17 Burst results for "Francis Galton"

"francis galton" Discussed on WGN Radio

WGN Radio

04:09 min | Last month

"francis galton" Discussed on WGN Radio

"Jim. How are you doing? Fine, thank you. Well, we're talking about eugenics. To an extent, a yes. Well, I think the whole thing was wrong. What's your opinion? All right, well, I mean, our guests can offer you some thoughts. So you think what was wrong with eugenics was wrong? Yes, I think that's what I would call I was saying. Well, yeah, yeah. It is wrong because again, it was made up and it was made up by Charles Darwin and his younger cousin Francis galton. They're the fathers of eugenics. They made it up because they were paranoid about what their whites are from this genes being infringed upon by these other ethnicities that would ultimately overpopulate and take more of the resources, et cetera, et cetera. So yeah, it is it's a scam. It's concocted out of whole cloth, out of thin air. And there's nothing scientific about it. But it was the impetus in justification for the worst mass genocides in human history. And so it needs to be rejected on all fronts at all times in all forms. All right, call from Allen in Oakland, California for Kevin mcgarry. Good evening Allen. Hello, Jim. Apparently Charles Darwin has given credit for things that a lot of people said much later for example, there was no such word as Jean in 1850, words like inheritance that he used. Are not the same as they are today. And millions and millions of people have read about Charles Darwin in the world. And not his cousin. Nobody's ever even heard of his cousin. And now I would like the author to give me the exact book paragraph and quotes that he claims that are racist in Charles Darwin, because nobody seems to know them, but the author here. That's a good one. Great call. Thank you for asking. That's a wonderful question. Try to put the author on the hot seat. That's wonderful. It's beautiful. Here's the deal. If you go to Charles Darwin's work, his original work is first work, look at this subheading where it says for the most favored races. And then you try to decipher what that means. Then go to the descent of man, then you take a look at what he says about black specifically. When he calls him 8 savages and gorillas. Now, he said that about blacks and aborigines. You know he did a lot of study as well in New Zealand and some of these other areas. So I don't know what you would call that. I don't think that's a compliment. I do think that that is a racist trope, especially calling black gorillas in subhuman, of which the judge and the dred Scott case used Darwin's actual term subhuman in the original dred Scott decision. And then gave Darwin sort of credence for that because, you know, he said, look, blacks are subhuman. The orange did all the work. And so that's why red Scott, that's how dred Scott with nowhere. So I do, if you want actual letters, quotes, and everything from Darwin's works, get the book. It's in the book. It's all footnoted, and I have it footnoted a million ways to Sunday because I know that Darwin is the world over. So just get the book. It's fine. There you go. The book, the book is titled woke up and it is, what is the publisher? I guess it's available on Amazon, right? It's available on Amazon, baby. You could even do it on Kendall. Just go to it right now and get the hard copy or Kendall and then you're off to the race. All right, back in a moment. Dag press

Charles Darwin Kevin mcgarry Francis galton Jim Allen dred Scott Darwin Oakland Jean California red Scott New Zealand Amazon Kendall Dag press
"francis galton" Discussed on WGN Radio

WGN Radio

05:35 min | Last month

"francis galton" Discussed on WGN Radio

"In Wilmington, Delaware, good evening. Mister burger, you are bringing a brilliant man sir and you are a brother Fisher to meet here in Delaware, which is awoke Paradise. It's been a blue state for ages. It's a world Paradise. It produced Joe Biden's loser. Do you cover it all in your book, mister merry? I'm curious, Margaret Sanger, and the Bertha plant character that also. Absolutely. One of the most wretched things that durran unleashed is eugenics. Now, a lot of people don't really know the backstory of why he actually unleashed eugenics. Let me just tell you why. So Darwin and his younger cousin, Francis gulkin. Francis galton was more of the statistician type scientist. So they began to look at populations and ethnic populations, especially. And it concerned them about their own supremacy that they said, look, all these other ethnicities are actually populating in a far greater rate than we are as white area in Europeans. And so we need to figure out a scientific way to justify exterminating these other races. So here's the deal, folks. Eugenics was born out of white supremacy and there's no way around it. Darwin and his cousin Francis galton were paranoid about the pure white Aryan gene pool as they would describe it. And so they started eugenics out of whole cloth. They said, why don't we call it eugenics? Call it, which means well born, quote unquote. And anybody that is not fitting the well born mode that would be those that are confirmed and all of that can be some merrily exterminated. From that, you had Hitler Stalin, Lenin, Pol Pot, mile, and all of your genocidal despots using eugenics using Darwin for justification for exterminating their own population. Then we come to the United States, Margaret Sanger, of course, with eugenics. And she started playing parenthood and her first thing that she said when she was starting her clinics was, look, we don't want the word to get out, but we want to fully exterminate the Negro population. That's why Planned Parenthood is here. And I connect all the dots in this book to that and then some. So it's an important read. Tommy and Charleston, West Virginia, good evening. Gentlemen, I have to apologize, although excellent guest again, but the Doc just stole my thunder. I was going to ask about the eugenics thing. And I don't have, I won't take up any more airtight, docs felt my son, that he's irrational in a row. Thank you for allowing me. Well, of course. All right, let's go to Robert and Charleston, South Carolina, good evening. Hi, Jim and hello to your guests. I just wanted to say that I learned psychology and alpha university. You want to get really good professors over there. And they said that actually, it's groups like majority groups who are discriminated against in some cases. Actually, they discriminate against each other much more than white people discriminate against them because for example, my mom, she was a she was a Professor of psychology, by the way, fairly different to the university and two others. And she told me this was horrible feeling that women were discriminated against each other and particularly even against her because she was very successful and they were discriminated against each other much more than men with discriminating against them. And that's one thing I want to say. The other thing I wanted to say is that he was a very famous psychologist you know about him, of course, and he figured that boys have any press complexes. Both are naturally, but I don't believe that because I think that all of those patients are the vast majority of them were German Jewish boys, both of my fathers, my stepfather, and my father were both German Jewish boys and of course they could not be returned Jewish men. But both of them had that increased complex. I didn't have it because I'm happy. I'm actually over half Italian. But at one 8 5 two from Benson, who makes. Okay, so in other words, I didn't have, but I wasn't born with that Oedipus complex. I didn't inherit that. And so I'm not sure that your personal experience necessarily applies here. I'm not really sure I buy into the notion, Kevin, that women discriminate more against women than do men or that people of color discriminate more against other people of color than do whites. Some, perhaps, more than I find that hard to believe. Well, you know, I don't know, and I don't know if there's been an actual study on that. Here's the bottom line for everyone to remember. We do have people that have preferences and discriminations and biases and even maladies of the heart that would include hate for others and what this book is trying to do is to eliminate illuminate where this stuff comes from and give us the keys for how to begin to overcome this wretched evil. Discrimination, prejudice, racism, all of it, whether it's against somebody in your own plan or you're somebody in your own dinner or not. It doesn't matter. It's wrong. And we need to figure out a way to get out of this. All right. Matt in eastern North Carolina good evening. Hello, Jim. How are you doing? Fine, thank you. Well, we're talking about eugenics. To an extent, a yes. Well

Francis galton Darwin Margaret Sanger Mister burger durran Francis gulkin Delaware Hitler Stalin Joe Biden alpha university Charleston Wilmington Fisher West Virginia Tommy South Carolina United States Jim Robert Benson
"francis galton" Discussed on WCPT 820

WCPT 820

07:00 min | 6 months ago

"francis galton" Discussed on WCPT 820

"People pointing to the fact that he won't let anybody get more than 30 feet from him and all this kind of stuff as proof of that I think the answer is much simpler than any of these things or you could argue that all of these things are symptoms of the real answer the much larger answer And that is that Russia is failing for a lack of democracy that Putin is failing because of a lack of democracy I mean seriously and people would ask can I really be that simple I mean we're the founders of this republic And the founders of every country that has followed our lead and become a democracy since the 1780s could they have been that brilliant Or is it that just like intrinsic and core to our humanity the democracy always works better And my assertion is that the answer is yes And let me build the case here This word didn't exist back when the constitution was written but what democracy essentially is is crowdsourcing I mean the idea of crowdsourcing is that the greater the number of inputs the greater the number of eyeballs on a problem the more likely you are to have an honest and factual response Aristotle wrote about this in politics I mean he just explicitly said it He said it is more proper for the multitude to be sovereign than just then the few of greatest virtue And then he goes by and he goes through and explains why Even if you've got the very best people they can't govern as well as everybody Back in 1906 sir Francis galton tried a famous experiment where he was at a county fair and they had an ox that had been butchered and dressed So there's this giant pile of meat and bones right And he asked random passers by at this county fairer to guess the weight of this pile of meat 787 people During the course of the fair I don't know how long it lasted probably a few days The median guess golden carefully recorded every single one of those 787 guesses The median guess was that the ox weighed 1197 pounds When they were all done they weighed it in a weight 1198 pounds The crowd was off by one pound and scales being they were back then It might have actually been that the crowd was right in the scales were wrong This wisdom of the crowd is why we have juries When things involve life or death issues or freedom or putting somebody in jail it's why companies ask for customer feedback So that they can do rapid course correction It's why we look at the reviews the ratings of the crowd when we're thinking about buying a product online It's why we look to and have faith in crowdsourced products Yes they have their flaws but and some of them have been corrupted somewhat but nonetheless at its core we know that the early crowdsourced versions of Linux and Firefox and the current version of Wikipedia are generally fairly reliable It's also why every advanced democracy in the world except America makes it super easy to vote Because they want the majority of people to participate in the democracy and then you're going to have elections that actually make sense Putin's Russia though I mean Russia was a democracy for a couple of years I was in Kaliningrad in 1999 when the first election was held When Boris Yeltsin was elected it was an actual democratic small D democratic election I mean within a couple of years Putin yeltsin basically picked had taken over and that was kind of the end of that but it was the end of that because of the so called neoliberal reforms that we put in place so that we help them put in place The whole Milton Friedman Ronald Reagan George H. W. Bush Thing that Bill Clinton even got in on the act on in the Virginia era between 1991 when the Berlin Wall fell and 1994 when Ukraine gave up their missiles and Russia was really seriously making the transition So what you have now is Russia made the transition from a communist nation to a democracy that lasted for a year or so a couple of years to a oligarchy as a result of neoliberalism as a result of reaganism And from there to a strong man dictatorship And strongman dictators have a long long history going all the way back to the Caesars of making stupid decisions that hurt them and their countries And sure enough there it is And there's a lesson in this for us We've got a Republican Party that has fully embraced not only neoliberalism but also authoritarianism They are congratulating people for political violence like January 6th and supporting racialized violence All the attacks on BLM and all so this is all like this is the mother's milk of the Republican Party now And the result of that is that and they're trying to suppress the vote and the result of that is that we're having less and less democracy Somebody on Twitter this morning you have to read a my article said well yeah but we don't have a democracy here either Look at George W. Bush line as into the war in Iraq And I'm like you're absolutely right I mean this is the Supreme Court put George W. Bush into office When the Florida Supreme Court said let's recount the vote And this was obviously after Jeb Bush had removed the names of 90,000 African Americans in Florida from the voting rolls because there were felons in Texas with similar names So the election was rigged You know of course we ended up with George Bush and we ended up with terrible decision making because he figured hey no matter what I do I'm in charge Remember when George W. Bush said it would be a whole lot easier if I were a dictator Or if America was a dictatorship just so long as I get to be the dictator which he thought was a punchline a joke We've got to confront We have to understand that it's authoritarianism that comes out of neoliberalism that has destroyed or that is in the process of destroying Russia and Putin's presidency And that that very same authoritarianism or a slightly wilder strain of it But essentially at its core the same thing is what brought Donald Trump into The White House and had he stayed in The White House for another four years would have ended democracy in the United States And we need to build the guardrails We need to build the protections We need to return to democracy And frankly one of the main obstacles.

