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The Ski Troops of WWII
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I'm up at nine AM eating working, my Jeep orders come down to be ready to move on a moment's notice. So I get all my gear ready take a bath. And return to the company area. Sergeant posh tells me and slim Crowder that Parker is down with a bad back. And that one of us will have to take his place. Slim says he is a bad ankle. And can't walk me like a damn fool volunteer to take his place. Why do this on never know? Right now, I'm really pissed off at myself. Kenner league grew up in the south and Georgia. He had never seen snow actually stick to the ground. But in World War Two he decided to volunteer for an unlikely new unit of the US army the ski troops. They are officially called the tenth mountain division. It began as an experiment to train skiers and climbers to fight in the most difficult mountainous terrain in Europe, some of the men who joined the division were skewed already. Others had never seen a ski in their lives. They were also trained in snowshoeing rock climbing, and they learn cold weather survival tactics like how to build a snow cave with all the special training. The men of the ten division would go on to lead a series of daring assaults against the German army in the mountains of Italy. The tenth mountain division would also have one of the highest casualty rates of the war today in the podcast. The ski troops of World War Two. Well, right now, we're on top at about eleven thousand feet at the Santa Fe ski area on Parker formerly of the tenth mountain vision. And now eighty four. And this is the seventieth year that I've skied. I'll probably continue until I drop dead on the ski slope. I think now I'm ready to go. I've got my polls ready. My oxygen is working. So. Let's go skiing. All right here. We go. My name is Robert gain Nord house ninety five years old I served in the tenth mountain division from the time. It was organized in nineteen forty two. My name is nuke Eldridge. I was in L company. My name is L wavering. I was in company key, fifty then Matry my name is dick Wilson, I serve m company eighty fifth regiment of the tenth mountain division. My name is Dan Kimberly house born in Georgia September twenty first nineteen twenty two. How was one of the few people in the tent that never learned ski? The tenth really got started in nineteen forty. I believe it was the US army decided they were going to form a mountain unit. And the reason was our infantry just weren't ready in terms of Queant or clothing or anything for winter warfare. If we had to go into Norway or Finland or if we had to fight in the Alps, we'd have to know something about how to fight in the mount I heard about the tenth mountain division being formed at that time. It was called just a ski troops. And I knew that I was going to be drafted some time. And I didn't want to go into some outfit that didn't appeal to of course, being a skier. That was very glamorous idea. I went in our personnel man, paratroops filled up so just out of the clear blue sky just how about ski troops. He said what you from soldier said Georgia. He said y'all skiing Georgia, I say, yes, sir. He said wear furthest north at have been Gatlinburg Tennessee, and I told him getting Berg, Tennessee coasters big southern ski area. Now, he says what you watch your skis with anu had seen the ski. I said bees wax, he kinda grin and looked out is assistant than he says, you know, I think this fellow can make it. Days late now on our way to Colorado. Reveille over your when you arrive. Jack, that's g. Is in the pando values just to cross the continental divide on the west side. And we got bad, and I got off to train and I saw this big white snowbanks seven feet high. And I felt to myself what if I got my tail into. Being a boy from flatland of Monroe county, New York to get up there and see that type of mount I just didn't know they existed. Just just amazing. So when we got to camp, he'll the issued us will keep pants two kinds of parkas will socks gloves with trigger fingers. And after a while you learn how to use them. I was excited by the that a lovely white skis and the finest bindings I'd ever seen. I couldn't wait company. Reporting ski instructions there. Do men are here to learn military skiing. Some of you have skied villains and followed certain standard techniques. You'll find that the army has added to the best of these techniques create better ones of its own. That's all good luck and good skiing. A little more hazardous because you had a forty to fifty pounds packed and coming down with the big pack, and then you had these bindings didn't come off very trip findings. You had to know how to fall or break away. And here they come shooting them along white Phuc like a string of comet. What's the new that? I turned still keeping formation as they changed direction. As those long weeks of training are showing amazing results. It was very rugged training. We lived in the mountains for weeks working out dudes of thirteen thousand five hundred feet out in Babs. Six feet of snow in nine tempted yet around tune-in degrees below zero. But you had to learn to do the right things goes you couldn't put a boy out in that those era without him less in you what he's done. He's he'd be. Did we had a lot of older guys with us know, the score knew what to do we had old mountain men? And if you listen to them did what they told you to do while you didn't get frostbite. The old timers said rub bacon. Grease all over your face ears noses fingers. It really helped with frostbite knit did. And if your feet are really cold at night, you wake up your partner, and he has to sit up and you put your cold feet against his warm tummy. And after while you switch and he puts his goal feet against your warm tummy. It does wonders for feet that are starting to get to cold. We'd actually dig snow caves and then with candles. Just candles alone. Would is up the inside of the cave and pretty soon. It was warm. You could be just because the heat from your body and so forth and the candles strip right down to your shirt and shorts and be very comfortable in the snow cave. And then I learned something very quickly. If you never drank in liquid after say full. Kozo worst saying in Newark is getting out of a nice warm sleeping bag twenty degrees below zero to have your call of nature. It was cold all the time. It was snowy all the time, and you know, hunger. But it also was overall satisfying. Because we knew after we did it a while we were getting better and better shape or getting stronger and stronger. Gotta remember the war was really moving on after we finish that training. They they really didn't know what to do. I think all of the hated to think we put all that training, and this and then end up missing entirely. Our division was probably originally designed to fight in Norway. But the Germans got their first then the next real mountain fighting that was going to take place was in the app Apennines in Italy. Christmas day or something like that? They Boorda's out of the ship and said, okay, you guys are headed for Italy. We were finally in a combat zone we hoped in many ways to prove ourselves. Which I think eventually we did. Closing months of nineteen forty four forward. Units of the American fifth. Army we're faced with the task of breaking through these ridges of the German gothic defense line. After the fall of Rome, the German army retreated to the northern Appenine mountains, there was the gothic line. And then there was the winner line. And that's where the Germans made their stand on Belvedere was the highest mountain there and US troops had been stymied there for about six months. You have to realize the Germans had literally years to prepare number one their defenses on. I mean, they had fantastic defense system set up in these mountains, and they did this because this was really the last bastion long as they control strategic points. Nobody's going to get on through Italy men who haven't been trained in the mountains look at them on. And they think it's too much of an obstacle form. And our guys just said, we know we can do it. So our commanding officer general Hayes he planned a nighttime. Assault on Riva ridge on the eighteenth. February nineteen forty five. Here was the situation at the front as general Hayes saw from his command post last is Riva red and was essential to capture REBA reg to prevent them from looking down in our flank and rear Rievaulx. Rievaulx read vertical granted on the south face of it. So you stand on top kneeing, say miles and miles and miles out. Then you can see everything that moves at that time. The mountain was covered with snow ice, very steep, very, very difficult conditions, and so at night, the Germans went to bed. It didn't even keep guard patrols going up there because they didn't believe that any American unit could climb that ridge night. Ordway and drive them off the rich top. Well, they were wrong expert rock climbers begin climbing Vidgis jagged rocks and without making a sound fixed ropes for the use of units that were moving up from below. Even pounded Pete don's in and they had their Piton hammers wrapped in cloth. So the Germans wouldn't hear them pounding in the peons at night. These men were climbing with heavy packs full Amy initiative, and they got that a top of the Rockwall just about daylight. I got into a pretty vicious fair fight up there, the Germans counterattacked, but the hill them off, and they captured that Rockwall at dawn a single tune of company a reported that it had the northern end of the ridge. Mouth and division still considered green had chopped the key threat out of the gothic line. It was an incredible operation. So is the next night that we tack. Nobody. That was a different different Cup of tea. There weren't that many casualties on Riva ridge. But on Belvedere. There were a lot of casualties. You're listening to the ski troops of World War Two will continue with our story in a minute. This episode of the radio series podcast has support from Robin Hood, Robin hoods and investing apps that lets you buy and sell stocks ETF's options cryptos all commission free. Learn how to invest in the market as you build your portfolio. Discover new stocks tracker favorite companies and get custom notifications for price movements. See never missed the right moment to invest robinhood is giving listeners of radio diaries, a free stock like apple Ford or sprint to help you build your portfolio. You can sign up. Diaries dot Robin, Hood dot com at