3 Episode results for "Francis Blair"
1852, Scott vs Pierce: Bursting at the Seams
"Hello it's March tenth. Eighteen forty nine on second street in Saint Louis Missouri so damp drizzly day but the rain has mostly subsided in. The streets are bustling. Two men Francis Blair a writer for the Missouri Republican and his brother Montgomery weave their way through the crowd with umbrellas and hand and frank is all smiles but his brother can't hide his scowl. Speak Your Mind Montgomery. It's not going to do me any good. You have something to say so say hey it you should be more careful with your words frank. I should be that man. Call me a coward a liar and slanderer in black and white. We weren't exactly kind. Mr Picturing either pickering is a blow heart. That's lowering pickering writer for the daily Union. A rival newspaper The two journalists are embroiled oiled feud over a Missouri politician. Senator Thomas Hart Benton a Democrat. Who recently came out against the expansion of slavery if pickering can use daily union into attack Senator Ben I can certainly use the Republican to defend him and his views on limiting the expansion of slavery? You started this you attack pickering first then you challenged him to a duel and he refused me coward. He refused you. Because your weapon of choice was a Bowie knife. No Man in his right mind would have accepted such a challenge. Man of courage would montgomery grabs his brother by the arm stopping him. You're lucky pickering. Accept your challenge. He was well within his rights. Every every word I wrote his true Montgomery picturing is doing the bidding of the slavers and conspiring to drive Senator Benton from office. I'm not suggesting you're wrong. I'm suggesting you be more careful. Worry too much brother as Franken. His brother continue their stroll. A man walking their way. Catches Montgomery's I it's lowering picturing. Do not say a word Frank. I've said all there is to say on the matter. I will pay him. No mind at all as pickering passes them by frank restraints his tongue doc. His temper intentionally bumps into picturing shoulder. PICTURING IS LIVING MR BLAIR MR picturing you above my shoulder sir. Few have bumped mind Sir demand to know why you would do such a thing. You demand to know do you. Frank Rich says umbrella tightly raises it pointed at Pickering here is my answer. Pickering staggers back. A few feet puts his hand his eye as he pulls it back. It's covered with is blood. He can't see the details of what transpired in March of eighteen. Forty nine between Frank Blair and lowering boring. Picturing are disputed but this much certain in early March in front of a slew of witnesses these two titans of Missouri newspaper industry wielded their umbrellas in exchange blows six days later as Frank Blair was leaving a meeting at the courthouse in Saint Louis. A strange man stepped out from the shadows and greeted blare loudly and aggressively aggressively. Blair brushed him off and kept walking but the stranger followed him gone. Shot rang out and then another frank pulled a pistol and return fire as the failed the SAS and ran away into the darkness. An investigation revealed the identity of the shooter. Dr Prefontaine Lowering Pickering's assistant editor pickering and his accomplice were indicted for assault. Both were acquitted. Blair was indicted for the attempted dual which violated Missouri Law. He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to one minute. Minute jailed at one dollar fine I'm Lindsey Graham. This American elections wicked game The feud between Francis Blair and lowering picturing was demonstrative of a political reality in eighteen forties. America Erica Slavery was tearing the country apart Blair and pickering were both from Missouri. Both were at one point. Democrats but when Missouri Senator Democrat Thomas. Thomas Hart Benton publicly expressed concerns of the expansion of slavery a line was drawn and the two journalists fell on opposite sides. Blair was a slave holder from from Kentucky but over the years his views began to change ultimately he came out against the expansion of slavery in the eighteen forty eight election. Blair abandoned the Democrats and supported. Martin Van Buren and the Anti Slavery Free Soil Party in the late. Eighteen forties members from all parties from all regions of the country. Were beginning to realize that the issue of slavery slavery threatened to rip the country apart at the seams. The task of keeping the country stitch together fell in large part to America's second accidental president. After the death obssessed retailer on July Ninth Eighteen Fifty Millard fillmore became the thirteenth president of the United States. And the Second Vice President in American history to succeed the office. At the time of his inauguration the task before fillmore was daunting to keep the country united fillmore would walk a delicate line to try and forge consensus between two warring warring political factions. This episode seventeen eighteen fifty two bursting at the seams. It's April seventeenth eighteen fifty in the Senate chamber in Washington. DC The issue on the table is the expansion of slavery compromise. Compromise measures are being discussed. But today's political debate has been hijacked by personal feud between democratic. Senator Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri Democratic Senator Henry Stuart Stuart Foote of Mississippi. Benton has a floor gentlemen. This article is a falsehood and holds up a newspaper for all of the Senate to see he points angrily and senator foot direction from across the Chamber Foot tries to maintain his composure. Has Benson bellows. Gentlemen of this chamber is playing fast and loose with the truth in the press. The gentlemen from Mississippi has revised the account of our exchange here this very chamber for months Benton and foot have been at each other's throats exchanging fiery words over the subject of slavery on the Senate Floor Foot is in favor of slavery's expansion. Benton is against it but the political disagreement has turned earn personal among accusations of corruption and treason the two men call each other cowards and now Benton is accusing foot of lying to the press about their feud. This is a wrong report gently. It is a false report and it is a cowardly report. Benton wraps up his diatribe can take the seat seat from across the chamber. Senator Foot rises to defend himself. Why fellow senators to attack? My character is one manner to attack the character of the late. Senator Calhoun who is another senator and former Vice President John. C Calhoun was a champion of slavery from South Carolina and died. Just weeks ago is remains. are still in Washington but that didn't stop Benton from attacking Calhoun and calling him a traitor. An attack on senator. Calhoun is an attack on this entire body in an attack on the southern character as foot makes his argument Benton stares daggers at him days ago Benton said foot a clear message through an intermediary if foot invoked his name on the Senate floor that would help pay as foot continues. His retort Benton watches and waits senator. Calhoun was the father of the Senate indeed the oldest member of the Senate and he deserved more than the disrespectful report given him by Mr Benton the sound of his name Benton snaps he flings. This is chair to the floor and leaps to his feet or has bent. An angrily makes for Mr Foot. Several senators block his path but foot to charges for Benton often bent and climbs onto a nearby table in defiance. He rips open his shirt. Bears is breast and roars. Let him fire stand out of the way and let the assassin fire fire if you will. Another group of senators try their best to restrain foot among them Senator Dickinson of New York Dickinson grabs foot by the collar. stand-down Mr Soot by God. I will not bench and cries out. I'm on arm. If the assassin intensive kill me let him do it for shoves Dickinson often powers through the senators unders and makes his way to the table. Were bandstands the two men lock eyes brief hush falls over the chamber. There's a moment of stillness. Then bent makes a sudden move towards foot foot foot draws a pistol pointed at Benton and pulls back the Hammer Senator Dixon approaches foot cautiously. Put Down The gun senator. I will not boils with rage. Ben's eyes widen with fear Dickinson speaks. No Lo com voice slowly moves towards foot. This is not the way Mr Foot. This this is not the way. Dickinson's voice seems to calm foots range. stand-down foot breaks his gaze with Benton for a split Second mm-hmm Dickinson lifts his hand toward foot gun. Will you hand me your weapon foot. Non Silently gently takes the pistol from his hands as vice president. Fillmore brings the Chamber back to order the senators return to their seats. In Shock Senator Dickinson places foots pistol in his desk drawer and locks it away. Catastrophe has nearly been avoided but the sectional and Interparty conflicts surrounding. The issue of slavery are just beginning. the foot Benton standoff like the Blair picturing confrontation showed that the divisions over slavery were not poorly partisan the issue pitted wig against Wig Democrat against Democrat. These tensions had been simmering for decades in the wake of the Mexican American war war which ended in eighteen forty eight. The issue of slavery's expansion had risen to the forefront America had gained two massive New Territories Alta California and New Mexico Texaco as well as all disputed territory in Texas. These Mexican states incorporated all or parts of what is today California Nevada Utah Colorado Arizona Arizona New Mexico and Texas but the question was would these territories or the states that would later be carved from them allow slavery or would they be free southerners in both parties largely supported the expansion of slavery northerners largely posted in the eighteen forty eight election. Wade President Zachary Taylor had mostly the avoided the issue of slavery on the campaign trail. His silence is golden strategy was effective enough to put him in the White House. Taylor had done little in the way of easing the growing sectional tensions. He had failed to bring the pro and anti slavery factions to the negotiating table. Leaving the issue in the hands of a divided Congress ultimately that Congress would forge a compromise compromise but it came at a cost after president. Taylor's death in July. The compromise of eighteen fifty as would come to be known would land on the desk of Taylor's vice is President Millard fillmore. The compromise was actually five separate bills. The first admitted California without slavery avery the second and third drew boundaries for New Mexico and Utah. Admitting both territories under a popular democratic position called popular sovereignty which left a question of slavery the people not the federal government the fourth bill outlawed slave auctions in Washington. DC The last bill known as the fugitive slave act was the most those controversial of all it gave southern states the power to retrieve escaped slaves. Who fled to the north wigs in the south or cotton? whigs largely supported the a compromise as did many northern Democrats but anti slavery whigs in the North or conscience whigs largely opposed it as did pro slavery Democrats in the South. The strange political alignment created a pressure cooker in Washington at the time fillmore took the oath of office. The compromise of eighteen fifty was tied up in Congress caught Auden a web of never ending debates feel more did everything in his power to help push the measure through though and in late July feel more pointed a new secretary of State Daniel Webster of Massachusetts a prominent northern whig together fill more and webster worked behind the scenes dangling federal dollars. The heads of anti compromise congressman threatening tightening to withhold funds. If they didn't get on board in the end there efforts paid off enough conscience. whigs in the north abstained from voting to get the compromise bill onto Phil. Moore's desk by the end of September of eighteen fifty with Phil Moore signature. The compromise of eighteen fifty was the law of the land. Fill more was ready to declare victory to call the compromise the final answer on the question of slavery but all across the country members of both parties pushed back especially in fill. Moore's home state of New York work in eighteen. Fifties America to wigs held the reins of power New York. Senator William Henry seward and a man named Thurlow weed a powerful newspaper editor. who used the press to push his agenda? Both men were conscience whigs and both had been thorns and fill more side for years. I while fillmore was vice president. We'd had attacked him in the press and seward in the Senate both men had opposed. Fill more and the compromise every step of the way. When when the news of President Taylor's death broke in July eighteen fifty weed and seward had caused concern the vice president? They had spent over a year attacking for his conduct in the Senate was now the most powerful politician in America with fillmore occupying the highest office in the land seward and. We'd brace themselves for Fillmore to use the powers of the presidency you to seek retribution. But feel more never did he did not weaponize federal patronage or dismissed seward friendly political appointees instead he sought an alliance as President Fillmore was determined to be everyone's president even those with whom he disagreed. He sought to ease sectional tensions and keep the country and the whig party united needed after signing the compromise instead of punishing his two adversaries from New York fillmore sought to bring them into the fold