Russia sir Francis galton Putin Putin yeltsin Milton Friedman Ronald Reagan George W. Bush Boris Yeltsin Kaliningrad Republican Party George H. W. Bush Bill Clinton United States Ukraine Berlin BLM Virginia
"francis galton" Discussed on Science Friction

Science Friction

08:04 min | 8 months ago

"francis galton" Discussed on Science Friction

"Unique. We were 6 when we first attended an in person clinic for the twin study. We traveled to a grand old medical building on the fringes of Melbourne's CBD. I remember huge staircase and the polished floors, and being told that we were going to have a cheek swab taken. Oh, yes, I remember being very scared that the cheeks what was gonna hurt and then the anti climax when it was a cheeks woven. It was totally fine. It was like vaguely uncomfortable for a millisecond. Jen and I were part of a study being run by the university of Adelaide, looking at the jeans, teeth, and faces of Australian twins. The shake swap was taken for a zygosity test to confirm whether we were fraternal or identical. For total twins, the result of two eggs being fertilized by two separate sperm. For tonal twins share about the same amount of DNA a single born siblings, or singletons, as they're known in the twin research world. Identical tweens are the result of a single fertilized egg, but splits to create two embryos, so their genetic profile is a much closer match. Jen and I were never dressed the same, and we were always placed in separate classes at school, but beside our closest family and friends, just about everyone else struggled to tell us apart. And a few months after that cheek swap around the time we turned 7. The results came here. Despite what our mother had been told when we were born. Jen and I were identical. As a gossip story, turns out it's actually quite a common one among tweens. It's something researcher Jeff Craig first encountered about ten years ago at a twins festival in Melbourne. Yes, you heard me. That's absolutely a thing. And at this festival, Japanese team were offering free zygosity tests. We put an advertisement just one week before the festival on the twins research Australia website. We think, oh, and that got a handful. And we opened the doors after we set up a culture race course. And there was like a tsunami of parents and they're pushes just queuing up a big air to find out the truth. Jeff Craig is a Professor of epigenetics and cell biology at deakin university school of medicine. He's also the deputy director of twins research Australia. And Jeff was surprised at what they discovered next. Up to one third of those twins were either misinformed or just simply didn't know about their own identity whether identical African. So that's quite a lot. So not alone in being late to find that out. Yes, there's many many twins. I think our oldest twins who found out were in their 80s. Oh wow. And so we realized that there were myths going around such as if twins each had their own placenta, there must be fraternal, and we now know that it's not necessarily that way. One third of identical twins also have their own placenta. The remaining two thirds share a placenta. And I guess one of the other myths was that identical twins must be identical in every way. Including personalities teeth, et cetera, and that's not the case identical twins can be physically and behaviorally different as well. I think those were the main two myths. The study of twins has a long and at times checkered history. So Francis galton a distant cousin of Darwin was among the first to recognize the research potential of twins. A prominent figure of Victorian science, his work in the late 19th century used twins to explore the influences of heredity and environment, paving the way for the debate over nature and nurture. Into the genetic era, researchers continued to work with twins. As a kind of naturally occurring experiment. The first kind of research was asking whether a condition was more influenced by genes or environment. And even though now, we know it's always genes and environment. The knowledge genetics and knowledge of environment has been important. For example, it was suspected that smoking increased the risk of bone fracture. Researchers knew there were many things that could influence the risk of bone fracture. So in an earlier Australian twin study, they started recruiting identical twin pairs, where over a period of years, one of the twins smoked, and the other didn't. And so that particular type of model same genetics for definite environment was very informative in this case. It said there was a causative link between smoking and bone density and therefore they could conclude that smoking lower bone density is more likely to lead to osteoporosis and fractures. Because they took that genetic component away and looked only at that environment. Even before Jen and I had received our zygosity test result. We'd been contributing to our twin study in another way. By collecting our baby teeth, we were each given a small jar, clear plastic with a yellow lead, the kind used to take pathology samples. And inside was a little slip of paper, showing two neat semicircles of teeth, sketched in a line drawing. And do you remember collecting our teeth for this study? I do remember evening the taste and now I look back on it because you keep your teeth for the tooth fairy anyway. I think I just thought that this strange little container with the yellow lid was was just an extension. It was like a little tooth vault. Any time either of us lost a tooth, we were asked to store it in a little tooth Volt, and to write the date that it had fallen out next to the corresponding tooth on the diagram. By the way, we asked the two theory to please respect science and leave the coins, but also leave the teeth. We did this over a series of years, collecting, dating, storing teeth away. And soon, a pattern emerged. Not long before finding out, I can remember, you know, losing yet another baby tooth. And us losing those teeth within a day of each other. And they're happening on opposite sides of our mouth. There was these kind of breadcrumbs that we are linked in some quite extraordinary way. And this kept happening. Our teeth following the same eerie pattern over and again. Jen would lose a tooth on the right side of her mouth, and somewhere between a day and two weeks later, I would lose the same tooth, but on the left side of my mouth. And as we started learning to write in developing our fine motor skills, other signals became clear. Jen was predominantly left handed, where I almost always worked on the right. And somewhere in those data collecting years, we would hold this likely had meaning. Jen and I were mirror twins. When we look in the mirror and a single tip, well, we, when I look at the mirror, we see ourselves. We can identify that's my left side. That's the mirror of it. Well, with twins, it's like the mirror is not there in twins are looking at each other. And there's a lot of physical features such as birthmarks and hair walls, et cetera. And even internally, there's been some with the organ positions, et cetera. So it's kind of an experiment for twins to do if they haven't done that to see how similar are on the opposite sides. Science doesn't know who very much about Mira twins. Identifying them is actually quite subjective. There's no official diagnostic criteria. And for this reason, Miro twins have often been seen as a messy group in terms of research. Because myriad traits aren't consistent across twin peers, reproducible research is difficult, ordering on the impossible. We really don't know much about it at all. We know it happens in around one in four identical twins. And everything else is guesswork, we assume it's because when they identical twins split is maybe just after the time where the genes that determine left and right start being switched on, but we.

Jen Jeff Craig deakin university school of me twins research Australia Melbourne university of Adelaide Francis galton Jeff Darwin Australia osteoporosis Mira twins Miro twins
"francis galton" Discussed on TIME's Top Stories

TIME's Top Stories

02:57 min | 9 months ago

"francis galton" Discussed on TIME's Top Stories

"Brought to you by the 2021 Subaru share the love event. How the wisdom of crowds could solve Facebook's fact checking problem. By Jennifer Allen and David Rand, Allen is a PhD student at the MIT Sloan school of management Rand is the Irwin H shell Professor of management science and brain and cognitive sciences at MIT. In 1907, statistician Francis galton observed something strange at a county fair. Attendees were participating in a game where they guessed the weight of an ox with the closest answer to the truth winning a prize. To galton's surprise, while the guesses of the individual attendees varied wildly, the average of the crowd's gases was just one pound away from the true weight of the ox, closer than the closest individuals. The name for this phenomenon in which individual noisy judgments can be aggregated together to produce remarkably accurate results was coined by journalist James surah wiki as the wisdom of crowds, and in it lies one possible answer to a thorny issue, how to combat misinformation on Facebook. Sometimes it seems that fact checking social media has become humanly impossible. There are way too many articles for the fact checkers to fact check and AI isn't up to the task yet. In the U.S., for instance, Facebook's fact checking partners, employ a handful of people, a total of 26 employees as of the 2020 report, although the number is likely larger today, who must attempt to monitor the content of over 2 billion people and 8 billion unique URLs per year. These experts who were trained to meticulously research content and label its veracity are able to fact check only a tiny fraction of the URL content posted every day. Facebook uses automated systems to flag content similar to the false content identified by fact checkers, but even the most generous estimate of that system's bandwidth still leaves a huge amount of potentially misleading content unchecked. It certainly pays to check, research has consistently shown that corrections by fact checkers reduce belief in misinformation and make people less likely to share it. Content flagged by fact checkers can be demoted in news feed, reducing the number of people who are exposed to it in the first place, but on a platform as enormous Facebook using professional fact checkers is like turning on a faucet in a burning building, right idea, wrong scale. What if the solution were regular people? Technology companies are betting that the wisdom of crowds can help solve the scaling problem. Both Facebook and Twitter have recently launched crowdsourced fact checking products, hoping to harness the power of the masses galton discovered at that county fair..

