20 Episode results for "French army"

The Foreign Legion (Entry 490.2S1519)

Omnibus! With Ken Jennings and John Roderick

1:08:31 hr | 1 year ago

The Foreign Legion (Entry 490.2S1519)

"This is Ron burgundy telling you to listen to my podcast. Here's a little something to wet your appetite. No, we have we have. So the whole crews here. Okay. All right. Okay. So you defecate it was reduced to my basic animal form. Romburg any podcasts. Available wherever podcasts are found. More. And. This message. We are Ken Jennings, and John Rodrick we speak to you from our present, which we can only assume as your distant past the turbulent time that was the early twenty first century during the great cataclysm that will surely befall our civilization. We began this monumental reference of strange, and obscure human knowledge, these recordings represent our attempt to compile and preserve wonders an esoterica that would otherwise be lost. So whether you're listening from an advanced civilization or just reinvented the technology to decrypt our transmissions. This is our legacy to you. This is our time capsule. This is the alms bus. You have accessed entry four nine zero dot two s one five one nine certificate number three six seven four nine the foreign legion. Is there ever been a time in your life where you plant or even just fantasized about just walking away starting over? I don't know what that means. It's not a greyhound bus or just walking out your front door and throwing Matt's behind you. Or do. You mean has there been a time this morning between the time? I woke up at ten minutes, then morning before your coffee came out. No that's been a major feature in my life and identity ever since I was a teenager imagining that I would be that. I would either leave everything behind or have a lengthy prison term that's amounts to the same or be forced into the Bush to fight for my survival Bush out front like one of the rhododendrons is the Bush, the the canoe. You know, that Bush was the community is not gonna hold me. And all my gear. No in Alaska. You know? We we call the country the push you're you're like Australians of the north. That's right. Okay. I mean, it's, you know, the this thread throughout history of being challenged by being personally challenged by being forced to leave everything behind, right? It plays a large role in my cosmetology. You feel like it's kind of ratio memory of. Here's here's what I'm thinking. It's not much of an option anymore like. Five years ago two hundred years ago, or whatever people could go to see or they could go to some unexplored land. They could you know, they could go west that get go to Austrailia. They could go to the Goldfields of wherever there were Goldfields or the diamond mines of wherever there were diamond mines joined the army even in the twentieth century. You had still had people just thinking they would go to solve their problems by California or Hawaii Alaska, I guess you were already in Alaska, and you came pre evacuated. Well, I've always contended that the progeny of the west. You know, we descend from the people that couldn't hack it back east and split, right? And I mean, my people have been in Seattle since the eighteen eighties because they for whatever reason we're driven out of Kentucky. These are people that couldn't split that couldn't hack it multiple times. Right, right hack. You're up split. The New England. New England went through the Cumberland gap right hood to hack, Ohio headed for Colorado. That's exactly right. So it's like when the you're sitting in your elementary school class, and the counselor or the principal ever comes by and pulls out the four kids that have to go to their special class. Now, it's like that keeps happening over and over. And we are there to send us my mom couldn't stay in Ohio went to Seattle met my dad and neither of them could act in Seattle and went to Alaska, right? And it's and then you're out option. Yeah. It's not like you leave because you're a failure. It's you leave because you you're looking for something that the town doesn't provide. So I ended up. Back in Seattle. I'm kind of a aback slider. I needed more electricity. So Alaska is like the movie alley with the chain link fence at the end where the character is suddenly like, oh, no, well, and you can head deeper into Alaska. I mean there are plays. Yeah. On the license plate. But that's the mccandless issue. Right. I mean, he's a kid that ended up going too far out into Alaska. So there are still under there is still undiscovered country, but it's surrounded by discovered country today a lot of this impulse turns into urban backsliding. Like, this is not working for me, so Portland or Austin. It is right. I'm gonna get some chicken that's people's magical solution because it is kind of magical thinking there's something wrong with my life. Now, I can't fix me. But I can certainly fix my surroundings easier. I just need a bus ticket. It is. I mean, it's like Rambo you get this feeling this romantic feeling that you're going to go to. I mean in his case end up being a junior administrator in some where he goes North Africa. We're doing Bogo. He did all the he hid all the high spots, and he ended up just stamping passports somewhere. I never saw the movie. But yeah. It was a book before it was a movie. But yeah. And so I've done this. Right. I mean, I walked from Amsterdam's instant bul by myself in the late nineties in attempt to connect in an attempt to activate that racial memory. You're talking about I was trying to get to a place where I could discover what it was like to be a Magyar or a Kelt who arrive, you know, someone who came over from beyond the Volga and felt that there was something in that rhythmic plotting of the feet the lack of connection to anyone place. The watching the sun come up in the morning and go down at night that I that I hoped would be an antidote to to Madeira nitty into softness. A lot of our getaway plans today have to be time travel, backward, looking outward, and I wonder if that's kind of why this feels like such a. Maybe it's just an illusion. But you know, you know, our modernity to us feels like some culminated time some fantasy at claw. They always do. And that's why that's why we're doing this project for the future because we feel like, but it does there is a sense that that's powered by a sense of exhaustion. We've exhausted geography there's really no fast tracks left to explore until until the billionaires get us into space, and maybe a sense of personal exhaustion like, you know, we're not cut out for adventure. And maybe there is no adventure because of because of technology or whatever it's done to us. But we were talking earlier today about this being somewhat an age of anxiety, an age of free floating side, right? I think there have been at least Auden's anxiety was caused by the Germans invading. The which is a great reason to be especially if you live in the Cold War was a great period of anxiety. But it was pretty clear what we were anxious about. And now, there's just anxiety fick. On the ground. And there are a lot of people. I'm sure listening in the future who've rather history books who are shouting Trump Trump Trump, but Trump is inches. Neither thing is adequate to explain them Mount Zion. We feel now and you'll see in our culture all these people that are spending four hundred dollars on a hatchet. Right. The the work where fashioned the back to the Landers the chicken getting a beehive. Yeah. But they're not. But it's not they're not actually doing the hippie thing of actually going in buying some land and central Oregon. They're trying to go back to the land in their urban apartment. They're going after they get home from Amazon, and they're trying to dress like somebody that worked on the in the boiler room of the US main. But they're they're working computers. So there's there's this constant desire to return to something that the sensual I think that's what people are looking for. What's essential, right? Mary. Condo. Even is. What what's my everyday carry? What's my go bag? My whole life. If think great if my whole life was a go bag didn't have all these trappings that are clearly not making me happy because I'm very worried a lot. And I have a lot of books. Therefore, I should have fewer books and be less worried. The whole premise of everyday carry which is a movement is that you would have on your possession enough to survive. If it all went to hell right now. Like there are people right now probably listening to this program who are closing their fingers around the handle of their hatchet. Well, but they have the fishing line in their wallet. Or in a little packet that they carry with them, fishing wine little bracelets that can be untied and made into that are made of parachute cord that you can use a variety of ways little tiny gig ause that are on their person. What I like about these people is that they're probably in the thirties or forties. They know they have never won. Used the fishing line. They put they are undeterred they've never caught a fish and their life. But yeah, they have that line and just in case. And I it's part of his ambi- the culture of people who get a lot of pleasure watching shows about about civilization coming to an end. And it's them against a faceless. Army of other this causality that goes the other way to where like I'm very worried and unhappy and civilization as it is. So this is almost wish fulfillment that I can see it blown out player. Modern society is not working for me. So what else you got have you ever read a survivalist magazine? I mean, are they can't wait I was in the men's room of diner in squirm Washington a couple of weekends ago. And they had a lot of magazines. I didn't know they made anymore like soldier afford since the house like wait, really they still print these. I mean, there are middle aged people in who live in cities who have built their homes to be revolts, you know, barricade at they have the ability to turn their home into a fortress. And they I mean at least dad is really excited about it. Probably the kids are maybe that increases their anxiety that dad's always walking around checking to make sure the the pin is still in his anti-personnel mines. Well, there was a time. When no matter how screwed up your life was or how worried you were about things or just unhappy in general your escape plan. Could be your your go bag. It could be kind of outward and forward and not not just an illusion since that. You would tell yourself, but you really could strike out into the unknown. Literally, join the French for. Legion. Literally today. What could today you can you can start a podcast, basically things are things are great in my life. What if I what if I started podcast what if I got a Hitler haircut, but of a six hundred dollar acts started a podcast about simple living. But for a long time, the French foreign legion was kind of the proverbial plan. B? You know, like if things go really bad plan X. Yeah. Exactly. I mean, no nobody ever really did it. I mean, some people must have done it as their first backup. But it really is like many many things have to go wrong in my life. But there will always be as a backstop, the French foreign legion who will take anyone who can make it famously that was that was the image. And the interesting thing about the French foreign legion is right there in the name. It's a French. It's part of the French army. But it's made up of non-french is our word for people who are not French way. No funk. What's the word or not for his point? Okay. Customer service oriented, I think in the eighties. They would have been called un-french. Yes. Un-french fo- friends. I guess, but wait is that true to join the French foreign legion, it is a requirement that you're not be friends even to this day. I think to enlist into the French foreign legion you have to sit. You're not French and everybody winks at all these washed-up fringe people who are claiming to be Belgians or Swiss or French Canadian they just show up a dragon at the front door. And they're like, I am Kennedy. I'm not France. Outrageous accent? I think that's exactly what happens, and, you know, these people they often rise through the a lot of the officer court is French. And I assume at some of these people rising through the ranks because the enlisted men, I think to this day have to be non-french. And that's and that's how it started as well. So part of the deal of joining the French foreign legion was that it made you French, right? If you join the legion, and whatever fought in a war, then you could become a French citizen. It's not a Matic. But yeah, there's about two hundred that's realizations a year from the French foreign legion. And we can we can get to that. But it's not unusual or at least it wasn't today. It would be very unusual. If there was some imagine if there's some detachment of the marines, or whatever that was all Argentines or Samoan guys are any wits or something. You know, we would be like well. I mean, they're they're not really American, but it is true in the US armed forces. I don't know why pronounced it that way. US forces. I mean, French toast. You can join the the US army as a foreign national, and it is a path to citizenship. It's just a maybe not. It's not a thing where we have whole regiments that are everyone is from outside the United States. I remember when I was growing up as a kid in South Korea. Kids could get out of their Korean kids. Get out of their mandatory military service by joining up to be some kind of special detachment or whatever that was a liaison between the the Korean army the ROK army and the eighth of the US troops stationed. So you could be Katiba which was kind of Korean attached to us army or something like that. And so there were these hold attachments of Korean guys who were just basically ducking their military service. And that's a lot of what happens to the French foreign legion today, honestly as people who are kind of washed out of whatever in their lives. But in some cases, their own country's military and this probably happened back in the day as well. I mean, we don't think about when you think about the American revolution. Which I do all the time, which I know you're thinking about right now because you're a good patriot. Yes, I am like sometimes you get this look in your eye, and I can I can hear the fife and drum. I could just see Lexicographer acted because we we tell stories about Lafayette and story been right there, all these poles and Germans and French well actions, they're fighting us, right? And and these evil German mercenaries that had been dragged and where we paying our guys. Like, we always talk about how how our soldiers. President mercenaries. I mean, we were paying our forwarders too. Right. Well, yeah. Except, you know, foreigners fighting for us. I mean, the French were gleefully fighting the British in the United States for us responding against the British right? We don't care about your revenue John they're looking for any opportunity to to put a chink in the British army. This was very common eighteenth and nineteenth century armies that you would fill out the ranks with detachments of whoever you could hire. Right. So you know, if the Swedes or fighting the great northern war against Russia, whoever they get a regimen of polls, it's often polls. I because maybe they don't have the country of their own a lot of polls. They're often confined just to the area around Warsaw. We don't have an army right now. Can we join yours on the heavens to famous? I mean, they didn't just fight in the revolutionary war. They were mercenaries for hiring anywhere. You had a lot of the Napoleonic wars. You know, there were whole German legions fighting Polian and filling out the British ranks Garibaldi when he's uniting Italy. He Forbes an international brigade, and he was actually going to use these guys to go take out the pope, he had this idea that like I really can't unify Italy as long as there's this little king and his little hats Rome, that'll make you popular is reason. All the pope. Mattel are always. They're always sitting around there goggle and their whatever. And they're like we should kill the phone. You'd think about the nineteenth century, though, there were I mean, it was such an era an era of transition. Yeah. Like all these possibilities. Modernise who are like, you know, what it's like it's like Kennedy's moonshot. It's like we we kill the pope and do the other things by the end of this decade. What have we just kill them? Both. Kennedy impression is great to go different history would be more. We need to do more Cold War. So so I can do. Sure, I mean marks is saying even more radical things than not just kill the kill all, the pope's. Yeah. Kill the pope's. And I guess maybe. While the international brigade gives you some gives you a little bit of distance in there. Who knows what these guys are gonna do tonight? British still have these Nepalese girka with like swirly curved knives in their belts. Like, you know, that'll that'll make you be a law abiding citizen in the territories. And you see those guys coming at you. Sure. And to for a long time, the French foreign legion could not fight in France. They were a colonial force as we shall see. But right into the twentieth century. Israel, creating a detachment called the Mahal of just kind of world juice from all over the world who had come to Israel to fight in the air bores the forties white Rhodesia just paying any awful person who wanted to go fight for why Rhodesia. I mean when I was gonna magazine. We we gobbled up soldier of fortune and magazines of that ilk. And the Rhodesian war was this year. That was your plan. Here's a kid. I want to keep road safer the whites. No, it was just fascinating. Because there were so road Diese became Zimbabwean seventy nine. That's yeah. Right around eighty. I started reading soldier fortune magazine in eighty one and so all of the veterans very urgent of the Rhodesian conflict where the guys in these magazines with dramatic scars, and they all had super light blonde hair and hawk noses. And they look just like them most, oh, they were so fundamentally evil dangerous because now suddenly got surplus thousands of these guys running around what are they doing? Well, I'll turning into Hans Gruber's in knock attorney plaza. Yeah. There were a lot of terrible things to get into the in the early eighties. Internationally. I mentioned that the British army still. Has their detachment of Nepalese because leftover from the Roz right when they had their all the because you could eat and it's led to a tricky situation. Diplomatically many times because Britain wants to deploy these troops. It happened in the falcons, for example, like Britain wanted to deploy these Nepalese carcass in the falcons and the prime minister everybody that the the they don't have the State Department. What are the what do you? Call white chapel. Yeah. You know, why chapel? Jack, the ripper was there they called. We what do you call the State Department over there, the the foggy bottom? What we call it here on that division, the three anyway, who has told you know, you cannot be bringing these foreign nationals it's going to escalate arts conflict, you know, Nepal neutral in is you can't foreign the foreign office. There we go for and I just had to think of a nervous John Macari character. Angry about just to hear the word foreign, which is a big part of this whole episode. This is the difference between the French and the British the French have a legion the British have an office. They do have tea-break. We don't have a legion. So what were you saying about the gherkins? Oh, just that. It would would have been a diplomatic nightmare to deploy them anywhere because Nepal Britain is not obviously not neutral in the Falklands. But maybe in the UN Nepal is the government are gonna Paul can't have five hundred Nepalese guys. Suddenly running around the Falklands in the same could be true for Iraq or Afghanistan or or wherever Britain wants to put this detachment. So it can lead to weird kind of diplomatic things today. Nepal has had seven Marxist revolutions in the last four years. Do you think they're not overly concerned about about what they're overseas dagger wielding thousands or up to it's going God? It's funny. When you I mean, we in the United States don't have a clear idea of what the Nepalese are like, but they're big. Fighting people. I mean, it's a the the gherkins were carrying. We talked about serpents that have been up and down. Everest twenty two times. I mean, these superheroes. John. Do you have a website? I do I have John Rodrick dot com. I have the long winters dot com. I encourage people to go. Visit both of those things must be super hard to build and create a website. It was hard in the early days of web stuff, and I had to rely on web be people, and then people people they became expense with their webby feet, but then squarespace came along. And I ended up building both John Roderick dot com and the long winters dot com on squarespace, and that has been incredibly easy, easy for me to maintain and administer I dearly love, my wife, but I would never describe her as a technical person. But she has this home business now where she teaches cooking and baking classes, two kids at home and at schools, and she set up a website with squarespace. She added up like the same day, even though she was very intimidated. They have these really beautiful templates. I mean, any style of website you could. Possibly imagine. They have it kind of prebuilt for you twenty four seven customer support. You just step into it. You populate it with your own content, and it goes up, and it looks great. And it looks individual. It doesn't look cookie cutter they do Email campaigns. Now, if you want to send out website content over Email to your subscriber lists start doing that immediately. Well, let's finish the ad and then you can start sending out emails people might Email blog. So John does that everybody else checkout squarespace dot com slash omnibus for a free trial. And when you're ready to launch you can use the offer code omnibus to save ten percent off your first purchase of a website, or domain. Nice squares bays. So France have been paying for and soldiers for centuries, even before the foreign legion was founded in eighteen thirty one Germans Swiss Irish, the talian Scott's basically, anybody for whom things were going well at home. This is something to do like during the French revolution. Like fully a third of the troops were not French interesting. And I assume that's because a lot of the troops were not super loyal to the monarchy during the revolution. And just bailed. Right. But so they needed to fill the ranks with somebody. But yeah, like a huge chunk of the French army has not been friends for centuries. This may be hard for future llings to grasp the idea that we're in a time when there's every country has standing armies maybe hard for them that they're even countries. Right. But imagine how you feel about the reef next door. Yeah. It's eating all that. I'll g think about how we feel about Iran thing about every if every reef in your ocean planet had a different group of crabs that all had. Different uniforms on that fought one another anger you when you saw crab with a different uniform that crabs now where are uniform get him. But very hard for people to recall a time when France was the center of world culture, like France, really mattered, France was where you went if you were going to get educated France was the in a lot of ways, but between Paris and London those were the two funds of all western society. So going to France wasn't as strange sounding as it would be it just seems like there's a random location, but you're absolutely right. France was the most popular destination for soldiers looking for a gig during the time of Louis the fourteenth. He was thought to be you know, he's for the troops. He doesn't kneel during the anthem. Louis the fourteenth love the troops. So a lot of people would leave their own lame German or bohemian king or whatever and go fight and Louise army, and then of course, after the revolution, even more. So like now Francis the future, right? Like all these young idealists. I don't wanna fight for old. You know, the two Sicily's or wherever I live like France, man. It's just like going to New York or LA today. I guess well sure it was before eighteen tiny eighth, right? And France was the first nation to overthrow its monarchy. Really? And that happened later on in the nineteenth century, and almost all of those monarchical depositions. Yes. Diposal think I think deposition, right? Because when we say deposition where well that'll be interesting for the future links to argue about opposing witness the same as the posing a king, a king, maybe. But all of those were inspired by the French revolution. Again, that's hard for us to look. Recall that at the time there were kings on the thrones of every other major European nation and France was trying to pass the buck and not lame the American revolution for the French revolution. Well, because the American revolution didn't depose a king through it. Just it's a it's a colonial affair it. Just pushed the. Yeah. The administration out who cares what they're doing over there. But the French kings were among the most powerful and wealthiest kings all time, but all these starry eyed young European kids looking to France in the revolution. I mean, imagine it's almost like they're feeling patriotic about a foreign country like the sense of pride. They have in what the French are doing. And I'm going to go and fight for them the people, but the French foreign legion was not formed until after the revolution in eighteen thirty one the bourbons had had regained the throne after the revolution. But eighteen thirty one on regime was tossed out by Louis Philippe, and he had to purge the military. So suddenly, there's a. They're all these old revanchist generals, and so forth who are loyal to Charles the tenth and suddenly they need soldiers and even more Louis Philippe inherited a real rat's nest. What's more French way to say that a real horse soup? Ness, a rou. Do. Because Charles the tent in a last ditch attempt to keep power by stoking, patriotic fervor had invaded Algieria. Yes. Something that would certainly not come back to annoy France for the next. So they needed all these men to occupy ALgeria place that nobody really wanted to be. But, you know, Charleston had kind of cunningly waved his hands and said look over here. We're there's a war with the bay and Africa. So the four Luiz Felipe formed of Louis the Felipe Louis the fleet as I. A lot of his teammates called him the Felipe the leap he believes the leap Stor organized formal legion where you had to be an oversee four national and sent them all to Algieria and then to every terrible place. 'cause obviously no French soldier wanted to be in the desert. Right. Although it was another example. I mean, that's the colonial enterprise. The L geria- seemed like it was. Your fortune could be made you could escape the pressure of your mom looking down looking over your shoulder and go down to LT area. And and and I don't know why they they went like their mom kept telling him to clean their rooms. What drove colonialism was. Yeah. I mean, a lot of stuff you're talking about teams. You did not want to clean the under their bed adventure and money and a lot of the legends that sprang up around the foreign legion really do put a very romantic face on these awful colonialist enterprises. You know, you got these these desert forts in these beautiful empty dunes and date palms that our way season and Vale clad women with with dusky is and it'll construct a harems a lot of analysts and just comes back to heroin. Sure. A lot of these sexually repressed guys not only their mom get out of the room, but they can't get a girlfriend, but they hear that L Jiri ah. It's it's like surf city. It's two girls for every boy look at everyone. Here every all utilize have read Edward saieed because it was it became, but before Edwards saieed taught us how to think about this the way most the lens. Most people saw the French foreign legion through a Bose jest, which is not I don't even know if it's in print in our time. So it certainly I doubt is remembered in the future, but it's an adventure novel by this kind of mysterious Englishman named Percival. Christopher wren. So little is known about this guy that we know he had a first wife and don't know who she is even hurt even her kids don't know, his description of the French foreign legion is very colorful and full of detail and romance and an incident, which is led many people to assume that during this five year lacuna in his army career, he served in the French foreign legion. But it's also possible that he was just knock on around Africa talking to legionaires in the bar in the casbah or whatever. So, but a lot of these people a lot of people got their view of the foreign legion from just and it's several sequels and his other foreign legion novels at hero trying to recapture the myth. It's about weed. Remember today? But it's about a guy named Bo jest office. Hard to believe. It means what grand gestures of the beautiful actors beautifully. And I did not know until recently that it's actually about a guy named Beaujolais which means to me that PC ran is not a great writer. This is the thing. I do a lot. When my kids are watching like, we'll be watching. I'll be watching a homeland and cleared angel come in. And I'll be like, hey, that's carry homeland. I'll pretend that the name of the show. It's a hilarious thing. My dad like, my if my daughter's watching a Princess movie, I'll be like, hey, it's Princess tangled. She got out of her tower. Dad? Her name's not Princess tangled. I keep telling you her name's rapunzel. But in this case, it's actually true Justice about a dude named Boeing chest. Who you know, he and his brothers get involved in some family. Inheritance squabble their justly accused of jewel theft, and they have to go again. What do you do when you run away? And this time you go to the foreign if I had a dollar for every time I was unjustly accused of a jewel theft. You should have run away to North Africa. I've said that many times you stood and face the music, and what happened like what what were the did. You actually get to keep any of the jewels. Looked the statute of limitations has expired on most of my jewel fees your easier. Good got doorstop from one of these early heists. I was looking for that the other day couldn't find, oh, it's it's misplace. Don't know. Maybe someone has stolen your getting runaway to North Africa someone come perpetrated jewel heist on me. Anyway, the foreign legion gets deployed any place awful around the world that French soldiers are loath to go. So starting North Africa. But then there's war Spain they go to Crimea. War with Italy. They go to Mexico French intervene in Mexico to this day. We celebrate when I say we I mean proud connects people like myself celebrate Cinco de mayo not not white guys getting drunk. No, no. But the Rossa we remember it's a defeat. I believe to the French at the battle of Puebla. It's a pretty small holiday in Mexico. Still recent hardly exist in Mexico, but it's like celebrating the battle of Baltimore boy suburban bars with Margarita Monday, love it. Mexico's actually where the foreign legion has its great. Maybe it's it's high point at the battle of calmer own a very small group of legionnaires makes a heroin stand against a vastly larger Mexican force and the officer in charge one capi ten John donne ju- extracts of our over a wine wine is very big to the foreign legion over that that that they will not never surrender. Under. And so they're finally down to five guys, and they charge out with fixed bayonets and the Mexican troops are just so dazzled by this hero ISM that they? Why capitulate? The hand over the keys to Mexico. Mexican they now speak friends, Mexico know that they they let them live. But I guess now that I think about it those five guys surrendered so. Yeah. Too bad copy time, and they let you until you're one hundred and fifty yards away from from your readout. And then there's they stop you and take your guns. Sometimes you still the icon ick name in the French foreign legion. I don't know if we do each of the armed services have like one guy. I don't I Joe, but a real guy. Oh, you know, Joe like it would be as if like everybody in the army is still talked about sergeant York so much like John you apparently had a prosthetic hand of his own devising. He's like, Luke Skywalker. Come on. He had carved after a musket incident while he was mapping something in Morocco. Well, but you can join the French foreign legion. Correct me if I'm wrong, which I know you'll do it's one of your one of your favorite job, and I'm like delightful quirks, but you can join the foreign legion under a pseudonym. Can't you can't you be like missed most ya X until two thousand ten it was required that you would join under a pseudonym nome-de-guerre. Yes. You had to and you could take the funny thing. So you have to choose a name. I think it would traditionally start with the first letter of your correct name and your nationality. It'd be correct unless again, you're covering up your Frenchness. But after a year, you could take your old name back. It was just a way to equalize among recruits. I guess those who really have something to hide from those who did not. So there really is. You're starting a new life. You're baptize with Allegiant air, what would your French foreign legion? Because I have to start with J note. Your name doesn't start with J loss team does. Oh, it's your surname. You're in the army Roderick. You're in the army now, I would be. So you would choose a three syllable names starting with an R O is that it's a celebrity. I dunno. Similarly, no, I'm asking you. What would your French foreign legion? My name would be jazz. Master Jay interesting as master Jay. Yeah. Actually master Jay it has to start with J jazz masters Yankee, I wonder if it has to be a plausible name, or if you could be I would be at Ellis Island being like my name is Oliver close off Oliver close off. I am Dr Rosen penis. No Rosen Rosen. Yeah. I wonder if they would let you get away with that in the foreign legion there there are ragtag rough and tumble bunch. They have a great sense of humor. No. I think you'd have to be something like Jenkins or Jeremiah or Jedidiah all those are names in your family. I'm sure John did you have Jedidiah? I bet you had a I nearly certain I told you before my most famous Mormon ancestors named Zebedee which which is not a name we have anymore. Why wouldn't your French foreign legion name be disease? Don't know. Okay. I said, I'm I'd be private Zebedee. I've decided that so good you apparently it was an officer who use used his real name, but he had whittled this prosthetic hand for himself. And after he died in the battle the hand was carried back lovingly and placed in the the legionaires museum in France. And to this day every day on what is it April thirtieth anniversary of the battle of calmer on one lucky legionary gets to carry the hand of John Duns, you aloft in the parade on a little velvet pillow or whatever. So these guys are very connected to their romantic globetrotting past. Yeah, I guess so we'll also has a lot of resonance with the Catholic rela exactly. But what? Yeah. And maybe that explains why he wasn't buried with his artificial limb. Because at some point somebody was like we could bury him with his hand or just without one. Yeah. That could be religious fervor as well. You know in the resurrect. Of course, he will not need this lame wouldn't hand. So maybe there's some of that plan. Yeah. I bet let's keep the wooden hat. Let's put it in a case have you ever seen Santa Anna's leg, by the way. Speaking of Mexican prosthetics. No, I have never I guess it's in some military museum in like the mid west somewhere like in Springfield, Illinois, somebody brought back Santa Anna's leg from what we call the next kid American war what they call Gringo, invasion, number one, or whatever. And they just took it back, and it's sitting in Illinois or something really. And I would imagine Mexico wants it back, Illinois. You don't think of Springfield, Illinois? Where you go to see. Nineteenth century Mexican artifacts. No, I've been to some I've been to many churches in Europe that have relics various hands and hearts and noses and so forth in Florence. There's I know it extends to secular stuff because in in Florence. You can see Galileo's middle finger in the case extended. I guess to the pope. If if I remember well in here in the house, I've probably got six or seven different shards of the true cross. That's amazing. Yeah. Well, you know, I'm a little bit of a collector. Yeah. Craigslist go to some guys garage. And he's like, well, I got the shirt the to cross also I have what it wears it. It's right around here. It's the architect covenant. Does it sparked you it? Artists perking Nazi faces and it's not sparking. Joe you gotta toss it sparks joy. I only open it when when you melt some not what I need to. Or if you defrosting like a hot pocket, you're like this is gonna take so long. I forgot to put this in the fridge and just toss it in its immediately cheeses, God if you're listening just playing super super fun. We're just having fun here. So all these overseas assignments for the French foreign legion in the nineteenth century after they came back from Mexico in eighteen seventies. They are actually deployed to try to lift the siege of Paris during the Franco, Prussian war. So that kind of opens the ark of the covenant on on having your mystic foreign legion interfering in domestic affairs. I guess they've gotten over the bad look and throughout the twentieth century wherever there were people needing a job. There was the French foreign legion when World War One broke out in the house and Lorraine which we have still not put in the us. But when that was disputed with Germany, the foreign legion was where a lot of elcetions wound up. So they could fight for the friends, even if they were not citizens, right? And after World War, Two allot of Germans in. It was not a good time to have been in the German. Armie a really bad time to be a German in general. So a lot of these guys from the Vermont or whatever we're like, I've not a Nazi. And I am actually from Canada and the part of Megyn I can imagine that the the the French officers were thrilled to recruit all these soom Intel, the French intelligence did kind of go through and see are there any of these guys that should be standing trial in Nuremberg instead of standing on a fort in Iran, right? But I'm sure a lot of that a lot of the rank and file became German soldiers who. Yeah. Out of a job. And it's you know, it's an unfortunate thing we don't like to look at French collaboration too closely, but they were some shared. I kind of do their some shares one of my favorite things, but doing the the French colonial enterprise, and what had formerly been the German global project. It kind of makes sense. Like, we we still got some Brown people for you to fight down here if you're into that. There was after the communism fell in the eighties and nineties suddenly the foreign legion is full of eastern bloc types poles and Slovaks in bowls again looking at looking for a home. The world is just full of polish soldiers with a little cardboard signs saying will van that for food and more recently. It's become the developing world. It's people in Latin America or central Asia looking for an out, and they're still one hundred and eighty years later, or whatever it is the French foreign legion to be their plan b now the experience it's not easy to be in the foreign legion. All the stuff about how fugitives and criminals and narrative all those legends were true to a degree in the nineteenth century, you really could get away from criminal charges. So it was full of murderers, rapists. I'm sure and officer corps was probably not super stoked today. Interpol will do background checks on you? If you want to join the French foreign legion. And if you've done serious crimes, you will not be in the French foreign for so many reasons is that true though. Well, it still kind of a backstop for people who are awful, but not currently wanted currently wanted in in six days. Like, it's a lot of people. Who washed out of their own armies if you were failed to many drug tests, or if you hit an MP, Bo bergdahl the guy who deserted in Afghanistan, I guess he had joined the coast guard. He was drummed out of the coast guard for insubordination before that he had actually attempted to join the foreign legion. And he he tried and failed. I think he washed out because there's there's a coup-. They can reject you. But they also have a washout rate of like nine people for everyone. The train the training is insane. Yes. When I described the training, you will see why there's only nine thousand people in the foreign legion today that right? And I think ninety percent washout during screening on basic twins such a small organizations a little family. Does this make you want to join more? Now that, you know, you'll be joining such an elite fighting force, and I've actually played concerts for more people than are in the entire French foreign legion have you ever played a concert for the entire French for. Oh, I wish though although and we can get to this too. I have met. Legionnaires? I wanna I wanna talk about modern legionnaire and your experience with them. Okay. We'll get there when I say awful people sometimes it's not a criminal charge. It's a lot. It's a lot of ex trying to get out alimony apparently. Oh, sure. But imagine how awful your divorce must've been to think yodel my problems, the French foreign legion. Well, I mean, get hair implants for crying out loud. So it's kind of like it's last chance you basically have you seen the show about the community the junior college that takes all the these talented, but awful football players that have slugged a coach or whatever from real programs. I have not seen that it's always guys who lost their scholarships at Penn State. And now they're all of this elite junior college where they're all super good players. And no, maybe not so great at adulting as we said. So the foreign legion has kind of become less chance you for males of all types because you have to be male Yelm. Right. Okay. You have to be a mandate as there's been one woman in legionnaire history. An English an Englishwoman named Susan Travers. He was an ambulance driver in World War Two and turned out to be such an able able land mine avoid her and everything else that you actually fought for the Free French and was later when she retired. She was an officer in the foreign legion. But otherwise they are excluded explicitly excluded. And there's always a bunch of political movements in France to say, we're going to have this many women in the foreign legion by this date, and it just never happens because of institutional resistance and sexism. John we think about the end of the world pretty much every episode on the omnibus, but we're agnostic about how it's actually going to end. No, we speculate could be meteor strike could be chlorine gas rise, really chlorine guest. I think could be glowing. Where's it going to be coming from the clangers swimming pools to rise up against this? No, the great chlorine mountain. Well, good news. We can find out more possibilities for how the world is eventually going to end now. Thanks to Josh Clark of stuff. You should know fame. Who is bring us a new podcast series called the end of the world with Josh Clark at the end of the world has he knows it. Whereas we know it, and he feels fine because he's suggesting a lot of different possible ends for our planet and civilization. Oh, I like this. And what all the risks might be. If you're a curious person who gets jazzed by fascinating scientific possibilities and philosophical questions like this one. Then the end of the world with Josh Clark is perfect for you. It's waiting to take you on an adventure funds on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast Benji entire season. Now and join the conversation on social with hashtag e OT w Josh Clark. Can I ask if this is not part of the regular friend ask if they're all male where do baby legionnaires come from? No. I have a sense of where they come from a stork. No, I'm going to ask how closely is the legion. Overseen by the French military, and how much is it truly an independent organization culturally? I get the sense that it's very independent. I mean, it does have an all French officer corps. But you know, you know, just from looking at the US military like how a chain of command does not mean that the marines are super Marini, you know, right? And the culture of the foreign legion is certainly all its own. It's it's it's very alcohol based for example, like the legionnaires have their own. This is kind of their historic legacy. They have their own vineyard in Provence. And so there's legion made wine that everybody drinks, you'll just get force fed pints of whiskey all throughout Castel, which is the what they call their regimental. Basic training. It's a Christmas morning tradition. Pint of whiskey, you're always drinking helmets full of beer, basically, you need to keep the edge off because training is so brutal. You're going to get sent to the jungles of Ghana or the desert's of Djibouti, and basically pe- people are routinely just getting punched and kicked and their teeth are knocked out and they have rules. Of course, the French army is saying, but you cannot punch that recruit. So they'll be so it'll be awful Colonel saying, okay, put your hand up in front of your face. And then he'll punch you through your hand. So it's basically, why are you hitting yourself pharma, basic training? I love the French foreign legion. They're such bully figured it out to workaround good as ING you'll have to just you push ups on your knuckles til there, bloody. You'll have to stand in the sun until you've collected a glass full of sweat, and then you can bring the sweat to your sergeant wasn't that one of the scenes in the movie seven. I was that true. Is that is that one of the sins? No. Hydration seven at least since wedding. And of course, there's this huge culture of marching even more so than any army from their north African hike from fort to fort days, which we always romanticize from bos- and Snoopy and do you like the comic strip crock the hilarious twentieth century foreign legion newspaper comic crock. Of course, I know crock the. Say about I was stunned by how much I have to say about crock. We should do a whole entry about crock. I haven't seen crock in the paper late crock exist. Well, it was the crock wander into the desert and dies certainly a feature of our seventies and eighties. Child's guy named crock. I'm not clear, I don't remember either. But you know, that they had that distinctive foreign legion hat. They had the white kepi. And of course, Snoopy does that sometimes, but you know, lately Snoopy just sticks to the red baron persona will lately soobee hasn't really done anything. Charles hilts died in two thousand when I was a kid right that foreign legion. Look and feel still had real resonance reminding baked into the cultures because there were five movies of Bo. Just right. There's I looked up to see if there were songs about foliage. I guarantee there's Stephen Merritt song about the foreign legion. Yeah. And I'm not sure there is. But there is one about there's one by the December. You'll be shocked to hear there's a song legionnaires lament on castaways commerce. There is. In fact, I'm not sure, but maybe I appear on that song. It's hard for me to remember feel like you can't as Allegiant air if you are singing harmonies on a song about them. You know, maybe I'm an honorary legionnaire they still waiting to hear back if I'm a Kentucky Colonel or not. Yeah. Maybe in the meantime, maybe tell them you're Allegiant air and see if that convinces anyone in the bluegrass state, so because of their culture of marching they still will do to get your white helmet. You have to do a forty kilometer March with a forty kilogram pack, and I'm too lazy to to do the math there. But what does that twenty five miles one hundred pounds on your back? Yeah. So you know, it's not that hard. It's doable. But they just love to March. I think they have their the legionnaires. Unofficial motto is Marsh who crave. Oh, Marshall cra- March or or or expire marcher Di basically those are that your choices. Well, and speaking as someone who's read a lot of soldier of fortune magazine's from the early eighties and still keeps one island special forces culture just in case. Just like on rings one night. I like to know all the details. I don't think I'm going to ever be recruited by the special forces. But when the Central Intelligence Agency needs my services, I'm going to have to interact with special forces people. Sure. Anyway, there a blunt instrument that you will use. Yeah. The sense among special forces people. My senses is that the foreign legion. Although very capable as a force spends a lot of it's time and energy on some of these archaic like on being legionaires well in like marching and hazing and this real top down kind of culture of the organization rather than on actually being good at tactics and warfare and so forth, so special forces people don't consider the French foreign legion to be in the class of a special forces. They're not elite. No, they're just weird. Like that kind of matches everything I've read. Yeah. You know when you read about. The hazing. Well, I'm just think about the logistical problems of putting all these people together for one hundred forty countries today are represented in the foreign legion. So they don't all speak French. I'm guessing well to pass basic training. You will get punished you'll get push ups her KP or whatever if you are heard speaking, your native language, and they used to divide back in the nineteenth century. They would divide by nationality. There'd be a Swedish regiment, polish one an Irish Wanner, whatever. But today, they're all mixed up. And if it's really discouraged from forming little language mafias. Like, if you're you don't speak English. You cannot pass basic training without speaking four hundred words of French. So that's the level of mastery. Which is really isn't that that's like junior, high French that's way, low tech kind of friends. Four hundred words, I mean, I speak four hundred words of French. What are the main words of any military unit? It's gotta be halt and attention and forward. Oh, I read somewhere that one of the things that the French foreign legion was great at as a result of this very thing is the kind of military sort of hand signals really where when they're on a secret mission because they have to nobody speaks the language. Yeah. So they're really good at communicating with each other over distance by being like over there. There are two guys. And they are do they do the thing where they point at both their eyes with two fingers pointing a direction with their palm. Sure, they do that. And I'm sure they can say all kinds of things. Yeah. So they're good at that stuff. Apparently. It's not a bad life. It's the pay it. I is a a thousand fifteen hundred zero month, which you know, considering all your. You're getting a caught and for hot. Yeah. What does the thing cotton three hundred thirty three hots caveats? And I mean, you all your room and board is taken care of getting a helmet full of beer every once in a while you whiskey on Christmas and more if you're deployed overseas often, these guys will have to spend three months in chat or Molly doing awful bureaucratic administrative stuff. Right. Three months in. Chad is actually great title for autobiography that you're gonna say a porno. Oh, oh, three nights in Chad type of thing. Three months. That might that kind of humor might fly on jeopardy, Ken. But this is an adult. This is a podcast, and you get a shiny new rifle. And as you were saying before it can be a path to citizenship. Yeah. You can get your citizenship or ply for citizenship for ten year residency in France after a mere three years of service. And that's what eighty percent of of the legionaires do which is funny because what it really is is applying for citizenship in Europe. You're not you're not then held to France he could emigrate to anywhere. Eighty eighty percent of legionnaires eventually do this and become essentially EU citizens. And if you're wounded as legionnaire that's immediate citizenship. It's called Francais parlous saying there, say French by virtue of your spilled blood because friends have always had this kind of meritocratic approach to Frenchness. They would give on ROY citizenships to Washington or Jefferson because clearly their souls are French they have the ideals of but. Like my dad deals. Time pronounced Rousseau. I say that his name is John Jack remember, and do you remember last year that Molly in Spiderman guy, do you remember this? There was a kid hanging from a balcony in Paris and some west African this guy from Mali, I think pretty fresh off the boat is like he climbs four stories like Spiderman and grabs the kid. Oh, I didn't see that. And the next day like it's all over YouTube and Macron citizenship because clearly this guy has the spirit of the Francais. So what about your legionaire experiences? So I was I went on a basically wasn't USO. It was the army entertainment office the a o. Oh, forget what it was Bob Hope of the. This is John singalong when song. There. And then I swung my golf club and Joey heatherton came out. So a friend of mine or or rather actually a podcast listener of one of my other shows also was a Lieutenant Colonel in the air force who was a drone pilot combat veteran, and he was charged with opening in managing various drone bases in Africa on behalf of the US air force, which were not widely publicized because we don't Africans would be delighted I'm sure when we don't have. We don't have like there's no air force base in Africa. But there are and they are these little drone bases. And so is it just like a couple tenths somewhere. No there. They end up being in coordination with other governments. There's a lot. You can't say what you end up with is. There's an airport that already exists and the air force goes in and takes kind of one side of it. Who are one quarter of it and builds a little base, and they are tents and shipping containers. I mean, they're they are huts Kwanzaa. If there are Quonset huts that were already there, but the air force doesn't build Quonset huts anymore. Not like they used to half of Alaska was Quonset. Huts when I was a kid. I used to go to church in a quantum was stained glass windows in South Korea. See Quonset, huts, they were great. I don't know why. Well because tensor cheaper anyway. So we went on a little tour where we played for the troops in share. And if yo- Pia and aforementioned Djibouti, we went to Burkina house into Hafer mentioned Judy half mentioned Djibouti remember during the revolution. When it's put into the Republicans Judy Ephron into well after mentioned, Judy was a great teen dance club here in Seattle. Nineteen eighty play shakes. Shake shake, shake, Judy. We did not know we Judy right now is under a pretty repressive government. Repressive shake, but there is a huge navy base in Djibouti and China's built one next door. That's right. Did you know about China is building railroads in east Africa like Huckle debunk? China's going to be the major power that's going to be west China, basically, China will end at the Nile river, but the for instance, the the navy base there in Djibouti has an incredible foreign component their Japanese army there. There's French there's special forces of of every stripe, but in Deir we played it a little base outside of ninety and the base was home to this air force group. But also some special forces special forces people, you can tell. Like US special people, you can tell them from a mile away because they have beards and they're all chewing tobacco. And they have baseball caps that look like they're covered with doing tobacco. They look like the Boston Red Sox. Basically, you're allowed to look like the Red Sox if you took out then Laden, but there was also a contingent of French foreign legion soldiers and French commandos at this base because this was during that period, it's ongoing. So Boko haram was in Nigeria and all those Islamic groups in Mali, and they were all kind of contending for this area in north eastern Meizhou air that sort of just hard to govern. And so all these groups were milling around all these people with fascinating mustaches in camouflage dungarees who had far away looks in. There is it is the modern day version of just being in the casbah from some thirties. And we're we were affectively like playing. So they set up a stage for us and shown a bunch of like anti aircraft searchlights on us where people delighted do they not get a lot of entertainment. They don't get any entertainment. And I don't know if delighted onto that's the only reason we'll be delighted by your music. When these people the light of because they had never seen another musician. Sure. They would enjoy it. Anyway, I think they just liked that people were there to entertain them. And when company comes over. Yeah. Pull it played a full set of songs too. You know, maybe like not rapturous applause, but certainly like fun, and the French guys the French soldiers were all drinking, whereas the American soldiers it was rowdy. It was. I mean it felt like. I mean Naimey is a huge city, and we weren't that far out of it. But it was far enough away that it felt like we were in the in the Bush there were drafts around. I mean, it was like pretty interesting. Not typical I one of your shows. Right. I've I've seen you plan. I have never seen the Jura. No. It's not a giraffe at your show, really reduces the number of tickets you can sell and so it's not adventitious to the band. It's like the one the mom in the back had too many wines standing up when no one else wants to stand out. That's what it's like sitting behind a giraffe at a rock show. Anyway, it was they definitely had a very different vibe a strong vibe, even the US special forces guys who are covered in chew spit. They still feel pretty disciplined fairly disciplined, and the French guys felt very rogue by comparison, you know, they just kind of sat with their feet up on the desk. They just had a little bit more there. The original bad, boys. Yeah. Had some vision is sick qua-. They had some they had them back alimony probably blew. It's an unpaid alimony did right. They got out of wherever they were from. Net concludes the foreign legion. Entry four nine zero dot two s one five one nine so ticket number three six seven four nine in the us. Future. Llings? Gimme unlikely event that social media still exists in your era, you it's probably drone base point all cost. The air force is just flying emails directly to you. And drones I'm imagining, and this might be a little black mirror. I mentioning a world in which social media, his corden. So that not everyone can join the Twitter or Facebook of the future lynx time. But it becomes like it's chronologically coordin- or hierarchically like it's like having a sky lounge at an airport. Yeah. So I think probably lots and lots of Silicon Valley disrupters are even now probably trying to popularize there's social media that is somewhat exclusive you have to apply to pay a hundred twenty bucks a year, and a friend of mine got me an account on some dating site that was only professional professional hot, ladies and the professional dudes that cut ladies and not hot guys with tech. John Tom's tons of money. And I spent a few days on their nuts, quite all, right? I don't have either thing looks or money spent a few days on there. And just felt like, oh, this is just as bad as anywhere and. The exclusivity the quote unquote, exclusivity of it is both fake and also attracts the worst elements differ. Seventies fake because you can't make the price enough to actually keep out the riff raff. No, the exclusivity is faked because people trying to popularize the app right one as many people as they can. Thousands of music, right? And so when when they discover that every rich person in the world didn't immediately join their site. They just start lowering the standards like, but while maintaining the premise like, oh, you're lucky to be here. Invite five friends we'll have to vet them. They managed the original hot. Yeah. But invited five friends this you can smell the blood in the water. But yeah, I'm thinking future links will find that. Maybe if they are excluded from all the delta sky lounge level of social media sites that there's only one course left which is to leave it all behind joined the French foreign legion, the French foreign legion of social media or literally the fridge for well, maybe either both maybe the French foreign legion. Maybe it will all happen in social media because the French foreign legion you do have to essentially change your name. All the bad things done before do not follow you, and you Hella Moni doesn't doesn't work there, and you have to awful places and do awful things and until your knuckles bleed. Well, in the meantime, Kenan, I are populists where American people men of the people, but we want everyone to have access to our social media hilarious. And so you can find us at Ken Jennings at John Roderick our program. At omnibus project. I am on Instagram at John Roderick. So many great pictures over there of funny things laughs every bath you've ever taken lots and lots of food. Always take pictures of. I don't I don't have a pet. He'll never see a single picture of my dog looking nary a sandwich or pug to offend the I o all the all those pictures where people are like taking pictures of their dog. And then magin their dog is looking at them with some kind of significant telling behind their eyes. And then you just see the picture, and you're like, it's a picture of a dog roads. There's nothing there for me. My dog has never done anything. Good enough to be on social media. You've never hear dog. I'm waiting for little dumbed. I'm sure I have two dogs. Now, if they do something cute, I'm ready. I'll post it you're there. They just on average underachievers. They just sit and like themselves we recommend if that is an future Ling's that may be a thing that you consider like basic. A standard of joining society that you'd be able to sit and lick yourself. I don't mean to offend if that's if that's how you that's your courtship ritual in your area. It would be hard for us to do in a seemly way. You may not be super aware of what our physiology is if you tried to replace a business handshake with licking somebody else's hindquarters. Just it's tough. Honestly, I've known you can for many years now, I have never seen you lick anything. Not a single thing. You put things in your mouth. You've never seen lick anything. Never seen you lick. Would you like to? No, no, we're fine. Like this, right. You can Email us at omnibus project at how stuff works com, we recommend that you join our Facebook group, the omnibus future llings, even if you have deleted Facebook, we recommend you reactivate your Facebook account because as we all know, you cannot really delete your Facebook account. It's still there all you have to do is go back and show even the slightest bit of interest, and it will all repopulate instantly. It's like how you're always drug. Yeah. Right. He can't just go have a shot of booze on New Year's day never be cured from Facebook. It's still there even if you even shut it down, and you feel virtuous about it forget it. Go back just to join the future lanes because there are. And you can mail us thing PO box five five seven four four shoreline. Washington nine eight one five listeners from our vantage point here in your distant past. We have no idea how long our civilization will survive, certainly from our lack of French foreign legion Mike options, it seems as if we are reaching some kind of end we hope and pray that no catastrophe will end civilize ation. But if the worst come soon this recording like all our codings, maybe our final. But if providence allows we hope to be back with you soon for another entry in the omnibus. It's the Ron burgundy podcast. It's the Ron burgundy podcast. Guess what? I got up, and you don't guess what? I got up podcast, and you don't Ron burgundy. Puck cast. Join me Ron burgundy on the Ron burgundy podcast driven by safe auto, the only car insurance company I'll ever use it takes three minutes. And let's face it. That's about all the time. Any of us should spin with a car insurance company.

French foreign legion French army France United States officer John anxiety legionnaires Alaska Kentucky Allegiant Josh Clark Charles hilts Seattle Kennedy Austrailia State Department North Africa John Rodrick
NPR News: 11-29-2019 5AM ET

NPR News Now

00:00 sec | 11 months ago

NPR News: 11-29-2019 5AM ET

"Live from NPR news in Washington. I'm Dave Mattingly. President trump is on his way back to the US after making an unannounced visit. Visit to Afghanistan on Thanksgiving Day. That's where he met with American servicemembers less than twenty four hours later. The Taliban announced they're ready to restart peace talks with with the US. Congress and the White House are running out of time to pass a new budget and avert another partial shutdown of the federal government. NPR's Windsor Johnston says as lawmakers are expected to resume work on the spending plan when they returned to Capitol Hill next week the trump administration and Congress had been at odds over border security security for more than a year preventing the passage of annual spending bills needed to fund the government. The two sides were able to secure a temporary spending fix but that that agreement is only good for the next three weeks. If the deal isn't reached by December twentieth lawmakers will have to pass another stopgap measure or shut down the government government the latter would force a number of federal agencies to close just before Christmas last year. A breakdown in talks over funding for a southern border wall led to who at thirty five day government shutdown the longest in. US History Windsor Johnston NPR news Washington. More than fifty thousand people in Southeast Texas remained under a mandatory evacuation order as a fire continues burning at a chemical plant in port nature's it was sparked by two large explosions on Wednesday the teepee apiece groups facility. It's about eighty miles east of Houston near the Louisiana border. Glen Johnson is the city's mayor we won't everybody back in their homes as quick taken can get in there so You know we're I'm very cautiously optimistic. And EPA spokesman says twenty teams or monitoring air quality not near the plant and none has found any dangerous readings for many retailers in the US. This is the busiest shopping day of the year. The National Retail Federation. It says nearly one hundred fifteen million Americans are likely to shop on this black Friday but NPR's Alina Seljuk says the growing popular popularity of online shopping. Shopping is keeping more shoppers. Out of the stores. In recent years the number of people visiting stores on Black Friday has inched lower this year only thirty six percent of people said they planned to do most of their holiday shopping on black Friday down from fifty one percent just three years ago. That's according to a survey by pricewaterhousecoopers repeatedly we see in part that's because stores now offer big discounts on many other days of the year including more made up shopping holidays like cyber Monday and prime. I'm day and some have been touting black Friday prices for weeks now. The same Peterborough see survey. Also for the first time found the majority of people saying they plan to do most of their holiday shopping online rather than in stores Alina sell. You can be our news. This is. NPR news from Washington. The head of the French army is dismissing a claim by militants linked to Isis that. They're responsible for this week. Steadily mid air collision between two French military very helicopters in Mali. The collision left thirteen French. Soldiers dead the French army chief tells a radio interview in Paris. No shots were fired. At the helicopters it was the highest loss of life for the French military since a nineteen eighty-three truck bombing in Beirut. It killed fifty eight. French paratroopers along with two hundred forty one members of the US. Military in the Philippines organizers of Athletic Competition in Southeast Asia known as the SEA Games are facing criticism. NPR's R.'s. Julie McCarthy says venues unfinished. There's not enough. Food and accommodations are uncertain as the athletes begin. Arriving soccer players sleeping on floors. Uh other athletes left at the wrong hotel still other stranded at the airport raising eyebrows to is the one million dollar price tag. For the cauldron holding the flame to balint Saturday netizens took to social media under hashtags such as C. Games. Twenty nine thousand nine hundred fail. President Rodrigo Duterte is fuming over the logistical collapses concerned for the country's image as host of the biggest regional sporting event in Southeast Asia. The president's office called for an investigation into the aberrations rations and irregularities and a blame game has erupted over who was responsible for the poor preparation of the event that has caused a half billion dollars in public money. Julie McCarthy N._P._R.. News Manila Wall Street futures are on the downside this morning. I'm Dave Mattingly in Washington.

