlisle lord carlisle was twenty nine years old at the time and a member of the house of lords. He done little of note in the government however he was a childhood friend of eden from when the two attended eton together years earlier is title made it appropriate for him to lead the commission and even thought that the two men woodwork well together and that carlyle would rely on edens advice. Parliament's third commissioner was richard jackson as a member of parliament jackson tended to be a radical. Whig parliament selected him because they thought he'd be popular with the americans. Jackson had served as a colonial agent for the war and was good friends with benjamin franklin however thought that jackson was little too radical. He had spoken in favor of recognizing american independence and that was farther than one or two go and farther than the commission was authorized to go so instead eden arranged for jackson to be replaced on the commission by george johnstone a scottish member of parliament. Who had been real governor of west florida and was by this time in his fifties both johnston and eden agreement and believe they would work. Well together. Johnston was not however on the best terms with secretary of state. Lord germain the two men had fought a duel against each other in seventeen. Seventy after johnstone had questioned germain's honor also added to the commission. Were admiral sir richard. How and general william how recall that. The how brothers had been appointed as peace commissioners two years earlier but were not given any authority to make political concessions so technically the carlisle commission were adding these three additional members from parliament to the commission that already existed by the how brothers. It was thought that the commission needed to work with the military commanders because they needed to work in concert with the military to put pressure on the americans in order for them to accept to negotiated peace. this time the ministry had already accepted. General house offer to resign and had recalled him to london. However this was not yet public knowledge and not revealed explicitly to the commission. Instead the ministry gave the commission authority to swap out. How seat with a new north. American commander general sir henry clinton if they founded appropriate at some future point with all the details worked out. The commission finally set sail on april twelve. Seventeen seventy eight found for new york by this time. Of course officials had wasted at least four precious months. Since the commission's initial conception during those important months britain and france had gone to war and the americans had become aware of the signing of the franco american treaty before the commissioners even reached new york they encountered a british naval vessel in mid passage the captain and foreign them that admiral how general clinton had both gone to philadelphia so the commissioners changed course and headed straight to philadelphia since they would need to confer with clinton and how before they began any real negotiations. The commissioners as i sat arrived in philadelphia on june sixth and were surprised to learn that general howe had already left for london. They were even more surprised to learn. That general clinton was preparing to evacuate philadelphia. This was the first that the commissioners were hearing about any evacuation plans before they left london. Lord germain had assured the commissioners that the military would engage in an offensive to encourage the americans to enter these negotiations. Germain had said nothing about the evacuation of philadelphia. Even though he had sent orders to general clinton to do just that were that a month before the commissioners left london eden angrily wrote germain about having the commission undercut by the evacuation and by germain's decision not to bother to even mention that fact the commissioners before they left germain's pathetic response was that eden was supposed to be an intelligence agent. Who knew all the government secrets. So he should just known that the commissioners attempted to get general clinton to delay the evacuation but clinton had direct orders from london and was concerned that a french fleet might trap the british in philadelphia if he delayed despite their week in negotiating position. The commission was able to offer an impressive set of concessions. Parliament had authorized the commission to avoid any law passed since the seven years war that the americans found objectionable. The commission could offer the americans representation in parliament or in the alternative recognize the continental congress as the legitimate representative body of the colonies within the british empire. It could guarantee that parliament would never again attempt to levy taxes on the colonies and that it would never again alter a colonial charter except at the request of the colonial legislature further. The commissioners could offer rewards to american leaders who helped to end the war and bring about the peace. There was discussion for example of making george washington a duke on jan thirteenth a week after the commission's arrival in philadelphia the commissioner said a message to the continental congress in york essentially saying that they just wanted the war to end and they were willing to discuss pretty much any and all demands that the colonies had articulated as reasons for war and independence. General washington did not permit the messenger to go to congress but did allow the message to be delivered. If the carlisle commission had arrived two years earlier with these same concessions they probably would have been met with celebration. By the colony's it almost certainly would have ended hostilities and calls for independence. But this was seventeen. Seventy eight not seventeen seventy six. The americans had been through too much and had come too far to negotiate a return to colonial status four days. After congress received the message president henry lawrence on behalf of a unanimous congress rejected the peace overture and rejected any offers for further meetings as a condition for any further discussions. The british either had to recognize american independence or remove all military forces from the united states. Also the continentals demanded before we let you go. Commando us crossed that field. Present himself before this army could his head between his legs. Jesse's offs. okay maybe that lasts. Condition wasn't true but it was just about as likely as either of the first to the bottom line was that the americans were committed to full independence by this time and would accept nothing less. What's that happened. They were happy to discuss trade relationships and other friendly intercourse between the two separate countries. In other words we can be friends but just not into you in that way. Anytime for any political compromise that involve rejoining the empire was over by july after the british evacuated philadelphia. Which is a subject. I'm gonna cover more detail next week. The commission saw that there was no real chance of success. The commission made one desperate attempt from new york on july. Eleventh explicitly say that britain was open to any concession. Short of independence and that british forces could not evacuate north america due to the war with france. This message reached congress but received no response not wanting to go home and failure. The commission tried to reach out directly to the people issuing public proclamations of the concessions that they were willing to make if they thought there was some silent majority that was ready for peace and that only the radicals in congress would show resistance. They would be quickly disappointed. Patriots around the country held public burnings of the conciliatory bills. Making clear that they were not interested in anything. Less than complete independence attempts to get loyalist talking about a negotiated peace only stirred up painful to publish more pamphlets about the importance of independents. Lord carlisle wrote to his wife that the arrival of the french fleet quote makes every hope of success in our business ridiculous eden even wrote to lord wedderburn. That had he known of the decision to evacuate philadelphia. He never even would have come to america. Britain could not negotiate from a position of strength and the commission only looked weak and craven. He wanted to return home. But officials in london urged him to stay with the commission which had moved to new york and was continuing. Its efforts many believed the ministry wanted him to stay not because they believe there was any chance of success but or because they didn't want to return to parliament and joined the opposition to make matters worse. Commissioner george johnstone attempted to bribe at least three members of congress francis dana joseph reed and robert morris the delegates all reported the attempted bribery and congress declared that no patriot could have any communications with such dishonorable character without bringing their own reputation into question. The other members of the commission had to distance themselves from johnston and said they had no knowledge of what he was doing. Johnstone had to resign from the commission and returned to england there. He returned to parliament and continued with his successful political career in support of the ministry by the end of august. The commission released another announcement that further attempts at conciliation were futile. And that if the americans wanted to resume discussions they would have to initiate the talks. Back in london that king had received initial reports of the failure to start talks june and told lord north quote. The president accounts from america. Put a stop to all negotiations. Further concession is a joke in october the commission issued one last proclamation making an offer to any individuals or states that wanted to seek a peace with britain and returned to the empire. The proclamation went on to emphasize the dangers to the americans in allying themselves with their traditional enemy france and that resulted in lafayette challenging eden to a duel eden declined noting that badmouthing enemy during a time of war was not dishonorable. The proclamation also threatened that the war would become even more harsh as britain. Took off the gloves in this all out. War against france and those who allied themselves with their enemy eden had suggested privately that military leaders send in guerrilla units into the cotton it to engage in continuing acts of destruction and devastation in order to convince the people to demand a peaceful resolution. That of course never happened. The only thing. The commission managed to do was restore trade privileges to loyalists. Living in new york city or newport rhode island the only two areas within the united states. Where britain still had a significant military presence by the end of seventeen seventy eight. The commission had given up completely and return to england. The commissioners continued to try to convince the ministry to apply more military pressure to north america. But by that time. The ministry was focused on other concerns with france. The commission finally disbanded june. First seventeen seventy nine next week. The british pack up and evacuate philadelphia. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show my thanks to trae. Nance george davis and louis wait for their continued support of this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on on. Thanks also to mike. Hager i support at the robert morris circle level also thanks to longtime supporters. Eric blumquist jordan. John pinella and mason pierce for their continued support on patriotic. As well i really appreciate everyone who can chip in to help me cover expenses. Also thanks to everyone who has made one time contribution speaking of pay pow or van mo. All of your support really helps this whole thing to keep going this week. We looked at the carlisle peace commission which was really an all out effort to end the war. The big question from all this is why were the british so willing to give up on all the reasons that they had for starting the war in the first place successful monarchy's know when to take power and went to give power if akin can take land wealth or eliminate a faux without risking his power. He will if he finds himself at a situation where ceding power will smooth things out. He'll do that. It's a sort of wheeling and dealing and power that saw the rise and fall of so many families in the middle ages before the revolution british leader's thought they could get away with imposing more restrictions on the colonies with the clear and game of extracting more wealth from those colonies for the leadership in london. By seventeen seventy eight. Those leaders had recognized that they'd overplayed their hand. They were at risk of losing. Not only the colonies in america but many more valuable colonies in other parts of the empire. Because the french monarchy smell british weakness and was prepared to take wait could from britain. British leaders were essentially willing to give up on all the power grabs. They had attempted on the colonies since the end of the seven years war because despite not collect any real taxes from the colonists the relationship back then was a good one. For britain london controlled the terms of all trade from the colonies meaning. British merchants in britain could get cheap resources. Colonies could not sail around the world looking for the best price. They had to take what they could get in britain. There were massive more benefits to this trading relationship where one side gets to control all of the trade rules much more benefits than they could probably ever get from taxes so the carlisle commission was trying to help the ministry reestablish that valuable trading relationship by giving up on its claims for taxes they also hoped that happy colonists would once again support britain against france also important for the balance of power in europe. The problem was that the british had already overplayed their hand. The colonists no longer trusted them on the issue of taxes. Whatever promises lended made in seventeen seventy eight regarding power-sharing and no taxation might just as easily disappeared some future time when britain had the upper hand. Also by this time. The colonists were viewing britain as a bit of a paper tiger. The regulars look scary but they could not assert any control over more than a few cities especially now with a french ally. American saw no reason to go back under britain's rule. The opposition in parliament had accepted that the ministry overplayed its hand it wanted to grant independence as a sure way of cutting its losses at this point and moving on. Granting independence would still allow britain to rebuild a trading relationship with america. It could make all the rules but it could still benefit greatly from such a trade. A seating to american independence would also end the costs of waging war in america both in terms of men and money so that britain could focus on france as it will turn out and hopefully. This isn't a spoiler for anyone. The opposition was right and the administration really should have cut its losses completely. In seventeen seventy eight. It would take the ministry though another four or five years to reach that conclusion. Without the benefit of hindsight the ministry's decision not to give in made some sense even if it costs more to put down a rebellion that you might ever recover an empire needs to set examples if it gave into a colonial uprising. Every time a colony put up a decent fight that would just encourage more colonies to put up a fight. Britain did not want colonies in the caribbean or india or even ireland or scotland to start getting ideas that london was not willing to fight hard for its possessions. If you wanna get a better understanding of the british perspective you may want to try. This week's book recommendation. It is rebels and redcoats. The american revolution through british is by christopher hibbert. This book mentioned the carlisle commission. Only in passing. It's really more about how british attitudes and understanding of the americans changed over the course of the war and how britain finally came to accept american independence the author christopher hibbert is a very prolific author of histories and biographies mostly from britain and europe. He published rebels and redcoats back in nineteen ninety. Sadly mr hibbert passed away in two thousand eight. But as i said if you're looking for a better understanding of the british perspective take a look at rebels and redcoats. If you're interested in more specifics. Really today's topic about the carlo commission. My online recommendation is a master's thesis written by john savage in nineteen sixty eight. It is called britain's conciliatory proposal of seventeen. Seventy eight a study in futility. This is an indepth look at the creation of the carlisle commission and its efforts in america. It's nearly two hundred pages long and provides lots of great details on this particular topic. You can find it at the university of richmond. Scholarship repository at scholarship dot richmond dot edu just search for prince conciliatory proposal. Or you can use the direct link that i put on my website or blog to blog. Dot amriyev podcast dot com for more details. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

parliament france peace commission london general clinton north ministry philadelphia eden america britain carlisle commission saratoga congress carlisle peace commission Lord germain germain house of lords Lord north General william burgoyne army
ARP188 Pursuit Across New Jersey