Jennifer Allen David Rand MIT Sloan school of management Irwin H shell Professor of man Facebook James surah Francis galton galton MIT Allen U.S. Twitter
"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

06:23 min | 1 year ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Lab co host Lulu Miller. We turn to the dark side of taxonomists David Starr Jordan's fervent effort to bring order to the natural world over a century ago, a fervor that led him to the practice of eugenics, which advocated the deeply disquieting practice of improving our species by encouraging reproduction in some And suppressing it in others. The simplest thought was that you could actually kill people. He didn't think that was humane. So he suggested the idea of sterilization. Single out people he called quote unquote unfit. Again. You see him employing scientific jargon to make his beliefs sound like a biological reality. But he starts advocating for these ideas as a great way to heal society into his lectures that Stanford He talks to this really wealthy widow, Mrs Harriman and gets her to donate hundreds of thousands of dollars to start the eugenics record office, which will become a huge player. In claiming certain people are unfit based on their criminal records or their hospital records. Things like that he joins political organizations. He's a huge pusher. For these ideas and starting in 19 Oh, seven. The first eugenics law is passed in his one time stopping ground of Indiana. And it's the very first time in the world that there is forced eugenic sterilization for someone deemed unfit. He helped get it. Passing California and slowly in the early 19. Hundreds. More and more states are passing these mandatory eugenic sterilization laws. This law isn't just the first in the country. It's the first in the world. There is resistance judges or governors who strike down their states attempted eugenics law. And there are activists and even scientists calling the ideas behind eugenics. Quote unquote rot. But it did sweep the country. There were these eugenics fares at small town festivals where they would have a tent where there'd be competitions among the babies who are sort of weighed and measured like pumpkins, and they would be the best babies are the fittest families. It's so growth. It was so gross just deciding what is a desirable characteristic is such a horrible, slippery slope as you mentioned You spend some time with the Virginia State Colony for epileptics and feebleminded in Lynchburg, Virginia, in the twenties under chief Albert Pretty The centre started sterilizing women to cleanse the nation of the subpar, starting with Carrie Buck at the age of 17. She got raped. She gave birth than her parents dropped her off on Dr Pretties doorstep, and he noticed that she looked familiar to another one of his inmates. She was the daughter of M A buck, who was in the colony under allegations of prostitution and perhaps drug use. Pretty was a passionate eugenicist. He'd sterilized all kinds of people before carry mostly women for having wanderlust for passing notes in class. He had been searching for a case that could help him prove what he was doing. Was, you know, biologically sound, and he realized, Okay, well, if she's here Maybe this is proof that quote unquote feeble mindedness is heritable Because here we have a woman forced by circumstances to become a prostitute. And here look, her daughter was raped and therefore I'm judging her promiscuous. All we need to do is test her baby. And then if there's proof of feeble mindedness, there will have proof that that really feeble mindedness is heritable over the generations. And so he had someone from the eugenics record office. Come out and test this little baby. Just a few months old and you know they may be ran a penny in front of her eyes. It's not clear exactly what tests were run. But that researcher declared the baby feebleminded a little baby. Based on these bunk tests and this case, the sterilization of Carrie Buck eventually made it all the way to the Supreme Court in 1927. Under this question of Can we sterilize a person for the good of the rest of society under this eugenic ideology? And long story short. They voted 8 to 1 in favor of sterilizing her under the idea that three generations of imbeciles is enough. Uh, I was just wondering if this is a good time to mention Hitler. Yes. The American movement predated Hitler's movement, where some of the early posters to pass sterilization in Germany said We do not stand alone and there was Picture of the American flag. Americans had sterilized thousands of people and then 1933. Germany passed the law to allow the sterilization of what would eventually become hundreds of thousands of people. And an American Eugenicist. Joseph D Journal, said. The Germans are beating us at our own game. You know, I think these ideas arise from different places. Francis Galton turn coined the term eugenics in England. And, of course, like this idea of Bettering heard On your farm like that has been around for a long time. So these ideas are coming up from all over, But we were the first to legalize it in the world and to make real headway on these ideas that Certain people in society should not be allowed to live and that that will be better for the rest of us and that there is some kind of ideal. To empower and support and we should get rid of the rest actively. And a lot of these people. Agassi, David Starr, Jordan the jar net They're all over. Buildings. They have statues of them up. But academic institutions and these were people really actively pushing. For the genetic death of certain kinds of people. And so Jordan becomes a cautionary tale about where the drive to impose order on the world can take us. One of the Big reveals in your book comes in the title fish don't exist..

David Starr Agassi Francis Galton 1927 England Hitler Harriman Carrie Buck David Starr Jordan Jordan 1933 8 Lulu Miller M A buck Indiana 1 California Lynchburg, Virginia Joseph D Germany
"francis galton" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

10:24 min | 1 year ago

"francis galton" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"He called quote unquote unfit. Again. You see him employing scientific jargon to make his beliefs sound like a biological reality. But he starts advocating for these ideas as a great way to heal society into his lectures that Stanford He talks to this really wealthy widow, Mrs Harriman and gets her to donate hundreds of thousands of dollars to start the eugenics record office, which will become a huge player. In claiming certain people are unfit based on their criminal records or their hospital records. Things like that he joins political organizations. He's a huge pusher. For these ideas and starting in 19 Oh, seven. The first eugenics law is passed in his one time stomping ground of Indiana. And it's the very first time in the world that there is forced eugenic sterilization for someone deemed unfit. He helped get it. Passing California and slowly in the early 19. Hundreds. More and more states are passing these mandatory eugenic sterilization laws. This law isn't just the first in the country. It's the first in the world. There is resistance judges or governors who strike down their states attempted eugenics law. And there are activists and even scientists calling the ideas behind eugenics. Quote unquote rot. But it did sweep the country. There were these eugenics fares at small town festivals where they would have a tent where there'd be competitions among the babies who are sort of weighed and measured like pumpkins, and they would be the best babies are the fittest families. It was so growth it was so gross just deciding what is a desirable characteristic is such a horrible, slippery slope as you mentioned You spend some time with the Virginia State Colony for epileptics and feebleminded in Lynchburg, Virginia, in the twenties under chief Albert Pretty The centre started sterilizing women to cleanse the nation of the subpar, starting with Carrie Buck at the age of 17. She got raped. She gave birth than her parents dropped her off on Dr Pretties doorstep, and he noticed that she looked familiar to another one of his inmates. She was the daughter of M A buck, who was in the colony under allegations of prostitution and perhaps drug use. Pretty was a passionate eugenicist. He'd sterilized all kinds of people before carry mostly women for having wanderlust for passing notes in class. He had been searching for a case that could help him prove what he was doing was, you know, biologically sound, and he realized, okay, well, if she's here Maybe this is proof that quote unquote feeble mindedness is heritable Because here we have a woman forced by circumstances to become a prostitute. And here look, her daughter was raped and therefore I'm judging her promiscuous. All we need to do is test her baby. And then if there's proof of feeble mindedness, there will have proof that that really feeble mindedness is heritable over the generations. And so he had someone from the eugenics record office. Come out and test this little baby. Just a few months old and you know they may be ran a penny in front of her eyes. It's not clear exactly what tests were run. But that researcher declared the baby feebleminded a little baby. Based on these bunk tests and this case, the sterilization of Carrie back eventually made it all the way to the Supreme Court in 1927. Under this question of Can we sterilize a person for the good of the rest of society under this eugenic ideology? And long story short. They voted 8 to 1 in favor of sterilizing her under the idea that three generations of imbeciles is enough. Uh, I was just wondering if this is a good time to mention Hitler. Yes. The American movement predated Hitler's movement, where some of the early posters to pass sterilization in Germany said We do not stand alone and there was a picture of the American flag. Americans had sterilized thousands of people and then in 1933, Germany, passed the law to allow the sterilization of what would eventually become hundreds of thousands of people. And an American Eugenicist. Joseph D Journal, said. The Germans are beating us at our own game. You know, I think these ideas arise from different places. Francis Galton turn coined the term eugenics in England. And, of course, like this idea of Bettering heard on your farm like that has been around for a long time. So these ideas are coming up from all over, But we were the first to legalize it in the world and to make real headway on these ideas that Certain people in society should not be allowed to live and that that will be better for the rest of us and that there is some kind of ideal. To empower and support and we should get rid of the rest actively. And a lot of these people. Agassi, David Starr, Jordan the jar net They're all over. Buildings. They have statues of them up. But academic institutions and these were people really actively pushing. For the genetic death of certain kinds of people. And so Jordan becomes a cautionary tale about where the drive to impose order on the world can take us. One of the Big reveals in your book comes in the title fish don't exist. Tell me what you meant by that. So this is this amazing revelation in the biological community that taxonomists realized in about the eighties. And it goes back to the Darwin thing that actually the edges in nature are not there. This group of scientists called Clay tests came along and before you get into it, Why are they called clay tests. So Cletus is Greek for branch and it is the branches of the tree of life that they are interested in looking at accurately. Not based on this human centric sense of what goes together. Um You could lump together anything that has stripes. Then there'd be zebrafish at zebra and those little free caterpillars, But that is not a scientifically. Meaningful category of creatures. If you're trying to group things in terms of how they're related So this is the whole puzzle of taxonomy. How do you decide who is closest to whom? And so around the eighties the clay tis kind of stumbled across this idea that certain characteristics give you better clues. So they'd say. You know, Look, we got to not be distracted by things like skin or for we have to look deeper at the bone structure and the organs so they would say I'm going to hold up an image of a cow. Salmon and a lungfish lungfish looks like a pretty fishy fish scale E tail. Which of these two things are most closely related. And inevitably, a biology student would raise their hand and say the salmon and the lungfish. You know, they're both fish frozen water. That's my guess. And then slowly, the Klytus would reveal why this isn't true. And they'd say, Well, look. Both the lungfish and the cow have lungs. They both have this thing called an epiglottis. Which is this little flap of skin that goes over the throat. That kind of came along later in time, and they have more similarly structured heart. You can't deny that actually, a cow and a lungfish are more closely related to one another than along fish and a salmon. And what that means. Is that okay? You know, if you want to keep fish together, you'd have to include a cow in there and a human and a bird. You could keep all fish together. But then it's it's more like the word vertebrate like it's so broad that actually, the more scientifically sound thing to do is admit that fish is not a legitimate grouping of creatures. That aren't actually close. And you can see it's very naturally carved out by the water. You know, we just think they they have these tales and they have these fins. And so they're all fish. But that is obscuring a greater truth that there are Things down there that are more closely related to us than to one another. I learned this concept as I was researching Jordan. And it completely blew my mind. And it was this like violently counterintuitive thought. Have a sense that it matters that this isn't just a nerdy linguistic party trick. Fish don't exist. Yeah, they do. Then I set out to try to understand that I titled the book that I know people get annoyed. They roll their eyes and fish don't exist. But my sincere hope is that you emerge from this story. Not only understanding and hopefully believing that idea, but carrying it around with you as a reminder To have more doubt. In all categories around you. One dismaying conclusion you came to dismaying and wonderful is that if you're a clay dissed, you are far less inclined to Other creatures. If I'm using other as a verb there, and especially, you talk about fish. Some of whom have memory. Senses of humor. Pesky Terrians are out of luck. Yeah. I think it's about having a real vibrant curiosity. About anything you know about any any category you're making, whether it's in fish or whether it's in a type of student that you're not accepting to your institution. These eugenic sterilization laws that just kind of soberly allowed for the Violent. Cutting off of your chance to carry on. You know, just because we say this word unfit that we think we have a grasp on and there are still laws on the books that now use slightly different terms like Incompetent or unable to give informed consent or lacks mental capacity that allow for the mandatory sterilization of people and Are we so sure we're okay about that. Who is hiding under that language? Why fish don't exist..