asking them to support the compromise. Louis remained silent on the subject. SEWARD and we'd give lip service to fill more peace offering a behind the scenes. They continue to work to undermine the compromise and he set in motion what might be called a political coup in New York on September twenty seventh eighteen. Fifty in New York wigs held a state convention. Syracuse President Fillmore sent his surrogates with a single goal. Keep the peace with seward's faction at all costs and focus on the larger her objective. Securing New York support for the compromise of eighteen fifty. The state of New York was a hotbed of anti slavery sentiment and fulfill more it was essential that the rest of the the country seen New York set aside those views and back. The compromise fillmore was optimistic but he was not naive to the possibility that seward's men would resist his agenda and seward's fashion held a majority New York. They could control the outcome of the convention and so feel more dispatched in New York. Congressman named William Duer with an olive branch a moderate it platform that would appeal to seward's conscience whigs the platform endorsed a compromise but also stated that slavery would almost certainly be prohibited in the New Territories in question and that as president feel more would do his best to achieve that outcome. Early on things seemed to go. Well a pro fillmore pro compromised delegate named Francis granger injure was named chair of the Convention and pro compromise. Man won the party's nomination for the New York. Governorship but when Congressman Doer introduced Phil Morris Platform seward's fashion pushback back during the debate over the party platform. A delegate from seward's district offered a substitute resolution it stated that in the New Territories Congress had an obligation to prohibit slavery on the first indication. It might be made legal. The resolution was antithetical to the premise of the compromise and for the fillmore camp. It was a non-starter order but the delegates didn't stop there. He added a second resolution. Asking the Convention to formally thank William Seward for effectively representing the true views of New York in the Senate. This was a direct attack on fillmore. Thanks to the seward majority. The resolutions passed seventy two forty and in the aftermath of the vote. Chaos broke out the convention. Chairman Francis. GRANGER slammed down his gavel storm down the hall followed by forty pro compromise delegates immediately after fillmore received a wire affairs at a crisis convention split. Open another red we have nailed the colours to the mast and will fight to the last for you and your administration Gratien. The line is drawn. Meanwhile in the press publisher Thurlow we came up with a pet name for the profile more delegates silver graze. A reference to chairman Francis Grainger's long locks of flowing gray hair film or wanted the silver grays to unite with seward and the conscience. whigs not make a dramatic exit. They had done. So out of loyalty to feel more. And the compromise in the wake of the Syracuse Convention feel. More was more concerned about their loyalty to the whig party at large fill. Moore's hopes for Party unity were dampened further when the silver grays announced their own state convention. Set to take place in Utica New York on October seventeenth. The silver cordray's look forward to leave the weight party strike out on their own in the election of eighteen. Fifty to the whigs were coming apart and not just in New York but all across the country. The prospects for unity were grim and many whigs would look to fill more to unite the party behind his candidacy in the upcoming election but there was a complication. Fillmore did did not want the job. He was ready to retire from public life. Leave Washington for good but there was one Washington big. Who desperately wanted the White House? Fill no more secretary of state Daniel Webster in the run up to the eighteen fifty two election. These two allies would find themselves entangled in a political struggle for the future of the country. The very survival of the wing party wicked game is sponsored answered by the Great Courses Plus the presidency has changed significantly since Washington's first term but one thing remains the same every president has his enemies. The lecture series investigating American presidents is an unbiased historical and legal. Look into some important. Examples of presidents accused of abuse of power such as Andrew Johnson and Richard Turned Nixon learned the intricacies of Presidential Pardons Independent counsels obstruction of justice. The power of public opinion investigating American presidents is just one of the many objective reactive fact-based videos available to watch or listen to from the great courses plus get unlimited access to thousands of lectures on topics like secret societies. Forensic history even travel photography or chess right now. They're offering three months of unlimited access for just thirty dollars only ten dollars a month. Get all the details now. At the great courses there's plus dot com slash elections get three months of unlimited access for just thirty dollars at the great courses plus dot com slash elections. It's December eighteen. Fifty one at the White House. A servant leads a man named Dr Thomas Foot through the maze of halls and corridors leading to the president's private study where Millard fillmore will be waiting. Dr Thomas is co editor of the WHIG friendly Hundley Albany Register a profile more newspaper with the election of eighteen fifty two less than a year away. The work of covering Washington politics never stops. But when the DR received a presidential summons he dropped everything and promptly made the trip to Washington inside the study feel more sits via fireplace thumbing through a stack of official papers. Trying his best to stave off the cold as president doctors. Here's C.. You thank you. Close the door behind. That will be all yes Mr President. And how are you. Tell US quite well friend. How are you have AC- mood in? The room is solemn as the doctor joins feel more by the fire. I received your letter. What can I do for you? Mr President. The war size deep heavy sigh. It's clear he feels the weight of the office working on him on. Not mince words doctor. I've decided to withdraw from the presidential contest. Doctors Heart Sinks President. No no when I was called to this office. The country was agitated by political and sectional tensions Patriots and statesman alike look to the future with apprehension. As did I I felt then I feel now. The great sense of responsibility early that recipe on me. I've done all that I can do. You must stand Mr President. The party will fall without you and I fear the country with it on the day. President Taylor passed. I made up my mind to finish his term and retire from public office. Not wavered from that view since Sir if you withdraw it will only give muster to those who oppose posed compromise. Senator Webster has declared his intentions. Senator Webster cannot unite the whigs. It's his life. Ambition Webster is a poor decrepit old man Dan his limbs can scare support him. He has served the country and the whigs faithfully. The man has earned the privilege sir. At the risk of flannery no other president ever commenced his administration amid like storms. No other could look forward to a close more auspicious and serene feel more silent. He feels a sense of duty weighing on him. Dr Presses case I fear for the future of the nation Sir if sectional pieces to come it is entirely dependent dependent on the integrity of the WHIG party. The hopes of all good men rest on you sir. You're withdrawal would leave us without ahead. He'll to the wishes of your friends for the sake sake of the country for seventeen months. Since the very day of his inauguration feel more has wished for nothing more than retirement but hearing the passionate case made by his friend two more sets aside his personal desires nods solemnly acquiescence. Stand Mr President. You stand I will stand but I won't do so in silence a member of Phil. Moore's Cabinet Avenue once said of him when he had carefully examined to question and had satisfied himself that he was right. No power on earth could induce him to swerve from what he believed to be the line of duty from the very beginning of his time. The White House fillmore had decided not to stand for re-election man of few words he largely kept that decision to himself but in in December of eighteen fifty one the impassioned plea of Dr Afoot helped change his mind but there was another reason feel more agreed to stay in the race. The Silver Grays after Francis Granger in the silver graves walked out of the Syracuse Convention. Fillmore had interceded and prevailed upon the silver grades to stay in the Whig Party and to support what the outcome of the New York Convention feel. More had kept New York wigs together but only by the skin of his teeth and fractures in the whig party. Were cropping up all over the country. If too many whigs broke faith with the compromise and struck out on their own in support of third party candidates not only would it threaten the survival of the whig party it would undoubtedly hand and the election of eighteen fifty two to the Democrats by December of eighteen. Fifty one the upcoming presidential contest was already front and center as one week. Senator from New York wrote the political cauldron is beginning to warm the ingredients which Macbeth's which is used for their hell broth were not more infernal than those which are being thrown into the mess now now preparing while feel more reluctantly dipped his toes into this cauldron. His Secretary of State Daniel Webster had already jumped in head. First of the Presidency Webster sure had once proclaimed it is the greatest office in the world and I am a man Sir I wanted I wanted. Webster was in his twilight years but his decades of public service had earned him the esteem of many in his party in November eighteen fifty one webster. Supporters had officially announced his candidacy for the whig nomination but to win his party's nomination. Webster would likely need the support of another aging WIG. Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky the defacto founder of the Whig Party and chief architect of the compromise of eighteen fifty unfortunately for webster clay was already committed to another candidate in December of eighteen fifty one clay arrived in Washington and checked into the National Hotel. He was old feeble and in poor health. President fillmore visited him twice over the course of the next few months and paid his respects action the dying statesman though the two men had not always agreed on every issue party loyalty united them as did the compromise of eighteen fifty before making the journey from from Kentucky to Washington Clay had publicly endorsed fillmore and during his time in DC KLAY launched a letter writing campaign from his deathbed on Phil Morris behalf in in March of eighteen fifty two clay roe prominent whig. The foundation of my preference is fillmore. He has been tried in the elevator. Position he now holds and I think that prudence and wisdom some had better restrain us from making any change without the necessity for it. The existence of which I do not perceive but while clay sought to unite the party around Fillmore William seward seward and the conscience whigs of New York sought to tear him down calling feel more a traitor. Not just to the party but to the country the seward whigs portrayed fillmore as a man who had it'd been bitten by the presidential bug. And who do anything to maintain his grip on power their main point of attack against fillmore. What's his support? The compromise eighteen fifty and specifically typically the fugitive Slave Act William seward thorough. We'd and their anti slavery faction wanted nothing to do with fillmore or webster. Both were compromised men. Dan both had sold their party out to southern interests so instead seward's faction set their sights on a different candidate. General Winfield Scott New York resident and a veteran of both the war of eighteen twelve and the Mexican. American war Scott's candidacy had begun the moment. President Taylor died. Scott had personally organized and led the military escort at the late president's body. After Taylor's death Scott moved from New York to Washington to offer his services to the fillmore administration. Scott was a supporter of the compromise mayes but unlike webster and feel more he was not seen as the principal. Instigator Scott's moral views on slavery were much more palatable to seward's factions not to mention his military pedigree made him a strong contender on the national field. Scott Service on the battlefields had earned him several nicknames old fuss and feathers a reference to his insistence instance on military etiquette and the grand old man of the army nod to his decades of service and so the whigs had three strong options. The president the secretary sorry of state and the General in chief the US army in April of eighteen fifty two with the convention a few months away the outcome was uncertain. Dr Foote wrote to Fillmore. Your your chances for nomination are better than anyone else if the south will be nearly unanimous but the defection of the south from the WHIG party would be fatal. But can you or anyway be elected. I have great doubts. It depends on the Democrats Dr Foot new. The Democratic convention was set to take place on June first in Baltimore. The Democratic field was just as crowded and the party just as divided as the whigs four prominent Democrats sought the nomination Lewis Cass of Michigan. The