American Revolution Podcast

29:23 min | 2 months ago

ARP188 Pursuit Across New Jersey

"Hello and thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode one eighty eight pursuit across new jersey with the british evacuation of philadelphia that discussed last week. The continental army had to decide how to respond on june seventeenth. Seventeen seventy eight the same night. That general clinton brought the last of his army in philadelphia across the river into new jersey. George washington held a council of war at valley forge to debate next steps. A handful of officers wanted to attack the retreating column general anthony wayne and pennsylvania general. John cadwalader argued most forcefully for a full on attack general. Lafayette also seemed inclined to support. This general nathaniel greene wanted to harass the retreating enemy and engage in full battle. If the british were willing to turn and fight the continentals had about eleven. Thousand soldiers fit for duty along with possibility of several thousand more new jersey militia. The british column had an estimated ten thousand soldiers because the british were in retreat. They would not necessarily have favorable defensive ground or good positions if the americans could engage them. General charles lee however argued strenuously against attack. He did not believe. The americans would stand in general feel encounters with british regulars. Even if they could the french were on their way. Risking a general action at this point could result in a devastating failure or capture of the continental army writer for the support arrived. They could be used to overwhelm. The enemy lee argued that the british were in retreat. And that was a good thing. Let them retreat. And we'll take victory for that. A majority of the continental officers ended up agreeing with lee including general. Von story of prussia. General duper towel of france. The americans could of course harassed the retreating column in doing so. They should not put the main continental army at risk. Despite the objections and concerns general washington opted to pursue the enemy with the intent of engaging in a general action. the british had crossed primarily at cooper's perry directly out of philadelphia into what is today camden new jersey. The army marched inland and spent. Its first night in and around hadn't feel the following morning it began marching north toward new york city. The day the british began the march was friday. June nineteenth as anyone from new jersey can tell you leaving on a friday to try to get to the jersey. Shore is a nightmare. Traffic is always slow and frustrating and that was certainly the experience of the british and hessian troops. Although they didn't have to put up with any traffic circles they did face a host of obstacles before they even left philadelphia. The continentals deployed hundreds of soldiers. Under general william maxwell to delay and harass the enemy recall that general maxwell who was from new jersey had coordinated much of the forage war a year and a half earlier he had used local militia to harass the british foraging parties and to keep the enemy bottled up in defensive entrenchments. He would use many of these same tactics against the british column marching to new york. Also working. With general maxwell was general. Philemon dickinson of the new jersey militia. Dickinson is another of the. War's unsung heroes. He was the brother of john dickinson. The pennsylvania delegate is probably best remembered for his opposition to the declaration of independence. Along with his brother john philemon dickinson was born in maryland. When they were both very young the family moved to an estate in delaware. The dickinson's also held properties in pennsylvania and new jersey philemon studied law in philadelphia but never practiced. Instead he moved to estate near trenton. He married his first cousin medicaid. Walter who was the sister of philadelphia militia. General john cadwalader. Shortly after the battle of lexington and seventeen seventy five dickinson received a commission as colonel of the huntington county militia. Several months later in october he received a promotion to brigadier general of the new jersey militia. Dickinson was one of the few militia leaders who join washington for the battle of trenton. The following year during that battle dickinson had to order the artillery to shell his own home. Which the heavens had occupied dickinson and his militia then moved north with the continentals to harass the enemy in northern new jersey. His militia captured a regiment of four hundred british soldiers during that campaign just before washington's crossing when things were looking really bleak for the patriots john dickinson resigned his position in the pennsylvania militia. Ed- wrote a letter to his brother film on the letter recommended. That filament resigned. His commission and that he not hold onto any continental dollars. This defeat us letter smeared the reputations of both brothers at least one account i read says that philemon resigned his commission in the new jersey militia in february. Although i can't really find anything to confirm that fact it may just be that. His militias simply returned home for the winter. That was after all what bullish did when the act of fighting came to an end in any case a few months later new jersey named dickinson. A major general and commander in chief of the new jersey militia. He remained active in new jersey. That year assisting general sullivan with the attack on staten island in november seventeen seventy seven and also confronting a british rate on trenton. In may seventeen seventy eight so with the british army. Once again in new jersey dickinson was also once again in the thick of things. Working with maxwell's continentals. The army's felled trees across roads destroyed. Bridges redirected creeks and rivers to flood certain areas and generally do whatever they could to slow down the british column. They also provided intelligence to general washington on the position and movements of the enemy. The delaying tactics work rather well assisting them was brutal. Heat wave along with torrential rains. British and hessian soldiers marched in their heavy wool uniforms each soldier carrying sixty to one hundred pounds of items on his back. The army had several hundred wagons of supplies as well and the result was extremely slow movement. As i said the british left hatfield on the morning of june nineteenth and almost immediately began to take harassing fire from local militia after a sixteen mile march to mount the army arrested for a day. The camped army still faced occasional harassing fire. As other soldiers work to clear impediments from the road ahead the next day the british only managed to march another seven miles to black horse What today is called columbus then moving onto crosswalks in a night march arriving at on the following morning there maxwell's continentals and dickinson's militia had torn up the bridges that crossed the creek. The patriots took up defensive positions on the far side of the creek. There were maybe a thousand patriots against the ten thousand man british army so there was no chance that this defense could last very long. However it force clinton to deploy into lines of battle setup field artillery an attempt to move regiments around the defensive lines to flank the enemy the two lights exchange of fire before the americans withdrew before the superior force without the americans had achieve their intended purpose of causing the british to waste a day getting across the creek from there. The british march. You allentown new jersey. Just a few miles southeast of trenton. It had taken the british six days to move about thirty two miles averaging just over five miles per day. Meanwhile the continental army left valley forge on june nineteenth. The same day that the british began their march from haddonfield. Washington had left behind only the three thousand or so sick and disabled soldiers who could not march. He left these under the command of colonel. Philip van cortlandt most of this core under van courtland soon moved to philadelphia leaving only about five hundred men still in valley forge who were too sick to travel. Washington gave general. Charles lee the honor of commanding the most forward army and the discretion to choose good defensive ground after crossing the delaware behind lee was another army under general anthony wayne who had orders to move slowly enough that he kept some distance between himself and general lee. The continental army reached coils ferry on the delaware river. A few miles north of trenton. The army also made use of howls ferry several miles further up river. It took a couple of days to get the continentals and their equipment across then continuing onto hopewell new jersey about twenty miles north of the british army at allentown. That is where general lee chose to regroup the army by the twenty third. The continentals had arrived at hopewell and were ready to move. They rested there until the twenty fourth when the commanders decided on next steps in hopewell the soldiers clean their weapons and prepared several days of rations so they could eat. While on the march washington and clinton had good intelligence on the position of their enemy and had to reassess their plans in light of that washington was clearly itching for a fight he had ordered the army to leave behind most of its baggage at the ferries so that the men could travel white he also ordered entrenching tools be distributed to the soldiers so that they could dig in for a battle when needed washington not only had his own army which was about as large as clinton's british and hessian column but he also had thousands more continentals in a northern army near peekskill new york. Under general horatio gates. These men could be brought down into action against the british in northern new jersey. Another five hundred man. Army a mix of continentals and pennsylvania militia under general john cadwalader let philadelphia to support the continentals more pennsylvania associated were also being mustered in hopes of later adding to the american forces at around nine. Am on the morning of the twenty. Fourth washington called another council of war articulating the same views as the prior counsel general lee still strongly opposed any attack. He thought that an attack on such a well disciplined enemy of equal size. Only risk a major defeat. He still wanted to await the arrival of an army from france. Before seeking another general engagement. Lee said that he thought they should build a quote bridge of gold for the british to assist them with their retreat. After all the enemy was going away. That was what they wanted. There was no benefit in trying to confront them. Lee recommended that they deploy reinforcements to maxwell dickinson to keep up the harassment of the british column. And keep it on the move to new york. But he saw no point in trying to impede or slow down the march let alone bring on a general engagement between the two armies generals green wayne and lafayette all favored sending a much larger force to annoy the british column and to bring the remainder of the army behind that force as a backup in case. The british column turned on them. Lafayette argued that it quote would be disgraceful. And humiliating to allow the enemy to cross the jerseys and tranquility in the end the council agreed to send a fifteen hundred man force to support maxwell's and dickinson's men harassing the british column lease. Sign the compromise agreement as did lafayette and green wayne did not saying he still believed a much stronger. Force was needed and that he preferred that they try to push the enemy into a full pitch battle. Lafayette green later sent letters to washington saying that they hope the fifteen hundred reinforcements would draw the british into a larger battle. Lafayette also said that generals von stolen and do portal also supported this position later that day washington deployed about six hundred riflemen under colonel. Daniel morgan to support general maxwell. He then deployed another nearly fifteen hundred men under general charles scott to annoy the british left. Flank and rear washington also said communications to general dickinson to coordinate attacks with the local new jersey forces. He deployed general von story to get better. Intelligence of the enemy's movements. General scott is another continental general that voided introducing up until now scott took the unusual path of becoming general starting his military career as a private in seventeen fifty five shortly after the death of his father. Sixteen year. old scott enlisted in the second virginia regiment. He had been apprentice to become a carpenter but apparently decided that military life would be much. More interesting scott's first years of service were difficult ones following the defeat of the braddock campaign shortly before his enlistment. The french and indians dominated the virginia backcountry and regularly attacked outposts and settlements scott served as a guide for the army during this time and quickly rose to sergeant later in the war. Sergeant scott served under colonel. George washington in the effort to capture for to kane in the expedition led by british general john forbes washington saw merit in the young teenager and commissioned him as an ensign after the fall of four to kane scott remained with his unit in the pittsburgh area rebuilding defenses and manning garrisons on the western outposts near the end of the war virginia needed volunteers to put down a cherokee uprising on the frontier scott volunteered and received his captaincy. There he served under lieutenant. Colonel adam stephen after suppressing the cherokee uprising the governor virginia disbanded. Captain scots regiment. Around the same time scott's older brother died leaving him. Several valuable estates in western. Virginia scott got married and settle into the life of a prosperous tobacco farmer as tensions between the colonies and britain grew scott back the patriot. Cause in seventeen seventy five shortly after lexington scott raised a company of soldiers and began drilling again. He offered his company services to patrick henry during the military confrontation with the governor. When virginia finally established two regiments in late seventeen. Seventy five scott received a commission as a lieutenant colonel in the second virginia. He played a key role in the battle of great bridge helping to capture folk and forcing the royal governor. Lord done more to flee to a british naval ship in seventeen seventy six scots regiment was absorbed into the continental army. He soon received a commission to full colonel and was assigned to command the fifth virginia regiment. There he served under his old commander now. General adam stephen. They both served under general washington for the christmas attack on. Trenton scott played a conspicuous role in the second battle of trenton as well as the forage war that winter in march seventeen seventy seven. Scott returned home to virginia washington. Soon recall him. And with rushton's recommendation. Congress promoted scott to brigadier general. He continued to serve under by this time. Major general stephen scott led his brigade at brandy wine and was one of the most forceful advocates for the attack on germantown following germantown general scott and steven accused each other failures in the leadership during the battle. This end it was stephen discharged from the army. Scott then served under general lafayette and marched out of valley forge under the french. General's command to attack the british column in new jersey. General scott had his independent command of fifteen hundred soldiers to harass the enemy of the morning. After scott's deployment washington ordered the remainder of the army to leave their tents and other equipment behind and move about seven miles further east to rocky hill and kingston along the millstone creek from rocky hill washington deployed general wayne with about one thousand men to harass and impede the head of the british column as it marched. North washington also central. Lafayette along with wayne. And also with his aide. Colonel alexander hamilton. To go with them for the purpose of keeping him informed of the brigade's movements another source says that lafayette received a contingent of three thousand continental troops with which to confront the british so washington was committing far more troops to the field than the council had recommended. He was deploying them both in front of the british column and behind it so regardless of any council consensus that they should just be harassing the column. Washington seem bent on provoking four on battle over in the british camp general clinton had planned to march north from allentown to brunswick about twenty five miles away brunswick had been a major british camp a year earlier before general had abandoned the post when he pulled all of his troops back to new york the british quite familiar with the terrain from there the column could move to envoy and cross into british controlled staten island ordinarily army on the march on open roads could make that distance in a single day given clinton's pace thus for it would probably take him three to five days to get there clinton expected that the continentals would intercept his column at cranberry township about ten miles to his north. The continentals would probably get their first. Select good defensive ground and force a confrontation on their terms so instead of marching north to confront the continentals clinton turned the british column to the east marching directly to the jersey shore. It was a little over thirty miles to sandy hook but it would avoid the confrontation with the continentals from sandy hook. The british column could have the support of the british navy new york harbor. The continentals would likely not want to attack in that situation and would allow the british to transport the army across the bay back into the city. So while continentals were trying to provoke a battle. The british under general clinton were pretty clearly trying to avoid one the change of direction move the british away from the confrontation and created a race to the sea. General clinton even debated destroying the fifteen hundred wagons. That were traveling with his army in order to speed up the pace in the end though he decided against it since he thought it would make him look weak and afraid if he just ran as fast as he could clinton already had a morale problem during the march he had. Several soldiers tried and hanged for desertion. He did not want to appear to be running away. From the continentals he was simply consolidating forces. New york per his orders from london even if he was avoiding a confrontation he did not want it to appear that way even so his decision to change direction and avoid battle redirected the british column to the east toward a village known as monmouth courthouse. Next week you guessed it the battle of monmouth. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution. Podcast after show. Thanks as always to train. Ans- george davis and louis wait. I supporting this podcast at the alexander. Hamilton club level on patron. Thanks also to george hunger. I support the robert morris circle level. I'd also like to thank longtime supporters. Rob duval andy chong and scott Who didn't give a last name who have been loyal patriot. Supporters for over a year. Now everyone who provides financial support to help cover this shows costs allows me to make it freely available to everyone else who cannot afford to provide financial support. So thanks so much for that. I also wanted to mention that. I planned to release another special interview episode later this week. The new episode is a talk with larry kidder about his new book revolutionary princeton. The book covers the town of princeton. Over the course of the entire war we do get into some of the discussion about princeton during the time around the battle of monmouth. So look forward to that special episode to drop sometime in the next few days. This week's episode cover the days following the evacuation of philadelphia as the british army tries to make its way across new jersey to reach new york city a year earlier on the way to philadelphia from new york city general hal had avoided marching across new jersey instead opting to sail his army all the way down to the chesapeake and then marched to philadelphia for maryland. At that point house goal was to avoid getting bogged down in a land assault or have his army. Be a target of potshots and melissa harassment. As it marched across new jersey on this return trip general clinton could've chosen to board ships and simply sailed down from philadelphia to new york via a much shorter route than how to simply by sailing. Down the delaware river and that up the coast of new jersey fact near city doing so would have avoided a conflict which was clearly one of the british goals. So why did clinton march across new jersey. The biggest reason was loyalists in philadelphia. They desperately wanted to sail outer philadelphia but for the continentals returned. Clinton made room for civilians on his fleet by keeping the army from having to use those ships. Even if the army took some harassing fire it was probably the best option for protecting loyal citizens who needed to flee philadelphia when the army left clinton probably not fear a threat from the american army. He was only abandoning philadelphia because he had orders to do so. Despite london's orders nearly everyone in america was telling him that giving up philadelphia was a mistake and that the army should either remain or go on the offensive against these starving ragged. Continental army at valley forge. While clinton obeyed his orders to withdraw to new york. He wasn't concerned about a battle with the continentals. He was mostly concerned that an american raid would try to steal the british wagons that were traveling with the army. If he could force the americans into an all out battle on ground of his choosing. I think clinton had an attitude of bring it on. He had always criticized for being too conservative and not attacking aggressively enough. He also knew that once you reach new york he was going to have to send away much of his army and would be prevented from engaging in any new offensives. So i think clinton welcomed an all out battle before reaching new york. Clinton was not moving through new jersey. Editing great speed new jersey was not a wilderness. There really was not any good excuse for marching only about five miles a day. yes there was oppressive. He and there were efforts. By the militia to block roads. But i think part of clinton's leisurely pace was that he did not mind a confrontation and that he did not want appear to be running away from the enemy rather he was marching to new york per his orders. Not out of any fear of the continental army that said he was not some young division-leader anymore. He wasn't going to rush into battle anytime anywhere. That is why he avoided marching directly to washington's army in northern new jersey and instead turned and marched east to sandy hook he was not going to let the americans pick the ground for their fight all of the movements and marches that i covered today are of course leading up to the confrontation at monmouth. Courthouse that i will discuss in more detail next week. There are quite a few books that cover the battle of monmouth including the days leading up to battle and have included list of them at the bottom of my blog entry for this episode. The one of them that. I'm picking as my recommendation of the week is a handsome flogging. The battle of monmouth. June twenty eighth seventeen seventy eight by william r griffith. The book is part of a series from the emergent revolutionary war covering key battles of the war. It's a fairly short book less than two hundred pages total but it focuses on the days leading up to the battle and the battle itself. It's a relatively new book released in two thousand twenty the author. William griffith is a guide at gettysburg battlefield. This is his second his. I was about the battle of lake. George during the french and indian war if you want to read more about military maneuvering and tactics leading to the battle of monmouth. Then i suggest you check out a handsome flogging as i said the book is part of a series being released by the emerging revolutionary war. So this is probably as good a time as any to name. The emerging revolutionary war as my line recommendation of week. The group serves as a platform to help authors publishing works related to this era it also includes links to blogs and other online resources that you might find useful. The group also hosts some live events although most of course have been virtual lately they are in the process of trying to hold their second day. Long symposium on the revolution which is planned for may of twenty twenty one in alexandria. Virginia this was a live symposium that was postponed from two thousand twenty and i guess they're hoping for the best this spring. If you're in the area or willing to travel it should be a great event if you wanna learn more about what emerging revolutionary war is doing. Go to their website. At emerging revolutionary war dot org as always. There is a direct link to the site on my blog. Entry for this episode. go to blood. Am ref. podcast dot com for more details. Well that's offer this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american revolution podcast.