diaries dot Robin, Hood dot com. Well, I've always thought it anything is in Poland is a war. He ought to keep a record of what she did and sad that I was gonna keep a diary of it trying to be as accurate as a could. Monday. February of the nineteen nineteen forty five. We are for the attack the moon is just rising above mount Belvedere no-one towels. I guess everyone is alone with his own thoughts. The audit of move out. It's whispered around and we begin to file up towards the line of departure. How success depends on the element of surprise sergeant postman repeats. All weapons will be unloaded. No weapons will be fired until after daylight in the author is given. Heller smart move. They no way we were. Keep in mind. It was laced with barbed wire mines the Germans were dug in it was terrifying and difficult, but you kept on going because the guys next you kept on going. I think I remember more than anything else was when the Germans started the phosphorus flares even that was night, the whole countryside was just a bathe in the it's very Erie light gonna frightening. Ground is becoming steeper and more difficult to plan the first rays of the sun. They snow with a yellow glow is momentarily. Quiet after several minutes and American machine gun opened fire. It sound is beautiful. Everyone rises and start running toward the saddle. Oh, hell breaks. Loose men. A yelling and screaming. Shell seem to be falling. A German machine gun fire the bullets kick up dirt around this and make a loud popping noise as they split the air nearby. The two men. I'm falling go down, they yell a medic. Post to help. But remember the general's words to keep moving fairly close to sell it. When I got wounded. I was hit by. I think it was mortar fire, but I'm not sure German mortar fire and right away. I knew I'd been hit. In fact, I can see the two bones in my Ristic and up in the flares. You know, a bullet is being shot at you. It comes coast till you Knicks popping. No it. In have artillery onus knitted be hitting close by in a start shivering just shake lack this in. I guess it's fear. Go rash. You'll had a lot of it. On the morning of the twenty one all the talian reach the top of mount Bill, but here. The trick as they soon. Discover it was enough just to reach to hold it. Across a small stream we begin to receive more to five. Five German shells land further down the valley. Valley peaceful. A plan is field with the Knox. How strange to powerful armies is locked in deadly combat yet to farm goes about his daily chores. They no attention to the drama around him strange thing. I've. As the seven swung to the northeast to firm up the Bill the deer line evidence of the cost of that action began to show. The sound of battle begins to die down. We have taken the saddle, but there's not much left of c company here they have lost their captain and over half for them in in the assault. Their bodies scattered along the slope. They allying everywhere frozen in many different positions. Some have arms legs sticking straight up. Nothing is supporting him others remain in a fine position as a strong scent. And I I cannot place. It now comes to me. It is the older of a slaughterhouse. What I'm smelling his blood? Belvedere wasn't bloody battle for the tenth mountain division. Particularly the course the eighty fifth, which we took the steep side. I think there are about three or four hundred killed in Belvedere along. Six PM the line is fading. Phase. I think the friends I lost today this morning they were alive tonight. They are riding in mattress covers apps star up the in the sky in mudder. Thank you loan and fade into sleep. Belvedere was tough tough mountain to get it was a stalemate until we made their breakthrough. Once we made the breakthrough the German army collapsed and our division. Just kept going all the way to the Al. The people of the United Nations. The most sensational news of the law, the surrender of Italy. In New York. I is. Victory. I. Valley. When the war was over an awful lot of guys went to Colorado to Wyoming Montana and found once they were there that there was a possibility of making a living in. I mean, they were ski instructors they ski school directors. They were college coaches, they were Lipik coaches ski resort started by men. Winterpark rap Ajo basam Vail, just name any aspect of the ski business after World War Two and you'd find one or more men involved in it. Jerry Cunningham, invented the down coat Bill bar, invented the running shoe, hundreds of them literally went back in to the ski world, rightfully so they can claim that they were the foundation which the postwar ski world took place in the United States. People. I was. Let's the whole story. Oh, yeah. I miss skiing. I get up the top mountain and. No, I sure I miss skiing. But you gotta quit sometime. I skied till I was ninety. As long as my official needs work. And my artificial is work. Great when not ski. Feels great. Ski troops of World War Two. This story originally aired on NPR's all considered many of the soldiers we interviewed a passed away recent years, thanks to Dan, Kennelly, Parker, nuke Eldridge. Our Rick dick Wilson and Robert Nord house for sharing their stories with us. The tenth mountain division still exists. It's now based in fort Trump New York in recent years, the tenth mountain division is served in Iraq and Afghanistan since two thousand one it's been the most frequently deployed unit in the US army. The story was produced by me Jove Richmond and edited by Deborah Georgia. Ben Shapiro radars podcast is produced by Sarah Kramer with help from Gillis. Or did. I is part of radio Tokyo from PR Rex you can hear all the shows and our podcast network radio. Tovia dot FM. I'm Joe Richmond of radio diaries. Thanks for listening. Radio. Ex-?
Aired 4 months ago 140:16
113 - World War One: Unprecedented Carnage
World War One the great war, the war of nations, the war to end all wars. If only that were true while what war was in two thousand eighteen is the one hundred anniversary of its end. It was war. Unlike any other fought in the long history of Europe, new technology, tanks, flame throwers fighter jets poison gas and more an unprecedented in scope over sixty five million troops will be mobilized over. The course of four years over sixty five million men sent to fight think about that number. The war began a month after Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated on June twenty eighth nineteen fourteen and his death did lead to the war. But it was so much more complicated than that the origins of World War One were decades in the making and we're going to explain those origins and the launch into four years of all out continental war today on a special Veterans Day. Thank you for your service time, suck loves the hell out of today's and yesterday's troops edition of. Time sucks. Happy Monday time soccer's hail Nimrod Hailu Safina praise. Bojangles hail. Triple hail, our military listeners. All those who died defending not only this country, but any of the world's countries. You know, it's a World War suck after all. Now fight on the losing side of history. Doesn't mean you you didn't die bravely. I'm Dan Cummins, suck master the master sucker. Call to the curious curator, fourth leg, bojangles. Loose feet has love slave. And you are listening to time suck turns out really to have a blast in Columbus. Ohio few weekends back. I I called a correctly recording. This suck in advance of buffalo shows hope hoping that we can was fun as well. Hoping hoping Nimrod watched over me being Grand Rapids. Michigan this weekend shows. Doctor grins dove ember sixteenth and seventeenth including my last live podcast of two thousand eighteen on the seventeenth. It's gonna be fun. Some shows already sold out very excited for Grand Rapids. And then Spokane Spokane spoke often small Vegas. I'll be the Spokane comedy club November twenty nine thirtieth December I as make three years in row of good times at that club, and then finishing off two thousand eighteen and a club. I haven't been before helium and Saint Louis December sixth through the ninth look forward to seeing some time. So there's as well. Thanks for checking out the suck on YouTube also on Spotify, also on soundcloud. I think we're I think we're everywhere podcast can be now, and even you know, some some places that other podcasts can't be like our own app. You know, the time suck up on Google play. And the apple store. Thanks for sharing those preview videos on Instagram. Facebook and Twitter spread the suck to people who just don't get it yet with little sixty second clemson's of what we're doing here. And also, thanks for scooping up those time, so challenge coins. I love them all of the weight of them that protective case if you wanna take it off finally did figure out a trick. You gotta pull on the the opposite plastic side, you would think to pull on the one without the little lip. I kept trying to pull the other one. It's actually there's a little tiny grew. You can find a knitter side and pride off hope that makes sense. And thank you to all the space once again for your patronage we're over thirty five hundred spaces I record this new high. But I do know that this this do number allows us to give a thousand dollars to this month's charity. And this must charity is another one run by times, the green beret association dot org. And here's what they do straight from their about page. We'll have a link to them. In today's episode description says those those we seek to serve. Since the attacks of September eleven two thousand one US army special forces have shouldered the heavy burden of carrying out countless complex missions worldwide as larger conflicts have ended in Iraq and Afghanistan. The demand for special operations forces has increased these warriors have suffered a high number of casualties over the years while maintaining a high operational tempo. The cumulative effect of sustained combat has increasingly strained the members of the special forces and their families these operators struggle with questions as old as warfare itself. How can the human body be developed absorbs repeated physical punishment of combat and still perform far above the ordinary? How can even elite warriors endure the cumulative effects on mind and spirit of extreme stress and continual exposure to death and destruction how can the impact of their wives and kids be prevented or healed the answers will help determine how the United States fares in the long war against his adversaries and the green beret association of five oh, one tax exempt, national