party's nominee in eighteen. Forty eight William Marcy Secretary of war under President James K polk and two stars in the Democratic Party Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas and former secretary of State James James Buchanan but in the midst of the crowded field there was a dark horse candidate whom almost no one saw coming. Not The wigs and not the Democrats. His name was Franklin Pierce in January of eighteen. Fifty two at the New Hampshire Democratic State Convention. The convention chairman had put Pierce's. Here's his name forward saying it was worthy of a high place among the names of the eminent citizens who will be conspicuously before the National Democratic convention. Pierce had responded in the New Hampshire sure Patriot writing the use of my name. In any event before the Democratic National Convention at Baltimore would be utterly repugnant to my tastes and wishes pierces desire to stay Out of the race was not about politics. It was about his family specifically his wife. Jane Means Appleton of Amherst New Hampshire. The story of Franklin and Jane Pierce. Here's is a tragic tale that began decades before the eighteen fifty two election. Franklin Pierce and Jane Appleton had met in eighteen twenty seven during Pierce's time in law the school they were an unlikely pair. Jayne was often described as plain quiet. Shy Pierce Gregarious. Striking and handsome. Jane came from a wealthy featherless airless. Family she deeply despised tobacco alcohol and Politics Pearson stalwart. Democrat was a notorious drunk who has struggled with alcohol his entire life life in spite of their differences pierce and Jane had married in November of eighteen thirty four their life together would be marred by tragedy they had lost two sons wanted wanted infancy the other at the age of four. Jane constantly plagued by illness in grief had spent most of her time in New Hampshire while Pierce was serving in Washington I the House of Representatives and later in the Senate. Jan's hatred of politics deepened. When in February eighteen thirty eight pierce have been caught up in a duel between two Congressmen Congressman on February twenty fourth? Eighteen Thirty Eight Kentucky Congressman William Graves and shot and killed main congressman. Jonathan Silence Pierce had been publicly accused Hughes of Goading Silje into the dual Gilman Pearson. Once again turned to the bottle and Jane had reached her wits end she had written a relative. Oh how I wish. He was out of political life. How much better it would be for him on? Every Account Peterson gotten the message in late February of eighteen forty to a full year before the end of his term Pearson. You're said resigned. His congressional seat spend more time with Jane and their third child. A newborn son named Benny Pierced. Promise Jane that he would stay out of politics and focus his time and energy on their family but by April of eighteen fifty. Two appears was again feeling the pull of Washington in the run-up to the election. Pierce would break his promise to his wife and step back into the political spotlight. The cost to pierce and his family would be tremendous results. Tragic so we could game is sponsored by Gabby even the most responsible adult when faced with something has onerous and insipid as shopping for insurance can get frustrated. You reach a point where you throw your hands in wonder you know what. Why can't someone just do this for me? Someone can gabby dot dot com gabby gives you an apples to apples. Comparison of your current coverage with forty of the top insurance providers like progressive nationwide and travelers. Just link your current insurance assurance account and Gabby provides quote for the exact same coverage. I did in two minutes. I discovered my rates. Were pretty good. I don't need to go. Shopping Gabby is free to use. And they'll never never sell your info. This is between you and them so take two minutes right now to start saving on your car and homeowner's insurance go to Gabby dot com slash elections and for a limited time. If they can't find your savings on your insurance you'll get a ten dollar Amazon gift card that's G. A. B. I.. Dot Com slash elections gabby dot com slash elections terms and conditions. Apply see site for details. Amazon is not a sponsor of this promotion. mm-hmm in April eighteen fifty two. Franklin Pierce is friends in New Hampshire wrote to him imploring him to stand as a nominee. Pierce was a doe. Oh face a northern man with southern principles. He saw abolition ISM as an existential threat to the Union for many Democrats. This made pierce an ideal candidate in April newspaper editor. Edmund Burke offered up a winning strategy. Keep Pierce's name off the ballot. Let the front runners attack and weaken each other and then when the Mona's right make their move. Pierce responded if you and my other discreet friends think that the pride of our state the success of our cause can be observed by the use of my my name. The judge for me. In view of all the circumstances pierce was in but he told no one not even his wife Jane. The Democratic National Convention you mentioned began on Wednesday June first eighteen fifty two in Baltimore three days and thirty three ballots later. No one was close to the required. two-thirds majority the convention was at a stalemate on the thirty fourth ballot. The friends of peers made their move and threw his name into the ring. There darkhorse strategy worked. I Virginia defected. Then New Hampshire and Maine by the forty ninth valid. Pierce had two hundred two votes. The rest of the candidates had a combined total of five five. Jane was despondent at her husband's victory during the Convention Pearson. His wife had traveled to Boston on our leisurely carriage ride. A horseback rider brought Pierce Word From Baltimore. He had won the nomination. Upon hearing the news the story goes. Jane fainted on the spot. Pierce pledged himself to Appro compromise platform. And when the party's frontrunners Buchanan cast Douglas and Marcy threw their support behind pierce the rest of the party followed suit. Northern Northern and southern Democrats alike rallied around Pearce with a brand new campaign slogan we put you in eighteen forty four we shall pierce you in eighteen fifty. Two as the Democrats came together. The whigs were on the verge of falling apart. The Whig National Convention was also held in Baltimore on June sixteenth. The weather was hot. Humid Humid and dreary reaching into the nineties. Thousands of spectators flooded into the hall to watch the drama unfold. A large banner hung above the stage. Liberty and union and now and forever one and inseparable another banner. Read the Union. The whigs for the sake of the Union and for a while union seemed possible. Two days into into the Convention feel more scored a massive victory when the whigs vindicated his administration and adopted a pro compromise platform but the first ballot revealed a divided party fillmore and Scott had just over one hundred thirty votes. Each webster had twenty-nine feel more cared about the compromise. Not The nomination. He had sent a delegate. I'll get named George Babcock to Baltimore with instructions. The letter and Babcock's pocket read present to the presiding officer of the convention. Whenever you deem it proper the enclosed letter her withdrawing my name in the letter Phil Morass Babcock not to suffer his name to be dragged into a contest for a nomination which I've never sought but babcock adcock ignored? Fill Moore's instructions and feel Moore's name remained on the ballot till the bitter end during the convention. Daniel Webster was in despair his decades a public service. It only garnered him a handful of votes. His pride was wounded but webster also knew that if he withdrew his delegates would decide the winner days as into the convention he accepted the inevitability of defeat and wrote to President Fillmore. I have sent a communication to Baltimore this morning to have an an put to the pending controversy. I think it most probable you will be nominated before one o'clock fillmore replied. I'd intimated to my friends strong desire to have my name withdrawn. Your communication indication may be too late. Fillmore was right webster was wrong. His supporters did not back the president. They backed General Winfield Scott on the fifty third ballot. Scotch secured the whig nomination with Secretary of the Navy. William Graham has his running mate when webster heard the news. His reply was how would this look to history but most in the present were asking how it will look to the word party unlike the Democrats after their convention the whigs fractured into pieces. Uses five separate. Third parties ran candidates of their own. Most stealing chunks of the whig vote in August. The Anti Compromise Free Soil Party nominated New Hampshire. After Senator John Parker Hale also in August. The Union Party nominated Daniel Webster. Webster received a second nation to from the so-called know nothing party an anti immigrant anti Catholic nativist faction on August twenty fifth the Southern Rights Party a radical pro slavery faction held a convention in Montgomery Alabama and nominated Georgia Senator George Troup and in September of eighteen. Fifty to the Liberty Party largely made up of abolitionists held a convention engine in Syracuse Nominated Reform William Goodell of New York in the election of eighteen. Fifty to the Whig Democrat platforms were largely indistinguishable. Both were pro compromise and both offered a similar economic agenda in the end it came down to a question of party unity. The Democrats had the wigs. Did Not in eighteen fifty two pierce delivered. Scott the most crushing electoral defeat of any whig nominee in American history. Scott carried only four states in a meager twenty seven electoral votes save for the Liberty Parties. John Parker Hale who earned a tiny fraction of the popular vote. None of the third party candidates security security single electoral vote though pierce handedly won the election with two hundred fifty four electoral votes. His victory would be bittersweet before he was sworn in as America's fourteenth president tragedy struck at the core of Washington and at the heart the Pierce family. It's January eighteen. Fifty three just outside. Andover New Hampshire president elect Franklin Pierce in a train car next to his wife Jane his eleven year old old son. Benny sits on the bench behind them. Benny Stares out the window. A sad expression over his face timidly leans forward and asks his father. How much longer broglie about a mile outside of Anger Concord? His still aways away. How much longer patient spending? So short-run won't be long now. The pierces persist train is bound for Concord. New Hampshire a returning from Boston where they attended the funeral of Jane's Uncle Amos Lawrence. The boy is despondent over. Amos's death pierce turns back to join your claims cared for you very much. You know that don't you. Beni turned away and stares out the window peers can tell the boys hurting reading but he doesn't know what to say. Jane Nudges Pierce sent him a stern but silent message say something pure sits beside his son and does his best to comfortable. Do you like the train. I've always liked the train. They plenty of trains in Washington at the word Washington any recoils pierce starts to console him. Benny but he stops himself. Short chain clears her throat. Pierce decides to give it another try. You'll like it in Washington many. It's nice there you'll make plenty of new friends. I have no doubt is as good a place as any. You'll see pierce tussles. His son's hair goes back to sit with Jane who takes his hand in hers as the train roars down the track. Pierce can't stop thinking about a letter chain recently. showed him a letter. Benny road before the election. Pierce Pierce can't get Benny's words out of his head he wrote to his mother. I hope he will not be elected for. I should not like to be at Washington and I know you would not either. But Benny's view you on Washington will never be known. Their train never makes its destination just just over a mile. Outside of the Andover Station. Pierces train derailed and tumbled down a twenty foot embankment peers. who was sitting next to? Jane was badly bruised but he and his wife survived the crash as did all the rest of the passengers. There was only one fatality Benny. He was nearly decapitated right in in front of his parents is distraught. Chain did not attend Benny's funeral nor did she attend Pierce's inauguration. She blamed politics for Benny's death believing leaving God was punishing her husband at his inauguration. Pierce refused to places hand on the Bible leaving. God had cursed him for his past sins for the rest asked of his life peers would drown his sorrows and alcohol ultimately succumbing to liver failure years later for Washington. The election of eighteen fifty two was surrounded by. Yeah Tragedy On June twenty-ninth wink founder Henry. Clay had died a few months later in October. Daniel Webster passes well. It might be said that the passing assing of clay and webster marked the symbolic end of the whig party. You brought the death of what was often called the second two party system. The eighteen fifty to contest was the last last presidential election in which the whigs were true national force and in the run-up to the eighteen fifty six contests Franklin Pierce and the Democrats would have to contend with another political party. A new party that would rise to almost immediate national prominence a party that would put nineteen of next twenty nine president in the White House in eighteen fifty six for the first time the Democrats would face off against the Republicans on the next episode of Ricki gain the election of eighteen fifty six after sectional tensions. Take a violent turn. Democrats abandoned Franklin Pierce and prepare to pick James Buchanan against John Fremont the I ever candidate of the newly formed Republican Party. Don't miss a single week of our march from seventeen eighty nine twenty twenty. Hit the subscribe button in your podcast APP APP now. This show is supported by you. Our listeners please give us a rain leaving view the single best way to help the show growth is to tell others share with your friends and family when we find us on social media. Wicky game pod. I'm at Lindsey. Graham nother way to support this show is to to wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM members. There get get early access to add free episodes as well as bonus content only available to patrons find out more at wicked game. PODCAST DOT COM and about our reenactments most those cases. We can't know exactly what was said but everything. Our show is heavily research based on surviving historical documents. We could game is an airship production created hosted and executive produced by me. Lindsey Graham sound designed by Derek Barons Co executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions. This episode is written and in research by Stephen Walters. Fact checking by Greg Jackson and Seattle Salazar from the PODCAST history. That doesn't suck music by Lindsey Graham distributed by wondering warned orange.