Francis Galton 1927 Carrie Buck Harriman Hitler David Starr 8 England Agassi 1933 1 California Carrie Pretty Jordan M A buck Indiana Virginia State Colony Darwin both
"francis galton" Discussed on WBUR

WBUR

06:36 min | 1 year ago

"francis galton" Discussed on WBUR

"19 Oh, seven. Charles Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton. Off 787 Villagers at a county fair to estimate the weight off a prize ox on none of the Villagers guessed the right answer. But then Galton did something with their answers that got him very close. The correct answer. What did you do, Daddy? Well, he simply took the average and the average I think was within £2 of the correct weight, and that led to a lot of research. That was some arrives in a recent book by James Surowiecki on On the wisdom of crowds and the fact that when you take multiple judgments, independent judgments and average them You eliminate noise. This, by the way, is guaranteed to eliminate noise. So if you take multiple judgments, there is no guarantee that it will reduce bias because this the judges agree on the bias. Then the bus will remain when you take the average. Indeed, it will be even more salient. But what is absolutely guaranteed that when you Average independent judgments. You're eliminating noise. When you take foreign end of judges, you're reducing noise by one half. When you take 100, you're reducing it by 90%. So there is some mathematics of noise. That lends itself to analysis that doesn't apply to bias. So it's really remarkable. The correct weight off that ox was £1198 and as you said, That was one or £2 off the correct weight, and I want to point out that the reason averaging the responses produces a better answer is that noise is random. You're taking advantage of the fact that various estimates will be randomly high or low, and that's why when you average them out. You're going to get closer and closer to the correct answer. And what happens when you have different people making the same judgment of the same objects and then you're going to average them. Then the errors. They may cancel each other out. But when people make judgments about different cases here is don't cancel them out. If you said to higher premium, one case and to lower premium in the other case, that doesn't make you right. That'd just make things worse. So this idea that area's cancel out you have to apply it quite precisely. They cancel out when you average judgments of the same thing. That also, the judgments have to come from people who, in some ways who are independent of one another. If I'm seeing the judgment you make, and then I make my judgment afterwards. My judgment really is just a reflection of your judgment. Not an independent one. That's right. And you know what happens basically. Is when you have witnesses who talk to each other. The value of their testimony is sharply reduced. Because in effect in the extreme if you have one witness who is very assertive, all the other witnesses fit their story to his, then you have one witness, regardless of how many testified one of the most remarkable aspect of the wisdom of the crowd that you describe in the book has to do with How you can elicit the wisdom of the crowd. Just from yourself. You cite Research by Edward Roland Harold Passion ER that asked people to make judgments about the same thing. Separated by a certain amount of time. What did they find when you average out these different estimates? Well, for example, you know, if you ask people where did the population of London and you ask it once? And then you wait a couple of weeks say and you ask it again. The striking thing is that most people will not give you the same number on the two occasions and the second striking thing. Is that the average of the two responses is more likely to be accurate than either the responses. The first response is better than the second, but the average Is better than both. In one of the studies they conducted. They actually asked people to make estimates that were different than that initial estimates. And then the averaged out the estimates and they found that noise was reduced even further. Why would this be the case? Danny Well, it Here what you're trying to do, and you can do it within an individual is you're leaning against yourself. You made one judgment. And then you ask people to think. How could that judgment be wrong and then make another and that turns out to be indeed. Better than merely asking the same questions twice. In some ways, this provides a solution to the conundrum I posed to Danny. If noise is detectable only by studying statistical average is how do I reduce noise in decisions I'm making as an individual. The answer, trying to make the same decision over and over on a different conditions. One way to tell if noises behind my decision to propose marriage. Just to ask myself whether I would make the same decision under different circumstances, not just on a moonlit night in the springtime, but in the heat of summer or in the dead of winter. If I reach the same answer in these different settings, it's possible I could still be making a mistake, but at least I could be somewhat reassured. That my decision is not the result of random, extraneous factors. Scientists are exploring lots of ways to reduce noise. The researcher send them a line are thin and his colleagues device an algorithm to advise judges on whether to grant bail two suspects. These are people who have been arrested but who have not yet been put on trial. Keeping them in jail can cause all kinds of hardship. People can lose jobs or lose custody of their Children. While they're incarcerated awaiting trial. It's costly for taxpayers to keep people in jail. But letting someone dangerous out of jail can cause harm. Maybe they go on to commit other crimes. The researchers had the algorithm offer advice to judges about whether to grant bail. They found that if judges incorporated the recommendations, this could reduce the number of people in jail by 42%. Without increasing the risk of crime research.

Francis Galton James Surowiecki Charles Darwin £1198 90% 100 London Danny £2 Galton 42% Edward Roland Harold both two responses one one witness seven two occasions twice two suspects
"francis galton" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

02:21 min | 1 year ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

"He wants me to build a time machine and maybe I crossed the wires and I was Propelled back to the summer of 2020. Anyway, as I say I am back live and we'll see how long the connection holds. Hopefully until we get to the top of the hour we are into the home stretch 44 year old Neil can your suffers from Afghan Tasha. Afrin, Tasha. It's a rare and strange medical condition that prevents him from visualizing things in his head. Neil first realized there was something different about his brain when he was in primary school. He had trouble falling asleep at night, so his stepfather told him to close his eyes and visualize a flock of sheep and count them as they jump over a fence one by one. The problem was he couldn't see anything when he closed his eyes, no sheep, no fence. Nothing. Later on, he discovered that he had a blind mind's eye. Which means you can't visualize anything. Not even the face of loved ones. The concept of people who can't visualize was originally identified in 18 80 by Sir Francis Galton. 20th Century survey later suggested that his inability affected about 2.5% of the world's population. But up until the last decade, it somehow remained largely unexplored by science and medicine. Now, the condition again even has a name Afghan task to or a Fantasia. Fantasia. Although having a blind minds, I may not seem like that big of a deal. A more thorough analysis reveal some very serious issues. For example, Neil, who works in a bookshop in Lancaster, Lancaster, UK, loves to read. But he generally avoids books with vivid landscape descriptions, as they basically are meaningless to him. Think about it. If the piece of literature is describing Landscape and you can't see it because you have blind mind's eye. That piece of literature is of no use any way you could read more about this fascinating condition at Fantasia. It's in the in the new section up at coast to coast am dot com. Now, just a reminder on the first Sunday of every month, of course, George Noory plays bumper music selections from emerging artists maybe like you..

Neil George Noory Lancaster Sir Francis Galton. Afrin UK
"francis galton" Discussed on 600 WREC

600 WREC

06:58 min | 1 year ago

"francis galton" Discussed on 600 WREC

"Tell you this, but I'm telling you this fax attack. Do your own research backs. Attack V. A. C. C i T C H there in the Oxford AstraZeneca partnership. Their main investors are jokes, the Deutsche Bank. Much of George Bank executives. I'm sure a lot of them, you know, are part of the World Economic Forum. Google Now Google they on YouTube, right? So makes you wonder why they're skewing the information correct. And, of course, the United Kingdom government. Now it's arguable who would be on the board of that government, whether sports Johnson, who has been locking down and doing tear for draconian shutdowns, canceling Christmas or Prince Charles and who, of course, his father said. Have you had the opportunity Come back. You want to come back as a viral German wipe out most of the population. These are the people that are backing the the this this vaccine. And they all stand to profit from it. They all stand to profit from your miserable misery. And then you got Adrian Hill. Sara Gilbert, and they retained some 10% stake in the company. Uh, Then, of course, we're hearing that. You know, the vaccine is now late in coming. They're blaming that on President Trump. I mean, hacked. It's President Trump's responsibility, right? Make sure the vaccines run on time. Come on. See that's the thing is that these vaccine developers are in cohorts with groups like Welcome, Trust. That's W E l L C O M E Trust. And Galton Institute, of course, named after Francis Galton, who is the Well, the father of eugenics, according to the UK eugenics Society, which is basically Notorious for promoting racist pseudoscience and efforts to improve racial stock by Reducing the population of those who They deem inferior. I was just looking up with screen and there Now, uh, inoculating. People with special needs. They want to inoculate the blacks first, you know, do you figure this one out? Can you figure out what's going on here? Uh, Well, you look it the gall to the institute. That should really, you know, make people concerned because Oxford, Zeneca Oxford, AstraZeneca is You know they're wanting to push They're back seat in Latin America, South and Southeast Asia. They want to push it in Africa. And of course, that's the Very low, Cal that the Golden Institute has said. Why don't we Reduce population in these areas. Prior to covert. 19. Baxter, Tex main focus, especially last year. Was the development of a universal vaccine for the flu. Who was the guy that first proposed universal vaccine for the flu. You guessed it, Bill Gates. Baxter text efforts in this regard. Of course, Google got behind and said, Oh, yeah, we would love this, but they call themselves alphabet right, so alphabet gets behind it. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gets behind they fund research to develop the universal flu vaccine. Because According to Gates, he said, well, the field of influence of vaccine ology Is not able to design a flu vaccine that would protect broadly against the strains of flu that affect people every winter. And those in nature that could emerge to trigger a destructive and deadly pandemic such as covert 19 so Fully finance Hill and Gilbert's vaccine Tech and specifically its quest to develop universal flu vaccine. Oxford Science Innovations. Thought $600 million. From outside investors. Chief among them were the welcome trust. And the venture capital arm of Google Google Ventures, So this means that Google Is poised to make a profit from the Oxford AstraZeneca vaccine at a time. When YouTube Has moved to ban covert 19 vaccine related content. That sheds a negative light on covert 19 vaccines, including the Oxford AstraZeneca backseat, The Moderna. Actually, I mean, Fizer just go down the list. Now you could figure out why All the censorship is going on here. No one wants to hear that. The vaccines are being fashion and financed by mouth, Uzi and you Genesis. Now what comes to mind? Here's remember back when I talked about Michael Crichton, who wrote State of Fear, and Michael Crichton, of course, was Basically Uh, Hey, was e guess you could say made a pariah because he said something about How politicize science is dangerous, and this got him in all sorts of derision and problems, and he pointed out At one time. There was a science called eugenics. That was supported by the likes of theater. Roosevelt. Woodrow Wilson Winston Churchill. It was approved by the Supreme Court Justices Oliver Wendell Holmes. Uh, also, uh, Louis Brandis. Famous names who supported included Alexander Graham Bell. Margaret Sanger Luther Burbank. Leland Stafford, who Stanford who actually He was the founder of Stanford University. H G Wells, of course. Got the road mate. The road to the open conspiracy and war of the worlds. George Bernard Shaw, Well known playwright. Hundreds of others. Nobel Prize winners gave support of eugenics Research was backed by the Carnegie and Rockefeller Foundation's saying people behind event to a one Say, Bill we have the disease X In a function. Uh, Cold Spring's Harbor Institute. They also said that they were built to carry out a lot of research on eugenics. Those important work was done at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stanford and Johns Hopkins University, Africa Johns Hopkins University. Some of these same institutions that Crichton mentioned are the same ones support the vaccine and ran the simulations that led up to the outbreak of covert 19. Have you ever wanted to know what was behind it? 2020 If you want to know where the true info Democrat eyes, this is the untold story that should not be for gotten. This is the one But maybe you could come back and listen to ground zero and understand that. All this. We're making clear to you tonight. Is gonna be shut down fact checked in the bunk, but it's it's all true. Do your do your traces. Do you're documenting? You'll find the truth. What I'm giving you tonight is the.