new jersey army philadelphia dickinson washington new jersey militia continental army general maxwell trenton scott general clinton pennsylvania general anthony wayne clinton john cadwalader british army virginia general lee john dickinson green wayne
ARP170 Whitemarsh

American Revolution Podcast

30:11 min | 7 months ago

ARP170 Whitemarsh

"Hello. Thank you for joining the American Revolution today episode 170 the Battle of White Marsh for the last few weeks. I've been neglecting Washington's Army as we finished off Saratoga and spent a couple of weeks with the British clearing the Delaware and then last week catching up with the Continental Congress at York. We last left off Washington retreating from his attack at Germantown on October 4th. 1777 way back in episode 163 after the retreat from Germantown Washington and his men marched to Lansdale Pennsylvania about twenty miles Northwest of Germantown in the couple of weeks following the battle at Germantown Washington spent most of his time trying to consolidate his army in case there was a British counter-attack also trying to explain to Congress what had happened and seeking food and supplies for his increasingly desperate soldiers. After about two weeks, he moved to the Continental Army a little bit closer to Philadelphia setting his headquarters at the home of Peter went about twelve miles from Germantown a few weeks after that on November 2nd. He moved his army to White Marsh only about eight miles from Germantown by creeping closer to the British Washington ho to draw British attention away from the Delaware River defenses and keep focus on his army, if he could keep the British from seizing the forts on the Delaware River perhaps he could keep General Howe's Army isolated and without supply lines over the winter as the Delaware River froze. But as we saw a couple of weeks ago that did not work the British leveled the 40,000 on the Delaware and the British Navy swept aside, it's River defenses and reached Philadelphia by late November. At this point Washington's generals were divided on next steps some wanted a second attack on Philadelphia others wanted to withdraw a short distance and gives me time to rebuild and recover. Whatever the next step Washington knew. He was going to need a larger Army if he had to contend with the larger British and Hessian force that was back in Philadelphia with the victory at Saratoga and the surrender of burgoyne's Northern Army much of the northern continental army under General Gates would be freed up to come help with Washington around Philadelphia convincing General gates to give up his army. However would prove more difficult Washington did not want to put down in a letter the details about five Army and its needs there was too much danger that correspondence could be captured and turned over to the enemy instead. He sent his twenty-year-old aide-de-camp Colonel Alexander Kang. Milton to a prize Gates personally of the situation and pass along the Commander's orders to send the bulk of the northern Army down to Pennsylvania as Washington office. Did he left some discretion with Hamilton because he might find different circumstances upon his arrival in Albany that might not make Washington's orders the best course of action Hamilton made the three hundred mile journey to Albany in a mere five days along the way he stopped at the Peekskill New York command to give General Israel Putnam similar orders to deploy several brigades to Washington's command in Philadelphia when Hamilton reached gates in Albany on November 5th. He called for a meeting right away to convey Washington's messages. But Gates who was cocky enough to disrespect Washington by not even setting him a notice of the victory at Saratoga was irked at having to listen to orders from a twelve-year-old messenger boy sent by the man that he thought he should be replacing Gates told Hamilton that he was still concerned that General Clinton might bring another British Army up the Hudson River that year and that he needed an army to oppose that danger if it came he agreed to send Washington one Brigade of about six hundred Continentals under the command of General James Patterson. This was an unacceptably small number. It was an effect an insignificant number of soldiers compared to what Washington needed if he wanted to take any real action against Bush and Philadelphia after several days of arguing Hamilton finally asked Gates if he should just go back to Pennsylvania and tell Washington that case was refusing to obey any orders. To send the soldiers that Washington needed at that point Gates finally relented and agreed to send Morgan's rifles as well. As some troops under generals poor and Glover. These were still a compromised number to what Washington wanted but they were better than his initial offer. The reinforcements finally made it to Washington, but not until it was too late to use them for the defenses at Fort Smith land and Mercer. It probably did not help relations between Gates and Hamilton that Hamilton was still on very good terms with General film boiler who Gates still saw as a rival when he took over the northern Army Hamilton stopped to spend some time with Skyler who was by this time essentially retired from the army with no command of his own. He was living on his estate near Albany. It was on this visit that Hamilton had the opportunity to meet Skyler's daughter Elizabeth. Although it does not appear that Sparks flew at this first encounter with the future. Mrs. Hamilton as Colonel Hamilton began his return trip to Pennsylvania. He stopped back in Peekskill again where he discovered thought Putnams promised reinforcements for Washington had never left Camp Hamilton had to be raped the major general and the General's aide Colonel Aaron Burr for their failure to deploy the Army the main problem though was not Putnam. It was that the men had refused to March until they got paid as Hamilton continued his travels. He came down sick with a terrible fever. He took a few days to recover and then continued on his way. Unfortunately the sickness got much worse and he needed to return to bed rest from some accounts many witnesses. Thought the young man was on his deathbed where he remained for several weeks shortly before Christmas Hamilton felt well enough to travel and hired a coach to take him back to Washington's Camp again, though. He fell ill and had to return to his sickbed in New York. He would not make it back to Washington until late January month. Meanwhile back at Whitemarsh Washington's Army settled in and waited for the British to react as they waited the day after arriving at Whitemarsh, November 3rd off Washington ordered an inquiry into the actions of Major General Adam Stephen. Stephen you may recall face charges of drunkenness and neglect of Duty for his efforts at the Battle of Germantown during that battle Stevens troops and General Anthony wage troops fired on each other and then both fled the field Stevens Chief accuser that day Brigadier General Charles Scott whom Steven had criticized in his afterlife report to Washington lay the blame for the incident squarely back on General Stephen. You also have to remember that General Steven and Washington knew each other from way back Steven had come to Virginia from Scotland in 1748 where he had been serving as a surgeon aboard a British Navy vessel during the war of Jenkins a year. When he arrived in Virginia, he settled in Fredericksburg where he became a militia officer and at served as Colonel Washington's second-in-command of the First Virginia regiment during a broader campaign of 1755 during that campaign by all accounts the two men got along reasonably. Well after the French and Indian War Steven and George Washington got into competition with each other over the purchase of some Western lands. They also ran against each other for the House of Burgesses seat in Fredericksburg, Washington won the seat some have argued that he continued to hold a grudge against even for even running against him in truth though. The Divide between the two men was a little deeper than that Steven had a rough Frontiersman Persona and enjoyed drinking and hanging out with the troops. The elitist General Washington to tested this sort of behavior in an officer perhaps also because Stephen New Washington long before he became commander of the Army staff and was not afraid to oppose the commander-in-chief in councils of War Washington had rebuked Steven at least twice before at Trenton Washington had accused Steven of alerting British to the surprise attack when he sent a team of soldiers to attack the Hessians that team executed the attack without knowing about Washington's planned attack several hours before the rest of the Continentals arrived in Trenton a few months later General Washington had criticized Steven again this time for inflating casualty numbers in and 1/2 battle report the inquiry in this case led to a full court-martial headed by Major General John Sullivan a few days after the Army arrived at White Marsh. Sullivan you may recall had been the subject of his own court-martial only a few weeks earlier for his actions at Brandywine and on Long Island while Sullivan had been a wit Stephen did not fare. So well without getting into all the details the court found him guilty of drunkenness on repeated occasions and quote conduct unlike an officer the board recommended that Steven be dismissed from the Army on November 20th, Washington approved that recommendation Steven then appealed to Congress arguing that quote a person of high rank was out to get him almost certainly a reference to General, Washington. Nevertheless Steven did not have strong political support in Congress Congress upheld Washington's recommendation and cashier General Steven. As I mentioned a couple weeks ago Washington gave command of Stevens division to General Lafayette. The young Frenchman had been lobbying heavily for a command and while Washington had been reluctant to the Marquis lack of experience and a concern that if he was killed in battle that it could damage relations with France Washington also expressed an apprehension that if loss yet did not receive a command he might resign and go home that also would hurt relations with friends in the end Lafayette took the command of Stevens division. Stephen returned to Virginia where he remained active in politics and he would later go on to settle the town of Martinsburg. And what is today West Virginia also around the same time Washington ordered the remaining American ships on the Delaware River to be destroyed the British Navy was still moving up the Delaware River toward Philadelphia and Washington feared that the British might capture several vessels that were not quite complete and outfitted for war that had been moved upriver to Bordentown New Jersey one of these ships off. The Effington was commanded by Captain John Barry of the Continental Navy upon receiving instructions to Scuttle his ship very resisted those orders and demanded to speak with Washington first Barry believed he could still use the ship's and would have the ability to sync it if needed at a moment's notice the dispute ended up with Barry and conquer Richmond Francis Hopkinson of the Marine committee having a huge fight Hopkinson gave Barry the orders to sink the ship and denied him any time to question the orders with any other source, very argued that unless he received orders from the Marine committee. Not just one member acting on his own that he was not going to destroy his ship by most accounts Hopkinson was arrogant and dismissive of berries position and called him a bunch of names that had on other occasions led to duels between gentlemen in the end Hopkins in ordered Barry off his ship and gave the orders to sink the ship himself this led to other problems the plan had been to sink the ship in such a way that it could be raised later if needed Hopkins lack of experience resulted in the ship being sunk irretrievably, even though he reported to Washington that it could be raised later. The incident between Barry and Hopkinson became a really big deal because it led to Congressional hearings against Barry in January in the end Congress acquitted bury. Em, I think mostly because they knew that their colleague Hopkinson could be a bit of an overbearing jerk and they tended to put most of the blame for the incident on the way. He had handled the Continentals remained at White Marsh for a month pretty much daring the British in Philadelphia only a few miles away to do something about it. Finally on the night of December 4th, the British marched out in full force with about twelve thousand soldiers to take White Marsh from the Continentals