US NPR Washington NPR Dave Mattingly French army president Southeast Asia Julie McCarthy trump President Rodrigo Duterte Taliban Congress Afghanistan Southeast Texas National Retail Federation
martinet

Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day

00:00 sec | 1 year ago

martinet

"The merriam webster's word of the day for august thirtieth. Today's podcast is sponsored by britannicas guardians guardians of history. Your voice launches a time traveling adventure with guardians of history catapult across history on top secret missions interact with characters and decide the story line with your voice device simply say alexa install guardians of history or okay google open guardians of history to play today today's word his martinet spelled m. a. r. t. i n. e. T. martinet is a noun that means a strict disciplinarian. It can also mean a person who stresses rigid adherence to the details of forms and methods. Here's the word used in a sentence from the boston globe by michael michael upchurch. Her father was a diet and exercise martinet imposing a strict regiment on her as a condition for receiving an allowance. When francis king louis fourteenth appointed lieutenant colonel john martinez may to be inspector general of the infantry in the late seventeenth century he made wise choice as drill master. Martina trained his troops to advance into battle in precise linear formations and to firing volleys is only upon command thus making the most effective use of inaccurate muskets and making the french army one of the best on the continent. He also gave english rush a new word martinet. The anglicized version has been used synonymous -ly with strict disciplinarian since the early eighteenth century with with your word of the day. I'm peter sokolski visit marian webster dot com today for definitions word play and trending word look ups <music>.

merriam webster michael michael upchurch alexa n. e. T. martinet colonel john martinez francis king louis peter sokolski french army boston google Martina
E29: French 75, Pascal Payet, and Joseph Vacher aka theFrench Ripper

Killer Cocktails

43:11 min | 1 year ago

E29: French 75, Pascal Payet, and Joseph Vacher aka theFrench Ripper

"Hey, guys. You are listening to killer cocktails where the drinks are stiff, but the bodies are stiffer. This is a casual true crime podcast where two friends get drunk and talk about gruesome murders each week. We pick a different drink whose name or ingredients set the tone for our stories. Hey, guys, look back to another week of killer cocktails. This is this is Jackie, and we drinking the French seventy five somebody five what is the French seventy five. Okay. The French seventy five is actually you made them. So you give me the recipe. Okay. Cool. What you guys need is fresh lemon. You're gonna squeeze that. I I've noticed from one limo Lehman, lemon limo limo. So what I've noticed her heart. Like. Ron citron? All right. So what you're gonna need a lemon, which will from my measurements. Will give you three drink our size lemon. Yeah. And you're gonna get simple syrup. You're going to get gin and champion in there. Yeah. The thing that I'm most on steroids with less. No, orange juice. Yeah. Less juice. Yeah. Booze. If these are. I think I heard you earlier call this, maybe like a cougar juice. I said this is the true. 'cause we always jokingly referred to Chardonnays, cougar juice. But I think if Cougars were in the know, this is actual kuker juice. Yeah. This is bum. I feel like when life gives you lemons, you should make a French seventy five hell, yeah. And when life also gives you gin, and gee, I better give you some other stuff to. Okay. So it's called the French seventy five or seventy five cocktail or in French that simply known as the. Slap in cans. So why being kings? Why? Which is not my pecans, much better. Was. Kyle. What is it? Swansong cons if seventy five and what that means is sixty plus fifteen is seventy five because you have to do math when you speak French apparently chur as what I learned. Oh for the talking to your home my little crawl. It is believed that Scott, Harry, Maccarone, Michael home. This is great. He's got a hard one. It's kind of like the guy who does it's always sunny in Philadelphia how he's mcilhenny like crazy spelling MAC capital E L H any oh. Those words got back on the call, amac alone. He was the owner of Harry's American Bar in Paris. Okay. So he named the drink in nineteen twenty six is kind of what legends so the inspiration for the title was apparently these seventy five millimeter howitzer field gun, which was used by the French and Americans during World War want Liu. So the saying goes because the gun was known for its accuracy and speed. The French seventy five is said to have such a kick that it is felt like being hit with such a weapon. Yeah. I can feel that. Giggle town USA I was making little comments myself the kitchen because this is a CD lemon came from the wrong side of the tracks. No. I think I think you had it. Right. You'd be out in the sun on a patio. Drinking poolside drink summertime. Yeah. Yeah. They're very tasty. But be careful. Yeah. This this will sneak up onto you. I don't know if you I don't bubbles always get me. We ask maybe the maybe the way it's absorbed gets affected by bubbles Bobkov. Don't bubble can effervescence and stuff impact like absorbed of vitamins and things. Nor I don't have no idea. So here he Scott, Harry. Yeah. The due to invented the drink from Harry's bar. So that never claimed that the drink was his own. He was always like Nana. It started at the bucks club in London. And that's it's conceptual home. And I just kinda like made a popular and talked about it. And so he was kinda like give credit Credit's due. So while a lot of people like to give him credit. He's kinda like it wasn't me. It was me. So but in different iterations under like different names and slightly different variations. It's kinda thing for a while. So Charles Dickens. Oh, Charles Dickens. Charles, he visited Boston back in eighteen sixty seven and he liked to entertain other local authors, and he'd have them to the Parker his room at the Parker house, and he would serve this is according to an article that came out that he would serve Tom gin and champagne cups, and what does champagne Cup is bubbly Soave. It's champion sugar. A citrus. And nice. Oh, yeah. So that's champagne Cup, and then they would serve Tom gin with it. Yes. So it's actually a French seventy five, but it just didn't have that name or any of that. The drink was featured prominently. I believe I haven't seen this movie spoiler. The drink is featured in the nineteen forty two classic Casablanca say coming into this gin joint movie. Yeah. Longtime ago chassis yet. I don't remember watch together is in for an old movie, and we'll drink these. Yeah. Movie night. There you go black and white black and white an all the joints and all the world you had to walk into mind. Their yo you at least know, the the tag. Yeah. Yeah. That's the history of the French seventy five that's RAD. I don't that. All right. Jackie. I really didn't hear about the murder is it old. Yeah. From another country. Yes. Is it full of details. That are horrible. Here. We go. A laborious three Cheka chicken Tikka ticket ticket to trigger burder. So tara. Jackie I'm gonna tell you about Joseph Vacher, aka the French ripper. Ooh. This my third ripper rip reserve referred. They're going to be good story. Whole the ripper arisen. Yeah. All right. Listen so Joseph was born on November sixteenth eighteen sixty nine old in alpine valley in southwest, France. Alpine valley a. That's a a quaint little place and Francis my tie. Here we go he grew. She's come up later, we come up with the we can put in like there should be annoyed when you're watching team when you're watching PB Herman's playhouse oh God from a long time ago when you were a kid. Well. Oh before he went like dolphin of theater. He was acceptable to have children watch his show. And there was always a word of the day when they would say it the whole how everyone. What you the word always looking big deal. We should have a little league version, perhaps just to ignore whatever it is. But like when the Tigers said they've all. Yeah. Something asleep cleaning glass Chevy full of ideas. Full of ideas, something. All right. I since down here we go. I don't think we've had one of his interrupt your first sentence. Okay. So just up he grows up as a farmer, son. He was the fifth teeth child. So many children many children. He grew up in poverty, and we sent to very strict Catholic school where he was taught to obey feared God. He also started to have temper and thought very highly of himself. Some of us do. What are you gonna do? To get away from all this. He joins the French army when he turned seventeen and he loves it. He believes he is working hard. When was he born eighteen sixty nine k so yeah, he's working hard. He's believing his doing really well. He's he certain to think he needs a promotion, but he never gives us promotion. So so he's a millennial. We were hard for them money. I'm lyn. It's just an easy joke. Yeah. So he's feels like he's not getting into this recognition. So he decides to commit suicide journ. Yeah. He tries to slit his throat with a razor blade, but he's not successful. He doesn't die. Oh. And its commanders are like man, he is really dedicated. So let's let's just promote him. So because the corP. Yeah, interesting. So, but his fellow soldiers finding very unsettling because he would either throats mumble comments about flowing blood. What to the point that some of them complained and Joseph was sent to the infirmary for observation if thank weird. Yeah. So out on sick leave? He met stories are always good. Shucks. So he's out on sick leave, and he meets a young woman. Name Louise Burnett, and he falls in love at first sight. He's a go. You're gorgeous, your everything everyone ever necklace. Great. Oh my God. But unfortunately, unfortunately, a Louis did not find Josef attractive. So he is going to end. Well, yeah. So keeps trying to ask her out. And she keeps saying, no. So when Joseph's contract is up he tries to propose to Louise one last time. But again, she turns him down. So he does what any sensible young man does when a woman denies him. He cares on with his life. Oh, just kidding. He actually shoots Louise nude war time trick to me. And then tries to commit suicide. Oh god. Oh, every every time just walk away. So she survives. And so does he in hard times shooter four she's the fittest of ranch? Louis Barna at me riches. She's the Susan b Anthony dollar. Second. Julia going into Joseph when he tried to commit suicide he shot himself twice in the head in the head in the head. And oh, yeah. In it paralyzes side of his face and one of the bullets actually remains inside his skull for the rest of his life. The human body is fascinating do with all the information. You told me. Okay. Okay. So once he recovers enough the doctors send into dole asylum where he starts to attack doctors he throwing furniture. He's writing to Thorndike's that he's being abused and held captive in August of nineteen of sorry in August of eighteen ninety three Joseph escapes from the Silom, but is quickly captured a few weeks later and sent back to all on the train ride. He jumps out of a bathroom window and escapes again out of the bathroom of a moving train. Yes. Yes. And he's found two days later and back to this island yet again once there. He tries to kill himself by beating his head against the wall. At dole Joseph is declared not responsible for his actions. And after the local court find him not guilty of his crimes against Louise Dutin sanity. He is sent to a state run asylum near Grenoble on the trip from dole to the new asylum. Joseph again tries to escape, but he Rives at Saint Robert asylum in December of eighteen ninety three. He's spends just over three months there before being released in April of eighteen ninety four reportedly quote, quote, completely cured. So he's only twenty five at this point. I was still plenty of time to really go off. Yes. And he's been he's not in the military anymore. He's been released from this island could just kind of loosen the wind. Yes. And he's so he becomes like, filthy and half of his face is paralyzed in its drooping with which makes it hard for him to talk, and there's pus coming out of one of his eyes. So he's just wandering around begging food all well carrying insert it of knives, cleavers and scissors. And at this point, I was reading this is like a little quick fact, they're four hundred thousand misplace people in France at this point during this time. And so there's a lot of beggars going around. Yeah. There's a lot of displaced people got what I found interesting. So during the next four years beginning in eighteen ninety four Joseph murders and mutilates at least eleven people one woman five teenage girls, five teenage boys. But some say it could be as many as twenty seven dang that's kind of mostly young, but kind of both gender. Yeah. Kinda all he his Imos kind of all over the place. His first known victim was twenty your twenty year old Eugene a-, dumb home who worked as a factory girl in Joseph attacks her and stabs her in the neck, and then all of her body and all over her body and disembowel 's her and rapes her body and this is in June of eighteen ninety four. I'm going to start telling you about all the tax, and they're kind of graphic of the heads up people at home into this first attack seen very impulsive. And as he continues, his attacks become more deliberate and planned out and rather than town dwellers. This is after the eleven people he's killed now are onto more know these details of that. Okay. So he instead of just going for people like out in the open. He's like focusing on teenage shepherds who are watching their flocks isolated fields and the victims are stabbed repeatedly often disemboweled raped and sodomized in November of eighteen ninety four just of comes across Louise Marcel who's thirteen years old and working as shepherdess he attacks. He cuts her throat and cuts off her breasts and the mutilates the rest of her body a few months later while walking along a public highway. He comes her costs Augustine Matric six who. Seventeen years old and he attacks and kills her, but doesn't mutilate her as much so they don't connect to. In August of eighteen ninety five. He finds a widow age sixty five name more in her isolated cottage. He cuts her throat from ear to ear and then has sex with her body one week later Joseph comes across a sixteen year old boy name put portray elite who is working as a shepherd. He kills the boy in carves up his body like you would cut up sheep in. He leaves the body open and exposed. His next two victims are seventeen and a fifteen year old boy whom he kills and castrates in eighteen ninety six murders and rapes nineteen year old woman as well the fourteen year old girl and he mutilates her genitalia. He kills a fourteen year old boy throws his body down a well and may have eighteen ninety seven before killing his last victim a thirteen year old boy, whom he also sought amazes in June of eighteen ninety seven so just for four years. He's just going up and down all of it. Yeah. He's wandering around. He's just coming across people randomly. I almost have a harder time understanding when there's like a year between a murder or like, multiple months. 'cause I kinda wrap my mind around like spree killing spree killing them cracked, and they're on this like manic swing but like time between his almost darker into me. Yeah. Into to see him getting more deliver with the actions. And yeah, actually, he's hiding the body. Yeah. He knows what he's doing is wrong. Yeah. Yeah. In eighteen ninety seven just of attacks attempts to attack women feel she fights back and screams and her husband and some rushing out the men overpower Joseph and take him to a local tavern. While the police are called and Joseph reportedly entertains the locals by playing the accordion while they wait shut up. The crazy. That's. That's not the way I was just trying to attack your wife was charming charming? When I when I saw photos of him, I considered I thought he was good looking. But everyone describes him because he has now he has. But but but I think the pictures are from personality. You know, what I mean like, yeah. But like I felt like the pictures were from the trial. Also you later. Okay. But the thirties have so the thirties come and they have little having getting away from serial killer. I mean, all of Ted bundy's Owino, so the thirty show up, and they have little evidence that Joseph was responsible for the other murders, but Joseph soon, just confesses everything. Okay. So Joseph claims that he's insane. Because when he was a kid a dog bit him and they gave him this medicine, and that's what drove him crazy. But then later, he changed his mind and said that he was actually just sent by God, just like Joan of arc in order to make people think and understand the real virtues of faith. This little side story while waiting trial Joseph is alone in a cell in the word incomes, then it's just him in the warden. And so Joseph takes us opportunity to start beating him with a chair the word the warden in nearly killed him until the other guards, come and intervene. You're gonna be in trouble for doing that. Oh, yeah. I don't know. What you're you're being silly. Yeah. Don't do that. So back to the little trial process. So he's trying to plead insanity. So the court calls the premier forensic expert and France in the late eighteen hundred. Yeah, what kind of runs are happening? The lady Tom going to tell you. So. So he's trying to plead insanity. So the court calls the premier forensic expert in France, Alexandra Lakota, Sunday, I'm going to stand by that too. To be confident. It's not a lie. Actually to figure out if this is true are not little backstory of Alyssa, Alexandra. He's one of the founding fathers of modern criminology like Freud's founding father of psychology outlet. Let let him have this. I'm sorry. I'm just curious. What looks like back then? Yeah. Knowing how shitty it was literally twenty years ago. Yeah. Yeah. I mean, founding father, it's the brick and mortar. It's a huge part of its history or even thinking of it as a science. Yeah. Credit credit though, I remove earlier nation a recount. Statement. So over the course of five months Alexandrian, his associates examined Joseph the principle of quote, unquote. Legal insanity was not well established in French law at the time. So they looked at a couple key things. Somebody's going to be the first. Yeah, I they determined that Joseph was aware of what his crimes were at the time. He committed them which was apparent from his behavior in attacking the last woman in the prison in the warden. Yeah. On next determine that Joseph was aware that the crimes were wrong because he tried to hide what he had done in the end while the panel determined that just was occasionally delusional and suffered from prosecution complex. They decided that this was not the root cause of his actions as such he was declared fit to stand. Trial prosecution complexes, some sort of term they used to use. Yeah. Okay. Though, he was considered responsible for eleven murders. He was charged with only one since that would be sufficient to. Have him. Execute him. What's wrong? I get it. Sometimes I get Benadryl shape when they only go for really minimal charges because if it doesn't pan out you didn't turn them on the other stuff. But no if it doesn't pan out, then they can hit them with the next murder, then you can get out of that. Hey, okay. So I like where they're coming from in that sense, go through all the extra energy in the money that goes through twelve trial is is changed in car. Well, those either. Sometimes it is as he entered the courtroom, he shouted glory. Gee, this long live Joan of our glory to the great mart of our time glory to the great savior. Woo. He's thrown on the Trix at the end. Yeah. Some speculate that Joseph theatrical play for vanity was due to a belief that he could escape from an any filing. Oh, yeah. 'cause he's really good at silence have far less security like matches each peanuts. Or I don't know what the. That. Shipping pita. He definitely sought to dispute the trial by wearing his white rabbit hat as a symbol of purity. Which is in that photo is talking bell show you that. And I'm excited for this. And he would screech and how the reading of evidence he was just going bonkers of Alexandria thorough case to prove Joseph scene was more than enough to convince the jury Joseph was found guilty and sense to death. In the meantime, Joseph becomes a media sensation and all of the paper. Start picturing him with his Scarface wearing his white rabbit for hat. So Joseph was executed by the teen. Two months later at dawn on December thirty first he eighteen ninety eight so Joseph is walking towards the teen. But he is refusing to walk towards it. And so they have to start understandable had to drag him well away, you have to drag your team, you're saying this leg, you don't agree. I don't think it just walk right up and put your head in the thing. Let's just get it. Like did. I have my last meal of ten pounds of bacon. Like, sure let's go to the ski. Team. It feels sick into Ben's where my head's up. I kinda feel like it'd be a struggle. I was the type of kid just lot. I sat down. I got my shots. Like, a BBC told me what's going on. I'm right there with you. I don't think I'm right there with you on my Jeff. Yeah. My I don't know. But I was a kid. They couldn't I had to take a lot of medicine in. It would take both my mom and dad hold me down. And I would choose. Just breathe through them. And then they'd have had the clench. My anyways, it took two of them. They had they had it down difficult. Yes. And but my dad was out of town or something my mom, I need in my medicine. Yeah. So she called the hospital, and this is the situation and they're like, okay hall lady. Bring your kid in it took six doctors to hold me down in get me. My time under eight to struggle. How they going to get it in where my teeth clenched come back because they put my nose, and I just I just like. I'm not taking your dirty medicine. Get off me. I was literally opposite. I feel like I was so pliable like just I had like a that's what that's what the adult in control. Like, that's what they said. All right. Yeah. I have one of the ventilator kind of things and it was some kind of like vapor medicine. I don't know. But like, I was reading treatment. Yeah. Yeah. I was supposed to keep it like like in and around my mouth to laugh of child. But like, my mom would leave the room. And like it wasn't just on my face like blow it out the cat. I blow it up. My sure I'd just like to back in the room. I put it back out. My god. In a him. I was an only child. All right. So dragged him to the thing. Okay. In popular culture in nineteen seventy six French filmmaker birth town travelator made a film called on French the judge in the murder, which was he might a French film. Which was inspired by all all the that was nineteen seventy six, but which is interesting is these they made a bunch of movies about murder to not only was the time of the prime. But. Like murder movies in I'd ever seen like I've never seen a documentary about this. I've never seen any never seen anything about that. So very interesting to read about this. There's a lot going on. Yeah. Yeah. The French reper- Safafa, then that's just a vacuum. Thacker becker. Tre. Thank you. Nice job. As always, I'm amazing. Guys, if you wanna get confidence drinks and bubbles. Yeah. Or just hang out with us for a day. Okay. I'm gonna tell you about PASCAL Pyatt FRANZ. He's wrong. Is that your tie? Yup. Nice. He's a French, dude. He was born in Montpellier France on July. Seventh nineteen sixty three. Thank you, sixty three. All right. He spent his childhood in. I'm I'm gonna guess lion. As you said before settling in Marseilles in nineteen eighty eight. He was convicted of aggravated assault and then again in nineteen Ninety-three for conspiracy. Okay. So he's kinda got some some crimes or a Bruin. Our Bruin on November. Twentieth. Nineteen ninety seven he participated in an attack on an armored car. What is your the heist? During a guard was killed Ono often happens is okay. So the I took it out because it was super French. But they're like the took the Bank of France. He was arrested along with Eric all Barreiro in Paris in January nineteen ninety nine. So the heist happens ninety seven takes all the like catchy dudes. But the couch him and another guy that was a part of it in nineteen ninety nine. So pay yet was the one that PASCAL killed the guard. So it wasn't like he was a part of the highest in. He's getting looped in on charged. It he shot the driver fourteen times. Oh with what kind of gun to be? We don't know what kind of gun. Okay. He was found guilty of murder. Okay. And received a thirty year prison sentence in France's who so L U Y an ES loons. Sure, it's a it's name of prison. So during an exercise break, he's he's like scoping out the area, and he realizes that the prison has vulnerability. Yeah. Most European prisons are equipped with exercise yards on their roofs. Okay. So while he's out there. He's kinda like checking the Dow looking up, and he's kinda like scoping it, and he goes this is ongoing escape a chopper. Yes. Still off it. Are you serious? Jackie. There are not many details that are known about how like all the iterations of the heist, but on October twelve two thousand one what? Pyatt and his friends his friends, hijack a helicopter and they landed on the exercise roof at a predetermined time. They pick them up, and they fly off it would've it would've been it. It's in the middle of the day. It's daring maneuver people are just having time. Yup. A is at three o'clock meet me on the route got his chopper. It's real close wants to do is it late. Topple journal cats. Anything get away off the many of them. It's at least him in another dude. I think what we're the it might just be him. This time this time. Get ready. You put it down like you were done. No. Oh, 'cause I told you a short. Okay. Okay. So that happened October to go there no guard shooting at the chopper. There's a whole thing going on. They get away. But you never leave a man behind Ono on April fourteenth two thousand three. Okay. Couple years later play yet organized another helicopters scape from the prison the same one this time Frank per Leto, Michael Valero, and Eric Alba Rayo who got arrested with him. Yeah. Are who he's trying to go back for? Oh. So those guys are caught they're caught three weeks later. Okay. Wait. So they do go on the chopper pie yet gets off on the chopper. Yeah. He's got ranges for another chopper to come years later at years later pick up like the do the gut left behind. It was a part of the robbery with him. A couple other guys it probably helped him when he was prison in there before his friends they get away, and then they're caught three weeks late all of them. I think so even our main, dude, let's let's keep reading. Okay. So in January two thousand five so yes, he. Caught against now. He's like back in the. The prison system hand he sends to thirty years in prison for the murder in connection with the nineteen ninety seven are. So I think kind of same same sentences before. Yeah. The sentences up held in may two thousand six following an appeal. So he took it to peels. And they're like thirty years is what you what you deserve. He published an open letter in a year before the appeal at comeback into summer of two thousand five titled the saga of my transfers in French. It's something I can't say, but this off my transfers, go ahead. Jackie. They'll poppy dimissed starts something. He basically he's saying if I'm kind of. Movies. Some good math in here of. So before he wrote that letter he'd gone on a hunger strike, okay? In protest of how many transfers he'd how because he had been transferred to nine different prisons in thirty months. So little Orel nine different prisons in the upset because he was trying to escape news, y'all damper my in January two thousand seven he confessed to organizing the escape in two thousand three he was sentenced to an additional seven years for getting the other guys out of prison on his co conspirators were each sentenced to three. So he gets more time because he like arranged. Why did he confess they're putting out? There was you know, who knows and he's also sentenced to another six years for his own escape in two thousand one. So he's gives his extra time for getting out. He gets extra time for getting the other dudes out in Arizona at the time for the murder from back in ninety seven. So part of them transferring him all the time is there like we don't want him to figure out the vulnerability of what? Prisons in good on them for key. And he's like, you're not like I can't make any friends. I mean, I made that up. I was in glory. Being the new kid in prison. I think establishing yourself in prison. Yeah. Is important to safety issue. Being the new kids problem. At least in American prison is what TV tells me. The new black. So by July two thousand seven okay pie. It was one of the most closely surveilled prisoners in France. Wow. He's never kept it the same prison for more than six months. He'd been officially classified as Ditto anew. Serving. Thank you like honed in on how to speak French. You gotta just mumble through it. Or also known as a prisoner under especially high surveillance. Infringe? That's a romance language. Yeah. He was placed in solitary confinement. So that kind of sucks. Yeah. So he doesn't get you any friends in you, don't get you. Don't get books in soldiers. Not. I don't wanna be insulted. You're just you and your bed in your toilet. Right. That's didn't people who are like terrified of being around other prisoners or like, that's torture. So despite despite these measures of them being like on it. Yeah. I'm July fourteenth two thousand seven taking advantage of steel day celebrations, big French holiday. They were had since thing. Four mass men hijacked a helicopter from cans airport. They used it to free Payette from his solitary confinement in imprison what the helicopter landed sometime. It's like thirty eight kilometers north of this other seriously they land the Celica after. Yeah. And they storm the prison with how many math Laura over dudes Payette, and his accomplices then fled the scene and the pilot was released unharmed because he like there's this. They just took off. Yeah. Two days after his escape. European arrest warrant was issued for him this his. Personally, second escape from prison. But he's a riot Hella Comrie them by helicopter. How how is he are? They not tapping the phones when he's calling or the not reading his letters when they're like, obviously someone secretly four coming chart the storm. They knew exactly where he is in solitary confinement. They know how to get him out of that cell. Do you think it was an inside job? But he's gotta be some of the guards. Or I try to think like the most obvious which I don't wanna do this kind of the bus. I don't know this to be true. But the only communication that's not monitored is between you and your lawyer. And you know, he probably has a family lawyer. Well, and that's what I'm saying in America. Who knows what the France? Yeah. But and like, I would think most lawyers almost all of them are going to be they hold themselves in a very high regard. And they're not going to be part of that whatsoever. Yeah. But I imagine there's sorts of ways to get you know, what I mean like I don't have to use that avenue. Yeah. You could do another way. Yeah. Wow. Let's caridi. So it's not a good time to know how to ply chopper oughta goes, so that was in July. Right. Okay. So in September of two thousand one in the town of Madero the suburb of Barcelona season Spain he's transferred to French custody. So the catch him transferred to French custody should be rooting for him is what you're excited. It's a good hice along tooth compasses captured with them. These these other I'm not gonna try to say their names, but they're difficult. He. He was then imprisoned in a location, which has been kept secret for security reasons. Oh on June twenty fifth two thousand eight he's sentenced to fifteen years in prison with no chance of early release for series of armed robberies and assault like all everything's all piling up. Yeah. In two thousand eleven he sends to an additional five years for the additional escape. Wow. His three accomplices were given nine years seven years and six years respectively. Some other prisoners judged complicit in the escape so played a part of it that weren't part of the escape but left helped they're giving lesser sentences. So those aren't called out in here. I'll also tell you pyeatt is married. He has two kids. Oh, I don't know if these are prior or these are a personal go to different prison every six months. Are they nowhere? Yeah. So in pop culture, he's obviously well-known escape artists dealing France there. He's showcased on the Netflix original white rabbit project. Jill rake episode. Oh, and then there's a couple like so he's popped up a couple of different times. He currently holds the world record for planning the most number of skates by GOP for low. What was it before zero? Oh, that's crazy. Do that the great story. Yeah. Your story. Re-triggered home much. I'd love prison breaks. Yeah. And I was like I don't I will find a tot like most people have if you've got a prison break. Maybe they killed someone like, yeah. Yeah. That's my Tien the true crime in the murder, but I wanted to prison break story. How was he put mob some kind of like fringe snow and look up? He's like. Super attractive for like, oh lightly. Older fellow like not an old dude like clearly slightly older than us Cluny, including a little younger. Oh, but you can tell he's just this debonair. In tractive Frenchman, and he wasn't part of a mob. He's student well with a high staying who knows? Okay. That's crazy. That's that was a great story. Yeah. Dude. That was read. I love that the the like now, Murph the Smurfs or whatever it was a Murph the surf that lake episode. Yeah. That was good that like the same kind of just exciting. You have what is this? Crazy. Fool next choppers. Choppers into all people to come for him. He was like loaded or like that was I have that same thought. There's gotta be money so much loyalty behind it loyalty. Yeah. Cause for them to risk everything to come get this guy, Adam sentences onto your bid that's crazy in the midst of it, all he's a wife and kids like, yeah. I if I don't think the internet in my rudimentry searching, I don't know when that transpired in the episode is just an episode in that series think so I I don't know. I'm not familiar with that series. So I don't know if the whole thing is about prison breaks in that's in episode of. About him or of show about completely other stuff. And I don't know if we find ourselves down in San Francisco, I obviously want to go to Alcatraz, and like have you ever physically been Alcatraz? Yes. Yeah. So I've been but never had the tour. Like you win. We haven't talked about this now. So there's a thing you can do on Thanksgiving Day. Why aren't you with your family? I ended up with my family my sister, and her friend, and I someone told me about it. And I was like this sounds really cool. So I was unaware that in after the prison shutdown before it became a national park, or whatever it is. It was just abandoned and during that timeframe. A collection of not one, but a collection of botched this stories right politics for missing some details. A collection of native American tribes. Yeah. Took it over. Yeah. And had it for like ten years like a decent amount of time. And then eventually they got kicked off of it. And it became what it is now. Yeah. But every year for thanksgiving, you have to take the first ferry out of San Francisco to Alcatraz. And if you make that feary, then you're there in time. And there's this big celebration where they do all of this like the do bunch native American stories and dances, this whole like anti thanksgiving telling me other side. Yeah. Celebrating culture. It was just it was really interesting experience. Yeah. And then we made it back to the city, and then inappropriately at thanksgiving dinner. Yeah. I know I've been I've been once when I was younger I think it was one of had weird birthdays. When I grow up, I went to Hearst castle, and these are amazing and it went to Winchester mystery house. It was just me and my family. I was like this is what and I went to Alcatraz. We did the I like they're like you could do this to or you could do the scape- escape JR asleep. And like, yeah, I wanna go back and listen. All right. Thank you for listening. As always we highly recommend the French thirty five check us out on Instagram our website, look at the contact us section. If you wanna send me a letter. I don't know I'll accept one look at our posted address there. Please review on ITN's. If you're listening to just pop over real fast. We're we're getting really cited about our reviews. We haven't gone one in a while. If you guys are enjoying this. It have the time in want to read us review. Please go ahead and do it. We would absolutely love. And appreciate that. I think you know, how. How much joy it brings us. Oh my God. I giggle. Look a schoolgirl. If we bring you joy with our silly podcasts. Take two minutes out of your day and give us two minutes of joy. Yeah, we actually had to Pylos. I'm sorry. That's the highlight of my week. As always think you guys so much and we'll see you next week. Bye. Thanks for tuning into. This week's episode of killer cocktails as always on her talent was Jackie. Andrea be sure to check out her Instagram at cocktails podcast or stop by our website killer cocktails podcast dot com for up to date information, photos, contests and more. Our logo was created by Michelle firm, whose amazing art founded Michelle firm designed dot com. Our music was created by Nikolai height loss, and we'll be back next week on hashtag Mondays.

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How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

Cautionary Tales

37:37 min | 11 months ago

How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

"As the night draws in and the fire blazes on the half we warn the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the PAF. But my stories for the education of the grown-ups is all true on Tim. Harford gathered close and listen to my cautionary tales. August nineteen sixteen the Western Front. In the first World War the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five hundred miles across France and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine. Guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side to advance the Noble Cavalry Long. The most celebrated force in the army were utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers that brought picnics a waiting patiently for a demonstration of commendable invention. It was pleasantly warm day and a quiet spot if you tuned out the tillery of the Psalm. Battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon. Then another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon an armor plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting. When slowly came into sight the first tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful lines lozenge shaped but with too clumsy looking wheels behind it. That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in story. He's thirty seven a small man with a neatly trimmed moustache. His hairline is retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his head. He could pass for a Buckler in a costume drama. The beneath the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago. He'd been friends with the notorious occultist Alister Crowley. Crowley called himself. A wizard one newspaper called him. The wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed walks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest thing about the life and the fate of J F C Fuller Fuller sees instantly that this new machine. The tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war. But how to cross mud and trenches and barbed wire against a storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas but the tank will do the job and J. F C fuller concede that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown x in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people's see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem. You're listening to another cautionary tale. The British officer class simply adored and more traditional of waging war one involving stirrups and swords and big beautiful horses. Here's one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank look into the face of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine you will see in the letter or I might almost colon lack of intelligence. You keep up. The high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse if major fuller was going to persuade British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle at least managed to get himself in the right place. He applied to transfer to the newly formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper and ordered to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines. That was the easy bit fuller soon. Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line. New Faster tanks were being designed they could roll across the trenches and be on the German command posts in an hour. Full as attack would come from nowhere. `support would disrupt. German road and rail travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in single battle but the war ended anyway. Before Fuller's astonishing idea could be tested. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much of Europe. In a matter of weeks J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army had wasted his idea. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes of it. Been repeated again and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in one thousand nine hundred seventy the photocopying giant Xerox established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox Parc than developed the modern personal computer and Achievement Twitch Bill Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in nineteen seventy five a twenty four year. Old Engineer named Steve. Sassan built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What'S STRANGE IS THAT STEVE. Sassan was working for Kodak in one thousand nine thousand nine. Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to Celine Dion Ole succeeded in doing was paving the way for apple's ipod and back in one thousand nine hundred eighteen the British at the best tanks in the world a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The British had conceded technical and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so often you have to ask yourself. If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer that digital camera the ipod. Why do some ideas slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of J F C Fuller wants began an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you in a leading position racehorses? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory. They slow down and allow others to overtake them. For Glimpse of what fuller was up against. Consider the battle of Cambrai late in nineteen seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks to lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour. That was fast enough. They swept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches. I'll guns fi incessantly unseen guys on connect Fires Edit but you must admit all efforts to stop tanks ineffective can do nothing against him without exaggeration. Some of the German infantry seemed to be off the heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea of the situation. There was no chain of command and no orders. It was a stunning TAXCO success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened should be exploited. The cavalry a great deal of CLATTERING GALLOPING. Shouting and a lot of medieval whole soldiers came charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault. The opportunity was wasted and not just the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it so nearly been achieved. Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank at the right time at the right place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before the gunsmoke could cleared. He was scribbling away furiously at his desk. Tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be done next? Those scribblings would over the following months become plan nineteen nineteen. He understood that the success at Cambrai was just a glimpse of what might be possible. The British High Command did not. There were several explanations for these missed opportunities but most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people at idiots now we can get back to some veal soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle had been frivolous distraction from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year. After the war had ended fuller's essay the woman that begins with a reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think-tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. What have you done next year? He wrote another strategically essay. This time overturning. The ideas of naval warfare and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. Alba's were not amused. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The army also blocked publication of full as books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and as a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Montgomerie massing bird didn't read Fuller's as most celebrated book it would only annoy me. He responded to the threat of Nazi militarization by increasing the amount spent on. Hey and other food for horses. By a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Officers would get a horse to as I say. People Are Idiots and it's not just the British army who seem guilty of idiocy. When Steve Jobs visited XEROX PARC in Nineteen seventy-nine? He couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface for the first time. Why aren't you doing anything with this? This is the greatest thing. This is revolutionary. It jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars. He might well have said the same thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. How is it? There's a corporation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was Kodak. Really run by idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties. No these organizations stumbled for a reason management theorists have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they refer to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful. The shorter fail. But why don't organizations adapt after all? They usually have the resources. The experience and the reputation to outpace any upstarts. Kodak did so did Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more horses more. Hey We've already explored idiot hypothesis but there's a different theory of what goes wrong. It's a famous theory too. In management circles it comes from Clayton Christianson of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators dilemma told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are flawed or underdeveloped. At I said they don't appeal to existing customers but they find niches and slowly they improve while incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day. The new technology is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants. Christensen's disruption theory is an elegant one. But there are plenty of examples. That just don't fit. Think about why. Xerox didn't exploited that cutting EDGE RESEARCH AT XEROX PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface or a low end competitor to the photocopier. They aren't f from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below and Kodak Not only developed the digital camera and made good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations were slow to see the change coming. They often saw earlier than anyone else. What lay ahead yet. They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British army hadn't noticed the tank. The British will well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we want to understand why the British army lost its advantage in tank warfare. Are Cautionary Tale. Needs a new hearing. This episode is brought to you by the new podcast. Go and see hosted by our very own Malcolm Dodwell produced by the team behind revisionist history go and see is a six part series focused on Alexis philosophy of Ganci again Woodson. Which means Heath yourself an idea that stems from the belief that if you experience something yourself you have a better understanding people how to create something for them in the series. Lexus INVITES MALCOLM'S TO JAPAN. Discover that unconventional thinking and processes. I find out how a Japanese tea ceremony influenced the engineering of the car window. How the sound of an engine is cute. Like a musical composition realistic certain emotions. How undestanding Samurai Warrior led to a suspension innovation? Malcolm learns that no detail is left behind and that car company can learn more about my studying people go inside lexuses headquarters in Japan. Ride along on a top secret test track with a master a SIP in the expertly designed seat that actually lowest to welcome you into the vehicle. Follow Malcolm on his journey starting March the fifth or have you like to listen? Lexus DOT COM SLASH CURIOSITY. Eight for more stories like these in one thousand nine hundred ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published an article that presented a different view. Y It's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring one organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that these organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well at a different type of organization no matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that all ready exists the dominant organization of yesterday has a good chance of being the dominant organization of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. Ibm The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. Ibm Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those decades. Everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties but then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough and cheap. Enough that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists even parents now. Ibm faced a very different challenge. They had a corporate army ready to negotiate. Multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What were they supposed to do when a computer became a household appliance? Something more like a blender. Ibm Did create a strong business in personal computers. But that business was openly aggravating. The rest of the organization bypassing IBM's Distribution Division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit what had flummoxed. Ibm was not the pace of technological. Change it's been dealing with technology change just fine for more than half a century. Ibm's problem was that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca handwritten calls this sort of technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation too MOMS and new organizational structure which means that old organizations face an uphill struggle. Those organizations may have changed the world that when that forced to change themselves. That's a hard challenge before the first world. War Armies had been organized for centuries around cavalry and infantry. The mounted troops offered mobility the soldiers strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively three new technologies artillery barbed wire in the machine gun shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything everything that is except the way armies were organized and that was because the army's didn't need change barbed wire and machine guns were used to reinforce infantry positions the big guns of the artillery could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. The old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument like whether a tomatoes a vegetable or a fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane? Should it be run by the Air Force is more of a navy thing or is its role to support the tanks? Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem like silly questions. They aren't there. Fundamental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone. Someone in the organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank. Warfare has been grafted onto a system. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities it should be in a new kind of unit infantry will become I a subsidiary and later a useless arm on all ground over which tanks and move the Army of the last war was pot bellied and be brained that was J. AFC fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as grab for power and resources within the army. A new tank regiment would have no allies and no historical tradition. So an alternative was to place the tanks with cavalry regiments as the Modern Mobile Strike Force. That made some sense. To and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around. The concept of mobility were organized around horses. The Cavalry Officer loved his horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and caring for the horses. Why should he welcomed the u? Serpa tank it's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons and they're big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses but the more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really. Fundamental Xerox Parc developed or assembled must the features of a user friendly personal computer but Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market. Such a computer zero. Did much better when park develop the LASER PRINTER. The laser printer was like artillery. Or the machine. Gun vizier rocks. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. One challenge could easily be met. The other was insurmountable the politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a painful organizational over whole. It's a task that needs skillful diplomacy J. F. C. Fulla was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers. Since before the tank existed for example that the start of the Great War British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counterattacks would be hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England. He told major fuller to sort it out. Some sign stating sheep must not use this road sir. What of less. Well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too fond of his own cleverness remember it was fuller who had clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had won a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays. But his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army Commanders. Well he testified in front of a committee of senior officers. How many hours a day can attack run the far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet without a sturdy opposition it is most difficult to explode deep rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue with a stupid person was to tell him to his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right about that. People could see that fuller was smart creative. Perhaps even brilliant but nobody had a high opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. 'cause I told you hit being a disciple of the country's most infamous magician alister Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic. He was such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album. After a while he and fuller fell out. You can still hear. Echoes of the Strange Spiritual Listrik beliefs in full as arguments. Even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare of the future I saw a fleet operating against a fleet not at see but on land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and I notice that it is in difficulty. It cannot see there appears an aeroplane and gives. It's my astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force in December nineteen. Twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison that would mean taking responsibility for managing people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any textual innovation he balked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for Mechanized Warfare. Eventually Fuller threatened to resign. The position was awarded to someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like work even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see fuller's petulance was to cost him and the British army dearly. A this has been a story. About how j? F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Phone as part in it will soon becoming to painful end but there is another side to this. Tragic Tale story of how other organizations seemed to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman the digital camera and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony Kodak found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals seem to find it so easy? The answer is that it sometimes. Easier to build an organization from the ground up than to disassemble and reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the First World War all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks was strictly forbidden. The British army had been victorious. And it's hard to reorganize a victorious organization. The Germans had no organization to get in the way no status quo to defend. German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts were writing they also closely watched British experiments with tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in nineteen thirty three and dramatically expanded? The German army secretly I he encountered a German military that had been preparing for tank warfare for fourteen years early in nineteen thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday. With a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see the three hours a completely mechanized and motorized army roared past the fuhrer yes. J F C Fuller. Was there. Indeed. He was a guest of honor. Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army. Bitterness and frustration hit turned to fascism supporting authoritarian anti Semitic parties both in Britain and overseas. And of course. He felt that their walls worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That Adolf Hitler after the Parade Major General Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. The fuhrer grasped fillers hand. Offer Savar and MIT aiden Kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Your Excellency they have grown up so quickly that I no longer recognize them. In one thousand nine hundred seventeen fuller had been planning the defeat of the German army in one thousand nine thirty nine. He was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail of history. Oh and that piece of flattery that fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore wasn't really true. Was it had been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Holland and France. A French pilot called. Saint Exupery flew over the battlefield. If you recognize the name then yes. It's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery described. What happened to the French and British armies? This armored lados bling repairable consequences easily territory. They have blitzed an army. Misdealing view talked but it seems to be an me who will once. It was an organism nause's meal quantity of disconnected sales. Compare THAT TO J F C Fuller explanation without an active directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands and just forty six days sending their battered British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. Afc Fuller that brilliant bitter strange little man seen it all coming. You've been listening to cautionary tales and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies have written an entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Harford our producers arm Ryan Deli and Marilyn Rust. The sound designer and mixer was Pascal is who also composed the amazing music starring in this season. Are Alan Cumming Archie? Pange rb Toby Stevens and Russell Tovey alongside Enzo Chilean at Gahan Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus. Right and introducing Malcolm Gladman. Thanks to the team at Pushkin Industries. Julia Barton had a fame meal. Lebel Colleen Yori Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm God well and thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times.

British army Fuller Fuller army fuller Xerox German army Eastman Kodak Adolf Hitler gold medal Sony tank corps French army Ibm J F C Steve Jobs Tim Harford
How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

Cautionary Tales

39:55 min | 11 months ago

How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

"There's another podcast. We think you'll enjoy. Ted Talks daily every weekday. You'll hear new ideas on every topic imaginable. Recent talks include entrepreneur and security expert Bright Simons on the innovative solutions Africans using to deal with counterfeit goods off ooh writer and historian Edward Tenor on. How our obsession with efficiency can actually make us less efficient plus a lot more including adding water to talks by me subscribed to Ted talks daily? Where have you listened as the night draws in and the fire blazes on behalf? We warn the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the path but my stories for the education of the grownups and my nice stories are all true on Tim. Harford Gavin close and listen to my cautionary tales So August nineteen sixteen gene the western front in the first world war the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five hundred miles across France rounds and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side to advance the Noble Cavalry Long. The most celebrated force in the army were utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers that brought picnics. And we're waiting patiently for a demonstration of remarkable invention. It was a pleasantly warm day and a quiet spot if you tuned even down to the artillery of the Psalm battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon. Then another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon not in an armor plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting. When slowly came into sight the first tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful designs lozenge shaped but with two clumsy-looking wheels behind it? That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in our story. He's thirty seven a small man with a neatly trimmed moustache moustache his hairline retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his head he could pass for Buckler in a costume drama but beneath eighth the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago. He'd been friends with the notorious occultist alister alice to Crowley Crowley called himself a wizard. One newspaper called him the wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed blamed warlocks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest thing about the life On the fate of Jesse Fuller Fuller sees instantly that this new machine. The tank tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war but how to cross mark and trenches and barbed wire against a storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas but the tank will do the job and J F C. The fuller can see that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people to see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem. You're listening nick. To another cautionary tale. The British officer class simply adored and more traditional way of waging war one involving stirrups Jason swords and big beautiful horses. Here's one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank. Look into the face ace of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine. You will see in the letter what I might almost call a lack of intelligence elegance. You keep up the high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse. If major fuller was going to to persuade the British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle. At least he managed to get himself in the right place. He applied to transfer to the newly-formed formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper and ordered to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines that that was the easy bit fuller soon? Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line. New Fast tanks were being designed they could roll across the trenches and be on on the German command posts in our full as attack would come from nowhere as support would disrupt German road and rail travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in a single battle thing but the war ended. Anyway before fuller's astonishing idea could be tested it. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much much of Europe in a matter of weeks. J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army had wasted his idea tin. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes of it have been repeated again I and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in nineteen seventy the photocopying giant Xerox folks established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox Parc then developed the modern personal computer an achievement which Bill Gates Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in one thousand nine hundred seventy five a twenty four year old engineer named Steve Sampson built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy three Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What strange is Steve? Sassan was working for Kodak in Nineteen Ninety Nine. Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman. c'mon brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to celine. Dion Ole succeeded in doing was paving being the way for apple's ipod and back in nineteen eighteen the British at the best tanks in the world a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The British had conceded technical Cole and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so often you have to ask yourself? If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer digital camera the ipod. Why do some ideas at slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of up stocks J F C fuller once began an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you're in a leading position race whole sees? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory. They slow down and allow others to overtake them. For a glimpse of what fuller was up against. Consider the battle of Cambrai by late in one thousand nine hundred seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks to lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour but that was fast enough they swept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches. Amish gene guns fired incessantly and guys don't connect fires added but he Z.. Must admit all our efforts to stop tanks ineffective. They can't do nothing against him without exaggeration. Some of the German infantry it seemed to be off their heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea of the situation. There was no chain of command and no orders. mm-hmm it was a stunning tactical success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened. It should be exploited. I cavalry a great deal of clattering galloping and shouting and a lot of our medieval hall. Soldiers came charging charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault the opportunity was wasted and not just the the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it's so nearly achieved? Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank at the right time at the right I place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before the gunsmoke could cleared did he was scribbling away furiously his desk tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be done next. Those scribblings would over the following months become plan. Nineteen nineteen thousand. He understood that the success at Cambrai was just a glimpse temps of what might be possible. The British High Command did not there several explanations for these missed opportunities entities. But most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people edits Lau can get back to some veal soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle had been a frivolous distraction hyphen from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year after the war had ended fuller's essay the one that begins with reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think-tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. Whatever you dumb next year? He wrote another strategically visionary. SL This time overturning. The ideas of naval warfare and and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing as a soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. I'll those were not amused first. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The army also blocked publication occasion of fullest books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and is a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Montgomerie massing bird. They didn't read Fuller's most celebrated book. It would only annoy me. He responded to the threat of Nazi militarization by increasing the amount spent on. Hey and other food for horses. By a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Officers would get a horse to as I say people idiots and it's not just the British army who seem guilty of idiocy. When Steve Job visited Xerox Parc in Nineteen seventy-nine? He couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface for the first time. Why aren't you doing doing anything with this? This is the greatest thing this is revolutionary. If jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars he might well have said the same the thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. How is it does it? co-operation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was Kodak really run by idiots idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties now. These organizations stumbled for a reason management theorists have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they referred for to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful that shorter fail. But why don't organizations adapt after all they usually have the resources the experience and the reputation to outpace any upstarts. It's Kodak did so Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more losses more. Hey We've already explored the idiot hypothesis but there is a different theory of what goes wrong. Hits a famous theory. Too in management management circles it comes from Clayton Christianson of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators dilemma. It told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are flawed or underdeveloped. At I said they don't appeal failed to existing customers but they find niches and slowly. They improve while the incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day the new technology elegy is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants Christianson disruption theory is an elegant one but there are plenty of examples that just don't fit think about why Xerox didn't exploit that cutting edge research at Xerox PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface low end competitor to the photocopier. They owned from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below and Kodak not totally developed the digital camera and made a good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations weren't slow to see the change coming. They often saw earlier. Elliot than anyone else. What lay ahead yet? They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank thank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British army hadn't noticed the tank. Thank the British. Were well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we won't understand why the British army lost its advantage in tank warfare. Cautionary Tale needs a new hearing. Hiring is but there's one place you can go where hiring simple fast and smart with Ziprecruiter. The cruiser growing businesses can connect to qualified candidates. Kotal co-founder Gretchen. heppner experienced how challenging hiring can be after struggling to find a new Game Art Education Tech Company but then she switched to Ziprecruiter and everything changed. Your experience of hiring will be smooth smooth and simple after you sign up free at Ziprecruiter DOT com slash tales. Ziprecruiter doesn't depend on candidates finding you. It finds them foyer. And by using ziprecruiter screening questions to fill. Two candidates Gretchen found it easier to focus on the best ones. Then find the right one. In fact after posting the position on Ziprecruiter Gretchen. said she was honestly surprised. She found qualified applicants so quickly and hired a new game artists in less than two weeks with results like that. It's no wonder four out of five. Employers who post on Ziprecruiter quality candidates first day Ziprecruiter the smartest way to hire see why ziprecruiter effective for businesses of all sizes. Try ziprecruiter free. At how how web address ziprecruiter dot com slash tales at ziprecruiter dot com slash T. A. L. Tails and now a word from our sponsor. Let's let's talk about transfer wise the one stop shop for sending spending and receiving money internationally. Picture it your brothers in Brussels cels to buy antique books and he asked you to send him a bit more cash or your sisters in Singapore studying psychology and she needs money. You Do Goatee Obama and Co pay pound right gone. Your Bank probably won't give you the real exchange rates. They'll likely mark up the right on top talk on the fees that means more cash for them but less your sibling instead. Send money brewed with transfer wise transfer. Wise gives you the real exchange rate for a laughably low fee every time they also have a debit card. That's great for traveling internationally. Transfer Wise Debit Mastercard. Gives you the real rate when you spend overseas so you don't have to wonder what your mess travelcard is. Which is Handy Drinking Fountain in a desert the card links to a free free account that lets you hold over forty currencies and convert between them? That's foreign exchange freedom. Transfer wise has over six million customers always looking for more join folks in seventy countries already saving testimony for free transfer Wise Dot com slash. PODCAST Komo download the APP again. That's transfer wise dot com slash. PODCAST in one thousand nine hundred ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published an article that presented a different view of why. It's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that those organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well a different type of organization nation? No matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that already exists the dominant organization of yesterday has a good chance of being the dominant organization of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. IBM The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. IBM Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those decades. Everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties But then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough cheap enough that that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists and even parents now. IBM faced a very different challenge. They had a corporate army ready to negotiate. multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What were they supposed to do when a computer became a household appliance something more like a blender IBM Did create a strong business in personal computers. But that business was openly aggravating the rest of the organization bypassing IBM's distribution division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit what had flummoxed. IBM was not the pace of technological. Change it had been dealing with technological change just fine for more than half a century. IBM's problem was that that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca Henderson calls this sort. AWW technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation too MOMS and new organizational structure which means is that old organizations face an uphill struggle. Those organizations may have changed the world that when they're forced to change themselves. That's a harder challenge before the first World War. r-miss had been organized for centuries around Cavalry Cavalry and infantry the mounted troops offered mobility the foot soldiers strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively hm three new technologies artillery barbed wire and the machine gun shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything getting everything that is except the way armies were organized and that was because the army's didn't need change barbed wire eh machine guns were used to reinforce infantry positions the big gums the artillery could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. It's the old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument documents like whether a tomatoes vegetable or fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened and again and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane. Should it be run by the Air Force is more of a navy thing or is its role to support pulled tanks. Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem like silly questions but they aren't. They're fundamental the mental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone. Someone in the organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank warfare has been grafted onto to assist them. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities. It should be in a new kind of unit. Infantry we're become I a subsidiary and later a useless on all ground over which tanks can move. The army of the last war was parts. It's buried and be brained that was J.. AFC Fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as a grab for power and resources within the army and you tank regiment would would have no allies and no historical tradition. So an alternative was to place the tanks with cavalry regiments as the modern mobile oil strikeforce. That made some sense to and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around around the concept of mobility they were organized around Horses Cavalry Officer Loved His horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and in caring for the horses. Why should he welcomed the usurper tank? It's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons in their big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses. But the more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really fundamental Xerox Parc developed or assembled most of the features which is a user friendly personal computer but Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market such a computer xerox. Folks did much better when park develop the laser printer. The laser printer was off tillery or the machine gun for Xerox. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. One challenge could easily be met. The author Autho was in Simone Table The politics politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a painful organizational. Overhaul it's a task that needs skillful. Skillful Diplomacy J F C fuller was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers. Since before the tank existed for example at the start of the Great War British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counter attacks would be hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England and he told major fuller to sort it out some signs stating she must not use this road sir. What the less? Well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too fond of his own cleverness remember it was fuller who had clearly clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks for lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had worn a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays but his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army's commanders. Once he testified in front of a committee of senior officers how many hours a day can attack rum. Thus far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet without a sturdy opposition it is most difficult to explode deep-rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue the stupid person was to tell him to his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right liked about that. People could see that fuller was smart creative perhaps even brilliant but nobody had a higher opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. I told you hit being disciple of the country's most infamous magician Shen Alistair Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic. He was such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album after a while he and fuller fell out. But you can still hear. Echoes of the strange spiritualist beliefs in full as arguments. Even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare of the future I saw a fleet operating against a fleet not see but on land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and and I noticed that it is in difficulty it cannot see there appears an aeroplane and gives it site. Hello my astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force. It's in December nineteen twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison that would mean taking responsibility for managing in people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any architectural innovation. He walked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for mechanized warfare. Eventually Fuller threatened to resign. The position was awarded to someone someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like hard work even even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see fuller's petulance was to cost him and the British army Dearly this has in a story about how J F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Full as part in it will soon be coming to a painful end but there is another side to this tragic tale. A story of how other organizations seemed to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman digital camera and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg. It's Creagh if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony. Kodak found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals Seemed to find it so easy. The answer is that it sometimes easier to build an organization from the ground up then to disassemble and reassemble reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the First World War all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than in a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks. Were strictly forbidden. The British army had been victorious. And it's it's hard to reorganize victorious organization. The Germans had no organization to get in the way no status quo to defend German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts were writing they also closely watched British experiments armaments with the tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in Nineteen thirty-three and dramatically expanded the German army secretly? At first I he encountered a German military. That had been preparing for tank warfare for forty years early in one thousand nine hundred thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday with a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see the three hours a completely mechanized and motorized armie roared past the fear. Yes J F C Fuller. was there. Indeed he was guest of honour. At Hitler's Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army and bitterness and frustration hit turned to fascism supporting authoritarian. Tehran antisemitic parties both in Britain and overseas and of course he felt that there was worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That of Adolf Hitler after the Parade Major General Role Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. The fuhrer grasped fuller's hand offer offer Salvadoran Mitt. AIDEN kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Your Excellency they have grown up so quickly clear that I no longer recognize them in one thousand nine hundred seventeen. Fila had been planning the defeat of the German army in nineteen thirty nine and he was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail of history. O on that piece of flattery that fuller fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore wasn't really true. Was it had been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Poland and France. A French pilot called salt. Exupery flew over the battlefield. If you recognize the name then yes it's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery. Describe what happened to the French. And British armies czyz armored lados bling repairable consequences is territory. They have blitzed and knocked me. Miss Tila pugh intact but it does seem used to be a nominee who will once it was an organism nauseous Muliro quantity of disconnected sales. COMPARE THAT IT TO J F C Fuller explanation without an active and directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands and just forty six days sending their batted said British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. AFC Fuller's earth that brilliant bitter strange little man had seen. It's all coming. You've been listening to incautiously tails and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies have written an entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Harford our producers are Ryan Deli and Marilyn rust the sound designer and mixer was Pasqua wise who also composed the amazing music. Starring in. This season are Allen Coming Archie. penjab Toby Stevens and Russell Tovey alongside Enzo Chile at Gahan. Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus right and introducing Malcolm blackmail. Thanks to the team at Pushkin Industries Julia Baton Heather Fain Meal Abell Camilleri Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm Dodwell. Thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times

Jesse Fuller Fuller British army army Xerox Kodak Adolf Hitler German army IBM gold medal tank corps officer French army Xerox Parc Infantry Sony British Army Field
Greatest Hits: Black Sparrow and Buffalo Soldiers