Google flu vaccine Oxford AstraZeneca Michael Crichton YouTube Sara Gilbert Bill Gates Baxter President Trump Stanford University Galton Institute Oxford Deutsche Bank George Bank Oxford Science Innovations Adrian Hill UK eugenics Society United Kingdom government Francis Galton eugenics Research
"francis galton" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

KTAR 92.3FM

01:37 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

"By the husband, Wife Law team of Briar law protecting the rights of the seriously injured in Arizona since 1996 it's August 18. And on this day in 1926, the first weather map was televised, heavy wind and rain. Snow will continue to track it for you. We're going to get to your local forecast coming up. Talk about a tough profession. I don't envy people who have to predict the weather because there's just so much pressure to get it right. But ultimately or any of us really all that mad if they're off by a few degrees. Weather charts have been used since the middle of the 18 hundreds to predict storm patterns. An English scientist named Francis Galton created the first weather map to prove that air circulated clockwise around high pressure systems. He was instrumental in the first map being printed in a newspaper. Decades later, weather maps would make their way to television. The first one to be televised came from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and was broadcast in Washington D. C. So the next time you see that goofy weather guy pointing to a map on a green screen, you'll know that we've basically been doing that for 100 years now. Ever since this day in 1926, All right, we've got you know, big heat. Broke a record and conserve energy will take a look at a weather map my radar in just a moment. But right now, let's take a look at the roads with detour Dan in the Valley Chevy Dealers Traffic Center. We've got some traffic action. Unfortunately, a couple of ramp closures the £51 Union Hills exit ramp is closed due to a rollover crash North bound high 17 Dunlap.

Francis Galton National Oceanic and Atmospher Arizona Valley Chevy Dealers Union Hills scientist Dan Washington
"francis galton" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

KTAR 92.3FM

05:33 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

"Crops. Last week, President Trump meeting with Iowa State, local and federal leaders that the airport in Cedar Rapids, where thousands of residents Remain without power and schools here in Cedar Rapids were hit very hard, and many of the schools that played open are now going to be delayed not for the pandemic reason, but for An unrelated reason that nobody know what happen. Governor Kim Reynolds has requested $4 billion in federal disaster relief, including billions to help the AG industry recover. The president has signed a portion of that declaration to fix public buildings and utilities. Ryan Burrow ABC News President Trump's trip to Huma comes while there's a controversy surrounding the US Postal Service, a pair of Arizona lawmakers we're weighing in on that controversy. Democrat Congressman Reuben Diego says he's glad Postmaster General Robert to Joy will testify before a House committee next week after two joy sent letters to 46 States last week, warning it can't guarantee all ballots cast by mill for the November election will arrive in time to be counted. Think it's important in the post Master general. Explain to us why he believes that that is the case. We have been voting by mail for you. It's here in Arizona and many other states have for decades, Republican Congressman David Schweikert tells my theory on this is this is Maura political theater than its actual sort of fact, president said yesterday he's directing the Postal Service to speed up mail delivery. Jeremy Foster News. Let's get a look at your body from ABC News Wall Street. Now the S and P 500 briefly rose above its high water mark before falling back a bit. Another big tech name is in the hunted by tech talk. The Financial Times, says software company Oracle has had preliminary talks to buy Tic Tac's operations in several countries, including the U. S. Cole's department store says revenue fell 23% during the fiscal second quarter compared to last year. While the company's physical stores were forced to close by the pandemic calls online sales soared, 58% stacked up with 2019. The stimulus give a thin the stimulus Take it the way WalMart watched its second quarter sales rise as American suddenly had a little more money to spend courtesy of Washington. Now Wal Mart traffic is slackening off as the stimulus money dries up. Jim Ryan, ABC News checking the latest numbers on Wall Street right now, the Dow Jones industrials were down 50 points. The NASDAQ is up 86, the S and P. 500 is up about 10 points right now. For more money news, visit the Katie our Business center at Katie. A r dot com eyes on education. Some kids have nowhere safe to learn during the pandemic. All the Avondale Elementary School district is opening classrooms to them support staff administrators and teachers will supervise their learning Children who may have difficulty in accessing chi speed. Internet may have difficulty with supervision at home with both parents are working. Superintendent Betsy Hargrove says the learning labs will ensure the students have their own tablets and keep up with their lessons. When we asked if they had devices at home, a family said Yes, and we found out I believe that they were sharing an iPad. Dr Hargrove says. The students are teaching each other How to stop Cove in 19 Spread. Peter Seymour, Katie our news. It's time for the cake today. Our timeline with Steve sends meister brought to you by the husband and wife Law team, a briar law protecting the rights of the seriously injured in Arizona. Since 1996 it's August 18th. And on this day in 1926, the first weather map was televised heavy wind and rain. Snow will continue to track it for you. We're going to get to your local forecast coming up. Talk about a tough profession. I don't envy people who have to predict the weather because there's just so much pressure to get it right. But ultimately or any of us really all that mad if they're off by a few degrees. Weather charts have been used since the middle of the 18 hundreds to predict storm patterns in English scientist named Francis Galton created the first weather map to prove that air circulated clockwise around high pressure systems. He was instrumental in the first map being And in a newspaper. Decades later, weather maps would make their way to television. The first one to be televised came from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and was broadcast in Washington D. C. So the next time you see that goofy weather guy pointing to a map on a green screen, you'll know that we've basically been doing that for 100 years now. Ever since this day in 1926. Check your drive down with Larry Lewis live from the Valley Chevy dealers. Traffic center. Well, Bob, we've got a collision now. Just coming in Thomas near I 17 you could try McDowell, where maybe Indian school instead Also 1/7 street in Peoria Brand new crash their Cave Creek or Mountain View Road could help you Bell Road east to 20th Street. That's a collision and a wreck on Shea Boulevard near Tatum. I'd try cactus to avoid that one. I'm Larry Lewis. Katie our news one last check of the weather in excessive heat warning through Thursday evening, sunny and hot today and tomorrow today and tomorrow's Hae won 13 both days. Tonight's low 89 with a 10% chance of showers. This evening. We'll have sunny skies in 112 degrees for the high on Thursday, then partly cloudy and Friday and a nice cool 109 comparatively toe what we have been having that seems a little bit cooler.

Arizona president President Trump Betsy Hargrove Katie Cedar Rapids Larry Lewis WalMart Governor Kim Reynolds Congressman Reuben Diego ABC US Postal Service Congressman David Schweikert Ryan Burrow Iowa State ABC News National Oceanic and Atmospher Financial Times Postal Service
"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