MFM Minisode 179
"This is exactly right. Nights out the critically acclaimed blockbuster film that audiences love is now free to prime members on prime video win renown crime novelist Harlan dies on the night of his eighty fifth birthday detective Ben Benoi blunk arrives at the state to investigate and everyone's a suspect starring Daniel Craig's Chris Evans and onto army knives out now streaming exclusively on prime video blockbusters delivered all summer long. Hello. And welcome to my favorite martyr. The mini sewed. We read you your stuff. We read your e mail. They're your stories? Yeah, finally you gotta say. I sure okay hail. The whole world is a shit. Show right now, so I figured you'd enjoy a bit of a pallet cleanser I. Swear got all of the emails I read this week. It feels like that's what everyone is doing. Every single one was either lighthearted or just kind of like search. It's it's very nice. I think that's a good idea for people to just have have an escape. Maybe since we're doing fucking as lately like for next week, everyone consented and lighthearted stories I mean just do a whole episode of light hearted stories sure next week and then. We'll be lighthearted. A please donate money, black lives matter, and also they'd really huge amazing. marches in Brooklyn and Angeles for Black Trans lives because. The fucking government just passed a law that put so many trans lives at risk horrifying. Please read up if you don't know anything about it. It's really frightening medical people. Can T deny care to trans people. If they so choose, it's no longer illegal. It's absolutely it's inhumane and disgusting, and that has to change and it's beautiful because. Thousands and thousands of people showed up to show that it matters to them so if you have any extra money right now, donating to trans lives support systems of all kinds, but especially Black Jones lives the most at a high risk at the really good idea hundred so then back into this email. Hey, all the whole world is shit. Show right now, so I figured you'd enjoy a bit of a pallet cleanser last April. Twenty nineteen, incredible story came out of the little town of Mabini Carolina. Hope, I hope I'm pronouncing. Any. Vein, vein. Mugabe Mugabe. which is about five miles from where I grew up and eleven year old boy was home alone in the middle of the day When he heard a knock at his front door, he went to answer the door, and while he was talking to the young man out front, and accomplice broke in through the back once the second man was inside the house. He grabbed a gun leaning against the kitchen wall parentheses North Carolina a true classic. Everyone's just got a gun leaning against her kitchen wall. Yep, it's just standard fair and the man at the front door pushed his way inside. The robbers forced the young boy into an upstairs closet at. And began to ransacked the House the eleven year old, though was not about to let his chick taken. He creeped out of the closet down the hall into his bedroom. where he grabbed the machete, he had hanging above his bed heights. Why didn't eleven year old have a machete? Not entirely sure, but he said he bought it with his allowance money so good for him I guess. Anyway this tiny eleven year old boy takes his machete and sneaks downstairs to see the burglars bent over his TV console trying to disconnect gaming equipment. This kid said Hell No, and ran up to the robbers, machete, raised and hit one squarely in the back of the head, hopefully immed-. Immediately, the second unhurt intruder bolted while the man who had been struck turn to fight the boy, realizing blood was pouring down his face, and he took off running to the boy, then called nine one. An AP was sent out to all hospitals for a young man with a head wound. Sure enough a few hours later, he serviced at a local satellite hospital and sheriffs were dispatched to guard his door until he was stable enough to be taken into custody. Somehow the man ended up walking out of the hospital in his hospital gown, head, bandaged with a cup of water, and made it to a town, twenty miles away and hit out for a few days. Before, his grandmother turned him in a this was big news in our little communities, so local news stations flocked to the interview, the boy about his heroin. From this point forward I would like all interviews to be with eleven year old boys because he sent a message to the robbers quote, you shouldn't have done what you've done, and you're better off to get a job and breaking into other people's houses. Sexy. Stay, sexy and keeping machete over your bed, and never underestimate an eleven year old, Elise, wow! Some like the kid who was cutting down the the telephone poles level of like yeah, but. For reasons missed positive. Yeah, this this. This kid wasn't just raising hell. He was just like well. Come into my home. Enacted the machete La love it okay. This just starts high so the other day. I stumbled upon one of your old episodes. Georgia's said something along the lines of being terrified of being shot in traffic, and well, that reminded me of a tragedy that happened in my town a year back I live in a smaller city. A few hours outside of demoing Iowa called Cedar, falls for the most part. We don't see a whole lot of crazy stuff out there just. Just US suburban DADS, but their lawnmowers little old ladies, tending to their gardens, but on April Twenty, eight, th two, thousand nineteen, a woman picked up her boyfriend and a friend after work around two thirty a M, they were driving home along a wooded area on the highway, when a bullets struck through her window, passing through her neck and lodging in her boyfriend's mouth in the passenger seat. Oh my God. She was able to pull over and then it says can. Can you fucking imagine, but was announced dead at the seen. Her boyfriend ended up making it, but the police found literally nothing. No one came forward. No suspects, no idea what happened at the an article where the police suspected, it could have been a hunting accident, but who the fuck is hunting at two thirty in the morning It's unfortunately still unsolved today. You Bet your ass I didn't drive that highway for a few months afterward, so yeah, thanks for being. Being Really Cool, sorry advanced Georgia, for solidifying any fears of being shot while driving. Stay sexy and don't fucking drive anywhere Brianna well. Yeah, all right. Maybe it's weird seems like they should do something about gun laws in this country, but anyway that's crazy Karen we got. We got a lot of other. We got a lot of steps to take care of you. Okay now. The subject line of this one is my grandpa almost killed someone the fishing pond pervert. Good evening. This is my hometown, but this is not my story. This is the story of the time my mom saw her dad almost kill a pervert. My parents grew up on south side of Chicago where nature's hard to come by besides a few of the NASTIEST and most likely radioactive fishing ponds. You've ever seen or smell. Wanting to teach young children some outdoor skills, my grandpa would take my mom and her brothers and sister to go fishing in the ponds when they were maybe five through eight years old, they went almost every weekend, but but soon those innocent fishing trips turned dark when a mysterious creep reportedly find my eight year, old mom, and tried to lure her into his car. With promises of Ice Cream God he at after a horrific incident, where he revealed himself to my baby, Angel Mother, she used. Used her murder no instinct and told my grandpa about the pervert, my grandpa angry and horrified found the man by his car, grabbed him by the neck, held him there for about two minutes and shouted. If you ever come around here again I will fucking kill you now it may not seem that crazy of a punishment to whoever would do a gross thing to a child, but from I extremely old fashioned devout, Irish Catholic family. You know this shit was real when grownups drop the notorious. Am I right Karen? Yes, you're right anyway. The fishing pond pervert was sufficiently scared to death and was never seen there again. My GRANDPA is a common mild-mannered man, but if you fuck with his kids, he will fucking kill you on. Thank you for helping me through the absolute darkest and most lonely time of my life I was suffering severe workplace sexual harassment when I found the podcast two years ago. Your bad ass riot, girl, attitudes and humor have inspired me to fuck politeness and get justice for my harassment. Go to therapy and to kick off my comedy career I hope we can cross pass someday a Oh. My God, that's incredible. Yeah Wow, yeah! Well well done God asks. This runs in your family. It sounds like yeah, okay. This is grandma's near Miss with a double murderer. Hi To my honorary big sisters. The world is ending. Donate to black lives matter. That's how it starts, then says my grandmother grew up in Springfield. Vermont Springfield was the quintessential Vermont town where everyone everyone and cows outnumbered humans. My Grandmother told me that as a as children. She and her sisters often slept on their front porch at night to avoid the summer heat. This was really a testament to the trust in the neighborhood. Because there was no lock in the screen door of the porch, it was one such summer day in nineteen fifty, two that two convicted murderers broke out of Windsor prison. Fifteen miles north of Springfield. Their names were Donald Dewey. And, Francis Blair, they rammed a prison laundry truck into the gate, surrounding the correctional facility escaped on foot to MAG was in prison for a previous murder and Blair was his accomplice. They fled through the woods of Vermont to Springfield and emerged from the forest. Right next to my grandmother's home. This human entered the home of my grandmother's neighbors and family friends the weather ups. Dimaggio and Blair beat Elizabeth. DEMAG and my God demand and Blair beat Elizabeth weather up and her husband with a lead pipe while attempting to rob them, Elizabeth succumbed her injuries, and tragically passed away to Megan Blair were apprehended and sentenced to the electric chair in February of Nineteen fifty three. The two men became the last to ever be put to death in the state of Vermont. It shows me to think of what those men could have done to my grandmother and her family, and it serves as a reminder that life is fleeting, also a good reminder to put a fucking lock on your porch, Maria thanks for everything y'all Queens Grace. Wow just homebuilding on little girls sleeping on the. Porch. Yeah, that's crazy. That's that's so creepy. hellofresh America's number. One meal kit offers fresh. Ingredients every week for a super flavorful experience that will help you break out of your recipe Rut it lets you skip trips to the grocery store, and it makes home cooking fun easy affordable with hellofresh. She can get dinner on the table in just about thirty minutes, and you can save up to twenty eight percent by using hellofresh versus grocery store shopping, not only do hellofresh proportioned ingredients. Ingredients mean there's less prep work. It also means less food waste plus their packaging almost entirely made from recyclable content tele fresh is flexible and fits. Your lifestyle easily changed your food preferences and skip away coin ever you need. There's something for everyone including low. Calorie Vegetarian, and family friendly recipes every week. Okay, so you know I've been doing this since the beginning of the Quarantine Vinson I. Loving it I? Love it this week for the first time in my cooking life made risotto, which do make it for real. It's really hard and like not if you make it for real. Complicated and time consuming, but this was so easy, and then I seared these scallops with it, and Vince isn't normally like scallops. Browse like wait till I do it and fucking loved it. S Awesome. That's like and that's like to your dinner like you made it, but it's just like you had some real good help from exactly I like I was the shaft. It was a lot easier than it would have been if I just made the whole thing myself yet. Slow go to hellofresh dot com slash murder sixty and use the code murder sixty at sixty dollars off your first three weeks including free shipping on your first box. That's