the British easily repulsed an attack took about six hundred Pennsylvania militia under the command of General James Irving before reaching the American defenses. The British night March and surprise attack. However was not much of a surprise to Washington several days earlier General how had discussed plans for the attack in Philadelphia? How had taken a large house near the Delaware River as his headquarters. He also commandeered the house across the street to use for meetings the house for meetings belong to the Dare has a Quaker family. Although Quakers tended to be loyalists. The darrows did support the Patriot cause and in fact, there are oldest son was fighting with the Patriots outside the city when house officers use the home to develop their attack plans for White Marsh Lydia darragh was forced to remain upstairs in her bedroom, so that she could not get over here the soldiers plans Dara however could hear the discussions from her bedroom closet. She listened in and heard the necessary intelligence about the attack. The next day she obtained a pass to leave town extensively to visit her children who were staying with relatives outside of Philadelphia Dara then made her way to a Tavern side of town where she could get the message to the Continental Army of the eminent British attack when the British army arrived in White Marsh in the pre-dawn hours of December 5th, they found the Americans ready and waiting behind their entrenchments. The Americans were getting better at building these defenses. They were on Heights behind swampy land thought the attackers would have to cross and their flanks were well covered by Abba T's and artillery the only realistic course of attacked for the British was a frontal assault would be extremely costly if successful instead the British stopped and set up camp within sight of The Americans. They hope to draw out the Americans into an attack on Open Fields Washington. However was not taking the bait the Americans remained behind their defenses watch the British for two days. Finally shortly after midnight on December 7th, the British packed up and withdrew back to Germantown. How was not quite ready to give up the mission yet though from there the British marched West hoping to move around the American Left Flank and find a better way to attack again though. They're move was not much of a secret the British left no forces in front of the lines at Whitemarsh to distract the Continentals as they March through small towns. They burned homes of patriotism, which let everyone know where the Army was. How to deploy General Gray's regulars along with several companies of Hessian Jaeger's joining them was the loyalist regiment known as the Queen's Rangers that had recently come under the command of Colonel John Graves Simcoe. This Advance column was supposed to probe for weaknesses in the Enemy Lines instead. They ran into the newly dead Morgan's Rifleman who handles 10 had managed to get General gates to send back to Washington Morgan backed up by Maryland. Militia Colonel under Mordecai guests can be tested the British Advance through the forest inflicting casualties not finding any weaknesses in the American lines Before Dawn the British paused once again, General Health then ordered the Army back to Philadelphia arriving that evening Washington sent out troops to harass the British rear during its retreat but the British moved so quickly that the Americans never caught up with them over all the attack costs the British not much nine killed sixty wounded and 33 missing again, though. I'm a British reports which tend to be notoriously lower than reality other accounts total British casualties at around 350 dead wounded and missing them in losses came primarily from the Pennsylvania militia who had attacked the British column that first night and from the engagement with Morgan's Rifleman in the forest on the night of December 7th. Overall, the Americans are estimated to have lost about a hundred and fifty killed or wounded and another fifty-four captured while Washington's Army could withstand the British home. So they're we're more persistent enemies facing the Army namely hunger and cold ever since the British took Philadelphia Washington had been complaining that his soldiers did not have blankets shoes tents and other basic necessities. They were also rampant food shortages having spent a month at Whitemarsh the army that had ravaged the immediate area of all Food Supplies and wood for fires. These needs were becoming worse with the December cold that was descending upon the ill-housed and volt LED soldiers Washington held a council to decide what to do next several officers still wanted to initiate another attack on Philadelphia. But the majority rejected that as the men were in no condition for another attack and the British defenses around Philadelphia were two well-established. Others. Wanted to move the Army into winter Quarters at Wilmington Delaware where they could continue to harass movements on the Delaware River that position however did not allow a good line of retreat off and also opened up and undefended path of attack on York where Congress was sitting in addition any British movements to the north to link up with New York would also find the Americans out of position. The Continentals also considered moving to Lancaster, but that was too far from Philadelphia to keep an eye on the British and also would displace a great many civilians who had fled to that area from Philadelphia. A third option was to establish winter quarters out in the woods in an area of birth. Further away from Philadelphia at just over a day's March. This distance would prevent a surprise attack. The location was also near a large forested area that would provide firewood and lumber for building cabins for winter quarters. It was also closed to farming communities that would provide a source of food for the Army and it also provided them access to the Schuylkill River for water now Washington's generals were pretty evenly divided on the three locations. So Washington made the final decision for the third option A little place called Valley Forge the Army broke camp at Whitemarsh on December eleventh the man trudged through freezing rain and muddy roads as they made their way to the undisclosed location as the column attempted to cross the Schuylkill River at masten's Ford it unexpectedly ran into a force of several thousand Bridge. Soldiers under the command of General Lord Cornwallis, the British had been out on a large foraging party neither side had expected to see the other the bridge were on the east side of the river and the surprised Americans quickly retreated back to the western side. Although Washington's Army far outnumbered cornwallis's Brigade. It was not prepared for the fight and allow the British to escape the Americans reported five killed twenty wounded and another 20 captured from the advanced force that had encountered Cornwallis wage. It has reported capturing 160 prisoners after a quote stubborn resistance Washington paused his March for a week sending out troops to look for more jobs in the area camping at an area known as the golf or Gulf Mills on December 19th finding no more British in the area the Army packed up. Once again and continued it's march to Valley Forge. It reached its intended destination the following day with that. The two armies went into winter quarters worth no more major operations planned until spring next week. We return to France where the king is finally ready to enter into a secret alliance with the American. Hi, thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. Thanks as always to train aunts and George Davis who helped this song cast as Alexander Hamilton club level supporters on patreon. Also thanks to Mike Hager who supports the podcast at the Robert Morris Circle on patreon page also appreciate the one-time contribution from Francis Dumas on PayPal financial support is particularly appreciated right. Now. This week's episode almost didn't make it to age being released on time because my ten-year-old Windows 7 desktop that I was using to produce the podcast had a massive hard drive failure. Sadly. I failed to make a backup for about six weeks prior. I'm normally working on several upcoming episodes at once all of which are at different stages of development. So having lost all that work. I had to scramble to re-record and re-edit this episode in just a few days. I'm still going to be behind for a while as I try to redo that six weeks worth of lost work so often they should do all that anyone who wants to kick in and help me buy some new equipment. I would greatly appreciate the support either by becoming a supporter on patreon or by making a one-time contribution via PayPal venmo. Zelle or popmoney. Well, that's enough about my troubles this week. The Continental Army was trying to pick a fight with the British in Philadelphia Washington found himself in the difficult, but increasingly familiar position of wanting to attack but not having sufficient resources wage. To make such an attack possible. He tried to provoke the British into attacking his defenses on ground of his choosing but the British were unwilling to deal with the losses of another month or Bunker Hill style Victory because this really wasn't a full on Battle White Marsh is largely forgotten by history. I'm embarrassed to admit it, but I am having grown up in the Philadelphia area and with an interest in the revolution and as someone whose own ancestors fought as Pennsylvania associators in the Philadelphia campaign is always heard about Brandywine Paoli Germantown Valley Forge and Trenton, but I never even heard about White Marsh until I began reading more about the Philadelphia campaign as an adult. It really is a nearly forgotten battle this week. We also heard about Alexander Hamilton's closest brush with death during the war. Washington was becoming much more reliant on his aide-de-camp who remember was only about twenty years old at this time sending Hamilton to General Horatio gates in New York to get the general to release much of his army was a really sensitive job that might have required the tact and experience of a more senior officer. I think it's a testament to happen that Washington trusted this young man with the job Washington frequently took chances on younger officers without much experience giving them responsibilities as a way of life. Testing them. It was on this trip that Hamilton became deathly ill and as I said the main show many people who were with him at the time thought that he was going to die. It took him many weeks to pull through despite his efforts to return to the Army. He was just so sick that he couldn't and he remained four months before he could return to Washington's headquarters dead. The historical appreciation of Hamilton to the American Revolution has gotten a great deal more publicity in the past couple of years primarily because of the Broadway musical about his life. There is no question. Of course that Alexander Hamilton was a key figure of the Revolution and probably an even more key figure in the Years following the war itself. If you want to read more about the man this week's book recommendation is Alexander Hamilton by Ron chernow. This is the same biography that way in Manuel Miranda read that inspired him to write the Hamilton musical. The book was first published in 2004 and it over 700 Pages not counting an index. It's a pretty thorough accounting of Hamilton's life note that we know relatively little about Hamilton's childhood and churn out gets through the Revolutionary War years. The first two hundred pages, so the bulk of the book is Hamilton's post-war years still I think it's a really great read turn out of course is a best-selling author. He's wrong number of other books including a very good biography of George Washington is most recent book is about Civil War General Ulysses S Grant my online recommendation this week is I can't flip called White Marsh and address delivered before the Pennsylvania Society of Sons of the Revolution at Whitemarsh by Charles Henry Jones. This was first published in 1909. It's about twenty pages long and focus is squarely on the Battle of White Marsh. You can search for Andy copy of it at arxiv.org or as always I've included links on my blog and website just go to Blog podcast, and look in the further reading off. Section where you can always find more resources about each episode. There's also of course a full transcript of the episode as well as pictures and maps that helped make explanation of the events. We discuss each week a little more interesting. Well, that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