Your Brain on Facts

29:16 min | 5 months ago

Greatest Hits: Black Sparrow and Buffalo Soldiers

"Hello my beautiful brainiacs and welcome to another blast from the past I got a bit behind in my work this week, but that's okay, because here's a topic that bears repeating particularly now with a little bit of additional information added. Don't forget that the your brain on facts. Book comes out one week from now you can preorder by calling your local bookstore or going to your brain on facts dot com slash book. All members of Patriotic Dot com slash your brain on. Facts are receiving all levels of rewards for the duration as they used to say. Since colonial times African Americans have fought in America's wars. In every war in fact, The first person to die in the revolutionary. War Christmas attics was black. Black soldiers have put their lives on the line for a country that for centuries enslaved segregated and discriminated against them. Until the Korean War black served in segregated units under racist leadership and often relegated to labor and service units. Despite the continuous discriminatory treatment that denied blacks full participation in America's military efforts, these brave men and women lived lives that deserve to be remembered. My Name's Moxy and this is your brain on facts. Possibly the best known all black military unit comes with a bit of mystery in its history. They were called Buffalo soldiers, though there are competing reasons as to why. In eighteen, sixty, six and active congress created six all black peacetime regiments later consolidated into four, the ninth and Tenth Cavalry and the Twenty Fourth and twenty fifth infantry. Initially the Buffalo soldier regiments were commanded by whites with being forbidden from holding the ranks officers. These. Troops often faced extreme racial prejudice from the army establishment. Many officers including George Armstrong custer of boo and a his there. Refused to command black regiments, even though it costs them promotions. Further black troops could only serve west of the Mississippi. River, because many whites didn't want to see armed black men near their communities. It even sometimes happened that the buffalo soldiers suffered deadly violence at the hands of civilians. The Buffalo soldiers main duty was to support the nation's westward expansion by protecting settlers, building roads and other infrastructure and guarding the US mail. They served a variety of posts in the southwestern great planes, taking part in most of the military campaigns during the decades long Indian wars during which they compiled a distinguished record with eighteen buffalo soldiers awarded the Medal of honor. We don't have time today to dwell on the irony of African American soldiers, fighting native people on behalf of government that accepted neither group as equals. The exceptional performance of these soldiers helped to overcome resistance to the idea of black officers paving the way for the first african-american graduate from West Point Henry O flipper. Who will hear more about later? But. Fellow soldiers played significant roles in many other military actions. They took part in defusing the little known eighteen, ninety two Johnson County war in Wyoming, which pitted small farmers against wealthy ranchers and a band of hired gunmen. They also fought in the Spanish American and Philippine American wars and played a key role in maintaining border security during the high intensity, military conflict along the US Mexico border during the Mexican revolution. In Nineteen Eighteen, the tenth cavalry fought at the Battle of ambos Nogales where they assisted enforcing the of the Mexican federal and militia forces. Discrimination played a role in diminishing the buffalo soldiers involvement in upcoming major conflicts. During world. War One the racist policies of President Woodrow Wilson among whose claims to infamy include segregating federal offices led to black regiments, being excluded from the American Expeditionary Force, and placed under French command for the duration of the war. The first time ever that American troops were placed under the command of a foreign power. Then prior to World War Two, the ninth and Tenth Cavalry Regiments were essentially disbanded, and most of their troops moved to service roles. However the Ninety Second Infantry Division known as the Buffalo Division did see combat during the invasion of Italy while another division that included the original Buffalo Soldiers of the twenty fifth infantry. Regiment fought in the Pacific theater. The last segregated. US Army regiments were disbanded in nineteen, fifty, one during the Korean War and their soldiers integrated into other units. There was an episode of Mash about that, and unless you saw it where co was sending his black soldiers on the most dangerous details in hopes of getting rid of him. Bonus Super Tangent Fact Mash ran nearly four times longer than the main fighting in the Korean conflict. I say main fighting because the conflict was paused with the armistice, but not officially ended until recently. Even with the show still in reruns, the Korean War is considered the forgotten war since since the least remembered in American history. Back on track, though why were these troops called Buffalo soldiers? There are differing theories regarding the origin of the nickname. One is that the plains Indians who fought? The soldiers thought that their dark curly hair resembled the for of the Buffalo. Another is that their bravery and ferocity in battle reminded the Indians of the way buffalo's fought. Whatever the reason the soldiers considered the name, high praise as buffalo were deeply respected by the native peoples of the Great Plains. Eventually the image of Buffalo became part of the tenth, Cavalry's regimental Crest. Five million Americans served their country in uniform during World War One. Including two million deployed overseas. More than three hundred and fifty thousand African Americans served during World War One. Overcoming racial hostilities, these men demonstrated through their service, a love of country and the importance of equality. The paradox of African Americans, fighting on the frontlines in France was clear. They defended America's freedom abroad while being denied rights at home. All the civil war ended fifty years before World War One begin. Racial Discrimination was common through most of America. Jim Crow laws enforced acculturated segregation. African Americans faced prejudice from their white counterparts in the service and in civilian communities near stateside military bases. Eugene Shock Lard may have been these six, thousand, nine, hundred and fiftieth, French military pilot earn his wings during World War One but he's remembered as history's very first African American aviator. The twenty one year old volunteer graduated from flight training in May of nineteen seventeen after spending more than twelve harrowing months fighting in the French army on the western front. One of nearly three hundred US citizens to serve in France's burgeoning air corps prior to America's entry to the war. Goulard was eventually assigned to the famous Lafayette Although never earning the distinction of Ace, who large still one many of his adopted country's highest military decorations, including the lead John near the middle military and liquidity gear. Despite his acclaimed France Bulat received virtually no recognition in America. Worse after returning to the states as a wounded combat, veteran and aviation trailblazer. He died broke in obscurity. In his teens young Eugene who was part creek Indian left behind a life of racial segregation and hop to transatlantic steamer bound for Europe. He eventually landed in Paris where he made a living as a prizefighter. Within weeks of Germany's nineteen fourteen invasion of France who lard enlisted. Like other non native volunteers, he was assigned to a French Foreign Legion regiment where he served with distinction as a machine gunner. During Nineteen Fifteen, his twenty, three thousand men unit was decimated suffering more than fifty percent casualties. And Velarde was transferred to the celebrated one hundred Seventieth Infantry Regiment and sent to the battle of for done. Wounded in the opening weeks of the epic ten month clash Goulard was pulled from the line to recuperate. In October Nineteen Sixteen Lard signed on with the French Air Service and began flight training. By the following year, he was piloting spots and reports with the ninety third ESCA. Drill against German warplanes over the burden sector. Capable Aviator Goulard quickly earned the nickname, the black swallow of death and Oman to his former regiment, as the one seventieth were known as the Iran deal dilemma art the swallows of death. Heralded as the only black pilot of the war and decorated one at that he enjoyed notoriety in the French, press. Following America's entry into the war, who lard applied for a transfer to the nascent? US Army. Flying Corps that was assembling in France. Spoiler alert the American. Military rejected him because of his race. Lord continued to fly with the French air service, but was eventually returned to the infantry after striking a superior officer while on leave. He served out the rest of the war in the rear echelon with his old unit the one seventieth. Following the armistice Goulard worked as a jazz drummer and own bar named Leska drill in reference to his wartime flying. Jazz. Legends and celebrities frequented the club in the nineteen twenties. Buhler married into a wealthy French family and had two children. The marriage ended in nineteen, thirty five. In thirty nine, who lard offered his services to France again this time, recording the comings and goings of the nightclubs, German patrons. When Hitler's panzers rolled into France in May of nineteen forty, the middle aged woman joined the French army in time to see action, but was grievously wounded in defense of Orleans. As the country fell to the Nazis, Goulard was evacuated to Spain and eventually repatriated to the United States. Still recovering from his injuries, Goulard scratched out a meagre living as a perfume, salesman and nightwatchman. View in America, knew or cared about his legendary exploits. When the war was over the French government offered him compensation for his lost business and his injuries, but he remained in New, York with his children. In nineteen, forty, nine Largos was fond of more than a dozen people attacked by a mob in peekskill, New York while waiting to get into a concert. The, fifty four year, old war, hero, being beaten by two policemen was even captured on film. A few years later, large report returned to France for the fortieth anniversary of the first world war where he received a hero's welcome was named to the Legion of Honor and made a guest of the French military commemoration. Back in New York, Hulu? Artwork doesn't matter operator. He died of stomach cancer in nineteen, sixty one of the age of sixty six. Eventually his service was more properly acknowledged. The Air Force granted Lord an Honorary Commission of Second Lieutenant. While Eugene Goulard is remembered for being the first. African American fighter pilot in history. He isn't the first lack combat aviator. That honor goes to Ahmed Ali Killington of the Ottoman Air Service. Born in eighteen, eighty, three in Izmir Turkey to African. Parents Amish, joined the Turkish. Navy and nineteen o four. For years later he went to the Naval Academy and was made an officer. In nineteen fourteen, he enrolled in flight school and became a pilot in the autumn Air Corps in Nineteen Sixteen, unfortunately, most details of his record as a combat flyer are unclear. The first. Black Flyer for the British empire was likely. The jamaican-born William, Robinson Clark dubbed the pilot of the Caribbean by the RAF. That might be the most solid pun I've heard this week. According to the Royal Aero Club Trust of the UK. The twenty two year old aircraft mechanic turned aviator earned his wings sometime in April nineteen, seventeen, predating Goulard's May fifth bite registration by at least five days. According to Jamaican sources, Clark was one of a handful of black pilots from the West indies to serve in the British air force during the war. When the African American! National Guard soldiers of New York's fifteenth. Infantry Regiment arrived in France in December nineteen seventeen. They expected to conduct combat training and enter the trenches of the western front right away. They couldn't have been more wrong. They were ordered to unload supply ships for their first few months in France joining the massive supply troops known as stevedores working long hours in the port. More than half of those deployed in Europe were assigned to Labor and Stevedore battalions. Get tasks that many army leaders saw as most appropriate like building roads and bridges and trenches in support of the frontline troops. In the port of Saint Nazaire the, New York national, guard soldiers learned that they would work to prepare the docks and rail lines to be a major port of entry for the hundreds of thousands of soldiers yet to arrive. According to the two thousand three book. Harlem Hell Fighters Quote I. pershing would have a source of cheap labor second. He wouldn't have to worry about what to do with the black soldiers particularly when he might have to Nix them with white troops. They had no place to put the regiment recalled. Infantry Captain Hamilton Fish in the book. They weren't going to put us in a white division, not nineteen seventeen anyway. So our troops were sent in to supply and service as laborers. Delay Railroad tracks. This. Upset are men tremendously. The Regiment's best advocate was their commander Colonel William Hayward. He would argued his case in a letter to General pershing outlining the regiment's mobilization and training and followed up immediately with a personal visit to pershing's headquarters. He would bring with him. The regiment's most formidable weapon in swing public opinion. The regimental band lauded as one of the finest in the entire Expeditionary Force. While the regiment literally laid the tracks for the arrival of the two million troops, deploying in France. The regimental band toured the region performing for French in American audiences at rest, centers, hospitals with three hundred and sixty ninth band, unlike any other performance audiences seen or heard before. The regimental band is credited with introducing jazz to France during the war. After some three months of labor, constructing nearby railways to move supplies, the soldiers learned that they had orders to join the French sixteenth division for three weeks of combat training. They also learned they had a new regimental number as the renamed three, hundred, sixty, nine, th infantry regiment. Not that it mattered much to them. They still carry their nickname from New York the black rattlers. While the three hundred sixty nine ninth infantry will come part of the US Army's ninety second, Infantry Division it would be assigned to fight with French forces. This solve the dilemma for pershing and the American Expeditionary Forces of what to do with the African American troops. The unit was effectively given to the French army. The black troops would see combat, but alongside French soldiers who were already accustomed to variety of races and ethnicities sending in the ranks of their colonial troops. which is I, guess a tiny sliver of a silver lining to imperialism. The French army instructors welcomed their African American trainees as comrades in arms and were impressed by their performance. After learning valuable lessons in trench warfare from French partners, the soldiers of the three hundred sixty ninth finally had their chance to prove their mettle as combat troops when they entered the frontlines, holding their line against the last German spring offensive near Chateau thiery. Their value was not lost on the French. Then the regiment continued to fight alongside French forces, participating in the is Marnie counter-offensive in the summer of nineteen eighteen alongside the French one hundred and sixty second infantry division. The regiment would go on to prove itself in combat operations throughout the rest of the war, receiving France's highest honour liquidity gear for its units actions alongside some one hundred seventy one individual decorations for heroism. The Hell fighters from Harlem come into their own in spite of their difficult start. Hey. This is Moxie from slightly less far in the past with something that should have been included in this episode the first time and to be honest I. Don't remember why it wasn't. Not only did the white troops fighting overseas treat the black troops poorly, they wanted the French that they had shunted the units onto to treat them poorly as well. From the book America in the Great War by Ralph Shaffer, the French were notoriously colorblind and American. Whites feared that a Frenchman or worse. French women treated black soldiers as ordinary people. It would be impossible to keep them in check. When they return to the United States the American Expeditionary Force had no official race relations policy, but its members took unofficial steps to prevent the French from associating with blacks or Or treating them as equals a French liaison to AF general headquarters Colonel J. L., A. Leonard conveyed to French military and civil leaders out the American command wanted them to treat blacks Leonard conveyed to French military and civil leaders. How the American command wanted them to treat lacks Leonard explained that White Americans considered color. People are lower class of human being and were deeply concerned about French indulgence and familiarity with. He urged French officers not to praise American black troops to highly especially with American whites present. Not to allow intimacy between black soldiers and white women, and he asked local officials to keep the French people near the army base from spoiling the blacks, white officers instituted Jim crow rules signs appeared on buildings. Say whites-only as saying his air black stevedores were told to stay out of French homes and not to be seen with French civilians for weeks, the commander of a segregated supply depot confined black enlisted men to the depot and base area, while white troops went to a nearby town on pass. Several blacks defied the rule by going absent without leave got into trouble with the military police and ended up in the guardhouse. Finally, another officer took charge of the demoralized troops, restoring their rights to visit the nearby towns personally pulled down some of the Jim Crow signs and banned the use of the N. Word within three weeks. The number of men in the guardhouse dropped from three hundred to fifty. We now resume your regularly scheduled program already in progress. Rather than a top ten list for today's episode, Let's do a list of number ones. On October twenty, fifth, Nineteen Forty Benjamin Davis senior became the first African American to serve as a general officer in the US Army. He entered the military service in July of Eighteen, ninety eight during the war with Spain as a temporary first lieutenant of the eighth US volunteer infantry. He then served as a corporal and Squadron Sergeant Major, and in one thousand, nine, hundred one was commissioned as a second lieutenant of Cavalry in the regular army. Davis's military decorations included the bronze star, and the Distinguished Service Medal for exceptional merit to service the government in the duty of great responsibility from June nineteen, forty, one to November, nineteen, forty, four as an inspector of troop units in the field and a special war department consultant on matters pertaining to Negro troops. Immediately following the Civil War William Kathy enlisted in the US regular army in Saint Louis, Missouri William was described by the recruiting officer as five foot, nine inches, tall with black eyes, black hair and a black complexion. This cursory examination by an army physician missed the fact that William Cathy. Was Actually Kathy Williams an African American woman. Kathy served from November. Eighteen sixty six, until her discharged with a surgeon certificate of disability on October, eighteen, sixty eight. Despite numerous and often lengthy hospital stays during her service, her gender was not revealed until June of eighteen, ninety one, when she applied for a disability pension and disclosed her true identity, she did not receive the pension, not because she was a woman, or because she was black, but because her disabilities were not considered service related. Kathy Williams has been noted in military history journals as the only documented female buffalo soldier, and the only documented, African American, woman who served in the US army, prior to the nineteen forty eight law, which officially allowed women to join. In eighteen seventy seven Henry O flipper became the first African American to graduate from the US Military Academy at West. Point new. His assignment in July eighteen, seventy, seven to the Tenth U. S, Cavalry One two Black Cavalry regiments organized after the civil war was the realization of personal dream. Unfortunately his dream was short lived as he was wrongfully court. And dishonorably discharged. Assigned to the Tenth Cavalry Over Buffalo Soldiers Lieutenant. flipper served at forts Elliott. CONSCIO- Commitments Sill in. Davis and he fought twice at Eagle Spring Texas during the Victorio campaign against the Apaches eighteen eighty. In one thousand, nine, hundred one while stationed at Fort Davis Texas. He was framed by white officers and charged with embezzlement. At his court martial, he was found not guilty of embezzlement, but guilty of conduct, unbecoming an officer and a gentleman. He? Was dishonorably discharged, and for the rest of his life thought to restore his good name. Following his death in nineteen forty flippers, descendants continued advocating to have his dishonorable discharge overturned, and in nineteen seventy six with the recognition of his mistreatment, he was finally granted an honorable discharge and a full pardon. West Point now gives an award in his honor to the graduating senior to slade, the highest qualities of leadership, self, discipline and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties while a cadet. World! War Two brought out the best in America's young people. Young African American women like Margaret e Bailey found it as an opportunity to fight for their citizenship. This isn't a situation like starship. Troopers wear service guarantees citizenship. But military service and the struggle for civil rights are intrinsically intertwined. By May nineteen, forty, three, one, hundred and eighty, three African, American nurses held commissions in the Army Nurse Corps. During World War Two African American nurses served in all theatres of the war including. Africa Burma Australia and England. At the conclusion of World War Two about six hundred african-american nurses it served. One of these nurses Margaret e Bailey accepted a commission in June of Nineteen, forty four. In July, of nineteen, sixty, four Bailey became the first African. American promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the Army Nurse Corps and in nineteen seventy, she was promoted to full colonel. Throughout her twenty seven year career in the army. Colonel Margaret Bailey advocated for the integration of all military housing, work environments and recreational facilities. Following her retirement Bailey became a consultant to the surgeon general to promote increased participation by members of minority groups in the Army Nurse Corps. In nineteen, forty seven roscoe Robinson junior attended Saint Louis University for only a year before he transferred to the US Military Academy at West Point. He graduated with a degree in military engineering in nineteen fifty one. During the next thirty four years he would become a distinguished combat commander, and the first African American to become a four star general. He served in the Korean War in nineteen fifty two platoon, leader and rifle, company commander and received the Bronze Star. After returning to the United States a year later, he became an instructor in the airborne, Department of the US Army infantry school. In nineteen, sixty seven, he served as Battalion Commander in Vietnam, and there received the Legion of Merit the Distinguished Flying Cross Eleven air medals and two silver stars. He was promoted to Brigadier General. And in Nineteen, seventy five became commanding general of the US Army Garrison in Okinawa. He also commanded the eighty second airborne. Division at Fort Bragg North Carolina. His final assignment was as US military representative to the NATO Military Committee. He was then awarded with two distinguished service medals and one defense distinguished service medal. After his retirement, he was asked to oversee a panel tasked to examine the Korean War performance of some African American army units that had previously been criticized. When Hazel Johnson an operating room nurse who graduated from the Harlem Hospital School, of Nursing, joined the army in nineteen, fifty five. She thought it would be an opportunity that would allow her to explore the world and hone her nursing skills. She had no idea she would become the first. African, American, female, General Officer. She entered the army shortly after president here he truman banned segregation and discrimination in the armed services. Through her diligent service, Johnson was rewarded with a number of promotions and posts of responsibility. She also afforded educational opportunities and would earn a bachelor's degree in nursing. At Villanova. University a Master's degree in nursing education from Columbia, university and a PhD in education in the nistration from Catholic University. As chief of the RBIS Nurse Corps General. Johnson commanded seven thousand male and female nurses, including those in the Army National Guard and Army Reserve. She also set. And oversaw operations in eight army, medical centers, fifty six community hospitals, and one hundred and forty three free standing clinics in the united. States Japan Korea Germany, Italy and Panama. The list of awards and recognitions throughout her military career includes the nineteen seventy-two US Army nurse of the year honorary doctorates from Villanova University Morgan State University the University of Maryland the Distinguished Service Medal, the Legion of Merit, the Meritorious Service Medal, and the army commendation medal with oak leaf cluster. Her responsibilities left little time to pursue other avenues in life including marriage marriage. However two years before retiring from the army. Johnson Mary David Brown and the Sixteenth Chief of the Army Nurse Corps became Brigadier General Hazel W Johnson Brown. And, that's where we run out of ideas at least for today. There are of course more stories of African Americans. Who served their country than I could ever hope to recount like Lemiel Hanes. Who served as a minute man during the American Revolution after gaining his freedom from indentured servitude. Or Major Martin Robinson Delaney the first, African, American field officer in the US Army. He was accepted to Harvard Medical School. Kicked out after three weeks when white students petitioned for his removal. Four, Private First Class Milton? All of the third who was posthumously awarded the Medal of honor for saving the lives of four other soldiers during the Vietnam War when he threw himself on a grenade. May their stories never be forgotten. Thanks for spending part of Your Day with me.

US Army French army US France Buffalo soldiers America officer Aviator Goulard Regiment French Air Service Army Nurse Corps army American Expeditionary Forces Buffalo
EPISODE 41 Joan of Arc (Part 3)

History On Fire

1:31:47 hr | 2 years ago

EPISODE 41 Joan of Arc (Part 3)

"Whether you like history or not if you care about bravery wisdom passion larger than life characters and some of the most emotionally intense moments in human experience, you've come to the right place. Danielle Bolelli university history. Professor a writer in a martial artist. He shall be your guide in journey to the place where history an epic collide. Welcome to episode. The forty one of he's thrown fire. Big. Thank you to Susan moss. O'donnell and marital got the for sponsoring the show on pather on the one hundred dollar level. These episode of history on fire. He's also brought to you by four teams dot com. A one stop shop for hair loss. Skincare. Sexual wellness four-man some crazy statistics I was reading some sixty six percent of guys experience here lost by the age of thirty five. Forty percent of man by age forty struggle with. These guys at four dot com. Try to solve those problems in the easiest possible way. 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The most Bootle cold winter think of a heated car seat and imagine a blind to same technology to close. They have heat at jackets Saux gloves. Hats, even long Johns. Now, I leaving Sunday, California. So what do I know about having to deal with zero wintertime perk shores? Well, one of my favorite places is big bay, which is only two hours from my house, but it's seven thousand feet up a mountain and it gets plenty cold out there. So I'm heading out over crease must spend a few weeks there. And I look forward to try and action heat and diced it under duress. Well. This is speaking of Christmas action heat would make great Christmas gifts. So we got a special deal for our listeners to save fifteen percents off your entire order. Just go to action heat dot com forward slash he study to checkout everything they have to offer. Again, that's action heat dot com. Forward slash he study or use the coupon code history at checkout to save fifteen percent you guys by now. No wells, who are sponsor by seems. They have been sponsoring us all year long. You ever heard before he stood on fire is sponsored by blue apron dot com and university before non-jobs because often I Petit show-me, but because of the insane level of level of into Jerusalem that have been displaying when I poke about them 'cause we that three times a week three days a week. We got we got to delivery once a week, and then we have food to lasting for three also meals off the week. My only regret is that. I don't have more. Maybe I shoot up my plan. And start at the more stuff in any case. They offer amazing recipes you can peak are many you on each week whether to three or four high-quality ingredients fairly easy to fall, lower directions. Usually you can get in amazing meal prepared for really fast. So what I suggest you do is check out this week's menu and get your first three meals for free at blue apron dot com forward slash on fire. Again. That's blue apron dot com forward slash on fire to get your first three meals free. Roy about their way to cook. Where also brought to you by Lecter, joy dot CO of. That's not the calm. It's dot CO. Let their join meals you or someone you love one correlated historically there every week if they're male don't eat are fine, call tone or parchment paper using real stamp. So that's an interesting way to make sure that some of history moss. Fascinating fighers. Now. Become your pen pals, you give or receive weekly historic latte from figures like Thomas, Jefferson, Florence Nightingale, George bottom, you name it. These guys peak from the wards best libraries and archives to find great latter's to tell every story each latte. Third calms with beggared on the information to our view context realize it, and it's a great way to experience history the rewards of those who wrote it I'm on some of the recent latte Thurs that are. Some by semi stone and Stephanos things strategizing on out to be general Santana of Mexico. One by Justice Samuel chase trying to plead EC no sowings duty and impeachment trial of his twin cordray hostas, which is a big I in history. It was at least in our exclusive for our guys if you use the code on fire to get five dollar created toward your I gave door membership. So again, that's the cooled own fire. Got a five dollar credit when you visit Lecter, joy dot CO. Again, that's Lecter joy dot CO two. Wet started. Big shoutout to the nice people at WWW dot travel is beautiful dot com. As the naming plies these travel blog website, they have a sexual wheat the thrill blog itself, they which has the most content on the website. There are articles which usually historical background relevant the locations. They discuss blazes. That the authors are visited in their journeys anything from hiking to the Baltimore Grand Canyon, climbing to the top of Fanduls land in floating some poor under byles of the Colorado river and many other international destinations. There's also a fault. Oh, God section to the website containing high quality measures of the places they have visited so if you dig travel and you dig high-quality photography, check out this cool website. And if you do find it interesting just subscribed to get updates for when they publish new content. Gained that's WWW dot. That I will is beautiful dot com. Please also show some love to our regular sponsors Dutt's who Sarah with the greatest ham gear on the planet. I'm role when I train Indrajeet soon. Adults who I gay I go to work carrying to Sarah bags. I wear to Sarah clothing. Finest time Gary are going to find mean beautiful design. Check them out at the Eski are dot com. And also you thank you to all Nate now on nitty November. It's a special moment because they have their black Friday sale, which is the stuff of legend because they are routes get slash luring. The spirit of time starting on thanksgiving November twenty sack on on its biggest sale of the year will deliver the deepest discounts on older favorite products. Nothing is off-limits every single one of them. You can get discounts from the Notre pick like alphabrain to some of the fitness equipment and just about every single. They're going to be shaping this time around with mine or exclusion. So check them out huge discounts on pretty much everything the way to go. He's you can go at an NIT dot com forward slash black. Dash Friday gay on the dot com. Forward slash black. The Friday big shoutout to notice. Coffee roasters out of Colerado. These guys are all stick salty, single origin coffee and creative Bland's from around the yard. They do it. One small batch at the time over a mile high. They are being do not see it on the shelf, very long. 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I found out you to channel the Barca's does deep dives into historical Orioles, everything from how fame enlightenment thinker Voltaire Maddie's fortune by alpine to rig the lottery to win drew Luc's are Wisconsin by violence, and all the fun that stems from their find it on I tunes just searching, brain food, all one word and hope you guys enjoyed also. Thank you to never top gear dot com. Wheat the most also marash guard. I've designed by our Savan lime giving I home edge today star coffee Gurov, the great female summarize Toma Godse n- never pep gear dot com and also thank you to dynasty forge- dot com for amazing swords that they have shared with me over time. If you didn't catch any of the above websites. The links are Indiana's of the notes that he stood on Firefox Gus dot com. But now without further ado, let's go to history on fire. So we are we go. We jump into part three of this four part series on journal fire. You probably want to listen to the other two episodes. I, but in case, you the mind jumping into the starry halfway through feel free to jump in here. And if you have already listen, great, let's going with this. In fourteen twenty nine within days of the success will leave of the seizure for Leon. If inisia- merchant named Antonio Mora Zini that old the full line. These maiden say to Monsieur the fan that he should go to Ryan's to bind about he said. The crown of old friends, we know that everything she has said as come to pass that their words are always formed by event she has in throat come to achieve great seeings in his word. The maiden Mohsini. Was speaking off was the subject of our podcast serious. A seventeen year old would come to be known to history as Jonah fire. Even through our career in the public. I would last barely two years as unlikely as it may sound it was her resins that turned it died of the hundred years war and one motor Zini describes any specifics. But I size -ly will made people technologies as motos any pootie again to repeat that we know that everything she Assayed as come to pass that the rewards are always conformed by event she hasn't through come to achieve great seeings in this ward. As any liter at Bazant, John knocked on the door. So French nobility saying that she was sent by God to protect the city of Orleans and fleet from its siege. The French army had expedience nothing, but defeat as of late and English and bargain, the unforced as had been on a roll. No one held macho that Orleans could be saved. It was a fool sat around with hardly a chance of success and yet. Within four days of her riding onto the battlefields. The English army was badly beaten. The seizure was over. And to see what saved John dramas the impossible and impossible that been so these what apple pal John from being considered as an eccentric reality in the best case and just playing crazy in the wars into a straight up legend or most immediately reports start spreading around you dope. Describing John is some kind of Saint not so much on the English were referred whereas a witch possess. You may magin being beaten by lady did not make them think affair in particularly fond. The terms. Redbeard in sitting back and enjoying are unlikely triumph within days from chasing, the English arm Orleans. John was now ready to move to face to offer mation to clear the way to the town of France for the coronation. In order for these to make any sense. Let me remind your son in that. I mentioned embarked one of the series. The city of France was a place where traditionally French kings were crowned and where they assumed the title of king. You couldn't have the ceremony just anywhere. It was important for a claim to the throne wanting to be taken seriously to follow protocol and the way throughout the cold went was that the legend daddy, the God at Santa holy poll full of sacred oil to Clovis the forest could east young king of the French is by the way was an interesting character. Put it mildly. If you've never done sold. There's a episode in Don Carlos hardcore history called the angels of Thor or dollar Saint of something like that. That which Dan waxing poetic about the career of Clovis is pretty far me and Kalisa mergers essentially as a thug with an axe. So don't picture bios Christiane monarch, but somebody will probably adopted Christianity for convenience more than because he sold the light. And suddenly he was all about peace love by any case Boeing to being defense people believe that the very same batch of oil that I've been used anoint old French kings from Clovis forward with steel the one to be used for anyone coming up to the throne in the fourteen hundreds and the all the oil of Clovis was skept at trans. So why was the problem with that? Why not go to Ryan's get anointed and claim the throne what the problem rested on the fact that the English held the city of France. So for the ceremony to take place John in the defense. Army would have to wrestle away. Several towns from the English before conquering ranson sales. So if. If you think that lifting the siege had been already a crazy, Dave or, and you know, was these whining hundred kind of chances and somehow miracle is worked out now Janis Dobelin down. He's she's trying again our luck so input about Asia for another campaign that had insanely riskier than all over it. John went to meet with the DOE fan and ask for more man and supply so that she could clear bath to rans. Charsadda good he'd because being crowned dude help him a whole lot. An plenty of people. Now believe that John was a saying sent by God. So lots of volunteers started putting wanting to fall more in any campaign that she would lead. So just about a month after the end of the siege. John was ready to ride with the army once again, the going campaign fighting at every step until they would call where rents itself. The first this donation was the town of Largo only a few miles from Orleans aware of the movements of the French army, sir. John hostile f- left by race with thousands of troops to support the English guys on Stargate by John and their comrades. At Largo, the era of SoftBank and seven hundred English soldiers wedding charge of defending the heavily fortified town. Some of the French leader swear-in so sure that an attack on the city could be successful. Now, take a wild guess out things. John responded to this. If you guess she would say, oh, jeez. You may be correct. We shouldn't take a necesary six you'll guess wrong. John is usual proceeded to stick them in their pride. She said that if you wear ensure the goal would help them, she would have stayed home. She was one hundred percent confident of victory to those who counts of their who's lowdown and four low and more measure approach, she replied act and Goldway lacked. After the success at Orleans with more and more sold. They are deferring to earn a seige on C was get the match harder for top Stein's tweet, nor her choices gazing point one French gap than at agreed to avoid attacking the town. If the English promised they would leave within fifteen days, basically, they would wait to see for Fussell fire. Make would arrive in time to rescue them. And if not today would agree to surrender. If he didn't. John these. Agreed. She convinced everyone else to overrule this Cup. Dine and attack of the town. Instead, she gave the English Garzon down a single trans. She sent the usual kind of latter. Rain leash which basically RAD obey God and surrender or be massacred the English you can order. That's and so a battle that was to last. Today's was officially on duty. In the initial phases of the battle the French army at talking to so burbs nowhere outside the city, walls, the English Souliers left the walls and went to fight the French for every inch every street, the English disease stunts was fiercer than the French army was comfortable weight. So many French soldiers began retreating seemingly ready to give up. The fight is better size leader kind of moment. Tailor-made for Joan to shine and shine. Did she raise their standard? And we third voice booming over the chaos of bud. She encouraged soldiers to turn around and fight. Now, anybody on that can understand thorny around that Bannock streaking army on route is a lot easier said than done any command there can scream encouraging demand berry von and fight. But to get them to actually listen, and they actually is a whole other business. Take someone through special to be able to stop at route with just the sound of his voice, or in this case, her voice for Dr confirmation that John feed the description of someone to respect shall is. The fact that she was able to do just that. As a result, the English retreated behind the walls and a French camp outside in the suburbs. The English however needed more convincing before they would surrender. The English are wherever needed more convincing before they would surrender and Joan Fieger bombardment was but a size with the kind of convincing. They needed. During the cannon dwell between attackers and defenders rather curios so took place one of the leading French commander was the Duke Dylan zone weapon to be one of John's Monseigneur most into the stick supporters among the nobility. He's father died in by the end, the Duke himself had already spent a few years as prisoner of war of the English. So the duke's wife and being extra Nervo's at the thought of he seemed bottle again in order to assure Jonathan Adler lady do not be afraid. I will bring him back safe as ease or even in a better state. Now, the cannibals were flying through the air, John noughties that the clue Warid. So he called for him. With these words noble Duke, are you afraid don't you know, that I promise your wife to bring you back safe and sound. And while he was a date she figured she would add to despite the quiz, lethal of advice. She told him to step away from where you ause or she warned he would be killed because I came on board with land right there. Did you didn't bother ask you? Now. She knew these or anything key just sheepishly obeyed seemed like a safe bet. And if you seconds late, they're very spoilt exploded on their cannon fire and the demand when unwisely thicken up the place vacated by the Duke was blown to pieces. I could almost be sure that the team soul of this night been less than pleased with John you tell the Duke to move and you save him thanks to your mazing Bowers. But hey, what about me? Then do you think you could have warned me too? Sorry, man. John after all 'Naparamas your wife to bring you back safe. So that's where he was in the Duke zone word. These is out here counted event at one point when I was damning to hold a certain position Joan told me to retire from that place because if I did not that machine, and she showed me a machine that was in the city, by the way and scored machine stand for cannon. If you if I did not then machine will kill you, I withdrew and the lethal later at the very spot from which I with thrown someone name moon senior delude was killed. That's great fear in me. And after these events, I marvel greatly Danny seen Jones said. Yeah. Well, hard to disagree with the poor guy. If something like that happen. You would probably be paying extra attention to watch said. As the battle progressed. The French forces decided stormed a thousand by scaling the walls with ladders one English soldiers through to be particularly travels from as he was quite defective at knocking down the ladder. There's so much like what did I Bennett Orleans? Gene, the gun owner, a sharp shoot that are already mentioned in power two of the series was cool the gain ingest like you had done at Orleans dispatch taffy enemy which were short. John south was in the thick of the action during the fi to she climbed onto allied there toward the enemy swale at offender did not want to see our up close. So he dropped her off on her head knocking down and cracking her helmet and the third John gall backup in cutting our Lord as condemn the English at desire. They are ours. Have corrige. Overwhelmed by the French attack. The English guy had to surrender and one of Sophos drive that are set being keeled and other one copter, and, you know, deandre Wisconsin. Actually did a really curious seeing he as he was being cop or he neither did call moaner wed captured him, you know, basically, these lethal quick said, I'm only to be stolen the right of knighthood. And that starters why did he do that while because he was embarrassing to surrender to a calm honor? So if at least it had been a night to capture him he would feel a little better about it CNC. Twas the night while we might as well make him a night. So I will my ego will remain intact. Only after that he agreed to surrender. Sulking sales was sculptured many English where keeled white few after they had surrendered. So these was neither big victory for the franchisor may Macy's John. Join them. No one to arrest him, bust accomplishment. John poo phone to attack another down just a couple of days later. There. The French army ignored town and FOX sold the riot force on taking a key strategic. But he'd something they accomplish just they fight in. The very next day. The French army moved to attack yet another town after another heavy bombardment with can ons. The Duke that unsown receive news that, sir. John Fastow's Fendi sizable literally foursquare nearby. He quickly negotiated a surrender of the English garrison in exchange for letting them leave down in peace and unharmed. Is these was going on at possible diplomatic rises was looming in the French army? A thousand fresh French soldiers arrived ready to volunteer under the leadership of commander named our tour de Richemont sh- month at a colour Phoolan complicated. He study he Sweden mother had married. Henry Ford the man who had been Kinga phen- gland prior to his death in fourteen thirteen but his best friend was the previous fan. Louis charles. But either wet died in fourteen fifteen. Each month that fought at the battle of in court in fourteen fifteen and he had been taken prisoner after about the other being bro Twingo land as but he's not a four now because he was the Sony low of the former keying he was three hundred while and allow to marry the weed off his best friend Louis the Doter of that very John the fearless of burgundy was a central figure in part one of the series. They're very we are Dino. He, you know, it seems like that each month that enormous forest gone ability to be involving one way or another with every single one of the most important on family and friends here. You know, he's mattering the daughter of the Duke of burgundy he was the Sony low of the French king. He the former fan was his best friend. He's tight where everyone of them visit cutting so through marriage and friendship Richemont that close ties to the fan. The Borgen the unsigned English. And as a result it could afford for anyone of them. But when did you of bad for the refuse to giving command of English? Our me you'll land that the defense mothering low at convinced him to join the fan. But he would be too easy. We stop at a right. So it gets more complicated. But why over the defense advisors is yours? The latter immoral. He was not a big fan. He wanted careful diplomacy not warriors and Richemont was a warrior through and through. So let him oil convinced the defend not to allow him to join the French army. So in this game of alliances and breaking alliances at the moment when he met John that he schmaltz was in an MBA goes position to eighty here. The high position in the French army, but he was at the moment, technically still these grazed in the eyes of the fan, and he was not officially allowed to join the army, so many knol bills were actually travelled by arrival. Jonah greet to meet him. And the two of them to eat some metaphor ical mutuals Nathan at the east. I seeing condi- hope it was meant a Auricle. I sort of pictured domes- two dogs as nefyn each other trying to decide whether they will be others best friends or whether they should fight to the death. One thing they clearly in call Mon is that they both resented. The low co shows up favor by some among the defense advisors. That he Shimon for himself. He was naturally drafted to John's uncompromising desire. What doc and attack? Now. She seemingly like that. He was aggressive at ready to fight that she was they wear kindred spirits who had lethal patients for diplomacy. So without consulting other commander shore asking for their permissions John made the rish Mon swear-in old to serve the king loyally and then accepted him on them. Now, the spite if I had many people within the French army filled. These was a bit of a bold move Andy flew in the face of the defense prohibition against having game. Joined the main body of the French army no-one there challenge on about this which should tell you a lot about her by were and start sweating the French army disppointed. I mean, she was flat out these obeying in order from the fan was the. Demand that she's trying to turn into king who is currently at three incident wanting to claim kingship, so he's the highest outdoor ity until she does like Yam not gonna listen to what he said, I'm going to take this guy in. The fact was that with the large contingent Fatemi sold theirs on their surge on fossils arriving ready for about though. John needed old the France. She could get. Her ability to keep the other lords from quitting in protest while adding Richemont to where army was a great diplomatic move. And he does a lot about the respect. She commanded. So just as John in the French army and with now already schmaltz Dodd that to the ranks just as they were getting ready to move onto the next town messenger survive from fast of hit arrived to sonar me, and he was ready for action. So the two armies stood facing each other could also the field. Jones send the messengers back to fast. Those with some words go income for today because it is quite late. But tomorrow at the pleasure of God. And Our Lady we look more closely at you. I really love John stash token abilities. She managed to be both insanely call key on some Walter strain that the same time tomorrow, we look more closely at deal. That's quite unique way two thousand one they are about unleash hell on them. Perhaps unnerved by day's fuss. Those decided to split the town that he had been rushing to rescue already surrendered to the French as part of the negotiations English. So they're seeing the town where allowed to leave and they joined hostels fan the other commanders which include a dial both and scales. The English army numbered about five thousand people. But just because fuss those beside that he wasn't a halt for. But the doesn't mean that John would be denied John poof for about the eighteen army. She encouraged it through to keep harassing asking the English in Nala demand. Joy mellow retraite in the war council. John said in the name of God, let us go and fight them. If they were hung in the clouds, we would get them for God, send them to us that we might banish them. And you know, now, they're scientists does she schooled at a say in discount. So the gentle keying shall have the greatest victory today that he has ever read and Mike council says to me that they are ours. Of course by Mike ouncil. She means the voices that she kept hearing. By now, French military leadership defer to wear so even John said, we fight than fighting is just what would be on the manual for that day so off on their horses. They went cheesy enough thirty three to English army. Realizing that they were being forested the English decided to put it baron ambush for the French forces. Fossils, Saint one of Scott things with five hundred our church to hide by bath. Where differential pass? Making things worse for the French their vanguard was far ahead of the rest of the army. So the English would enjoy numerical superiority the early part of the fight. But sometimes. Sometimes he's three towers on some highly. Improbable variables the proverbial black swans. And a big black swan was about to spoil Fussell's plans actually had the coast of mixing not my zoo, logically measury, I should mention that the metaphorical black swan the doomed the English army to the shape of a very real gigantic stag at red deer that probably weighed around five hundred pounds, which if you go by kilos where token about some two hundred plus kilos. For unknown reasons that I'm sure made Santini's DR mind, the stag mentionable decided to ran headlong into the very woods where the formation of English our service where hiding while waiting to ambush, the French. Knowingly shar made at face Jonah FARC at that much lock so far. So the our church were detained said the prospect of battle with the witch and their means because that's how they sewer they believe in that she was a witch with magical powers and now as they spoke in hush tones and tried our hardest to make no noise Ajayi. I'm beast stampeded among them. Many of the Archer Kareem while they try to get out of the way in the process. They navy suitably gave away their position to the vanguard of the French army. So the ambush had failed and failure of design Bush said the tone Ford, unmitigated disaster that the rest of the battle would be for the English. After the author destruction of the bushing archers at the end of the French Avangard the rest of the English army flight in panic. We deplore swing French peaking them off one by one as they run. By the time. It was all done and over with the French lost only about a hundred man compared to the more than two thousand left on the field by the English. And to make things worse. Many of the English were capture included some of the most important cop things except for fossils himself thou- about than scales. Being two of the most well known. The loss of this commanders was on top of the earlier losses off the air of soft folk and era of salad bar. English meet that leadership in the last few months at Soffer series of tremendous blows and ingests the seven weeks since John derive at Orlan. The French army had gone from the ready to raise the white flag to win in battle after battle. Now to be fair. John actually not RTC painted in. These latest bout seeing she was not with Avangard. She had stayed with the main body of the army. And one of the few stories told about their regardless. But is that she arrived at the frontlines late along with the bulk of the army when the only surviving Gingrich where now, but he's ours. At one point she sewer, French soldier heat at presenter of war with cleared intention of dispatching him. Joan rash the dying English sold there. And according to the tale, she knelt by him weeping while holding he said asking him to confess scenes, which he did before he's lost threat. The fact that she would shed tears for dine enemy was yet. Another thing that made their unlike just about everyone else in the eyes of their own soldiers. Indispensable for few weeks. She had reason dramatical Indiana state of those fighting alongside or. T- bulled armagnac, for example, who foot under said in the leading throwing up a fire may sending the conduct of war in disposing army for battle at haranguing the sold. There's she behave like the most experienced cop. They know the word like wine with a whole lifetime of experience. Seemingly early the Duke. They'll unsown added in the conduct of war. She was most skillful both in Katharina, Lance or self in throwing up the arm in buffalo order and in place in the artilery. So in their view, she wasn't simply one who. But oughta lock, but she actually possess a special talent for war for even though some of her choices could be seen as reckless by more. Kosher commanders. Other people are wherever were understandably less phoned of John not only the English the Bergen dance while that goes without saying, but individuals like George that remorse. The counselor web pushed the fan toward diplomacy in caution. He a mortal enemy finish moans and did not like John because of her piece with three schmaltz than they're aggressive tactics. As a result of the success of the French army several towns began to surrender without putting up a fight. The town of throw throw the not get demand that refuse to surrender. There are still all yell to the English and refused to open their doors to the French army. I'm on the people in the town was an apocalyptic preacher name. But rather recharged. He was very he very much feed. The mold of those preachers would capture public imagination by chastising the perceived seen send excess of the people and threatening them with hellfire. The stock take of working on people's fears and insecurities often work, very, well and serpentine deed in this case, his popularity soared and sermons at covenes people to burn fancy clothing gave up dice cards and others. So called vanities. Since he was the leading pitcher in town, the locals gave him the task to communicate with John Everett forward to what the so will she need a witching league with the devil. What he is saying what she just crazy. We'll she had thrown the plane the people in a cynical ploy to gain political support for the defend it was fryer recharges job to find out. So he walked out of the town for a diplomatic meeting with John. When he first approach near he spitting colder there with holy Walter addressed to make sure she wasn't a demon. 'cause you can never be too. Sure demonstrating she had a sense of humour. John joked with him and said come closer promise, I will not fly away after in for a while. But other research initials steal it melted away. And he quickly became a big fan of John. The Spidey surprising turn the citizens in town steel chose to resist. So it's kind of funny because they send him out to Suheil figure out if she is good or not he comes back. So, yeah, I like, our she's awesome. And they're like, yeah. While we still don't wanna listen, forget it. By now, by the way, the defend himself had joined the army since they wear on their way to rains for the coronation. The defense counsel was divided on what to do with this down. There was the bait on whether it wet docket or move on without securing it. So the defense said down with swore council and with the most important Cup. Tens. John was actually not invited. And as the debate in the French army was aging weather could move on or fight and the arguments flew back and forth to the cop things these. Agreed. You know, fighting was difficult because the town was well defended and the army was loan supplies. At one point one of the cop Stein's suggested they should listen to what the made to say the John should be given a chance to speak to the council since they all all the recent success as to her which was a big change in just a few weeks when they had senior at the best as cheerleader. So she was built into the cancel. The boss start off Orleans said as the following quote for what happens said Joan came. And then third council saying these or similar awards noble the fan order, your people to common besieged the town of throw in state no longer in council for the name of God within three days. I will lead you into the city of throughout by law or strength or core. And the folds on the will be amazed. So the choice before the defend dismantling was tweeter fuller. John against all the reason or to listen to them. Problem with this choice. His that reason inaugural them any major victory seniors, John Ed so charts allow there to proceed against the city John began, but about Asians for for deceision duck. When's the attack began they Naby tense could expect no quarter. Incidentally, no quarter is a great Led Zeppelin song later cover bite will. But aside for that Moines on the idea would siege us was, you know, we'll give you a choice to surrender before we start. Once we start, you know, even in ancient times in enrollment dine was these idea once the ram touched the wall ram being the one thing that you use to try to take down the doors of town once the siege beginning if you make us sweat in trying to set up the seizure, Dan, you've just four feet that old rights to mercy if we conquered you once we conquer. Or you can whatever we want with you. Maybe we'll be merciful, maybe we want. So it was always a things the seizure when you would use the offer to surrender because at that point you better parade you succeed and keep the Sesia bay because if you are calling ward of trouble, so the citizens of the city sewer but baiting to use tones of wood to feel the moat surrounding the town and walk up the walls and stacking mountains of gunpowder to blow them up. John's that their initial on scared him so wisely they decided to give up and John keying road into town side-by-side just she had predicted. Just a few days later. The Ryan sit self the destination toward which the French army had been Marchin, the only place where French keying would be crowned that CD surrendered. And so on July seventeenth, dude. In a solemn ceremony the arch Bishop anointed that the fan charts was crowned as charts the seventh. Just four months earlier charts had been planning to give up abandoned France to the English and escaped Spain or skull on. Now, he wants miserable. Army what string in new victories one after another. And he was officially crowned in a city held by the English just a few days, but I are. He's lock a definitely turned around. And what a broadly southern change. They lead teenage girls who stood by side during the donation. Contemporary writer said God gave John I cooled at heart. Great the nanny man's. Everything that John had promised that Ben Shapiro two seemingly impossible sayings the lifting of the seizure for early on and a crowning of the defend and now early on was fifty and charge was wedding crown. Only one year earlier lesser noble was key can out of style. Seattle in that our father who beat are for wasting time. Now, we're naming their deeds where on everyone's lips as a result of Iraq shin. The English would never regain of as matches and advantages positioning France dude in the rest of the hundred year war as they add before John Jay study. Technically speaking by now should accomplish everything. Sheds set their sights on. The voices feared given two tasks defending Forlan and crowning of the defend check and check on both of them. According to where her whole mission I've been guided by angels sent by gold and now the job was over. So John was in the rear position of some new accomplish everything shed invasion by the time. She was seventeen years old. So now what? What could she do with the rest of her life after what she experiencing the span of a few months? She have gone back to being just an either. Nobody domini. She clearly leave for doing API stuff on behalf of a divine me Sean entrusted to wear by supernatural beings. That's what she believed. To after you become the made lead an army to victory multiple times and you step fire outside the ordinary life of a person of your gender class. And they'd. Then what do you do? She was the one who pulled all the strings to ensure the crowning of the king of France, something which seeming impossible just weeks before. She had done at record speed evidencing, the divorce a central man that and she wasn't even eighteen years old. So was that the and leading a normal life even an option at this point. Can you really just change back into your peasant clothes and go back to being an unwed teenage arena, small village, watching the sheep and mending clothes? John the answer was clear no way that was not going to happen. Okay. So far, so good. But what was the plan? Exactly the voices. Now. Where quiet they're not mapped out any forward steps footer. Jones idea was to keep leading army to take batteries. Was he because she was now under aniline jonky was he because the life of a teenage girl was understandably unappealing to someone who had seen so much. So little time. Ability with Ken getting cider head. But what we do know is that Joan was the Thermes to continue on our path we or without the voices guiding ever stack of her way, she now believed that she should keep the English out of France. So he wasn't enough just to have lifted the siege. He wasn't enough to have got into king crown now she wanted to fully win the war. That's what she will what their next step would be. So by yoga's fifteen John and the French army running to an English army on their Bedford, and what could have been a huge by the turn into misstating contests since the English refused to engage and the French remember all too well that attacking the English archers when they wet ready for bought the wasn't a good idea. So we neither side we linked to move. I nothing happen. And a lot more. Nothing was going to add. If the diplomats close to the king, add their way, folowing the coronation. They had gained more prominence over the keying compared to those who had warm than diplomatic capital by fighting bottle. Joan believed that the way forward was more victories in battle. She supposedly told the king piece was to be found only at the tip of lands, which clearly shows you are mind was the kinks advisors believe they should use the victories. The wise that they have already obtain to press for a diplomatic advantage. Joan didn't take well that the keying shed done so much for immediately signed through with the Duke of burgundy indicating shifting strategy for the military to diplomacy and to make things worse. As part of this through the king would take responsibility maker rations for the killing of John the fearless. And who would be delivered him back into Borgen the hands. Some of the very towns the army adjust concord just in exchange for bargain, the neutrality. Joan believed peace diplomacy with the English. In burgundy ans was illusion. She believed the bargain, the UN's would laugh all the way to the Bank taking what was offered while not reciprocating as they had promised. So few stated that the key. She had shed blood for would approve so blind as not to say it. The clash McKean was all building third Joan dictated to the people of rains. John the made these the tax from the latter. So I'm gonna be quoting here. John the made sense. You are news embrace request that you do not have dumped about the merely tougher coz that she's waging for the blood that oil, and I put on his in certified that I shall never abandon you so long as I leave at easies through the king has made it through this with the Duke of burgundy. But she added no metro many through our are made like these. I'm not at all happy. And I do not know if I will keep them. But if I do it will only be to protect the owner of the king. Wow. Think about that for a second. She's openly saying, you know, when she states, I'm not at all happy. And I do not know if I will keep them Janis openly saying that she may not owner to thirty signed by the king. That's really wild. I mean, she openly criticized the keying she had just around her was borderline values, author Mary garden rights, obviously, this would never be a wise move for someone was position was the Bandon from the favor of the king. But the wisdom of the word was something that was of knowing thirst to John she seems to have locked any impulse to our self protection or calculation of policy that would safeguard our position. I mean, it's pretty clear that she just didn't care she had accomplished something impossible. But she wasn't. They are calculating every step of the way figuring out how she could gain advantage mundane staff to soar she couldn't care less. She had their vision of housing should be. And when she so the king not follow in that vision. She had no qualms letting people know, which of course, is not does martis diplomatic move possible. But there was John. So in light of the shifting strategy by king. She was stoning from get eight asset into a liability. Clearly John's usefulness was at the end some nights began debating whether follow John or not as they could be excited for disobeying king. Saints are bath seemed to be not exactly in line. We tastes to buy these points. She lost half of her army. And after realizing that the Duke of burgundy just as John warn anoint. Thanks to keep the throws. Perhaps to patch seeing sop king Char's gave era reluctant to go ahead to proceed with the army onto Paris and see if she could take the CD rom the Anglo Burgundian alliance. So that so weird are events that had been rather quickly. And always so victory after victory after victory coronation of charts. Everything is going great. And then the enthrone out politics. At court are changing the strategy shift war diplomacy it through signed with Bergen the lien away where the Joan sharply criticizes. 'cause she sees it as docket academy. Steak 'n sync, sir, you know, debt success is brewing. Heart will dawn to this point. Now. Yes, charged just gave her to go ahead to go attack patties, but while win see what's going on diesel where seeing began to turn. Ideally for Joan on September eight she was among those leading the attack on the city. Attacking fatty, of course, was a Vati difficult than the or boot with massive fortifications and large population. The first day of fighting didn't go well at all for the French army can knowns did. But actually to Paris walls, and yet damped to scale those very same walls ended with many casualties among the attackers. Joan herself was shot with a crossbow bold through the tie. Just you know for Toronto's and she had to be dragged away from him. But the the breeding bad wounded, the cat bleeding for five days straight where they wearing table to just budget up. The attack as a whole had been as bad as one. But in some ways, it was to be expect that you know, she had lost round one of this battle. But everybody understood that you don't just wanting to buy you don't dress charge and storm to wall weaning one day. So the fact that he was a bad first day was, you know, bar for the course, so everyone understood that captured in parish would not be a walk in the park. Of course, you would take plenty of time and energy and casualties. If it was going to happen toll. John south was not thrilled without seeing that turned out, but she was ready to try again on the following day. The army was also ready for round two. But he it is where seeing sticker we are turn the keying inexplicably force them to give up and order at three on September nine after only one day of fighting. I mean. Was the king's thinking here, did you really believe that taking bats would be a one day job. Why the lead the army go ahead if he was going to stop them after only a few hours? Either Colin John the army, the king said he now realized that is was too strong. Which makes no sense. Because you know, that parents was that's thrown before you even start. I mean, that's such an albedo seeing that if you do give the go ahead, you need to know that you need to expect that he's going to be a hard thing unique to expect defeats for a few days unit that sold in. So I really don't quite get the game that is being played of electing them. Go ahead. Letting them guy crashed on day one all lead to say up or Saudi it's harder to change. My mind doesn't quite something seems to be missing in his narrative, you know, what? Whatever game was being played behind the scene. Whether these was apply on the buyer of the diplomats on the kingside to get John to lose about the dog in a chance to kick. Go forward or I'm not entirely sure what's going on here. But something seems to be off. Now since she was now forced to turn back without accomplishing our goal. These was Jones first loss should never lost. So far. These was the first one. So the diplomacy party at the king's court. I won- at take an old the weaned from John sales. Seems are now going to get better. Even when she fired Shirley redeemed ourselves with some minor victory seen come vein duty knocked-over November. The whole campaign being conceived by one of the king's advise or sue hated John for the purpose of distracting her with the job that was likely to bring limited success and make LUSA bar with ropes. As part of this campaign, John with stock fighting against a mercenary Stein named bidding good SA Waffen ward for English and wet create. Did he sold in fief though? India? Joan managed to score victory and take the town of some peer lay moti, but was unable to continue the siege of the city where we're gonna sign south was staying because the king didn't send enough supplies. So it's pretty clear that John was getting sabotage by people. She was supposed to be fighting for. As a consolation prize impulsivity as Sabato leaned that it was time for Twitter dire. The king granted nobility to John's family. The king goal sword at their town of dollar me be exempt from taxes from that day forward. But it kind of feels like this constellation prize. They are getting like, okay. Good job, Pat on the back. Now, take the hint they are no longer needed goal, which your prize and just leave us alone. That's at least maybe because of the context of what dials the king was Dwayne. But that's kind of what feels here. Us threated without seeing we're going, and we lethal in which she could channel energy in early fourteen thirty Jones, supposedly dictated a letter to the followers of yon hosts, I have no idea if I'm pronouncing ride, by the way, I'm taking a complete guys on this guy's name. Yon hus- may be possibly at three spinach division of Christianity. That was thoughts with that of the Catholic church. Now, I'm going to get back in amino twice as she supposedly dictated the latter. But lemme introduce Haas first, he barked of his theology. Part of what he believed in. He allowed women to take police Lee roles, which is clearly was a big no-no in the Catholic church. He condemned the corruption of the clarity something guys than a Catholic church wasn't happy to have this guy criticizing their priests. He. Denounce the selling of indulgences and questioned some of the key central doctrines of the church. So that's why many historians considering sort of a disaster. Marketing loader ashore buffet grandfather retro stunned movement, while John was a ultra Catholic. So she was probably not particularly fond of Hossan this followers in these latter three era too whereby some it is written. I'm gonna quote extensively from these letter. Now, she she it said for some time now, but a Ford some whites, but I do more of reach me John the made they have third from being through east John's to become heretics like in the Saracens you've blighted through religion, worship embracing disgraceful. And creamy out SuperStation. To tell you, frankly, if I was not a coup bide, we Zingo Issoire. I would have come to see you a long time ago. Any case? The message was clear Naff. She added a wherever unless I year that you have mandate your ways, I may well, abandon the English March against you. So that by the sword, if I cannot do it in any other way, I may eliminate your maddened obscene, SuperStation and remove either your Hannity or your life. Now, if these latter was indeed something dictated by John here. She comes across as not exactly in line with mothers incidated this. She seems more like becoming taller and thoroughly just fanatic. Radic drown different opinions about faith in blood. But there was that supposedly with which I introduced the topic a minute ago. The fact is quite a few storylines question these latter. Southend tasty while it is certainly possible that those were actually her words earth styling these latter was very different for most of the other lighter shared dictated on top of the letter wasn't signed a like what she normally did. So because of these many people speculated that she wasn't actually the author, and these was actually someone else using her name to pull shut Potala -tarian Catholic adrenaline the leading candidate does the person suspected of being Neal was John's confess faster, we use the John's name to pool she Solan views. Based on the evidence of seeing night than to lean toward this theory. But of course, no one can know for and it's plausible if not likely it's plausible that she may have been the odor. Either way to never make the journey to fight us followers in Bohemia or thirty career was on numberot time. There really wasn't much left of it. Straighted within activity, John. And a few hundred men rushed winter set the forests of Anglo bargain. The UN's of seeming our size. The fact that she was now involving engagements featuring less than ten percent of the fight or spicy painting in the bottles. Shed for just a few months prior sees a lot about how seeing for changing in any case John in their soldiers footwell despite suffering some casualties. They killed or captured almost stole the enemies. I'm on the POW's was a certain Frankie duress. John wanted to trade him for a Frenchman would be arrested dude in field that time liberating Paris. But when she found out that the Franch in question was already dead, she handed their us to the citizens of the town throw put him on trial for Mordor Taft than threes on the founding guilty and executed him. Forty after these event a match weirdo event is said to have taken place what she was visiting a town. She was approached by family that just lost a child that 'but. They were bestowed over the fact that not only was there. Keep dead that's bad enough. But even worse at least in their ice was the fat than the Keita died before he could probably be baptized. And so are dispiriting over state of his soul. When at a later date. She was asked about what happened. He was three days old. And he was brought before the image of the blast. The virgin I was told that the maids of the town where gathered before they image. And I was asked to go embrace to go than the virgin life might be restored to the child. I went with the other made some parade and that last there seemed to be life in the child we own the three times was baptized, and then instantly died and was buried in Holly ground. For thirty days s people said he had given no sign of life. He was as black as Mike coat. But when you'll end he's caller began to come back. Now, that's not exactly a foolery ceramic show-me, but a temporary resurrection to give them time to baptize the baby before he died without for a resurrections. In testifying about this John was vetting method. Fact, she didn't say she caused this to happen. She didn't say I but aid than die resurrect. She doesn't say any of that. She just said it is what happened. He was dead. We prayed he came back to life or a few second got baptized died. Make what your way love this. Obviously what actually acted on that day is something that no personalize today can offer four to interesting story that kind of tells you all about the status that she enjoyed in the minds of lots of people who swear as sort of Saint but ability wounds, radiant. Now, we doubt a clearly defined me Sean through by the keying. John was stock in no-man's-land, or I guess more up at all practically no woman's land. She kept diving vision says she kept hitting voices. But the messages she was receiving where known encouraging. According to a drawn will later testify the voices told her multiple times in unambiguous terms that she was going to be captured. Clearly, that's not what she wanted to hear. The first time they older these was in April, fourteen thirty. Has John thousand the story as I was on the ramparts of Malone sank, Katherine incent, Margaret warned me that I should be captured before midsummer day that so we must be nor must I be afraid surprised, but I should take seeing swell for God without me. So they spoke almost every day. And I did that when I was stake, and I might die that our without the wretchedness of long activity, but the voices said that so it must be open. I asked the is our which they didn't tell me at I known the hour. I would have gone into battle. Despite these very you admission that she would have tried to avoid capture tool. Coast Joan didn't think to stay away from old bottles. So as to avoid capture she would continue leading men into battle regardless of the dangers. And def- as the voices said it was God's wheel for her to be cop -ture. Then so be it. She would try to avoid it. If she could help it, but she would not shrink away from the field of bath allow to fear. Shortly after receiving this travel news from our voices. John received the kind of requests that she was physiologically unable to refuse. The cool by the citizens of companion was off the kind pulled heavily at their heartstrings. You one of the most disturbing diplomatic games played by the keying. He had agreed to give competing in back to the Burgon dance. And even now that it had become cleared and burgundy unsaid been negotiating on their force better Tien says, and they were not going to give up Harris, the king steel decided to stick to sand of the bargain and gives them the lands. He had promised. These NC stance on keeping swan swore, even when others dont may strike some people as noble, it safe to say that the citizens of competing where normal those people to dam that was not Arbel. It was just to bid so in defiance of the kings in tantrum, they decided to fight to stay within the domain of the king was willing to barter them away. Apparently, they dislike the notion of being third Burgundian control that much. When Joan are that the people in the town where ready to withstand a siege? Which no help from the French army. Well. Wave in the to finish that sentence. If you've been picking up on John Sati to you know, exactly what she was about to do the threat of capture be damned. She wasn't going to let these people crash by Burgon Dan's without anyone coming into their head. Without bothering together. Kingsbury mation John got on their horse and headed to compete in. We there. She only had about three hundred or maybe four under demand waiting for BIA for dynamic compete in would be about six thousand Borgo besieging the city those the definitely not good numbers that in being much long before when John was riding with possibly opt to ten thousand sold theirs. But he was used less now to cry over the resources should no longer. Add if only three hundred or four under soldiers who are willing to ride with her. She would make she would just make new Wyndham. It was now may fourteen thirty John and their man managed to pass the Bergen their lines and enter the town of compassion. There were small fights going on daily as the large Borg on the army kept getting rain force moments and theft and in the siege on may twenty three fourteen thirty John and merged from the town and lettuce or with are constantly shutting king following against the bargains after a few charges, the Burgundian setup ambush for by any three teen and hiding some men between haram the town in the fighting the full load as their man were retreating, John took major transit staying with regard to but affect our man. Sorry, three seventeen brave, but also something that moss leaders won't do because it's far too dangerous. The fact that she choose to do this. Despite this Mony shown that she may soon be cop short speaks volumes about the woman's fearlessness. But it's at this point the Jones path the bad that she had invented for south since leaving dominant me running to adore formerly shot in our face. These was no metaphorical door mind. You what happened was that? The town John was fighting for closed the gates before she ended franchisee regard could make it back to the safety of the walls. These act the closing of the gates compete in has been analyzed by storylines ever scenes. Why did they do it? Some people suggest the order was given out the fear. Borgen the unsown the heels of John's army could enter the town and storm it others suggest something more nefarious. What the argues that she was intentionally betrayed and the gates were closed on purpose, the evidence, they point to is the fed that the gate that was closed was molar side gate that would have not allowed for the anthrax of many enemies, even at it. Stayed open until the last possible moment. The historians. Dismiss this. Conspiratorial interpretation ask why would the John levied towns cop thin take a bribe to setup drawn but north later betrayed town in burgundy on hands down the road. In fact, the Burgundian should feel the siege. And we'll have to give up. Either way John and a few full lures were locked outside the town surrounded by notion of enemies. The next. Celtic highly stressful moments will be the last experience of freedom Joan would ever have. Before long Lindland swing fight. One of the Bergen. The ans would managed poular down from the horse. She was SU surrounded by enemies and cop toured at but is for the Burgon possibly greater than the town itself. Up of the union the news feed. The good of burgundy who'd later ride by the pleasure of our blessed, creator, the woman cool the made as being Dakin and throw Mira capture will be recognized the era med belief for food does begin sympathetic and favorable to the deeds of these Roman. John's luck at that each of the end of the road. But the end will know completely the last stock of John's life is yet to. And it's but is lead his last act. It will be the subject of the final chapter in the series on the next step is he stood on fire. Thank you so much for listening to these big. Thank you to all the sweet folks who have been using the history on fire Amazon link if you're planning on doing smush shopping would be great. If you do it using the history on firearms only that's found in the app is to notes that he's thrown fire podcast calm. Big. Thank you to the sweet folks who have been donating bathroom, Bhartiya Lee. Shoutout. 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French army John poo Joan Fieger Duke English army France Colin John commander Jones Orleans Jonah John south Stein Lecter France Indiana John gall Ford
General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas

Stuff You Missed in History Class

34:59 min | 1 year ago

General Thomas-Alexandre Dumas

"He ruined we'd like to tell you about a new podcast from Robert lamb and Joe McCormick. Host of the science podcasts. Stuff to blow your mind. Their new show is called invention and every Monday on this show. Robert, and Joe explored the inventions, and inventors that made the modern world each episode examines, a different technological turning point in the minds cultures in the subsidies that provoked the change topics include the guillotine the vending machine chopsticks the x Ray machine. Sunglasses. Braille and more invention publishes every Monday listen subscribed to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app. Wherever you happen to find your podcasts. Welcome to stuff you missed in history. Class from how stuff works dot com. Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm tracy. Be wilson. Polly fry if you've listened to the show for awhile hurt us periodically talk about the accidental two partners where we got into an episode that we did not intend to stretch into two parts. But it was so fascinating or so involved that it did. And today's show is not exactly an accidental to partner. It's more like an accidental duality because Alexandra Duma is probably a familiar name to most of our listeners. There are actually two of those. There's Alexandre Dumas appar the father wrote things like the three musketeers and the count of Monte Cristo, and then his son Alexander Dumas feasts people call them that to try to differentiate between the two of them. He wrote the play that became the basis for Verdi's opera. Latch viata. So Alexandra Dumas pair had been on my list for a really long time. And I had toyed with the idea of doing kind of a father son Duomo package especi-. Really when we started to plan our upcoming trip to France, this Choon, it seems particularly appropriate to get into their stories when we have that on the horizon, but as I got into this research, I started to realize that I did not really so much want to talk about the father son pair of Alexandra's Dumas. I wanted to talk about the elder Alexander and his father general Toma Alexandre Dumas, both of their stories are fascinating and incredibly dramatic. And basically, the general sounds like a character out of one of his sons books because he pretty much was and he's even more appropriate to talk about in connection to this trip that we're taking the Paris because a lot of that trip is based around the French revolution, which took place while the general was in the French army this episode and the forthcoming one his son are there, really, standalone episodes. You don't need to listen to one to be able to understand the other. But there will be some points of interconnectivity between them Doma Alexander Dumas. Was born to Toma Alexandra dovey dilapidated plea. His father was Antoine. Alexandra Davey marquee Dilip Atlee who went by antwon. Antoine had moved from France to the French colony of send among which is now Haiti in the late seventeenth thirties. After moving to the island. Antoine had spent the next decade more or less freeloading off his younger brother who had married into a family of wealthy sugar planters, but in seventeen forty eight there was some kind of argument between the two of them that prompted Antoine to take three of his brothers. Enslaved laborers, one of whom was a young woman and leave that plantation in the middle of the night. The details are a mystery. But it seems like there was some sort of family rift of a major nature at work here or else. Antoine was just trying to shirk his responsibilities. He did not tell anyone where he was going. And when his mother and father died in seventeen fifty seven and seventeen fifty eight no one could find any trace. Of him. He was the eldest. So they were looking for him pretty hard. It was later determined that he had moved to the parish of Jeremy in the southwestern part of the island and had started going by the name Antoine Dalil or antwon of the island. He also had four children there with the woman named Marie cassette. Dumas one of them was to my Alexander to went by Alex and was born on March twenty fifth seventeen sixty two it's clear from the colonial record that Marie cassette was enslaved, and that other people thought the amount of money that Antoine paid for her was excessive what isn't clear is whether she and Antoine reliever married to discourage the births of biracial children, colonial law imposed fines on white men who fathered children with enslaved women, regardless of who was in slaving them at the time. But this fee was waived in the mother and her children were freed if the father married her. Alex's son. Alexander Dumas would later write that his grandparents had been married, but there is no written documentation of that marriage ever happening after Antoine absconded to Jeremy his younger brother Charles went back to France. He maintained that he was the oldest of his late parents surviving children, and he took control of the family's the estates. And he started a smuggling operation back on the island of Hispaniola moving sugar and enslaved people through a port that was known as Monte Cristo on the border between Spanish and French territory in seventeen seventy five after both Antoine's brothers had ruined most of their own investments and died Antoine returned to France with his birth certificate as proof of who he was ready to take control of his family estates and start up a series of legal fights with his surviving family members to finance the trip. He had sold his children and their mother when it came to Toma Alexandria, though, he made the sale can. Bischel? So that he could buy him back once he had access to his money in France. He never saw his other children again. So Alex was fourteen when this happened and he arrived in France on August thirtieth seventeen seventy six he was listed on the ship's manifest as the slave Alexandra. But once he was reunited with his father. He was treated more like the teenage son of an aristocrat his father legally recognized him as his own and sort of giving him the kind of education that was expected of somebody of his station. Alex hadn't had much formal education at all in sentiment Angus. So he was way behind his peers he started spending his days with tutors and fencing instructors in the lake learning everything from classical languages to European style hunting they learned very quickly though. And he seems to become quite skilled at whatever he put his mind to he also started adjusting to French society back in Santa among they had been in a community in which a lot of the people around them were. Lacquer multiracial? But in France, most of the people around them or white. He definitely was not the only free person of color in France's more affluent society, though, many had come to France in much the same way that Alex had. They were the children of affluent Frenchman who had spent time in the Caribbean colonies and fathered children with enslaved or free women of color. This was in spite of the sorts of laws that we mentioned before which attempted to discourage interracial marriages in the births of multiracial children either in or out of wedlock. Some of these people of color had also become quite prominent for example show. Seth booed along the chevalier to stand Jewish had been born in Guadeloupe to a white father and a free black woman in seventeen forty five. The chevalier was reportedly the best swordsman in all of France. And he was also a composer who was nicknamed black Mozart. He would also play a part in Alex's military life later on which we will get to Alex and his father had annexed. Provident and lavish lifestyle, and as he got older, Alex, increasingly traveled to Paris, which was about a three hour trip from their estate, he moved there in the spring of seventeen eighty four at the age of twenty two the free black community in Paris was often viewed with this combination of derision and curiosity. They simultaneously faced discrimination. And also, we're almost admired as kind of exotic and unique in Alex's case in particular. He was frequently described as having an extremely handsome face, an excellent build and a lovely skin color. But he was also as one example arrested at a theater in September of seventeen eighty four after a naval officer and his companions started harassing the woman that Alex was escorting when Alex tried to warn them off they called him her lackey, and then started hurling racist. Taunts at him on February thirteenth seventeen eighty six. Alex's father who was in his seventies. He's married. His Thirty-three-year-old housekeeper marie-francoise click. Do the marquee started focusing his money on his new wife rather than on his son Alex had no way to support himself? So about two weeks after the wedding, which appears not to have attended he decided to join the army. We'll talk about that more after sponsor break. Let's consider the secret life of the innermost. Nesting doll living most of her life in the duck inside the other nesting Dole's. She has plenty of time to think if could sadly, she has no brain, however, when in a most nesting dole, his gyco not only saves people money, but also has been providing great service for over seventy five years. She thinks it's obvious. You should switch because. Yes. Switching to gyco is a no brainer pity, the INA. Most nesting Dolan her lot in life. Becoming an army officer was a very common employment for young men in the French nobility in the eighteenth century as long as they could prove that they had four generations of nobility on their father's side. They were entitled to become commissioned officers and Alex had that, but France also had discriminatory race laws that made it a lot harder for him to actually claim it. So he told his father that he was just going to enlist as a private, and it did not even matter to him which unit he enlisted in. He was just going to go join whichever one he found I according to his son's memoirs, the marquee told him, quote that is all very fine. But as I am the marquee Dilip, pyatt's Lee, a Colonel and commissary general of artillery. I will not allow you to drag my name in the Meyer of the lowest ranks of the army father was kind of a jerk that was clear. So Alex joined the army under his mother's name describing himself as quote son of Antoine and the set Dumas. Which is just the shadiest way to do that in terms of the way, he was talking about his father and from that point on. He was just known as Alexandra Duma also dropping the Soma part of his name for the most part. He joined the queen's dragoons on June second seventeen eighty six and this was not at all a prestigious unit they were often on the front lines and the dirtiest and most dangerous parts of battle basically treated as cannon fodder. So not only had he become a private. He hit become a private in a unit that his father would not have approved of at all. Then just a couple of weeks later on June fifteenth, his father died it does not appear that Alex was there. And he wasn't one of the signatures on the death certificate. I find it. Like, I have this little bit of gleeful miss about. The fact that his father was so concerned about the family name. And then almost immediately died dad, not really needing to have worried about it soon, though, Alex was developing quite the reputation as a soldier, and he was also reportedly very strong and very fond of doing strongman style stumps. Like hopping across the room, we'll carrying two other men or grabbing an overhead bar while he was on horseback. And that lifting the horse up with his legs or do not do this ever. Please pudding each of his fingers into the mouth of a musket, then lifting them all up by flattening out his hand. And he was also extremely fond of dueling which was illegal amongst civilians in France at this point, but tolerated within the army at one point he reportedly fought three duels in one day while injured with from the first of them unsurprisingly, given his. Fondness for dueling. He was also known for having a very hot temper and for speaking very freely when he was angry. This is the kind of thing where I read this list of crazy things he did. And I just wanna go what is wrong with you. Well, especially the horse thing that was probably some kind of a stunt. But yeah. Especially the thing. Why would you do that fingers? What is wrong with you? What is wrong with you? Like, I suddenly become. I don't know somebody's mom. What is wrong with? You has has your brain been damaged. Why would you do this? But anyway, Dumont join the army during the prelude to the French revolution. So quick recap in the late eighteenth century among France's three estates, which were the clergy the nobility and the commoners the clergy and nobility held all the power. Even though the commoners vastly outnumbered them the nation was nearly bankrupt. And the common people were facing food shortages and the food that was available was astronomically expensive violence and unrest grew during this time as the commoners pushed back against poverty and oppression. The sixth dragoons spent most of this time stationed in the countryside north of Paris fairly removed from all of the things that were happening just to the south. This was definitely not confined only to Paris. But they they just weren't a place that was a little bit off the beaten path from what was happening. The revolution really got going in seventeen eighty nine in the face of ongoing, unrest, king Louis. Sixteenths summoned the estates Generale which represented all three estates for meeting that was to be held on may fifth seventeen eighty nine and then that June after negotiations failed to get anywhere. The third estate which represented the commoners form the national assembly. They've out to work on constitutional reforms revolutionaries stormed the best deal on July fourteenth and October fifth women's March on for side to demand relief for ongoing food shortages and demand that the king and the Queen returned to Paris. We have an episode on that in the archive in the weeks between the storming of the best deal in the women's March on Versailles. Alex Dumas was finally called into action in August seventeen eighty nine a detachment from the six dragoons were summoned to the defense of the town of vehicle clay in northern France, which was being threatened by rioters the person who called for this aid was clawed level who was the innkeeper of Luton della Q in VA Khatri, he had just been elected the. Head of the town's national guard and since the town had no barracks. The dragoons who came to help had to be billeted in the homes of various people around the town array was so impressed with Dumas that he invited him to stay at the end. And that first night Dumont met levels as daughter Marie? Louise, she described him as quote, a fine figure of a man, and they were engaged on December sixth seventeen Eighty-nine with her father giving his approval as long as they waited until Duma was promoted to sergeant to actually marry and that promotion happened in seventeen ninety two and they married on November twenty eighth of that year. In the intervening years Dumas remain stationed in northern France or across the border in. What was then the Austrian empire after France declared war on Austria in April of seventeen ninety two during those years Dumai really made a name for himself through dramatic and daring exploits, including for example, cutting off a group of Austrian soldiers. That were on horseback and taking them prisoner without firing a single shot, and then donating his share of the prize from that capture to the nation of France. He had a reputation for being a really exceptional soldier and leader always on the side of Justice and freedom his upbringing in Santa among probably served him. Really well in all of this. He had become quite the stereotypical aristocrat after moving to France with his father, but as French society reformed itself during the revolution. He was able to drop a lot of those more aristocratic traits draw on his more humble upbringing and keep the respect of the soldiers from the lower and middle classes starting in late seventeen ninety two Dumas was promoted up through the ranks incredibly quickly being commissioned as a second. Lieutenant then promoted to first Lieutenant then Brigadier all in a matter of months, and as that was happening. France was also expanding its military might the Republic of France had been conquering neighboring territory. And had also offered it support to other nations that wanted to fight for their own freedom, but the existing French military and the mercenaries that had been hired to supplement. It weren't big enough to support all of this. So the nation had allowed the establishment of free legions which were separate from the regular French army. One of these was the free legion of Americans and of the south which was made up entirely of Freeman of color at this point in French history. People of color in France were generally referred to as Americans whether they were from the Americas are not and then often American colonists regardless of their race. Where also called Americans it was a little confusing. This would later be nicknamed Lila zone Duar or the black legion Lilleshall was started by Joseph balloon chevalier essentials who naturally wanted to Ma as one of his officers. However Duma was already spoken for he had joined another free legion the Hussars of liberty. In equality started by Colonel Joseph, boy, a and the Colonel and the chevalier basically had a bidding war as each of them tried to lure do away from the other Dumas finally joined the leisure on the wire after the chevalier promised him, the rank of Lieutenant Colonel he was commissioned in that legion on January tenth seventeen Ninety-three. And even though Dumas was technically second in command. The chevalier wasn't all that interested in actually running things. So he mostly just left him onto it this lease and didn't last very long though, it was chronically underfunded really sort on supplies unless Chablis was suspected of some criminal activity. The legion was disbanded just a few months after Dumont joined it, but on July thirtieth seventeen ninety three he was made Brigadier General of the French army of the north and then five days after that. He was made the general commander in chief of the army of the western peonies. This made him the highest ranking black man in the French army with tens of thousands of mostly white soldiers. Under his command, something that would not happen again for hundreds of years afterward, but in seventeen ninety four Duma's fortunes started to shift, and we'll get to that after we I have a sponsor break. Hey, everybody wanted to remind you about the end of the world with Josh Clark, a fabulous mind-bending podcast series. That is now complete. So you can binge all ten episodes at once and have yourself a grand old time. Josh Clark is as you probably know co host of stuff, you should know. And for the end of the world, he dives deeply into existential risks the ways that we humans might accidentally wipe ourselves out with the same technology that we're developing to make a brighter future for ourselves. This is heavy heady stuff to be sure. But the end of the world delivers the fascinating science behind existential risks through an immersive experience with a beautiful original score and cinematic sound design that takes you from spacecraft trying to navigate interstellar space too deep inside your body, and even to the far future where humans have evolved into a post biological species who live in digital form, which sounds pretty great to me. If you're a curious person who gets jazzed by fascinating science and astounding philosophical questions the end of the world with Josh Clark is waiting for you to just been. Your heart out, and they will take you on an adventure. You can find it on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts. Eighteen ninety Alex was described as the finest soldier in the world as the French revolution morphed into the reign of terror. He was also nicknamed Mr. humanity for pushing back against senseless violence and slaughter and for ordering his men not to take unfair advantage of the people in the towns that they captured he had a reputation for integrity and for making wise decisions rather than rash ones and for being merciful as much as possible in the role of military commander. But he was also still very stubborn. He's still had a hot headed streak, and he was still pretty vocal about his opinions in seventeen ninety four. These traits were nearly his undoing while fighting in the Alps that January he was ordered to capture to mountain passes which were at that time totally impassable due to heavy snow and ice do boss out. This was foolish and probably fatal course of action. So he refused to do it until the weather impr-. Proved there were also reports that he destroyed a guillotine and used it as firewood for his men who had no other way to keep warm in all of this raised suspicion that he was a counter revolutionary wasn't bite of the fact that his very vocal opinions had been the opposite of that the entire time. But soon he had been denounced by the local Jakobsen club, which was one of the French revolution's more radical organizations, the committee of public safety which acted as Francis executive government during the reign of terror summoned Dumas back to Paris, and he probably would have faced execution if he had gotten there. But before he could go Maximilien Robespierre who was the head of the committee was himself beheaded eventually Dumas was cleared of all the charges against him in part because he did go capture those passes. Once he thought it was prudent to do. So, but he was moved to a less prestigious posting given command of the army of the west where he was sent to fight against a royalist upright. Zing when he got there, though, he was horrified to discover that the army of the west had shifted from fighting an uprising to terrorizing ordinary people for its own gain. It was also full of new recruits who had no military training at all and seemed to be fighting just for sport. So Dema fired the chief of staff and started reorganizing the army training all the new recruits and trying to shape the army of the west into an organized and efficient unit. And in his words, quote, remind the rank and file of a love of Justice and up standing comportment in seventeen ninety six Duma met Napoleon Bonaparte and his wife Josephine. The Polian had taken command of the army of Italy and Duma served under him during the Polian Italian campaign. And although there are documents in which Napoleon described Duma with respect and admiration almost immediately. The two men did not get along the central issue was one of the things that had gotten Duma into trouble during the. Of terror Dumas believed in fighting for liberty not for conquest and thought that civilians should be actively protected during warfare, but Napoleon's outlook was increasingly focused on conquest and dominance during the Italian campaign. Dumai was part of the successful siege of Mantua. But when Napoleon wrote up his report after it was all over he praised every other officer involved except for Dumas tomorrow was really angry about this and angry that instead of being given a division of his own command. He was placed under another officer that he didn't get along with in spite of all of that as the French army tried to drive the Austrians out of Italy in the early months of seventeen ninety seven demont was so persistent, and so that the Austrians nicknamed him the black devil in March of that year. He was injured in Babbel after his horse was shot out from under him. He was given leave to go, home and recover, and he stayed at vehicle play with his wife and their daughter. He'd been able to make trips home over the years, and they had two children by this point. But one had died of an illness or accident while Duma was fighting in the Italian campaign in seventeen ninety eight Dumas once again joined Napoleon's army this time to fight in the Polian Egyptian campaign. This wasn't a Poland's attempts to cut off Britain from its colonies in India during the Napoleonic worse by taking control of Egypt, and during this campaign Napoleon found another reason to dislike demain, we mentioned earlier in the show about how am I was very tall. And was considered to be extremely well built and attractive and wins in Napoleon's road in together. People assumed that Duma was the one in command Napoleon took this very personally. I know it caused all sorts of legitimate trouble. But I have to laugh at the hubris involved Duma's opinions and temper continued to get him in trouble in Egypt. In addition to the issues of integrity and rules of warfare that Dumas had carried all through his time in the military. He was frustrated that Napoleon apparently had no plan to abolish slavery in Egypt. As always Dumas was vocal about this frustration in on July, ninth seventeen ninety eight Napoleon sent someone to spy on a meeting among Duma and other officers after getting a report back the Dumas was bad mouthing him at this meeting. The Polian threatened to shoot him on August. First seventeen ninety eight Napoleon suffered a major defeat at the battle of the Nile also known as the battle of Abbott care bay, Admiral Horatio, Nelson and the British navy destroyed nearly all of the French fleet and that cut off Napoleon's army in Egypt, the French military and Egypt started to crumble and. Withdraw demain fought off an uprising in Cairo before trying to return home to France. But he was shipwrecked on the way off the coast of Taranto in Naples, which had volunteers insurgents he was taken prisoner and kept in a dungeon for almost two years while he was imprisoned Duma's wife had no idea where he was or if he was even alive, she wrote numerous letters to everyone she could think of in the government trying to get someone to find him. And if he was alive to bring him home, but she had trouble getting anyone's attention. This wasn't just because of Napoleon's ongoing animosity against her husband France was at war and had other issues to deal with the first diplomatic efforts to track down off finally started just days before the coup of eighteen bloom year, which began on November ninth seventeen ninety nine this coup effectively ended the French revolution and established Napoleon Bonaparte as the government's first console. It. Also. Meant that. Nearly everyone Marie Louise had contacted try to find her husband was removed from the government during the coup as his wife was trying to find help for him. Do my was also trying to go she ate for his own released from prison, but without any success. Once he finally was released at the end of eighteen o one. It was part of an armistice between France and Naples which included a deal for all French prisoners of war to be repatriated to France. By this point, those twenty months in a dungeon had taken an enormous toll to my was in very poor health. He was partially paralyzed and deaf in one ear and extremely sick. He was also denied his pension and back pay for his time in the service and was only able to get home to VA co today because another officer gave him money out of his own pocket. The Duma family fell into extreme poverty, but on July twenty fourth eighteen o to Alex Dumas and Marie Louise Elizabeth liberal, wait. Welcome to son, Alexandra. Who Alex absolutely doted on for the rest of his life along with doting on his wife? They really seem to love each other very intensely throughout their marriage. Their personal poverty was not the only issue affecting the Duma family. Slavery had been abolished in French territory during the French revolution. And people of color had also been granted full citizenship rights in seventeen ninety four but in eighteen zero to Napoleon reinstated slavery and after naming himself emperor of France two years later, he started rolling back those other racial reforms. He started ojected black members of the military and enforcing segregation and banning interracial. Marriages retired military officers of color were prohibited from living in Paris or the surrounding area. And there was a whites only zone that was created around. Paris. All of this included, the Duma home which forced the family to have to seek special permission to continue living there for the next few years. The duma. Family struggled, Alex at least somewhat recovered his health, though, he never regained the kind of vigor that he had had before his imprisonment. He died on February twenty seventh eighteen six at the age of forty four the likely cause of death was stomach cancer possibly from being poisoned while he was imprisoned. But Napoleon's attitude toward Dumas didn't really change after his death. Marie Louise was denied a widow's pension and the young Alexandra later wrote that he was barred from attending French military school or civil college. Lung after the general's death statue was put up in his honour. But it was later destroyed by the Nazis as we said at the top of the show Alex's life. Sounds like it could have been one of his sons books specifically Alexandra Dumas cited a number of inspirations for his famous work the count of Monte Cristo. But the character of Edmund Dante was undoubtedly influenced by his father, particularly in his wrongful imprisonment. That work has similarities to an earlier shorter were called simply George whose main character is described as mulatto more on Duma's work next time. And if you want more about the General, Tom Rice's, the black count, which came out in twenty twelve and when the twenty thirteen Pulitzer prize for biography or autobiography along with other words is a great read. It has so much more detail about all the particulars of Tomasz upbringing and military service. Plus a lot more details on all the many many things that were going on in French history and the French revolution and the rise of Napoleon during all of this an announcement also came out in two thousand fourteen that John legend's production company bought the film rights to this book. So maybe there will be a movie I would watch that I would too especially because I think that close would be fantastic. They would. Do you have a listener mail nicer? Do this is from kill and kill says first, let me give you a warning that this is going to be a Hodge podge of an Email. I am a theater artist living in New Orleans with the degree in staging. Shakespeare. So I've been loving your recent spate of early modern history as well as your narves to my current locale. I was interested to learn about the pelican girls and the petticoat insurrection during your six impossible episodes deja-vu in the US and Canada. I have never heard of those two. But of course, I had heard of the casket girls, they're conflict into vampire lore. Always made me giggle. Because casket can mean a boxer richest in English to especially in the early modern period. Famous example of this is in Shakespeare's merchant of Venice, where Porsches father makes her suitors. Choose one of three caskets with riddles written on them, whoever chooses the correct casket gets to marry her for now, we will set aside. I'll comments about whether that's a good way to choose a spouse the cash. Skit girls story, certainly changed as the way we use that word evolved. I've always wondered if they were so sensationalized before interview with the vampire revved up the New Orleans slash fanfare connection or whether that developed as a result of it cal- goes on to ask whether we made it to the New Orleans museum of art while we were visiting we did not, but we definitely hope to go back to New Orleans at sometime, I'm going month. And I'm totally going. Okay. Holly has plans Cal ends with a few episode suggestions, thank you so much kill I continue to just be really amused by the whole idea that somehow people were like those girls have boxes therefore, they're vampires and also their pail. So they're vampires. It's not as though it was totally normal to be very pale after being in the hold of a ship and cure your boxer stuff around at a box. I dunno checks out. Anyway, if you would like to write to us about this there, either podcast where history podcast how stuff works dot com. We're also all over social media stint history. You can find us at Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest and Instagram as history, and you can come to our website, which is missed in history dot com. If you click on the link up at the top menu, or in the little menu icon on mobile devices, you will find a link says Peres trip, you can find out all about the trip to Paris that we talked about at the top of this episode, and you can also find at our website searchable archive of all the episodes Holly, and I had ever done and notes on the episode Holly, and I have worked on together. So you can do all that. And a lot more at missing history dot com. You can subscribe to our show on apple podcasts and radio app anywhere else. You get podcasts. For more on this and of other topics. Visit how stuff works dot com. Hey, everybody. We have a really quick favor to ask as you know, our podcast is supported by advertising. Having ads on the show is what lets us keep the lights on and keep putting this podcast out for free. So from time to time we'd like to ask our listeners just a few questions that will really help us out in that department. If you come to our website, which is missed in history dot com and click on the link that says listener survey, you will find a quick anonymous survey that will really help us get a better sense of a few things that'll help us out with our ads. So one more time that is missing history dot com. Click on the link that says listener survey.

Alex Dumas France Alexander Dumas Alexandra Duma French army Duma Paris Napoleon Bonaparte officer Alexandra Dumas Antoine Dalil Monte Cristo Alexandra Marie Louise Duma family Josh Clark French society Napoleon apple Toma Alexandra
Stif and Guelma massacre began - May 8, 1945

This Day in History Class

07:35 min | 1 year ago

Stif and Guelma massacre began - May 8, 1945

"How did snoop Dogg be murder case? What troop Kirk Cobain? Suicide was Bob Marley's stone cold killer. How did Sam Cooke really dying? Seriously. How're the dudes in Mali crews still alive? Hear these stories. In disgrace land the podcast about decisions getting away with murder behaving very badly. Hosted by me, Jake Brennan disgrace. Lamp is an adult storytelling podcast contains strong language is not for kids. Listen to disgrace land on apple podcast iheartradio app, or wherever you get your podcasts this day in history class as a production of I heart radio. Hi, I'm eve and welcome to this day in history class a show that uncovers a little bit more about history every day today is may eighth twenty nineteen. Today was may eighth nineteen forty five. France was celebrating the day or victory in Europe day the day that the World War Two allies, formally accepted Nazi Germany's surrender. At the time algae area was a part of France. And was known as fringe Algieria during the war, many Algierians served with the French army, but unrest had been brewing in Algiers for months. The French responded to anti-french anti-colonial sentiment with political economic in cultural pressures. This tension culminated on may eighth nineteen forty five with an independent smart in Saito teeth that turned into a massacre of Algierian people by the French army. At the time. The massacre was described as troubles in north Constantine. But thous of Algiers and people were killed during the weeks long period that the violence persisted before World War Two nationalists. Have begun organizing around mess. Hij- in Ferhat Abbas, Hodge wasn't Algierian nationalist who founded the algae and People's Party or p p a nationalist organization in a boss. Created a manifesto that called for Muslims, equal rights Algieria as well as Algierian constitution and autonomous state federated with France. Abbass organized the friends of the manifesto end of liberty or eight AM L in the nineteen forties to publicize the manifesto. Disatisfaction with the colonial regime, nationalism and desire for independence, grew algae area. At the beginning of the second World War. The Germans occupied Algeier for short time. But algae fought in the war on the French side anticipating independence when the war was over. But as the French Fourth Republic was gearing up members of the band p p a in the closely monitored AM L planned anti-colonial demonstrations in the weeks leading up to the massacre protests without ends of people had taken place in cities around algae area. Like Mustang Ghanem on may eighth nineteen Forty-five somewhere around four thousand or five thousand protesters marched and say teeth a town in northern algae area to demand independence from the front administration. But around nine fifteen in the morning, the demonstration in stay Tif turned into a riot. When the police tried to seize the Jiri and flags which were banned at the time. And nationalist signs that the protesters were holding. It's not clear who fired the first shot, but demonstrators and police were killed Algerian. Muslims killed French civilians, French commander, general Duval, ordered troops to fire on the crowds, which were mostly unarmed. Saul boosted a boy who carried the algae and flag was among the first people to be shot and killed and he became a martyr in the movement. Violence spread to surrounding areas that afternoon Guilma a nearby town people from the PPA carried out a peaceful demonstration waving the Albanian flag. One demonstrator was killed in. No fringe people died that day, but violence escalated, twelve PA new laws or Europeans who lived in Algiers. During French rule were killed over the next couple of days and Guelma European civilians into thority killed up to two thousand Algierians in the area around Guilma in the weeks after may eighth to air force dropped bombs over say, Tif Guilma and nearby villages. Martial law was declared say Tif Algerian Muslims were forbidden to leave their houses without an armband indicating that they were going to work and those without armbands were killed the foreign legion and cynically soldiers pillaged burned down houses and raped people. The French army carried out summary executions of Algierian Muslim. Tmz in rural areas and lynched people suspected of participating in the riots the massacres continued throughout may and until late June. The exact number of people killed in the massacre is unknown the number the French gave shortly after the massacre was one thousand twenty algae deaths while radio Cairo claimed forty five thousand people were killed others. Have estimated that the real death toll is anywhere between six thousand and twenty thousand people one hundred and two Fritz colognes or colonists were killed in attacks following the riots, but the official death toll of Julian's remains contentious nine years after the massacre on November first nineteen fifty four the Algierian war of independence began when the Algerian National Liberation Front launched armed revolts throughout the country and called for a sovereign Algierian. State by nineteen sixty two Algieria had Tiv independence from France. May eighth is now an official day of mourning in Algiers in February of two thousand five Francis. Ambassador to Algiers formally apologized for the massacre saying that it was a quote inexcusable tragedy. I'm Eve's deaf coat in hopefully, you know, a little more about history today than you did yesterday. If you feel like correcting, my pronunciation or my accent on anything that I've said in the show, Phil free to leave a very kind to comment on Twitter, Instagram or Facebook at T D H c podcast. Thanks for joining me on this trip through time. See you here in the exact same spot tomorrow. For more podcasts from iheartradio. Visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Hey, guys, today's episode of this day in history class is brought to you by dressed the history of fashion there over seven billion people in the world, but we all have one thing in common every day. We all get dressed, join a fashion historians, April Callaghan and Cassidy's Zachary twice a week as they explored the who what when and why of what we wear fashion history is about more than just pretty close. This is a podcast for fashion and non fashion lovers alike. And that's because this show shines light on why the clothes. We wear matter. You can find dressed the history of fashion on apple podcast the iheartradio app or wherever else you get your podcasts.

Algiers French army apple murder France Algierian France Bob Marley Algierians French Fourth Republic Kirk Cobain Sam Cooke Mali Guilma Tif Guilma Constantine Algerian National Liberation F Jake Brennan Saul
Introducing Cautionary Tales

The Secret History of the Future

37:09 min | 11 months ago

Introducing Cautionary Tales

"Hey secret history fans this is Stevenson with an episode. We think you might like learning from our mistakes can be hard learning from other people's mistakes. Well that's a a lot more fun. In cautionary tales from Pushkin Industries economist and journalist. Tim Harford retails true. Stories of unexpected outcomes from the development of tanks in modern warfare to the accidental crowning of lowland at the two thousand Seventeen Oscars. Some of these tales are tragic some comic but like the Great Fables and parables. Each has immoral. Tim Takes you aboard. Doomed airship sits you on a concert stage in front of a broken piano and puts you in a room with cult members counting down the final seconds before the end the world a cast of actors joins him and telling me stories. You'll hear the famous Alan Cumming Archie Punjabi who won an Emmy Award for the good wife and Russell tovy from the history. Boys Cautionary Tales from Pushkin Industries. Subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Trust be it would be a mistake not to as the night draws in and the fire blazes on behalf. We Will the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the path but my stories for the education of the GROWNUPS. GROWNUPS and my story is all true. Tim Harford Gavitt close. And listen to my cautionary tales angles along August Grist nineteen sixteen the Western Front. In the first World War the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five five hundred miles across France and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine. Guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side side to advance the Noble Cavalry long the most celebrated force in the army utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers. That brought picnics. Emma waiting patiently for a demonstration of Agra marketable invention it was pleasantly warm day and a quiet quiet spot if you tuned out the artillery of the Psalm battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon then. Another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon armour-plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting when slowly came into sight. The first I tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful lines lozenge shaped but with too clumsy looking wheels behind it. That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in our story. He's thirty seven a small roll man with a neatly trimmed moustache. His hairline is retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his hand. He could pass for a Buckler in a costume. Assume drama but beneath the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago he'd been friends with the notorious. Torius occultist Alister Crowley Crowley called himself. A wizard one newspaper called him. The wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed walks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest first thing about the life and the fate of J F C Fuller Fuller sees instantly this new machine. The tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war of how to cross MoD and trenches and barbed wire against Storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas. But the tank will do the job. Bob And J. F C fuller concede that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown x in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people to see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem problem. You're listening to another cautionary tale The British officer class simply adored and more traditional way of waging war one involving stirrups and swords and big beautiful horses. He is one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank. Thank look into the face of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine you will see in the letter or I might almost cooler lack of intelligence you keep up the high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse. If major fuller was going to persuade the British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle. At least he managed to get himself in the right place. He applied applied to transfer to the newly formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper? An order to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines. Sheen's that was the easy bit fuller soon. Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line new faster tanks were being designed they could roll all across the trenches and be on the German command posts in an hour. Full as attack would come from nowhere. `support would disrupt German road and rail title travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in a single battle but the war ended. Anyway before fuller's astonishing idea. It could be tested. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much of Europe. In a matter of weeks J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army. Me had wasted his idea. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes hose of it have been repeated again and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in one thousand nine hundred. Seventy the the photocopying giant Xerox established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox. Parc developed the modern personal computer an achievement. Steve -ment which Bill Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in nineteen seventy five a twenty four year. Old Engineer named Steve Sassan built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What's strange is that Steve Sassan was working for Kodak in Nineteen Ninety nine? Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to Celine Dion Ole succeeded needed in doing was paving the way for apple's ipod and back in one thousand nine hundred eighteen. The British had the best tanks in the world hold a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The the British had conceded technical and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so so often you have to ask yourself? If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer the digital camera the ipod. Why why do some ideas slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of upstarts J F C Fuller wants began on an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you in a leading position racehorses? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations stations. Do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory they slow down and allow others to overtake them. A glimpse of what fuller was up against consider. Take the battle of Cambrai late in nineteen seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks into lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour but that was fast enough. They swept wept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches on chignons fi incessantly guys phone connected it. Fires added but he must meet all efforts to stop six tanks ineffective. They can't do nothing against him without exaggeration and some of the German infantry seem to be off the heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea. The situation there was no chain of command and no orders. It was a stunning TAXCO success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened should be exploited. The cavalry a great deal of clattering galloping and shouting and a lot of our medieval able whole soldiers came charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault the opportunity was wasted and not just the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of with the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it so nearly been achieved? Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank think at the right time at the right place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before before the gun smoke had cleared. He was scribbling away furiously his desk at tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be don next. Those scribblings would over the following months become plan nineteen nineteen. He understood that the success at Cambrai Cambrai was just a glimpse of what might be possible. The British High Command did not. There were several explanations. The Nation's for these missed opportunities but most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people idiots Lau can get back to some veal L. soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle. Gell had been a frivolous distraction from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year. After the war had ended fuller's essay. Say the one that begins with a reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. What have you done next year? He wrote another strategically Visionary Essay. This time overturning. The ideas as of naval warfare and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing as a soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. Aw Alvarez were not amused. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The the army also blocked publication of full as books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Old Montgomery massing bird didn't read full as most celebrated book only annoy me he was spotted to the threat of Nazi militarization by by increasing the amount spent on Hay and other food for horses by a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Offices says would get a horse to as I say people idiots and it's not just the British army who seemed guilty of idiocy. When Steve Jobs visited Xerox Parc in Nineteen seventy-nine he couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface? For the first. This time. Why aren't you doing this? This is the greatest thing. This is revolutionary if jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars. He might well have said the same thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. Look how is it. There's a corporation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was is Kodak. Really run by idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties now. These organizations stumbled for for a reason management theorists. Have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they refer to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful shorter fail but why don't organizations adapt after all they usually have the resources the experience and the reputation to Outpace any upstarts Kodak did so did Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more horses more. Hey We've already explored the idiot hypothesis but there is a different theory of what goes wrong. Hits it's a famous theory too. In management circles. It comes from Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators. Innovators Dilemma told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are floored or underdeveloped up to I said they don't appeal to existing customers but they find niches and slowly they improve while incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day. The new technology is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants. Christians disruption theory is an elegant one but there are plenty of examples. That just don't fit think about why Xerox didn't exploit that cutting edge research xerox PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface or a low end competitor to the photocopier. They aren't that from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below. Hello and Kodak not only developed the digital camera and made a good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations were slow to see the change coming thing they often saw earlier than anyone else. What lay ahead yet? They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British Army Army hadn't noticed the tank. The British were well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's his theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we want to understand why the British army lost its advantage contigent tank warfare cautionary tale needs a new hearing in nineteen ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published. An article let presented a different view of why it's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring one organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that these organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well at a different type of organization? No matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that already exists the dominant organization of. Yesterday has a good chums of being the dominant organization. Shen of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. IBM The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. IBM Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those his decades everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room. uh-huh sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical Hanikos tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties but then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough and cheap enough. That that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists and even parents now. IBM faced very different challenge. They had a corporate corporate army ready to negotiate. multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What are they supposed to do when a computer became Amo household appliance something more like a blender? IBM Did create a strong business in personal computers. But the business was openly aggravating the rest of the organization bypassing IBM's Distribution Division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit and what had flummoxed IBM was not the pace of technological change it had been dealing with technological change just fine and for more than half a century. IBM's problem was that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca Henderson calls this sort of technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation Russian demands and new organizational structure which means that old organizations face an up hill struggle. Those organizations may have have changed the world but when they're forced to change themselves. That's a hard challenge before the first world. War Armies had been organized for centuries around cavalry and infantry the mounted troops offered mobility the foot soldiers this strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively three new technologies artillery barbed wire and the machine gun shaped shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything everything that is except the way armies were organized and that that was because the army's didn't need to change barbed wire and machine. Gums were used to reinforce. Infantry positions the big guns of the Artillery Lori could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. The old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks wchs clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability not to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability not entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument like whether a tomato is a vegetable or a fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened again and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane. Should it be run by. The air. Force is immoral navy thing or is its role to support the tanks. Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem seem like silly questions. But they aren't that fundamental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone someone in the organization organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank. Warfare has been grafted onto a system. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities it should be in a new kind of unit. Infantry will become I a subsidiary and later useless arm on all ground over which tanks thanks can move. The army of the last war was pot bellied and pay brained that was J.. AFC Fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as grab for Power Howie and resources within the Army a new tank regiment would have no allies and no historical tradition so an alternative was was to place. The tanks with cavalry regiments as the Modern Mobile Strike Force. That made some sense to and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around the concept of mobility. They were organized around horses. The Cavalry Officer loved his horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and caring for the horses. Why should he welcome the usurper tank? It's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons and they're big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses. But the more more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really fundamental Xerox Parc developed over assembled most of the features of a user friendly personal computer that Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market such a computer. Xerox did much better. When Park? Developed the laser printer the laser printer was like artillery. The machine gun PHYSI- rocks. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. Hank one challenge could easily be met. The other was insurmountable the politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a a painful organizational overhaul. It's a task that needs skillful. Diplomacy J F C fuller was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers since before. The tank existed for example at the start of the Great War. A British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counterattacks hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England. He told major fuller to sort it out for some sign stating sheep. It must not use this road sir. What if the less well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too phone foam of his own cleverness? Remember it was fuller who had clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks for lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had worn a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays but his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army's commanders. Well he testified in front of a committee of senior officers. How many hours a day can attend run? Thus far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet. Without a sturdy opposition it is most host difficult to explode deep-rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue with a stupid person was to tell him into his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right about that. People could see that full is smart creative. Perhaps even brilliant plant but nobody had a higher opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. I told you hit being a disciple of the country's most infamous magician alister Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic he was. It's such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album. After a while he and fuller fell out they can still hear. Echoes of the strange spiritualist beliefs in full as arguments even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare with the future. I saw a fleet operating against fleet not at sea land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and I notice that is in difficulty. It cannot see there appears. Here's an aeroplane and gives site astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force in December nineteen. Twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison awesome that would mean taking responsibility for managing people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any architectural innovation he balked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other all the duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for mechanized warfare eventually fuller threatened and to resign. The position was awarded to someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like hard work even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see furloughs petulance was to cost him and the British army dearly. This has been a story. About how J. F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Full is part in. It will soon be coming to a painful end but there is another side to this tragic tale. A story of how other organizations seem to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman the Digital Camera Hamra and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony Kodak found found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals seem to find it so easy? The answer is that it sometimes easier to to build an organization from the ground up than to disassemble and reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the first world. War All all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks were strictly forbidden and the British army had been victorious. And it's hard to really organize a victorious organization. The Germans had no organization organization to get in the way no status quo to defend. German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts asked were writing they also closely watched British experiments with the tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in nineteen thirty three and dramatically expanded the German army secretly at first he encountered a German military? That had been preparing for tank warfare for fourteen years early in nineteen thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday. With a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see for three hours a completely mechanized and motorized army raw past the fewer. Yes J F C Fuller. was there. Indeed he was a guest of honor at Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army bitterness and frustration station it turned to fascism supporting authoritarian antisemitic parties both in Britain and overseas. And of course he felt that there was worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That of Adolf Hitler After the parade Major General Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. Uh The fuhrer grasped fuller's hand Eric Hoffer Savon Mitt. AIDEN kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Different Your Excellency. They have grown up so quickly that I no longer recognize them. In one thousand nine hundred seventeen fuller had been planning planning the defeat of the German army in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine. He was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail L. of history. Oh and that piece of flattery that fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore. It wasn't really true was it. He'd been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Holland France. A French pilot called Sant Exupery flew over the battlefield title field. If you recognize the name then yes it's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery. Describe what happened to the French. French and British armies czyz Hamad Lados bling accountable consequences. Ease Taylor crazy. have blitzed anatomy Ms Stihler intact but he does cease to be an will once. It was an organism nauseous meal. Niu New quantity of disconnected cells. COMPARE THAT TO J F C fuller explanation without an active and directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands Evelyn's and just forty six days sending their battered British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. AFC Fuller that brilliant bitter strange little man seen it all coming. You've been listening to cautionary tales and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies a have witnessed entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Tim Halford. Our producers are Ryan Dilly and Marilyn Rust. The sound design and mixer was Pascal Wise. who also composed the amazing music? Starring in this season are Allen. Coming Archie penjab Toby Stevens and Russell tovy alongside. Enzo Chilean at Gordon. Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus right and introducing Malcolm blackmail. Thanks to the team. At Pushkin Industry's Julia Baton Have Fain Mia Lebel Collie me Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm Rodwell and thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times.

Fuller Fuller British army army Xerox German army Adolf Hitler IBM tank corps Infantry British Army Army French army Eastman Kodak Sony gold medal Xerox Parc J F C Tim Tim Halford
Leaders: Gisle Rabesahala

Encyclopedia Womannica

04:13 min | 10 months ago

Leaders: Gisle Rabesahala

"Hello for Wonder Media Network. I'm Jenny Kaplan. And this is encyclopedia. Britannica today's leader was a celebrated politician and was devoted to fighting for freedom and her country. She lived through era's colonialism and independence. Let's talk about Giselle Raba. Saha Jeff just sell Roberts Hollow was born on May Seventh Nineteen Twenty Nine Antananarivo Madagascar at that point Madagascar was a French colony. Gazelles family was very politically involved. Her father was an officer in the French army so she spent most of her childhood moving between his different postings and France Tunisia and molly when he died in nineteen forty to Giselle and her family return to Madagascar ask are those. Zell initially dreamed of becoming a nun. She decided against it by the age of seventeen. She was deeply involved in politics herself in the mid nineteen forties. Some political leaders about a gas car led efforts to become independent failed to do so through legal channels some some became radicalized and decided to take more violent measures in nineteen forty seven. Malagasy nationalists armed mostly with spears attacked attack. French military bases across the island. It became known as the nineteen forty seven. Malagasy uprising in response the French French killed many of the nationals estimates from the French said be killed around eleven hundred Malagasy nationals while Malagasy estimates were way higher around one hundred thousand casualties. Giselle was actively involved in a campaign for the rights of political prisoners from the uprising. She fought to free thousands of prisoners. She gathered a committee to support. Prisoners families wrote news articles to attract international attention and worked with members of parliament. Element petitioned the French president. In nineteen fifty six Giselle became the first woman elected as a municipal councillor. She was also the the first woman to lead a Malagasy political party having founded a party called the Union of the Malagasy. People in Nineteen fifty-eight Giselle United. Five nationalist nationalist organizations to help the Congress party for the independence of Madagascar. After a series of revolts Madagascar gained full independence in nineteen sixty when France agreed to let it become autonomous. Giselle then shifted roles from General Secretary of the Congress Party three to Minister of Culture and revolutionary art in that role. She committed herself to protecting people's heritage. She founded a national library. Prairie in nineteen seventy nine oversaw. The publication fifty works in the Malagasy language restored more than twenty five national monuments organized artistic mystic competitions and create the Mala gase copyright office in one thousand nine hundred five. Her policies helped promote national creativity. Giselle served as minister stir of culture until Nineteen ninety-one ten years later. She was also appointed Deputy Speaker of the Senate in addition to her roles in government. Giselle Zell was also on the editorial board of Nationalist newspaper. That opposed French. Colonial rule for much of her life. Giselle never got married or had any children when she was asked about her decision not to do so. She said that she preferred to serve her country instead to Zell wraps a Halla passed away on June twenty-seventh seventh two thousand eleven one day after the fiftieth anniversary of Madagascar's independence. After her death local reporters described her as as mother courage. Mother of the nation. Join US tomorrow to learn in about another woman known for her exceptional leadership abilities special. Thanks to Liz. Caplan my favorite sister and co-creator. Talk to you tomorrow.

Giselle Giselle Zell Madagascar Giselle Raba Giselle United Union of the Malagasy France French army Congress party Wonder Media Network Jenny Kaplan Jeff US Roberts Hollow spears Caplan Liz Prairie officer
A certain idea of France: Charles de Gaulle

Between The Lines

28:57 min | 2 years ago

A certain idea of France: Charles de Gaulle

"This is an ABC podcast. Well, he was your voice who rallied the French as I suffered on the German occupation during World War Two. He was an unknown junior general at the outbreak of the war who went onto become the most important figure in France's history on next guest says he's the most risen about Frenchman since Napoleon how did he do it through the force of his personality and incredible willpower that so him refused to accept a face and eventually have FRANZ recognized as one of the victorious allies. Charles de goal was a thorn in the side of the British and the Americans not just journeying. But after the great war of World War Two challenge. You hegemony taking France out of Naito and vetoing Britain's entry into the European Economic Community. The book is called a certain idea of France the life of Charles goal. Julian Jackson is professor of history at Queen Mary. The university of London, and he's the author of that new bog raphia of Charles de goal. Professor Jackson is a pleasure to have you on the program. Thank you, very much pleasure to be here. Now the goal today is widely and mod inside and outside of France. You referenced a twenty ten serve I in which forty four percent of the French ranked team as the most important figure in the history. But this was certainly not the case during his loft on was it. No, no. He was as much hated as he was loved. There were about thirty assassination. Attempts one came very close to success. I think the level of hatred that attracted from Sutton, people was almost pathological. But that has changed it often happens to people after they die. But if I could just add to all the chievements that you listed in your excellent introduction. I'll just add one more, which is in some ways possibly the one which helps explain the kind of universal admiration today walls. That the political system that promise has today the so-called Fifth Republic, which president McColl is at the moment. Anyway, it'll probably will go wrong as it always does. But for the moment, he's being a very effective president that system was created by the goal in nineteen fifty eight for onset had Republic Republic. It's the fifth because they were four others and for one hundred and fifty s since the revolution, the French could not get any kind of consensus about the political system. They should have and to go created a system, which most French now believe in and president macro if you to just to return to him interestingly, he's got an official photograph, you know, old French president's had themselves photographed officially and his has him posing in front of a table and behind him. There's an open copy of a book, and what is that book that book is Charles two goals wool memoirs. And I think there's a subliminal Mortenson Biddle statement in that you. Mentioned the feet Republic. Also, the term goal est. The goal himself says quote, everybody is has been over will be Gaullist. But from another of of the non and sixty five election that says outside the ultra fife full. Everyone has been is a will be anti Gaullist. Yes, exactly. That's to say that Gaullism aspired to be a kind of synthesis of old French traditions. But of course, no one subscribe to all traditions. So people at different times Scituate to themselves differently. Of course, that's a statement of unbelievable arrogance on the part of the goal. Everybody is has been a will be goalless. But arrogance was certainly one of his features. I think what he meant by that is that some of the things he was trying to do would sooner or later become generally accepted. Let me just take two examples. And I'm not saying these good things the first is when to go came back to power and fifty eight one of his absolute priorities walls that France would. Have an independent nuclear deterrent. He believed that to be a great power you had to be able to defend yourself. And they only way you could do that in the world by independent nuclear deterrent. Almost no one supported that. Now supported that. Then I'm sorry. Now, I didn't anyone informants who doesn't support a French independent, you deterrent? Another example, the French attempt always to stipulate themselves slightly at a distance from America to be a critical friend of America. If you want I think, that's what the goal said. He wanted to be very good example of that would be the Iraq wall. Whether then French Foreign Minister Dominique Davila pan. Who was here ex foreign minister made a big speech at the U N web. Basically he said win going into this. And really that could have been the go speaking from the grave and juries lifetime. Many people were very critical of what they saw as the goals anti-americanism, whether it was not as different matter. But again that sense that France needs to as it were distance yourself from. America. Even if she sees her as an ally is another heritage of goal. So in that sense. I think you know, many people were anti goat is they didn't believe in these things. Most people now do just go back to the nineteen forties because this is really where to go Mike sees nine yusei he entered history. As a voice not a Feis through a short ABC broadcasts from London eighteenth of June, nineteen forty. Yang. All. Who was he at this point? He was probably when he made that speech sitting in a little studio or other like, I'm sitting at the BBC London. The moment staring at a microphone thinking as I now speak. My life is going to change forever. Basically here I've in London on the seventeenth of June and here, I've because the French government headed by the famous war hero Marshall, Peter and decided the war was over promises to feed it and FRANZ beside an emphasis with Germany to go for a lot of reasons. Oppressions? In fact, he said this will the battle of France is just the first of what will be a will which the Americans will enter which has the British empire behind us. And so on in which the Germans will ultimately be defeated. And the truth is though when you arrived in London, he is nobody he is the most junior general in the French army he'd been a general about to about three or four weeks previously. He was known in the military, but to the French public he? Was not known. He'd spent about ten days in the lost government at very junior post at the ministry of defence. So you are as an unknown figure, you might say, well, why did chill say, okay. You can broadcast on the BBC judge said it pay because he happened to have met to go three times during those lost dramatic terrible days of the full of FRANZ when Chacha will go to France to try and buck up the morale of the French Cup into the military and to goal was one of the people who struck him as somebody who actually seem to be panicking when everybody else walls, if in the end judge said, okay. Well, you can broadcast on the BBC. It was because there was nobody else toes more about the content of that baby c broadcast through which the goal I announce himself to history if I just stress even more the unknown -ness of two goal. I mean, he was so that's once the voice started coming regularly over the airwaves to France. And. People started listening to this strange voice from London lettuce would arrive at the BBC by complicated routes. They did not dispel his name. They didn't know what he looked like they didn't know what he was told it with a small didn't know where he was fat. And they didn't know what he was thin. We all think we know. He's a very caricatural fig, we all do this straight. Six full wasn't big six giant in a period. When the French were actually short twenty arrived back in liberated France in nineteen forty four. He did a short visit to the bits that had been liberated by the allies people knew he was in a with another French general and a small group of approach to the Jeep, and they all surrounded the other general who was next to him because the other general had five stars on his kepi, which meant he was a senior general to and you had to and that no idea what to go look like they thought the five stall one must be the goal. In other words, he is just a a voice unknown voice. And that his so important to. Explain the kind of mythological hold developed over the French in the will everybody could in a way project that hopes phys aspirations onto this voice. And of course, happening at the time of the Nazi expansion throughout listen, you're absolutely FRANZ his occupied at least until June nineteen forty one the end of nineteen forty one when the German invasion of the Soviet Union starts to go wrong, the Nazis, look, the Germans look as though they all going to be the dominant full so to go back to your question. What did the goal say in that first speech, and it's very short? It's about full minutes. It was made as I said on the eighteenth of June. But at the time almost nobody heard it the BBC didn't even bother to record it. So we don't actually have a recording. Or if they are quoted it as a bit of obscurity that they didn't bother to keep the recording. So we don't actually have the goals speech spoken by the goal that doesn't exist. But what he said was really very simple. It was. A coal to all GMs Coulter. Instance, basically the line of the speeches that the flame of French resistance will not be extinguished and muscle aches, which is. But that's not the most important thing. The most important thing is that appeal to reason it explains that this is a military defeats due to the superior tactics. And all of the enemy, it doesn't mean that France is a decadent destroyed finished. It has particular military reasons, and it is the first battle in what will be a willed wall. My guess is professor Julian Jackson. He's the author of a certain idea France the law of Charles to goal. It's got two two goals. Upbringing tell us about his family law for kind of family. Did he come from? He came from a very conservative monarchist. He was born in eighteen ninety. He was born into. To a France that was modernizing the year before he was born the Eiffel tower had been built that symbol of industrial Madonna ty- if you on so he's born into a Republican secular anti-catholic French regime, but he was born into an particularly rich, but perfectly comfortably of very intellectual family of Catholics with certain regret for the lost monarchy. His father was a teacher and a Jesuit school. So it could not have been a more traditional background. You could say a slightly what you might say on the on the margins of the modern world, they were kind of almost of internal exiles in this modern Republican secular fronts, so the goal should emerge as a sort of figure who embodies all the traditions of France is sort of a counter intuitive. If you look at this of. Marginal background that he comes from and had tomato vow exemplary military education. I joined the stand your bookie side just two years after he graduates. The I will war breaking out his nineteen fourteen. He experienced a real baptism of far in the opening days of the complex. I think he was shot in the leg and Bill Jim the reality of wool must have had a heating pad on him. Well, the fact is he decided to join the army is absolutely characteristic of young French of his generation for somebody like him to serve the army was away of serving France. And we haven't said this so far in this interview. But I think the one thing that one has to stress about the goal. It is the title of my book is the famous phrase, he used the beginning of his Wolman was all my life. I've had a certain idea frowns his relationship to France is something really quite strange, and we're all familiar with the idea of patriotism. That's not a it's a word. We can all use. We're all probably in different kinds of ways, Patrick, but the goals patriotism was it was Hof mystical. But but also in some sense, very what the French would call, Sean, then he said that he envisaged fronts as a Madonna in the frescoes as a Princess in the fairy stories prompts, his his mother, it's almost like the Virgin Mary. So you joined the army to serve your country. He's wounded free times. And then he's taken prisoner is prison about the Germans. And I think he's tease in POW camps rot. Absolutely. Yes. He's taken prisoner at that. Terrible battle of Don sixteen he he'd been wounded three times not dramatically wounded but wounded, and then he's taken prisoner and he tries to escape he's moved from prisoner rule come to preserve role. But the problem about escaping is that his not actually so difficult to escape from a prison role. But the difficulty is once you've escaped to actually get to the to the frontier and get to liberty. And because the goal was not exactly someone who post. Unnoticed because he's told as we had appearance he kept being recaptured. So he spent most of the second half of the war in a prisoner of welcome. And you all what is the impact of the wool on him? Well, I think the impact of that experience is a sense of humiliation and bitterness because he so desperately desperately wanted to have served from the beginning to the end and to be there at the victory, and he wrote a very poignant letter at the very end of the wall to one of his commanding officer hang obviously like everyone, I'm sharing in the joy of victory over Germany. The hereditary enemy oldest things that people have goals generation believed, but it will be full me ever mixed up with a bitterness a sadness that I was not that to participate in the victory. And I think part of that sense of extrordinary ambition. Restless ambition of goalie the into years is to make. Cup for that humidity. And that NAS time this desire to make mock clearly my difficult by the growing pessimism in by the government and society about the Kellogg Bryanne pace packed to outlaw war in nineteen twenty so against that backdrop twenty Sinti monkeys Mark. It's always difficult for soldiers to make them when there isn't a wool. And that was the prostrating thing for the goal and the way he made his Mark was actually as an intellectual. He was a very cerebral, man. We haven't actually said he as I said at the beginning, he came from a very much an intellectual background books books books where his life in a way that really makes him very all among contemporary politicians. He was steeped in French literature, and he was steeped in French history suppose kind of way that Churchill with steeped in British history. But the goal was a more intellectual cerebral figure. So he wrote books full books and into will you as he wrote about leadership. He. He wrote about the history of the French army, and he wrote a book, which is probably the only one that really got much publicity. But even that was a bestseller repeat. He wasn't known when he arrived in London, which was a plea for the motivation of the French army. The French army must not try to fight the lost were again must take on bold the need for mobility, tanks modernization and so on. So that's how he tries to make his mom. What was he saying about the residuals of the German threaten me to light nodding thirties, he walls in the into warriors a in many ways, traditional French conservative. He changed I think in many ways off to the war. But Joe me was the enemy Germany of the hereditary enemy. He was not one of those people who believe the vessel settlement was unfair. He believe anything. The settlement should have been tougher on the Germans he was a conventional wisdom at the Tom and curly conventional particularly among people on the right. As you mentioned brio is. Sort of sent a politician of the centre-left too. But to reconciliation with Germany to goal had no truck with that Germany is such and it wasn't by the way, not schism. The enemy for him was Germany. I mean, he didn't say like pots of. But that wasn't the point. It was Germany, and what distinguishes him, and this is very important from other conservatives in the nineteen thirties in France is he never wavers in that belief, and my point here is this in the nineteen thirties prince became a very divided society. A lot of people on the right? Started to fear into communism. They started a revolution. And so many French right-wing us moved to the position that yes, we don't like Germany traditionally, but Nazi Germany is at least a bulwark against Soviet communism. Bolshevism to go never took that view. So when the issue became should the French sign a pact with the Soviet Union. He wrote two important led to his mother on this. He said you also what I think about a pact with the Soviet Union. I say it is absolutely necessary. It is necessary for geopolitical reasons, where indifferent to the kind of regime the Soviet Union is Germany as the enemy, and we must not put ideology over patriotism. Okay. Well, let's return to goals Basie broadcasts. Now, the second speech was made the die off to the French government's on the honest with the Germans what did Churchill in the British government. Mike do goal any attempt to sit up an alternative government from London. I think everybody knows that the relationship between shut she'll go off to the beginning was not an easy one. The goal was not an easy, man. His whole point emphasize it in the British fully bankrolled and lively supported the goal. Rod lutely. Yeah. No, no he bit. The hand think I'd say in the book bit the hand fed him and he bit the hand that fed him to show that prompt still had teeth. Gratitude was. Not not in his repertoire, no, you're absolutely right without chill. They would have been no go. He relied on the BBC was bankrolled by them, but their walls. I a big difference. The difference was this the British or Churchill because it was originally church. He'll view walls. It's wonderful Frenchman's. Come to London, he will rally some other French to join the allies, perhaps he'll bring over some big as in the end the biggest didn't join him say it was just a goal. The British always were to some extent. An even more the Americans assuming that it might be possible to bring the V she regime the regime of marshal Pitta in France over to the camp that was absolutely Roosevelt's position. So what they didn't want of. They were backing the goal, but they would try to almost have it both ways and the goal with saying v. She is illegitimate. It is not the French government. I am prompts. I mean, he would say I am proms and his point walls that a government. Decided almost ominous which allows off its country to be occupied has full fitted its legitimacy now whether or not that's right that was his position. And the extraordinary battles. He has with Churchill and even more with Roosevelt actually stem from the refusal of the British to recognize him as a government twenty eighth of August nine and forty four the goal arrives. In Paris, just being liberated by the Americans from the Germans how Cain was to go to assert. He's a thirty as the president of the Republic at that moment. Well, what the goal was to to do. And this is back to the point. We've just made when he was asserting his own legitimacy as a kind of government in exile. His ambition was that when France was liberated because he believed from the beginning that France would be that the wool would be won by the allies that France must not be in the position of. A country liberated and occupied. But a partner, and it was an extraordinary ambition. If you think of the state of the humiliated state of France in nineteen forty but in a sense, he succeeded in that many of the -veloping resistance rallied to go because of that voice coming they didn't know who to go walls. But there was resistance moving to developing in France and two goal was the name to which they attach themselves. So what's very interesting is that Eisenhower when he is planning. What becomes the d day oepration is desperate to work with the goal because he sees that what he needs is the as much as possible to a work with the French resistance to get some help from the French resistance, and that's to be done via to goal. And so he's very frustrated by Roosevelt's suspicion of goal is now, but pragmatic reasons, so when to go gets back to Paris he needs. Once to to be recognized as head of a provisional government for two reasons. One to prevent Anneke and France after all promises in a state of all over France that he's little Resistance Committees. Developing extraordinary, powerful communist party, there is a kind of latent civil there isn't a civil war. But there is a lot of violence. He wants to restore old white does he want that because he is desperate that when the allies start discuss what the world is going to be like off to the wall fronts can be in a position to have a voice in that debate. And I think you said that the beginning of inter audio fest introduction. Thanks, partly to go in nineteen Forty-five. When the United Nations has set up the French get a permanent seat on the Security Council and they get astonishingly zone of. Okay. Patient in Germany now, the culture bution of the wall had been relatively limited though. Was not insignificant between forty four and forty five. But that's all thanks to two goals. Success in saying that is a government. You don't need to occupy FRANZ that doesn't need to be a military occupation. I have set up a government, which can talk. He would have said as an equal of Asli, that's Churchill and Roosevelt thought. But at least as a partner with the allies, and that was the point you're on Arran, if he just Junji this is Tom Switzer from between the lines, and my guess is professor Julian Jackson, author of wildly climbed a certain idea of France. The law of Charles goal. Let's get to the post will Europe because goals, very influential. He and all struck by something that the goal tell the newly elected Richard Nixon, inau nineteen sixty nine quote in London, Brussels bomb, Berlin and Rome, you'll have saying there. Is no Europe. Perhaps it will exist one day. But it does not exist. Today was the goal in five RAV or against European integration. At this point. Well, that's the million dollar question. You and. Very relevant today. And I think part of the reason why my book seems to attract what's given it. I suppose a kind of extra contemporaries in in England today is that we are going through. I'm sure, you know, a kind of little civil war of our own about Brexit. A lot of people have brought out the famous two speeches that go made in nineteen sixty three and nineteen sixty seven in which he vetoed British entry to Europe. And all of the things he said about what he thought would happen. If Britain became part of Europe seemed to be in many ways remarkably prescient, but your question is what was his view of Europe, and it is actually a very complicated thing. And I just want to preface this by saying that the more I worked onto goal in my book the Moi founded hall to pin the goal down. He's at one level. Very simple, man. You know, he's a man who says what he thinks he's famous in a sense kind of sort of trousers. Brutality. He has of you of the world, and he expresses it with extraordinaire. But he's also unbelievably slippery. He's terribly difficult to pin down when I was writing the book people would say to me. Oh, it must be awful writing a book about a man who has touch absurd ideas of the role prompt complain the world, and I would say what actually know everything that you think is absurd about to go to go the door descended himself. He's always one step ahead of you. He's a ferry coming. He's he's very pragmatic as the well as well as being almost mystical in this year, France. So when we tried to answer the question, what did he think about Europe? I think the simple answer is this. He had a deep suspicion of supranational institutions. He was ultimately a conservative French-nationalist. We've that his the pulse. Marie Lous informed Paulsons and a realist. So he did not believe or he was very suspicious of supranationalism. But when he came back to power in nineteen fifty eight. The move to the treaty of Rome that sets up. What is the alkyl the European Community had been signed? So. Track. Fifty-seven? Exactly, yes. So prompt on that track. Already most interesting about the goal is. Although he condemned he announced it in opposition when he was trying to get back to power in the nineteen fifties. He accepted it once. It was that this extrordinary pragmatism about the goal. It's that that's make the best of it. So let's try and make these institutions work for us. Let's turn the Komag recover policy into something that works of France. And so so there's a pragmatism. But he instinctively didn't like supranational institutions. And I think actually there was a kind of prescience as I'm sure unites not just Britain and bricks. There is definitely some crisis going on in Europe today, the elections in Italy, a great even in France, this quite strong anti nations rea- sitting this over. Yes. Absolutely. And goals nine was if you don't have institutions that can in some way, embody the asp. Rations and hopes that people connect to people they will collapse. All they will be a problem. And in Ray what was seeing in Europe today is partly vindicates that point. But what was his vision of Europe? He did want Europe. But he wanted a sensually Europe built around a coal Franco German axis, and what he wanted was I suppose put it this way, he wanted a Europe of nation states acting together and acting together as an afraid he wouldn't have said this. But this is what he was really thinking as an extension of France, we are running out of time. And we haven't even covet. He's wilderness Yee's ALgeria. Americanism not to mention the student protests of nineteen sixty to be continued. Join jackson. Thanks so much for being on the program today. Thank you very much Julian Jackson, professor of history at Queen Mary university of London and author of a sittin idea of France. The life of Charles de goal is published by Allen line, your Narine. Well, that's all between the lines. It's always great to have you company. Now, remember, if you missed anything, you can find all our interviews on the IRA and website just got away dot net dot I used slash Aren and follow the prompts to between the lines. This is Tom Switzer IB containing again next week.