hellofresh dot com slash movies. And Code Murder Sixty to get sixty dollars off your first three weeks including free shipping on your first box, additional restrictions apply. Please visit hellofresh dot com for more details go by. Georgia can ask you a personal question always. Are you doing more searching than streaming these days? Man, I am and ask. For sure we'll H. Max is a new streaming platform where all of HBO meets the Greatest Collection of movies and shows Karen Oh. It's what everybody wants and needs. It's olive. Hbo Series like Westworld Insecure The Sopranos, but also blockbuster movies like crazy. Rich Asians or a star is born together with timeless classics. The wizard of Oz Casablanca and the Lord of the Rings Trilogy. This were all honored the one thousand nine hundred forty nine Oscars. The most beloved. Friends, Big Bang theory, the fresh prince of Bel Air. Let me name some awesome animation that they have Rick and Morty Samurai Jack Boondocks. Let me name some superheroes and Super Villains from the DC universe like the Justice League wonder, woman, and the suicide squad. Them Oh. Don't forget the family favorites like Sesame Street looney tunes, and Scooby Doo and new Max originals for everyone like love, life, legendary, and not too late with Elma. All your favorites in one place for just fourteen ninety nine per month, the such a good idea. I mean like just that list alone. That could keep you going for easily for seven days. Totally, but they also have like true detective which Vinson. I've binged watching the very beginning of our quarantine. Then everyone's watching the Sopranos, too. There's just so much there. It's really cool eight HBO series. You can watch them forever. Seriously Insecure fucking love that show Oh. Such a good show starts dreaming today. Download the APP REVISIT HBO Max Dot Com to start your free trial. Free trial is for new customers. Only restrictions apply. They always do go by. The subject line of Hello to Georgia George only oh finally. Hello, I just listened to episode twenty, two entitled that Tau Waterworks and mentioned to my partner that there was a story about a seventeen year old, surviving a plane crash in the Peruvian jungle. Normally we have a deal I don't tell him my murder stories and he doesn't tell me his spooky ESPN shit. It works fine for us. That sounds like fun the array. That's a good agreement, but I broke. Broke the rules because one? It's not a murder. It's just a horrible plane crash and two I figured that even though he was only eighteen months old at the time of the crash. He's from Lima and he might have heard the story ladies. He tells me he does know that story. In fact, the priests slash principle of his all boys. Jesuit High School Yikes was the brother of the pilot. But buckle up. Has That's not all the principal was also a friend of my partner's family, and told my partner that after the search was called off, the pilot's family begged the Peruvian Air Force to continue searching and brought in a clairvoyant to convince them the clairvoyance she knew where the plane was gave them specific coordinates, and that there were survivors. All the air force refused saying that they had already searched that area and the plane wasn't there after Jillian was found parentheses. What a bad ass! The Air Force went back in and found the remains of the cockpit exactly where the clairvoyance said it would be. They also found the pilot's body. He was still warm. SO THEY THE AD? There's theories that some people in that crash died after the crash. They didn't die. Immediately. Have full-body body. Now, also. Isn't it crazy that it's like you don't tell me Your mortar stores? Don't Tell You my esp. This has all totally everything love it. This has everything. My partner said that the pilots family was understandably haunted by the fact that if the search hadn't been called off, or if the air force hadn't dismissed the clairvoyant, they might have gotten to the pilot in time. Apparently, it's well known in Peru. The Julian story was kind of spun into quote Christmas miracle to draw attention from the fact that there would have been more survivors if the Peruvian Air Force had called off the search so early. Stay sexy and follow the Water Lydia and Miguel in Saskatoon Saskatchewan. Canada amazing. Amazing Ryan Wow. Oh, I wish I could have been a fly on the wall for that conversation. How exciting that must've been if for real an, but also it's like. Yeah. I don't think it's that common that clairvoyance are brought in, and then t are proven to be exactly right with what they said. Holy amazing totally want more clairvoyant stories. I want more like like weird coincidence. That couldn't have been a coincidence like well. You know what the one couple who you can. Who met and they looked at their photos from twenty years before, and they were like taking the same photo in different. Places it's I'm not explaining it right. Is that real? Lose One? Yeah, there's another one that you're like this would be the best version. And another one of these couple of. These photos and she's like this is my soccer team. When I was little and he was like that's my soccer team. When I was little and it's there in the photo, the soccer team together the. Owner yeah, that's. That's amazing that yeah, let's hear those Arrow countenances. We don't think so okay this one. I help. Let's see it's called I helped someone who wasn't in a safe place Ola. Sexy Ladies Thank you. So I'm just going to jump right in I worked for a security. Company from October Twenty nineteen till February. Twenty twenty, I answered phone calls to set up new clients or answered questions about the company. It was around eight o'clock, when I got a call from a guy and the first thing he said after I answered was yeah, I'd like to order a pizza and he sounded uneasy. So all I do is watch true crime? I sent an I. Am just three of my managers telling them? I thought I was getting a call for help. Never been trained in the stuff so I just asked him how many people he answered three Pepperoni and by that. That time one of my managers had rush over to me, was on the phone with nine one one I was typing what he told me, so. My manager could tell the operator, and luckily I could get a name and address I, told him to police were on their way, he said, thank you and hung up I just sat with my manager, waiting to make sure that we knew the police got there and not more than an hour later, the police showed up at the office to talk to me and they let me know. It was a twelve year old kid who is spending time with his mom and she took him to a drug dealers house. Seen weapons on the table and didn't feel safe. Luckily, the kid was okay, and the mom was charged with child. Neglect and a ton of drug charges I two days later because I decided, I wanted to work for CPS. Child Protective Services, unfortunately I needed some schooling for it so once the covid nineteen is over I can start school and be able to help kids. Kids on purpose. Thanks for being kick ass, woman, and keeping me entertained at my new desk job. Stay sexy and always remember the Pizza Code. Morgan Wow. Wow, yeah, you guys were murder. Order a pizza if you made secret help. Yeah Oh my God and twelve years old. That's crazy. Feel like all mine were real bummer today. At actually that story ends in a real. because. She's actually or they're actually. Going to help more kids that might be imperilled. That's. Very brave. Yep thanks for doing that I. Send Us your story is positive or negative at my favorite murder at g, mail or ESP. Don't forget those one. Oh! Send Them Esp. Try to send messages through with your mind for sure but positive negative weird coincidence, ESP based doesn't have to be a provable. No absolutely not thanks for listening to you guys and say sexy and don't get murdered. And Elvis you WANNA cookie.
68: Sherman's March to the Sea and the Thirteenth Amendment
"History that doesn't suck is a BI weekly podcast delivering illegit seriously researched hard hitting survey of American history through entertaining stories. If you'd like to support HDD S or enjoy some perks like ad free early releases or patron exclusive mini episodes, please consider giving at patriotic dot com forward slash history that doesn't suck to keep up with HDD. Follow us on facebook twitter or instagram. It's January thirteenth eighteen, sixty five and the US Navy's North Atlantic Squadron is bombarding Fort Fisher. This is no easy target nearly a mile long l shaped and protected by twenty five foot thick walls made of wood dirt and sand can absorb the blow of Canada walls. This fortress at the bottom of a peninsula forming the mouth of North Carolina's Cape. Fear. River is designed to take a beating. And it can give one to. The Sandy Citadel his arm with forty seven powerful pieces of artillery including the British made eight inch one, hundred, fifty, pound Armstrong. Yeah for Fisher is the real deal when Rear Admiral David Porter bombarded at a few weeks ago in late December the damage was minimal enough in the eyes of General Benjamin Butler that he refused to send his soldiers charging in. David was Livid and Benjamin got fired but hey, that was last month. Now the dark haired thick-bearded naval commanders back to take a second crack at it. His almost sixty vessel fleet of steamships for massive lines and arcs in the cold Atlantic water's. Hundreds of cannons sin great billows of smoke into the air while spitting hundreds of pounds of shot at the beach fortress as it responds in turn with its own guns. To me, it seemed like fiery meteors out of volcanoes the US Cana- near and future author Augusta's Buell later right. The lopsided fleet versus for artillery duel rages into the night and a union fleet cease-fire more success than it did last month. This time the Yank cannon years target the rebels gun emplacements with deadly effect. For Fisher's commander Colonel William Lamb reports that quote. The ironsides, a monitors bold. Their eleven, fifteen inch shells along the parapet. Scattering, shrapnel in the darkness, we can scarcely gather up and bury our dead without fresh casualties. He sends messages up the chain the General Braxton Bragg calling for reinforcements. The hellacious candidate continues the next morning by noon Union artillery has taken out all but one large confederate gun. By three PM, the heavily goateed Union General Alfred, Terry, and his arm or imposition just north of Fort Fisher on the peninsula. Seeing this David Porter has its fleet stop firing. Instead his massive steamers blow their whistles in unison the combined screeches as loud as the cannonade and knowing that it signals an attack on the now foldable fort it's confederate defenders finding equally terrifying. In the words of the doomed for commander quote it was a soul stirring signal to both the besiegers and the besieged. Close quote. The. Union Army Navy hit the Ford Simultaneously David Porter Transport. Hundred sailors and four hundred Marines to the short hit the northeast corner. Living up to their Admiral's command to quote board the Fort Seaman like way those quote. The web footers charge amid the surf at the broken citadel, but their cutlasses in revolves, but the determined confederates Greek them with heavy rifle fire. Volley after volley cuts the seafaring warriors to shreds. Assistant Surgeon William. Longshot does all he can save lives. He drags wounded sailor from the water's edge before the rising tide drowns back. Then William here's the Cry Wounded Marine. The medical officer charges across the beach and opened fire begins administering first aid. As, he does so a confederate bullet hits and kills him. I feel that you should know this young surgeon received leave that very morning but he refused it referring to voluntarily risk his life saving others in the afternoons assault. Rest in Peace William Longchamps you more than earned it. He lays among the hundreds of US seamen wounded or dead in the Carolina San as survivors peel away. The sacrifice of the young medical practitioner and other Navy men is not in vain. The confederates were so occupied repelling the sailors from the forts northeast corner they couldn't stop the four thousand Strong Union army from a saline on the northwest corner. By the time, the reds turned to face this attack three federal banners are already on their ramparts. The fight is fierce confederate grape shop pours out on the blue clad attackers including black troops who follow the main charge and guard the rear. The battle rages until nine o'clock that night it includes some of the other hand to hand combat of the War William. Lamb continues to send more messages and still hopes that General Braxton Bragg will send reinforcements, but he doesn't. And as a result, the boys engages don't have the numbers they suffered two thousand casualties to the unions one thousand and are forced to evacuate and blow the fort. The fall of Fort Fisher is a crucial union victory without the Fort. The confederacy can't protect the port city of Wilmington twenty miles up the Cape Fear River and that was the Last blockading Port as four commander Colonel William Lamb will later right between his expressions of frustration with General Braxton Bragg quote the victory was not fully realized by the American people. The position commanded the last gateway between the confederate states and the outside world. It's captured virtually ended all blockade running. Generally could not subsist his army. Close quote. In short David Porter has shut down the confederacies Atlantic shipping every bit as much as David Farragut shut down its Gulf coast shipping at Mobile Bay a few months back. Confederate President