nonprofit serves and supports members of the US army special. Oh, forces green berets and their families. We provide a range of programs aligned with United States special operations command preservation of the force and family program. Designed to address the Frayne of the force after over fifteen years of combat are programs contribute to the maintenance of mind and body provided cute and ongoing support and resolving physical psychological, emotional and relationship problems before the become chronic during times of tragedy tragedy. Excuse me. The green beret sociation provides immediate financial relief offers counseling and services to those left behind and the special operations community. The green beret sociation also helps warriors transition from military service to civilian life by providing career counseling, support and mentorship. And I talked with naked save me the green brain his fellow Green Bay buddies military spouse who runs organization Lindsey speaks with Matan. Now, we've all had dinner, and they're just solid solid. People are very dedicated to taking care of the green beret special forces members in their families. So so thank you for your support. Space as IRS. Thank you for allowing us to support others doing a lot of good in the world. Got a lot of show for you today. Holy shit so much war so complex. But I think I've simplified it without dominant down took me a bit longer to wrap my head around this one than most of the sucks. Glad to have learned a lot about a war. I knew very very very little about. And hope you enjoy it as much as I have time. Now for an epic suck on we'll war one. So so what events led up to the start of World War One. The Germans would eventually shoulder most of the blame for this war. But if you read between the lines, I think it's easy to see that the dirty dirty savage sub-human polish people were actually behind it. All I just I cannot stress enough how evil polish people are. And yes, I am married to one. I am only married to oppose woman because I feel like it's my duty to keep an eye on at least one of them for the good of humanity large find out where they're holding their secret meetings. Did you know that the original recipe for Perot geeze calls for both puppy and baby it's half. Baby. Meet three eighths, puppy meet one, eighth kitten tears, and of course, flowers salt pepper, and some kind of some kind of polish which is blend of devil spices. But seriously enough about monsters, let's talk about real humans. Let's talk about the events the lead up to the start of the war. One of the main ingredients or the of the origin of World War. One is nationalism. European nationalism was on the rise at the beginning of the twentieth century. Nationalism base, largely as it often is in racism, you know, age-old mentality of our people are wonderful, and your people are filthy, ducks people in my country people who look like me are incredible and people who live in your country. People. Don't look quite like, I do are inferior. And I'm still not joking about polish people who who who am I love this is for real this time nationalism was like a religion for much of Europe's imperialist powers and a lot of smaller countries as well. This time England Spain France, Germany, especially though, been spreading their various doctrines of colonialism around the globe for centuries by the beginning of the twentieth century spreading their nationalistic battlecry of where the best everyone else second rate tops, and the nationalism turned into militarism as the leaders of various European nations intended to prove that, you know, their army was the best, you know, they wanted to prove their might really display on the battlefield how superior they actually were proved the most powerful, you know, the the best soldiers the most advanced weapons the most industrialized military. We've talked a lot previously about the Cold War mentality here in the suck. A lot of a lot of suck episodes of revolved around the Cold War and about how in the first few decades following World War to the United States and the Soviet Union. Were obsessed was showing each other up obsessed with proving that they were the best their system of government was the best. They're the most fit most attractive most intelligent most talented people the best trained soldiers. The most powerful weapons will now imagine that same mentality but spread out amongst numerous European nations with borders, actually touching one another instead of being across the world and with centuries old histories of fighting one another another ingredient of World War one's origin was the romanticism of the idea of war. The major powers of Europe had gone through contemptuously, you know, long period of peace leading up to World War One in the Balkan wars directly preceding it which began in nineteen twelve two years prior. We look at major timeline of European war. There's a forty. Plus your period of peace prior to the Balkan wars while colonial powers had fought. In other words around the globe. There hadn't been a major European war on European soil since eighteen seventy one the end of the Franco, Prussian war. Not a Franco Prussian will was fought on the heels of the austral Prussian war of eighteen sixty six when Germanic state of Prussia unified numerous German states into a new and powerful European empire. Led largely by Prussian general and soon to be German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck, auto von, Bismarck, and Bismarck, knew that a good way to further unify the the new empire of various German states was to stoke animosity towards a long-term rival, France. And then when a Prussian prince was offered the throne of Spain, France protested being surrounded by the Prussians and declared war and twenty-six various states of German empire unified to defend themselves against France. And the war lasted less than a year and was really just over in a few months as far as major battles, the Germany began a siege of Paris, two months after the war began, and then Paris just kind of Hawn. For while endured months of famine before eventually conceding victory to the Germans. And in the end France conceded, the empire to the now unified German empire and also conceded to pain the Germans in indemnity of financial compensation for having caused the war. And then there was peace at least as far as major conflicts fought on European soil for decades. And as we learn over and over and over we meet sacs have very short memories. What's that quote by Georgia Santa Santana at nine hundred twentieth century Spanish philosopher and poet those who failed to learn from history are doomed to repeat it. So fucking true over and over and over same patterns reemerge. Like, I know for me cheese starts. Well, cheese begins. Great and then end in a violent internal salt on my non lactate, enzyme processing digestive system. And then as I sit sweaty and angry and a hotel or airport bathroom stall. I tell myself that fuck cheese. Fuck milk book. Milkshakes freydl SaaS f- come chatter. Yeah. Damage delicious cream, then after a few weeks. I forget all about my defeat in the bathroom. And I only remember the sweet sweet taste cheese. And I punish myself all over again. Well, that's kind of what happened in Europe. You know, they remembered the the sweet taste of easy victories. And they forgot about all the painful defeats and the real cost of war. The young men and women growing up in the last decades of nineteenth century in the beginning of the twentieth century hadn't tasted war in their lifetimes in Europe, and the and the idealized it their leaders were children. When the when the last war hit their lands to the second generation removed from the Franco Prussian war began to romanticize battle as an important test of manhood rite of passage that their parents had missed on because their parents were cowards. You know, they didn't want to miss out on they thought of wars is a way to demonstrate the strength of your nation, and the superiority of your culture. Government officials academic leads even important religious figures to clergy, essentially, became pro war. There was a popular book published in France. One thousand twelve called the young people of today written by young French intellectuals. Onery Masihs Alfred deterred, and they talk about the lack of courage and cowardice their parents for not fighting the German empire after France's defeat and that Franco Prussian war. They feel that their parents were frayed to the Germans, but their generation was different. Now, we're not we skirt way scared. Wrote war the word had taken on a sudden glamour. It is a useful word. Holy new adorned with that seduction, which is attorney bellicose instinct has revived in the ears of men. These young men in Pune to impute to it all the beauty with which they are in love, which they have been deprived by ordinary life above all war. And there is is the occasion for the most noble of human virtues, those which they exalt above all others energy mastery and sacrifice for 'cause which transcends ourselves, man. I did not have that as young man. I remember when I was in high school, and the US actually, I've actually the end of junior high guess US was gearing up to enter the Gulf war in Iraq at the end of nineteen ninety eighth grader, and I I heard someone mentioned the possibility of getting drafted, and obviously that didn't come close to have. We know that now and the US military annihilated the Iraqi army and just a matter of few months, but you know, no one knew that beforehand. I remember just watching the news, and my grandparents and I had dinner at night. I remember just thinking. About how like what if the war turned into some Vietnam type situation, and then I could get drafted. And my thought was definitely not fuck. Yeah. Prove my manhood, manhood. Yeah. Now scared, I know interest, dine young terrified. Maybe I was just less brave than the average middle schooler. That's very possible. I've always been a warrior, and I you know, and I think that maybe that's why have so much admiration for veterans. I think I think we admire noble qualities and others that we don't necessarily feel like we have ourselves. And I just admire the courage and selflessness selflessness excuse me of soldiers more as I get older. Anyone who serve regardless of whether you not you enjoyed your time in the serviceman. I hope you're proud of the fact that you didn't just think about signing up like you did it you did you did that you you you actually serve your countrymen. But I digress. Also in nineteen