France London Europe Charles French army BBC Professor Jackson French government Tom Switzer Churchill Britain Germany Gaullist Soviet Union president Germany European Economic Community professor of history university of London
Black Sparrow and Buffalo Soldiers

Your Brain on Facts

26:45 min | 1 year ago

Black Sparrow and Buffalo Soldiers

"Since colonial times African Americans have fought in America's wars in every war. In fact, the first person to die in the revolutionary war Crispus. Addicts was black black soldiers put their lives on the line for a country that for centuries in slaved segregated and discriminated against them until the Korean war black served in segregated units under racist leadership and were often relegated to labor and service units, despite the continuous discriminatory treatment that denied blacks full participation in America's military efforts these brave men and women lived lives that deserve to be remembered. My name's moxy. And this is your brain on facts. Possibly the best known. All black military unit comes with a bit of a mystery in its history. They were called buffalo soldiers though, there are competing reasons as to why in eighteen sixty six and active. Congress created six all black peacetime regiments later, consolidated into four the ninth and tenth cavalry. And the twenty fourth and twenty fifth infantry initially the buffalo soldier regiments were commanded by whites with blacks being forbidden from holding the ranks assors these troops often faced extreme racial prejudice. From the army establishment, many officers, including George Armstrong Custer of boo and a his there refused to command black regiments. Even though it costs them promotions. Further black troops could only serve west of the Mississippi River because many whites didn't want to see armed black men near their communities. It even sometimes happened that the buffalo soldiers suffered deadly violence at the hands of civilians. The buffalo. Soldiers main duty was to support the nation's westward expansion by protecting subtler 's building roads and other infrastructure and guarding the US mail. They served at a variety of posts in the southwest in Great Plains taking part in most of the military campaigns during the decades long Indian wars during which they compiled a distinguished record with eighteen buffalo soldiers awarded the medal of honor. We don't have time today to dwell on the irony of African American soldiers fighting native people on behalf of government that accepted neither group as equals. The exceptional performance of these soldiers helped to overcome resistance to the idea of black officers paving the way for the first African American graduate from West Point Henry o flipper who will hear more about later buffalo soldiers played significant roles in many other military actions. They took part in defusing the little known eighteen ninety two Johnson county war in Wyoming, which pitted small farmers against wealthy ranchers and band of hired gunman. They also fought in the Spanish American and Philippine American wars and played a key role in maintaining border security during the high intensity military conflict along the US Mexico border during the Mexican revolution in nineteen eighteen the tenth cavalry fought at the battle of almost Nagales where they assisted in forcing the surrender of the Mexican federal militia forces discrimination played a role in diminishing the buffalo soldiers involvement in. Upcoming major conflicts during World War One the racist. Policies of president Woodrow Wilson among whose claims to infamy include segregating federal offices, led to black regiments being excluded from the American expeditionary force and placed under French command for the duration of the war. The first time ever that American troops were placed under the command of a foreign power. Then prior to World War Two the ninth and tenth cavalry regiments were essentially disbanded and most of their troops moved to service roles. However, the ninety second infantry division known as the buffalo division did see combat during the invasion of Italy, while another division that included the original buffalo soldiers of the twenty fifth infantry regiment fought in the Pacific theater. The last segregated US. Army regiments were disbanded in nineteen fifty one during the Korean war and their soldiers integrated into other units. There was an episode of mash about that enough. You saw it where a CO was sending his black soldiers on the most dangerous details in hopes of getting rid of them bonus. Super tangent fact, mash ran nearly four times longer than the main fighting in the Korean conflict. I say main fighting because the conflict was paused with the armistice, but not officially ended until recently even with the show still in reruns. The Korean war is considered the forgotten war since since the least remembered in American history. Back on track. Though, why were these troops called buffalo soldiers? There are differing theories regarding the origin of the nickname one. Is that the plains Indians who fought the soldiers thought that their dark curly hair resembled, the firm the buffalo? Another is that their bravery and ferocity and battled reminded the Indians of the way, Buffalo's fought whatever the reason the soldiers considered the name high praise as buffalo were deeply respected by the native peoples of the Great Plains eventually the image of buffalo became part of the tenth cavalry's regimental crest. Five million Americans served their country in uniform during World War One including two million, deployed overseas. More than three hundred fifty thousand African Americans served or World War One, overcoming racial, hostilities. These men demonstrated through their service, a love of country and the importance of equality. The paradox of African Americans fighting on the frontlines in France was clear, they defended America's freedom abroad, while being denied rights at home all of the civil war ended fifty years before World War One began racial discrimination was common through most of America. Jim crow laws enforced, a culture segregation African Americans faced prejudice from their white counterparts in the service and in civilian communities near stateside, military bases. Eugene shock Woollard may have been the six thousand nine hundred and fiftieth French military pilot during his wings. During World War One. But he's remembered as history's very first African American aviator, the twenty one year old volunteer graduated from flight training in may of nineteen seventeen after spending more than twelve harrowing months fighting in the French army on the western front. One of nearly three hundred US citizens to serve in Francis. Burgeoning air corps prior to America's entry to the war Bulaq was essentially assigned to the famous Lafayette flying corps. Although never earning. The distinction of ace large still one many of his adopted country's highest military decorations, including the Lee Joan d'honneur the middle military and liquidity gear despite his acclaim in France who lard received virtually no recognition in America worse after returning to the states as a wounded combat veteran and aviation trailblazer. He died broke in obscurity in his teens young Eugene who was part creek Indian left behind a life of racial, segregation and hopped to transatlantic steamer bound for Europe. He eventually landed in Paris where he made a living as a prize fighter within weeks of Germany's nineteen fourteen invasion of France who lard enlisted like other non native volunteers he was assigned to a French foreign legion regiment where he served with distinction as a machine gunner during nineteen fifteen his twenty three thousand men unit. It was decimated. Suffering more than fifty percent casualties. And lard was transferred to the celebrated one hundred seventy th infantry regiment and sent to the battle of done. Wounded in the opening weeks of the epic ten month. Clash who lard was pulled from the line to recuperate. In October nineteen sixteen Velarde signed on with the French air service and began flight training by the following year. He was piloting spots and reports with the ninety third Esca drill against German warplanes over the verdone sector, a capable aviator who lard quickly earned the nickname, the black swallow of death and Oman to his former regiment as the one seventieth were known as the Iran del dilemma what the swallows of death. Heralded as the only black pilot of the war and a decorated one at that he enjoyed notoriety in the French press following America's entry into the war who lard applied for a transfer to the nascent US army flying corps. That was assembled in France. Spoiler alert the American military rejected him because of his race Velarde continued to fly with the French air service, but was eventually returned to the infantry after striking a superior officer while on leave. He served out the rest of the war in the rear echelon with his old unit. The one seventieth. Following the armistice who lard worked as a jazz, drummer and owned his own bar named less Gujral in reference to his wartime flying, jazz legends and celebrities frequented the club in the nineteen twenties. Buhler married into a wealthy French family and had two children the marriage ended in nineteen thirty five in thirty nine who lard offered his services to France. Again, this time recording the comings and goings of the nightclubs German patrons when Hitler's panzers rolled into France in may of nineteen forty the middle aged Velarde joined the French army in time to see action, but was grievously wounded in defense of Orleans as the country fell to the Nazis who lard was evacuated to Spain and eventually repatriated to the United States still recovering from his injuries. Malarde scratched out a meagre living as a perfume salesman and nightwatchman few in America knew or cared about his legendary exploits. When the war was over the French government offered him compensation for his lost business and his injuries. But he remained in New York. This children. In nineteen forty nine who lard was fond of more than a dozen people attacked by a mob in Peekskill New York while waiting to get into a concert. The fifty four year old war hero being beaten by two. Policemen was even captured on film a few years later who lard briefly returned to France for the fortieth anniversary of the first World War where he received a hero's. Welcome was named to the legion of honor and made a guest of the French military commemoration back in New York who lard worked as an elevator operator. He died of stomach cancer in nineteen sixty one of the age of sixty six eventually his service was more properly acknowledged the air force granted Willard, an honorary commission of second. Lieutenant. While Eugene Bulaq is remembered for being the first African American fighter pilot in history. He isn't the first black combat aviator that honor goes to on that Ali collected of the Ottoman air service. Born in eighteen eighty three in Izmir Turkey to African parents almond joined the Turkish navy in nineteen oh four four years later. He went to the naval academy and was made an officer in nineteen fourteen. He enrolled in flight school and the came pilot in the autumn and air corps in nineteen sixteen. Unfortunately, most details of his record as a combat flyer are unclear the first black flyer for the British empire was likely that Jamaican-born William Robinson Clark dubbed, the pilot of the Caribbean by the RAF that might be the most solid pun. I've heard this week. According to the Royal aero club trust, the UK, the twenty two year old aircraft mechanic turned aviator earned his wings sometime in April of nineteen seventeen predating Goulard's may fifth the registration by at least five days, according to Jamaican. Sources Clark was one of a handful of black pilots from the West Indies to serve in the British air force during the war. When the African American national guard soldiers of New York's fifteenth infantry regiment arrived in France, December nineteen seventeen they expected to conduct combat training and enter the trenches of the western front right away. They couldn't have been more wrong. They were ordered to unload supply ships for their first few months in France. Joining the mass of supply troops known as stevedores working long hours in the port more than half of those deployed in Europe were assigned to labor and stevedore battalions given tasks that many army leaders saw as most appropriate like building, roads bridges and trenches in support of the frontline troops in the port of Saint Nazaire. The New York national guard soldiers learned that they would work to prepare the docks and rail lines to be a major port of entry for the hundreds of thousands of soldiers yet to arrive, according to the two thousand three book Harlem's health fighters, quote, I Pershing would have a source of cheap labor second. He wouldn't have to worry about what to do with the black soldiers, particularly when he might have to mix them with white troops. They had no place to put the regiment recalled infantry captain Hamilton fish in the book, it weren't going to put us. In a white division, not nineteen seventeen. Anyway. So our troops were sent in to supply and service as laborers delay railroad tracks. This naturally upset are men tremendously. The regiment's. Best advocate was their commander. Colonel William Hayward. Hayward argued his case in a letter to general Pershing, outlining the regiment's mobilization and training and followed up immediately with a personal visit to Pershing's headquarters. He would bring with him the regiment's most formidable weapon in swing public opinion the regimental band lauded as one of the finest in the entire expeditionary force. While the regiment, literally laid the tracks for the arrival of the two million troops deploying in France, the regimental band toured the region performing for French and American audiences at rest centers hospitals with three hundred sixty ninth band was unlike any other performance audiences seen or heard before the regimental band is credited with introducing jazz to France during the war after some three months of labor constructing nearby railways to move supplies. The soldiers learned that they had orders to join the French sixteenth division for three weeks of combat training. They also learned they had a new regimental number as the renamed three hundred sixty ninth infantry, regiment, not that it mattered much to them. They still carry their nickname from New York the black Rattlers while the three hundred sixty ninth infantry would become part of the US army's ninety second infantry division. It would be assigned to fight with French forces. This solve the dilemma for Pershing and. The American expeditionary forces of what to do with the African American troops. The unit was effectively given to the French army. The black troops would see combat, but alongside French soldiers who were already accustom to variety of races ethnicities serving in the ranks of their colonial troops, which is I guess a tiny sliver of silver lining to imperialism. The French army instructors welcomed their African American trainees as comrades-in-arms and were impressed by the performance after learning valuable lessons in trench warfare from their French partners the soldiers of the three hundred sixty ninth finally had their chance to prove their medal is combat troops. When they entered the frontlines holding their line against the last German spring offensive near Chateau, Joey their value was not lost on the French. Then the regiment continued to fight alongside French forces participating in the is Marnie counteroffensive in the summer of nineteen eighteen alongside the. French one hundred sixty second infantry division. The regiment would go on to prove itself in combat operations throughout the rest of the war receding Francis. Highest honor the quality care for its units actions alongside some one hundred seventy one individual decorations for heroism. The hell fighters from Harlem had come into their own in spite of their difficult start. Rather than a top ten list? For today's episode. Let's do a list of number ones on October twenty fifth nineteen forty Benjamin o. Davis senior became the first African American to serve as general officer in the US army. He entered the military service in July of eighteen ninety eight during the war with Spain as a temporary first Lieutenant of the eighth, US, volunteer infantry. He then served as a corporal and squadron sergeant major and in nineteen oh one was commissioned. As a second Lieutenant of cavalry in the regular army, Davis's military decorations included the bronze star and the distinguished service medal for exceptional merit to service. The government in the duty of great responsibility from June nineteen forty one to November nineteen forty four as an inspector of troop units in the field and a special war department consultant on matters pertaining to negro troops. Immediately following the civil war William Kathy enlisted in the US regular army in Saint Louis, Missouri. William was described by the recruiting officer as five foot nine inches tall with black eyes black hair and a black complexion. This cursory examination by an army physician. Missed the fact that William Cathy was actually Kathy Williams. An African American woman Kathy served from November eighteen sixty six until her discharged with surgeon certificate of disability on October eighteen sixty eight despite numerous and often lengthy hospital stays during her service. Her gender was not revealed until June of eighteen ninety one when she applied for a disability pension and disclosed her true identity. She did not receive the pension not because she was a woman or because she was black. But because her disabilities were not considered service related Kathy. Williams has been noted in military history journals as the only documented female buffalo soldier, and the only documented African American woman who served in the US army prior to the nineteen forty eight law which officially allowed women to join. In eighteen seventy seven Henry o flipper became the first African American to graduate from the US military academy at West Point, new his assignment and July eighteen seventy seven to the tenth US cavalry, one of two black cavalry regiments organized after the civil war was the realization of a personal dream. Unfortunately, his dream was short lived as he was wrongfully court-martialed and dishonorably discharged assigned to the tenth cavalry over buffalo soldiers Lieutenant flipper served at forts Elliott conscio- Whitman sill Davis and he fought twice at eagles spring, Texas during the Victorio campaign against the Apaches eighteen eighty in eighteen eighty one while stationed at Fort Davis, Texas, he was framed by white officers and charged with embezzlement at his court martial. He was found not guilty of embezzlement. But guilty of conduct unbecoming an officer and a gentleman he was dishonorably discharged. And for the rest of his life fought to restore is good name following his death in nineteen forty flippers. Descendants continued advocating to have his dishonorable discharge overturned and in nineteen seventy six with the recognition of his mistreatment. He was finally granted an honorable discharge and a full pardon West Point now gives an award in his honor to the graduating senior who's displayed the highest qualities of leadership self discipline, and perseverance in the face of unusual difficulties while a cadet. World War Two brought out the best in America's young people. Young African American women like Margaret e Bailey found it as an opportunity to fight for their citizenship. This isn't a situation like starship troopers wear service guarantees citizenship, but military service and the struggle for civil rights are intrinsically intertwined by may nineteen forty three one hundred and eighty three African American nurses held commissions in the army nurse corps during World War, Two African American nurses served in all theatres of the war, including Africa, Burma, Australia and England at the conclusion of World War Two about six hundred African American nurses, it served one of these nurses. Margaret e Bailey accepted a commission in June of nineteen forty four in July of nineteen sixty four Bailey became the first African American promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in the army nurse. Core and in nineteen seventy she was promoted to full Colonel throughout her twenty seven year career in the army, Colonel Margaret Bailey advocated for the integration of all military housing work, environments and recreational facilities following her retirement. Bailey became a consultant to the surgeon general to promote increased participation by members of minority groups in the army nurse corps. And a side note, if you heard the tinkling of tiny bell in the background of that section or any part of today's podcast that is the collar of a foster cat named Matrosskaya which means Russian nesting doll, which side note aren't actually Russian. I'll tell you about that someday. After the seventh time I restarted that paragraph. I just decided to leave it in. In nineteen forty seven. Roscoe Robinson junior attended Saint Louis university for only a year before he transferred to the US military academy at West Point. He graduated with a degree in military engineering in nineteen fifty one during the next thirty four years. He would become a distinguished combat commander and the first African American to become a four star. General he served in the Korean war in nineteen fifty two as a platoon leader and rifle company commander and received. The bronze star after returning to the United States year later, he became an instructor in the airborne department of the US army infantry school in nineteen sixty seven he served as battalion commander in Vietnam. And there received the legion of merit the Distinguished Flying Cross eleven air medals and two silver stars. He was promoted to Brigadier General and in nineteen seventy five became commanding general of the US army garrison Okinawa. He also commanded the eighty second airborne division at Fort Bragg North Carolina, his final assignment was as US military Representative to the NATO military committee. He was then awarded with two distinguished service medals and one defense distinguished service medal after his retirement he was asked to oversee a panel tasked to examine the Korean war performance of some African American army units that had previously been criticized when Hazel Johnson an operating room nurse who graduated from the Harlem hospital school of nursing joined the army in nineteen fifty five. She thought it would be an opportunity that would allow her to explore the world and hone her nursing skills. She had no idea she would become the first African American female general officer, she entered the army shortly after president Harry Truman banned, segregation and discrimination in the armed services through her diligent service Johnson was rewarded with a number of promotion. Nhs and posts of responsibility. She was also afforded educational opportunities and would earn a bachelor's degree in nursing at Villanova university. A master's degree in nursing education from Columbia University and PHD in education administration from Catholic university as chief of the army's nurse corps. General Johnson commanded seven thousand male and female, nurses, including those in the army national guard and army reserve she also set policy and oversaw operations in eight. Army medical centers, fifty six community, hospitals and one hundred and forty three free standing clinics in the United States, Japan Korea. Germany Italy and Panama the list of awards and recognitions throughout her military. Career includes the nineteen seventy-two US army nurse of the year honorary doctorates from Villanova university. Morgan state university, the university of Maryland, the distinguished service medal, the legion of merit the meritorious service medal. And the army commendation medal with Oakley cluster. Her responsibilities left little time to pursue other avenues in life, including marriage. However, two years before retiring from the army Johnson, Mary David Brown and the sixteenth chief of the army, nurse corps, became Brigadier. General Hazel w Johnson Brown. And that's where we run out of ideas. At least for today. There are of course, more stories of African Americans who served their country than I could ever hope to recount like Leme, you'll Hanes who served as a minute man during the American revolution after gaining his freedom from indentured servitude. Or major Martin Robinson Delaney. The first African American field officer in the US army. He was accepted to Harvard Medical School, but was kicked out after three weeks when white students petitioned for his removal. More private first class, Milton all of the third who was posthumously awarded the medal of honor for saving the lives of four other soldiers during the Vietnam war when he threw himself on a grenade. Neither stories never be forgotten. Thanks for spending part of your day with e.

US French army US army France officer America Army New York American expeditionary force buffalo soldier US army infantry school US army flying corps Eugene Bulaq Colonel William Hayward
Dominique-Jean Larrey and His Flying Ambulance

Stuff You Missed in History Class

00:00 sec | 7 months ago

Dominique-Jean Larrey and His Flying Ambulance

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We've decided to Rewatch the series one episode at a time and put our memories into a podcast. You can listen to it home. We're going to get all our special guest. Friends like Sarah Chalk. John C. McGinley Neil Flynn Judy Reyes show Creator Bill. Lawrence Editors Writers and even prompt masters will tell us about what inspired the series, and how we became a family, you can listen to the podcast. Fake doctors, real friends with Zach and Donald on the iheartradio. APP APPLE PODCASTS and wherever you get your podcasts. Welcome to stuff. You missed in History Class A production of iheartradio. Hello and welcome to the podcast I'm holly FRY and I'm Tracy Wilson, so obviously still in the midst of pandemic, one of the things that has been in the news a lot, and certainly weighing heavily on my mind is all of the work that's being done by emergency and hospital, medical workers, and so that kind of like was what I was going to look into for this week's show like I started researching to do kind of a brief history of emergency medicine, which is still. Still in the works, but I got a little sidetracked. Because there is so much that I found myself like struggling to get a cohesive and Organiz thing going on, but in the midst of doing all of that I stumbled across and I'm sorry, because it's another French topic Dominique John Lee, who is a really really interesting historical figure that I had not known anything about kicking myself for reasons. I will real at the end that I didn't know about this before we were in France. But He created something called the Flying Ambulance. It's not literally airborne. But his work was largely informed I by his medical schooling, but then also by his work with the French army, and so we're GonNa talk about him today. And how he developed an ambulance system that even today, the systems he set up in an adapted former, still essentially used and a lot of his medical developments that he created are still used even outside of you know like a combat zone type medic situation, so we're going to jump in on a Baron Dominique John Les Dominique Laurie was born in Budi on France near the Pyrenees on July, eight, seventeen, sixty six, he had an older brother Charles Francois Allaire. The family was really not wealthy. Dominic John's early education was given to him by the local priest I they say until his father died, and then at that point Dominic John was sent to lose to study medicine with an uncle Dr Alexis flurry. There's some discrepancy and exactly when that happened based on which biography. At. There are some sources that place the move to to lose when he was eleven others when he was thirteen. Regardless, in this path of study, Dominique's John was following not only in his uncle's footsteps, but also in those of his older brother who had become a surgeon. Bears, a lot of discrepancy in Bates when you start really looking at biographies of Him, there is a biography that I looked at a lot Britain in the eighteen sixties that the date they give for his birth is. Impossible. Like he would have been like eleven, doing some of his most important stuff like there are a little bit tricky to tease out exact dates on some of his his key points until he really gets in the military when records were really carefully taken Alexi who was the surgeon major at Hospital of Gov and an associate at the Royal, Academy of Surgery in Paris was very aware that not only, was he. He, giving his nephew a medical education, but that he was also stepping into the role of surrogate father, and he actually told Dominique when he first arrived that he would be his adopted son after a number of years with his uncle when he was twenty one. Laura moved to Paris there he became an assistant surgeon in the French navy. And soon he was departing from port breasts aboard a sloop called lavish land. Is Work with the Navy was pretty fraught. He was nearly shipwrecked almost immediately the seven months that he served aboard this ship gave him really strong opinions about the importance of hygiene, and also taught him a great deal about the treatment of injuries and ailments, and really tight quarters by seventeen eighty-nine. The young doctor was back in Paris, and that was just as the violence of the French Revolution was really creating an increased need for the for some emergency medical care. He also became a student. Student of Pierre Joseph Bisseau during this time. Who is heading up the teams that we're treating injuries from the riots and the fighting at the hotel and hotel lead dissolve was the first professor of clinical surgery in France, and he was both beloved and renowned Stoudt Laret was basically getting on the job cutting edge education in medicine under his tutelage in the early seventeen ninety s dummy John, joined France's Army of the Rhine and reported for duty at Strasbourg on April first of seventeen ninety two. And this is where he made the impact, for which he's probably best known today, but to talk about that with a bit of context to back up just a little bit all the way through ancient history, so the concept of an ambulance, and by that we mean a vehicle that could rapidly transport injured or sick. People to treatment. is nothing new that word ambulance is also used in some of the writing later on to suggest Lake and I at hospital. And one of the primary drivers to the development of a system of carrying the wounded throughout history has been war one of the earliest instances we know of when conflict led to moves forward in emergency. Care was thanks to Alexander, the Great Father Philip the second of Mastodon. During the fourth century, C E he made the decision that has deployed troops would have medical personnel who traveled with them to treat injuries and illnesses, as they occurred during campaigns dumping forward drum bear to the sixth century. Marissa's emperor of Byzantine similarly ensured that his fighting troops were accompanied by medical assistance in the case of Marissa's, his army set up tents that were adjacent to the field of battle that were designed for emergency care, and specially designated horsemen stood by with saddles that had been designed to carry the injured. Injured to caregivers, waiting in those tents, centuries later, a similar system was employed during the Crusades though wagons were used at that point in time instead of single horsemen in the fifteenth century, the idea of dedicated wagon teams, carrying those injured and military battles caught on throughout Europe Queen Isabela of Spain is the first we know of who created a fleet of wagons that had been designed and constructed just for this task, but soon a lot of other nations had incorporated similar vehicles into their militaries and the idea of. Of Medical personnel traveling with military troops had become a lot more common, but a more formalized plan for ambulances in the field was developed by Dominique. Jean a in seventeen, ninety two levay at this point was a surgeon traveling when the police army and he saw firsthand, not only how brutal battle could be, but the wounded soldiers were left, suffering for hours, sometimes as long as a full twenty four hour day, or longer before they could be moved by available personnel while those other militaries that we have been talking. Talking about over time had adopted the idea that they should have medical personnel standing by and even vehicles to transport the wounded. None of those protocols were designed to ever be used on an active battlefield. Those features would swoop in once the fighting was over, and so that meant that not only were those injured soldiers, going without treatment, as they lay on, the battlefield, weren't getting any food or water laret wrote about the problems and obstacles of caring for the battle wounded, and their grave consequences in his notes quote. I now I discovered the inconveniences to which we were subjected in moving our ambulances or military hospitals. The military regulations required that they should always be one league distant from the army, the wounded were left on the field until after the engagement, and then collected at a convenient spot to which the ambulances speeded as soon as possible, but the number of wagons interposed them in the army and many other difficulties, so retarded their progress that they never arrived and less than twenty four or thirty six hours, so that most of the wounded died for want of assistance. Yeah, a League by the way which he references is almost three point five miles more than five point five kilometers. Kilometers so these makeshift hospitals were set up quite far away from the actual battle home. We should note that while witnessing the misery of battlefield injury spurred Laret to developing a solution, it was certainly not as though he was the first person to realize that military's could do better in caring for their war-wounded. Many nations recognized that there is a huge problem in that. Soldiers with treatable injuries were often lost simply because they could not get to life saving treatment in time. The French government had a call for some sort of solution to this problem several years before they even joined the army. We'll talk about the raise ambulance after we I pause for a quick sponsor break. Support for stuff you missed in history. Class comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by quicken loans home. 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How quickly and nimbly those artillery cards could move the design of the new medical cart was agile enough to get through tight spaces, though it also included a full covering for the soldiers being transported, there was a mattress inside which sat on a base and that base which Laura called floor could easily slide in and out of the ambulance enclosure, using a system of rollers when it was tested on the battlefield. Battlefield at lambourn worked exactly as Lorraine, his superiors had hoped larger versions of the flying ambulance were also developed and various adaptations were eventually made difficult terrains, including switching out the horses that drew them for Mules, even camels as the location the climate warranted, but Laura went far beyond merely developing a vehicle, he actually came up with a comprehensive battlefield, medical system, underlay, system, surgeons, or medics, which he collectively called a squad. Squad volant or flying squads would move onto the field, even while active fighting was happening to give initial treatment to soldiers and assess the severity of their wounds. Then the ambulance would cart the injured away from the battle, and the next stop was a tent hospital up adjacent to the battlefield again kind of borrowing from history there, and then if that soldier needed additional treatment beyond what was available in that I. Ten He would be taken to a more standard permanent hospital. A key element in this is that as Laredo developed the system, he became the first to establish a triage hierarchy the way that we would see it today. Triage is French for sorting under Lorraine's guidelines. Men with the most life. Threatening injuries were prioritized with lower levels of danger sorted into priority under that. The, seems obvious, but prior to the Ray battlefield wounded were treated in order of rank and then enemy prisoners were always last. Laura saw all the patients as equals with their treatment determined by medical need rather than any class distinction, each division of this carefully executed system was managed by chief surgeon, and there were normally sixty four men in any medical unit which included surgeons, orderlies and nurses, and those personnel were traveling aboard sixteen carriages from position to position and bringing with them twelve ambulance wagons. Wagons and four wagons to carry supplies. The division was managed in a hierarchy in the following manner as described by ray quote, one surgeon major of the first class, commanding with two surgeons, mates of the Second Class, twelve junior mates of the third class, two of them serving as pot, the carries a lieutenant steward of division of ambulance a sub Lieutenant Inspector of. Acting as under steward, a quartermaster general of the first class of ambulance, two deputies of the third class of ambulance, a bearer of surgical instruments with trumpet, Twelve soldiers on horseback, as overseers to take care of the wounded among them, a Farrier, a Sadler and a bootmaker, and a commission sergeant, major of the first class to commissioned officers of the second class to proceed the ambulance three. Three corporals retained for the performance of various errands, a lad with a drum carrying surgical dressings and twenty five foot soldiers as overseers to take care of the wounded array further made detailed descriptions of the orders that Kirk should travel in what particular supplies each person in each position should require and carry, and even specifications, regarding their uniforms in all of these notes and provisions and details. Details about how this should be carried out were carefully made so that each person could do their job to the best of their ability. General Alexander Tobacco. Her name made sure to mention the work of Larae in his reports to his superiors, saying quote I ought not see women, the surgeon, Major Laret and his comrades with flying ambulances, whose indefatigable care in the healing of the wounded. Wounded has diminished those afflicting results to humanity which have generally been inseparable from days of victory, and has essentially served the cause of humanity itself in preserving the brave defenders of our country Yeah, it's really interesting. There's a lot of talk I. don't go into detail in this outline, but there was a lot of talk at the time of how much just having laret working. Working on these problems setting up this system, not only saved people's lives, but also was just a morale boost lake soldiers felt better knowing there was a codified system in place to take care of them, and so they were better at their jobs and Laura, we should mention was not the only person that was working on creating vehicles that can go onto battlefields to help soldiers in. In needed medical attention, we said earlier that there had been a call for the development of a solution to this problem in the form of a battlefield transport for wounded men on the part of the French government, and there had been a prize offered. If someone could design prototype, it was light enough for ease of movement, solid enough to withstand the terrain of battlefields and the. The constant travel from engagement to engagement and also large enough to carry four to six adult men, twenty nine designs were submitted to the government, but none were approved or awarded the prize one that was in development at the same time, as far as was designed by another French surgeon baron Pierre Francois Percy. His cart was sort of like it along gated, slightly rounded coffin that was. was filled with medical supplies and pulled by a team of two horses. The idea was that a surgeon would ride with the troops to the battlefield on the cart, which got the nickname worst wagon because it reminded people of a sausage, all treatment would happen from this mobile hospital. There was no functionality for Percy's designed to carry a soldier to safety or to a hospital tent. Medical staff would still need to Cartman on stretchers. while. Percy's idea and others are being vetted and discarded, and the government even attempted its own design Larae had already been successfully using his ambulance in real world. Battles Repair Leo was extremely grateful to Hillary for this innovation, which as I said earlier saved the lives of many soldiers and sped up recovery, so that men could get back to active duty. The leader said of the surgeon quote. Your work is one of the most happy conceptions of our age. It will suffice. Suffice for your reputation Lorraine became one of Napoleon's favorites, and he was promoted to surgeon in chief of the army of Corsica and he got that news while he was returned temporarily to Paris. He was there because he was overseeing construction of more ambulances for more troops, and also getting married to his beloved Charlotte, in La Viola, who the wedding was barely finished twin lorraine. His bride left for too low on Francis Southern Coast. Where Dominique John had been ordered to report. His wife with family that lived there, while her husband reported for duty, and from there traveled extensively as needed in the service of the army, he went to niece, and then Spain and Italy establishing units to execute his medical system in each location while he was stationed in Milan, he also established a school of surgery there, yeah, built list of all out here, but basically he was setting up. These situations met military hospitals, etc, all over Europe as as these various engagements went on, and as he continued to work in Aker. battlezones also pioneered a new approach to amputations, because a lot of men had limbs damaged cannon fire amputations were always an issue during this time in military conflict. Lorraine developed what came to be known as his twenty four hour principle meaning that he believed the patient's chance of surviving with limb that needed amputation drops if he was not operated on within twenty four hours prior to this, there had been a belief that the surgeon should wait for evidence of dead tissue to make sure that the limb was truly lost before amputating under Lorraine's ideology, the amputation would happen as soon as possible. After the injury happened, it was more a matter of really carefully assessing the injury and determining this limb cannot be saved. The idea was that leaving so-called devitalized tissue intact increase, the chance of infection and Sepsis Laura, actually noted once in his writings that before these ideas were implemented. You almost never saw amputees particularly amputees that had lost multiple limbs, but he was like that's because they rarely survive additionally lure as early study with his uncle had included hours and hours of dissection lab work. Work so he had a masterful understanding of anatomy as a consequence, he was able to develop a new method for performing amputations at the shoulder, which came to be known as l'oeil amputation. You may recall that. When we talked about Robert Liston, he had developed a way of amputating. That left extra skin, so the wound could be sued without the skin being too tight. Laret had a similar idea, but it worked from the opposite angle. He severed the limb above the damage, often close to a joint leaving enough skin, similarly close the wound with the optimal comfort for the patient, and Laura was also willing and able to perform the very dangerous amputation of the leg at the hip. This was a very controversial operation at the time and Laura received a lot of criticism from the medical community doing it, but he was adamant that there were cases when this was the only option and he wrote quote, however cruel that operation may be, it is an act of humanity in the hands of the surgeon when he can save the life of the injured endanger and the more. More, the danger is great and pressing the more the response must be prompt and energetic. Laurey made a number of other strides, not just didn't field medicine, but in medicine general, he developed a trauma, focused method of pair of cardio, sintesis, or removing fluid from around the heart with a needle, he designed a new type of needle for suturing that he used on the battlefield. He developed a way to use a patient's breathing to assist in draining wounds. He also realized that extreme cold could be used as an anesthetic something that he practiced on the battlefield by packing snow onto injuries, and he pioneered the removal of bullets from wounds by making a secondary incision rather than digging through the damaged tissue. That the bullet had. A upon entry we're going to talk about Laura's continuing service to Napoleon and the power of his reputation in just a moment, but first we'll take a break in here from the sponsors. Keep stuff you missed in history class going. Here's the thing. Saving money with Geico is almost better than playing pickup basketball. because. There's always that guy who joins your game. He never passes the rock. He constantly bricks threes, and who completely hack you, and then put his hands up and say no foul, no foul with gyco. It's easy to switch and save on car insurance, no need to fake an ankle sprain because you're absolutely exhausted so switch and save with Gyco. It's almost better than sports. Hi I'm Esther Dean and I'm excited to welcome you to a brand new season of Song Land and Sung lands podcasts. We have an amazing roster talent this season. I promise you. You don't WanNa. Miss One single episode. Don't miss some men, Monday nights at ten, nine central on NBC and join us for your song lands podcast available every week after the show on the IHEART APP or wherever you get your podcast. When the police launched his campaign into Egypt's Laret was part of it, and he had arranged for the most promising surgeons from medical schools in Montpelier to lose to be part of the medical staff of the expedition in total, he had assembled three medical divisions for the journey. The forces departed from to law on May, nineteenth seventeen, ninety eight three weeks later, they were at Malta, which quickly surrendered, and then continued on to Alexandria the year that campaign through Egypt Syria wrapped up, which is eighteen, one array was promoted again this time to surgeon general of Napoleon's famed Imperial Guard, its cadre of soldiers who had been with the emperor from the beginning, and where the most trusted Laret always served admirably. Military surgeon he was himself even wounded while traveling with the army, and at one point he was almost captured by the enemy. Later there is a capture we'll talk about. But he was undeterred in his mission to improve the medical care of Francis, soldiers, and for his bravery and. The emperor made him a baron on the battlefield at vacuum in eighteen nine, Laret for all of his work was incredibly well respected not only by the soldiers and leaders of France, but by other armies as well as French troops fled Russia. Special Care was made so that Laret, who was with them could make safety. Soldiers are said to have passed him over their heads to ensure that he's safely made it across a bridge at the BERRA's river. Allegedly during the battle of Waterloo enemy forces were ordered to point their fire away from Laura's ambulance divisions when they were on the field, treating the wounded. This is in part because he always felt and shared with his fellow military doctors that all patients even the enemy wounded should be treated with care and compassion when it came to their medical needs, I feel kind of a precursor to. Standards about how wartime medical staff should be treated like the came for more formal parts of international standards later on. Yeah, he was really groundbreaking in this regard lakes. We've mentioned earlier that normally prior to his work. If you were an enemy combatant that have been captured, even if you were in horrible life-threatening pain, you still got treated last whereas he was like. No, that's not how we're. GonNa do this. Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo ended with the order of solve coup, basically every man for himself but dominy gene. Hey, and the surgeons who served with him felt that this was against their first obligation as medical practitioners, so they stayed to look after the wounded, and as night fell the doctor scattered, hoping to evade the Prussian army but Laret was first shot at and then cut with a Saber and he had passed out and. And he was left for dead, but then he was captured when he awoke, and he realized he could run. He kinda made his way some distance and was captured, and the story goes that justice. He was about to be executed. One of the PRUSSIAN doctors recognized him having attended a lecture, given by Larae and Berlin six years earlier and having been recognized. He was brought to Field Marshal Bluecher to determine what should be done. Turned out that Bluecher son had been treated as a prisoner of War Bilo Ray who had saved the young man's life. So in saving an enemies life, he ultimately saved his own. The Ray was taken to Brussels where he recovered from his wounds, and then he traveled onto Paris to be reunited with his family. We're the POLIAN was forced to abdicate, and was sent into exile in eighteen fifteen, Dominic Sean Lee paid a price for his association and his loyalty to the former emperor, although it was not perhaps as steep as you might imagine initially his honors, and his titles that have been bestowed upon him, were taken away, including his rank as inspector general of. And his pension of three thousand francs, but his reputation created a very high demand for his work. other nations started asking if he would like to work for them including Russian, Emperor. Alexander the First who offered Loria position as head of his army medical division, but Laret only wanted to stay in France, and so he turned it down in eighteen, eighteen out of. Of respect for Lorraine. His work is pension was restored when the academy the Medicine was founded in eighteen, twenty Laurey was named as one of its inaugural members Lee. The eighteenth made him surgeon of the Royal Guard in Eighteen, twenty one, but those things had turned around for him personally the news of Napoleon's death in May eighteen, twenty one hitler a really hard. Napoleon referred to Lorraine. His will as quote the worthy man I ever met, and left him one hundred thousand francs, still grieving the man he had so loyally served the ray turn to his work for solace he had been writing a comprehensive guide to surgery in eighteen, twenty six, he decided to travel to England with his son, who also became a surgeon to study surgical techniques there as part of his research and his report on all that he learned there earned him a place in the Academy of Sciences in Eighteen. Eighteen twenty nine when the three day July Revolution broke out in Paris in eighteen thirty Laura once again tended the wounded treating them at the military hospital at Grow Q. When the hospital was stormed by armed men, Laurey stood up to them and sent them packing asking. Do you know that the sick and wounded here belong to me that it is my duty to defend them, and that is also your duty to respect the unfortunate. I love him for so many reasons after this. He was sent to Belgium to. To help them set up their armies mobile medical units, and then he returned to Paris where he was named as surgeon in chief at the Hotel Avenue. Lead even then in his sixties. At this point, he kept up the rigorous schedule. He woke up at three am every morning, so he could spend several hours writing and researching, and then at six am. He began his rounds at the hospital when rounds were done, he lectured to medical students, and then he spent extra time with any of them. WHO had questions or Or needed additional time with the surgeon who had become a legend in his own time in the afternoons, if time permitted, Laura visited the wards once again, often checking in on patients who had been soldiers that he had served alongside in eighteen, thirty four laret traveled to Italy with his son elite, but I he travelled south to booty oil, and visited his first teacher, Abed Grassi, the priesthood taught him as a child. Then he traveled across the southern half of France toward Italy making a number of stops along the way. In Italy he traveled to Rome and Florence where he was warmly received before making his way back to Paris despite his advancing age when the eighteen thirty five cholera outbreak hit. France laret traveled to all of the cities where it hit the hardest, he offered medical assistance, and he reassured both patients and medical personnel. They would get through. It gave the best practices for how to handle things. And then he wrote a very detailed report his superiors. Once he returned to Paris incidentally he subscribed to the animal cules theory on how disease spread not long after this laret retired from his job, when Napoleon's ashes arrived in Paris to be interred on December fifteenth, eighteen forty, Laura insisted on going out into the cold to watch the procession, and told the friend who accompanied him. Quote never has my heart, which though I am old? Not Hardened been more agitated by my souvenir. There is some speculation that Larry's retirement was because he had some sort of disagreement with the government over. Something having to do it in the Polian, but we don't really know Laret was very very loyal to Napoleon for his entire life but it's all pretty speculative as to what actually happened. In eighteen forty one lorraine made a trip to Algiers to inspect the military hospitals there, and this was a dangerous trip, both because of unrest in the region, and because of Dominic Jones advancing age once again, his son was with him in a long journey, though Larry's health really deteriorated. He landed back in transit report of to loan in July. At that point, he had inflammation in his chest, and he was told to stay in too long and recuperate before moving on but Laura really wanted to see his wife, and so he continued to travel. The raid did not make it back to Paris died and Leone at the end of July eighteen, forty, two at the age of seventy six. When he didn't know when he passed, was his wife had also died at home in Paris, the race body was brought to Paris and cremated, and his ashes were interred at perilous, says in eighteen fifty. A statue was erected in honor of the array at the court of Val. degrasse military hospital while perilous says is the Final Resting Place of many luminaries. It was not where Lorraine had wished to be buried. He wanted his remains to go to Lazim believe Napoleon's tomb. A hundred and fifty years after his death. Dominic John Laura got his wish. His ashes were moved in nineteen, ninety two, and in an introduction to a biography about array, which is written in eighteen sixty one. There's a really really lovely passage that kind of sums up his life so I thought. This was a good point to end on. And it is quote amid the tempest of bullets in the bursting of shells. The French surgeon Laurey has been seen com intrepid, and also prodigal in the resources of a surgical skill, which was incomparable, noncombatant, as Larae professionally was against men yet his life might be aptly designated a long combat against deaths. I like him because it's. Not only. Is it cool just in terms of how much he innovated, but it's a fairly uplifting store. Yeah Yeah. He. There's not a lot of surprise misery of it. and he really left a great legacy, and even when the regime change happened which we've talked about those things happening on the show many times before. Often, the people loyalty run regime. Really get into water when the change takes place, but he was so awesome that everybody loved. Which I It makes me happy. We need more of that yeah. Are, are, you going to tell us why you wish you had known before he went to Paris. Yes, because we could have gone and seen where he is interred at Lasagna. Lead when we. That was my guests at the beginning I was like I I have a guest and I thought about saying I'm GonNa see if I guess correctly, but held my tongue. Yes, that's the one so theoretically, if our trip to Italy still takes place at the now shifted time in October I'm hoping that my husband and I can do a quick trip to Paris beforehand and then meet up with everybody in Italy and if so going back to lasagna lead. It's also just cool to look at Napoleon's tomb, because it's quite a beautiful space anyway, but it's a beautiful space, and if you are a doctor, who fan, it also has just a particular resonance, Yep, and it's just. It's a fascinating thing that the to Malone. Is a wild design of many? Tombs within tombs within, tombs but. Those such a super beautiful. I have I ask some silliest listener, mail. Times. This is from our listener. Philip who left a question on our facebook page euro good evening, ladies I'm a long-time listener to the podcast and I believe. My first episode was the Lady Jane Episode. As we are in the middle of this pandemic, see all of the panic over toilet paper on the news posts on social media in this sparked Aquarian, my mind. Where did toilet paper come from what sparked the need? When did this item become an everyday need at first? Was this an item for the well-to-do folks? Thank you for what you do in expanding my knowledge. Phil so I thought I would do the quick rundown on this because it's not really to ever make a full episode I. I don't think but so you often see the name. Joseph gaiety touted as the first person to invent toilet paper he was the first to create like a commercial toilet paper which was a medicated paper for hemorrhoids, had his name printed on every sheet which I find of durable This was kind of slow to catch on prior to this in the US. Things like catalogs were filling the same need, and they were free. I mean if you go back ancient history, there have been a lot of different ways that people have have done hygienic cleaning, including like sponges and water in Rome, and the various uses of water throughout periods of time, but at this point paper Yup fine. The Scott Brothers introduced the toilet paper roll in the eighteen nineties because Gatti's version not really catching on people that it was silly to spend money on it when you can just tear up a catalog to the paper, still little stigmatized by that point, really the thing that Kinda move toilet paper into the more standard and accepted and needed item was the increase of people with indoor plumbing, because you couldn't really flesh catalog pages without creating a big problem All of this is a very western view. Hey, the Chinese were using. Toilet paper hundreds of years before. Back to the sixth century, there's evidence of you know even really luxurious scented toilet papers in China way before anybody in the Western world ever was like. Hey, you know what we should do. so as just sort of a pandemic PSA. Do not flush flushable wipes. They are not really flushable. I know the city where I live issued some warnings that are like hey I know they say flushable on the label, but we are seeing a big increase in sewer backups because they're. They're not really. Even though they say flushable on the label, they are still likely to stop pipes. Louis in places where maybe the sewage system? Could use some work. Yeah, I feel like that goes for a lot of things that are labeled as flushable. flushable cat litter thing there are many reasons you should actually not blush it. Including the spread of toxic Plasmas, which especially if you live in a coastal places very bad for a what's that kind of gets into the water table and can get out to the oceans over a long series of things very bad animals Yeah, maybe don't don't flush things if your instinct is this really flushable, go with no. I remember when I was a teen. My mom like specifically taught me. That pads are not flushable. Tampons are and that's also false. You should not flush either one. Oh, how the talks have had with plumbers over this issue? But it says like just don't. If, you would like to write to us. You can do so history podcast at iheartradio DOT com. You can also find us on social media. We got today's Listener Mail as missed in history pretty much everywhere. You would like to subscribe to the show. You can do so on the iheartradio. APP AT APPLE PODCASTS or wherever it is like to listen. History class the production of iheartradio for more podcasts from iheartradio visit, the iheartradio APP apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. I'm Dani Shapiro host of the hit podcast family secrets I. Just launched a new podcast called the way we live now. Our lives have been disrupted interrupted, but that does not mean that we can't reach one another in ways that are both powerful and intimate. I'll talk with people across the great human tapestry. What's life like for you today? We'll be reminded that we're not alone was into the way we live now on iheartradio APP apple, podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts. All My name is impetus Santos of morning show, and on the move I want to personally invite you to my new podcast Oh. My name is a show where I'll talk to artist, community leaders and people like you. Together we'll learn more about the triumphs and failures empower biweekly guest. You can find my new show on the free iheartradio, APP or wherever you listen to your podcast.