Jefferson Davis Eight, these to foster brother Adams like a snake with a mouse in its coils. The Union blockade is now choking the confederacy in the way the now retired general when field fuss and feathers Scott dreamed of back the war start. As we enter eighteen five. The future looks. Grim. The confederate states of America. Welcome the history that doesn't suck time you professor Greg Jackson and I'd like to tell you a story The confederacy is dying and today will hear William to come Sherman hammered some of the nails into its coffin. This is his march to the sea from Atlanta to Savannah Georgia. But should he be glorified as a god of war or villainous as a war criminal? It's a debate that still rages among some Americans in the twenty first century. So we'll look at all the angles and let you sort it out for yourself. We'll touch on his army heading to Columbia then get to riding, fighting, debating and compromising on one of the most famous constitutional amendments. The thirteenth. Yes, after sixty eight episodes, it's time to constitutionally banned slavery from there. We'll check out another attempt to hash out. He's terms at the Hampton. Roads, conference. So, let's leave this final naval battle of the civil war at Fort Fisher behind go meet up with General Sherman in Atlanta. That means heading back several months and you know how we do that. rewind. It's September eighteen, sixty four and we're back in Atlanta Georgia. This is slightly familiar turf, but it's been a few weeks since episodes sixty five. So let me set the stage. We came here with Union General William tecumseh Sherman Aka comp as he his massive three army division of the Mississippi, departed Tennessee and defeated confederate General Joseph, Johnston and John Bell Hood on the. Way. To this all important city in the peach state but John doesn't give up easily like Confederate Cavalry General Nathan Bedford Forrest the aggressive one legged John Bell. Hood has now taken to attack and come supply lines. These two generals aren't doing a bad job of it. Either their unified harassment is proving a bit of a thorn in the red headed union generals side. Confederate President Jefferson Davis is making quite the to do of this as well. Jeff traveling the CSI giving speeches you know lifting spirits in the will to fight speaking to a large Macon Georgia crowd on September twenty third he predicts the supply line of tax will bring about customized. Sherman cannot keep up his long line of Communication and retreat sooner or later he must, and when that day comes the fate that befell the army of the French Empire in its retreat from Moscow will be reenacted. Our Cavalry and our people will harass destroy his army as did the Cossacks that of Napoleon and the Yankee General, him will escape with only a bodyguard. What a rousing thought for beleaguered confederate loyal southerners that like the French Conquer Napoleon Bonaparte who in eighteen twelve cut his way across continents smashed Moscow only to be forced into a retreat that ultimately cost him. His Empire come to shall retreat with his tail between his legs. Of. Course, the comparison has one significant shortcoming. The Russian winter was a major contributor to the downfall of billion defaults say in his over half a million strong gov. That's the point. Ulysses s grant can't help but make when he reads about the speech in a newspaper. Who is the furnish the snow for this Moscow retreat. Damn solid rejoinder euless. If Jeff does get some Moscow snow. I think the first thing he will do is apply to that burn. Witty riposte aside comes growing tired of fighting off confederates trashing his supply lines. Furthermore, he has no interest in fighting this war on his foes terms. The Red Bearded Union general says is much while laying out and aggressive play to ulysses aide-de-camp Horace Porter. I could cut a swath through to the C., divide the confederacy, and to be able to move up in the rear of Lee both Jeff Davis according to the tone of his recent speeches and hood want me to fall back. That is just the reason why I want to go forward. Come soon, sends a lengthy account detailing the plan you list but let me quote his October ninth telegram to the General in chief, which is far more sustained note though this isn't just about taking territory, it has a psychological element. Quote it will be physical impossibility to protect this road now that Hood Forrest Wheeler. In the whole batch of devils are turned loose by attempting to hold the roads we will lose a thousand men monthly and will gain no result I can make the March and make Georgia Howell we can forge in the interior of the state. Yeah you heard that right. He'll compensate for ditching the costly supply line by letting his army forage as they traversed the state in doing. So here comes the psychology he'll make Georgia Hal. Okay that sounds almost diabolical. So let's get into comps head and get after his philosophy I. Think it's crucial to know the Ohio and commander is no sadist. He doesn't enjoy inflicting pain but after years of witnessing the cruelty of war, it's his understanding that the fight only stops when the enemy is defeated in the mind when they lose the will to fight. To quote him again, we cannot change the hearts of those people of the south, but we can make war. So terrible make them so sick of war that generations pass away before they would again appeal to it. So the COMP smashing confederate morale is crucial to finally ending this bloodletting life in war agree with him or not. That's your perogative at least now, you know where he's coming from and after expressing considerable doubt his bff you list and the president decided to let this general with experienced four gene off the land from Vicksburg undertake this dangerous course. The first thing comes does is split his forces marching just under three hundred miles from Atlanta to the coast with less than reliable maps or supplies isn't for the week. So only the strongest veteran soldiers will participate. Did, you ever see the movie three hundred with Jeld Butler where every one of the Spartan soldiers looks like. A right out superhero it might be overkill. Say That's what everyone of the sixty two thousand soldiers accompanying comp look like under their union blue but that's the general idea. These men are medical staff approved gods of war. Generally we're talking the army of the Tennessee and army of Georgia's for th and twentieth course, he's leaving roughly sixty thousand behind with general. George. Thomas. But as we know from the previous episode, these guys aren't bad either they'll put an end to John Bell Hood's whole army at Nashville Tennessee. Before beginning their march on November fifteenth eighteen, sixty, four, come sixty, two, thousand start by putting the torch to Atlanta the city took its hits when the union captured it partly due to Yankee artillery partly due to RABS burning their own stores while falling back cover this in episode sixty, five is I'm sure you recall but now that won't be union occupied. It can't be left to sucker the CS army giving us another glimpse of his hard war soft piece philosophy come tells the angered mayor of the city quote war is cruelty and you cannot refine it with piece does come you may call me for anything. Then, will I share with you the last cracker? Close quote. To that, end his men reduce the city that was home to twenty thousand people to about four hundred surviving structures. They. Then move out with the fourth corps divided into two wings on the right the army of the Tennessee's fifteenth seventeenth cores and on the left the fourteenth and twentieth cores of the Army of Georgia. COMP himself out the next morning at seven. AM He looks at the woods where his dear friend and subordinate James McPherson died in July. He looks back at Atlanta quote smoldering and ruins the black smoke rising high in air hanging like a pall over the ruined city. Close quote. The death of a loved one destruction, God? No wonder he calls war cruelty and how. Nonetheless, his men are excited a marching band strikes tune and soon a blue clad choruses senior anti-slavery anthem John Brown soul goes marching on. The Army averages a pace well over ten miles per day a speed, even their deceased fo- stonewall Jackson might have respected but this is partly because there are hardly any confederate forces here to confront them the only general engagement of the entire seven-week. March is a weekend November twenty second at the town of Grizz Ville. While resting up comes Fifteenth Corps Notices Three Brigades from the Georgia militia forming lines. That's a good sized force but notice I said militia with no disrespect intended that synonymous with I play soldier compared to come elite best of the best hand selected season warriors, some of whom now wheeled seven shot repeating rifles. The Georgia militia consists mostly of old men and teens. The regular see US Army wouldn't take the blue suffering. You're sixty or so casualties while mowing down some six hundred of the attacking grey. There are a few other conflicts confederate cavalry General Joseph. Wheeler harasses the Union forces as best as he can. But really this early decisive union victory is the only noteworthy engagement between Atlanta in the port city of Savannah. That same day come has forces reaching Georgia's capital of Milledgeville. They'll stay until the twenty fourth during this time some troops themselves by calling their own fo- deliberative body to resend Georgia's secession. But they're good natured humorous sapped when escaped POW's from a prison camp Andersonville show up. Starved hollowed out shells of the soldiers they were the escapees scabies burst into tears at the sight of food, US troops, and the stars stripes fluttering in the wind. The army's outraged and it will stick with them as they move through Georgia. But escaped Q. WS aren't the only ones flocking to come forces many enslaved black southerners, cheer the Army's arrival and follow its March sometimes, this works out well for both parties. Many of the newly emancipated are glad to point out where they're ex-masters hit foodstuffs provide directions throughout the state and if strong health camp work more often however, they're young old or ill nourished and slow this army of elite troops. This will still be fine generally, but at one point camp following has a deadly outcome. On December eighth the infortunately named Union General Jefferson. C Davis Yeah Middle Initial is crucial in his fourteenth. Corps arrive at Evans Creek. He's frustrated. They're behind schedule and need to move faster the also have Joseph. Wheeler's cavalry behind him bogging them. So he means to cross and move on as quickly as he can to do that he plans to cross early in the morning and ditch the sleeping camp followers. As the last of his man cross, the one, hundred foot wide creek he immediately has the Pontoon Bridge pulled up. Waking and seeing what's happening the black civilians are filled with horror. They need food they fear death. If they go back to the plantations if your death if that confederate cavalry catches up with them yet, they're stuck on this side of the river. Countless camp follower splash into the cold moving water and drown between the creek starving in the pursuing confederate cavalry hundreds die. This quote inhumane barbarous preceding close quote sickens and infuriates Major James Connolly who reports to the Senate Military Affairs Committee or Secretary Edwin Stanton becomes enraged. We'll investigate when he meets the Army Savannah but ultimately, Jeff won't be held responsible for the of the camp followers who died after his abandonment. Just. As he got off the hook for killing his commanding officer in dispute back in eighteen, sixty two, the capable commanders culpability is considered to interact. It's quite jarring to move from such mass death to the positive experience of others. But thankfully, it is, as I said before this terrible tale of Jeff's actions, Ebeneezer creek is rather isolated. It does not speak to the experience of most other camp followers. Edwin, Stanton privately interviews twenty black Americans spanner including camp follower garrison frazier. The secretary asks about come specifically emancipated me man answers quote we looked upon General Sherman as a man in providence of. Specially set apart to accomplish this work. His conduct and deportment toward US characterized him as a friend. And Gentleman. Close quote. History that doesn't sake sponsored by Bomba's. Baba's makes most comfortable socks in history of feet. They've literally rethought every little detail of socks we wear to make them away more comfortable. I wear them every day and I love how they never slide off my heel or bunch up on my toes doesn't matter if I'm in the classroom or going for a run they keep me comfortable all day long. But the socks to more than keep my feet cozy they help give back to the most vulnerable members of our community because for every pair of socks purchase Baba's donates a pair to someone in need. The generosity of Bomba's customers has allowed them to donate over thirty four million pairs of socks and county through their nationwide network of three thousand plus giving partners. Go bombed US dot com slash HDD s today and get twenty percents off your first purchase. That's B. O. M. B. A. S. dot com slash. HDD S for twenty percent off. BOMBAST DOT COM SLASH HDD S. And now back to the story. Of course the most known aspect of the March the see is the destruction foraging or pillaging depending on your point of view destroying military value is a major goal to that in the union troops make many Sherron neckties out of rail lines. This