twelve there was a book being written in Germany by deeply respected, retired general as son of an even more respect to general Frederick von Bernardi called Germany in the next war. And he wrote from this standpoint, I must first of all examine the aspirants for peace, which seemed to dominate our age and threatened to poison the soul of the German people according to their true moral significance. I'm try to prove that war is not merely a necessary element in the life of nations, but an indispensable factor of culture in which a true civilized nation. Chiefs, the highest expression of strength and satisfaction. While man says dude was a cavalry. Lieutenant in the Franco, Prussian war. He actually knew what war look like. And he was advocating for more to be fair though, he only fought a quick lopsided victory. His only experience of war was quick decisive dominant. Another ingredient of the World War One the build up to its imperialism. Think about how the British and the Spaniards for example, approach colonialism? As an attitude of furthering the glory of the crown subjugate to filthy heathens living in the Americas and force them to join a clearly superior culture. Now, the like they were doing indigenous people favor, we're introduce new to a better God in a better way of life. Well that same attitude existed amongst Europe's monarchy's your country, and kosher we'll be blessed to have us. Come over, take take you over and replace everything. With our severity culture. You welcome another of World War One origins is propaganda. I listened to a great courses lecture about the origins of war one and professor Robert L Weiner. Yeah. Professor Weiner, tough break talked about how in the decade prior to the outbreak of World War One European kids and many countries are being taught in school to fear and hate their neighbors. Goodwill, go propaganda. It's very effective tried and true method to prepare the young to to hate people that they'll be then sent to kill. It's probably why I get so angry. I think about modern mainstream media pushing spins at truth. Some guys from this month, charity green beret, association dot org. Got me to download an app called one American news network that I use for keeping up with what's going on in the world is today's headlines without today's opinions. There's not a sponsor, but one American news. Now, you think it's really cool. It's amazing. How short the articles are this app because there's no spin. There's just, hey, this is what happened this guy said this, and these people said that and then just bounces out to the next article. Buck unloaded another ingredient. We'll we'll one especially popular in Germany was what's become known as the short war illusion. Now, this is a feeling that you're nation so much more powerful and dominant than you know, than any others that any military action you commit to asking me fucking, easy peasy. It's going to be swift decisive glorious, and why wouldn't the German empire feel that way. You know, the Franco Prussian worthy. Also, oppression were had been quick and decisive. They feel like most of Europe was just theirs for the taking. No, we'll we'll March, you know, just gonna March around Europe littered with no with the fucking planet is, you know, Germany, German new language Europe. Deutschmark is the currency of everywhere. Hope he loves sausage because for breakfast and international, and I told her it's gonna be fucking just off the charts hose just going to be this year, the German empire, the time extended to France and the west Russia the east much larger than it is now and Germans had put enough thought into dominating Europe that they'd actually developed a plan for attacking both France and Russia and expanding their empire way back in nineteen o five. But a decade before the war is called the sheaf, the the sleep Lynn Schliemann Schliemann plan this Lifan plan named for its original count. Alfred von Schliemann stated that any war for Germany would be a two front war. This plan would ensure quick forty two days to be exact I love it. They have it down to the day. Forty two days can take to kick Francis s and then we go mobile towards Russia. And then you know, we kick them and just a little bit. I don't know couple months. Yeah. Nobody nobody. Nobody. Deal. I just I just I just love how confident they would break into France moves FRANZ bosses, not even bother to raise their guns. They'll stand side the cheese and back shops crepes in doing that s we will only attack hunting exactly six weeks who much back glass, doors lions and make Russia. Beg for mercy. No more than two or three days tops. Do you think that said a lot more a lot more Arnold Schwarzenegger than old German? You know, war hero. Yeah. You've you're right realize it's it's easier for me to do a shitty Arnold Schwarzenegger than it is for me to do more shitty. German accent. So for now on all Schwarzenegger is the official accent of Germans, and you know, what he is Austrian Arnold Austrian. Austria is to Germany was Scotland his England the same language similar culture different accent for the most part. Okay. France also had a pre-war plan notice plan seventeen they developed at back nine hundred eleven French generals. You know, had had I developed that involved a major offensive by the French armies across vast Lauren into the main German industrial areas, the French general staff calculated that any German offensive would be launched in that area. And the best defense would be a strong offense. You know, hit hit him with her building or weapons another huge agreement of World War One the one that would take it from a regional war like the the Balkan wars to a continental war was the formation of European alliances. This is why. Is what really dragged all of Europe into this war? Germany began to form alliances in the late eighteen hundreds and this other European nations to form their own alliances less they'd be overwhelmed. If there ever attacked by the Germans, and then these lines is which would perpetually shift, by the way, nice reflection of how politically unstable Europe was leading up to the war. Yeah. Countries were swapping back and forth. He wants to war started. Like Italy was like, yeah. We'll we'll help you out Germany before the war. And then during the with look that just kidding. We we we feel like the other side has a better chance of victory. We're gonna go with them. He's yet drag all these multiple nations quickly to this big fucking war, the BMW, maybe that's what it should have been called. You know, did you find the BMW what the big fucking war eighteen seventy three? The first alliance. Created was the three emperors league, pledging mutual wartime support amongst Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Russia didn't last long Russia withdrew five years later in eighteen seventy eight and then Germany Austria, Hungary form the dual alliance eighteen seventy nine the dual aligns promised that the parties would aid each other if Russia attacked them or if Russia assisted another power at war with either nation in eighteen eighty one Germany and Austria, Hungary, strengthen their bond by forming the triple alliance with Italy all three nations pledged to support the, you know, each other if they were attacked by France, also if any member found itself at war with two or more nations wants the alliance would come to their aid Italy, the weakest of the three insisted on a final clause voiding the deal if the triple lines members were the aggressor like don't don't start shit. We'll help if you detect but don't start shit. And then shortly after at least to deal with France, pledging support of Germany, attack, them Italy, always going back and forth. Back after chancellor Otto van auto von or out of in Bismarck, narrowed, it advancing it's auto von Bismarck was voted out of power eighteen ninety Kaiser Ville helm the second pursued an aggressive policy of German militarization alarmed by Germany's naval build up the United Kingdom Russia and France began to strengthen their ties Russia entered into an agreement France and h ninety two spelled out in the Franco Russian military convention. Terms released betide both nations to support each other. If they should be involved in war designed to counter the triple lions much of the diplomacy. Bismarck market considered critical. Germany's revival had been outdone in a few years then in the nation once again face threats on two fronts concern about the threat of rival powers posed the colonies Great Britain began searching for alliances of its own. Although the UK had not supported France in the Franco, Prussian war. The two nations did pledge military support for one another in the tante cordial of nineteen four three years. Eight or nine hundred seven Britain signed a similar agreement with Russia and the triple on taunt was formed so now's prepared to enter World War One. You had the major powers of Britain, actually, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland at the time see if Britain France known as the French third Republic at that time and the Russian empire on one side known as the triple entente and on the other side, you have the triple alliance of the German empire, the Austro-Hungarian empire and Italy outside of Scandinavia and the Iberian peninsula. Most of Europe is military line with one of the two sides. So now, let's talk about the final ingredients of this first ward, the instability of the Ostro Ostro Hon, Gary and empire and some battles in the Balkans. And I think it's clear at this point that while what happens next did lead directly to this war. If these events hadn't have happened something else would have lit the fuse on the powder keg of Europe as it became known within the next few years Europe by nineteen ten was just absolutely on a course for war destined for major war. Fucking Balkans, man mess. The Balkans a mountainous region. That includes present day countries of Greece. Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria Romania part of Yugoslavia Serbia Montenegro Bosnia hurts hurts hurts to go Vena as a tricky one. Geographically European Turkey small region around is damn bowl and also located in the Balkans. And if you'll recall from way back in the Vlad the Impaler suck the Balkans aka south eastern, Europe been shit show for centuries. The were the word Balkan actually mean shit show in English essentially, it means show, it means show of shit. No means it means wooded mountain chain and Turkish actually and it was sandwiched between the various Christian empires of Europe and the Muslim Ottoman empire for centuries look at various maps of Europe in the thirteenth fourteenth. Fifteenth sixteenth seventeen eighteen nineteen th century. You'll see national boundaries continually being redrawn country names changing continually being rewritten. The there are these Serbian. Slavic people with their eastern orthodox based roots? There are the crowds of Croatia. Another Slavic people largely identified as Roman Catholic, the Ottoman. Turkish Turkish Muslims Albanians who share a language not closely related to any of the other European languages cultures. Fragment over the years. Some Albanians being eastern orthodox Roman Catholics some Muslims have other ethnic groups, like degrees Romanians on garrisons Roma. People many more and long long long story. Very short. A lot of wars have been fought in these mountains for centuries between more than a dozen different ethnic groups who for various periods of the middle ages, in some cases, even before that developed independent cultures due to the geographic isolation mounts provided and then you know, Europe would use those people it's a buffer to prevent the Ottomans from coming in the Ottomans would use them as a buffer to prevent the crusaders from coming back very tumultuous area, and again because of nationalistic attitudes like, you know, we like the way we do things we do things better because our culture is the best and your culture stupid, many of these. Various independent cultures grew to hate each other over centuries fucking meets X men. Why don't keep doing? This is the same old story. It reminds me of rabid sports fans who hate the fans of other teams hate people who behave exactly like they do because those people were born in Ann Arbor instead of Columbus or or Boston New York now usually in sports, and I was just play hates, you know. It's a game of pretending to hate. But not with nationalist, national news, real hate. That's people kill each other. You know, just because you know, the these other people were born in a different village, you know, dressed in a different way, worship different. God, a different foods asinine. Why can't we all just come together and just all look down on polish people like number unintended? Hell number. Whereas Poland in the tail by the way, no sovereign polish state existed between seventeen ninety five nine hundred eighteen. The polls were subjugated has got intended by actual human beings like the French under Napoleon Russian czars. Germans AK the Prussians polish independence efforts would actually benefit greatly from World War One negotiations. At the end of the war would lead to a new polish independence state last until World War Two when Germany would take him over again, and then Russians would take them over after that. And then they've been independent against this nineteen eighty nine. And that's why currently the because they've been independent for decades. Poland has I don't know if you know this no electricity. No running water. It's a network of caves rundown buildings a lot of stuff burning and just various clans of white furloughs. Monkey people living in ruins and thrown fees. One another. But enough about Poland got it makes me so rashly happy just to slander my wife's homeland. I love you. I love you pull people you know, that back to the Balkans in early October nineteen thousand eight the Austro-Hungarian empire. Officially annexed the former Ottoman empire territory of Bosnia Herzgovina which had occupied since eighteen seventy eight. And this angered the kingdom of Serbia and his patron. The also Slavic also east orthodox Russian empire. Fucking alliances. Fucking monarchy's held a monarchy's. If Europe always complicating things back, then you know, as we talked about in previous sucks. It's this. Little kingdom is ruled by some dude who's first cousins with the head of the other little kingdom, just married into being first in line for the throne here and second the line for the throne there and on and on and on, you know, it's these these various lines of Royal succession and constant intermarriage between various Royal families who ruled various different European countries made things very game of thrones ish and the Russian political maneuvering in the region d d stabilized. Existing peace accords were already fracturing in the Balkans. And then in one thousand nine hundred thousand nine hundred thirteen the first Balkan war was fought between the Balkan league and the fracturing Ottoman empire, the resulting treaty of London further shrank theon and emperor empire created an independent. Albanian state will enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria Serbia Montenegro, Greece. Then we'll Gary attack Serbia and Greece on June sixteenth nineteen thirteen sparked to thirty three day second Balkan war by the end of which it lost most. Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and southern debris to Romania further destabilizing this volatile region. The great powers of Europe were able to keep these Balkan conflicts contained at the time. But the next little conflict would spread throughout Europe and beyond become you know, what we're one. So now, let's talk about the exact incident that led to World War One the fuck and match. It was thrown all his gun power. The the assassination of Marmaduke and extremely popular cartoon dog who's fake cartoon death led to the death of so many real people. It's not the right Duke. You know that I'm sorry. Let's talk about the assassination of John Wayne, aka the Duke. That's what led Europe into war. John Wayne was extremely popular fake cavalier said things like Lois tough was tougher when you're stupid and talk low talk, slow don't talk too much. That's not true. That's a horrible. John Wayne impressed. John Wayne was only seven years old. And we'll we'll one broke out. He didn't he did say those things years later, though. No, let's talk about the assassination of the Dickson has. Third. I'm almost positive this one's right bone, Luke, Duke, if I recall were gunned down by boss, hog and sombody and Serbs days dukes, wearing mom jeans. Instead of those high tight little daisy Duke shorts. Well, love and eastern Europe lost its collective mind where it looks like those do boys volume sales dug in a whole he drove this. They couldn't get them stuck. They got killed or the shot hog roasted on a spit in and used for target practice for getting thrown off cliff. Daisy. She didn't take known to will in didn't sit well with the Germans Russians Serbs Croat's damn near no one that Duke reference made even less sense than the previous ones that show. Didn't even come out till nineteen Seventy-nine Archduke Franz Ferdinand. Like, I said earlier was assassinated June twenty eighth nineteen fourteen for sure that's the right do. And this is the aunt that will kick off today's giant World War One time line. Wrap on those boats soldier, we're marching down a time soccer tie line. Who was friends Ferdinand while he was a fifty year old nephew bone. Luke, duke. No, I don't leave me. He was he was a fifty year old nephew of Austro-Hungarian emperor. Franz Joseph a member of the hospital dynasty, one of the most influential families year of one of those one of those old money families that conspiracy theorists like David I can Alex Jones. Let's talk about he was the presumptive heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. An inspector general of the Ostrow on Gary and army and in the capacity of that last position he agreed to attend to military exercises in June of nineteen fourteen in Bosnia Hercegovina, remember Austria, Hungary, had just annexed these provinces a few years earlier against the wishes of neighboring Serbia which likewise cover coveted them one of them as well. And Ferdinand hated the Serbs forget believe the Serbs to be quote. Pigs thieves murderers and scoundrel so Pata fan not a fan. He lets Yankees. They're the Red Sox yet. He he had opposed annexation of Serbia out of fear that it would make an already turbulent political situation even worse than if his uncle had listened to him. He probably lived longer. A formerly controlled by the Ottoman empire, Bosnia Herzegovina its population was roughly forty percent Serb thirty percent Muslim and twenty percent quote with various other ethnicities making up the remainder and upon learning of Ferdinand's upcoming visit the young Bosnians a secret revolutionary society of Serbian peasant students wanting to liberate liberate Bosnia Herzegovina from Austria, Hungarian control begin plotting to assassinate him and house there not a band called the young Bosnians, by the way, that's fucking dope. Name. They could open up for France Ferdinand, both solid band names in may. And I know that France Fernandez's, man. That's what I said. And may get Rillo Princip Princip and fellow revolutionaries traveled to Serbia the Serbian capital of Belgrade where they received six hand held bombs four semiautomatic pistols cyanide suicide capsules for members of the so called black hand the great day. That's a great band named the black hand terrorist group with close ties to the Serbian army after practicing with their pistols at three. Amen journey back to Bosnia Herzegovina receiving help from black hand associates to smolder weapons across the border to this day remains unclear whether or not the Serbian government actually participated in this game in late June Ferdinand attended two days of military exercises outside Sarajevo the morning of June twenty eighth nineteen fourteen friends and his wife, Sophie boarded the train for the ride industry. Evo? The couple got into an open top car for a motorcade little ride to city hall. The car in front of them was supposed to carry six specially trained officers, but instead only had one plus a three local policemen. Meanwhile, seven young Bosnians fanned out along the apple Klay, a main avenue in Sarajevo running parallel to miata river when the motorcade passed by its route having been published in advance and associate of prince up. New Delco chubby Novick curl his bomb or hurl curled curled. His bump hurled his bomb at the car carrying the Archduke only to watch it bounce off the folded up roof rolling Neath wrong vehicle. Whoops. A so exploded substrate explosion wounded two army officers several bystanders, but left Ferdinand Sophie, essentially, unharmed, and instead of maybe call it off Ferdinez like now, we're gonna continue continue the plan to Venice city hall just a bomb. Nobody nobody deal. Just some Daytona bother me in order to dissuade any other bomb