Washington Army Alexander Hamilton Philadelphia Washington Stephen New Washington White Marsh Army Continental Army Delaware River British Army British Navy Pennsylvania Philadelphia Germantown George Washington Whitemarsh Washington Morgan General Steven Germantown Washington
Monday Motorsport LIVE - 15th July 2019

Motorsport Radio

42:39 min | 1 year ago

Monday Motorsport LIVE - 15th July 2019

"Hello and welcome to the one thousand nine hundred Motorsport Sport Awards. Thanks for joining us. I'm Brian Lucas and tonight we're going to take you through. All the categories all the nominations and reveal all of the winners with awards covering being the motorsport industry as a whole from the participants to the proprietors the moccasins to the marshalls plus the riders. And the drivers everything is to play for for those of you joining us for the first time. Or if you're unsure how are awards walk. It's nice and simple. We open the awards up to you for the month of October. Tober to nominate your favorite drivers. Riders Teams Paddock members. And more. This first round was purely for nominations for so many popular choices. It made the job for a judging panel even more difficult to the contestants down to the final lists once the final opened on Monday the fourth of November it became a straight a straight fight for our nominees with five in some categories and ten in others when the nominations closed last week everyone had their fingers crossed that toast trust and and everything else cross to become a winner Ave motorsport award and for those lucky enough to be given such a prize. They'll be joining an illustrious list. Who won last year including the likes of last year's Ryder of the European Hickman the driving star of the Aid Martha amvest Racing Club of the year? Ms Vr and many many more Nominees had over a month to convince each of our voters of their merits. And it's been great to see so many of you sharing commenting liking and engaging inundate online line. Thanks to your efforts over. Twenty two thousand votes have been cast in certain categories and. I'm glad I didn't have to count them. Thankfully the guys over favorite motorsport media have spent countless hours over the last week going over every last detail and with that we bring you the twenty nine thousand nine Motorsport Awards. The individual Motorsport awards are contained within five different groups. They are special awards for the stars behind the scenes of every every meeting and events. We celebrate those working day and night to capture the real passion in the sport Motorsport Industry highlighting the very best ESTA business technology and organizational prowess in our sports media and marketing. With thousands of brilliant. Creative Brain's working in the industry industry. Who did you think stood out this year club and championship? Every racer needs a platform and you told us who's been best in twenty nine thousand nine hundred and and sports people and teams performance personality and passion are all on display from the teams and participants. So as down to you to vote for your favorites puts one thousand nine hundred so here we go the moment you've all been waiting for we're GONNA kick it off with our unsung hero award in many ways. This category is the heart of our awards. We wanted to highlight and reward. People simply doing what they do best. We've had a fantastic lasted response since we opened the polls and here are the nominees brandon peril Dave player. John Sohn's mass you Newson Mattie Street Roger Keyes Sam May Lachmann Osman Scott Atherton Stewart Garland and tracy hatred and in third place ice. It is Mattie streets second-place goes to Tracy Hatri and the winner is his Matthew Newson. Matt Brisk F. One stock car driver from L. Sham. Nearly Kelly died in February after being taken ill in intensive care but fantastically only months later. He was back on track winning races and very nearly British British champion fans say he has a never say never attitude that is why he was your winner of this Motorsport Award. Congratulations let's carry on then. Who best represents all of the best aspects six of our sports who was set an example? Not only on track but off track for the rest of the industry who deserves to win spirit of the sport. Well here are your nominees. Mattie St Louis Hamilton Cassius Stutchbury Josh Tana Donna and Stewart Garland and inferred place. Congratulations to Cassius spree. In Second Eights Mattie not street and the winner is Lewis Hamilton winning his sick Formula One world championship impeach. This year Lewis is character. Means he never gives up and always pushes himself to be a better racer on track. He does a lot to raise awareness of social issues and gives lots of his time to charity setting a socially responsible trend for future champions at swansea nineteenth spirit of the sports is Lewis Hamilton. And now we come onto lifetime commitment to motorsport. We all know someone who lives and breathes motorsports. Some people make like such a massive commitments racing throughout their life that we think they deserve to be recognized and rewarded. We asked you to nominate. Who used thought has made a lifetime time commitments and motor sports and the nominations are Brent's Glatt Win Fred Clark Julian Ryder Sean? Woods and Stewart Higgs and in third place. It's Fred clock in second place Vice Stewart Higgs and the winner is Julian Ryder highly respected respected journalist author and commentator. Julian fell in love with motorcycle racing when he first saw scrambling in black and white on the BBC grandstand in the early nineteen sixties fans fell immediately in love with his ability to compensate on a variety of championships from Moto. GP British superbikes bikes world superbikes to the FAM endurance world championship as well as writing numerous books and the season review for Moto. GP All this and more Moore has earned Julian the lifetime commitment to Motorsport Award in twenty nine teams and we move onto the lifetime achievement. Award this category is all about those who have been working tirelessly throughout their lives to achieve great things. Well that's through competing organizing or more. The lifetime achievement award is one of many which are highly contested and the nominations. Are Brian. Redman Frankie Wayman Human Junior Gordon Nudie John Corbin and Russell Brookes in third place. Is Gordon Gordon Moodie in Second Russell Brooks and the lifetime achievement award goes to Frankie. He wayman junior racing for thirty three years. Multiple world and British champion in Brisk F.. One Frankie keeps showing younger drivers. How it's it's done time and time again? And now he wins the lifetime achievement award still to come in the one thousand nine hundred motorsport awards we we find out which is the best race track for road. Course we'll find out who you chose as the TV productions company of the year. Who's been the very best Tesa? Twenty nine teen say changed. You'll find out here. Welcome back to the twenty nine hundred motorsport awards. I'm Brian Lucas. Now we move on then to motorsport. Industry categories these next awards. Look behind the scenes and rewards standout companies companies in our industry. So let's move to our next award. And it's the best trade show or exhibition. Trade shows. Fairs and exhibitions is a great way to showcase a company championship or product to the rest of the industry. Or even the public mode sport trade shows and exhibitions exhibitions in the UK. Alone are visited by hundreds of thousands of people each year. But which would be judged as the best. Well here your nominees autosport so sport. International Motorcycle Live noticeboards. Days Live Professional Motorsport Expo and race retro and in Third Place Motorsport days live in second place. It's motorcycle Michael. Live and the winner is autosport international celebrating its thirtieth birthday. The annual generally show is one of your biggest the biggest motorsport shows for the second year in a row. It's the Motorsport Awards of Best Trade Show and exhibition and we continue now to the Insurance Works Company of the year. Insurance companies are rarely celebrated often overlooked when considering the critical running of Motorsport but insurance is something we all have have to have so once again. We asked you to choose the best insurance company. And here are your nominations Adrian Flux motorsports Brit. It's Insurance Grove and Dean Motorsport Insurance Aussie I B and Swinton bikes in third place place. It's Swinson Bikes in second place. And the winner Adrian Flux motorsports the UK's largest specialist motor insurance broker covering things from classic and vintage cars through to a heavily modified sports cars. And you have voted them as the twenty nine thousand nine Motorsport Insurance Company and we continue further to the best investments the nominees kroft motorsport. UK Oliver's Mount Silverstone stone and Wilton Mill in third place it's silverstone second-place goes to motorsport you K.. And the winner is all of us mounts having been rescued and reopened in one thousand nine hundred with just a couple of events. This popular road course has seen the investment to allow it to really start racing once again to the benefit of road racing the local area the wider motorsport community and it was voted as the best investments in Swenson nineteen to a category. We will will have an opinion about the best race track or road course and the voting came close. It came very close here. Are the nominations brands Hatch Cadwell Park Cumbria caught circuit. Roure Donington Park Goodwood. I'll of man. T T mounting costs Linden Hill North West two hundred oaten Park and Silverstone Ova stone and his how the top three looks in third place. Alton Park a narrow second-place goes to brands hatch and the road course of the year is the man. Tt Mountain costs two hundred in nineteen cents over thirty seven point seven miles the intense spectacular and the legendary. Tt Costs on the Isle of Man is officially officially the best race track and road course and we move on to the best new engineering and technology award now motorsport. It is always pushing the boundaries with technology and engineering and here are the nominations Formula E. generation to car mission mission aged twenty four hydrogen car noto e bike. Robo Car Dave bought two point zero and team Brits Hand Controls Charles here we go in third place Moto e bike. second-place goes to Formula E.. JEN TO CAA. Aw and the winner is team. Brits Hand Controls we move on to TV production company now. There are many many any production companies that work within motorsport. It's very very hard for industry and hear all the nominees. Aj K. TV digital digital TV. Green Light TV. Hey Fisher and whisper films and here are the results in third place it's AJ TV second-place goes to hey fishe Russia but the winner of TV Production Company for the Motorsport Awards. Two thousand nine hundred nineteen is green. Light TV the next category is the best marketing campaign. Now where would we be in this world without marketing and promotion and here are your nominees British. Jt Championships three hundredth race. F One Thousand Social Media Racing Pride Sorry Mate Dot COM home and Swinson bikes bike giveaway and in third place we have sorry. MATE DOT COM second-place second place goes to racing pride and the winner of the best marketing campaign is British. Gt Championships three hundredths. It's race let me move on to our next category which is image of the year. and Ah your nominees. Gavin Smith for his image of Josh bannister at Cool Fan. Bracing Craig mcallister for his image of Scott reading reading and for his image of Christian hidden. And Irwin both at ESP. Matt Acton for his image of Jake Hill at the BTC she CDC and Johnny Henchman for his image of Color Saints the Formula One British Grand Prix and in third place. We have Johnny Henchman. second-place goes to Gavin Smith got. The winner is Matt Acton a relative newcomer to an industry often seen around paddocks often down the UK. He always produces great right work so huge. Congratulations go to Matt and we move on to our next category which commentator of the year. Now where would we he be without those calling the shots and doing such a great job. We'll hear other nominees. Alex Jake's Andy McEwan Dave Got Art Fred Clark Greg Haines in Waterhouse Jack Nichols Joe. Osborn is born Martin Haven and Richard. John Neal in third place. We Have Fred Clark In second in waterhouse but the winner of the common sites of the year for twenty nineteen Dave got odds odds now. We don't often get to see his face but here. He is Dave commentator of the year. Two thousand nine hundred. My goodness thank you very much. This may not be great for common sites of his. I'm not sure what to say. How do you feel surprised why? Well oh I'm not. I'm not sure what to say. First of all thanks to everyone. Who's voted for me? It's means a lot that you've all listened and you've you've you've recognized my work and you are even if you know this. The only person to win this award twice Yes yes. That's certainly a surprise. I know had plenty of competition. Not only this year but last year as well so they tell us. What does this mean for your country? Career moving forward into twenty twenty. Well we'll we'll have to wait and see. I am at this moment in time. Currently looking to finalize my work for next next year getting dates booked and so on. I've got one or two more things in the pipeline that will be possibly enhanced in due course. We'll have to wait so let's confirm yeah. Congratulations Dave you've entertained all throughout the season and we look forward to hearing you again in twenty twenty thank you very much indeed certainly means a lot thanks to get. Thanks again to everybody. Who's is listened over the past twelve months and to all those who voted for me now every now and then they get a brand new championship or oh series arrive on the scene? It's always very exciting. And here. Are the nominees the BMW one six trophy Enduro car motorsport. UK's karting championships the Dunlop touring car trophy or TC and the W. Series and the results in third place enduro car in second place. The Dunlop touring car trophy or TC A EH. But