08:13 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

"That is out for the Confederate side it's an insult to their memory and a sad reminder a situation we have here is an enormous Confederate flag that flies over the interstate I find it very offensive and embarrassing to say the least flying the flag of the stars in the bars as they call it is no different to me they're flying or pre World War two Japanese flag or **** flag it is not good for the nation's top flourish on them from the nation all day Mister Confederate generals what's wrong with us what is wrong with us Jennifer emails just wanted to remind you there are statues around the nation that memorialize people who are responsible for the near in revocation of the native American population those should also be taken down and Jennifer you're probably aware at least to Christopher Columbus statues have gone down one was beheaded in Boston another was torn down in Richmond and then dragged behind a truck we do have a question specifically for you Aaliyah and this comes from Pat two emails as someone who was born in Britain during World War two I'm interested in hearing Ali has views of statues of Winston Churchill what's your response respond to let them St Winston Winston where do we begin I take them down all of them down he gave Hitler his ideas and then pretended that he wasn't also eugenicist I think there's a huge contradiction and US glorifying him fighting the **** when he gave a lot of his ideas to you wow hello a lot of his U. genesis principles came because Winston was a member of the U. Janice the eugenics society and if we go back to the same city the R. was pull up him damn him U. K. with that was the birthplace of eugenics Francis Galton founded eugenics and for those who don't know what you Gen X. is is of course scientific racism or see a pseudo science because it's absolutely not scientific tool but that basically said that these are desirable genes on these are undesirable genes and those with undesirable genes why are most often associated with being Jewish or black or Irish or those who went in favor the times say we've seen a whole science based on one person's prejudice that permeate the whole of society Margaret Sanger who is also a eugenicists and a lot of have planned parenthood came from trying to sterilize African American women to stop them from three populating say there's there's a very deep history that comes from the U. K. that has permeated the U. S. and then we talk about chat show the fact that he held these ideas he was very much within the scope of colonial activity but we completely we wiped out said that he was a war hero award that he had ideologically started we are getting questions and let me put this first one to you mayor Woodfin because Jim emails this I agree that Confederate statues should be removed my question is should statues of George Washington Thomas Jefferson and other prominent slave owners also be removed and protesters in Birmingham set fire to a statue of Thomas Jefferson do you think of destroying a statue of founder of a founding father there on our money it does that cross the line I think there's a clear distinction between the two I think you would find people on both sides of that argument me I'm just paying in this conversation and witnessing unfortunately some of the things that spiral out of control it's saying that for us here locally in Birmingham Alabama when some of the protesters couldn't get down that Confederate monuments and there are nice too anything else in the park and the temperature is well I'm not so think this conversation based on the original protest as a team and what's going on nationally in our country in Virginia all the family and other courts Minnesota I think we we have is a slippery slope when we start saying everything should be taken down Dan harga Thompson not heard it and I totally disagree with it well maybe we should take down the four little girl statues welche Technologien statue will record shows which statute I think people missed a point on relates to these Confederate monuments put up by the daughters of the confederacy intentionally designed to whitewash history and then interpretation in such a way to hold spoke out doing treasonous behavior as heroes he's very different from George Washington external you grew up in Birmingham I wonder do you remember what you thought as a child walking by these statues of Confederate generals less a minus I'm going much because it wasn't you know wasn't part of our conversation but I can also remember callous been more time in jail even part of a part that taste more homage to the civil rights district in the civil rights movement in a game in land park which is between our city hall and courthouse mayor Landrieu this is also become a discussion about cultural artifacts and and I want to put this first to you and then to Aaliyah because there are a lot of people who are angry with that gone with the wind is still one of the most popular if not the most popular movie worldwide and in fact HBO Max pulled it off they may re establish it with context what are we to do with things like gone with the wind in the cultural artifacts that didn't have context when they were made well a couple of like to make a couple of the if you've noticed a lot of the questions actually come up with excuses for not focusing on the thing that's in front of us let's not take the monument down because that's not a big thing the big thing is changing other stuff so let's not do that let's saw let's not taken down because it might lead to taking other stuff down and then we don't know where it's gonna end let's not take it down for a whole bunch of other leading venture with mayor Watson said I think you said these Confederate monuments represent a specific thing at a specific time in a specific claims that a historical lives and that are affected and that's three thousand of them and so in America right now that's where the focus is we may very well have conversations about other things later and the attitude to people's question of where will this end you know we don't really know but we know where she began and we know we should we should compete with secondly with the cultural artifacts I think that you know the idea in people's taxes they should start to recognize how not collect those called to providers those movies work and to put them back into context to explain to people what was going on what was right what was wrong yeah a deep discussion of why gone with the wind was not an honest reflection of what happened I think is really important and the same thing could be said sure can be said of the of the birth of a nation and a whole host of other cultural artifacts that are out there that obviously did not tell the correct story of what happened in the past although we don't really watch birth of the nation much anymore and we still watch gone with the wind and things like that Lawrence Arabia on but they did it one time and and so I'm not trying to be quite a few of them but that but but some of the kernels of what people are talking about related to those impacted several.

"francis galton" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU

90.3 KAZU

06:34 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU

"Your beautiful voice we will talk more about James Baldwin on Monday many of you have strong opinions about what is happening with Confederate monuments Rebecca emails who do we want to honor who deserves to be celebrated remembered honored revered put up statues to those people in our public places instead end up we're going to return to this conversation about Confederate monuments but also memorials to slavers and colonizers in the U. K. this is part of our one A. across America partnership with public radio stations around the country including WBHM in Birmingham Alabama we are talking to Birmingham mayor Randall Woodfin also black lives matter U. K. organizer Ali a hyena and former New Orleans mayor Mitch Landrieu and we've asked some of you to weigh in on this conversation here's what you had to say my name is Karen from Tampa Florida I'm from New York originally I live in boy Oct North Carolina Bernie from Lansing Michigan retired soldier marches from Fort Bragg North Carolina twenty seven years every monument that is up for the Confederate side it's an insult to their memory and a sad reminder a situation we have here is an enormous Confederate flag that flies over the interstate I find it very offensive and embarrassing to say the least flying the flag of the stars in the bars as they call it is no different to me than flying or pre World War two Japanese flag or **** flag it is not good for the nation top social norms in the nation are all deemed after Confederate generals what's wrong with us what is wrong with us Jennifer emails just wanted to remind you there are statues around the nation that memorialize people who are responsible for the near eradication of the native American population those should also be taken down and Jennifer you're probably aware at least to Christopher Columbus statues have gone down one was beheaded in Boston another was torn down in Richmond and then dragged behind a truck we do have a question specifically for you Aaliyah and this comes from Pat two emails as someone who was born in Britain during World War two I'm interested in hearing Ali has views of statues of Winston Churchill what's your response respond to let them St Winston Winston where do we begin I take him down all of them down he gave Hitler his ideas and then pretended that he was also eugenicist I think there's a huge contradiction and US glorifying him fighting the **** when he gave all of his ideas to wow hello a lot of his U. genesis principles came because Winston was a member of the U. Janice the eugenics society and if we go back to the same city the R. was pull up him Birmingham U. K. with that was the birthplace of eugenics Francis Galton founded eugenics and for those who don't know what you Gen X. is a is of course scientific racism or see a pseudo science because it's absolutely not scientific tool but that basically said that these are desirable genes on these undesirable genes and those with undesirable genes while most often associated with being Jewish or black or Irish or those who went in favor of the time so we've seen a whole science based on one person's prejudice that permeate the whole of society Margaret Sanger who is also a eugenicists and all of have planned parenthood came from trying to sterilize African American women to stop them from Greece populating say this does a very deep history that comes from the U. K. that has permeated the U. S. and then we talk about chat show the fact that he held these ideas he was very much within the scope of colonial activity but we completely we wipe out to say that he was a war hero award that he had ideologically started we are getting questions and let me put this first one to you mayor Woodfin because Jim emails this I agree that Confederate statues should be removed my question is should statues of George Washington Thomas Jefferson and other prominent slave owners also be removed and protesters in Birmingham set fire to a statue of Thomas Jefferson do you think of destroying a statue of founder of a founding father there on our money it does that cross the line I think there's a clear distinction between the two I think you would find people on both sides of that argument I'm me and just paying in this conversation and witnessing unfortunately some of the things that are out of control it seems that for us here locally in Birmingham Alabama when some of the protesters couldn't get down that Confederate monuments just to anything else in the park in the twentieth century as well I'm not so think this conversation based on the original protesters attend and what's going on nationally in our country in Virginia all the and and other courts Minnesota I think we we have is a slippery slope when we start saying everything should be taking down content marketing accounts not heard it enough totally disagree with it well maybe we should take down the four little girl statues Welsh check out teams that you will record shows were statute I think people missed the point on relates to these Confederate monuments put up by the daughters of the confederacy intentionally designed to whitewash history and then interpretation in such a way to hold spoke out dean treasonous behavior as heroes he's very different from George Washington examiner you grew up in Birmingham I wonder do you remember what you thought as a child walking by these statues of Confederate generals celesta minus a much because it wasn't you know wasn't part of our conversation but I can also remember the caller's been more time in Kelly Ingram park.

James Baldwin
"francis galton" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