means they've been the real in such a way that it can't be straightened out. We've seen this on both sides of the war but here's comps pro tips on how to wreck rail quote. The best and easiest way is heating the middle of the iron rails on bonfires made of the cross ties and then winding them around a telegraph pole or the trunk of some convenient sapling. I attached much importance to this destruction of the railroad close quote. Ultimately, they'll destroy over two hundred miles of railroad. Yeah that'll hurt confederate supply lines. Meanwhile they're also living off the land for come Special Field Order Number One twenty brigade commanders are to organize groups to quote forge liberally on the countryside. Close quote. As we might expect the conduct of the men destroying her foraging runs a gamut. Let me give you the good and the bad. Some are admirable. The watching you soldiers take her food horses and the enslaved workers on her plantation widow dolley lund of Covington. Georgia. We'll speak well of Illinois Captain Weber quote I, give him and several others the character of gentleman I don't believe they would have molested women and children have had their own way. Close quote. Mary Mallard gives us a glimpse of Gallantry to as she and her mother stand outside while soldier's rifle through their home. The Montevideo's plantation. The widowed matriarch asks one if he would like his mother and sister to be treated the same way. No he answers I would not, and I never do enter houses and shall not enter yours. But. Not all soldiers are so well behaved Mary Maller also tells us that when her mother confronts different soldier if they would like their wives like this, he replies sarcastically co none of us have wives. For these soldiers known pejoratively as bombers forge liberally licensed to take things that are a far cry from military necessities in other words to steal some also find pleasure in destroying anything remotely of military value. As one soldier put it. They quote raised hell generally close quote. But they're fun is often others misery. Eliza Andrews Account of heading home after comes forces pastor her neck of the woods paints a vivid image. I almost felt as if I should like to hang a yankee myself, there's hardly fence left standing all the way from Sparta. Gordon. The fields were trampled down. The road is lined with carcasses of horses, hogs, and cattle that the invaders had wantonly shot down starve out the people. The stench was unbearable. The dwellings that were standing all showed signs of pillage. Here, and their lone chimney stacks Sherman's sentinels told of homes late in ashes. Infamous, braches. Allies experience reflects the memory many Georgians will pass on to their children and it's honest and real. After all come said, he would make Georgia how while General John Geary speculates in a letter home that quote Georgia is about as badly destroyed as some of the tribes of the land of Canaan where by the Israeli army what hundred millions of dollars would not restore it to its former condition. Close. Quote. That said let's put march in the bigger context of the war as historian Robert. O'CONNELL sickly puts it quote they might have stripped you clean of livestock food and occasionally the family jewels but they didn't rape your wife and daughter or shoot your family besides gathering calories. Their job was to scare you out of the confederacy in they stuck to it. Close quote. and. Of course, some of the kinder treatments of towns will be attributed to Lore of come finding the hamlet in question to beautiful or connected him personally somehow. It's more likely that kind soldiers pass through the town or it's simply wasn't of military value. There's also the irony that some southerners do their fair share pillaging to the four gene slash pillaging of confederate Joseph Wheeler's men is just as bad. One. Ribs. Soldier readily admits it quote. I do not think the Yankees are any worse than our own army. Close quote. Tam Perhaps COP has it right? War is cruel. Or is hell? After keeping the confederates guessing as to which city he'd hit next for nearly two months come moves on Savannah in mid-december with ten thousand offenders, flooded fields, marshes, and the threat of Fort mcallister US Navy out the trim tribus general thinks he'd have a hard go of it. It's the complete opposite. The division he sends at the Fort on December thirteenth takes it in fifteen minutes. A week later on December twentieth, the city's grossly outnumbered defenders slip out in the night. Not that the US Army can't see this company's leaders just don't care. The city is his in reflecting the season he telegraphed President Lincoln. I beg to present you. With. GIF. The. City. Of Savannah. Defenseless Savannah's mayor immediately capitulates income responds by quickly releasing food stores to the city and keeping a tight leash on his men New Testament to comes hard war soft piece ways. The city is backed with fairly normal pace of life by mid January And though not as well known, let me add that competence a similar number on South Carolina the following month through the combined sweat and work of now free black southerners in Yankee soldiers US army carves roads through the swamps and tears up more rail while keeping the reds guessing as to which city is the next target. Of. Course, have the confederates figured out come psychological games they might have worked out. It would be the Palmetto states capitol Columbia. Nothing says we can beat you quite like sac capital of the first state to secede. The federals arrive on February seventeenth eighteen, sixty five. Unfortunately, Columbia ends up in flames, southerners blamed comp but historians generally lay the blame on both sides like Atlanta retreating confederates set fires in this case, two bales of cotton and streets. But it's not like the in blue mind that I, mean they do seeing while marching to the capital city Hail Columbia happy land. If I don't burn you, I'll be damned. That might just be provided for some but likely truth for others especially once they get some liquor in them. Oh, and is the liquor plentiful here. ADDS that angry freed? POW's angry freed slaves heavy winds I mean yeah of course Columbia gets lit up. And with that comes has indeed May Georgia Howell and shown the confederate loyal southerners that this war is ending. He's also well positioned to head up to Virginia and help helps bff you lists against Robert e Lee but that stories for next time we've got some political history being made in and around Washington city and that needs some telling. It's time to amend the Constitution for the thirteenth time. But since this story overlaps with comes march to the sea will start by heading back to late eighteen, sixty four. rewind. It's December eighteen sixty four Lincoln's second term will officially begin for a few months which gives the president a chance to check off more item on his to do list for his first term it constitutional amendment to end. Slavery. So on December sixth, the president delivers his annual message to Congress and asks them to do something about it. Link it acknowledged that this Congress already tried and failed to pass an amendment ending slavery. He also owns up to the fact that when the new congressman take their seats, they will probably easily passed the measure. But Lincoln doesn't want to wait. He states the next congress will pass this measure if this does not. Hence there's only a question of time as to win the proposed amendment, we'll go to the states for their actions. And as it is to so go at all events. May we not agree that the sooner the better? Several congressmen are on board to try one more time. Ohio Congressman, James Ashley leads the charge. On, January six eighteen sixty, five Biz burly bear of a man with a shock of wavy dark hair reintroduces the amendment measure which reads quote neither slavery nor involuntary servitude except as a punishment for crime whereof, the Party shall have been duly convicted shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Close quote. James strongly argues this issue presented is one that might well make thoughtful men pause and consider the instant. To for millions of human beings of the God given right of freedom. So long denied them depends upon the vote of the House of Representatives. Each one of you has to decide for yourself whether so far as lay in the power of your own vote, you would give liberty to the slave or Ford his fetters and knew this is a question of changing the constitution itself. So as to confer upon Congress the express power to enlarge the field of personal liberty and make the republic free indeed. But James is epic speech doesn't make passing the amendment measure. Sure thing. There's massive pressure. A proposed amendment has to make it through the Senate and House of Representatives with a two-thirds majority vote in order to move onto the state's ratification. So this won't be as simple matter of James, cracking his knuckles menacingly enforcing a few reluctant Democrats to vote for a budget bill. This is going to take some serious political finesse. That's where Lincoln comes in. The president has proved time and time again that he knows how to play politics better than grandmaster like a chess player moving the queen's Pond d four Lincoln starts his effort to get votes for the amendment by meeting with war. Democrats and House representatives from border states. The rail splitter meets with Missouri Representative James Rollins first both roles and Lincoln are old wigs from the West and Lincoln plays off that common ground. He invites roll into his office and makes his case. I have sent for you as an old friend that I might make an appeal to you to vote for this amendment is going to be very close a few votes, one way or the other will decide it. Lincoln goes onto explain that if border states vote for the amendment, it will signal to southern states that they are losing support for slavery. Roll gets it. He tells Lincoln the he will vote for the amendment and he goes one step further roles promises to get other border state reps to vote for the measure. We can urges his old friend. Tell them of my anxiety to have the measure pass. Let me know the prospect of the border. State. Vote. Lincoln has early success but doesn't stop him from reaching out to more Democrats at a reception a few days. Later, the president pulls aside a congressman whose brother recently died in battle. We. Complete with the man to vote for the amendment. Your brother died to save the Republic from death by the slaveholders rebellion. I wish you could see it to be short duty to vote for the constitutional amendment. Ending. Slavery. Okay that's definitely twenty with this guy's emotions but Lincoln's willing to pull on a few heartstrings. Get this constitutional amendment on the books. Lincoln's also willing to make power play. He doesn't have time to procure all the necessary votes for the amendment himself. So we call to Republican congressman into his office. Now, there's some debate as to what he actually says to these guys Lincoln asks them to get to more votes for the amendment. They asked the president just how they're supposed to make this happen. According to a friend of one of them who later writes this down Lincoln answers how I am the president of the United States clothed with immense power and I expect you to procure those votes. The abolition of slavery by costitutionally provision settles the fate for all coming time, not only of the millions now in bondage but of on-board millions to come. A measure of such importance that does two votes must be procured I, leave it to you determine how it shall be done over member that I am president of the United. States. Whether he said those exact words or something similar but a lot less dramatic. The Congressmen get the message. They leave Lincoln's office knowing that they have the presence permission to dangle carrots like pardons, campaign contributions, and lucrative job assignments to get wavering representatives to commit to vote for the amendment. There's no evidence that Lincoln or any congressmen make illegal bribes. Pages do a little favor trading to get the votes they need. Democrats, feel pressure from their party leaders to vote against the amendment. So Pro Amendment Congressman, make it known that if dims vote against the Party line, it will be worth their while. Let me give you two quick examples. New York Democrat Moses Odell decides. To change his vote in support the amendment a few months later Moses sitting pretty as the new Navy agent in New York a highly lucrative position that's probably not just a coincidence. then. There's the case of Anson Herrick, another Democrat from the Empire State. James Ashley Promises Anson that if he votes for the amendment James, will make sure to Anson's brother gets recommended as federal revenue. Sesser. And Lincoln backs up this promise he tells answer. Whatever Ashley has promised? Should be performed. With, favors handed out and I owe US firmly in hand. Time vote on the. The house schedules the vote for January thirty first eighteen, sixty, five, James Ashley has counted heads and he's pretty sure the measure will pass with about five votes to spare. Then hears a rumor that could destroy all of his work. Here's the thing Francis Blair senior, one of Lincoln's advisors has been organizing another session of peace talks for the last couple of months his efforts have paid off in three CSI agents have agreed become the Washington DC to negotiate into this war copperhead in war Democrats don't want to do anything that could derail this chance for peace like vote for an amendment that will end