Dominic John Laura Paris Napoleon Major Laret Lorraine army Baron Dominique John Les Domin Milano Italy France Alexander Tobacco Dominic John French army France Dominique John Lee baron Pierre Francois Percy Norton John C. McGinley Flying Ambulance
Jean-Bdel Bokassa Pt. 1: Central Africa

Dictators

41:51 min | 4 months ago

Jean-Bdel Bokassa Pt. 1: Central Africa

"October nineteen, sixty, six, in Bangui, the capital of the Central African Republic thousands packed into Boganda stadium to listen to their leaders speak. Forty four year old Colonel Jean Bedel Bokassa at only been in power for ten months, but during that time he had gained the duration of his people. Much of this public support was due to the promises Bokassa made when he seized power, he promised to root out corruption to expel Chinese officials who were spreading communism and to hold free and fair elections. This promise of democracy was the most important one that will cost made to his citizens. He had assured them that his time in power was only going to be temporary as he led the nation through a transitional period. But after ten months in power, a realized, he didn't want to relinquish his throne. And so stepping to the podium, he told the crowd that the elections were no longer going to happen. He would be staying in power indefinitely. Bokassa said. I am everywhere and nowhere I. See nothing yet I see all. I listened to nothing and he everything. Such is the role of a head of state. With the announcement came a stark realization for the people of the Central African Republic Jean Bedel Bokassa wasn't there savior. He was there destroyer. Welcome to dictators apar- cast original I'm Richard and I'm kate. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other park cast originals for free on spotify, or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream dictators for free on spotify just open the APP and type dictators in the search bar. Today, we're looking at the last of our three postcolonial African dictators Jean Bedel Bokassa President of the Central African Republic. Bokassa, a man who's vanity knew no bounds eventually declared himself emperor. He became infamous through tales of child, murder and cannibalism. This week we'll take a look at how he rose through the ranks of the French army, and like many African dictators came to power in a coup amid threats to his own position. Next week we'll explore his actions as emperor and his eventual downfall. John Bedell Casa has the distinct honor of not being the most ruthless of the African dictators. We've discussed so far this season. But while he may not have been as bloodthirsty as Idi, Amin or Francisco must see us and. He still ruled over the Central African Republic as a fearsome dictator. With the military and rumors of cannibalism on his side, Bokassa knew that no one would try and topple him. However those rumors were a double edged sword. Bokassa's rule was holy founded on his ego while Idi Amin mocked the rest of the world and Francisco Masih Weymouth shut himself off. Jean Bedel Bokassa wanted to be revered. Ironically after declaring himself emperor around eleven years into his presidency, he became nothing more than an eccentric laughing stock among the international community. And as his ego took hit after hit, he took his aggressions out on the country students a move that would lead to the downfall of central Africa's first and only emperor. John Miguel Bokassa was born in one, thousand, nine, hundred, twenty, one in the village of Boban be located in you. bungey Shari one of the four territories that made up French Equatorial Africa. Growing up as one of twelve children Bokassa witnessed first hand the cruelty of French colonial rule in post World War One Africa. France viewed its African colonies as a source for quick cash rubber, gold, ivory, hard woods, any and all raw materials were mined and exported to keep the business running the French established a form of feudalism called curvy. The KORVA system was essentially indentured servitude, African laborers were required to work in a certain industry for a prescribed number of days each year, sometimes sixty days at a time sometimes longer, and of course there was no pay. As a young boy, Bokassa saw his indigenous neighbors forced to work. The rubber plantations mine the gold and cut the timber. To keep their workers in line, the French employed armed private militias. Treatment was harsh and abysmal political scientists Samuel Decarlo like in the system to a concentration camp. To incentivize the men to meet their daily quotas, women and children were locked in cages. Their freedom depended on their father's work out. And showed any of them. Act Out of turn. They faced the dreaded Cata nine tails. A multi tailed whip known for its brutality. In the nineteen twenties, a by a healer and Prophet named car new advocated for resistance against French colonial rule. He quickly gained followers among them. Bokassa's father Mendel gone. In doggone was a foreman for a French company. He knew the extent of the brutality. The French us to keep their local workers in line. So when carnot began preaching resistance men doggone answered the call. In November nineteen, twenty seven men doggone released a group of women and children who were being held captive by the company's overseers, while the men worked, he was quickly arrested taken to the town square, and the nearby village of him biking and beaten to death. One week later, because becauses distraught mother took her own life. At just six years old Bokassa became an orphan. In the wake of his parents death, the young Bukasa was sent to a local French missionaries school where his life only got worse during his formative years Bokassa was bullied over his mother and father's death, but instead of becoming an angry child, he channeled that energy into becoming physically and emotionally strong. This upbringing combined with the harsh realities of French colonial life would transform his despondency into egotism. It became obvious to Bokassa that the only person who mattered was himself. No one else would look out for him. Which makes it slightly ironic that? After graduating secondary school, he joined the French army an organization that required cooperation with others. For eighteen year-old Bukasa, it was less about being part of a team and more about the military medals and decorations. Being surrounded by French soldiers. He grew to love their uniforms and badges of honor. That officers wore the prospect of being praised for his work appeal to Bokassa. After hearing tales of glory about French generals like Napoleon Bonaparte, he realized that the French army might be his way to achieving prestige so in May nineteen, thirty, nine Bokassa enlisted. Less than six months later, he was sent off to fight the Nazis. In the summer of nineteen forty France fell to the Germans. French General Charles de Gaulle fled to London and sent out the call to resist the new Nazi puppet government had been established in France. Nearly all the French colonial forces ignored the call except for one. Bokassa's unit was the only one to heed the call and join the allies. They eventually joined up with the British. And help push the Nazis out of North Africa. Bokassa proved to be a formidable soldier and quickly climbed the ranks. During the war he earned a bevy of commendations and with each metal that he won his ego inflated. None of the people back home could brag that they'd one such high honors, but he could. During, the course of the war Bokassa became a great admirer of Charles de Gaulle, even likening him to a father figure. In fact, impressing to goal would be something Bokassa would strive to do throughout his rise to power. After the war Bokassa state in the military and was stationed in the French Riviera in nineteen fifty, he was transferred to Vietnam where he recognized France's declining hold over the Southeast Asian colony. It was during his time in Vietnam that Bocassa began to believe. He was destined for something greater. As one of the few soldiers to survive their fight against the Vietnamese rebels. He believed it was a sign that fate had special plans for him. But Bokassa still had no idea what that destiny was for now he chose to focus on proving himself within the army. In the late nineteen fifties. He was promoted to lieutenant a rarity among African soldiers. But while Bokassa was earning his bars in the military, his home, region of you Bungee Shari was in the midst of a fight for independence. After world. War Two European colonization in Africa, was collapsing. The prominence of African troops like Bokassa's unit in the war effort was partly responsible for that shift as historian Brian, Titley wrote the vital role played by the colonial troops into goals. Army meant that the relationship between France and its African subjects could never again be the same. And as resistance against the French increased in Vietnam and Algieria during the War France I that this resistance would spread to the African colonies as well. The last thing they wanted were more revolutions. So France loosened their brutal economic oppression and allowed the colonies to be represented in the French. National Assembly, but this wasn't enough. Many began to call not just for more equality, but Total Independence, and the loudest voice during this period was Barthelemy Boganda. In the late nineteen forties, Boganda created the Movement for the social evolution of black Africa or Nissan. His grand vision was for all four french-african districts Chad French. Gabon French Congo and you Bongi. Shari to be united into a single country, the Central African Republic. However, the leaders of Chad French Gabon French Congo refused the plan. Only you Bunga. Shari agreed to participate and was renamed the Central African Republic or C. A. R.. Unfortunately boganda would never live to see independence in March nineteen, fifty nine. He died in a plane crash on his way to Bongi. The death sent shockwaves throughout the new republic. Boganda was instantly transformed into a martyr and a national hero. Rumors circulated that the French government had secretly sabotaged his plane in an effort to silence him. The theory gain traction with after a brief power struggle David Dacko became boganda successor. Deco was much more open to French appeasement and with the backing of the French military. He was able to take control of the CER new government. DAKO was also a distant cousin of Jean Bedel Bokassa. And right around the time when Dako came into power, the thirty eight year old Lieutenant Bokassa was transferred back to the C. A. R.. For the first time in twenty years, he was home. What he saw was a very different country than the one he had left. The Central African Republic was on the verge of total autonomy and with his cousin at the head. Bokassa realized that being in Dhaka's good graces would benefit him. It was a chance to make a name for himself at home to earn respect and admiration of the people that had once rejected him. With his two decades of military experience, because recognized that the c a r would need someone of his background to lead the military. And for David Dacko Bringing Bokassa into his administration made perfect sense. Little did either know that within a few short years they would be at each other's folks. Coming up family tensions lead to a coup d'etat. High listeners. If you're fascinated by the mysterious and manipulative side of true crime, you'll love. The stories told in the park cast original series colts, every Tuesday step inside the minds of those who lead and followed the most controversial radical and sometimes deadly organizations in history. Go beyond the headlines and discover the foundation behind notorious cults like Jim, Jones and peoples. Temple the Rajneesh Movement Heaven's Gate and more. More each episode of Colts, full of illuminating details of their improbable origins and sinister intentions, but not all colts are from decades past. Be sure to catch the special four part series on Nexium a modern day. Pyramid Scheme turned sex trafficking cult doomsday predictions, religious beliefs, extraterrestrial terrestrial orders find out what really happens inside a Colt. Subscribe to Colts, free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts. Now the story. In. Late nineteen, fifty, nine thirty eight year, old John Bedel Bokassa returned to his homeland, twenty years of army service and saw that it had radically changed. It was no longer a French Communist. But a semi autonomous nation. For decades, Bokassa had climbed the ranks within the French army, reaching the rank of lieutenant, and when he was transferred back to the Central African Republic now led by his cousin. David Dacko he saw the political transition as a new opportunity to achieve personal glory. In August nineteen, sixty France finally recognized that it could no longer hold onto its African colonies. It finally granted the Central African Republic full independence. Are Year later in July nineteen, sixty one. Bokassa was promoted to the rank of captain in the French army, however six months later, he resigned and joined the Central African forces as a battalion. Commander He became. That goes right and man on the military cabinet. How exactly Bukasa was able to insert himself into the cabinet almost immediately upon his return to the country is something of a mystery. It's possible. That is meteorologist. Rise was a result of pure nepotism. It's also possible that Dako Saba causes to decade military career as a safeguard against threats to his own personal power, indeed in the first years of the New Republic, David Dacko was already setting himself up as an authoritarian. Jacko's political party called me. San was still the dominant party in the new Central African Republic but for Dako dominance was enough. There was always the possibility that someone from the opposition could climb the political ladder, so he began arresting members of those opposition parties. Then in July, nineteen, sixty two dako announced that me San would be the only political party allowed in the country. Single citizen throughout Central Africa would be forced into membership and thus have to pay dues. A year and a half later in January, nineteen, sixty four David Dacko was formally elected president, receiving one hundred percent of the vote of course when there's no one else running it isn't that difficult to receive such a favorable turnout. And because the French still wanted to do business in central Africa, and already had solid relations with Dako there was no outcry from Paris in their is Adecco Dako presidency was a win win. Throughout all of this genre. Del Bokassa was less focused on climbing the political ranks as he was in collecting military titles. In fact in his eyes, honorifics were even more important than ensuring that the army he commanded was properly trained. Despite his vast military knowledge after two decades in the French army, Bokassa reportedly never actually trained the five hundred men at his disposal. All he really wanted was to say. He was in charge of the military to appear more important than he actually was. Bokassa love the pomp and circumstance that came with his so-called position. For example, he constantly insisted the during every presidential ceremony. He was placed right next to President Dacko. All this vanity made others in Dako cabinet nervous in their eyes. Bokassa's showboating was all part of a plan to gain the undying loyalty of the military. In case, he decided to stage a coup. Initially Dako laughed off the idea that his cousin had his eyes on power. He famously one said Colonel Bokassa only wants to collect medals, and he is too stupid to pull off a coup d'etat. But DAKO was wrong. Bokassa was stupid. He was keenly aware that other members of the cabinet were looking for ways to rein him in. In fact from the very moment he was invited to join Dako cabinet. Bokassa understood that it was an attempt to decentralize the power. He held over the military, but still unlike the other cabinet members Bokassa had five hundred men who would actually follow his direction, poorly trained as they may be, and by the beginning of nineteen sixty five. He refused to go anywhere without soldiers at his side. When Dako saw his cousin constantly surrounded by armed men, he started to believe that perhaps Bokassa did intend to overthrow him. As a way to combat this threat Dako established his own five hundred man, police, force or gendarmerie. These men would be just enough to take on Bocassa's army if it came to it. The tension between Bokassa and Dako came to a head in the summer of one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty, five in July Bokassa was sent to Paris to represent the C. A. R. Steel, day. But as Bokassa was preparing for his trip back, he was informed. The DAKO had banned him from returning home. The whole diplomatic journey was apparently a ploy to send him into exile. For three months. Bokassa publicly demanded to be brought back home, sending messages to his French allies and members of the. Military, he even went directly to French President Charles de Gaulle. De allegedly sent Dako a personal message. Writing Bokassa must be immediately returned to his post. I cannot tolerate the mistreatment of my companion in arms. By October dako caved to the pressure from France and allowed Bokassa to return to Bongi. But that didn't mean he was giving up with Bokassa back in Central Africa. He found another route to silence his cousin. In December nineteen, sixty, five less than two months after his return, Bokassa's military budget was rejected by Dako meanwhile deco had approved an increase in the budget for his own gendarmerie. Dot Goes Plan was to financially weaken the military and replace it with a much stronger, much more loyal force of his own. He also was making plans for the gendarmerie chief to replace Bokassa as military advisor. Unfortunately Bokassa figured out the plan. He was so angry that he loudly announced he was going to stage a coup. At first, Bokassa was all talk. These were idle threats with the hope of scaring Dako into submission. However one man in Bukasa ranks was growing tired of the empty threats. Captain Alexander Banja thought it was time for Bokassa to put up or shut up. Like Bokassa Alexander Banja had spent his career in the French military, he was described by historian Brian. Titley as intelligent, ambitious and unscrupulous. Benza saw the mounting tensions with Dako as the perfect opportunity for Bokassa to seize power. If he did decide to stage a real coup. Benza would be onboard and in return for his support. He hoped to be rewarded with a nice position in Bokassa's new government. Whatever Benza whispered. Bokassa's era throughout November and December worked. Just weeks after his budget was denied, Bokassa was convinced it was time to make good on his threats of a coup. Set the takeover for December, thirty first nineteen, sixty five. In the lead up to New Year's Eve Bokassa wasn't hiding that he was up to something. Some members of the cabinet caught on and worn. Dako that Bokassa should be thrown into jail. But for some inexplicable reason, Dako ignored the advice. At Ten thirty PM on New Year's Eve Bokassa and Banja organized a unit of soldiers at Camp Derulo outside of the Capitol. The ordered the unit to go to the presidential palace and neutralize the security. Once they had control of the building Bokassa and Bonanza would arrest Dacko. At the same time, a different unit was sent to secure Radio Bungee the city's radio station. This way. Dako and his supporters would be unable to send radio signals for help. After the units left on their missions focus sent an urgent message to John Isaam. Oh, chief of the gendarmerie to come to camp to rue to sign some papers Isaam Amo- refused. It was New Year's Eve. After all he had plans. But Bokassa insisted and is Alma was forced to leave his friends and head over a decision he would soon regret. Upon his arrival Bokassa and bands a told ISO. They were staging a coup and asked if he would support them. Is Amo- unsurprisingly refused so bokassa and bans locked him up. With Isaam. Oh, out of the picture! Bokassa gathered the rest of the troops and finally revealed what was going on. Sort of. He claimed Adecco had resigned. In given control of the country to ISO is almost plan was to strengthen the gendarmerie and weaken the army. It was either now or never to strike back and secure power for themselves. The. Majority of the army fell in line. The few they didn't were thrown into jail with Isaam. Oh! With a group of men behind them. Bokassa and bands a hopped into a White Peugeot sedan and stormed the palace as they made their way through the dirt streets. Of Bangui some of is Amazon dot became suspicious Bokassa's convoy. A small firefight broke out there Bukasa and his men were able to suppress it. When they finally got to the palace, they were shocked to discover that Dako wasn't there. Bokassa was afraid that Dako had discovered the coup and fled the capital. But his fears couldn't have been further from the truth. Dako was in fact entirely ignorant of the plot earlier that night he had left the palace to celebrate New Year's Eve. He was still at the Party when reports came in that a coup was underway. Deco immediately made his way back to Bungy to stage his defense. Unfortunately. He ran into some of Bukasa soldiers at a checkpoint and was immediately arrested. They took him to the palace where Bokassa and bands were waiting for him. With a smile on his face Bokassa, walked over and embraced his humiliated deposed Colin. He whispered in his ear. I tried to warn you. But now it's too late. They forced Dako to sign a letter of resignation Benza wanted to kill Dako right, then and there, but Bokassa refused. Dako was still family. Instead. They would lock him up and figure out what to do with him later. In the meantime there was one more stop on their road to total takeover. At a little after three, a M Bokassa arrived at Radio Bongi and ordered that a message be played across the city. In the early hours of January, first nineteen, sixty six, the people of Central African Republic awoke to the following message central. Africans this is Colonel Bukasa speaking to you since three am this morning. Your army has taken control of the country. The Deco government has resigned. The hour of justice is at hand. The bourgeoisie is abolished. A new era of equality among all has begun. Central Africans wherever you may be be assured that the army will defend you and your property. Long live the Central African Republic. Coming up as Bokassa begins to consolidate his power, a rift forms between him and Benza now back to the story. In the early morning hours of January first nineteen, sixty six Colonel Jean, Bedel Bokassa and Captain Alexander Banja overthrew President David Dacko. Very little resistance. Old Bokassa became the leader of the Central African Republic. Like many young African countries in the age of decolonization, the new government quickly gave way to chaos and corruption after centuries of European oppression. The power vacuum left by withdrawing colonizers made room for despots to sweep in. Bokassa was now one of them. The coup was for the most part of bloodless one. Only eight deaths were reported, but the aftermath was anything but peaceful. Bokassa quickly filled and garrick by prison located in the capital of Bongi with all the enemies of his revolution. By the end of January over sixty members of Dako security force were shackled an awaiting their fate. David Dacko himself actually met a much kinder fate than some of the members of his cabinet who were tortured or executed? DAKO was simply thrown into a cellar in Camp Duru and locked away for years. But, one man in particular didn't get off so easily. John Isaam Amo- the head of the gendarmerie. A week and a half after the coup, he was sent it and Gonzaga prison. It's unclear whether or not he received sort of trial, even if it was a show trial, but by the end of the month he was dead. Many sources claim that it was due to neglect and mistreatment. The weeks and months immediately following his takeover, where chaotic for Bukasa, but the most pressing issue he faced was legitimising the coup itself both at home and abroad, in fact outside of the Capitol. No one really knew who BOCASSA was. To solve that problem, Bokassa immediately crafted an image of himself as a man of intelligence and importance. On the day of the coup itself, he made sure he had his picture taken with his military medals clearly visible. These photographs immediately found their way into the newspapers. Bokassa wanted the people to see him as a freedom fighter, someone of strength and power. As historian Brian tiddly. Here was a man with experience of the world who had fought in Francis wars earned legitimate honors, and had risen through the ranks to command even Frenchman. The contrast was simple. Dako was slimy politician. Bokassa was a leader of men. With Boca in charge, the Central African Republic would become great. For a man who seemed to favor the military over politics, Bokassa showed a true neck for political maneuvering. When he took control, he abolished the corrupt. National Assembly and replaced it with the Revolutionary Council. He promised that this council and his reign is leader was only temporary, and that free and fair elections were right around the corner. Familiar promises made by many despots who have no intention of stepping down. Bokassa, even claim that if the people wanted the former president, David Dacko on the ballot, he would allow it. He wanted to make it clear that the purpose of the coup was to root out corruption and to turn the economy around. And for a while, that's what he did with his co-conspirator. Alexander Benza installed as Finance Minister Bokassa went about enacting reforms that saved the country from potential bankruptcy. They got rid of corrupt officials and rooted out civil service graphs and bribery. Next Bokassa focused on putting the people to work. He knew that if the country was going to prosper, he needed to rely less on foreign aid and more on their own industry. Early into his presidency, he declared that all men and women between the ages of eighteen and fifty five must provide proof that they could work. If they did they quickly found themselves in the fields and minds in conditions only slightly better than when the French ruled. However unlike Francisco must see us in gamma. Bokassa didn't enact brutal forced labor laws. Instead a person who didn't work would face a fine. Bokassa's reforms weren't just for the benefit of the people. He also wanted to boost his image in the international community when he ordered the creation of a public transportation system or increased women's rights, including punishing parents who prevent their daughters from going to school. Most of it was done to show the West that central. Africa was becoming a modern country. But the approval he desired the most was from Charles de Gaulle. D Goal was completely taken aback by the coup. He even threatened to cut off aid. Should anything happen to the captive? David Dacko so but Casa made it his mission to show that he was treating his cousin fairly. He assured the French that the coup was needed. That Central Africa had fallen to corruption and Bokassa. WAS IT SAVIOR? One of his leading arguments was that his coup had prevented a Chinese communist coup. A year earlier Dako had reached out to China for economic assistance in an attempt to loosen Francis grip over the country. Because a went so far as to accuse John Isaam O of being in league with Chinese agents plotting a communist takeover. If it wasn't for Bukasa. The Nation would have fallen behind the Iron Curtain. How much the French believed this is up for debate, but to Gaul knew he couldn't completely ignore the Central African Republic's new leader. It was becoming obvious. That Bokassa wasn't going to relinquish his power as promised. In. October, nineteen, sixty six bokassa made that sentiment official. He announced that he was going to remain as leader indefinitely. A, month later to Gaulle, formerly invited Bokassa to visit Paris. It was the moment Mukasa had been waiting for legitimising his rule and giving him the respect, he so desperately craved. In the years that followed Bokassa turn the Central African Republic into his own lavish fiefdom. Pictures of him in full military. Regalia were published in textbooks, painted on the sides of buildings, and even made into t shirts. He threw expensive parties and dinners on the government's dime draining. The state's already dwindling treasury. Unfortunately these indulgences were slowly, but surely driving a wedge between Bokassa and his number two Alexander Banja. A year or so into the Regime Bokassa and Benza began butting heads over the budget, particularly Bokassa's personal spending. Tensions escalated so quickly that Bokassa refused to leave the military base at camp to rue and made sure he had a pistol nearby whenever bansal was around. If, Danza would have been anyone else. He would have been thrown into prison tortured and never heard from again, but as Co conspirator of the Ku Benza was afforded the opportunity to criticize Bokassa and admonish him for his wild and reckless spending. That didn't mean Bokassa would listen to him. Far From It. The more grievances he aired, the less standing he had with the president. In April nineteen, sixty eight, Bokassa suddenly announced a cabinet shuffle. BANSAL was demoted from Finance Minister to the health department. He was no longer in charge of the country's budget. Benza are held his tongue, but he quietly began to plot a coup d'etat of his own. In April nineteen sixty-nine. Benza made the mistake of revealing this plot to Lieutenant John Claude. Mon- DABA. The commander of a large military base called camp, Kassai Mondavi. Intern revealed the conspiracy to Bokassa. On April tenth, nineteen sixty, nine Benza. At Camp Kasai the plans for the coup in his pocket. The moment he stepped onto the Base Mon- Daba, and his men ambushed Banja, stuffed him in the trunk of Mercedes and drove to one of Bokassa's houses in the country. Bokassa was there waiting for him. He desperately wanted to kill bands a right then and there, but his advisors warned that it would look unbecoming. So after torturing him for Awhile Bokassa turned the trader over for a proper military trial. On, April, Twelfth Alexander Benza bloody and bruised stood before a tribunal and confessed that he intended to overthrow the government. However he swore that his intention was never to kill Bokassa simply to exile him. Unfortunately, the details didn't matter. The trial was short and swift. That afternoon Benza was declared guilty and sentenced to death. He was immediately taken behind the camp and executed by firing squad. According to most reports, he faced his executioners bravely. Bokassa didn't stop there. Though Banda's family wife children, parents, siblings, and mistress were all rounded up and thrown into jail. The message was clear. No one who opposed Bokassa. Was Safe. Thanks for listening to dictators. Next week we'll follow Bokassa's contentious relationship with France and how is increasingly eccentric and violent behavior led to his downfall. Among the many sources we used in our research. We found Brian Titley's dark age the Political Odyssey of Emperor Mukasa particularly helpful. You can find all episodes of dictators and all other park has originals for free on spotify, not only just spotify already have all of your favorite music, but now spotify it for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcast originals like dictators for free from your phone, desktop or smart speaker. To stream dictators on spotify just open the APP and type dictators in the search bar and don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram at par cast and twitter at Parkas network. We'll see next time. Dictators was created by Max Cutler and his apart CASS studios original. It is executive produced by Max Cutler sound design by Brian Golub with production assistance by Ron Shapiro Carleen Madden and Travis Clark. This episode of dictators was written by Joe Garra with Writing Assistance by Cake Gallagher and stars Kate Leonard and Richard Rossner. Hi It's Kate again. Just reminding you to check out the podcast original cults, it explores the background in psychology behind the most manipulative and murderous groups in history. They go in depth on colts. You've heard of like the branch Davidians. The Peoples Temple and Heaven's Gate, plus they cover a variety of colts that you may not have heard of subscribe to Colts Freon, spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts.

John Miguel Bokassa Dako Central African Republic French army Bokassa President David Dacko France Dako DAKO Alexander Benza Jean Bedel Bokassa Africa Bukasa president spotify General Charles de Gaulle Colonel Bukasa Africa Central Africa Bokassa Alexander Banja
Paths of Glory (1957)

Classic Movie Musts

23:14 min | 1 year ago

Paths of Glory (1957)

"I'm max Baril. And this is classic movie musts where every week, we breakdown a classic movie. Well looking to provide artistic insight and historical context at the very least we'll talk about what makes these movies classics. Classic movie muster leases every Friday, ready to complement your weekend movie viewing plans for your enjoyment. Classic movie must is presented completely ad free. I'd love to keep it that way forever. Never separating you from our classic movie conversations. I mean, how many more podcast hosts, do you need telling you to try audible, build your website on squarespace or cook? With blue apron, you can help keep the show, ad free over at patriot dot com slash classic. Movie musts if everyone who listened to this show contributed the cost of one fancy Cup of coffee per month. Classic movie Musk's could easily remain. Totally ad free. Not only that every patriots subscriber earns, cool perks and ways to engage with the show, including the opportunity to vote every month on a movie. They'd like to hear discussed on the show. All it takes is one dollars per month. In fact, today's episode was suggested by two of our patrons max Henry, and Eleanor be, and then voted on by the rest of our patriot community in our made movie poll, a huge, thank you to our patriot subscribers. You make the show possible. You can read about all their support tears, and their awards over at patriot dot com slash classic movie musts. Thank you for joining me this week as we discuss Stanley Kubrick's paths of glory in this episode will discuss Kubrick's rhythmic, and subversive filmmaking style in our feature presentation will hear about Kubrick's obsessive personality onset during our buzz on the back lot segment. But first, let's get into this week's opening credits. Our film this week is paths of glory, which was directed by Stanley Kubrick released in nineteen fifty seven paths of glory stars, Kirk Douglas, Adolf, Montjeu Ralph meeker and George mccready set against the grueling trench warfare of nineteen sixteen World War, One in Chateau, General, George brew lard, a member of the French general staff, ask his subordinate the embarrass general Miro to send his division on a suicide mission to take a well defended German position called the anthill Moreau initially refuses citing the impossibility of success. But when brew lard mentions a potential promotion Moreau quickly convinces himself, the attack will succeed Moreau leaves the detailed planning of the attack. Colonel Dax play by Kirk Douglas of the seven hundred and I regiment despite DAX's protests that the only result of the attack will be to weaken, the French army. With heavy losses and ultimately, no benefit prior to the attack. A drunken Lieutenant named Rochet leading a nighttime scouting mission sends one of two men ahead overcome by fear while waiting for the men's return, Rosia lobs grenade and retreats corporal Paris. The other soldier on the mission finds the body of the scout who has been killed by the grenade and confronts Rochet Rosia denies any wrongdoing and falsifies. His report to Colonel Dax, the next morning. The attack on the ant hill is a failure. Dax leads the first wave of soldiers over the top into no-man's-land under heavy fire. None of the men reached the German trenches, and be company refuses to leave their own trench after sustaining heavy casualties Moreau enraged orders. His artillery to open fire on his own troops to force them onto the battlefield, the artillery, commander refuses to fire on his own men without written confirmation of the order. Meanwhile Dax returns to the trenches and tries to rally. Be company to join the battle. But as he climbs out of the trench, the body of a dead French soldier knocks him down to deflect blame for the attacks failure. Monroe decides to court martial one hundred of the soldiers for cowardice brouard convinces him to reduce the number two, three one from each company, corporal Peres is chosen because his commanding officer Rosia wishes to keep him from testifying about Rojas actions in the scouting mission. Private parole is picked by his commanding officer because he is a social undesirable. The last man, private Arnaud is chosen randomly by lot despite having been cited for bravery twice previously Dax, who is a criminal defense lawyer in civilian life volunteers to defend the men at their court. Martial, the trial, however, is a farce there is no formal written indictment, a court stenographer is not present and the court refuses to admit evidence that would support acquittal in his closing statement decks, denounces, the. Leadings. He says, gentlemen of the court to find these men guilty would be a crime to haunt each of you to the very day you die. Nonetheless, the three men are sentenced to death the night before the scheduled execution. Dax confronts Bernard at a ball with sworn statements by witnesses attesting to Moreau's order to shell his own trenches, in an attempt to blackmail the general staff into sparing, the three men, brew Lord takes the statements, but brusquely dismisses Dax the next morning. The three men are taken out to be shot by firing squad. Dax suspecting Rosia for his nomination of Paris forces version to lead the executions. All a sobbing role is blindfolded Paris refuses Rogge's offer of a blindfold and reacts ambiguously to Rojas, meek apology, our. No. Meanwhile is so badly injured after having started a fight in the prison that he must be carried out in a stretcher and tied to the post all three men are then executed following executions. Brew lard breakfast with the gloating general Moreau brew lard reveals he has invited Dax to attend tells Moreau that he will be investigated for the order to fire on his own men, Moreau leaves angrily protesting that he has been made a scapegoat brew lard, then blithely offers Miro's command to Dax assuming that DAX's attempts to stop the executions, were really just ploys to get Miro's job discovering. The Dax was, in fact, sincere brouard angrily rebukes him for his idealism, while the disgusted Dax calls brew lard a degenerate sadistic old man after the execution. Some of DAX's soldiers are rockets partying at an in their mood becomes more spiritual as they listened to a captive German girls. Sing they are unaware that the orders have come for them to return to the front. Dax lets them and enjoy a few more minutes while his face hardens as he returns to his quarters paths of glory had a budget of nine hundred thirty five thousand dollars adjusted for inflation. It's a budget. Of just over eight million now give them in a few more minutes 'cause it's time for feature presentation. In any context, paths of glory, remains the definitive World War, One set anti war, scorcher, much copied. But never equalled thanks largely to the bullet train story, cascade, and Kubrick's relentlessly ultra real disarmingly composed images Kubrick's film is in your face from the mesmerizing, mid battle no-man's-land tracking shots to Douglas's powder. Keg, muscular ity and to Timothy. Carey's slobbering idiocy as one of the chosen execution knees really World War ones. Trench, riven, wastelands may be the most inherently cinematic, the most visually, potent and nightmarish wartorn landscape ever created, as suggested by scores of unforgettable sequences from movies, like the big parade to very long engagement a command to take an impossible hill. A slaughter an officers corrupt outrage and military trial for a handful of randomly chosen scapegoat. Cowards to pay the price of the mission's failure. The story is both modest and universal. And the film carries. No fat Kirk Douglas as the ethical center who can't prevent the lunacy from winding tight around him is so pressurized by rage, and guilt. You can see his rivets popping, and it may be the most moving performance of his underrated career anti war films. Sometimes make the mistake of characterizing armed conflict as just a generalized madness and not the product of individuals. A morality ambition and greed, not Kubrick's in paths of glory, blame is placed squarely with the career militarists also the politics and the ethics applied to war, which we often suppose. Complimented each other paths of glory opens, as does Kubrick's previous film, the killing, which we have also discussed here on classic movie must with an off screen narrators voice, but the narrator does not reappear and the structure of pans of glory, a brilliant advance over that of the earlier picture achieving rhythm without repetition, through recurrent, images of men walking suggested perhaps by the paths of the title, the narrator, both then and now along with the black and white cinematography adds a documentary style gravitas to the events that are about to unfold. A company of soldiers marches past the camera at the opening of the film, their boots crunching in the gravel yard of the Chateau with a sound which comes back before the film ends within the Chateau the heels of the staff officers and orderlies ring, crisply and Holly for chef. Following the paths of the doomed men at their trial in one of the most brilliant sequences of the film, Colonel. Dax takes a long nightmarish walk down the trench where his men await the signal to attack while the smoke thickens and the roar of the barrage builds up. The attack itself is a grotesque shambling crouching stumbling walk to death here. We have the first major instance of Kubrick's subverting expectations we expect a battle for the ages. And instead, we are forced to view, a shambolic slaughter the men later marched disconsolately into the Chateau grounds. The court martial is staged as a series of precise geometrical drill field maneuvers with the heels on the holiday, again, ringing loud, and finally comes the interminable and nerve shattering, March to the execution with the footsteps of the condemned men, crunching away their last seconds of life. Here again, we have Kubrick setting our expectations only to dash them. We're told Dax was one of the best lawyers in France. And as we expect a courtroom drama, a taught battle to satisfy our desire after being subverted by the trench slaughter, but again, Kubrick, undercuts, those genre conventions at every turn the trial is over as quickly and his point, Leslie, as the fighting our last hope of redemption is DAX's confrontation with bru- lard after being told Moreau ordered the killing of his own men and yet again, we're met with futile disappointment with increasingly flippant speed all the men condemned to die or forced to suffer through interminable walks to meet their fate. None of these walks. Get anybody anywhere all the paths and in-depth, or frustration or simply getting back to where you started from at the end of the film, Colonel Dax calls. For respect giving them a few more minutes when he is reminded that they must be marching back to the front, but it is only a respect and soon, they'll all set off again on the treadmill walk to oblivion against the futility of the paths of glory, or am Bishen or Justice or duty the film offers, faint hope after the execution. Dax disgusted to find his men in a tavern tormenting captive German girl, who's being forced to sing for them, but they're catcalls and whistles, turn to tears, as the weeping girl tremendously sings, her song of a soldier sweetheart. They understand that the song is about them and briefly they feel as one with her her sweetheart and all dooms soldiers everywhere. The vision of the possibility of compassion is consoling, but scarcely redeeming, particularly in view of the following assurance, they will go back to the trenches led by the good. Colonel. Dax one of the most powerful scenes in this powerful film is the famous cockroach line, which cast a perplexingly ambiguous light on the whole action in the stable, prison the night before the execution corporal Paris, cries tomorrow, when I'm dead that cockroach will be closer to my wife than I'll be and private ferrall smashes, the cockroach with his fist saying, now, you're one up on the cockroach by a brutal act of destruction. And allusion of power is chief d- paths of glory is all about the greatest of all movie subjects power Maggio's general brew lard, and his even more era Ghent cohort general Moreau occupied impossibly, ornate palaces, as their command headquarters and soldiers are like the grains of salt. They spill on silk table clause, they think the anguish expressed by Colonel Dax isn't genuine that he seeks it promotion or. Or more power rather than reversal of their absurdly Melissa sent execution order. They are, of course, wrong Douglas is famous clenched jaw expressing enraged frustration was never put to better use. The condemned men played by Joe terkel Timothy Carey who also plays the mercilus murderer in Kubrick's previous Thrilla killing and Ralph meeker who'd already been Mike. Hammer in kiss me deadly are entirely powerless pawns. With varying degrees of dignity the lives of the three soldiers are snuffed out, as a briefly, and brutally as was the cockroaches life for the sake of general Miro's illusion of power Moreau himself professionally destroyed by general brew lard for the sake of his power, which presumably is another illusion by extension. The war itself is a similar act of destruction and support of a similar human illusion and perversely. We begin to see war as springing from the love of life. The love of one's own life. The love of life cannot be condemned. But here it is easily converted into envy or fear of the lives of others and expressed brutality coldness and cowardice. There is nothing as comfortable and obvious as antiwar warfare. In fact, maybe the worst possible expression of the love of life, paths of glory, evokes and builds on King Lear when Lear cries as flies to wanton boys, are we to the gods? While Kubrick seems to say as the cockroach to roll as for role to Moreau as Moreau to reload. Are we to the gods? In such a context Colonel Dax demands for Justice become another path to the grave, he rages, the cynical and corrupt general brew lard, who is untouched by his contempt. And the monstrous Moreau is. Crushed. But the three innocent med are already dead. And the troops are going back to war. The only feasible attitude seems to be the stoicism of the sergeant in command of the firing squad who counsels, the condemned corporal to die like a man because they'll all be joining him soon enough. Now it's time for our buzz from the back lot segment and this week, we've got tales of Kubrick's obsessive personality on set. But I the title is a quotation from Thomas. Gray's elegy written in a country. Churchyard the paths of glory lead. But to the grave, the film was shot for under one million dollars roughly about nine hundred thirty five thousand dollars, three hundred thousand dollars of which was for Kirk Douglas's salary Stanley Kubrick widely known as a perfectionist shot. Sixty eight takes of the doomed men's last meal because the details of the scene require that the actors appear to be engaged in the active eating a new roast duck had to be prepared for almost every take an early critical test of Stanley Kubrick's obsession with control on the set came during the making of this film, as recalled by Kirk. Douglas Kirk Douglas had quote, he made the veteran actor Adolf mall. Jew. Do the same scene seventeen times that was my best reading Montjeu announced. I think we can break for lunch now it was well past the usual lunchtime. But Kubrick said he wanted another take Montjeu went into an absolute fury in front of Douglas and the entire crew. He blasted off on what he claimed was Kubrick's dubious parentage, and made several other unprintable references to Kubrick's relative greenness in the art of directing actors Kubrick merely listened calmly. And after Montjeu had sputtered into uncomplimentary conclusion said quietly, all right. Let's try the scene one more time with utter desola- Montjeu went back to work, the prison scene where the men discuss their fates ran overtime on a Saturday Stanley Kubrick could not get what he wanted. And producer James Beheira came to the set to tell the director after take sixty three that over time was not allowed in Germany. Kubrick, resisted stopping in a rare show of temper, he finally got what he wanted by take seventy four. The epic battle sequence was filmed in a five thousand square yard, pasture rented from a German farmer after paying for the crops, that would have been raised that season the production team moved in with eight cranes and as many as sixty crew members working around the clock for three weeks to create trenches shell holes, and the rough muddy terrain of a world where one battleground Stanley, Kubrick's numerous tracking shots required that the trenches beat two feet wider than the original World War, One trenches, six feet as opposed to four feet to allow room for the roving camera Dali's, although the technical director objected to the widening, the duck boards, the camera rolled on were authentic six hundred German, policemen were hired as extras to play the French troops while six cameras tracked the attack recording their deaths. Each one of the extras many of whom had fathers who fought in World War, One assigned dying zones. The exact locations in the battle area where they were to fall dead, after being killed by machine-gun bullets shrapnel or suffering other horrendous, demise. Stanley Kubrick had a bit of a problem though, he had to keep reminding the policeman, who had three years, military training that they were supposed to act fearful on the battlefield only after Kubrick's repeated directions to the extras. Get the idea of acting scared. He also got them to stop performing foolish feats of physical courage, such as leaping in and out of foxholes that were lined with explosives. And we're capable of inflicting severe burns during filming Timothy Carey who plays private Farrell was disruptive. He also faced his own kidnapping for personal publicity, causing Stanley Kubrick and producer James behavious to fire him because of this. They were unable to show the three. Dem soldiers during the battle scene, and a double was used for the scene or the priest here's for roles. Confession for box office reasons, Stanley Kubrick intended to impose a happier ending after several draft scripts. He changed his mind and restored, the novel's original producer Harris, then had to inform studio executive max young, Steen and risk rejection of the change Harris managed by simply having the entire final script delivered without a memo of the change on the assumption that nobody in the studio would actually read it apparently he was right. Paths of glory was banned in France for its negative portrayal of the French army, Switzerland. Also banned the film until nineteen seventy eight accusing it of being subversive propaganda directed at France. Belgium acquired, that a forward, be added stating that the story represented an isolated case that did not reflect upon the gallantry of the French soldiers film, was also banned in Spain under. General Francisco Franco's dictatorship for its anti military message. It wasn't released until nineteen eighty six eleven years after Franco's death Winston Churchill said that the film was a highly accurate depiction of trench warfare. And the sometimes misguided workings of the military mind. That concludes our episode on paths of glory, I would love to hear what you think of this classic movie must feel free to tweet at movie must pot or Email classic movie must g mail dot com. He can listen to all our episodes or learn more about the show on our website classic movie, musts dot com. You can support the show and received cool perks on patriot like becoming a producer of the show and get your name read at the end of every episode just like Don Hoffman Lee, Eleanor BMX on redid. Thank you, all for your generous patronage check out all their support, tears and rewards over at patriotic dot com slash classic movie musts on the next episode or discussing. You can't take it with you from nineteen thirty eight remember episodes release every Friday on all podcast services. Thank you so much for listening. Tell the next episode keep up with your classics.

Stanley Kubrick Colonel Dax Moreau Kirk Douglas DAX Rochet Rosia Timothy Carey Miro French army Ralph meeker max Baril Paris Rojas producer Musk patriots Paris France Eleanor BMX
Explainer 193: What is France doing in Mali?

Monocle 24: The Foreign Desk

00:00 sec | 1 year ago

Explainer 193: What is France doing in Mali?

"On Monday evening a thirteen French soldiers were killed during an operation against Islamist militants since in Mali the troops were aboard a Tiger attack helicopter under Cougar transport helicopter which collided at low altitude. In fading light they were supporting ground. Troops engaging jihadis along the border molly hsieh's with Bukina Foucault Anisur among the dead was left tenant. Peer Bahceli Kelly. The son of French senator and former secretary of state for defence joe-marie Book Hill. Monday was therefore the French army's army's worst day on active service since nineteen eighty-three when fifty eight French paratroopers serving as peacekeepers in Lebanon. Were killed in the suicide bombing of of their barracks now as then the losses have propelled a relatively obscure deployment into the headlines and prompted an amount of agonized reflection on what the soldiers were doing there in the first place in the instance of France in Mali and in the wider region. The answer is quite a lot. The current deployment dates back to two thousand thirteen. When France launched what became known as operation. SERVAL in response to a request by the beleaguered interim government of molly much of molly north of the capital Bamako had fallen to various secessionist agitators rebellious Suarez and assorted Islamist insurgents including local franchises of al Qaeda and Islamic State mm-hmm operation serval was on balance a success. France led a will equipped multinational force including soldiers soldiers from Mali Chad and other African countries. The rebels were attempting to hold a vast area of desert which provided no cover and they did not possess the air force. One serval was wound down in July. Two thousand fourteen. The jihadis had been chased out of all Mali's major cities search. The French soldiers killed on Monday were serving with action. BARCON which succeeded survival in two thousand essendon fourteen and expanded on it around four and a half thousand. French soldiers are deployed as part of con- stationed not merely in Mali. But Kino Foucault Mauritania. Niger and Chad V.. Fourteen soldiers killed on Monday brings France's total losses in the region since two thousand thirteen eighteen to forty one the aim of Buchan is to function as an adaptable and fast moving counterterrorism force across a region still plagued by assorted Islamist militias. Operation by CON also has a greater mandate to pursue and engage terrorists than does the much bigger the United Nations mission in Mali. MINU SMA currently a mostly African force commanded by a Swedish tenant. General minnows more to has suffered suffered losses more than two hundred of its peacekeepers have been killed since two thousand fourteen the menace. BARCON and minutia are combating is real west. Africa has become a haven for Islamist terrorists. Who Flourish amid? It's porous borders erratic rule of law and inhospitable geography these same factors contribute regrettably to a relative lack of interest on the part of the world's media but the toll being exacted on the locals is atrocious. The last few weeks alone have seen at least fifty three molly and soldiers and a civilian. Leeann killed in an attack on a base in northern Mali and another twenty four million soldiers killed in an ambush in the Dow region near the border with Nigeria. The question which might reasonably be prompted especially when the costs of the operation have been so brutally reinforced is. Is it worth authored by CON. Like all counterinsurgency operations is difficult. Dangerous expensive infuriating and very easy for media idea to depict and public to regard as counter-productive the terrorists you vick from one place. Mealy Scotteri group and terrorize again somewhere else. The intervening military can end up looking and feeling like a giant stamping on puddles of Mercury. The leader of the nation doing the intervening in this case case French president. Emmanuel macron can swiftly earn a reputation for vainglorious fully paid for with someone else's money someone else's blood. There is little doubt that President Macron believes that. France should be perceived as one of the world's key military military players not merely guarantors of security in west Africa. French troops have also served in recent years in Iraq. Syria Afghanistan the Central African for can republic Libya and Somalia among others next week macron will visit the UK to meet fellow. NATO leaders having recently accused the alliance of brain brain death in a trump and brexit world and with the possibility of a trump and brexit and corbin world macron does not lack reason for imagining France as NATO's future default leader. But the big question always worth asking in West Africa and in similarly afflicted places is what happens if nothing is done molly ins at least do not require lock memories to know the answer Monocle twenty four. I'm entering mullahs.

Mali France molly hsieh President Macron Mali Chad French army Bukina Foucault Anisur Kino Foucault Mauritania west Africa Bahceli Kelly senator Africa MINU SMA NATO Iraq Niger Tiger
134 - Napoleon MF'n Bonaparte!

Timesuck with Dan Cummins

2:11:56 hr | 1 year ago

134 - Napoleon MF'n Bonaparte!