the winner of the best new championship or series but twenty nine is the W. series flying the flag for female races all over the globe in one thousand nine hundred great to see the W. series flourish. So well can't wait to see what happens in twenty twenty once again. Congratulations to the best new championship or series to twenty nine thousand nine. The W. series. The next category is track day organizers of the year now who doesn't love taking a car or bike our circuit is even better when it's not yours but here are the nominees circuit days javelins. Track days ms not low limits and open track and in third place it's open track second-place goes to MS DT but the winner of track day organizers of the year for twenty nine teen is no limits a huge congratulations there too no limits. A we move on very quickly to the next category now. This is another highly contested. Category the Racing Club of the year and your nominees are seven fifty Motza club the SEC MS via National Mini Stocks Club and H L activities UNIN third place. It's the SEC. second-place goes to national mini stocks club. But the winner is Ms Vr. If you just tuned in this is the Motorsport awards twenty nine thousand nine hundred. I'm moving on to our next next category. Which is the best club series? Now there are so many of us that want to race up and down the land and thankfully there are so many people that have championships and series that we can race in and here are the nominees for the best club series Bernie's sports racing and V8's BMW Compaq Cup be our SEC fiesta. Championship B. R. SCC Formula Ford Sixteen Hundred National. See One racing club wlob carbon eight hundred coupet Cup Civic Chop F. One thousand Ms Vr enduro car and no limits racing and in third place it's Ms Vr. Enduro car second-place goes to do these civic kelp the winner of the Best Cup series. twenty-nine scene is no limits racing. Huge congratulations there are no limits racing. But where review without a best race car and that is our next category now This is one of the cats agrees as created the most interpretation. Some people going for aesthetics and some people are going for actual race cars themselves. But here are the nominees donny. Hobson's car the Honda Civic Taipa. Honda I thirty. MTCR Mercedes an the F.. One W ten q power plus and the WS A- BMW three thirty am sports and in third the place it is the Honda Civic Taipa in second place the Mercedes A. M. F. One w ten E. Q. Power Plus but the winner of the best race car unsurprisingly the WS BMW. Three thirty. I M schools driven by Colleen Turkington and we move on now to sue the best championship. Now this is a very very tough category so much choice but here are the nominees British. Gt British Youth Championship motocross. BTC bt RDA clubmen Rallycross Championship F. One Thousand Moto. GP Motorsport UK British Rallycross Championship. Ms Track Day Championship tea CR UK. Okay and T. C. T. and the world superbikes and in third place we have British. Gt in second place Moto GP but unsurprisingly the best championship here in the UK goes to the BTC now where would we be without the unsung heroes the marshalls we couldn't race without them. The here are the nominees cliff forrester. Dave Brenton John Heat Trick K.. Lang made Christian Chamberlain when Margaret Charts. Malk Minchin Neil Irwin. Serra Fraser and convince Marky and in third place we have Sarah Fraser. second-place it's Vince is. Marquis bought the winner of the martial or official of the year is Margaret Sharat. Congratulations graduations that to Margaret. Thank you very much for all you do. In Motorsport we move on now to the next category. Most ball always full of exciting moments. Were here are the nominees but twenty nine team Brad Jones I British supersport victory British. GT's three wide passer a rouge in Spa Dan cash on his last lap. Brake failure in the final. BTC race of the year. Which handed did the title to calling Turkington? I bend of the Brisker. F One world final. At King's Lynn Harrison crosby losing the GP fifty title on the last lap of the season in cool fab racing. Josh Elliott's first. BSP Silverstone Luke Brandon going from MM tenth to first on his debut British F. O.. Race making your way too easy. Manta sloggers the gym Connor Grid Well World Championships of Poland Not Neil Spinning Colin Turkington in the BTC Final Orion vickers super save in BSP ESP qualifying at Donnington. Want to save that was and in third place it is Ryan Vickers with super save in. CBS Be qualifying at Donnington second-place. It's Dan cash on that amazing last lap brake failure in the final. BTC race of the year but the winner is Manta. slogger is for the Gymkhana Grit well championships Poland. If you just joined us. This is the world's twenty nine and we've been through so many category so far but we're moving onto the next one which is the best race of two thousand nineteen and there's so much choice. This is one of the hardest categories but here are the nominees the richest. Gt Race Ace at brands hatch. The brands hatch final race number. Three in the British touring car enter. 'cause twelve hours to Norfolk. They've fun cup. Round three from Croft or the national superstock six hundred final from brands hatch and the top top three all come from the same circuit brands hatch in third place. It's the British. Gt Brands Hatch. Race and second the national superstock six hundred final from brands hatch but the winner and unsurprisingly because of the drama the British touring car final race ice from brands hatch most always needs a fresh talent coming through the poll and luckily we always get that fresh talent emerging and this makes this category particularly tricky. Let's have a look at the nominees. Abby Lock Ben Ben Kasprzak. George Davis George MacIntyre Harley Keeble Harry Reading James Headley Jensen Brickley Joel Poisson and Zane Maloney and in third third place. We have Jensen Brickley second-place. It's James Headley but the winner of the young driver of the year twenty nineteen. It's Ben Casper's Zach and so we moved from drivers to ride is now. These people need to have a certain part of their body made of steel and of Shali Heyman Clayton Edmonds. Eddie O'Shea Evan Belford Fins Fins Smart Weeden. Jj coming him. Kyle Pain Preston Williams Scott Ogden and storm Stacey and in third place it is Eddie. OCHEJ second-place goes to Preston Williams. The winner is storm Stacey and a massive congratulations to storm Stacey and once again we continue to our next category so many stars emerging every single oh year and this year is exactly the same as others but who are your nominees for twenty nine thousand nine when it comes to bikes and stars of the future by Brandin Pash Brent Herron Davey told Fabio quarter. Ro Johnny Gonesse Max Cook Nathan Jury Ryan Hitchcock Ryan Vickers and Tristan Finocchiaro L.. Charro and in third place. We have Nathan Jury second-place it's Ryan Vickers but the winner for the Star Ars Future Bikes. It's Brent Taryn we move on now to star the future but this time because and again great choice available to you but here I o nominees the eight and offers Alex Toss Jones Bobby. Trombley Brion Davis Dhani Harrison is it Smith Joe Pearson. Jonathan Hoggard Lewis. Kent Hance Tom Canning and in third place it's Danny Harrison second-place is Tom Canning. And the winner is the ever popular Scotsman. aiden mothers. This category was added this year. Twenty nine teen to award those that work directly within the cutting industry and EH nominees guy. Comington Jack Ferguson Jake. Woods Joe Turney and Kira Harris third-placed goes to cure a Harris second. Place goes to Jake Woods on the first ever winner of the Karting Award for twenty nine hundred eighteen. It's Guy Comington and so as we move on to the final three categories a quick reminder of how these lists are created back in October. We invited you to nominate your favorite teams drivers rises etcetera. And it's you that created these lists so we move on then to the big three starting off with the best best team is always hotly contested. And here are your nominates one. Oh seven Racing Essex and Kent Motor Sports. Jj racing misty racing Oxford racing to catty. Paul Bird Motorsport. RAF Regular and Reserve Lee hardy racing facing team Brits team. WD Forty staff. Quick Connect G. R. motorsports and T.F. Sport and in third place we have from way up North Paul Bird Motorsport in second we have. RAF Regular and Reserve Lee hardy racing from the ESP and in First Place t.f sports from the British. Gt move on then to our final two categories and these runs like many others hotly contested and it is the writer of the year. And here are your nominee Brad Jones donnie Johnnie Buchan Dean Harrison Fabio quarter. Ro Jonathan Ray Josh Brooks Marc Kamal Kes- Ryan Vickers Scott Reading and Tommy Bridewell. UNIN third place. It is tell me bridewell. Esp second-place Dean Harrison on a man t t and BSP and the winner of the writer of the year from British supersport. Brad Jones and Brad is with us right now. Brad what do you think. Think about that rider of the twenty nine thousand nine. How it didn't it didn't expect that as is up against some some strong competition addition Yes incredible Whilst into their own assay thanks to everyone that means a lot. This he's just a great way to to top off brilliant season. So how does that make you feel. Yeah to be honest overwhelming. You know it it did not expect to I know I've got a lot of grey Local support from from where I am so definitely helped and strong season. It's definitely how `bout to to get the to get the award is out see brilliant. Well congratulations to your brand. But what does this mean for you looking forward to twenty twenty. No yeah now we can go into two thousand twenty and this is the icing on the cake so we can Enjoy Christmas even more And then going into the twenty twenty season that just just give little boost of extra confidence Yeah absolutely overwhelming on delighted. How you're going to be writing I'm I'm for alcohol. Yeah you know As I say so of Lhasa Words you know really Nice little thing to to win and as I say I was Sean I say Franks once again and Yeah absolutely brilliant with the Moon. Well there you go brad. Congratulations writer of the year for Twenty nineteen. Thank you very much. bradberry is going to be enjoying Christmas as hype. He doesn't eat too many mince pies now. We're GONNA move on to the final category and just a few moments but a quick recap over twenty two thousand votes in the last month and it really is down to. Oh you so. Thank you very much. Voting remote spoil isn't just about the drivers the riders and teams and the marshals. It's also about the fans and we wouldn't be hit without you so thank cute very much. Let's turn our attention than the final category. The best driver of Twenty nineteen answering the age old question. Who is the best driver on four wheels? Remember this list was created by you from the nominees that you put forward in October. So let's have a look then at the nominees for twenty nine hundred. Shawls Lukla Dan uncanny Dhani Harrison. Jamie Chadwick John. Langridge Johnny Adam Landau Norris Lewis Hamilton Lewis Kent and Tom Harris and in third place from the JANETTA. Gt Five Challenge. It is Dhani Harrison second-place not often these in second Lewis Hamilton. But the driver of the year as voted by you is the Brisker F one racer Tom Harris and we we have tom here on the line. Now go here slightly under false pretense you thought you would just a nominee. No you are the winner. How do you feel? Wow Yeah yeah now I'm really I was Doing an interview to phenomena to to win is unbelievable of A amazing year. my form here in the UK. It's been amazing and I've had a fantastic time in America car. Thank everybody behind me for making my race impossible because without without the guys that weekend we cow and without Jamie Davis and backs me all the way in wide drive and yeah. I'm I'm kind of lost. This was now to To win this award is Phenomenal you know. The names on the list. Rallycross sniff on all sorts of different people across all a sport To pick a phone when stock car driver. It's it's quite severely that maybe so but you are the second Brisker F one stock car driver to have won this award after last year's champion to and that's all down to the fans huge following of brisker. FM Yeah huge. Thanks to the community to see and the fans and everybody for voting for me because but the funds you know we have a week in week out without you guys walk chess and You I support on social media has been phenomenal over the last twelve months and Like say to get this award for for you guys get Bahamian voting for this. It's Spectacular so thank you very much. So what's next you twenty twenty. Well we're in talks at the minute about January for the for the national so Good Toll Surf We've been in the last four years now. So Theresa Midget Cars Against Race Against Nascar drivers and sprint car. Drivers outlawed drivers late model. Drivers Davis it's kind of the event is indoor in America. And all the drive. This get together on their off-season they'll go indoors and race midget so Hopefully where Organized the drivers Keith Coons sport so that'd be fantastic opportunity dry case you know. He's at the last. Five Chile is A drive from his compass one so And part of that team would be amazing. So say rent talk someone it's hoped for even get some sort of the next couple of weeks and and Go from there and I hear that you're extending your family. Yeah we've just been I this morning actually so Little go Jimmy March so I mean Jay of the Moan about that. You know new new number to our team Mond Now I WANNA make my family proud and You know next year. I really WanNa go part of me. Twenty twenty knowing that you are officially the multiple awards twenty nine teen driver of the year. Thank you very much. Thank you for putting this up the involved throughout the close season and Thanks again and guys thank you for informing. Well that's it for the twenty nine thousand nine Motorsport Awards. Thank you very much for everything you've done over the last few months. The nominations the voting chatting online. We hope you've enjoyed it. We hope to see you next year. Twenty twenty thank you very much yeah