slavery and forever altered economy south. So James here's CSI negotiators are in. DC. This morning ready to Hash it out. He freaks if the rumor is true, James Thinks Democrats will abandon their promises and vote against the amendment and no amount of threats were speeches from this silver-tongued powerful politician will be able to save the measure. To James Dashes off a note, asking Lincoln to confirm or deny the story. James writes quote. The report is in circulation in the House that peace commissioners are on their way are in the city and is being used against us. This is true I fear we shall lose the bill fleas, authorize me to contradict it if not true. Close quote. This no puts Lincoln in a tight spot. The rumors are true. CSI agents are in route to meet with officials right now. But. Those agents aren't in the city they are down at general. Ulysses. Grant. headquarters. Last Lincoln heard. So the president thinks fast it comes up with a white live a mission that would impress any sixteen year old trying to explain why they missed curfew. Lincoln flips over James's note in rights on the back. So far as I know. There are no peace commissioners in the city or likely to be in it. Nice Sidestep Lincoln. The Illinois Rail Splitter knows that the talks will take place south. Of DC, city limits. James doesn't need that information right now. James goes around showing Skittish Democrats in Congress the President's note fewer skeptical. But most calmed down and agreed to let the vote move forward. By noon the galleries in the House Chamber are completely full Supreme Court justices, important government officials, and spectators to witness this historic vote. In his booming voice James Calls Three Democrats to take the floor and explain why they support the amendment. Anson Herrick who we met a minute ago getting a favor for his brother explains that the majority of voters in the eighteen sixty four election had supported. This plank of the Republican platform answers says simply he has quote. Now. Disposed to bow in submission to the popular decree. Close quote. Pennsylvania Democrat Alexander Cough Roth stands in firmly declares the he will vote for the minute Alexander wants to nullify the divisive issue which has given the Republican Party strength. He also tells angry Democrats he's voting his conscience I assure them I do that only which my conscience sanctions and my sense of duty demands. If by my action today I dig my political grave, I will descend into it without. The galleries erupt into. Cheers is the brave Pennsylvanian his seat. The voting proceeds after each representative has declared his Yay or Nay, it's too close to call speaker of the House Schuyler. Colfax carefully checks the talent sheets before declaring on the passage of the joint resolution to amend the Constitution of the United States. The is have one hundred nineteen. The knows fifty six, the constitutional majority of two thirds having voted in the affirmative the joint resolution has passed. Takes a minute for these words to sink in. But when they do the house chamber fills with the whistles applause James Ashley who worked so hard for this moment gets choked up at the scene. He says, this moment is quote the complete triumph of 'cause which at the beginning of my political life I had to live long enough to see. Flows quote. There'll be no more congressional debates about the expansion of slavery no more compromises involving fugitive slaves, no more voter fraud schemes to create slave state constitutions. This thirty eight Congress has done what no other Congress or convention in the history of the United States could do. It is taken away the constitutional protection of the institution of slavery. Lincoln gets swept into the enormity of this accomplishment. The next morning he signs the proposed amendment before it goes off to the states even though presidents don't need to do that. A large crowd gathered on the White House lawn to celebrate with Lincoln. The great emancipator tells them. The emancipation proclamation falls far short of what the amendment will be when fully consummated it is a king's cure for all the evils. And come, December. The Thirteenth Amendment will take its place beside the bill of rights as an unimpeachable part of the US Constitution. States get to work ratifying the thirteenth amendment. Lincoln moves on other pressing business a fresh round of peace negotiations. So I mentioned these peace talks a few minutes ago but let me give you a few more details. Last December Francis Blair senior pushed for and finally got authorization to try to open peace talks with the say again, sure the attempt to July eighteen, sixty, four that you heard about an episode, sixty six was a total bust but Lincoln went along with Francis his idea figuring there was no harm in trying again, the rail splitter permits Francis to travel to Richmond. But not to speak on behalf of the United States government. Well that was good enough for Francis. Francis and Jeff meet on January eleventh and Twelfth Eighteen, sixty five we can't be sure what they discussed but jeff ended up asking Francis to deliver a note directly to Lincoln it read. I am willing to enter into negotiations for the restoration of peace and I'm ready to send a commission whenever I have a reason to suppose it will be received or to receive a commission if the United States government should choose send one. That notwithstanding the rejection of our former office I would if you could promise that a commissioner minister, other agent would be received a point one immediately and renew the effort to enter into conference with a view to secure apiece for the two countries. Did you catch that subtle last line the two countries yell Lincoln. saw that too. So the wordsmith president always deft with found pen responded with a note offering to negotiate with the view of securing peace to the people of our one common country. Yeah are one common country, Touche Mr Lincoln. It's pretty clear that neither Jeff nor Lincoln believe any peace talks can be productive citizens both want fundamentally different things but they agreed to send agents to try anyway. On January twenty, ninth three, CSI commissioners arrived under flag of truce at Fort Monroe, Virginia Secretary of State William Henry seward soon, joined them but the talks are almost stillborn on February second one day after signing the thirteenth amendment proposal. Lincoln here's that the confederate agents might not be trustworthy and considers calling the whole thing off. General Ulysses Grant Steps in euless telegraphs his boss and explains their intentions are good and their going back without any expression from anyone in authority will have a bad influence. Leeann trusts ulysses. The general's endorsement of CSI agents keeps the talks live. So. The rail splitter replies to General in chief say to the gentleman I will meet them personally at fortress Monroe as soon as I can get there. Two hours later, the president stands a train platform in Washington. DC trying to look casual his valet stands yards away holding Lincoln's overnight bag. A doubt very many people believe that the gangly lined war-wary president is taking a casual train ride through the countryside though it's obvious, he could use one. No He's headed to a war zone. Lincoln will take a train and then esteem at Fort Monroe mere miles from the battle. Lines Petersburg. Takes all afternoon and evening, but the president arrived safely. The next morning Lincoln boards the River Queen Steamer anchored a few miles from Fort Monroe near Hampton roads, the president and his Secretary of State William Henry. seward sit down on the saloon there soon, joined by the confederate commission Siyassa vp Alexander Stevens Xia. Say of State Robert Hunter and former US Supreme Court justice John Campbell who. Chaff is bringing up the heavy hitters for this meeting. The Hampton Roads Conference gets underway. Now, these guys all go away back. So they spend the first little while reminiscing catching up without reporters no takers and political advisors intervening Alexander brings the meeting back to its original purpose. He turns to Lincoln and asks well, Mr. President is there no way of putting an end to the present trouble and bring about a restoration of the general good feeling and harmony then existing between the different states and sections of the country? Lincoln doesn't beat around the Bush. He responds to the confederate VP. There is but one that I know of, and that is for those who are resisting the laws of the Union to cease that resistance. That opens the floodgates of discussion. Over whisky and cigars the foreman talk seriously about slavery the newly pass thirteenth. amendment. The possibility of federal compensation of slave owners and the restoration of Union. Lincoln suggests that southern states could ratify the proposed amendment as soon as they chose to restore their quote practical relations to the Union close quote. CSI agents are surprised to hear this. They don't believe that Congress will behave with such benevolence towards seated states but discussion moves forward. Then Alexander suggests that the civil war could be put on hold to deal with the recent French invasion of Mexico. Lincoln doesn't think that's a good idea to put it mildly the only way Lincoln. We'll consider a ceasefire as reunification the restoration of the Union as a CNA quay non with me I will listen to no proposal that does not include an immediate restoration of the national thority? We can tone his harsh. Genial country lawyer always ready with the mood lightning antidote Robert Hunter sees it the conversation has hit an impasse but Alexander continues to press the idea that confederate and federal armies put their differences aside and join up to fight the invading French. Robert Watches with a combination of horror and amusement has Alexander tries to convince Lincoln. His scheme will lead to Mexico's liberation and eventual reunification. The former confederate secretary of state reports extent to which he carried. These opinions was strange made. Lincoln refuses to agree to Alexander's plants. His three firm demands of the confederacy. Lincoln and William Henry Seward won't budge on reunification the abolition of slavery and a ceasefire in the war Jeff Davis is agents can't agree to any of those terms. Both sides understand they cannot give into what the other wants. A four hour meeting comes close without making any agreements. The reports of the Hampton Roads Conference become public north, and south have strong reactions. Harper's weekly gushes praise for Lincoln. Quote if there is any man in the country who comprehends the scope of the war more fully than the president who is he? We venture to say that there is no man in our history who has shown a more felicitous combination of temperament conviction and ability to grapple with a complication like that in which the country is involved than. Abraham Lincoln. Jeff Davis takes the opportunity of more failed peace talks to bolster the confederacies will to win. I can have no common country with the Yankees. My life is bound up in the confederacy, and if any man's opposes that under any circumstances, I can be an agent of reconstruction of the Union. He has mistaken every element of my nature. A Few weeks later on March Third Congress creates the Bureau of Refugees, Friedman and abandoned lands or the Friedman's bureau for Short. One of these agencies, main purposes is to help newly freed slaves. They're also charged with getting supplies to white war refugees. The bureau has to oversee quote provisions, clothing and fuel for the immediate and temporary shelter and supply of destitute and suffering refugees and Friedman, and their wives and children close quote. In essence, this new agency expands general tecumseh Sherman January eighteen sixty five special field order number fifteen, those orders confiscated farmland, and distributed in forty Acre plots to liberated slaves in South Carolina and Georgia. The Freedman's bureau builds on that limited emergency measure to ensure that Friedman and women across the United, States can access the help they need to build a new life. These new policies mark a significant shift in direction for the United States between the thirteenth amendment currently being ratified by the states and the Friedman's bureau the United States has started down a new path. You're still a lot of work to do. The next steps will be dealing with questions of citizenship land rights in voting rights for Black Americans and those debates are coming. But I this deadly drawn out civil war needs to And it won't be decided by politicians in Congress or by diplomats on the steamer. Generals on a battlefield in. Virginia. Will decide the outcome of the war and the fate of the United States. History. That doesn't suck is created and hosted by Greg Jackson researching and writing by Greg Jackson Sale Salazar production by airship sound designed by Derek Barons. The music composed by Greg Jacks arrangement and additional composition by Lebron of airship. For Bibliography of all primary secondary sources consulted writing this episode visit HDD S PODCAST DOT com. ATS is supported by fans at Peach. The DOT com forward slash history that doesn't. Seattle and dire beyond grateful to insult providing funding to help us keep going faint. And a special thanks to our patrons. His monthly gift puts them at user. Status. We'll call Jason Carstens John Frugal Dude. Michael and Rachel Balloons Bob Dracevic Keith Downer Through Hill Andrew Fortune. bryce in cocktail Brat Bernie Dax Jones John Jeffrey News and Brandon Shop. Joining two weeks where I'd like to tell you a story.