"Legendary French emperor Napoleon motherfucking Bonaparte s- that is the man we're talking about today. An important stork will figure who knew he would be an important store can figure he wants wrote histories a set of lies that people have agreed upon even when I'm gone I shall remain in people's minds the star of their rights. My name will be the war cry of their efforts the motto of their hopes. Dude, had no shortage of confidence which is part of why he became the namesake of the Napoleon complex a complex characterized by overly aggressive or domineering social behavior carries the implication that such behavior is compensatory for the subjects stature nailed that word that complex is also known as little man syndrome and short man's complex and little fella. Baby feet. Affliction? I I did make up that last one. But ironically, the pull in was not short more on that later short taller average, the do left. His Mark on the history books in a big way as a military. Commander Napoleon fought and won more battles than almost anyone else. In history. His campaigns are still studied in military academies today. He was a strategical genius. He also helped discover the Rosetta Stone, and he was directly responsible for doubling the size of the United States Bonaparte even came up with the system of odd addresses on one side of the street and even addresses on the other the Poland's life is actually so we'll documented it seems that only God has more books written about him than Napoleon. But with all this coverage. There's there's a great deal of divisiveness. Should he be remembered as good or evil Napoleon might best be remembered for his temperament he was arrogant, and cruel, but also incredibly charismatic and able to inspire both his troops and the imaginations of his followers he had a gift for leadership, and despite the vast amount of literature dedicated to Napoleon, the former emperors life is shrouded myth mostly because his many many enemies didn't want to give him credit for his victories. And also because Napoleon himself was shrewd propagandist who loved to minimize his failures. He was always mindful of his legacy. Understood the power of myth building. He would write and publish articles about himself that were sometimes the exact opposite of what had historically happened. He believes his destiny was to be a God king and fuck the haters dude would crush it today on social media. He knew how to fake it till you make it how to control the narrative had a control perception order to project the reality to you want to be known for for this, very French suck. We're going to look at the many reasons why Napoleon is still a household name across the globe over two hundred years after his death. The polling is sometimes called the father of modern Europe. He streamline legal codes across the continent. Shook up politics fight for religious tolerance reshape the world and his life is our folks today on this historical European edition of time suck. Happy Monday time suckers, you glorious meets acts. Thanks for ten in this week gathering of the cult of the curious. Do you have your robes on? Do you get your ceremonial swords in hand? Have you made your sacrifice to pray delusive FINA to be spared? Her tricks and the helped instead of harmed. Have you left out a bowl of good boy trades for bojangles praise him? Okay. Good said your background music to triple m yacht. Rock relax and get ready. I'm dan. Komen. Semesters sucker grandmasters suck. King of the suck. Head dip shit of the Mau mush mouth empire. I I didn't intentionally just mess up mush mouth, but it happen. And you are listening time suck. Thank you again to the patriots space lizards for allowing us to donate two thousand dollars this month to one of the national fallen firefighters foundation. Stair climbs Lincoln the episode description. Click donate, then donate to an individual type the name Cameron Owens. Make sure a time sucker in space. Get some credit for doing something. Good hail Nimrod. And I think I messed up with that link. I added it later to last. Episode description. It's it's in this one right now and met some people in Cleveland who are going to be helping him as well. So that was really cool. Thanks to everyone who rated and reviewed the suck this past week almost seven thousand reviews appreciate you taking the time to do that very very much. I know we're all busy. And sometimes it truly is hard to find the time. Or did you remember to leave a rating or write a review for what you like I'm bad about it myself? Most of us balancing a lot of stuff. A lot of pot on the stove to make live work in two thousand nineteen for many of us. But I I appreciate it. A lot of new listeners coming in from a lot of other places and based on a recent review, the the main theme of the negative ones that do come in. Which thankfully, aren't nearly as much as positive ones is that something you wish this podcast wasn't comedic. I don't normally like to address the negative stuff. But I want to address this one because it keeps coming up in the past few months. I get it. You want the info that we're providing? But you don't think I'm funny, which is totally right. Well, don't worry. This is pretty cool. I have come up with a way for you to enjoy the. Time you spend podcast and not have to listen to my attempts jokes. Here's you can do you can go fuck off. And you can listen to something else. You see you see how that works. There's plenty of other shelter you dummy like this podcast for as long as it lasts four Scher is going to be my attempt at spreading intellectual curiosity through absurd often dark humor because that's what I love to do. And so do a lot of other people a lot of people whether you believe that are not actually doing joy it and your shitty. Narcissistic review isn't going to change that you fucking delusional. Moron. Look at the other reviews, thousands of five star reviews people who clearly enjoy the humor, you do not. And yet, you still think ha-, maybe if I send this message he'll change his complete approach to life in general now get outta here. Captain killjoy fucking weirdo. Hail nimrod. I felt good felt good feel like a needed to get to my sister. Sweet. I like it. Forgot to include a go fund me. Like like, I said, oh, that's why I forgot not the other thing. I forget what I forgot forgot to include the go fund me last week Niepce description. It isn't there now for a father named Michael in the UK who found out he had stage four colon cancer weeks before the birth of his baby shit. You know, it's fucking terrible. And and we have that go fund me Lincoln in the episode description. Now, it's the team monk go on me link. So can't imagine what that's like, I know some time suckers, we're writing and asking about that. Because you're awesome people. And now that link is in there for sure and you can click right away to to donate and help out somebody, you don't know, which is one of the most beautiful things to happen with our community here. Speaking community had an amazing time in Cleveland this past week and it hilarious comedy clubs. Thanks to all of you for shot up with live suck the standup shows huge thanks to Kate and Logan from access apparel for coming down and live pressing one of the coolest shirts I've ever worn an own biased. But I I love this shirt. You can see the design on Instagram. Youtube. I'm wearing it right now. This live anthill kids suck is fucking incredible. And on Instagram is Dan combs county think or times podcasts. Thanks, everyone for being so cooling wife Lindsay Kwena suck popped in at the end of the livestock helps so merchant weekend. She'll be with begin in Nashville this weekend for the live, and he'll kids suck happening. They're also acts as a payroll will be back with us zanies Nashville part of the national comedy festival and Sunday blessed to be working with great people and have great fans. I don't say that enough the venues I worked tell me how great you people are every single week respectful kind. Good people who liked to laugh at dark shit the best meat sax on the planet. And I love the diversity lot of Christians coming out in Cleveland. And I mean, I know that you know, that I'm not a religious person. But but you listen anyway, and you like it, and you say nice things after the show because you're you're beautiful tolerant people. So thank you for being you heading to demo- in Iowa one night, only this Thursday, April eleven to meet more, you going to be a nice full show going to be in Kansas City, Missouri this weekend. Some shows already sold out going to see my buddy. Johnny dare April twelfth. Thirteenth onto the Texas theater in Dallas, April twenty-sixth, bringing my son Cuyler on the road for the first time bring him to Houston the twenty-seven for the secret group. Yeah. We just added that second show, man. Sweet tea barbecue. My son is going to be a fucking road trip off to San Francisco Boston Spokane Jacksonville, much more. After after Texas, more info, Dan, Cummins dot TV super-quick merch reminder. And then we're into the episode the Easter version of the whole banjo t- that gets shipped you to build giant plastic Easter egg because we like doing weird shit here. You know? So you can put a little air banjo into your Easter egg suck or Easter egg hunt this year that's in the store. You gotta order by April seventeenth to guarantee arrival before Easter Sunday, and if you ever have any problems with your orders, just do not hesitate to Email Kate at access apparel. I think it's on the shop five definitely in the episode description, and she'll take care of you. Okay. That's it. That's it. Now, let's get a Stoorikhel. Let's give French. Let's get ambitious as tackle the man the myth the legend that was Napoleon. Motherfucking bonaparte. All I thought I knew about Napoleon before this episode was he was Rochefort pretty angry about it dress like French French, he just like French brench now dress, I prince, and it was a French dictator Fahd lot partying wants to say that he travelled through time in a phone booth to eat ice cream and go to a mall in California. But that part of me should best be ignored. Did you know, by the way that it was just now a few weeks ago that Bill and Ted three is being written right now. It's supposed to be filmed this summer, it'll star original stars, Alex winters counter, Reeves and everything works out. It's gonna hit the theaters in the summer of two thousand twenty and Bill and Ted's. Excellent. Venture came out in one thousand nine hundred nine thirty years ago. Oh shit and canoe Reeves he's seventy one years old now it's fucking bananas to me because it's not true. He's fifty four time flies though. And they're not a sponsor, but they should be. But they probably won't be because there's a very good chance that movie is going to be absolutely terrible. Right. Let's be honest who dude that's gonna play at fifty four. Anyway, Napoleon stay focused comments Bonaparte, rightly or wrongly compared to other tyrants in that light is viewed as kind of a Hitler esque kind of sociopath guy who declared himself kind of God king more times than you would like to see in a humble will adjust. It man of the people type ruler on the Polian preferred to. He was he was following in the footsteps of Julius Caesar Alexander. The great other guys who are who are a little light on humility to other guys would make great sucks, by the way, regardless of whether you think he was evil or think he was a hero or some mixture of both which is usually where we find the truth his historical significance cannot be overstated. We're gonna follow the timeline of his life and chievements for the most part, but we will take some time to delve into his romances the French revolution. How his battle with Haiti completely altered the trajectory of our world. The point is is a crazy example of what one single person can do in a lifetime, really mind blowing. If you focus on that aspect in this story, one person born like anyone else one sold trapped in the same fragile mate. Sex skin is the rest of us who wasn't preordained for greatness. You know, the universe. Didn't tap him on the shoulder when he's like, you all you gotta do is coast, bro. You're just gonna fucking dominate. Nope. You know, and then he led a life. That would significantly changed the lives of millions and millions and millions of people. So fascinating. You know, the people who so many instances could have just given up could've stopped when things got really tough or just never started in the first place, but they didn't they just kept making shit happen. Just force of will right forces of nature disguises, everyday people Napoleon lived during a tumultuous time when Europeans were murdering each other. For liberty committing coups fighting with the church and in France, quite literally chopping a lot of people's heads off Viva LA revolution. And he somehow kept his own head on his shoulders despite fighting fighting fighting fighting and fighting some more now, let's hop into our time suck time line and see how lazy we will feel about what we've accomplished by comparison at the end of this episode fucking Napoleon. Wrap on those boots soldier marching down. A time sucker time line. Napoleon was born Napoleon day. One OPA always fifteen seventeen sixty nine in a yucca Corsica. It was a fourth of eleven children of Carlo Bonaparte and Leticia Roman Lino just three months before Napoleon's birth. Actually, you know what I see fourth of love. I think it was actually a eight kids. So I'm a there. There's a lot of conflicting sources so pas on the eleventh perhaps that it's gonna come up and a little bit and go with what I'm going to say here soon, just three months before Napoleon's birth to French had NFL Corsica with military force. And then his father, a member of a noble Italian family, which I think is interesting I need know that about Napoleon the actually has a talion heritage as opposed to French really when you get down to his father remain on good terms with the French when he took over Corsica and Napoleon would describe his entrance into the world this way. Into Zia, by way of my models of Jonah, almost suffocated whom I v was twelve four time on my Moses bawdy Bozen, I did not die. My mother's nipple was placed in my mouth and is sold opponent, haughtily and flies. My mobile's. New. No. You didn't talk that. I talked it makes you feel happy. If he did he's that I was born in Corsica or as one when Corsica was perishing thirty thousand Frenchmen spewed onto our shores, drowning the throne of liberty and waves of blood the cries of the dying the groans of the oppressed, and tears of despair surrounded my cradle from the hour of my birth. No short on drama, this guy, all Napoleon drama pants on polio's parents Carlo and Latisha considered minor aristocrats. They own multiple homes address like silly hat wearing assholes which was customary at the time. They look like uncomfortable powder dolls the prep time for leaving the house back then must have been in saying multiple clothing layers wigs make up a lot of time spent in the mirror practicing, looking snooty and above everything Napoleon's parents look boozy, but they actually weren't that wealthy with eight kids that Bonaparte families struggled to keep up appearances the struggle helped developed Polian. Ideals about meritocracy. Let the past be open to talent. He would say the pinnacle of his power. I do love that thought America Crecy very hard to actually implement. But theoretically, I think the best way to run a country or run a business, right? Let each employment position be filled by the most talented applicant measure Napoleon actually did that. We'll look at that later. He seemed to go on to create more of a who has kiss my ass the hottest autocracy, but I like to. It's Corsica was an impoverished island nation. Well, before the French took over it's located in the Mediterranean between Italy and France with a population between one hundred and two hundred or one hundred thousand one hundred twenty thousand inhabitants court Corsicans had seen their fair share of invading armies, excuse me over the centuries from Romans and Moore's to Genoese, the core skins had fought many battles. And they'd won a lot of them. But France developed into one of the world's most modern armies and the Koreans were easily brought under the French flag in seventeen sixty nine again the year of Napoleon's birth prior to the French takeover. Corsica had enjoyed a brief fourteen years of independence after seceding from the Republic of Genoa independent in an independent nation, primarily located in the northwestern in peninsula's coast prior to Genoese rule Corsica had belonged to the carcinogens Cartha Carthaginians. I think as I say that Romans Greeks and others during his long history of human civilization, according to the ancient fifth century. ABC Greek historian Herodotus the world's original historian, at least when we know about the Phoenicians originally settled the island sometime prior to the fifth century BC a lot of people been there for a long time. The French take over the many courses can rebels who identified Moore's Italian French fled to the mountains where we continue to fight on for years against French occupation. The police parents did not join that fight when the time came for them to fight or submit Napoleon's father decided he was best for similar assimilation with new French rulers. He put on you know, some of their sweet powdered wigs, but on some silver buckled shoes cheeses, drink their wine. And for this Napoleon, never forgave, his father, he considered. His father's decision betrayal to the Corsican people, which is pretty ironic. I think for one of the greatest French nationalists in history to be mad at his dad for bowing down to the French. But you know, in the polling, was course to conversed Frenchman second HILI HILI really loved France when he was running it Napoleon's dad was born. March twenty nine seventeen Forty-six and I watch go Corsica in seventeen sixty four Carlo married Latisha. And after getting a lot of degree from the university of PISA. He would go on to practice law and be elected to the Corsican assembly who'd be an assessor to the Royal court for a yacht show. Still the biggest city on the island with about seventy thousand people and Carlo dreamed big for his kids. He put a lot of ambition and children who was his dream that his his kids will be recognized as nobles in the French system. Many years later when Napoleon was crowning himself. The first emperor of France had seen a millennium. He did say to his brother Joseph Bonaparte, if only our father could see us now. And he said probably some French equivalent of like, yeah, we did a, bro. Fucking shit, bro. I'll Carlo into Polian relationship was rocky the future, emperor, adored and admired his his mother. Oh, mother Latisha Latisha was born in August twenty four seventeen fifty also. And I got yo she was simple frugal in her taste devout and thoughts you help binder children to the life. Of course, IKA as a mother she was without equal. He said he praised her strength and toughness and said all of his success is from her Napoleon also oddly described his mom as not being the most physically attractive woman saying, quote, she had the head of a man on the body a woman. That's great. I'm sure mom loved that. That's exactly what every mother and just relax prove it. Every woman in general wants to hear you can't go wrong with compliment like that. My mother is a wonderful woman has a big immediate head of a man owns the body of the woman. She has a how you say butter face. It is God a place the hairy lumpy head of lumberjack. All's the body of a bikini model. She gave birth to eight children was actually pregnant thirteen times back. When medicine was was basically chanting in washing your hands and slap it on some leeches. Maybe that's how she got that man head or maybe Napoleon meant the mind of a mand. Maybe some kind of chauvinistic compliment back when nobody challenge chauvinism like many families John history, especially before the advent of birth control. The goal of the Bonaparte was the kick out as many kids as humanly possible keeping up with the Joneses used to involve just shoot now babies until your vagina waved. White flag. Teaser was champion birther her child bearing hips just pumped out Joseph in seventeen sixty eight Napoleon in seventeen sixty-nine Lucian in seventeen seventy five Lisa in seventeen seventy seven Louis in seventeen seventy eight Pauline seventeen eighty Caroline seventeen eighty two. And and Bob in seventeen eighty four knows it was Giral in seventeen ninety four. Napoleon's been is I nine years in Corsica do normal things you'd expect a a possible budding psychopath with the God complex to do bullying. His teachers crushing enemies declaring himself the first head of his family. And and and and I think it's safe to say that neighborhood pets may have steered clear this dude, I don't resource to say he was cruel to animals, but it feels like he was a guy who probably kicked dog or twos. A kit. And on the web, you'll find a lot of things talking about how he wasn't terribly fond of cats, which is actually not true his nephew who become Napoleon. The third was afraid of cats and over time this feline fear became attributed to Napoleon the first bucket telephone game. That's what happens never to get the same name Napoleon. Excel does mad mass as a kid who's a mathematical talents that Matha those math skills later. Help military strategizing he was considered domineering. Not a great trait for for a young boy. As a student, but awesome. Awesome trade for somebody with emperor ambitions, some of his if his teachers recommended that he joined the military throughout his early schooling. And that's exactly what would happen. Bonaparte began his military training at the age of eight after reading about Napoleon's earlier. It sounds like he he was practicing bayonet moves at recess while other kids were sticking gum into their desks. Little Napoleon was probably formulating kickball strategies using sons whose art of war of the world is is pretty lucky didn't have bombs and planes or the earth might look very different right now. We'd we'd have he would have just taken all over. We'd have flat Napoleon IRS telling us about an ice wall. Circling Napoleonic era. During the winter of seventeen seventy eight will America's still celebrate new station status and figuring out how to run a country and celebrate fourth July with sparklers little nine year old Polian leaves Corsica to be educated at a private military academy in France known as Bryn it was his father Carlo who managed to get Napoleon scholarship. Napoleon could hardly speak French corps skins at the time. Still spoke Italian and the French kiss made fun of him, which I'm sure added fuel to his fire. Right. His desire to one day rise above them. All he certainly field his pride and course, can heritage and Bonaparte had said at that time to have dreamed of liberating his homeland. He's been five years in brianna before he was able to go back home. And of course, go for a visit. That's fucking crazy to me at nine at night. I think it would have broken me a dine. How does that has not not make you a little cold hearted? When nine years old. You're just you're taking away for your family. You don't get to see for five years. I mean, we're all familiar with like a mama's boys when I was nine. Was grandma's. Boy, the sun rose and set on sweet grandma Betty Saturday. Sleepovers grandma's house every Saturday Night Live ice cream. WWF wrestling with grandpa, Portland Napoleon had grandparents do it was shipped off nine years old when anybody that he knew for five years man for so much harsher in centuries past no way, I would send Cuyler in Monroe anywhere along with a few weeks. Maybe I'm just emotionally weak. But it makes me sad. A little bit seventy four the police. Fifteen years old. He's promoted to the Royal Military academy in Paris powdery this operation, God king. You know, really kind of gets put in motion. He he he begins his military academy life. There's a second lieutenants when he starts his apprenticeship at the best in the best r Tillery unit artillery. I think I add people say at an extra syllable in there. The best artillery instead of artillery unit in the French army the following year and Napoleon is just sixteen. There's some trouble at home. His father dies of cancer on February twenty four th seventeen. Five Napoleon misses a ton of schoolwork in the wake of his father's death and ended up graduating forty second out of fifty eight students. Not great. However, he he did still become the first course again to ever graduate from the French military academy pretty great, and he was considered an expert at citing a gun, and it deploying troops. Maybe even a little more. Great. So we handled it throughout Bonaparte early military career. He feared that coming from underprivileged roots, the not coming from a noble family or noble enough would prevent him from promotion into the higher ranks of the military that he desired at the time pretty much only French nobles made at the top of the military feeling uncertain about his military future. He briefly lost focus on military domination and for a little time dreamed of becoming a famous. Author instead, and he would actually go on to write a short story, of course, IKA and also a romance novella that would not be published until after his death called zone and Eugenie it currently has four to five stars and Amazon. If you want to check it out, I previewed it to me, it looks absolutely fucking terrible. But but maybe like another talking about revolution killing in the name of. Yes. If we're not for the French revolution. We would probably not know the name Napoleon Bonaparte his romance. Now it wasn't deck. The French revolution made his rise to power possible. The French monarchy it civil wars and political violence erupting everywhere. It was also fighting basically every other nation in Europe at the same time France was able to pull this is one of the world's most advanced nations at that time. It was quite wealthy and powerful and the time of king Louis the sixteenth and Queen Marie Antoinette. But it was also terribly unstable and heads would soon literally roll seventeen ninety two. At the age Twenty-three Napoleon took a leave of absence from the French military to travel back to Corsica while he was away. France continued to terrorize itself dirt visit imperative Peres to pull in witnessed French riders. Storm the castle make Louis the sixteenth whereas silly hat and defeat by August. The king had been to throne Napoleon understood the rapidly changing order of France in Europe. And he wanted to be part of it saw opportunities to start with yet its sites on a set on on rising to local power via some Corsican politics. Napoleon becomes a tenant, and of course, can national guard sales home rally, some pro French troops on the island. He was no longer course can nationalist after spending years of shouted in France. And he fights against the governor. Of course, IKA Felipo Tonio, plus qualley -oday Poway boyhood hero of his nother dude with way too long a fucking name. God now one Greg Smith in this story and lay kicked Napoleon's fucking ass. And. Polian. Supporters were exiled didn't go as well as he'd hoped start off your while. They're home was being sacked by the locals and defeat. Napoleon? His mother three brothers and three sisters took their belongings got on a boat sailed away Napoleon's first time being kicked out of the country for life. And it wouldn't be last nother. Interesting moment, this story to me Napoleon has just been kicked out of his beloved home-country for life. Right. The fight has caused his family his home. He's twenty three. I'm guessing his mom and siblings are a little unhappy. You know with what he's done just what the fuck Polian. You've ruined our tire lives. What can you play? Nice with the governor. We could be on our sweet little island watching a beautiful Corsican sunset, right? Drink some sort of sweet Corsican beverage, which for some reason in my mind is Capri sun. We could not be homeless. Now, you fucking moron. Lot of people would have folded in that situation or at least given up having insane ambition, right. I think a lot of people would have just been like shit. Okay. I gotta do. I gotta do now to make sure the family has enough. Survive a scale at back, but a lot of people don't have the steel will of Napoleon motherfucking Bonaparte. Yeah. Liking hate this guy being this episode. You cannot deny oh, man. Just the willpower. It's incredible to me on June tenth seventeen Ninety-three Napoleon with barely any money or possessions is life in shambles rejoins, the French army France was still fighting, but the king Queen and thousands of nobles political leaders and clergy had already lost their heads. Great opportunities. Yeah. We're we're to be taken right now. There's a lot of turmoil in France in seventeen ninety three the Jaakko bins were the most extreme of the various revolutionary groups at the time to their leader Maximilien Robespierre had become friends as temporary ruler. As head of what was called the directory among his first decisions was to suspend the French constitution and under his rule, you know chop a lot of heads off the battle between democracy and monarchy is full in full swing over two hundred fifty thousand people. Would lose their lives in the French revolution. And we'll look further into the into that in a bit for now. Let's let's continue with Napoleon rise to power back to. Yes. So seventeen Ninety-three Bonaparte now twenty four year old officer in the French army sent to southern France in December to take back from the allied troops. The French port of LAN harbor the allies consisted that time of troops from Britain Spain Naples, Sicily Sardinia, French loyalists, the French army consisted of around thirty two thousand troops the allies had about twenty two thousand soldiers, plus thirty seven British ships, thirty two Spanish ships and a few others. And while young Napoleon was not the highest ranking officer when he arrived historians noted. It was obvious. He was the superior officer in terms of military, mental might some stories go as far as saying the other officers into lawn were completely inept compared to Napoleon. He began to lay out a strategy to retake the fort his superiors were initially skeptical of the plan until another. For more qualified officer came in looked at it. And basically said oh shit. Oh shit. This good this good. We work with this. Oh, give me a rock hard war Boehner right now. And they went with the police method in the enforce allied. Soldiers were killed at least ten of the British navy ships were destroyed while an anchor to save the rest of their fleet the allies retreated the French lost about two thousand soldiers in a number of their own ships. But they won they won the battle. Napoleon himself was wounded in the leg by a bayonet. But but victory again was his his plan worked and a little fame started his bread is him being the the hero of the day in this this battle, and I find it interesting that he he clearly didn't just plan the battle and then sit back and watch the fighting. I mean that doesn't happen. If you get wounded in leg with a bayonet. An unnamed sergeant of the Royal Irish Regiment, fighting on behalf of the British was the person who stabbed him dude was a musket lengths away. And since the polling didn't die that day. I'm guessing that do did sources don't say, but it's pretty easy to infer that game. It can you imagine having that life experience guy running at you in the heat a battle. There's muskets firing by the thousands cannons firing continually from the surrounding land from the ships out in the harbor. You can literally smell the gun powder. The blood and the air smokey from all the firing, right? You can hear the desk screams of hundreds of men, and then some mother fucker is charging you with a bayonet runs it into your leg. No. I was not nice. It's way today. Right. Breaking off fucking Jackson the fate. Whatever the intensity, I've never had an experience in my life. That is five percent as intense as the experiences. He must have had just that one day. The battle of two harbor Mark police first victory on the battlefield despite not technically being in command guaranteed advancement up the ranks right now. He makes it to bridge. Dear general to long harbor will be his first encounter with England nappy as last English going to be real thorn in his side, the people of England get to know. And now start to start to hate Napoleon. His name would eventually be used as kind of the name of a bogeyman to scare British children. Their newspapers went up trolling him constantly after Napoleon later commissioned paintings that depicted him as a Roman God like, you know, war-leader the British cartoonists would would portray him as small and weak in that works. So well, the British were so good at their propaganda. That is why so many people think you short still today when in all actuality who was a little above average in height for his time part of the complication regarding his height and part of why some people also thought he was short is the French and British used at different measurement system at the time. And polling in the French system the way that they would measure things just a little bit differently. He would he'd be listed as five to. But that wasn't five to in today's version of five two inches. It would've been actually a lot closer to five five or five six which is short by today's standards. You know, I think Joe Paisley's actually like four eight or something like that. But it was it was average average for the time average for the time little above average, actually. Crazy their propaganda was affective over two hundred years ago that many still believe it today. I pay. Are you listen out there? I feel now I feel how what do you like what do you like five you're taller? He's five nine he signed yet. Okay. All right. They they're propaganda was so effective over two hundred years ago, and he's still believing today, which is why we research this shit. Right. Right. He this is why it's important to dig into stories. Find out if what you believe in Intel another's your whole life is actually true or not. And what we learn here time and time again time suck if you're like we love when you send in your corrections. But sometimes it's actually the resist many children of that. And sometimes there's a tone of like, how could you miss that? Because there is history is not there wasn't like some objective arbiter of truth out there being like, this is exactly what happened. It's people riding with different agendas. You know, think about the media today? How polarized how slanted is on both sides. And how how manipulative and I feel like, you know, it's always just been that way. So man gotta gotta dig a second hard to get a higher percentage of truth on October fifth seventeen ninety five to Poland got a chance to earn. A bit of trust from the French directory. The five member council now in charge of the chaotic French government. He was called into repel an attack by thousands of angry royalists people wanted the royalty back in charge and national guardsmen who were against the new revolutionary government because yeah, France was a fucking dumpster fire of a country in seventeen ninety five chaos and right after fighting the British in his Spanish Napoleon now ask to fight his own people. And he does with gusto. The man was not above brutality on the battlefield even when it came to his own people in this case, he was dealing with the protesting French mob. And he decided that the best way to kind of quell, the mob would be to fire cannons into the crowd, and he killed around one hundred people with a single round of cannon blasts. And that ended the uprising they were like, okay shit. Right. Didn't know you will take it that far. Also did not make him popular amongst common presence, as you can imagine imagine something today, you mentioned that the White House like all right enough fucking fire in the vital role of kittens against protestors. My started revolution. But the people protesting that moment like, okay. Okay. We're we're fine. We'll leave. The directory rewards him by making him now full general and commander of the army of the interior. Napoleon later recalled the they put the matter in my hands and then set to discuss whether or not I had the right to repel force by force. Do you intend to wait until the people give you permission to fire at them? You have appointed me, and I am compromised. It is only fair that I should do the business. My own way on that. I left the lawyers to drown themselves in their own. Flood of words and got the troops on the move. And I lived does motherfuckers up. He didn't say that last part. But that's to me where the quote was going. He wrote his brother with e sentiments he said the enemy attacked us. We killed a great many of them. Now. All his quiet. I could not be happier. He didn't he didn't feel bad. It only twenty six years old. The Polian had gotten project God king back on schedule three years after being kicked out of Corsica having his family home taken from him. He's now charge of the French army. Right. He didn't he didn't let that shit. Slow him down a bit before we delve further into Poland's rise to power, many, exciting tragic and bloody wars you'll will embark on with basically all of Europe and beyond. Let's take. Let's take a look at this do is love life gets pretty weird. And we love weird here before we take a look at his love life. Let's check in with today's. I sponsor. Hey, dude, suckers. Hey, hey, penis based meets X. I have a question for you. Do you like pants pants to fit will if you don't like pants? Don't don't don't skip. Do you like clothes you like any sort of close you like clothes that fit? Well, if you if you do you are in luck because today's time suck is brought to you by Endo. Keno Indochino is the world's most exciting made to measure menswear company. They make suits and shirts to your exact measurement for unparalleled fit and comfort made to measure suits, fit better than off the rack suits every time do want. Do you want to look like a like a sitcom assistant funeral home director who still lives with his mom like Ed Kemper or off the Rick suit mother put your stick? If you do not tell them handsome that sounds like you've been. Yeah. 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They just traveled to one more of a one way we're gonna find out the future emperor had to be a very patient fabir as did a lot of people back, then his romantic life considered. Mainly of two wives and third engagement. He also had some mistresses, but maybe not as many mistresses other successful and powerful Frenchman because it was reported that a lot of women found him a little off putting his second wife Archduchess, Mary Louise is believed to have said something to the effect that the mere sight of him would be the worst form of torture. So, you know, did wasn't for everybody, which I take it believe I get that his first wife Josephine well-known aristocrat in Paris. She was embodiment of of French party culture, like old timey Perez Hilton Josephine was six years older than the in already had two teenagers by the time they met so like older Perez Hilton. He was he was immediately smitten with her she didn't think he was completely repulsive. At least not initially. He was powerful and persistent, and she ended up marrying him Josephine was the widow of another revolutionary Alexander day bull Arnie who had been imprisoned and beheaded as so many people were at that time, by way of the guillotine. She was also arrested in prison. And almost beheaded escaped with her head when the French revolution's reign of terror ended Josephine met Napoleon in seventeen ninety five. She was already the mistress of a man who's arguably the most powerful Frenchman in England Paul Francois Jean Nicolas Borras, really hope that son of a bitch. Didn't insist on a being addressed by his full name. These these guys just call you Paul Newman. Oh, you Macomia Paul trough wall who so Nicolas Jacques, but us asshole. And then randomly this, dude. Encouraged Napoleon to marry his mistress super weird to me just you know, how does that? How does that happen? Hey, do they man. I can't talk to you. Good talk to you get real with you for a second. Look lowbrow tired of bang and his chick on the side. All right. Is there anyway, you could please marry her? So I can get her off of my dick. I don't know how that happens. So what sort of husband was Napoleon? I will. He certainly traveled a lot for work with those concrete such he also wrote a lot of interesting love letters as you'll see in a moment. Josephine would go on to create a number of public scandals for Napoleon excessive partying, a very public affair with another officer early in the marriage. He May June polling may have convinced her to shorten her name, which is kind of a weird thing. But he clearly didn't control her Josephine was was also a bit on the fiscally irresponsible side and by a bit. I mean instead of buying some expensive shoes she would buy one of the most lavish palaces in France. Furnished it with gold everything then buy expensive shoes. Josefina Napoleon were married in a civil ceremony on March nine seventeen ninety six two days later, Napoleon deploys war, and then he would write to her often. And it is some creepy ish should ever, partly because of the actual words. He writes could be the translation to be fair, partly because of his massively wavering, emotions and mainly because keep this in mind newly. Josephine is not answering any of these letters. Just so weird to be abused. Keep fighting over and over, and they don't get back to them like you ever you ever dated somebody. And then and then you end it, and then have them continue to text you. It's so sad. Every time it gets creepy. When like after months, you know, you look at the text thread. It's this long insane series of just unanswered messages, which doing sexy just thinking about you. We should meet up soon. Nothing. No reply nothing for a week. Hey, saw you were just in Kansas City. I was I was out of the week before L O L anyways, just thinking to you hope you're well nothing for like a month. Hey, you wanna see queens age? I know you love him. I have an extra ticket hit me up. Nothing like two months and just a series of drunk texts late one night so fucked up he'd never get back to me, you could at least say high fifty minutes later. I thought you read my message text me back asshole, thirty minutes there. Fuck you, you're so dead to me in two days that are hey sorry about the other night to which you know, I get LL hope you well. And just not for months. This thing happened. No part of me understands. Why people do that if they're not writing if you're listening if they're not writing new back from move on move on with your life? It's over Oregon's if that doesn't work for you take some solace in the fact that Napoleon was just as two nations and creepy as you are. Remember that romance novel Napoleon wrote it was a fictional account of his life with a with a previous lover, a former fiance, disarray, Terry apparently, read something like the following snippets of his correspondence with Josephine in one letter Bonny Bonaparte rights, I hope before too long to cross you in my arms and cover you with a million keys in as Zo beneath the acquit. Beneath the equator million cases. I think he's thinking about going down. I think it's what he wants to do. Right. In a different letter as he's begging her to join him in Milan. He says Shelby alone off alway come. Oh, come on you. You are going to be here. Not me in my own. It's own my breasts on my mouth, take wing and com. Coma. Kiss on your heart and one mush down Loa much Loa. He for sure wants Downer. Can't wait for that cuddling much lower down. Maybe he wants to toss her salad. I don't know. Maybe he maybe he's looking for that back pussy. Yikes. By the way, rim jobs at the end of the eighteenth century. No, thank you that does not appeal to me on any level. I mean they had bass, but they didn't have touch. Our didn't have antibacterial soap. And they didn't have Brazilian waxes. Another letter reads, how happy I will be faculty. This you at yawn dressy, the little firm why breasts the adorable face hand tied up when the scoff and then his letters start to start to hit it a little bit of clinginess, you'll tia's raw meal, rezone and inflame. I've lied believe me does nosy my power to have a single thoughts, which is not as the or a wish I could not reveal to the historian seem to agree that these explicit letters. But he she continually said standings giving these like a few snippets from so many letters, and they think turn Josephine off just too much. Right. And then the drunken text by horse continued. You know, I I write you my beloved one very often, you write very little you are wicked and naughty naughty as much as you. I'll fickle. He's faithful to deceive us phone attend to love up the pole in continues to ride right? She continues to not right back without Josephine without the insurance of her love, what is left upon the earth. He says, but like all good romantic correspondence involving a dictator things. Do get a bit more aggressive when it gets pissed off, you know, at do adorable Josephine one of these nights, you'll dole will open with a great noise is a jealous person. You will find me on your arms? Right. Sounds a little like a threat. He's not happy continues the rights. I don't love you not at all on the contrast. I detest you. He writes, your naughty guk. Foolish slut. Was this whole time turned out? He just been sent him to the wrong address. Right. Finally that what makes it to the right ones or like like some other ladies just getting these messages over who is creepy you ever done that you ever tech somebody several times start to get really pissed out the pissed off. And then find out you just had the number like, they changed numbers or you wrote to number of down wrong, or whatever and yours been texting the wrong person. I have also done that super embarrassing, right? Really? Just fucking ghosted me. Now fucked up dude, this is not the this is not the right number. I don't know who you are pleased. Texting me. Awkward, but that's not what's happening here shoes. Did not feel like right in your husband. He starting to creep Arauz. No response is after so many attempts. He writes, his brother after his about his failing marriage. He writes the veil is torn it is sad. One in the same heart is torn by such conflicting feelings for one person. I need to be alone. I'm tired of grandeur all my feelings of dried up. I no longer care about my glory at twenty nine I've exhausted everything it's really hitting him hard, this this last letter causes a major embarrassing issue for Napoleon, the British intercept it and publish it in all of their newspapers. How embarrassing like this? This is basically the the eighteenth century equivalent of like a like a dick pic and leaked out to the press. Right. Like a little dick pic his enemy and entire nation. Having a good laugh at his expense. He's ridiculed pretty hard by the by the British people British humor at one time literally a weapon of war. Napoleon's marriage will continue for several more years despite concentrating on her part and her not. Giving him. A son was interesting. You know, you can be one of the most powerful men in the world and still have a wife who despises you in January eighteen ten after fourteen years of marriage to polling wants out, but a divorce will invoke the ire of the church. So instead, he has their marriage annulled on a strange religious technicality. Apparently somebody was wearing the wrong funny hat at the wedding. Which is the after a lot of exploration. They found out that that was a loophole. They could void the marriage. Napoleon would go on to marry a second time in March of eighteen ten this time, he married Maria little Viga Lee, Leopoldine Franziska, Theresa Josefa. Lucia not kidding. All of those names words in one name, aka Marie Louise duchess of Parma daughter of the Archduke Francis of Austria shape. Shifting multidimensional lizard, luminosity member of the Austrian hops bird world dynasty at David Ike has been trying to tell us. And again got the names her father Francis. Second actually was the very last a Holy Roman Emperor. That's why conspiracy theorists get all into the Habsburgs. And all is and a nice enough guy to be ended up being known by one name. A fun fact about this guy Napoleon will end up beating France's ass at the battle of Australis in eighteen o six and the lost will cost this guy. His holy Roman. Empire Napoleon will end it. And then later Napoleon takes his daughter ain't that a bitch. I can only imagine how much is due to hate Napoleon. He had to have known about the old love letters, write in a much more proper time here that this dude the man who beat him in battle taking his his his his crown was now going to cover his his daughters vagina in a million kisses but enough about Napoleon's love life back to what Napoleon does best firing cannons at people. Now, we return into police buddy military career. So as I stated earlier Bonaparte left for Italy two days ago after he was married to Josephine during Napoleon's voracious letter writing campaign to his not at all interested. First wife, he was also in charge of fighting his neighbors in the name of France in this case, Italy and Austria, he was appointed the commander in chief of the French army of Italy in March of seventeen ninety six twenty seven at the time is his military military, reputation. It's growing much much of his infamy his growing. Infamy comes from a battlefield metality the weapons and tactics of Napoleon's time quickly changing an independent passionately embraced new more destructive methods of warfare his willingness to cross more lines have been drawn for centuries gave them a huge advantage in war. The army Napoleon was put in charge of and this Italian Austria military conquest campaign in seventeen ninety six with a poorly fed ill-equipped lot far shy of the forty-three thousand men. He'd been initially promised. However, Napoleon a man who believed. You know, he had success is part of his destiny he knew he could win despite a shortage of man despite them being hungry. If he brought their morale soldiers he said, you are naked badly fed. Rich provinces in towns will be in your power and in them, you will find honor glory wealth. Napoleon was one of those guys who was very pro rape and pillage, right? We're gonna kick some ass. You fucking do what you wanna do to these villagers? You know, take take your spoils of war despite a lack of resources to pull and managed victory after victory against several much larger Austrian and allied armies without the normal provisions his troops were lighter and moved through the Italian terrain quickly, although Hungary, and very cranky complicated campaign at one point the French directory proposed Nevada Napoleon's army place, another general in charge of a second contingent Napoleon, though sent two letters back to Paris, and which she didn't formally threaten to resign. But made it clear he didn't want any interference. It's he's the commander, and he doesn't want us forces divided and. You know, he might just abandon this whole thing. If you try to make him do that the directory backstage on Napoleon continues, his siege of Italy throughout the campaign Bonaparte would plant trees of liberty to symbolize his revolution. Taking root in Europe. Dude. Understood the power of symbolism, right? He knew how to how to sell a dream. He knew that his -portant people to see things. See reminders of success in the end. He would get his first victory as a commander. He was basically undefeated in this campaign. Bonaparte's army would take over one hundred and fifty thousand enemy prisoners they'd conquer most of northern Italy. Napoleon got the Austrians to submit to Francis negotiations negotiations which gave a part and France control over thousands of miles of territory. Stretching from Belgium to Greece Europe was now at peace for a few moments. Kind of piece was formalized with the treaty of camp formula and late seventeen ninety seven. And then the the countdown to more fighting began through victory Bonaparte became the defacto ruler of Italy, it only twenty eight years old and for much of seventeen ninety seven. He would negotiate as a sovereign with the Austrian emperor. Probably didn't hate that. Right. He returned to Paris a goddamn legend who still having trouble with his lady, the French revolution. With turning France upside down on the polling was finding Italy and upon returning to pull in found himself agreeing with French nationalists who cried. Liberty equality and fraternity part of the reason to point is remembered more than say other God king wannabe start history is his ability to write direct and star in propaganda pieces during his first campaign Italy, he created newspapers in which he would write articles about himself would say things like Bonaparte flies like lightning strikes like thunderbolt. How would that be? If you like if you were like an artist or like in this sense military, but like what if you were a musician comic or whatever. And you also were in charge of like, you know, what videos get promoted on YouTube, what programming comedy central, and, you know, you just put out like, a whatever kind of comedy special, and just thunderous applause. No matter what you play it seven times a day. You're always the featured video on YouTube. And it's always like e you also control have a botch. Just put nothing, but amazing comments, even if you were truly terrible. If you just did that long enough. There's no way you wouldn't become just incredibly famous. Right. He did that like a military equipment of that. He'd commissioned paintings of himself as an almost mythical character. He would skew report from the battlefield to show his valor. While diminishing all the other raping and pillaging kinda keep that quiet on the police control over his own image and myth, was brilliant. He made sure he was depicted as God's chosen hero the. Savior and protector of France, he would dictate every detail of paintings. He'd commissioned for his victories, young Hillary. Hello history really is often written by the winners. And Poland knew that better than most. He was a brilliant. Battlefield tactician. And an even better at hype our thinking for like a modern kind of sports celebrity an analogy. It's like he was like LeBron James LeBron had Kim Kardashians. Instagram abilities. She has over one hundred twenty million followers, by the way, Instagram or hundred twenty million as Nostradamus predicted when he prophesized about the apocalypse. Lebron someone who in my opinion has more tangible talent one finger than she has an entire body roughly, forty eight million followers, right? If he had herb he'd have he'd have somehow he'd had some have more followers than there are people on earth to understand Poland's transition from kick ass, military leader and propaganda to ever of most of Europe, we need a bit more context about this French revolution and the reign of terror so much going on this little period of history. The. French revolution is the backdrop right for Bonaparte rise to power during much of the revolution. The leader of the French directory is a man named Maximilien Robespierre. Maximilien Robespierre had argued that he needed to suspend liberty to save liberty and Napoleon. Agreed. And as expected people didn't really like having their liberty suspended people revolted Robespierres government fell in the end. They cut his head off with the very guillotine that he had terrorized France with very much a live by the guillotine die by the guillotine story. There's a lot to the French revolution. I'm not gonna go super even a detail because that deserves its own suck. And even now it'd be hard to get all the necessary. Influent just no at basically was several complicated. Coups one after another the replay. So government is constantly being replaced. The revolution would run from may fifth seventeen thousand nine to November nine seventy ninety nine and it was a lot of fun. It was basically like a big mardi gras celebration. With a lot of wine. Plenty of beads, so many boobs just flat out in the streets is glorious hill who Safina no it was terrible, replace boobs and beads with so much blood. The fighting started partly because a lot of French people didn't. Like the tyranny of the of the monarchy. So they went on to kill each other in the streets for a while only to put Napoleon power who by the end, essentially became, you know, another king and formed a different type of monarchy. It was his God. Dang. This is exactly why we started this in the first place. Now, we're back here. Again, the French revolution began with the with the way, the French government or began over the way, the French government collected taxes, essentially, if you're rich or member of the clergy, you didn't pay him. If you're anyone else you paid the fuck out of him at the end of the eighteenth century, France found himself deeply in debt Mosey from financing the American revolution. Which thank you. By the way, I know Americans some of them love to talk about saving Francis ass and World War Two tend to forget that the France saved our asses in American revolution. So appreciate it. Sorry, if I fuck up seventy percent of your super stupid names, loses sixteenth was spending half of his wealth on the debt from the war, and it bankrupted him and Francis this lack of funds all. Also coincided with multiple seasons of bad weather that hurt food production which left France broke and hungry which is a bad combo from morale. Good recipe for a revolution. I feel like people, you know, the poor historically will put up with a lot of shit from the rulers. They'll take beatings unfair taxes. Sometimes they'll put up with getting their land taken from them. They'll even tolerate various forms of indentured servitude. But starvation now that seems to be the straw that breaks the poor people's back right because hangar hangar is real mass. Hanger usually equals an uprising. With the all the unrest in France, king Louis. The the sixteenth assembles. What is known as the estates general the states general in June of seventeen thousand nine consisting of three estates or classes two convenient for Cy the nobles in one the clergy to another all the working class marks in the third. They all gathered figure out how to reform the government. Get France out of financial trouble and make everybody happy. They're all supposed to work together, rich and poor like to figure everything out. And that's a nice thought. But it didn't happen. The king decided to lock the not cool kids the poor and the landless out of the meeting and make their presence, basically symbolic and not really listen to their frustrations. You know, about bearing the brunt of the tax burden will despite being shut out the communists continued to meet up. They mean, some tennis tennis courts than some other locations. They refused to leave until the king takes them. Seriously. They start drafting up legislation for new government. They form what becomes known as the national guard. They essentially organize themselves into militia wearing the colors that now make up the French flag red white and blue just like ours less than a month later July fourteenth. Now known in France's Bastille Day, the commoners decided to attempt to overthrow the French monarchy. They storm I a hotel in Paris looking for guns, and then the Bastille in Paris a fortress being used at the time as a a political prison now, many people are actually be staying there at the time. But they they rescue seven prisoners they load up on guns and a response. This rebellion August fourth seventeen thousand nine the French National Assembly is like, hey, guys. Wait a minute. Hold on hold on hub. Did you say you wanted less taxes? Oh, we just we didn't hear you correctly. We get an so let's put an end to the silly rioting. Okay. Let's put an end to the weapon taking the government listens. To some of their demands abolish his huge pillars of French lifelike tithing, noble privilege, unequal tax station. Feudal rights massive shift. The culminates August twenty six with the national assemblies declaration of the rights of man and citizen. This is the king's attempt to give every French citizen. Liberty prosperity and security will also remain in king. So Lewis sixteen still king, but he has to concede a lot of king power then in October seventeen eighty nine a rumor was spread that the Queen marie-antoinette is holding grain in the palace of side. And king Louis is reported to have said, oh, fuck me. I beside now this Tamminen, I don't like it let it be known that I do not care for any of this somebody screen that after blasting trumpets or some shit. Now, you didn't say down he wasn't having. And then you really wasn't happy. On a massive group of armed peasant women known as the women's March stormed the palace and forced the king and Queen to move twelve miles away to Paris Hailu Safina that gotta take away some of their more Royal powers, but he's still king. They're still still McQueen things are shifting away. From a regular monarchy though to a constitutional monarchy. And then France continues to argue and riot and things start to slide further into a true civil war during a gathering of one group of revolutionary because there's numerous revolutionaries thinking that I know best we could do things this way one of known as the bins. French National Assembly troops kill fifty Jackson's and that sends France in general into an uproar the national assembly. They were also revolutionaries. They were grouped to comprise that third estate. The Commodores who met a tennis court the people who stormed the best deal. And now they're killing other revolutionaries. Not good things. Start to get really complicated on August twenty seven seventeen ninety one the declaration of pill knits occurred, basically the other kings and sovereigns around Europe. Not excited to see. What was happening in France? France had been annoying for a long time to them Kanzi starting battles and shit. But they didn't they didn't want people to get the wrong idea in their country. If they see Francis people overthrow their monarchy. They're like shit. We could be next right? They liked being kings and queens. They got nervous about a revolution. So they decide to to meet and make an support, you know, the French monarchy, then the French National Assembly who still had overthrown Louis the sixteen they work with him to invade Austria to plunder ostriches wealth and steal their grain. And that pays off some of the king's trying to help Louis, you know, like like the king of Austria who by the way was Francis. The second father of Napoleon's feature. Second wife guy who got fucked over by France. And so many ways this attack and Austria leads pressure to align with Austria to fight the French king Louis offer his support to Prussia. Then he was like, hey, man that shit with Austria that was the poor people's idea that wasn't mine. I look I'm just trying to survive. I'm having to make a lot of deals. Things are crazy over here helped me out, bro. Let's squash. These peasant. Fucks and keep them from rating anyone else's treasuring green. So sorry will doing that. Makes Louis look like a traitor to the revolution. Because he was he didn't like the revolution. In the national assembly. Takes away all the power for the monarchy and calls for another constitution this time. The people are able to vote in new elections. Well, at least amend people anyway, sorry, lady suckers. Also, the assembly has a trial fluid. The sixteenth and they elect to remove his head from his neck, by way of guillotine, his famous Queen marie-antoinette who famously did not say, let them eat cake, and so many other nobles also get put to death. This way, the execution of the Royal family in seventeen ninety three would spark a period of more chaos in the French revolution known as the reign of terror hard to pinpoint exactly the day the rate of terror began, but historians sites September fifth seventeen ninety three. This was the day that a French asshole ended the French assembly by saying, quote, let's make terror the order of the day. Right. This is when the store becomes a real life fucking purge movie. These people after executing the Royal family think this feels good I like this. Why stop here? Let's kill so many of these mother fuckers. There are bloodthirsty. They were drunk with power tear did become the order of the day and invest a sixteen thousand. And heads would roll by way of guillotine, roughly sixteen thousand the passage by the French national convention of the law of suspects was it was a major part of this. Coming chaos the law of suspects now made it cool to kill enemies of the state, whether they were declared rebels or just suspected rebels under this law. You weren't innocent until proven guilty you're guilty until proven innocent, which I gotta say reminds me of the growing witch-hunt culture of today. Right. When one person can make an online accusation about somebody else. No trial, no scrutiny. No cross examination. Suddenly that person's just guilty, at least in the court of public opinion. I mean, I guess we're we're literally cut in people's fucking heads off based on unfounded accusations. Not yet. But gotta be careful with that shit when his Cussing the the new law of suspects in the subsequent executions Maximilien Robespierre said it was nothing more than speedy severe and inflexible Justice. That's one way to justify the purge. I wonder if he thought that when his head would later role two factions of thought emerged during this. Reign of terror. There was one group who didn't want to stop the killings, but instead sought moderation it we should have a little bit better trials, maybe slow down just a touch, and then there was another group who like more death. More death more heads make it happen in a fun twist of history. The leaders of both groups end up getting their heads off to make things even more interesting. The national assembly turns on Maximilien Robespierre, and he in twenty one of his followers are guillotine chaos. Chaos. One day you're leading the rebellion. The next day you're looking back to your body as your head hits the fucking ground after being brutally and quickly cut off. And it is thought by the way that you can retain consciousness for at least four seconds after having your head lopped off. Thanks to some weird decapitation research. Some Dutch scientists did was mice in two thousand eleven those four seconds. They have to be not only the last thing is your life. But the longest right how surreal just oh shit. That's my body has my whole body up there. And I'm down. I'm tired. So in summary during the revolution political this dissidence killed plus the king and the Royal family killed tunnel. Robles a ton of nobles killed the leaders of factions that were down with the killing also killed the guy who's in charge. The most killing also killed. Well, played France, very thorough revolution. After mopping up the rivers of blood from the reign of terror. The revolution would be pulled back a bit. The rain ended in July seventeen ninety four would claim between eighteen thousand forty thousand lives. And then another new constitution is drafted. And then this time, it's an ends up being super nice to rich people. Isn't that funny? How that works all this death and chaos to basically get kind of back to where they started rich people never underestimate how good they are staying rich. It's very impressive in this new constitution. Also last number coups occur. The French continue the revolution. That's what the French revolution. So famous it was just a series of so much fucking. It's like it was like a thousand revolutions packed into one revolution. And then finally the poll Poland makes his move and is pronounced first consul of France. Which basically meant he was dictator ish. He's like dictator light. And then yet another new constitution is needed. A great time to be a person, by the way, who gets paid to write copies of constitutions, man. A lot of job security a lot of work. So like I said they began the revolution with the dictator king. And then when it's all over. Have another Decatur empower military dictator. Okay. Let's jump back a bit. Now. Let's jump into some military conquest. Let's jump erections job ahead. Let's not jump back. Let's go ahead. Seventeen ninety eight fallen opponent in Egypt right after a word from today's final sponsor FaceTime. So is brought to you by the great courses. Great courses. Plus, I'm always trying to become a smarter version of myself. And that's why I love watching and listening to the great courses. Plus there's so much information available in the streaming service from some of the best college professors across so many areas of interest like ancient Mesopotamia astrophysics forensic history. Just to name a few. I've learned so much from the great courses. Plus lately, I've been enjoying the black death. The world's most devastating plague lecture Twenty-three covers later plague outbreaks that occur all the way up until sixteen sixty six and then we will soon see some smaller outbreaks occurred in the time in Napoleon would affect some of his battles. So just interesting to get more context that a that helps understand, you know, even other sucks have nothing to do with the plague. I know you're gonna love the great courses, plus. So I've worked on a special limited time offer for time. Sluggish right now, you can get a free trial plus locking their low lowest price of ten dollars per month. When you sign up for a three month plan. That's fifty percent off the regular price. It's available for a limited time at a special URL, get your free trial. Plus fifty percents off your monthly plan. Now, the great courses plus dot com slash time. Suck that's the great courses plus dot com slash time. Suck Lincoln the episode description sponsor link button in the time suck app and on the website. Now, let's get to Egypt always hungry for advancement glory and fucking with the British Napoleon sets his sights on Egypt's his mission is to block British trade routes to India via the Nile and to raise funds by plundering, the mythical lands and all their treasures the land of the pharaohs Bonaparte was also interested in the mysteries and secrets of Egypt. He saw it as a way to strengthen his legend. Right. His God king destiny. He said Europe is a mole hill. There were never great empires or revolutions except in orienting right in this guy is fast. Thousand of the great, Hugh, ags, ended a great, you know, kicked Asti to pew to the same thing and Geno seventeen nine eight Napoleon on his way to Egypt decides to sack little island nation of Malta give it to France. Most of that stage takes his day pretty small place without much loss of life on either side, he he takes over the capital city of love let I gotta make Malta someday. By the way, tiny island nation, the Mediterranean, beautiful less than half a million people total been inhabited since roughly six thousand BC's so much history. One of the smallest countries in the world. Also, one of the most densely populated less than one hundred twenty five square miles in size smallest island nation, by the way for random trivia, even I know we're getting a little off track for second. The island of na na do the Republic of no ru in the South Pacific, just over eight square miles less than twelve thousand people it's its own country. Morango tribute trivia on top of trivia, this little tiny island has the highest rated rate of obesity in the world ninety seven percent. Of the dudes. They're ninety three percent of the women are medically obese. So if your average sized, and you're frustrated you're not just getting checked out as much as you'd like to on the beach. Get your ass up. Get you has to do, and you could you could be Trump's model back to France after looking Molteni afternoon Napoleon continues to Egypt much like its hero Alexander. The great Bonaparte wanted to follow in his footsteps, right? What better way to do that than to conquer Alexandria? The city named after him with between thirty five thousand thirty eight thousand troops known as the army of the orient and an entire French fleet. Napoleon does just that he rise in Alexandria to find that. It's not actually Egyptians who are running Egypt right now. But Muslim warriors known as the Mameluke the Mamelukes Alexandra was taken with little resistance. The Mamelukes have a unique story, and we'll continue to play a role in his injection campaign after their defeat quick note of the Mamelukes in the thirteenth century, the Egyptian Sultan purchase twelve thousand slave boys from the caucus mountains near Armenia and raise them to be an elite. Fighting force and train them. So well, they overthrew him ah, dammit, then they ruled Cairo for the next several hundred years so note to self do not purchase I'm gonna cross that off my to do list right now, do not purchase twelve thousand Armenians lay boys. Do not raise them to be an elite fighting force. Glad glad I found that info. The mama. Loops were fierce warriors who were fearless fighters. They believed that they would be instantly transported to paradise. If they were killed in battle. But Napoleon still looked after Zander Napoleon led his soldiers to Cairo and learned a little more than he wanted to about. How terrible it was to move troops to the Egyptian desert they marched through landing at hit high temperatures of one hundred and thirty degrees Fahrenheit, today's modern travelers are told drink a quarter water every hour where light clothes and hats will the French had the hats, but we're not dressed lightened didn't have enough water. They were they were dressed in thick wool uniforms, and they didn't even carry water bones. Napoleon was a brilliant tactician commander. But he did not really care about the what harsh. Tips physically his men had to endure during the fighting his poor soldiers spent three weeks in the sand and hate with limited rations on top of not nearly enough water. There are also harassed and attacked by bedouins, those Arabic nomads the soldiers suffered from starvation and dehydration is the hot sands burner feet irritated their throats. Some soldiers broke down when insane just tore off their uniforms. Just fucking ran out died. The desert some soldiers also dunk out the rations to thirsty to eat their dry grain cakes dehydrated and died soldiers began to see Mirages that have visions of bodies of water in the near distance only to find that. There was none. There were several suicides. When they finally did come across a well. It'd be drained in minutes, and then by the end of the journey dozens of soldiers would die of thirst just laying around these dry wells when to Poland's army finally makes it to the Nile to soldiers break ranks, they just dive into the water, and they drank and float for hours, which ends up killing so many more of them, right? They find watermelon patches and gorge themselves, and then a lot of them come down with this. Centurion die quite literally very shitty. Three weeks. Good old MacGill's pup, just it off French buttonholes blown off left and right pooping into the now the demoralized, and that's a callback to a alive from old episode for new listeners the demoralized and barely alive. French troops arrived near the pyramids Giza. Not far from Cairo July thirteen seventy nine eight met by fifteen thousand mama, Luke warriors, and despite being sick, and weary. They kicked their fucking asses. In fact, like a cat playing with the mouse Napoleon toyed with the enemy army to get a sense of what might be awaiting him in Cairo. On July twenty first seventeen ninety eight Bonaparte led his thirty five to fifty thousand French troops and four hundred ships to Egypt for the battle of the pyramids. The in love to give his battles exciting names. Bonaparte show. Army is said to have went up against forty thousand gypsies, at least as Napoleon's count historian seem to think it was less than half of that the British think it was six guys in a camel a propaganda makes history heart sometimes three PM on July twenty six thousand Marmaduke charge or looks charged. The French army I keep wanting to Marmaduke it's not that and things will really really well for them almost every single one of these fighters instantly transported to paradise just like they wanted. Yup. Yeah. These guys are no match for Napoleon superior tactics. He organizes troops into simple formations known as the square puts all his troops into five squares. They slaughter the marvel looks the square which is more of a rectangle actually featured rifleman on the outside Calvary on the inside artillery, artillery, whatever on the outside corners virtually entire army of the face. The French that day were mowed down. Just a few hours five to six thousand men killed in a few hours. The French lost a total of thirty soldiers with several hundred others wounded, I mean, this was a landslide victory. The French soldiers who were promised riches stripped the bodies of the fallen foes for jewels. Gold in their fancy weapons after the battle dejection leader Murad bay burned his remaining fleet before fleeing from Napoleon the smoke created by the burning ships caused even more panic in Cairo and bedouin mercenaries who were hired by the marmer looks to protect the citizens of Cairo began to steal and kill the people. They were hired to protect Koslow anarchy over there. July twenty fifth seventeen ninety eight the French March into Cairo a city now. Essentially, the belongs tuned. Hold him. He was blown away by the architecture of Cairo. It was under his logic rule at the time. And instead of trying to convert the city to Christianity, according to folklore Napoleon tried to tell them that he wasn't Christian that he and his men actually wanted to become Muslim they didn't. He just wanted them to think they did. So the easier to rule them couple problems with this. So couple problems with convincing the local Muslim population is Islam Islamic law forbids alcohol and requires men to be circumcised and Poland's troops. They weren't quite ready to cut some skin off their Dicks and stopped drinking to make things easier for their fearless leader. Just seriously. You almost kill us in the desert when you forget about fucking water. Then we fight thousands of news don't care if they live or die. And now you want us to stop celebrating and take some skin off our Dicks. No, one of the British hit you you're an asshole. On august. I seventeen ninety eight Napoleon is men would end up fighting a more formidable opponent than the costing the stupid words in the Mamelukes. In the Egyptian desert. They would actually end up going head to head with none other than hulk HOGAN ho committee is running wild brother deploying was like those that mean wholesome in. Yeah. And then HOGAN body, slam some knowledge on him. He was like I promised each and every Hoke ammoniac when I went to that great battlefield in the sky. I would bring the Toby you whiff title with me brother an opponent. What does is W w leaf and hope was like negativity and hulkamania two things don't go together. Brother. What you do when ho Khameini destroys who you, and that's not sense. But that was fun. That pumped me up hulkamania. Always gives me the legendary British Admiral Horatio Nelson had been hunting Napoleon. So much better though, if it was a time traveling HOGAN, but this, but this is still pretty good in the summer of seventeen thousand eight but hunt him down there. He didn't want. You know, this is not going to let the French fuck up their trade routes and on August first. He finds the poll in the battle of the Nile would be very one sided fight between the French and the British. It would go down as the most decisive victory up until that point and European naval history. Nelson Pyle drive Napoleon's fleet into fucking oblivion and stranded Bonaparte and his men in Egypt. Each side started off with thirteen ships and the British ended up with a twenty two ships by the end, the French lost nine thousand men and all their ships were either captured or destroyed the British suffered only roughly, you know, two hundred to nine hundred dead on the source. I mean just a blowout victory. The battle also caused a pull in little Malta the British kicked him the fuck out of the islands now controlled the Mediterranean which limited Francis ability to retaliate against UK. The loss of the battle of the Nile was huge loss from Polian. Historians agree that. The Abbott Khirbet was a poor place for him to have the French fleet. Lay anchor for three months friendships had remained exposed in the shallow waters of the poorly-guarded port. The French Admiral in charge fleet knew that wanted to move to deeper and safer waters. But bought part insisted they stay to crush Napoleon Admiral Nelson throughout the gentleman's rules of warfare at sea instead of lining up ships and firing until once I gave up the British Admiral surrounded the anchored ships and pummeled them from all sides Napoleon had has ships can is pointed towards the sea. So when the British trickled around behind him, they're just sitting ducks a few stories of called this massacre Napoleon's Pearl Harbor at one point in the battle, the world's largest ship at the time, the French orient caught fire and literally exploded with a hundred and eighteen cannons. It when I can only assume was a shit ton of gunpowder on board. The ship's explosion was supposedly heard to fifty miles away. Pretty safe to say, none of those soldiers and sailors had ever heard noise that loud before despite this terrible. Lost propagandists Napoleon was able to spend the battle in his favor. Despite losing his ship Bonaparte still had thousands of troops. And he also still had the one hundred sixty seven French scientists and scholars and artists. He'd actually brought to Egypt to study gypsum culture. And said he wasn't going anywhere. He just decided this week the best situation, and he founds the Egyptian scientific institute named himself ice, president the friendship democrat artists. He brought over work tirelessly to sketch paint record. Discover everything they could about the ancient world of Egypt. Bonaparte himself was obsessed with the history of Egypt, and he turned being stranded into a great excuse to explore his creativity. So much to explore like the great pyramid. Tallest building. In the world at the time. It would remain at tallest building in the world until the French built the Eiffel tower in eighteen eighty eight Napoleon scientists pumped out a twenty four volume description of Egypt. They'll be published in eighteen o nine and these twenty four volumes basically founded modern day Egyptology each was a special place for the Poland. But maybe not quite as specialist parts of the internet believe some websites that he had. Found experience when he asked to be left alone in the king's chamber doing a great tour of the great pyramid. At least one website says in that chamber. He met aluminum aliens from another dimension most legitimate Napoleonic scholars don't think he even stepped foot inside the pyramids Napoleon's greatest achievement in Egypt was probably his armies discovery of the Rosetta Stone in mid July seventeen ninety nine there is ETA stone is a fifteen hundred pound granite tablet. It has an official decree about the Greek feral told me the fifth carve into it. Right. Told me one of the one of those inbred told me bastards, we learn so much about in the Cleopatra suck so much inbreeding skinniest of skinny family trees. And and there was that. A stone was was basically just a lot of pictures of the toll fucking each other. No, no, this don't tell it was one of many copies that were supposedly placed in every temple in Egypt at one time, and they were all written in three languages. That's what makes this thing. So important languages carved into the stone or ancient hieroglyphics. And also an almost as old addiction language called demoniac. And also Greek the language the French were familiar with. And this was a treasure of all treasures because now thanks to the, you know, the the hieroglyphics being translated on this Donen degree, you know, they could they could unlock the mysteries of all the other hieroglyphics, the Rosetta Stone was was found by a French officer named pierre-francois Bush a while he was helping to rebuild a wall during the reconstruction of the town of Zada the military sent the artifacts. The French science guys who immediately started bus now does Greek phrase books, the Dakota the stone before the British locals are both made them leave. A task which was pretty hard considering there's a lot of damage done to the stone. Who was missing a large section of hieroglyphics at the top and pieces from the other two languages, but they figured it out by the end of Napoleon's running Egypt. The French scientists had amassed one of the greatest collection of historical treasures ever seen. All these. You know, antiquity treasures after Napoleon had left for France towards the end of the French occupation of Egypt, the British defeated the French and the English went on to preserve and protect the resented stone where it can be seen in the British Museum in London today. Okay. Now backed about still in Egypt seventeen ninety nine to pull in his army still stranded there the locals rebel against or foreign oppressors in late seventeen ninety nine Napoleon is taxing them to death to pay for his war efforts on October twenty first seventeen ninety nine at six AM, a large gathering of Egyptians begin to attack the French the French retaliate with a twelve hour. Cannon assault on the city's mosques and temples damaged from those attacks can still be seen today after Bonaparte regained control of Cairo whose office start more. More wars in early March. Bonaparte army marched across the Sinai peninsula and into western Syria to a city called Java. The French laid siege to the city from March third to March seventh it was a quick victory. But when the police Centene is emissaries to negotiate surrender the Johnsons lopped off the Frenchman's heads and display them on post for all to see. Not smart bad move, guys. You just lost? You just got siged not a solid plan to cut the heads off. The guy's negotiating your surrender. Right. How is that going to work out wolf you there? It's not like they're army's just gonna leave after that. Just oh shit. They they cut Jackson peers headed off. Oh god. You know? I don't think they want us to render. Okay. All right. I wish they would have said something, let's just pack up our stuff and get outta here. They know they don't want us to be here. Now in the French troops entered the city after these beheadings, they go nuts. They rape and murder. Thousands. The gather up to three thousand Joffe in troops, execute them with bayonets. They don't want to waste bullets on them. The mythology says it took. Three days to kill them. All but they did it. They even hunted and executed those who tried to run run or swim away. The next target was the city further north called offer the French attacked it on March twentieth. Oscar was defended by the Ottoman empire and had a strong defensive wall. The city was led by general Jasar Pasha known as the butcher, and he had no interest in surrendering either. The French had two options to win this siege. They can put us some tents hang out. They could starve the city of provisions or they get attacked the well defended walls will Napoleon chose to attack because the British were kind of helping them get some provisions they had stock them up. And this attack was brutal over the siege. Nine thousand French soldiers die many from battle many others from an outbreak of bubonic plague fucking plague the bodies a French soldiers had begun to stack up and sadly, not one was catapulted inside the city, you guys loans. Shock aim the shock file Jacques as the siege. Napoleon get so low on weapons and ammo that he he starts paying troops to sneak onto the battlefield at night and recover used cannonballs. Right. The bigger the canon, though, the more extra money to get France would eventually abandon the siege. Head back to Egypt. This would be Napoleon's first major land defeat. I mean, obviously, the British kicked his ass say hands up having to leave many of his sick and wounded on them behind an Oscar and legend has on the way back to Joffe. He may have also decided to poison other sick and wounded soldiers right there. These guys are kind of fucking slowing us down. Let's say let's poisoning. We can't history not clear on whether Bonaparte had his troops poison secretly. Or if the volunteer to drink the poison, I hardly doubt that or even if there was poisoned because history is tricky bastard when you deal with propagandists and then Napoleon returns to Egypt as if he had won the battles. Right. He knew he knew how to spin shit. He spoke of only victory in the Middle East. You know, many French citizens. They bought his words when you travel back to France, many French were enthralled by the young general. He brought his cool antiquities treasures. You know, it was like his mythical trip to this land of pyramids and the junction God's later. Bonaparte wouldn't meet his would admit gives me his defeat and author was a big disappointment and an important loss. He later say if I had not been defeated knocker, I would have conquered all of the east during his time around the plague at least according to legend, and again, it's hard to tell what's lead. And what's not in the story, but supposedly Napoleon showed some serious fearlessness to his troops. Or I guess ignorance at a medical hospital in Syria, he declared that the cause of the play was fear, and that the cure was courage. He demonstrated his courage by picking up a dead soldier from the floor a soldier who was covered in busted open play boils. And he carried him to a more suitable rest in place. You know, it's not about fine. Dude. He did know how to inspire. He also clearly did not know dick about the plague or who had never done that when Napoleon returned to Egypt. He learned that France was in political chaos. The French revolution was about to hand him the keys to the castle. Now in Baltimore. Part knew it problem was he couldn't get his army home without his guy day of ships fucking chips. So he just snuck away by himself. He didn't tell us army or even replacement officer. He was going to be leaving and heading back to Europe didn't even tell his mistress. A letter in just hop boat back to France. And if you're wondering what happened to the French army left behind they would eventually be brought back to France by the British army after defeat in eighteen o one. Back in France is by ditching his army in Egypt Napoleon. He's received as a hero. He's a legend super famous has plays. And paintings commissioned about his victories. It doesn't really talk about his losses. You know? He skips over leaving a troops. That whole part of the story. Focuses on the sports that are highlights is folks on a dunk, not not turnovers operation, God king almost complete after sneaky returned to Paris to polling helps plan a bloodless military coup to replace the existing French directed directory now in charge. It will go down as the coup of eighteen bream Meer or Bri Bryner, excuse me. By by mayor being a month in a French counter system extending from October twenty two to November twentieth. A fringe calendar system the Napoleon would soon replace actually with the one we use. Now bought apart was immensely popular. He also had his popular brothers Lucian and Joseph help him take over France bought parts plan was to get the directory to quit to both houses of the French legislature. The council of the ancients council the five hundred to make a new constitution declaring him in charge. Lucian his brother who is defining president of the council of five hundred persuaded the council to meet at the Chateau. They cloud in the suburbs of Paris. Loosen was able to persuade the council then to move to a less populated location by falsely warning them of Jaakko Ben coup plot against them. This media was basically for Napoleon and his army to show up an intimidate and threaten the remaining government and almost didn't work. He fucked up his speech, I guess talking about God of war this and follow me through the dangerous zone that and he's ridiculed by the council and they see through his plot. So then the poll in, you know, he's basically like, okay. All right. If you don't have the speech, here's the deal. I'm gonna fucking kill you. We'll do this fucking kill you. And they're like, oh, all right. Okay. I do get that speech. The they dissolve the directory now replace it with the three person consulate Napoleon, of course, is declared I council he's in charge. He essentially becomes the new dictator of France, many historians consider this the end of the French revolution. Wouldn't wouldn't be long after this through an amendment to the constitution that Poland would be come the first console for life? And then later name himself emperor. Very Caesar esque moves he is pulling out he's fantasies, or this is a complicated. Time in France in Europe in general, but but now the emperor could form an empire his own way. Okay. Now's a good time to look at one of Bonaparte most significant contributions to history and the Napoleonic code as emperor. He did actually seem to know how to run a country. What makes Napoleon the legend goes? Well, beyond his battlefield wins. He contributed to a wide variety of fields or under his direction, France built world class buildings monuments and bridges push science law art and founded many new schools, including the university of France h eight perhaps more than. Anything though, or at least for this segment of the show. The most important thing he influence was the way legal systems would run forever through a code. He we think he helps develop he may have just taken credit, but we think he actually helped Napoleon's new legal system when initially be called the civil code of the French. And then it was changed to the Napoleonic code Napoleon. Was like does that how come that doesn't have my name in it? No, no, no, everything has my name in it. Bonaparte? New law of the land was was developed initially by a commission of four eminent jurists or law. Scholars other jurists would contribute a little later and Napoleon himself would contribute historians debate to this day about how much she contributed the author started writing this new code in eighteen o one and spent years getting it, right? The podium. The Napoleonic code was put into effect a March twenty first eighteen you four and it would go on to inspire the legal systems of most of Europe, including Italy the Netherlands Belgium Spain Portugal. Poland pieces to Germany, some forty modern nations. Now, oh peace. Oh pieces or more of their current legal systems to Napoleon, you know, including modern day, France. The deployment code was derived from bits Aruban law. The French, revolution and other half ass. European attempts have governance Napoleon's main objective was to make the lock clearly written in easily accessible to all people of the states. This would be huge upgrade from the legal system of the French to tell a -tarian kings and queens within the feudal system of France that were different privileges special charters for kings, the clergy in aristocrats. There weren't distinct laws but hard to define customs and random decrees. They're constantly changing the feudal system often consisted of whatever the monarchs wanted and or could get away with at the time. And this led to this crazy hodgepodge of forty two different legal systems existed at the same time in France DiPoto tour all up and replaced him with one easy to understand code, the code very nice step forward towards a more just and modern legal system. People tend to like it more than a king just making shit up on the fly. Okay. So now onto the next phase of this crazy guys. Life or this guy's crazy life rather? February twenty third eight four big day for Napoleon he crowned himself emperor in front of pope pious the seventh at the Notre Dame cathedral in Paris. He was the first Frenchman to become an emperor and a thousand years project. God king was officially success. Napoleon started off his rule by restructuring the French system of nobility created the legion of honor and rewarded his favourite? Ask kissers by choosing three thousand people to play dress up and become nobles three thousand people loyal to him as a boy remember he dreamed of America Crecy. And now he was kind of making one he was picking people with strong leadership qualities to help. You know, run the country is picking p with great military valor. But the main criteria was how loyal were they to him. Mostly picking people based on loyalty. So I guess he in a way he he kind of gave up on that meritocracy. These people were a mixture of the revolutionary elite and his friends and family he and he didn't give them any real power, by the way, outside of kind of being in the cool kids club and not getting taxed nearly as much as the common folks, we're not getting taxed at all. The idea of becoming nobles from the rank of common folk was unheard of sons of tanners and innkeepers and millers are now part of the French elite Napoleon creates a hereditary monarchy, essentially, also in places his family is heads of state all over his empire. So they're they're right back to where they started as we know Napoleon understood the power propaganda. His ability to rise to emperor was made possible by his ability to narrate his own methology. And by crushing knows to opposed him. Hit a secret police force created despite his enemies and the people in general he waged war on the press reducing early versions of French newspapers from sixty in seventeen ninety nine to just four by eighteen fourteen. And and of course, he continued to write. And produce his own, you know, legend through place articles monuments paintings Napoleon was so aware of the power print. He would say this isn't very interesting quote to me four hostile newspapers or more to be feared than a thousand bayonets. Right. And this guy who knew something about a bandit Napoleon was also very aware of the French people's what have you done for me lately attitude? So he quickly goes about reminding them of why he was in charge in the first place by waging fucking war. Let's get back to that matter of debate between historians even to this day, whether Bonaparte was just a warmonger or war hero. Most of them seem to agree though, that despite the reasons for going to war he was real good at fighting. Yeah. Yeah. Oh, no. He ended up fighting in twelve different military campaigns and anywhere in anywhere from forty three to sixty total battles record show. He lost five eight of those battles. Depend on which story, and you believe sixty eight by the way, solid record for any type of fighter. That's a hall of fame. Win-loss bread for Bach. Or a fighter. Most of his losses would come at the end of his military career. But so would some of his most impressive victories Napoleon ended up fighting and more battles than his heroes. Alexander the great Julius Caesar and Hannibal combined. Heels started to major wars one was on the Iberian peninsula against Spain and Portugal and one in Russia. Additionally, seven major war coalition's would be declared against him all of them, by the way, you know, funded or let in some way by the British in h zero three the air known as the Napoleonic wars began when Britain declared war on France now that Napoleon had his crown Britain and most of Europe became focused on taking it away from him and to fund all of his fighting against the British Napoleon made a monumental real estate deal to change the future of the world affected American gray. Let's talk about the Louisiana purchase for a second the acquisition. Quick sale. Louisiana territory is really interesting part of Bonaparte history that intertwines to pull in and Thomas Jefferson. I've heard of him. It also includes the future of America. A selfish span is king and ex slave who became victorious general during the Caribbean revolution, basically like all of history. If a thousand different little things didn't exactly the way, they did the world will be drastically different today to Napoleon the Louisiana territory was a wasteland just you eight hundred twenty eight thousand square miles of worthless. And uncharted swamps enforce Louisiana claimed by the French way back in sixteen eighty two and name by the Spanish for the French king. Louis the fourteenth for over one hundred years it remained almost is almost empty as far as Europeans. Go. It was populated by a lot of American Indians. And just a few kind of French military outpost for the most part after the French didn't need war in seventeen sixty to the French gave the entire territory away to Spain as a diplomatic gift for fighting with them. Spain didn't really want it when Napoleon took power. He didn't see the potential of Louisiana loan, but he did see the potential of the economic combo of Haiti and Louisiana bottom apart cared about Haiti France. Was making a lot of money in Haiti. But but they were having problems with eighty they were fighting back against French rule in Louisiana was still owned by Spain the point that if he could have that he could build up troops on the Louisiana territory. And then those troops could help keep Haiti in check. So he keep making their money. So Napoleon went to work and secretly pressure. The Spanish King Carlos to fourth to sign a treaty to swap Louisiana for a plush principality in French French controlled northern Italy as part of the seemingly sweet deal, Bonaparte promise. He wouldn't sell the Louisiana territory to any other countries. The might end up fucking with Spain later, you can see what is going kinko's the fourth. He was a man whose country was slipping out from under his leadership, and he took the deal across the Atlantic. In US, pretty sharp guy fan of the spirit of the French revolution. By the name of Thomas Jefferson. He was president. He got wind secret treaty and the swap between the Spanish and the French for the Louisiana territory, president Jefferson, not a fan of the poll in possibly the complete opposite of him in temperament, he asked the minister from France about the secret French treaty with Spain the minister said all of that. Swampy bullshit belong to Spain. TJ knew that wasn't the truth. So president Jefferson decided to bluff the French Napoleon as part of his bluff, he wrote a letter that he knew get back to Napoleon without actually saying his intentions for the US were to join the British and fighting the French he implied it and his deception was believed by Bonaparte napoleone, rethought, his Louisiana deal. He didn't have time to fight America. He needed to focus on kicking all of Europe's ass. Finally, make the British pay the emperor knew that war was on the horizon, you're a big big war and he needed cash badly defined his war efforts, perhaps the most crucial part of this whole situation was the French territory of San Demong, and aka Haiti Assan Doma was known as jewel of France. And responsible for two third of all of France's foreign trade at its peak production at one point it was the richest colony in the world, at least in profit per square mile sugar was the main commodity, the African slave labor was the workforce, the French slave drivers were brutal and literally worked to slaves to death. By seventeen eighty seven around four hundred fifty thousand slaves around the island, an estimated forty thousand slaves were brought to Santa Monica and seventeen eighty seven alone. Haiti had begun liberating itself from France starting in seventeen ninety one they would eventually gain their independence nation four Britain. Of course was back in the Haitian revolution fighting along slot alongside the slaves Britain, man, constant thorn. Yeah. In the pull inside M for Bonaparte sent ships and the largest amount of troops overseas at the time twenty seven thousand men to try to quell the Caribbean rebellion. He thought it would take a few weeks. He was very wrong. The war in San Demong used guerrilla warfare tactics against a pull in that. They had never encountered the Haitian forces led by ex slave now general to sant- love or tear was super mobile, and they fought in small groups the attacked the highly regimented French ride. They're fighting those squares by fighting behind trees and rocks fighting at night, attacking and then fleeing and then poisoning, the French soldiers, food and water supplies. And I'm always apprised this type of thing didn't happen. More often old timey warfare. Like, whoever thought it was a great idea. Just to March your guys straight ahead and big lines right into canon or muscular orcher fire. You know, who thought that leaders who didn't give a fuck about losing thousands of men. They're men would just cannon fodder. They're all too willing to sacrifice ten thousand men in an army of thirty thousand for example to kill like twenty thousand other enemy if they thought they could get the jump on so insane. I would like to think if I was one of those soldiers, I would at least try to bring up the possibility of maybe hide behind some trees and some rocks. Just the excuse me, excuse me, general skid me. Yes, come into. What is it? Okay. Hear me out. This is my sound create. What if what if instead of just standing in easily targeted kind of lines slowly walking into Kanter fire? What if what if we hid behind some traits rocks? And then the other guys they marched toward us. And we kind of just, you know, pop out and shoot out from time to time. I just thought it seems like it's worth trying the French soldiers had never seen this type of fighting before plus the Haitians and their general had had a secret weapon. Mosquitoes carrying yellow fever, man. I fucking plague. Now, this the locals were immune to it. But the French got hit hard of the nearly thirty thousand French troops in Haiti only four thousand of them would be strong enough to fight by the end of the battle. They were so sick or dying or dead from yellow fever Haiti with the help of the British and Spanish liberated self at age four. Yeah. And then ruined all of Napoleon's plans in the Caribbean. I found a reason that story and who who called this Napoleon's, Vietnam, right? I Admiral Nelson hits him with his own Pearl Harbor, and now these mosquitoes and dudes hide behind trees or hitting him with Vietnam in total during the Haitian revolution. France, lose seventy five thousand men and the Haitians and British lost two hundred thousand forty five thousand respectively despite losing more troops over all. They still beat the French show. Wasn't. It wasn't a quick couple of weeks easy victory. The French loss of Haiti made Louisa Louisiana territory undesirable to Napoleon. And that coupled again with his concern that America may wanna fight him his need for more cash. Defied of all of that helped him convince him to get rid of the territory. So to help fund the war efforts against those pesky English Napoleon sold more than eight hundred thousand square miles to the US for fifteen million on April thirtieth age. No three initially came out to be about four cents a square mile, and a lot of people have called a degraded real estate deal in the history of the world, the Louisiana territory immediately doubled the size of the US, six states and. Pieces of nine more would be made out of it. And it would also help fuel Napoleon's war machine in Europe back to European theatres of war. You're fours lasted for over a decade from eighteen oh three until eighteen fifteen this dude fought so much fought so many different nations, basically all of your over and over again, the fighting got bloodier and bloodier and bloodier as artillery gun technology and tactics push the battles harder and harder. Initially most most since British laid to the west of France and not to the east, and he didn't have to worry about naval battles Napoleon was able to steamroll over the armies of Europe in my h no five much of the continent was under his control with so many victories. He was feeling invincible unappealing was fighting multiple wars battles in multiple places. He was winning most of them. The peninsular war though was when he would not win Napoleon invaded Spain and Portugal eight zero seven and the conflict wouldn't end until h eighteen fourteen the regimented French army was once again, put off balanced by enemy guerrilla tactics. This time from the Spanish. Portuguese during the peninsula warnings. No five is fate would have it Napoleon would have most of his fleet destroyed by the British navy for a second time many have been passed. Just motherfucking boats got doing I hate boats. If those bangers and mash eaten Cocker's just didn't have boats. I would rule the world choke on your beans, and toast you loving bastards. And it was the same guy who beat him and see who'd beaten him back in Egypt in the battle of Trafalgar, just like in the battle of the Nile to famous Admiral Horatio Nelson commanded a British victory. Nelson destroyed all of Napoleon's ships. Again, Admiral Nelson, however would die in battle. So at least didn't have to worry about the same, dude. Getting a three peat on him. The British navy that will continue to dominate the seas. For the next one hundred years emperor Bonaparte would end his Napoleonic wars with zero allies the United Kingdom in every nation. In Europe would end up joining one of the several military coalitions against him including the holy Roman empire. Russia Sweden Naples. Sicily. Prussia socks ini, Hungary, Spain Sardinia str- Austria, Portugal, the Netherlands Bavaria vote and Berg Baden, even Switzerland even Switzerland joined in even Switzerland's like, you know, usually we try to stay neutral. But that guy. Despite so many nations joining forces to beat him Napoleon initially was kicking all of their asses other than Britain's, and he might have somehow eventually been able to take over the entire content, but he pulled a Hitler, and he tried to invade Russia on top of fighting everybody else after Russia pulled out of a shipping. Blockade agreement called the continental system. The Napoleon had set up against Britain Bonn, apart tried to punish them for it. Just like the pulling underestimate the devastating heat of the desert. He underestimated the might of a Russian winter. He ignored his advisors in June of eighteen twelve he took his men to war in Russia. He actually assembled the largest army in the history of Europe to attack. Russia estimates range between four hundred and fifty and six hundred and fifty thousand French troops ended up fighting against two hundred thousand Russian soldiers Napoleon's goal was to fight Russia near the western border crush 'em quick. And that was not Russia's plan. The Russians knew that have a hard time fighting the massive French army face to face. So they fought unconventionally attacking retreating attacking retreating drawing the poll in deeper and deeper into forbidding Russian terrain as the weather grew colder, and then just as disease had ravaged Napoleon's troops in Syria in Haiti once again, his soldiers are dying by the thousands, this time of typhus dysentery and diphtheria estimates put the French at well over a hundred thousand who died of disease, and yet we have a growing anti vaccination movement today. Fucking history turns out it's important to know some shit about why do we have vaccinations antibac- Sers? So we don't die of shit like diptheria you fucking emotionally thinking idiot. God, dammit, okay. On September seven to eighteen twelve the French emperor overseas. The bloodiest battle of the Russian campaign at the battle of Borodino not far from Moscow. The village aboard. Zito was the best place for the Russian army to make their stand. They weren't going to lose. Moscow without a fight. When the smoke cleared the losses on both sides were immense Russian lost around forty thousand troops while the French loss in estimated thirty to forty five thousand thirty hundred thousand most historians put the official number at around seventy thousand dead in just one battle by September fourteenth. Napoleon watched the Russians burn three quarters of their own city of Moscow to make sure the French didn't have enough food or supplies that they needed to stick around. Bottom part was forced to retreat around twenty one to twenty three thousand soldiers think about how many he had brought despite the French empire's, heavy losses. He quickly. Recruited more men now fought Germany is not done lose a couple hundred thousand dudes, but whatever Malecki Biden several battles were fought between French forces in an allied army that would grow to over three hundred sixty thousand men not to be outdone by the battle aboard Dino the battle of left's vague Lipsey in Germany, also known as the battle of nations would go on to be the bloodiest battle in European history until World War One nearly six hundred thousand. Soldiers are involved. Well, over half a million men fighting ends up with between eighty and one hundred twenty seven thousand total casualties over two thousand artillery weapons fired over two hundred thousand rounds of ammunition. Napoleon's forces had thirty eight thousand men killed or wounded and another fifteen thousand were captured this loss really put a dent in Napoleon's invincible, God king, self-described spiritual successor to Charlemagne persona might soon the fight. He would make its way back to France and Napoleon I reign as emperor would come to. And you can't propaganda your way out of getting your ass kicked in your own country. Right. A March thirty eighteen fourteen the allied armies pushing a poll in all the way back to Paris within a week. And I six and the pulling has forced to abdicate his throne. He is exiled to Elba. This part of the story makes no fucking sense to me on any level. He's exiled to Elba in island in the Mediterranean. Just six miles off the coast of Tuscany south of France. Right. Remarkably napoleon. Able to negotiate his own terms his own surrender terms, he himself chooses Elba. And he's supposed to be paid two million francs annually and be given a guard of four hundred men what a great way to get kicked out of your country. Like, I would love to lose like that. But that's the best way to lose ever. Dan. We're kicking you out Idaho. All right son of a bitch. We're we're tired of it. Tired of shit. So charity for this. I can't wait to see you weep. We're going to send you to Hawaii where we're going to force you to make do with about two million dollars a year and just to have a staff of a few hundred so take that enjoy time on the beach with all your money, you fucking idiot. How fun is it feel is it to lose a good? This is great Napoleon will also be considered the sovereign of Elba. He's putting charge. Why? Why would they do this? He gets to be like he's to be called emperor. He's still he's emperor of Elba. Now instead of seventy million people, you know, he's real about twelve thousand. Also about the thousand of his most devout supporters are allowed to live with him and Elba. Why would you do that somehow seems like a good idea to the allied forces to let Napoleon keep living to give them a lot of money to surround him with his closest most high ranking supporters give them essentially a tiny army. Let him rule the small nation the British providing with an official babysitter some officer named Neil Campbell. Who does a whole lot of dick Napoleon, essentially, ignores him starts preparing to fuck Europe up again Napoleon customer. It'd be in tastes ruling elder seriously. He changes their legal system, fixes or schools instigates infrastructure improvements. Like new roads the draining of marshes. Boosts agriculture develops mines even redesigns their flag still flies today. I mean, the guy the guy was really good at running things when he wasn't just deciding to try to take over everything. Bonaparte spent three hundred days, really nelga. His mother was able to join him there. His second wife or Louis Louis and his son Napoleon junior. They don't join him, but his polish mistress Marie will while Lusaka does join him. Of course, of course. Yes. It was there that she introduced Bonaparte to the sun. They'd had together Alexandra Joseph who legend has it that foreheads which was the average amount of heads proposed people that time. Ridiculous through through his many visitors Napoleon had been gathered intelligence on his enemies. He learned that. The French people were already getting tired of their new king. Louis the eighteenth. They gotta fuck king. Get why why? Bonaparte's followers. Still in France. We're planning a rebellion. He learned that the British who are weary of his constant guests wanted to to to move him to a much more prison like atmosphere moving to an island called Saint Helena, a little island of less than fifty square miles roughly twelve hundred miles off the western coast of Africa, roughly eighteen hundred miles from the eastern coast, South Americans in the middle of fuck. No. Or in the middle of Atlantic between South America and Africa. We'll talk about that a little more bit Bonaparte begins planning his escape, the Elbe dictator isn't discreet about it. Either even announces he's leaving to the other Elba officials because the English did not pay the money. He was supposed to receive. He feels justified. It was like a breach of the treaty. So he just he escapes. He builds a military force of two thousand six hundred imperial guards puts together a small fleet of ships. He calls his navy painted fleet to look like big British ships are going to be looked tools like British ships packs eleven fifty followers in them set sail for France and sneaks past the British March. Twentieth. Eighteen fifteen he makes it back to French soil. Immediately rallies. Another army of supporters regains control of France right now. It's now time forever. The sequel part of his speech goes like this soldiers in my exile. I heard your voice, your general is restored to you. Come and join him tear down those colors, which the nation as prescribed and which for twenty five years served as a rallying signal to all the enemies of France. Mount the Caucasian Tri color you board in the days of greatness. He's good, man. He's good March twenty fifth eighteen fifteen upon learning the Napoleon returned to France and taking it over again Europe collectively side and thought why they'll Faulk did. We not kill him. Your your bonds again together over the content. Common enemy. They prepared to fight him. Again, Napoleon second run at emperor God king or less two hundred days. But it's packed full of a lot of violence. You know, became known as the hundred day campaign after several battles Napoleon is finally defeated once and for all at Waterloo in Belgium, finally unreal. How long it took for Europe to beat this dude for good on June nineteen eighteen fifteen seventy two thousand French troops versus sixty eight thousand British Belgian Dutch and German troops fighting the battle of Waterloo. A deciding factor in pulling losing once again is is whether this time, it's rain. It was Napoleon's choice to either wait until midday to to to attack or attack. You know early in the morning hit is his idea was to wait wait until the muddy terrain drives a bit. And it's choice proved to be fatal mistake, the delay gives upwards of thirty thousand Russian troops just enough time to join their allies, outnumbered the French time for the battle. The French forces are defeated Napoleon reportedly at least told by the British rides back to. Dance and tears allied forces capture defeated polling again and decide hey, maybe we shouldn't let him be emperor anymore. This time using given an island to be ruler of this this time they're gonna put him to that Saint Helena, but they still don't kill him. Which is crazy to me. They they do send him out to this remote Saint Helena island to live his final days as the prisoner. I do not remember ever hearing about this little teeny island before the suck. It is so small and so remote Napoleon called his new home the cursed. Rock Bonaparte would spend the rest of his days playing cards and dictating his memoirs this little island was found little extra trivia here item. His and by this place. Found by Portuguese explores the dawn of the sixteenth century. No indigenous people were found living there, but the island had plenty of fresh water and soil good enough to grow fruit and vegetables. So they build a few structures plant a bunch of fruit trees and vegetables, import livestock, and they basically use it as kind of a sixteenth century truckstop for boats headed between Europe and South America or between. African South America or basically for any trade routes took sailors through that remote area today, a little less than five thousand people live there fulltime, and I so want to visit his place just got an airport a few years ago, it is so isolated many rescue attempts were allegedly planned by Bonaparte supporters, even one involving early submarines, but nothing came to fruition and polling with dive apparent stomach cancer on Saint in Saint Laurent, Saint Helena may fifth eighteen twenty one at the age of fifty one he requested to be buried in France along the banks of the scene amongst the French people have loved so much, but the British buried him on his curse rock and then in eighteen forty his body was finally dug up taking the France, although possibly not all of it. A couple of interesting pieces. Go missing allegedly more on that just a second. Even the French do not honor his burial wishes instead of burying him by the river or the river scene. He was entombed in the hotel day invalids in days ova lead a cemetery. For honored, French military leaders, and that takes us out of his was epic time suck timeline. Good job soldier made it back. Man. I know I may may have messed up some worse than I do feel like compared to earlier French base sucks better this time that is time feeling the French little more before arapahoe, but final thoughts and tell you. It's talk about those missing body parts for a second. The main one, of course is his penis. And it's almost certainly miss. But it's interesting with the French doctor working on the polio corpse in Saint Helena, and perhaps one of the most brazen cases of malpractice in human history. If it did happen, supposedly took a couple of souvenirs Kutina Bonaparte rib, and the emperor's wean, and he was not secretive about it the mid states that there apparently seventeen eye. Witnesses watched a doctor cut off the. Rounded up manhood and just put it in a little box, which seems legit. Just a big group of people gathered around a doctor cutting off a rotten dick right with their even still be anything. They're like twenty years later. And then this weird Dr supposedly gave the emperor's man roots in Napoleon's personal chaplain who took it to Corsica chaplain his killed in some unrelated blood feud, but the one point five inch the mummified PB of the God king manages to stay in his family for a hundred years Napoleon's tiny rotted dick apparently is passed down through several generations of the same family that in one thousand nine hundred four English bookseller requires it puts it in a jar and like a proper English gentlemen labels at a mummified tendon. And then later it sold for four hundred pounds finds his way to Philadelphia in one thousand nine hundred twenty seven the French art museum in New York apparently gets a hold of it displays Napoleon's dick for a bit tries to sell it back to France. They don't want to buy it probably because it's not Napoleon's dick than eight years later. One of the world's most famous neurologist, John k ladder. Mer buys Napoleon's Dingle dangle for three thousand dollars this guy also worked as neurologist of the Nuremberg trials went onto become somewhat famous for collecting creepy shit part of his collection was a bit of blood soaked fabric from inside JFK's limousine, bloody collar worn by Abe Lincoln the night of his assassination assassination and the Latimer family is still allegedly in possession of Napoleon's, mud hammer. I can imagine someone in the Latimer family, just, you know, just waiting for for grandparent to die. So they can get their hands on that Wang. You know, just come home come on a won't that sweet clean Pauline. So that's that that's legend, probably not true. But interesting story. So what a life Napoleon lived. All right, people die pretty much everywhere. He went. He also helped modernize the military law, education, accounting and banking. He pushed science and the arts he was responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of men and his effort to take over the world. But our world has also benefited many ways from his influence some historians like lump two point in with. The most vicious tyrants in history, like Hitler and Stalin. Others place him in high esteem was was great men like Charlemagne Alexander the great the guy who invented yoga pants hails to them recent article on towards data science dot com ranked all military generals created a list of the best war commanders ever. And based on whatever stats they use Napoleon blew everyone away number one by a landslide more than doubling the runner up on the list, Julius Caesar. I mean, he was I mean, he was he fought like, basically all of the rest of Europe for longtime Napoleon Bonaparte was brilliant. Innovative, also, brutal and petty reshape the world we let a lot of corpses behind him famous for being able to inspire men who fought him into battle. But also very reckless with their lives when they did sell. Talented propagandists, part of the reason we talk about today is he he used propaganda to you know, exaggerate his mythology, you know, perhaps more than anything to pull in like, I said earlier showed a single life. You know, can do what what one little shave date with tools can accomplish in a lifetime. With a lot of Embiid dumped load truck self confidence in a bit of luck. You know, you can you can fit your way to a place in history forever. Pretty amazing. What meets AC what one meets second accomplish. For better for worse with one short life on this planet. Interesting Napoleon himself thought of how his legacy would be remembered he would write towards end of his life in spite of all the libels. I have no fear. Whatever about my fame. Posterity will do me Justice. The truth will be known and the good which I have done with the Foltz, which I've committed will be compared I am not uneasy for the results had I succeeded. I should have died with the reputation of the greatest man that ever existed as it is. Although I have failed. I shall be considered. As an extraordinary man, my elevations was unparalleled because unaccompanied by crime. I have fought fifty pitched battles almost all of which I have gained I have Fe framed and carried into. A code of laws that will bear mind name to the most distant prosperity from nothing. I raised myself to be the most powerful monarch in the world. Europe was at my feet. Miam-? Bishen was great I admit, but it was of a cold nature and caused by events in the opinion of great bodies. I have always been of opinion that the sovereignty lay in the people. In fact, the imperial government was kind of a Republic call to the head of it by the voice of the nation. My maxim was my oh, my maximum was the career is open to talents without distinction of birth or fortune. And this system of equality is the reason that you're all agog hate me so much. Yeah. Yeah. Yeah. Kind of an interesting perspective on his life, man. His ambition was to be the the greatest man in the world that ever known. And I think that people hated him so much because you continually fucking kill people and your Europe everywhere, you were the you were the worst, and that way and that way you're a worse than every serial killer. We've ever talked about combined. Okay. Lot of info. Let's let's hit the high notes again, re summarize some learn a little bit more with today's top five takeaways time. By taking away number one Europe should still be thinking a Great Britain for stopping the Polian every time he got some momentum. They were right there to sink his battleships number two had the British. Not sunk Napoleon's battleships while he was Egypt. There's a chance he would have still we still have no idea. What how would they mean? Number three, France fought bloody French revolution specifically to remove a Royal dictator. And when it was all said and done they ended up with the with another dictator Napoleon if you're gonna find for change make sure that if you win you actually truly change some things number four Napoleon was born on one small island not bothering anyone and fifty one years later he would die on another little island not bothering anyone again in between. He would wreak havoc on Europe. Unlike anyone ever had for over two decades, number five new info, a lot of people died because of Napoleon like so many impossible to determine exactly how many total, but it's s. Estimated that anywhere from three million two hundred fifty thousand to six million five hundred thousand died in the Napoleonic wars. And that total includes you know, military of all sides civilians of all sides, and that total does not include Napoleon's, Egyptian or Haitian or Middle Eastern or other pre Napoleonic war battles lot of death time. Bye. So that's it for this week. Wow. Napoleon big suck. We sucked. It. I know. There was a lot. We didn't get to the dude live way way way way too much life to have it properly investigated in a couple of hours. You know, we can do an entire podcast easily dedicated to just Napoleon, you know, and run it for for long long time. But I think we give a nice overview today. No, no shortage of info out there on the the internet. If you want to suck further out there at your library, the bookstores Andrew Roberts New York Times bestselling two thousand fourteen Napoleon biography, simply titled Napoleon a life has gotten a ton of excellent reviews. I haven't read it. They're not a sponsor, but it did win. The Los Angeles Times book book price for by biographies, the great courses. Plus, a sponsor also has an entire course devoted to Napoleon and the French revolution. So a lot more to suck out there. If you wanna find it a big, thanks to the time. So team thanks to the Queen to suck Lindy Cummins high priestess of the suck harmony village camp. Jesse guardian of grammar donor, Reverend Dr Joe paisley times. Look, high priest Alex Dugan. The guy's a bit elixir danger brain access apparel. Thanks to the lily twins for kicking off the research this week. Awesome has ever and huge huge. Thanks to new full-time. Suck dungeon employs act Flannery for immense help when this. We'll get him a nickname soon. It's insane. Workweek this week in the suck dungeon gotta give them proper proper enter later when not touring with the happy murder tour stand up for a week. And by the way, you know, going to be in Des Moines. Kansas City in Nashville, you know, coming up here soon this week and then Dallas and Houston soon after nets. We can times we head north for more history. Sucked. The Vikings hair Odin gillnet spider horse, the Vikings much more complicated than just the brutal. Sociopath. Often portrayed us wasn't just raping and pillaging. We're gonna find out how the descendants Vike warriors evolved from international pirates and slavers to some of the modern world's most advanced together. Terry nation's going to cover a few thousand years north history and a single suck going to try not to humiliate are growing group of Scandinavia. Suckers in the process. I know in Sweden, especially we're getting more and more suckers gonna talk about beserk IRS. The Viking discovery of North America gonna look into the lives of some famous. Vikings such as Eric to read Leif, Eriksson, an Olaf some last fucking name crazy ass word. I hope to have a better handle on next week and many of the Vikings. We're gonna revisit some of the north mythology from our Norse mythology suck and a lot more time. Now for today's time sucker updates. In times update. Okay. I update talking about a lot of war today. Have an interesting World War. One suck up date coming in from Cameron Wilkinson Cameron writes dear loose Athena's chief Kista hor just wanted to. Thank you for a wonderfully dark and informative podcast. It's really helped me bond with my brother after not seeing him for two years HALE Nimrod, I love that. I talked to a lot of time suckers at after the Cleveland livestock, and I love hearing stories about people getting closer with family friends, making new friends for me new bonds because of just have an interesting shift to talk about every week. I just got done with your World War One suck and thought it was awesome. If I could just add one thing I'd like to talk about the aviation innovations that took place before interrupted gear or even the protective plane on the back of the propeller blades were thought of now, this is interrupted gears. What allowed you know, the the fighter planes back on what went to shoot in between the propellers as they're flying. So they can you know, how these mounted gun shoot the other planes. We'll before this German and French reconnaissance aircraft would try to shoot each other down by firing rifles and handguns most likely revolvers at each other while passing by kind of like jousting the air thought, you might find that interesting. I do if you don't read the whole Email of it doesn't make the show. What these big deal keep pumping out that sweet suck. See you in nimrods nuts. Yes there. That's awesome. Thank you, just just lean out the plane shooting at another plane with a rifle how'd you like that job? Right. That's insane. Thanks for sharing that and. Yeah. Hope to see you nimrods ball sack down the road, buddy. We mentioned MacGill's pop today. And we have an interesting but update from time sucker goes by Canopus. Hey, Dan, I listened to your Donner party suck. Now just wanted you to know you weren't too far from the truth. When you joked about MacGill's pop, it's actually called prolapse and can happen. If he pushed you hard when defecating it's the tearing of the in a wall, which makes the anus fall out it's caused by too much anal sex. Actually, I out krypton that the wrong kind of Ailes or hard pushing when defecating PS don't research that word alone. You'll go to websites that are unsavory love always soon to be spaces your cannibus. Yes. Anna prolapse is no joke. Absolutely. Should not be Google unless you are a masochist, and you have a strong stomach and for sure definitely do not as I did one time because I just couldn't help myself. Someone's like, dude you've seen those pictures of dogs who have prolapse wholesome like now like just look it up and I wanted to just like fucking smash. I wanted to throw up on my computer, and then just smashed into a million pieces. It was so gross. Little more poop knowledge can count in from time, sicker Brittany K. Really, right. Stairmaster? Stuck are recently listened to your order of the Solar Temple suck and had a hilariously interesting conversation with my spouse who had not yet listened to it just a little background for you. I am an anthropology major with a health emphasis. So I have looked up a lot of weird medical things for school when you were talking about Dr Luke's, you're using a homeopathic cures. Now, he might have tried to. Vince, someone to let me let me defecated in the mouth because he had a healthy poop to cure the person with unhealthy poop. It made me think of a fecal microbial, transplantation, FM and FM tea is where someone with healthy PU donates it to a clinic they mix it with a saline solution and then inject it into an unhealthy person's colon via colonoscopy to cure, some 'Bacterial issues. It's actually a brilliant way of fixing some very terrible diseases. But still when you said this reminded me of this. I was telling my spouse about this. And he jokingly said that while Dr lingerie went to defecate in the patient's mouth, he must have thought. Oh, but Rahall wrong hole anyways way to get a laugh. Just tell you my to. Yes. Attaches a short video explaining a fecal, Michael micro microbial transportation with some Q cartoons and a boring narrator. If you're interested on how it works will. Thank you know. She's Andy say thank you for all you do and making the world. A better more learning place your soon to be spaces at once. I finally graduate and get a real. Job britney. Thank you Britney. I've watched the video yet. Maybe I will soon sounds better than the other other images. I could've seen based on the previous updates. And we also had a lot of time suckers right in about fecal transplants the past few weeks. So thank you for sharing that if all of you. I totally believe it's real appreciate the kind words and Nimrod and finally last one for today, I got time sucker Cassandra with one of my lies. And she also Senate a great maim regarding more of my lies that I'll share share with you. Dear mother, fucker time, suck master of all love the podcast wanted to let you know that you've got my ass with the Hombre Sinoe and the monster of the Andes time suck at federal loop Pez one I was driving home from work listen to it and start to freak out, especially when you said that southern time suckers would know what you were talking about because they were appearing down there. I was starting to call some of my friends who had just moved down there when I heard you say was all bullshit. What followed was very awkward conversation. A usually see through your bullshit. But this time I really thought it was true. Also, I saw this pick on Facebook. And it made me think of how much you hate to polish come as a joke. Obviously, I don't know if you will trust this link or if it'll work for you. But it did when I tested, I hope you get a kick out of it. Like, I did keep on sucking. I'll keep on sucking you. I like mutual suck is Cassandra Cassandra. Yes. I did click the Lincoln also a lot of time sucker sent in this via either Instagram or the Email, and I'm so thankful for it. There's a me mount their readiness and places, and it starts off like a big kind of hard. Picture to post. It's very tall. But it it starts off with headlines of crimes committed by polish people or just things, you know, silly things pulling people's done. So it says polish man finds bullet in head five years after party polish man tries rafting to Australia polish man, electrocuted while Pene polish man tries to rob Bank with spoon. And then the memes says Florida man, and then and then Florida man says finally a worthy. Opponent are battled will be legendary. Yes. Because of course, so many horrible articles start off with floor men was arrested today. So I love that. Thank you for sending that in. Thanks, all of you. And thanks for listening to our show. And continuing to let us what we do here on time suck that's all for today's updates. Thanks time. I need we all did. Have a great week everybody. Don't try to take over all of Europe. But if you must try, you know, do your best to avoid pushing east into Russia and the winter and most importantly, keep on sucking. Enjoy time on the beach with all your money, you fucking idiot.