UK Dave Brenton John Brian Lucas Brad Jones Third Place Motorsport sport Motorsport Industry Lewis Hamilton Ave motorsport twenty twenty W. Series BMW Mattie Matt Brisk lifetime achievement award BTC Motorsport Insurance Company Julian Ryder Dean Motorsport Brisker
ARP176 Sinking the Randolph

American Revolution Podcast

31:13 min | 5 months ago

ARP176 Sinking the Randolph

"Before we get to this week's episode. The american revolution podcast is starting a mailing list. This can keep you up to date on. New episodes live events and other things. And if you sign up now you'll be entered in a raffle for a free. Join or die tankard. The tankard is provided by liberty. And co it's handmade in america this twenty four ounce tankard with the famous join or die logo which is one of the many great item sold at liberty and co. The site has a wide variety of products including t shirts candles stoneware mugs glassware face coverings leather journals banners and stickers. Lots of great history themed gift ideas liberty and co owner tyson. France is a longtime supporter of this podcast. N a fellow. American revolution buff. He even donates ten percent of all of profits to the museum of the american revolution which has been hit pretty hard this year by the pandemic closures. He also offers free shipping. And you can get a twenty percent discount if you use the code. That's a. m. r. e. v. When you check out go to liberty and dot co to check out the site or use the link on my website at an podcast dot com lou. Thank you for joining the american revolution today. Episode 176 sinking the randolph. I've been neglecting the continental navy for some time. Now my last episode on the topic was episode. One thirty seven. When lambert wickes rated ships around the british isles of the north american coast. The british navy continued to dominate the seas without any serious challenge until the french navy arrived after. Its first grade. On the bahamas. In early seventeen. Seventy six the continental navy accomplished little more than rating unprotected merchant vessels carrying goods to the british army. Or maybe going after the occasional smaller navy ship when the opportunity presented itself much of the continental fleet was bottled up rhode island trapped there by the british fleet. You may recall from back in episode eighty four that commodore e sic hopkins headed the continental navy. It was his fleet. That was trapped in narragansett bay. For many months by the british fleet hopkins had come under heavy criticism for his failure to leave the bay before the british arrived and for his refusal to attempt and engagement with the british. A congress said never really gotten to like hopkins. They had censored him in seventeen. Seventy six for his failure to obey the instructions that they had given him to attack the british navy at that time. Instead hopkins had sailed off with his fleet to the bahamas. I'll never mind that the orders would have been suicide. Congress censored the commodore but then allow him to continue in his command by early. Seventeen seventy seven. Many were calling for hopkins's removal from command of the navy in february. Several of his officers referred charges against hopkins to the continental congress. The some of the charges seem rather silly. The included swearing and speaking ill of congress's maritime committee. I know it's hard to imagine a sailor who actually swears even during the revolutionary war era. It was quite common and did not. Ordinarily result in formal charges especially against a top ranking officer similarly many other officers may derogatory remarks about congress and the maritime committee and probably deservedly so so the fact that hopkins did that did not seem particularly outlandish either but congress did take these charges seriously and pursued them. Other charges were a little more serious. Such as the abuse of prisoners of war although under scrutiny. The complaints did not note a departure from the way other ship. Commanders treated prisoners at the time who were unwilling to serve aboard ship. The other major complaint was the commodores failure to recruit sailors for the fleet. It was a fact that the navy didn't have enough recruits. The biggest problem was that the states had granted letters of marque to thousands of privateer ships. Any competent sailor would earn far more on a privateer vessel and would not be subject to severe discipline so the navy was simply unable to compete for recruits in short congresswoman. A miracle worker and hawkins wasn't performing miracles in response to the charges against him. Hopkins had one of the officers who had brought charges to congress. Attention arrested lieutenant. Richard marvin faced a court martial as a result of the charges. He sent to congress in april. The court martial found marvin guilty and dishonorably discharged him from the service. Hopkins did not yet know it by the time the court martial rendered its verdict on but congress had already suspended his service. In march the continental congress began hearings while it was still in philadelphia on charges against hopkins without informing him that the procedures had begun on march twenty. Sixth congress suspended hopkins from service without giving him an opportunity to defend himself. It took several weeks for the commodore. To learn of congress's decision options had received his command probably largely due to the support of his brother. Stephen hopkins who was at the time a delegate to the continental congress stephen had left congress in september seventeen seventy six shortly after congress had censored isaq for his failure to follow congressmens truck on his first mission. The stevenson's resignation was purportedly for health reasons. He was suffering from trembling hands. What was at the time called a palsy. It's not clear though if the actions against his brother may have also been a contributing factor in his decision to resign from congress however is departure did leave. He saw without a friend in congress after congress suspended him in march. Seventeen seventy seven. One would expect that he would have traveled to philadelphia to confront these charges. Personally we don't know exactly why but he sucked opted not to do this very likely. The reason was that he did not think he would get a fair hearing before. Congress on january second seventeen seventy eight. Congress formally dismissed hopkins from service without ever granting him a hearing in person or even requesting his presence to discuss. the charges. Hopkins responded by bringing a libel suit against his accusers for defamation. The defamation trial took place later in seventeen. Seventy eight with a jury verdict for the defendants hopkins was ordered to pay costs. Even so hopkins retained his popularity locally in rhode island. he was elected to the rhode island legislature. Where he served on the state's war committee after hopkins departure. Congress did not bother to name a new commander of the continental navy instead. The maritime committee issued orders directly to ship captains or just gave them a fair amount of discretion to go do whatever they could by the time of hopkins removal from office january. Seventeen seventy eight. John adams was long gone from congress himself. He had taken leave in early november of seventeen. Seventy seven to return home to massachusetts that congressional service was pretty grueling and did not even pay enough to cover his personal expenses while he was serving after two and a years of service adams had had enough he returned home and resumed the private practice of law before he left. Congress to go home is colleagues suggested that they might need him. Do go serve in france. Silas deane was being recalled. Benjamin franklin was old and could possibly fall ill and nobody really trusted arthur lee. Adams's fellow delegates believed that they needed him to fill this important role in paris adams. Though demured he did not speak french and he was one of the least diplomatic delegates already. Serving as an ambassador to france would certainly not play to his strength after returning home. Though adams received notice that congress had appointed him anyway. He could refused the appointment. Thomas jefferson had refused the same appointment a year earlier but adams believed that his services were important to the 'cause besides his return home was hurting. his public. reputation rumors began to spread that he had been forced to leave congress. Failure to accept this position might hurt his public reputation. Further so in february seventeen seventy eight adams boarded the navy ship. Boston captain by samuel tucker adams obsta to leave his wife abigail and his young children on the farm in massachusetts congress would not pay for his family's expenses only his adams also thought that the journey would be too difficult and dangerous besides he needed abigail to continue running the family farm instead. He only took his oldest son. Ten-year-old junk quincy adams who would serve as his personal aide also aboard the ship or two other young men william vernon junior was a recent college graduate and the son of a member of the maritime committee vernon was headed to france to start a career in international trade. Joining them aboard. Ship was jesse dean. The eleven year old son of silas deane the man that adams was to replace so adams had to take responsibility for the three young men during this voyage. The boston was a pretty decently sized ship at least by continental navy standards it had thirty guns although adams thought it had too many guns for the size of the ship and adams was never shy about expressing his opinions to anyone. He peppered captain tucker with suggestions about ship discipline. Cleanliness organization and a host of other things since adams was vip tucker head to do his best to accommodate and comply with adams's many suggestions. Now adams had never even been to see before also got rather seasick for much of the journey. The ship did have to outrun a few british worships during the crossing tucker debated fighting them however his priority was to get adam safely to france therefore he avoided any combat following his trip. Captain tucker would command the boston for several more years capturing numerous prizes and doing battle with the british navy. So is avoidance of a fight on. This trip was due to his duty to his vip passenger. And not out of any desire to avoid combat. When the boston got closer to the french coast. It came across a british privateer. The martha which was a smaller. Fourteen gun ship with adams's permission. The boston captured the ship and took it as a prize. A few hours later the boston chase down another merchant ship. Although this one turned out to be french before they realized that the boston fired a warning shot which resulted in the canon. Exploding adams had to help. Carry an injured lieutenant below deck for surgery and held him down while the surgeon amputated the young officers leg despite their efforts the man died a week later as they approached the french coast. The boston came within range of two large british men of war. Everyone feared capture but the ships did not attack instead they simply salon pass them in the other direction. A few days later a local french pilot informed the men that france and britain had gone to war only four days earlier by the last week of march adams was safely assure in france. The french public welcomed adams and his party enthusiastically were had just begun and everyone was still caught up in the thrill of fighting for american liberty adams and his men were toasted and feted wherever they went. The thing that worked him most was that everyone kept confusing him with his cousin. Samuel adams adams made his way by coach to paris. In mere four days there he met up with the rest of the american commissioners at immediately got caught up in all the internal dissension between lee franklin dean and izard. And that'll probably be a topic of a future episode for now. It was enough that john adams arrived in france and made his introductions to the cop division at versailles and embarked on his new career as a diplomat. Aside from the navy ships trapped in new england and those shuttling. vip's like atoms a few ships. Were actually trying to engage the british navy. One such ship was the randolph captain by nicholas. Biddle biddle was the son of a wealthy and prominent merchant family in philadelphia at age thirteen. Biddle took a position aboard a merchant vessel and headed for the west indies. Seven years later in seventeen seventy. He took a commission in the british navy as a midshipman after three years he resigned his commission to participate in an arctic expedition. To the north pole you went along with skeffington lot which who we met in previous episodes who was a british naval officer and another junior officer by the name of horatio nelson when the war began. Biddle offered his services to pennsylvania. He took him in a small row galley on the delaware river named the franklin in december. He received one of the first commissions as a captain in the continental navy. He commanded the fourteen gun. Andrew doria which was part of the fleet. That commodore hopkins took to the bahamas. A bit all was one of the