throwers the motorcade zip down the apple quit high speeds of but then they made a mistake. They the first three cars turned onto a side street. Right. Where prince up happened to be standing bad luck as the cars attempted to reverse back onto the apple Klay print ship whipped out his pistol fire two shots. He's barely good shot at the Archduke from point blank range. Pierced him in the neck and also striking Sophie in the abdomen. Sophie, Sophie, don't die. Stay alive for children Ferdinand murmured, and then within minutes both had passed away friendship later. Killing ferdinand. But said he had not a meant to ever hit. Sophie three weeks too young for the death penalty. Only nineteen years old. It was given a twenty year sentence, but contracted tuberculosis and died in jail in April nineteen eighteen at age twenty three Austria, Hungary, assumes now that the Serbian government is behind this assassination and quickly gets ally. Germany to support them to punish Serbia on July twenty third nineteen fourteen Austria, Hungary, sent Serbian ultimatum worded in a way that made acceptance very unlikely, you know, they they gave them a list of demands they knew they were gonna make make here. Here's some of those demands I one was the banning of Serbian publications which have been responsible for anti Austrian propaganda that propaganda talking about the removal of anti-austrian individuals from the Serbian military government and civil service, the removal of Serbian, teachers and curriculum that promoted or incited anti Austrian sentiments, the outline and disbanding of the Serbian nationalist group known as the people's defence a crackdown on cross-border arbitrating and the removal of corrupt Bordeaux border officials. A joint Serbian Austrian investigation into the assassination plot conducted within Serbia by Austrian officials and involving the investigation and interrogation of Serbian, civilians and military personnel. Serbia immediately seeks council of their ally. The Russians czar nNcholas the second remember him from the rest Putin sec. He and his ministers offered to he and his minister off publicly condemned the ultimatum, but also they're aware that Russia's military readiness lags behind Germany's so they refuse to give any military guarantees the British Foreign minister tries to avert war by organizing mediation conference between all nations with a stake in the crisis. This is rejected by both Berlin and Vienna. The British of the most reluctant to engage more time because less than twenty years prior. They they made it through the second bore war in South Africa that lasted from eighteen ninety nine nine hundred two and they were not as eager to fight the cost of war still fresh in their minds. They lost over twenty thousand soldiers, roughly, another twenty five thousand wounded and millions of millions of pounds at a cost to engage a prolonged conflict, Servia infuriated, but hesitant to engage the much larger Austro-Hungarian empire and battle response to the Austrian ultimatum just before the expiration of the deadline Serbia submits to most of the demands, but re rejects that Austrian lead inquiry, they're not going to have just some Austrians come in their country, and you know, and just ask a bunch of questions without disturbance being there right there with the Serbs proclaimed that there. Government gave no moral or material support friendship and the other assassins Servia proposes arbitration neutral arbitration to resolve the dispute Austria, not interested. Austro-hungarian emperor FRANZ Joseph pressured by his military advisers, then declares war on Serbia on July twenty eighth nineteen fourteen. Exactly a month after Ferdinand's, death and shit is on the declaration of war triggers. A chain reaction that drags virtually all of Europe into war all those fucking alliances. Russia longtime protector of Serbia response. I by mobilizing its forces against Austria, Hungary, basically immediately after Austria's wore declaration, three days later in August, first, Germany response to Russia's mobilization against Austria, Hungary, by declaring war on Russia. Germany launches their much anticipated Schliemann plan that scheme to invade France. And then Russia the following day on August second. They are ready to go August third. Germany officially declares war on France ally of Russia. Germany, also invades Belgium, which had remained neutral Britain allied with Belgium, immediately sent an ultimatum to Germany to withdraw or else and on August, fourth two thousand fourteen Germany tells Britain to suck it stick. It says and I quote, take you'll Bongos Amash Benham right up. You'll clean mum's ass as our source nigger get popped in. That's that's not an exact quote, but they did toss aside the ultimatum and refused to withdraw Britain and declares war on Germany starting to feel like a game of risk. Isn't it? United States officially declares to remain neutral. This time also on August, fourth siege of Liege begins as Germans attack the Belgian fortress city, but meet resistance from Belgian troops inside the leash forts. They're neutral, but they're not just laying down. Right. They do have an army over the next week and a half the twelve four surrounding the city are bombarded into submission by German and Austrian howitzers using high explosive shells remaining Belgian troops retreat northward towards Antwerp as German westward. Advance continues on August, sixth the Austria Hungarian empire officially declares war in Russia in accordance with their lines. With Germany also on the six French and British troops, invaded German colony of Togo in west Africa spread to another continent now twenty days later, German governor their surrenders on August. Seventh nineteen sixteen the first British troops laid in France, the one hundred and twenty thousand highly trained members of the regular British army from the British expeditionary force b e f commanded by field marshal, John French. And before we go any further time if you're thinking holy shit. That's a lot of dudes hundred and twenty. Thousand. Yeah. Me too. So let me let me take a second toss. More numbers your way to give you an idea of the true size of the military's of each of the major players here. The start of the war. Here are the total numbers of the combined. Standing reserve soldiers for each of World War One major European combatants. As of August, nineteen fourteen in order of most to least so Russia has almost six million soldiers five million nine hundred seventy one thousands. It's hard to war. My cat, although to be fair the overwhelming majority of these soldiers, not highly trained by the war's end, roughly twelve million soldiers will have fought for Russia. Germany starts with four and a half million soldiers by the end love mobilized eleven million France opens up with over four million it'll suit up eight and a half by nine thousand eighteen Austro-Hungarian empire. Four and a half million troops to start finish the war with almost eight million young men sent into battle Italy has just over one and a quarter million to begin the war. It'll end with five and a half million fighting Britain has just under a million troops nineteen fourteen. We'll have sent just under nine. Million tither fight or defend by nine hundred eighteen various other nations, Romania Serbia, Greece. Bulgaria Montenegro, Turkey, etc. Will start with anywhere from around fifty thousand to three thousand troops and with anywhere from fifty thousand to nearly three million Poland zero troops. Fuck. This is awkward. Poland has zero troops to beginning and end of the war because this time not trying to be a dick, but not not a real country on a real country that time the war would produce somewhere around sixty five million total veterans, including those who are ruined or would give their life for the country. And and as the word gets going. It's important note that alliances would continue to shift directly before the war of the two major sides of the triple entente, France Britain and Russia and the triple lines of Germany the Austro-Hungarian empire in Italy. Once the war begins to sides, become known as the allied and central powers, Italy will actually ended up bailing on Germany and Austria, Hungary, and join the allies there's more ships and now back to August seventh. So okay. So August seven nine thousand fourteen to French desire to score a quick victory ignites, the first major French German action of the war the French army invades, Alison Lauren, according to their master strategy knows plan seventeen. However, the French offensive is met by effective German counter attacks using heavy artillery, machine guns. And French suffer heavy casualties, including twenty seven thousand soldiers killed in a single day. The worst one day death toll in the history of the French army, the French then fall back towards Paris amid three hundred thousand total casualties man twenty five thousand in a single day and this before tanks into the war this before planes entered the war. This is artillery fire riflefire hand to hand combat trench warfare. Not even begun. Not quite yet. Great Britain and France declared war on Austria, Hungary, and August twelfth Serbia is invaded by Austria, Hungary. Russia invades Germany, August seventeenth attack into East Prussia forcing the outnumber Germans there to fall back. This marks the advent of the eastern front in Europe in which Russia will oppose Germany and Austria, Hungary, man location location location. So important both real estate and in war being STAN witch in between Russia and the major powers of western Europe would bite Germany in the ass and both world wars. Russia, for example. You know, it can fight a war in Europe on only one front Germany, obviously due to central European location. Could not do that. But they didn't care bring youth. Ross job bring. It's west of Europe contact you all like in deadly all of western Europe. And then I can grab mother Russia, but who Soghi babushka bliss rip out from beneath his feats who's my powerful by thefts. I will military breasts Oli weaklings in Scandinavia, I was just blatant. Arnold Schwarzenegger at that point that had nothing to do with in August twentieth. Germany, Germany German troops, occupy unfounded, brussels-capital Belgium, following this the the main German armies continue westward invade France. According to their master strategy that whole sh sh Lifan plan which called for a giant counterclockwise movement of German armies, wheeling into France swallowing up Paris than attacking the rear of the