KOA 850 AM

13:17 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KOA 850 AM

"Alex quick question before we go back to the phones it's about sovereignty in the U. out fo the paper you co wrote with Raymond of all university of Minnesota are you still in touch with him and as he added any feedback about the paper himself hello I think we might have lost our guests will just hang on here for a second and Donna will try to re establish contact I do wanna mention you know we're talking about in the news segment of the program sort of having time to with the virus in the shut down and the quarantines that were we have time to sort of reflect on the the state of the earth you'll recall that a month ago we had a gassed Wayne Pacelle E. here on on coast to coast to talk about when markets and the source of the virus okay all right well apparently we do have a we do have Alex back now Alex I was gonna ask about ramen devol university Minnesota and this paper that you guys co wrote a sovereignty of the UFO which Greg bishop I think it's gonna tweeted out here soon or put it on the cost goes website are you still in touch with him and did he get feedback about that paper but he was my graduate adviser might be achieved so I've known him for my entire career we're good friends now and and he just retired he's let me take all the feedback as he tried to joke we use the phrase they would describe ourselves as militant agnostics and he says I'm the melts and then use the agnostic well he's been he's kept some distance but he was supportive and he provided some crucial ideas in the paper I should also point out that that paper there's a much more reader friendly and a shorter version of that paper in Leslie Kean's acts one volume in two thousand and ten called UFOs which she recalls she solicited the paper from us when she heard about it and we rode a new version of that so people should check that out if they want to yeah that's that's great Leslie is a courageous journalists that excellent report program is my been my guest and a friend of mine for a long time I will go back to the phone lines first time caller Steve in Montreal hi Steve you're on with Alex went actually I'm calling from model sorry okay Montreal yeah I I basically agreed with the reasoning presented by the doctor regarding the thoughts the the powers that be to not really addressing this issue directly but I'd like to ask a couple of questions related to this and related to the potential extensions of the extraterrestrials if they do exist and in my opinion not their intentions probably would fall under three possible categories the writer here to help us or to observe and learn or to dominate and exploit those are general categories mind you that that I have notions that they have might be motivated by and I'm just wondering what are the doctor's opinion is on the fact that is it likely that their intentions are good towards us the longer that no overt attempts are made to dominate or exploit the earth and of course you manatee and the second question I have is related question and that is regarding that famous gold record that was sent out with the I. nineteen seventy seven Voyager in universal time not mistaken I'm looking at it on the internet here it reveals a tremendous amount of information about us and I think I recall Stephen Hawking shortly before he died all stating a warning to humanity that you know it's quite possibly advisable for us to keep a low profile when we think about activities of broadcasting our existence the universe all right Steve lets let Alex jump into that you know my reaction if I were the ETA's I'd be saying about that goal record send more Chuck Berry but Alex what do you think about that first the idea that hawking about hawking's warnings well I mean I think it is understandable and there is an interesting question whether maybe ignorance of blasts and we should not be looking into this issue at all and we want to avoid contact if there is any you know are any increase in the neighborhood and so on and that you know why why not let us dog why so I think that the the question he was raising about the Voyager thing is is an important one that needs to be discussed but it should be discussed and we should have a strategy and do we want to get us or not but it does come back to the first question the car up which I thought was a good one about hostile intentions there is a poor possibility which is that they're not interested enough at all there may be here for other reasons completely and we just have a local I have a bit of it out of our way personally I don't think that the most likely of course who knows this is all speculation but I do think that the longer it goes with no sign of a overt hostility the less likely it is that any new keys that are here hostile intentions and my guess is that this argument then they my others there any civilization that survive long enough to be capable of interstellar travel would almost certainly have to be hard I have to have become peaceful they would not have possible inventions basically if they want to conquer and exterminate us they would have done that a long time ago it seems to me so I don't see any evidence of possible intention at all but that doesn't mean their intentions are benign some thanks for the call Steve I guess you know you boil it down to why are they here if they are here that's the really big source of the taboo is that that's really what scares us we don't know yeah I tried in almost any answer even if they're here to help could be destructive because our society might collapse in the face of such a profoundly unexpected and profoundly superior forests out as these creatures must be up to thirty or so the way even the good intentions don't say about certainly there's going to be a real challenge in managing our own response if and when a contact email actually occurs also what does not save us choosing to not study them they don't go away because we don't study them they're they're here they've been here if you believe that the reports we've had from over the centuries and just the fact that we put a blanket over her head and don't look at them that doesn't make them go away either I don't think that's true on the other hand of one of the not bothering us and clipping dogs argument kind of argument right and then right yeah can I take your point west of the Rockies Mike and Reno hi Mike you're on with Alex went hi in addition to what's being said the main scientific taboo is headed with roses sovereignty of Darwinian evolution which is dominated western science since eighteen fifty nine and his book the origin of species that's been accepted science materialism I'm reading a little on Floyd now and it all for you to be reasonable based on on Darling on the body reductionist science the problem with garland but wait for it to the left and I have another objection it's it's called the theory because it can't be replicated in the Laborie tree you can't replicate a billion or half a billion years in the laboratory which is the basis of if not being you know it it's something from your route to to accept as well it's only ten people proved by experiments it's theoretical the the other thing now which is much more controversial and subtle it says it's racist and the left opposition to this engine the church has come under attack is that we can't have superior races this in itself doesn't contradict Darwin because you know Darwin's cousin Francis Galton coined the term eugenics with which which led to a lot of racism but that this is the left's latest attack we can't have some pre races and so they're going to attack all of you people for being racists so you got all an addition the religions look upon them as demons so there's a whole slew of opposition to this but it's it's cracking and you know what what what led you said what we won with medicine that will we're going to have to share our you know I will place in the universe and and it's shocking but I don't think there's any alternatives if you have any comments on that thanks to orange it's my well there's a lot there I certainly agree that there is a challenger to Darwinian thinking and and many sort of parts of of the Madison mallards of the world are what we think is our knowledge of the world that are potentially threatened by this because all our knowledge assumes that were alone in the were in charge I do think that there though there is one continuity there and about the Darwinian revolution part of a consequence of that was to make human beings love central left the center of the universe and likewise the component in revolution also made human beings by central so there's kind of a historical trend over the past two centuries Giunti mode human beings in a way to make us part of just the nature of the whole and those who oppose up when I'm on a wave continues fab out that we do finally come to grips with it and if we if we do discover thirty teams then it will become very clear that we're not at the top of the food chain but somewhere in the middle of the house probably yeah the March of science is a lesson in humility how and more we know about the universe the less significant we become yeah they yeah I I know there's a lot of folks on the phones but I I wanted to address this this famous quote from Carl Sagan that always pops up extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence and I always wonder well why don't they just why don't claims just require regular evidence tonight and I think of it in the context the UFOs we generally people who study there say ninety percent of them could probably be explained their mis identifications of planets or planes or birds or something like that forgetting that you know when it comes to UFOs it only takes one doesn't you'll need a thousand of them if one is proving to be real it's it's profound yeah I know that's right and I think that and what is the claim here the claim is not good financial plan is not you oppose or here in the U. P. the initial claim as there are some weird things in the sky you have no idea what they are let's go study that argument does not require extraordinary evidence you look at those native videos that's another evident to me that thank hasten scientists to go check this out so I think in a way Sagan's argument is overstated or he's assuming that but were you several weeks down the road in a sense and if we need to stick with what we really know the real facts that we can get a grip on the mat is simply the kind of things that the but maybe they are so that's all we have to crack let's start there and just start investigating yeah and if you really do need extraordinary evidence the way to go get it is to study yet to get going yeah I would go to the wildcard line Cornelius and Louisiana I Cornelius good morning Hey George and Dr went god bless both be all yours is my second time talking to you I was a military police officer had top secret clearance and stuff and my question I was telling the Donna Walker any American Legion magazine this month made magazine it's got article about the military and UFO themselves so I hope you'll check that out back to win and George I'm gonna get you some real quick I believe that ms Cole bit nineteen is a biological bomb log that I studied this when when I was a military police officer but it was with the Russians so that's my point on that but if you check out that magazine I think that would be a good thing for you the military and you oppose American Christian magazine I think that are you know I think that are I think an article was written by Chris Mellon who's now working with TSA but he's a long time intelligence officer work for the Senate intelligence committee and then was an intelligence undersecretary admitted as secretary of some level in the Pentagon for years but thanks yeah that's a good article I'm out you should check that out for sure thank you for calling and managing it to us we're going to Mike in Maui Hey Mike.

Raymond Donna Alex university of Minnesota
"francis galton" Discussed on KTRH

KTRH

11:35 min | 2 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KTRH

"Houston sounds good everywhere okay Google play K. T. R. H. an I heart radio Alex a quick question before we go back to the phones it's about sovereignty in the U. out though the paper you co wrote with Raymond of all university of Minnesota are you still in touch with him and as he had any feedback about the paper himself hello I think we might have lost our guests will just hang on here for a second and Donna will try to re establish contact I do wanna mention you know we're talking about in the news segment of the program sort of having time to with the virus in the shut down and the quarantines that were we have time to sort of reflect on the the state of the earth you'll recall that a month ago we had aghast Wayne Pacelle E. here on on coast to coast to talk about when markets and the source of the virus okay all right well apparently we do have a we do have Alex back now Alex I was gonna ask about ramen devol university Minnesota and this paper that you guys co wrote sovereignty of the UFO which Greg bishop I think it's gonna tweeted out here soon or put it on the coast because website are you still in touch with him and did he get feedback about that paper but he was my graduate adviser might be achieved so I've known him for my entire career we're good friends Alan and he just retired he was let me take all the feedback as he tried to joke we use the phrase they redescribed ourselves as militant agnostics and use that time to melt and then use the agnostic well he's been he's kept some distance but he was supportive and he provided some crucial ideas in the paper I should also point out that that paper is a much more reader friendly and a shorter version of that in Leslie Kean's acts one volume in two thousand and ten called UFOs which she recalls she solicited the paper from us once you heard about it and we rode a new version of that so people should check out if they want to yeah that's that's great Leslie is a courageous journalists that excellent report program is my been my guest and a friend of mine for a long time I will go back to the phone lines first time caller Steve in Montreal hi Steve you're on with Alex went actually I'm calling from model sorry okay Montreal yeah I I basically agreed with the reasoning presented by the doctor regarding the thought the powers that be to not really addressing this issue directly but I'd like to ask a couple questions related to this and related to the potential extensions of the extraterrestrials if they do exist and in my opinion not their intentions probably would fall under three possible categories the writer here to help us or to observe and learn or to dominate and exploit those are general categories mind you that that I have notions that they had might be motivated by and I'm just wondering what the doctor's opinion is on the fact that is it likely that their intentions are good towards us the longer that no overt attempts are made to dominate or exploit the earth and of course you Mandy and the second question I have is related question and that is regarding that famous gold record that was sent out with the I. nineteen seventy seven Voyager in universal fine not mistaken I'm looking at it on the internet here it reveals a tremendous amount of information about us and I think I recall Stephen Hawking shortly before he died all stating a warning to humanity that you know it's quite my possibly advisable for us to keep a low profile when we think about activities of broadcasting our existence the universe all right Steve lets let Alex jump into that you know my reaction if I were the ETA's I'd be saying about that goal record send more Chuck Berry but Alex what do you think about the first the idea that hawking about hawking's warnings well I mean I think it is understandable and there is an interesting question whether maybe ignorance of blasts and we should not be looking into this issue at all and we want to avoid contact if there is any in all honesty keys in the neighborhood of someone that you know why why not let us with dog why so I think that the the question he was raising about the boys are thing is is an important one that needs to be discussed but it should be discussed and we should have a strategy and do we want to get us or not but it does come back to the first question the car up which I thought was a good one about hostile intentions there is a fourth possibility which is that they're not interested enough at all there may be here for other reasons completely and we just happen to be a local Adams they just have to get out of our way personally I don't think that the most likely of course who knows this is all speculation but I do think that the longer it goes with no sign of a overt hostility the less likely it is that any new keys that are here how hostile intentions and my guess is that this argument and then my other is there any civilization that survived long enough to be capable of interstellar travel would almost certainly have after they had after become peaceful they would not have hostile intentions basically if they want to conquer and exterminate us they would have done that a long time ago it seems to me so I don't see any evidence of possible intention at all but that doesn't mean their intentions are benign some thanks for the call Steve I guess you know you boil it down to why are they here if they are here that's the really big source of the taboo is that that's really what scares us we don't know yeah that's right in almost any answer even if they're here to help could be destructive because our society might collapse in the face of such a profoundly unexpected M. and profoundly superior course as as these creatures must be up to thirty years so in a way even the good intentions don't say about them certainly there's going to be a real challenge in managing our own response if and when a contact email actually occurs also what does not save us choosing to not study them they don't go away because we don't study them they're they're here they've been here if you believe that the reports we've had from over the centuries and just the fact that we put a blanket over her head and don't look at them it doesn't make them go away either I don't think that's true on the other hand as long as they're not bothering us and sleeping dogs argument kind of argument right and then but yes now I take your point west of the Rockies Mike and Reno hi Mike you're on with Alex went hi in addition to what's being said the main scientific taboo is that it with roses sovereignty of Darwinian evolution which has dominated western science since eighteen fifty nine and his book the origin of species that's been accepted science materialism I'm reading a little on flight now and it's it's almost points the report based on on Darling all on the body reductionist science the problem with Darwin by the way since the left and I have another objection is the it's called the theory because it can't be replicated in the Laborie tree you can't replicate a billion or half a billion years in the laboratory which is the basis of if not you know it it's something from theory to to accept as well as long as it can be proved by experiments it's theoretical the other thing now which is much more controversial and subtle it says it's racist and the left opposition to this engine the church has come under attack is that we can have some career races this in itself doesn't contradict Darwin because you know Darwin's cousin Francis Galton coined the term eugenics which which which led to a lot of racism but that this is the left's latest attack we can't have some pre races and so they've been with tackle all of you people for being racists so you got a an addition to religions look upon them as demons so there's a whole slew of opposition to this but it's it's cracking and you know what what what led you said what we won with medicine that will we're going to have to share our row you know I will place in the universe and it and it's shocking but I don't think there's any alternative if you have any comments on that thanks to it it's my well there's a lot there I certainly agree that there is a challenger to Darwinian thinking I'm I'm very many sort of parts of our lives in Madison knowledge of the world are what we think is our knowledge of the world that are potentially threatened by this phenomenon because all of our knowledge assumes that were alone in the were in charge I do think that there though there is one continuity there and about the Darwinian revolution part of the consequence of that was to make human beings last central left the center of the universe and likewise the component in revolution also made human beings by central so there's kind of a historical trend over the past few centuries June two modes in them being sent away and make us part of just nature as a whole and those who oppose when I'm on a wave continues fab process and if we do finally come to grips with it and if we if we do discover thirty teams then it will become very clear that we're not at the top of the food chain but somewhere in the middle of the house probably yeah the March of science is a lesson in humility how and where we know about the universe the less significant we become yeah they yeah I I know there's a lot of folks on the phones but I I wanted to address this this famous quote from Carl Sagan that always pops up extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence and I always wonder well why don't they just why don't claims just require regular evidence tonight and I think of it in the context the UFOs we generally people who study this say ninety percent of them could probably be explained their mis identifications of planets or planes or birds or something like that forgetting that you know when it comes to UFOs it only takes one doesn't you'll need a thousand of them if one is proving to be real it's it's profound yeah I know that's right and I think that and what is the claim here the claim is not good the national clan is not you oppose are here and they're easy to use the initial claim as there are some weird things in the sky we have no idea what they are let's go study that argument does not require extraordinary evidence if you look at those native videos that's enough evidence for me to thank hasten scientists to go check this out so I think in a way Sagan's argument is overstated or he's assuming.