captains who criticized hopkins's command on that mission. His criticism of the commodores competence led in part to congress's censure of hopkins later that year and while hopkins then got trapped in narragansett bay. Bill remained at sea. He sailed as far north as newfoundland in search of british shipping. It has mission successful that he returned with a skeleton crew of only five sailors. The rest had been deployed as prize. Crews on all the ships that he had captured upon his successor returned to philadelphia. Congress rewarded the young captain with the command of the newly randolph. The ship was named after peyton randolph. Who served as president of the first continental congress and for a few months on the second continental congress. Although he had taken some sick leave he did return to congress and then drop dead while serving in congress in philadelphia in october. Seventeen seventy five. The randolph was a thirty two gun. Frigate with a crew of over three hundred. It was one of america's larger ships but still nothing that could compete with the british ships of the line in october. Seventeen seventy six captain nicholas. Biddle took command of the randolph. By that time the twenty six year. Old biddle had already spent half of his life at sea. Bill received his appointment in july. Seventeen seventy six a week. After congress declared independence however he did not take command of the randolph. Until mid october is first obstacle was assembling the crew for such large worship. As i said most sailors were serving aboard privateers and had no interest in joining the navy in order to fill the ship's crew. Biddle had to take on british sailors. That were being held as prisoners in philadelphia. Now these were not volunteers. The soldiers assigned to escort the new sailors to their ship. Literally had you fire their into the prison windows in order to force the reluctant recruits out of the prison and aboard ship on the maiden voyage the rand off escorted a merchant fleet out of delaware bay with ships headed for france and the west indies. Having gotten the ships to see the of sailed north in search of a british frigate that had been capturing merchant ships a while at sea. The new ship faced a number of construction problems during storm. The ships foremost broke off as the crew attempted a repair. Lightning struck the main mast causing it to splinter and fall into the ocean on top of everything else. A fever broke out among the crew killing some and leaving many more unfit for duty around this time the british sailors who had become part of the crew willingly attempted to mutiny and take control of the ship fiddle and his officers were able to restore control and arrest the ringleaders. Eventually the randolph made it to charleston south carolina on march eleventh. Seventeen seventy seven where she put in for repairs. It took two months to complete the repairs during which time this ship lost a large portion of its crew to desertion and disease. Biddle had to offer bow-ties to attract more crew members before they could leave port on sixteenth as they left the harbour the randolph. For did the fair american and took off to crew members who had previously deserted the randolph. For work aboard that merchant ship in early september the randolph spotted a twenty gun loyalist privateer called the true briton. That ship was traveling with four other ships that it had already captured. The group was on its way to new york with rum. Sugar salt and other supplies for the british army instead. Biddle captured the entire fleet and delivered the ships to charleston after that successful mission the randolph remained in charleston for most of the winter putting itself in dry dock to have its whole scraped for barnacles in february. Seventeen seventy eight. The renna formed a convoy with four smaller south carolina navy ships the general military the notre dame fair american and the polly. This fleet would attempt to confront british worships that were preventing merchants from leaving charleston. Harbor the group escorted a fleet of ships leaving the harbor but failed to find the british. After the merchant ships went on their way. The fleet continued its search for the british navy during their searches. They did come across a damage to england ship. That a british privateer was bringing to the british port at saint. Augustine fiddle ended up burning ship since they could not bring it to port and did not want to let it fall into enemy hands for more than two weeks. The fleet sailed around finding nothing on march fourth. They captured a small schooner from new york. That was headed for granada. Biddle turn that one into a tender ship for his fleet a few days later on march seventh they spotted another ship on the horizon by the time the ship caught up with them not evening they discovered it was a british ship of the line. The yarmouth with sixty four guns twice as many as the randolph also. Many of its guns were larger meaning that they would have a greater range and could do more damage before the randolph could even get into range. The experienced captain nicholas. Vincent would go onto become an admiral in the british navy captain. Biddle ordered the other ships to flee while he engaged you raised his ships colors and immediately opened fire on the arm of by at least one account the randolph managed to get four pride sides into the army while the british could only return one one of the ships that had been in the convoy. With the randolph. The eighteen gun general multi also remained to attack the army. Unfortunately the less experienced crew ended up hitting the rand off by mistake. Apparently wounding captain biddle in the leg. Biddle remained in command issuing orders from a deckchair. Despite the setback the smaller randolph seem to be getting the better of the fight knocking out one of the armistice masts and damaging her sales then about fifteen minutes into the fight. The randolph suddenly exploded. Presumably her munitions magazine was either hit or someone somehow set off a spark inside of it. The deafening explosion completely destroyed the ship and its crew. The arma was close enough to the randolph. That it actually suffered some damage from the explosion as well and reported chunks of the randolph. Some as large as six feet crashing onto it's deck. A british officer also reported that the randolph's was flagged onto their ship from the explosion. The army then set out after the smaller ships that had fled. But it was too badly damaged to give chase. The british suffered five killed and twelve wounded five days after the battle. The yarmouth came across some wreckage and took a board for survivors. As it turned out. These men were survivors. Of the randolph. Explosion the men had survived on rainwater only for several days until rescued out of the crew. of over. three hundred. Those four would turn out to be the only survivors of the randolph's explosion. Next week we return to new england to talk about the new republic of vermont. Hey thanks for joining. The american revolution podcast. After show my continued. Thanks to trae nance and george davis for their continued support at the alexander. Hamilton club level patriot on. Thanks also to matthew bomer one potter and generous donation from brenda richmond. All who made one time contributions the pay pal. I do appreciate the support. I also wanted to mention that. I recently began setting up a new feature. If you've ever looked at my blog you know that. I have a bunch of further reading at the end of each episode. These include relevant books were. I've provided links to amazon dot com. Although amazon does give me a tiny commission if you click on those links and then buy something. The main reason i started linking to amazon is that they have the largest selection of books including many older ones that you can purchase used so it was mostly out of convenience. A few listeners have expressed dissatisfaction with amazon because well they're giant conglomerate. That's running independent booksellers out of business and screwing independent authors. I certainly get that. Although i'll admit as a consumer i'm probably not going to be giving up amazon entirely anytime soon and i am going to still keep the links to amazon in my blog episode however as an option for those of you who want to support independent booksellers. I've also opened a site at bookshop dot org. If you're not familiar. This site is designed to give independent booksellers an online platform so that they can join together where they can have a combined inventory that can compete with the big guys like amazon. They offer me a commission on books. That i recommend if you purchased through my links they also give a percentage of all sales to local bookstores. So if you prefer to support local stores but still wanna buy online then bookshop dot. Org is a great resource. I've only started compiling some lists of books. Not just from my weekly recommendations. But out of all the books that i've cited on my blog for all of my episodes so this is hundreds of books to keep it manageable. I have broken down into several lists each covering a different section of the podcast. So for example i have one list for my intro episodes and for the french and indian war. I have another list for the prewar. Protests era that's as far as as of the damn recording us. But i plan to add another list for each year the war so there will be a list for all the seventeen seventy five episodes than another list for all the seventy seventy six episodes cetera. I hope this will make it easy for you to find books relevant to the air that you want if you wanna check out my sight on bookshop dot org just go to the site and search for american revolution podcast. Make sure you're searching for shops not books. You can also go directly to bookshop dot org slash shop slash. Aarp that's a for american are for revolution. P. for podcast also start adding bookshop links to my blog and my website. It will probably take a few more weeks to get everything added up to date. If you have any suggestions on how to organize it better or other books to add to the list. Please feel free to contact me so anyway this week. I tried to catch up on the continental navy which admittedly has not been a big player in the overall war effort. They went after british supply ships. Although more numerous privateers accomplish much more in this area they transferred vip's to europe and elsewhere as we saw this week with john adams traveling to france. The navy did occasionally challenged british worships. As we saw with the randolph and the yarmouth sadly in that encounter as in many it did not go well for the americans. The british navy was good at what it did and would always prove to be a tough opponent. A some of you may be familiar with the name. Biddle which was a prominent family in philadelphia for many years captain nicholas. Biddle sadly died with the loss of the randolph. The biddle family however remained prominent. They came from english quakers who settled along the delaware river even before the founding philadelphia nicklaus had a brother named edward biddle who served as a delegate to the continental congress and another brother charles. Biddle who served as vice president of the supreme pennsylvania council the equivalent of modern day lieutenant governor many of their descendants became politicians and top ranking military officers. One of the more famous of these descendants was charles's son nicholas for his deceased uncle. Who went on to become the president of the second bank of the united states and an arch-rival of president andrew jackson. So the family's definitely left its mark automatic in history. This week's episode though was about captain nicholas bethel who served in the continental navy and died fighting the british aboard the randolph. This week's book. Recommendation is captain dauntless. The story of nicholas. Biddle of the continental navy by william bell clark. I've recommended books by clark before. He wrote a really good biography on. Lambert wickes another naval hero. He's also written a biography about commodore john. Barry and another book on. Benjamin franklin's privateers clark definitely like reading about naval heroes of the american revolution. The book on biddle is a little over three hundred pages long. It was first published in nineteen forty nine although there are reprints out there that are more recent even given its age. I still think it's worth reading if you want to read more generally about the navy. My online recommendation isn't yearbook from archive dot. Org it's called a naval history of the american revolution by gardner allen. This isn't even older book from nineteen thirteen. But i think it gives a good comprehensive view of the navy during the american revolution as always you can search for it on archive dot org or use the link on my website or blog at blog dot am rev. Podcast dot com. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week. For another american lucien podcast.

congress hopkins adams continental navy randolph british navy maritime committee Biddle navy france Congress boston philadelphia bahamas Hopkins Lambert wickes twenty four ounce liberty and co museum of the american revolut Silas deane