French armies concentrated in the hostile rent, Lauren area under the overall command of Helmuth von Moltke chief of the German general staff, the German seek to achieve victory over France within six weeks right that whole forty two days than folks undefeated in Russia in the east before. Russia's six million, man. Army the world's largest can fully mobilize Japan, declares war on Germany August. Twenty third nineteen fourteen the Japanese then prepare to assist British and expelling the Germans from the far east German possessions in the South Pacific included, naval based on the coast, China part of NEW GUINEA, Samoa, Caroline, Marshall and Mariana Islands. Japan would start the war with the army of roughly eight hundred thousand soldiers and mobilise all of them by nineteen eighteen on the eastern front German troops in East Prussia under the command of Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludolf opposed the Russian second army this an August, August twenty six nineteen fourteen aided by aerial reconnaissance and interception of uncoded Russian radio messages. The Germans effectively reposition their troops to counter the initial Russian advance. And what becomes known as the battle of tannenberg five days later after surrounding the Russians the battle ends with German victory and the capture of a hundred and twenty five thousand Russians following the success. The Germans drive the Russians out of these Prussia with heavy casualties German possession. In the far east or attacked as New Zealand troops occupied German Samoa three days later Japanese forces land on the coast, China, preparing to attack the German naval base naval base at Shing tau. A of the Japanese beginning occupation of the Caroline Marshall and Mary on islands September fifth nineteen fourteen the treaty of London signed by Great Britain, France and the Russian empire. Officially now. Linking them the major European allied powers on the western front. Peres is saved as French and British troops, disrupt asleep and plan by launching a major counter-offensive against invading. German armies to eat the to the east of Paris six hundred taxi caps from the city helped move French troops to the front lines aided by French aerial reconnaissance, which reveals a gap that is developed in the center of the whole German advance, the French and British exploit this week does impress their advantage. The Germans then beginning strategic withdrawal toward the allies. Toward northward is allies pursue each aid repeatedly tries to outmaneuver the other heynen tactical advantage as they move northward. We'll because known as the race to. The C pretty cool man that they're using you know, modern modern cars now in planes, and before we go further with dates and battles. Let's take. Let's talk a bit about how World War was fought. You know, like what kind of weapons what kind of warfare right after a quick word from from a sponsor time. Suck is brought to you today by hymns. Do you know about hymns guys fighting back and world, we're one they didn't get us. Sweet man lotions, they didn't get bona Roosters, and some some some hair products, some hair hope but dudes do now sixty six percent of men lose their hair by age thirty five I'm forty one. I still haven't so second wait now. Wait hut. Stay with me. That's not supposed to go. No, thankfully, bald. This can be optional. Thanks to forums dot com. A one stop shop for hair loss skin care. 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Let's first talk about trench warfare, some nasty shit kind of the defining type of combat for World War One trench warfare. Born during the first battle of Marne in early September, nineteen fourteen this battle also introduced the concept of automotive transport into war. We just talked about that when roughly three thousand infantrymen were transported. I e driven into battle from Paris to be those six hundred taxis. Just Yuban just Uber and right on right on into war. The Marne is less. One hundred sixty kilometer, let's one hundred miles northeast of Paris. The Germans had just made it within thirty miles or forty kilometers from Paris. Just prior to this battle when French army the French army joined by the British expeditionary force began to push them back Heller, a French leaders soon realized that they push back too hard towards Germany following their strategy plan seventeen. The Germans could mobilize around the push right on through the German army, and then in Germany could, you know, sneak back towards Perez, and then surround them cutting off from behind also German leaders realize that if they push too quickly to France following their sleep and plan. There is the possibility of French and British forces kinda the same thing to them come into the middle of the ranks know, separating advancing armies from you know, from supply trains, cutting them off. So so both sides decided kind of change up their strategies, as the Germans retreated, the French and British did nearly encircle them. But the Germans were able to make a north of the sine river, they dug defensive trenches to prevent the British and French from pushing them back into Belgium and it worked, and I'm not sure about the presentation that river, I looked up. Most is worse. But there was a fucking. Words this week. Many fucking countries. But it's AS is as as knee as knee river, AS any. Few pronunciation sticklers, however, the British and then the and then the French, okay? So the push him. Sorry. So the get notices river they and they start digging defensive trenches to prevent the British and France, you know, from pushing them back into Belgium, and it works it saves. Her armies, however, then the British and the French they dig trenches to prevent the Germans from pushing further back towards Perez at a later date. Now, they have this fucked up stalemate that would just last for years forward. Moving strategies such as head on infantry attacks were no longer -ffective or feasible against modern weaponry weaponry, like these machine gun nests, and he's trenches and heavy artillery and before the trenches over two hundred and fifty thousand soldiers on east side with die in less than a week of fighting and this little conflict here this battle, holy Shipman. Half a million men dead less than a week mostly from artillery, fire early trenches were little more than FOX holes or ditches intended to provide a measure protection during short battles. But then as the stalemate continued became obvious in a more elaborate system was needed. And in the first major trench. Lines were completed in November nineteen fourteen by the end of the year of that year. They stretched four hundred seventy five miles almost five hundred miles worth of gigantic war ditches starting at the North Sea running through Belgium and northern France ended in the Swiss frontier, although the specific instruction of transfers determined by local terrain most rebuilt, according to the same basic design the front wall of the trench known as the parapet average ten feet high lying with sandbags from top to bottom. The parapet also feature two or three feet of sandbags stacked above round level these provided protection, but also secure two soldiers view allege known as the fire step was built into the lower part of the ditch. A lot of solar to step up and see over the top usually through people between sandbags when he's ready to fires weapon. Periscopes and mirrors were also used to see above the sandbags the rear wall of the trench known as the Pardo's. Choose me part us was lying the sandbags as well protecting against a rear assault because concert shelling and frequent rainfall could. The trench walls to collapse they were reinforced with sandbags logs branches wherever they could find think of all the work that went into that just dig in and cutting and stacking and hall while you're being attacked by the enemy trenches were dug in a zigzag pattern. So does the enemy entered the trench? They couldn't just fire straight down the line. You know, just couldn't set up a machine gun and just fucking blast people for as far as opposed to travel. A typical trench system included a line of three or four trenches. The frontline also called the outpost of the fire line the support trench. The reserve trench all built parallel to one another in anywhere from one hundred to four hundred yards apart. And the main trench lines were connected by communicating trenches man, just amaze allowing for the movement Mestia supplies soldiers protected by field of dense barbed wire. The fire line was located at varying distances from the Germans frontline usually anywhere between fifty and three hundred yards thinking about that fifty yards from the enemy for years. Fifty yards from thousands and thousands of men desperately wanting to kill you the area between the two arm. Frontline's was known as no-man's-land some trenches contain dugouts below the level of the trench floor offered his deep as twenty or thirty feet. Most these underground rooms were little more than crude sellers. But some especially those farther back from the front offered more conveniences such as beds furniture stoves, these guys, you know, they're there for years, the German dugouts were considerably more sophisticated one dugout captured in Assam valley. Nine hundred sixteen was found to have toilets electricity ventilation even wallpaper. They're just like, yeah. We're gonna be her while to set up shop, can you imagine fighting trenches like that that closest only members of the enemy man, if you can't imagine just listen to this following account from a dude who was there a dude who fought trenches that did not have toilets trista ventilation of wallpaper. I like to introduce you to one Horace Pippin Horace Pippin was American artist classified in nineteen forty seven by art critic, Elaine lock as a real and rare genius combining folk quality with artistic maturity, so uniquely as almost to defy classification. His work has been featured in New York. Metropolitan Museum of art, San Francisco museum of modern art, the Philadelphia museum of art so many places he would die of a stroke. A respected and successful artists in nineteen forty six at the age of fifty eight back in nineteen seventeen horses nineteen year old kid fighting World War One trenches because the diary of what he went through on June first nineteen Seventy-nine long after the US would enter the war Pippen volunteered for the fifteenth. New York national guard later Christian these thirty three hundred sixty nine regiment and nicknamed the Harlem