Houston K. T. R. H. Raymond Donna Google Alex university of Minnesota
"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

12:15 min | 3 years ago

"francis galton" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Broken bottles. hello and welcome to planet money I'm Karen death and I'm Sally helm just getting out today on the show how did we get to a place where nine year old Sally analyze that were sitting in a chair with electrodes sticking out of their heads for science we go deep on the history and design of the twin study we perform a micro twin study on our own sisters we learn what those researchers were studying the electric cap and we explore the dark side of twins science. support for NPR comes from this station and from ultimate software dedicated to putting people first with solutions for HR payroll and talent management learn more adult image software dot com ultimate software people first. I'm from the listeners who support this NPR station. we decided to do this show today in part because of a very strange coincidence by the way Happy Birthday raise hobby birthday your birthday is the same as ours yeah you were right and our twins all four of us were born on the same day and that is what got us thinking about trends and the experience of being a twin yes and the experience of being a twin is one of constantly being studied pretty much any time we meet someone new people first freak out about how much we look alike gesture lake as you can hear talk alike and then the questions began to which are always the same yes my sister I don't look like but we you get these two we ran through this with our trends so one we always get can you read each other's minds do you know what allies is thinking Sally in now okay all right. what else do you fully to his pain I know. so this is kind of fascination that we experience every day that's fascination is what sparked the very first twin study all the way back in the eighteen hundreds the researcher it was a man named Francis Galton cotton was the one who kind of like a harness that existing cultural fascination and turned it into the scientific proof of his theory of heredity this is Allison cool she is like the Russian nesting doll of twin study researchers she is herself an identical twin who studies researchers who studied twins she's also studied the history of twin studies and she is an assistant professor of anthropology at the university of Colorado boulder also told us that Francis Galton was a gentleman of science in the late eighteen hundreds he was actually Charles Darwin's cousin and while cousin Charles had obsessed over finch's Galton became obsessed with twins he was trying to understand why parents and their children basically why relatives had such similar traits in other words heredity. and the most similar seeming relatives that he could find we're twins so called and found a bunch of twins have them answer a bunch of questions the terms identical and fraternal had not yet been coined but he knew that some twins were what he called similar and others were dissimilar so he asks for information about their appearance their behavior and based on what he hears back from these twins he makes this argument the similar twins stays similar because they have a stake in war nature and the distiller twins state dissimilar because that they have different natures and in the paper that he publishes he uses this phrasing that we now probably all recognize he talks about nature and nurture okay stepping back for a sec studying heredity like this or what would become known as genetics he can bring you to this cross roads like for example say a researcher discovers that genes play a role in some particular disease well you could take that information and save that's great that helps us figure out how to spend money to better research or treat this disease but if you assume that genes our fate then you can take that same information and go down a very dark path instead of trying to treat that disease someone could say let's breed that disease with breed that gene out of humanity Francis Galton went down that dark path eugenics literally means I think the science of being well born right. but also a social movement about. making sure that only the fittest are able to reproduce these ideas led to forced sterilizations even outright murder eugenics took hold in many different countries including the US all of the conflict biological research in that era had that flipper the flavor of the flavor of like weird racism these ideas and the twin studies that Carlton use to reinforce them showed up again that when the eugenics movement was taking its most terrifying form there's a direct trajectory from cotton to the like the **** twen experiment **** researcher Josef Mengele out performed grisly human experiments including many experiments on twins he impacted them with typhus he did surgery without anesthesia he used to twins to study heredity in hopes of propping up the **** program of so called racial hygiene. so understandably for decades after the war attention shifted away from her at eighty and people started focusing more on nurture on the effects of the environment but in nineteen eighty eight this crazy story crops. it was a big pop culture moment and it ends up sort of reinvigorating twin studies and pushing the pendulum back towards a focus on jeans there was this highly publicized twin brothers who were separated when they were three we have some identical twins who had been separated as babies and then reunited as adults and they had all of these crazy similarities for one thing they were both names jam please journalists and Jim Springer. now obviously there's no gene for being named Jim that it's just a coincidence but a researcher at the university of Minnesota Thomas Bouchard he hears about the gems and thanks these are the research subjects I have been looking for identical twins raised apart and to understand why his study ended up becoming so important you have to first understand how normal Twin Cities work studies of twins raised together so the reason why twins are so amazing for science is because you have this natural comparison you've got identical twins who inherit identical genes and fraternal twins who share on average fifty percent of their genes like normal siblings and actually we're not just going to explain all this back to our sisters in the studio we're here to conduct a micro twin study many scientific I'm and I believe in in the studio in the collective studios today we have a set of identical twins and a set of fraternal twins and that is what you need for a twin studies that's right of course you need many more pairs of twins than this so what twin researchers will do is they will pick a trade or behavior something that they want to study on the whole identical twins are more similar to each other than fraternal twins are then thought suggests that genes or DNA play a role in why some people have that treat. for our many study we picked lateness as the trick to look at are you a late person or in on time person and my fraternal twin sisters that valuable it in I am the on time so we are different I'm not traits and then I asked my identical twin Marie how are you on lateness I it's been had developed a very intentional act to become a more on time. I would say that I am the same like I have been working very hard to not be a late first. in our micro twin study the for terminals were different and the identical as were similar to fairly strong genetically no more studies need. so back to the gym twins and that researcher Thomas Bouchard in Minnesota who wanted to study twins raised a part and I would both name her first son say James so start sees twins like the gems anything's alright in many cases these twins had pretty different environments growing up so if these identical twins raised separately still end up similar that is super convincing evidence for the influence of genes. like like burn yeah yeah I have a soft drink the professor lives and. so the shirt in his team find more than a hundred twins raised apart to study and they find DNA does seem to play an important role even for things like how religious the twins are liberal whether they were attention seekers whether they were assertive many twin studies studies of twins with together twins raised apart have found results like this we looked at one study that basically analyzed thousands of twin studies and summarize what those studies suggest about how important genes are how much they seem to contribute to the differences that we see between people DNA seems to be very important on the health of very specifically your eyes ears nose throat skin and bones fort psychiatric help it's a little bit less but still gene seem to play a role in about half the very ability and even in things that seem sort of intangible like social values genes do seem to play a role like there was this one big twin study that examined rule breaking we kind of loosely called the RC twin project or twin study this is Laurie Baker she is the behavioral genetics expert and a professor of psychology at USC a longer name might be the risk factors for anti social behavior twin study I was wondering if it had sort of like an official official may have a name in our publications and then we have the name in our correspondence. because we didn't want to freak people out yeah. totally I could see would you like your child to be a part of the risk factors for antisocial behaviors that we want to predict whether your kids are gonna become incarcerated or not would you like to participate one person who got a letter inviting her kids to participate was my mom and she said I have some psychopath in house. okay Laurie Baker was indeed the lead researcher on the study that my sister and I were apart up what Lawrence study the study that I was in was looking for was something that they called anti social behavior so on the far and that's like psychopath behavior on the sort of lower and they were talking about things like aggression will breaking lying I had a a son who is exactly your age at the time we started to study so I just thought of all the things that that he and his friends might John. the researchers are looking for all manner of real breaking behavior and that's why they ask all those questions about like the bricks broken bottles bots about pinching I remember saying no to so many of those questions and feeling like I just never done anything for bell yes or cool but okay the electrode cap in that laboratory that was used to measure our responsiveness to scary or side situations would have hooked you up to a variety of different devices to be able to measure your basically that but the part of your nervous system that's involved in kind of fight or flight one theory is that cycle pots or antisocial individuals are less responsive to stimuli and two motions like fear and sadness that is why they had as watch those sad sad movies. to see how much we react..

Sally helm NPR fifty percent nine year