Commander Napoleon Napoleon Bonaparte France Carlo Bonaparte Polian Corsica French army Perez Hilton Josephine Europe Lincoln Cleveland Poland IKA Latisha Latisha Kansas City king Louis America bojangles
Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

Citation Needed

00:00 sec | 4 months ago

Napoleon's Invasion of Russia

"Have you ever seen him in the same room? Coup Jeffrey Epstein and Jamal Kashogi. They don't even look alike. Yeah, exactly strange coincidence read was that they don't even look alike. They're both dead. Both interesting! Is it not no, it's the least interesting thing I've ever heard. Oh Hey guys. You are just in time to see me win this game of access in allies. Napoleonic, addition I wold eleven, Tom. You lose fourteen infantry hand three Canaan guys game socks you got. You got to play a game. Yeah, he hates fun things yeah, well. He's trying to get me to throw out that script. I was writing for the trust campus owed for a long time, so he offered to play a game with me. If I took a break from it, are you? Are you sure the pieces aren't edible? If he charge not at double screens Arc's gall, so he's playing the Napoleon game with you access knowledge Napoleon. Nobody cares boop what? Was it your idea for him to wear the Napoleon outfit as part of this. No, no, he actually he just came into the studio in that it's not a Polian. It's captain crunch. from the crunch Berry wars. Read a book whatever? Hello and welcome to citation needed the podcast where we a subject read a single article about it on Wikipedia and pretend we're experts, because this is the Internet, and that's how it works now I'm no illusions and I'm going to be leading this expedition this week, but I'll need somebody to carry me once the frostbite sets in, so I'm excited to welcome the three men that I would most like to. Climb into like at Taunton in that order seat so. I'm like third row seating Tonton. Just. Holding. That's a couple years. I'M NOT GONNA. Make any jokes about stuffing my Gash because I'm too classy are waves. Good to know that you're too classy for. Quick before we get any further, I want to remind you that allies not here this week because he's at home taking care of his brand new adorable, little baby, who sued future of is almost entirely dependent on the continued viability of podcasting for a living during the Great Depression level economic downturn. Pay For this show if you want to. He's like. Of the shell that out of the way, tell us heath, what person place thing concept phenomenon or abet? We'll be talking about today. We're GONNA. Be Talking about Napoleon's invasion of Russia. And seasonal. You seem pretty confident. You can take a topic this big. Are you ready to set off underprepared overconfident? It's how we roll on citation needed. Are we also invading Russia, I have my kids this weekend time to invade Russia. Time for an impromptu livestream, little owner. WHO's got impromptu? Alright so I guess depending on what angle you want to take with the intro. Who Was Napoleon. What is an invasion of where is? A. The police and the police apart was the emperor of France and the only French emperor to get exiled the two different islands. There! They were only three and one of rain for fifteen days. Okay, that's okay, so I could I could certainly go on about how interesting this guy was, and the changes that he brought about I mean the Napoleonic code is the foundation of the French legal system, but this is citation needed, and and one the Polian advocating his throne and getting exile pretty much on brand. The reason why all that took place is the real juicy morsel. This story is about how the most feared military leader of the time basically got rope adoped by a smaller army. Me Let. It's Shitty. Terrain and climate do the heavy lifting of kicking Napoleon's ass. It's about how you can really use someone strengths against them. Actually Steven Seagal worked with the Russian army while he was. Yeah. Huge like this would remain Russia's most lopsided victory until November of two thousand sixteen. And now too soon too soon. Oh! I love the idea Stevenson Confirm Napoleon's army just runs. It runs at Russia with their arm, sticking straight up. There is flipping wildly in every direction, so let's set the stage. Napoleon is doing pretty well as far as emperor does. He's kicked the shit out of Prussia and Austria, and he made a deal with the Spanish to secretly let him move troops through Spain to invade Portugal the Portuguese royalty had to flee to Rio de Janeiro to escape him then since he already. Already had a bunch of troops in Spain, decided to overthrow that country as well in eighteen, hundred Napoleon appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain, and that didn't sit too well with the Spanish, so they revolted qual. Yeah, but like no one of the Spanish, it's entirely possible. They had already scheduled that revolt before to pull. It took over as you. Say, Anyway! To be entirely fair season to overthrow Spain you just have to wait until like. Two thirty in the afternoon. You can tell the napping. That's the best added. A national. I love that we make fun of it, but it's a seriously the greatest. Make Fun because I'm jealous. Shell? built-in it's fucking great. So I, WanNa take a second here to talk about the tactics that Napoleon us on the battlefield, and in organizing his army and Planning Battles Napoleon had an amazingly large army. He called it. The Grand Army and Grand French means fucking big. I'm a linguist like Steven, seagal the first. Thing! He did is to make smaller cores large army. These units could fight and command on their own, because they had regiments from each combat arm, the cores had artillery infantry and cavalry, and could act like a smaller army, allowing it to move faster and with autonomy. Okay, so it sounds a lot like a subway franchise with like a less deplorable spokes. By the way every time you wrote. Grind are may I saw our Miana `grande. This led to two other things that the Napoleonic armies did the first is that they lived off the land instead of trying to maintain supply lines. Most armies, especially army's this is required pretty formidable supply lines to keep the troops fed well. Napoleon would live off the land as much as he could. Thereby eliminating the lifelines how there that was often highly vulnerable this tactic as well as breaking his army up into smaller pieces, a lot of another advantage, his army was more mobile and quicker than other armies, this a lot in the maneuver, and take advantage in this quick speed, allowed him to move past armies, and take their supply lines, putting them in a rock and hard place situation. It must have been awkward. The first time both armies figure this out to. Switch sides all of a sudden without realizing. Hey, you guys don't have a supply linebacker. Again me. Regular fight marching in circles for a while like dogs sniffing each other out. I'm like nearby I'm looking. Nepali was also a genius with mathematics and artillery hugh smaller, more mobile field guns instead of large cannons during battle this again made us force more mobile and Agile. He used his artillery for a cluster effect. He would point a lot of guns at one area, decimating it instead of pointing his cannon at the whole field in spreading it out this helped with flanking and splitting his enemy apart, which were his preferred form of battlefield tactics. Okay, that's good. I feel like they're stretching the term math genius. Z. Cannons in the Middle Imogene. Getting, it's like. Okay weapons messes low unwieldy and credibly inaccurate. We should probably not read them like enormous sniper. Until. Let's get back to the Spanish in our story about the French invasion of okay. Okay I never do that to you by the way. Always I was crossed. Sit Cross legged at your feet. On. Napoleon goes in takes over the country pretty much without bloodshed, and then seeing it's enhanced. He leaves well when they revolted, they started a guerrilla war, and that's is not playing the tactics. That I described before Napoleon's used to kick in the shit out huge armies, not having his troops get their throats slit in the night, so Spanish started winning battles against his armies, and he wasn't there. He eventually had enough gathered a quarter million troops in March through Spain and took it back over, but the damage to his reputation was done countries in his forced alliance thought that he looked vulnerable. Paintings he was. What a massive occupying force completely demoralized by a rag tag group of personally invested local militants. I'm glad we study history and hate to have. That egg on our face again. Again. And again. Russia at this point. Has a peace treaty with France, but they're struggling financially. The system of trade that Napoleon institutes basically forbids countries to trade with Britain. Russia disregards this order in trades with them, and there are some other territory disputes, but the real reason for the invasion is for one big tough guy to show the other big tough guy who's. So on. twenty-fourth, Eighteen, twelve, two hundred and eight years ago. Today Napoleon starts his invasion. Okay, all right. Does anyone else just think we should have to say history out loud a few times a year? As we all. Get getting. Square to recite it. Start to finish every year yeah. All wrap voting. A. Now, there's lots of different numbers for the size of the French forces. It varies between half a million to six hundred, thousand of seen even seven, hundred and fifty thousand. A this grand army is it's called. It was stocked up to last about thirty days with provisions, and as I mentioned before. That's really not much of a problem. When Napoleon conducted this kind of military activity in central Europe is, horses could live off the land. He's in for just a slight surprise in Russia though. You don't when we think of Russian president picture a fat Guy No. Such a dumb move going to Russia right away like that. Everybody knows you start with Australia there. There's another. And then you move over to Africa South America. Risk. The bridge. Army, the size is also an ecological disaster. I mean you have a military force of the population? This is a modern day Atlanta marching across the land. The lack of clean water pretty much immediately creates a dysentery epidemic. In fact, it wasn't the only illness that would wreak havoc on the French forces. They had to contend with typhus, influenza and Diptheria Oh and the elements and the lack of supplies, but we'll get there. Yeah, no to be clear. The guys who like died from Diptheria right up front the lucky ones. and. See so when I read your essay the first time I thought you, said elephants, instead of elements and I got like. Rose. Do Hannibal next week for you. I was I was pretty jazzed. Only time we've read an elephant. We killed it on this show. Right I don't think. We murdered at send. You know what that's what they did. To to have elephants anymore that guy from Brooklyn Brooklyn. Can't talk about it even though it's right in the room. And The rose army. The Russian armies led by Michael Andreas Barclay to totally now in the things I've read. They've shortened his name down to Barklay. So that's home and refer to him. He's in charge of one hundred, thousand, one, hundred thirty thousand Russian soldiers, so he's outnumbered about four to five to one and it at at a certain point, he's replaced by the czar, but really he's the reason that Napoleon fails that overconfidence and under planning and the fact Napoleon is French, but. One of the reason because he knew how to minimize disadvantages and maximizes advantages and the biggest advantage had was that. Russia is not terribly hospitable. Well I right, but like French rudeness didn't slow down the Nazis. Not Terribly hospitable. That is the nicest way to say shit whole country. I think. So the grand army. Starts this expedition in summer, so they're packed for hot weather, but they weren't prepared for how ungodly hot it was going to get. The heat on the trail was oppressive. They never give an exact temperature, but they use words like stifling an intense. The troops also weren't ready for the temperature swing between night and day the temperature drop like a rock when the sun went down in the army wasn't prepared for that the also not happy. Again. You know when that Sun goes down. Just a Russian. The temperature swings I guess were really dramatic. Like yeah, yeah, so it's really it's a dramatic swing. They also weren't expecting the thunderstorms that soaked the road and turned in a muck. Because a half, a million people walked over, so it might at this point actually saved us some trouble. If you just narrowed this down to what they were expecting owner. Who's just like what if it rains shut up? What Shoe Shara Pierre I saw? The thing was seven sunny. Smiley faces on. The. What do I wear? APP and it doesn't say anyth- coming like a long sleeved T. Forecast not even accurate. Now I'm going to bring one. I don't WANNA pack two Layers? Layers? Room for a second pair of shoes anyway, so here's a quote from historian Richard Ryan. Quote the thunderstorms of the twenty fourth turned into other downpours, turning the tracks some dire claim, there were no roads in Lithuania into bottomless Myers wagons sunk up to their hubs. Horses drop from exhaustion. Men lost their boots as soon as it was autumn. All the wagons became obstacles that forced men around them and stop supply wagons and artillery columns, then came the sun, which would bake deep ruts into canyons of concrete, were horses would break their legs and wagons, their wheels and quote go. You're making wars sound like a huge bummer. Alright well I guess while we pause for a moment of remembrance for all the lost boots that somehow made it into the. Little Apropos of nothing. His Eye Napoleon, Bonaparte. Emperor false and soon to be conqueror of A. Company telling them. Lucid Goose Yeah. Yeah yeah about that. Who Are you? I'm you I'm Napoleon like you, but without the accent from the. Is Ozzy future okay. Tell me. ME. What gloves await me after my. Inevitable and swift defeat of. You're right, so that's why I'm here. You Might WanNA rethink. A few things. Really like what okay so you know, we're French and we basically invented food. We like took over Spain, and the topics were just terrific. We mixing it up. To take cluster little. Z. Ham in Spain is worth it just for them. Yeah, yeah, so have you. Have you ever said these words? Hey, there's a great new Russian place that just opened up. No no I have not. Not Necessarily Jira. Well! You're saying you're. You're planning to feed your army on Russian land scraps. You might want to look at the menu. Men Are. The best sell. Just France has to offer I. got eat there frogs if we have to go without butter will lead a bag even if they are A. Day Old and starting to get. The to. Currency. We re not afraid of a little hardship, even playing. Yeah, right, you might want to. Pack an extra lunch on? Scoff at you at me. I scoff it. US. FOR NEVER SURRENDER! Launch Shantonu motto. But. Nothing. And we're back. We last left off. The Earth had literally opened up to swallow the bottom half of Napoleon's army. and. Backing up some more. You pick up the threat from. Pretty. quickly, band story no. The Russian general new outnumbered, and he also knew that he didn't have the quick artillery or the modern weapons of the grand army, so he did not rush up to face off against them. Instead he retreated to villainous with an eye to continue retreat to another town called Drissa. The entire way they employed scorched earth techniques, burning down structures and chasing away livestock. They basically took away Napoleon's ability to thrive off the land in the fridge. Show up to burn our cities revealed. Surprise. Guy. Sh-. Ruin our country to save it. Would you look at all this? This looks like a swamp. Did we move to Lithuania? Should we just let him have? Napoleon thought he'd catch the army of villainous, and he'd have one quick decisive battle, and if he beat the Russians bad enough, and they would sue for peace, allowing to get the spoils of war and finish the campaign quickly his march there through the countryside Lithuania was not pleasant. Still True. Today your. The country bucket list. The country was inhospitable marshy and sparsely populated tracks. Yeah, on your bucket list, so look at so when his troops arrived in villainous, they were tired, hungry and road worry guys. What do they even trading with Britain like cold mud? Dan. Talking about. Napoleon arrives in villainous on June twenty eighth, and it's deserted, so he sets up a depot for supplies, but while the major Russians departs to Drissa another contingent heads in the other direction, this smaller force behind and basically disrupts Napoleon supply lines using his own tactic against him when Napoleon would at time send forces after each of these armies. And when he dedicated trips to them, they would attack in Harry in the other direction, right? It's like monkey in the middle, but with death. It's very low stakes monkey in the middle. Dude. Fuck I did. So, while Barklay was effective, depriving Napoleon of any supplies, and encouraging him to exhaust and his troops, he was not popular as you can imagine the brave Sir Robin tactics employing. We're not going over well with the Russian nobility. All of whom thought he was doing an absolute shit job in. Even though they were outnumbered, they should fight like men had on Barclay Barclay after this is all over. We'll be known as a hero by a lot of Russians, but when it's happening, everyone was begging the czar to replace him. Okay, what's happening that care so much like French people making fun of the Russians on, twitter. Other playing field other getting phone chat. Barclay's forces retreat to dress up by July tenth. He leaves a rearguard dangling hate that so. Toilet paper a okay, all right getting into photo that stopped. Trying to get Napoleon to take the bait and follow him. He thinks stress is a good place to make a stand put Napoleon's not stupid and I can see that Barclays trying to set the hook, so he ignores Barclay and he heads towards Moscow now this whole time his troops are starving. People are literally keeling over on the side of the trail from a forced march. Okay, we need you to March until you're half dead, but remember you're GonNa have to March back when we're. A. The crazy thing is that Napoleon focused on victory that he ignores the fact that is supply chain is literally doing its job. They're placing within a few miles of the route tons of food for his troops, but he ignores it, or it doesn't occur to him, or he's so focused on moving forward. He doesn't want want to slow up. Whatever the reason he neglects the food and his troops die because of it. How like crime on this giant Palette of canned food? So you could see the enemy. Bush then. Now Wallace troops are dying from starvation. There is enough grazing land for the horses, but the horses are actually eating types of grass. They're not accustomed to eating, so they're getting digestion issues and. Digestion issues for a horse or a little complicated. But they have like this real easy fix you see you. Stick your whole arm up to the shoulder in the horse's ass. Out The blind. Yacht. Up to the shoulder, horse's ass, pull out the blocks. The length of your arm again, I! Guess, it's just you know. What if you have a short arm? What do you do? Get a guy with a longer arm over here? Your horse is going to be matched to the length of your legs. This makes sense guys. So one time I fuck it, t rex arms would come in. Guy He. Region. Reach something for? something. Embarrassing, that I can't get the bulls down from the top shelf. At least you have to stick my arm up this horse. So I'm not sure how tight fit it is, but but after a few times it's probably pretty apple Lusa off right in. APPALOOSAS Kinda horse audience. Biscuit. Your? Your hands are so colt. Here's the thing. Somebody had to figure that out for the first time. Somebody was like. Oh, the horses are having digestion problems. I'M GONNA. Try some. Plan I've tried to eight animals. It hasn't worked yet, but Dan. It's good. You know what I'm buying. March behind party horse. Now that I think. I think. In your head up to your solution, we were still infringe. That's your solution a lot. Big Arm Steve. Barkley sees that Napoleon is heading in a different direction. The pulling Napoleon is heading to a town, called Smolensk so Barkley heads there first and sets up some fortifications. The orders from above are basically begging Barklay to engage, so he digs in any weights, but when Napoleon does show up Barclay fights for a bit. Artillery barrage kills about five thousand charging Frenchman, and then issues a controlled retreat. He abandoned the city, which the French had already burned to the ground with an artillery barrage, and he crossed the river, destroying the bridges to the French couldn't easily follow the losses for this battle range, but authors put them as high as twenty thousand for each side. Damn and he's just like man I can't wait to defeat those Russians and all these burnt out. Of starving, villagers will become French burnt out hus- starving. Villagers we will know the sweet taste. We wait I don't know. Now Oh. We trade mud with Britain trade. Back to square one. Napoleon stops in Smolensk. He holds a meeting with his generals to talk about the plan. Almost all of them WANNA wait there. The battle took place in mid August, so they figured that they would wait for the supplies to catch up to them. Resupply restock dig in for the long Russian winner and resume the invasion in the Spring Napoleon decides instead that he wants to pursue the Russians and abandoned. Smolensk heading for Moscow the generals. They're like I don't want to take a gap year. Right I want to be red-shirted. Maybe a backpack around. Brecker, What could go wrong with a major leader doesn't listen to his general. It's actually one one general. I didn't put this in but one general one, Polish general was wanted to finish, so he could become like some kind of barren or king of some area, and so he was really pushing Napoleon and I guess he had his ear, and he twisted enough and I. Think the point. Yeah. It was one Polish guy really who sort of twisted it all up. Now until this point, there's lots of little battles that took place and I've skipped over them I. Mean I call him little battles? But these skirmishes were one side loses under ten thousand men, six, thousand, here, three thousand there, but at Borodino the army's would clash in their full might well dude. I have heard such a cavalier dismissal of thousands of deaths in. Jesus camp announced Georgia's timeline of reopening. Since Georgia's bowling schedule got released. Exactly. To be tirelessly fair Noah like Russia. Losing ten thousand lives is like it's not even noteworthy. It's like if this is like a WHO cares less about Russian lives, contests between the Russians and. Anyone, ever in all of history, Russia's win and. Many of those contracts. That's solution. Now I, said earlier, the full might the armies, and I say for my at Borodino Napoleon and already lost two hundred twenty thousand troops to hunger disease in conflict, so his phone force at this point is much smaller than when he entered Russia. Also before the battle, the czar replace. Barklay with another General Mikhail could've could've basically does the same thing Barkley does fortifies position waits for Napoleon to March. At the Battle Board Dino. There's a lot of back and forth. I could go into the tax, but there's there's placing of troops encountering charging and dying you are. A little bit, not much I was GONNA. Talk about how they use this one line of tree anyway so the. I don't want to get into England. TWIT! Okay, it was macbeth. Burns! Exactly Ninety used as a dream us to to make sure that they could anyway so the initial setup by the Russians tried to learn Polian to have him perform a tactic of the lie to employ, and thus fall into a trap Napoleon avoids it Napoleon, and could also guest wrong about where the other place their troops, cavalry and artillery. Like, okay, you guys are nowhere near the Big Red X. Most standing there and to safes fall right, DEX. At the end of the day there were seventy thousand, and this is one day seventy thousand casualties for both sides was the bloodiest day in the Napoleonic wars, and you know the funny thing about seventy thousand casualties in a single day is. The kind of sentence opening. It's my job to finish this journey. I'm going to say. This job started with the holiday more I just want. Now, the Russians lost more troops, but since they were on Russian soil, it would take a lot more casualties for them to like technically lose, they could replenish a lot easier than the French okay, but to be clear. It's not replenished their supplies. Just you know. Replenish their Russian the. Working. At one point in this battle, historians think Napoleon could have won if he deployed his reserve troops, but he didn't thinking he could win the battle without them. Kutuzov, realizing that he's just. GonNa lose more troops does what Barklay dead, and he calls her retreat to Moscow promising his troops and his staff that they can collect more soldiers and guard. Moscow, Okay Reserve troops are just like standing there. Being like well, we're not called in. They were like his his like real. His personal guard reserve. Jurors. Jamil races. That's. I know there is personal guarded I. Think he just didn't? He didn't send them because he thought he had the battle in hand, and he didn't, and he probably could have won. Because of. At least that's what. I'm on my fifteen still. They, were they were. They were protecting him I guess. Anyway the Russians were treat, but they leave a rearguard so fierce that the French can't actually advance to follow the fleeing army for two full days, the Russians that were left there were basically sacrificed, but they prevented the entire army from being overrun, Moscow, at this point, pretty much abandoned the city, and the Russian plans for defending it really never materialized, and they march right past it. Okay I. Mean I know that they're winning and all and that they do, but it still feels like the fucking Russians cheating. Right? Quitting at risk by like pondering over your next move until I have to go home. This this actually to me. This feels like beating yourself up I to save your bully. Does Take the Polian five days to get to the gates, a Moscow, and he finds it burning and abandoned, and he of course is disappointed, thinking either job. Voice thinking, he's either gonNA crush rush the remaining forces there or at least receive an unconditional surrender, and he doesn't get either what is also customary, is that the city leaders who basically feed and house the invading troops in exchange for sparing the city? Well, no one's there with a hot plate orders in the warm tower points this man. This is the mood there's nobody to plunder from. I didn't even want to plunder now this is. So, there's a fire in Moscow that night. It could actually be its own citation needed, and it's not certain how it starts. It rages for a few days until the entire city is pretty much ash. The capital Russia at the time. Saint Petersburg and even though the city is called the second capital, it's basically worth about tree fifty, so Napoleon did not receive a lengthy surrender agreement from the czar instead. He looked around at zero assets snow and he couldn't push forward anymore and he left for home. It's not that easy just picking up and living Russia it's coming up on winner. The troops at this point are starving. The road is totally burnt. And if you think the Russians were just going to let them walk away, think again they basically harass Harry the army, the entire March, the horses have nothing to eat, and they're either left to die or eaten for food, and this means all the cavalry men just got. Got To motor infantry and all those heavy cannons are just left behind Napoleon came to Russia with half a million men, and he left with legend. Has It twenty two thousand man? Wow, now now there there may have been as many as one hundred thousand prisoners of war, so it isn't as bad as it sounds, but it's still pretty fucking. Do I'm sure the PUCK? In Russian war preserves made it out just fine. That's fair. Somehow in this thing, the real winners were like the guys who poop themselves to death in the first six hours. Fuck it. They knew how get it done. Yeah! Man God, Damn Napoleon's forces one really. Whole ends armies never the same after that I mean he had to rebuild the whole thing, and he did a pretty good job getting it back to four hundred thousand men. But a lot of his veterans were gone, and he had lost a tremendous amount of horses and cannon. Russia was pretty obvious that he could be beaten and then the next few years he would be beaten a few times until finally loses it all and gets to that I. Island I think the story is such a great tale of overconfidence, incompetence and French failure. It's just a shame Eli missed it. You know it's all it's all. Getting yourself to death. Interesting Horses Yeah Yeah. All right so if you had to summarize what you learned in one sentence, what would it be as Polian era soldier, sticking your entire arm up a horses. Ass is probably the best thing that happened on trips. Warm warm in here, guys! Elephants excess. Also. Worse! Goals. We gotta make a chain. It's actually a lot. Tug of the role three times. Okay we got. This isn't working. It's like shooting pool with a rope got. To. Ourselves All right in. Are you ready for the Quiz so God nothing I'm asleep. Seasonal which of the following is the best asp porn about the French army? He's out. Here. This is my favorite part of everything. Thank you so much for. All right, which is the best born a? Black booty. He always a good choice actually I'm Russia with glove. The Derby Sanchez. To phillies one copy. or Deep, dish impact. I gotta go with a secret answer APP. All of the above. They're all amazing. There's no best you cannot rank one better than the other. That is absolutely correct. Yeah, so good so good all right see so. Napoleon probably should have known that. Russia would never gill to a foreign power. What clues to Russian fortitude might have tipped. Russians drink vodka like hikers sipping camelback. A meteor blew up the sky. In Russia. Many of the locals stood up to fight it. See. Common Street scam in Russia to purposely throw yourself in front of a car, and then either sue or fight the driver that is after I fighting the. ZANGARI's got his start in St. Russian sports all seem to involve enormously STOIC men taking massive amounts of punishment in extreme competitions to see who drops I. This is not a war strategy. This is recreation in Russia. Actually called it a Poli- auto war the big French tickle fight. I. Again trying to throw me off, you want me to pick one, but it's not. It's all the above. It's easy. Bit Is that he probably should. Olympic. Team is called collection of countries. have. You ever seen the Russian slap fighting. Each Other, just slap each other until someone does are want to. Were they crying because they knock each other. Slapping all right so I've got I got one. That can stump be here seasonal? If Eli had been on this episode, How would he have avoided the work of actually writing one of these question bits for the end? Do that hilarious. He's just so bad at puns. Classic be totally weird metal thing that ignores the show subject matter entirely and instead relies on the fictitious personas who crafted for the purposes of this program. That is not what I'm doing right now. That's what you're doing right now. You Have A kid. I'M GONNA. Go with the grossest answer. D. Have A kid. That's the most disgusting. Because that's what he did all right well, it was. Nobody was able to stop you this week. So see so you on the episode. You can choose to host next week. That is a perfectly sensible dynamic ties each episode together wonderfully. Downstairs to be next week to listen to this next week. It's totally ruined I. Don't I can't listen. I'm going to choose Tom to go next at. You're perfectly sane, system. PROCEDURE HE TOM and to a lesser extent ally is. Taking. Today, we'll be back next week by then. Tom We'll be an expert something else between now and then you can hear more from Thomson. Sean cognitive dissonance and the sexiest crab species it. You can hear more from than me on the scaling atheist got off his the skeptical at DVD, minus and probably some other fucking show by now, too, and if you'd like to help, keep this show going per episode donation at Patriotair Dot, com citation or leave a five star review anywhere. You can only get in touch with us. Check out past episodes connect with social media or check the show notes. BE SURE TO CHECK OUT CITATION POD DOT COM.

Napoleon Russians army Russia Grand Army French army Russia Moscow Polian Britain Barklay France Russia Spain Spain Russian army Borodino Napoleon Lithuania Tom Drissa