hellfire, here's the Harlem hellfire weren't African American infantry unit in World War One who spent more time in combat than any other American unit. Pippen poured out his war memories. Into a few small kind of composition notebooks filling page after page with his tidy handwriting offering a rare first person account of the heroin combat experience of trench warfare. His unit landed on the Atlantic coast of France and July of nineteen seventeen. They were assigned to the infantry under General, John J black. Jack, Pershing the man we talked about in the Pancho via suck. If you recall general Pershing and five thousand us soldiers hunted poncho near the Mexican border nineteen sixty with the French looking to the US to help replenish their badly. Depleted. Armies, Pershing handed the three hundred sixty ninth over to assist them. Seeing the shoddy equipment given to America's black troops. The French re-kitted the helicopters with French rifles, helmets belts, gas masks, canteens was wine. They also beefed up to three hundred sixty nine military training and trench construction machine gun operation construction used grenades preparations for gas attack. What a bad asked you to name, by the way, the hell fighters. That's that's a name. You can be proud of. You know, like how much would suck if your buddies during the war and wrote you told you how they doing the hell fighters, and then you sign up, and and you get stuck in like the little fellas what division are you in the loop villas or like or like the Dingle berries? Maybe like the squirrel nipples. Everybody just pulled in the devils. Fist brigade. Who'd you get signed to. I'm gonna be fighting with the squirrel nipples working with squirrel. Squirrel novels. That's terrible name who gave up with that. I know rocky not me kid at least call you Satan? Screw nipples. I know. I don't even think this better really pipleine would right. We were all in the dugout when the shells were dropping all around trench students. We came out of our dugout. I could smell gas. I looked around me. And I seen that they had all that they all had their gas masks on every step. We took show would land somewhere. New the trench. He wanted to describe how mortar shells caved in parts of the trench forcing them to quote fall on their bellies and crawl like worms to the muck. He wrote about poisonous gas clouds pushed on them by the Germans, they could be so thick. He wrote that it all looked blue. The Germans put so much gas in one place, and it was so thick that it looked like fog when the artillery opened up. He wrote you'd have thought the world was coming to an end to see those shells bursting in the night, the gas dust and smoke was terrible men lane. All over wounded and dead. Some being carried we wished we could help the wounded. But we couldn't we'd leave them there and keep advancing ducking from shell hole to shell hole. All day. Oh my God. Man does hearing people in literally in their fucking deathrattles agony. You're just marching pass them knowing that you might be next at any second and just doing that hour after hour poison gas all around you, the constant explosion of shells. It's fucking hell. Fuck it hell on earth. Yeah. I mean, I mean, and so many men follow like Pippin fought in those trenches for years, you know, that four hundred seventy five miles seven hundred sixty five kilometers trenches. That's just in the western front alone. Life in the trenches. You know, nightmarish man, heavy rainfall would flood the trenches create impassable, muddy conditions, the mud not only made it difficult to give one place to another. Dell's had more dire consequences many times soldiers became trapped in thick deep mud and unable to free themselves. They would just literally drowned to death in the mud the pervading precipitation. Created other difficulties trench walls would collapse rifles jam soldiers would fall victims that much dreaded trench foot a condition. Similar to frostbite trench foot develops as a result of men being forced to stand water for several hours even days with no chance to remove wet boots and socks in extreme cases. Gangrene developing soldiers toes, or even his entire foot would have to be amputated because it was just rotten literally rotten huge bummer. Huge bummer if you eat assigned to the school nipples. And then lose both your feet to trench foot. Even worse if you don't actually see combat central regiment. Fucking dumb name standing a coal ditch for two or three months and then both your feet removed, and then sent back home without even a cool story to tell. Even worse. Heavy rains. We're not sufficient to wash away the filth. The foul odor of human waste, all the shit. Literal shit in the trenches decaying corpses. Not only do these unsanitary conditions continue to spread disease the attracted an enemy despised by both sides, the rat huge rat problem in the trenches just fucking tens of thousands of rats sharing the translates soldiers even more horrifying. They would feed upon the remains of the dead. Soldiers would shoot them out of disgust and frustration only to watch the rest continue to multiply for the duration of the war. Now picture not poorly fellow from the scroll nipples regiment, watching a rat. Non gang trench foot to Schick getting worse with imaginary, dude. Other vermin the played the troops included head and body. Lice might scabies massive swarms of flies as terrible as the sights smells were for the men to endure the definitely noises. It's around them during heavy shelling. Probably been more terrifying. In the midst of heavy barrage, dozens of shells per minute could land in the trench causing earsplitting explosions. Few men could remain calm under the circumstances. And. Many many many soldiers suffered emotional nervous, breakdowns additional diseases such as trench fever and infection caused by lice feces, louse feces, trenched nephritis, and inflammation of the kidneys also could occur because there's no common medical problems caused significant loss of manpower. So the trenches were the fucking worst Nells talk about tanks, the leading military mind that brought the tank to World War. One was British. Lieutenant Colonel Ernest Swinton nine thousand fourteen he proposed the development of a new type of armored fighting vehicle because they're actually were armored vehicles. Previous the tank of the Germans British Austrians Russians, French all had armored vehicles that could fight a normal terrain the outside of the war. But then if things get muddy galleys trenches to worry about you know, you need a tank swint would oversee development the first true tank. They would have a top speed of four miles per hour on flatland, man. That's a quick the ability to turn sharply. Top speed. I love at top speed. They included that it's going go four miles an hour. But we have to be sure. That when it's holiday us when it's all the way when the pedals down to the floor in it's going at four miles an hour still has to be a term kind of quick had the ability to climb a five foot pair, put the ability to cross an eight foot gap. So it can just roll on over a most trenches working radius of twenty miles crew ten men with two machine guns on board. One light artillery gun by nine thousand eighteen Britain. France had produced sixty five hundred tanks sixty five or six actually between them Germany produced twenty. However, Germany would lean learn to deal with World War One. Thanks, very effectively during the battle of ambience in one thousand nine hundred seventy two percent, valid tanks were destroyed and just four days. Six days before the end of World War One the British tank corps, only had eight tanks left total one of the enduring hallmarks of. We're one was the large scale use of chemical weapons commonly called gas. Just you know, just simply gas chemical warfare meant. Terrifying. Enemy coming for you that you cannot stab you cannot shoot you cannot bomb when the sneaks into your lungs when you can't even always smell or see before it gets in there. It's like an attacked by ghosts. Although chemical warfare caused less than one percent of the total deaths in the war. The fear factor was formidable several chemical weapons were modernized in World War. One in France. Actually was the first gas deployed tear gas and August nineteen fourteen it would just irritate the eyes. 'cause uncontrolled tearing a large doses could even cause temporary blindness make breathing difficult. But but most incomes go in like, thirty minutes or less. So not very effective is a weapon against large groups enemy soldiers. The Germans debuted chlorine gas and Belgium in April nineteen fifteen chlorine is a dynamic aspe- two and a half times denser than air pale green in color with an odor. Which was described as a mix of pineapple and pepper it can react with water in the longs to form hydrochloric acid, which destroys tissue and can quickly death or at least permanent lung tissue damage in disability at lower concentrations can cause coughing vomiting. I rotate chlorine was deadly against unprotected soldiers estimated over Levin hundred killed in its first use in Belgium, McLaren's, usefulness. Short color, an odor. Made it easy to spot says chlorine is water soluble even soldiers without gas mask and minimize. It's affected place in water. So even urine soaked rags over their mouths and noses. Absolutely. No, you're not having fun fight. And you got the P rag covering your mouth to keep you alive. Additionally, releasing the gas in the cloud pose problems as the British learn to their detriment when they attempted to use chlorine at loose and the wind shifted carried the gas back onto their own men. That's fucking that's launch a big gas attack on the enemy, and then you have the one change. Oh, take that. You gemin- scoundrels tell the Kaiser. Tell them. That's how Betty hill is most employment, please send help we've just got us. The wind being able to change is also the reasons the British stopped using kites and battle the little fellas. Kite regiment, suffered a horrible defeat when they tried sending bomb carrying kites. I'm gonna stop. Anyways. The Germans tested fos, gene. Carbonell dichloride next in December nineteen fifteen fos. Gene is a colorless gas with an odor likened to that of musty. Hey, but for the odor to be technical the concentration had to be point four parts per million several times higher than the lethal level. Foster is highly toxic due to stability to react with proteins in the alveoli of the lungs disrupting the blood air barrier leading to suffocating. So that's not fun, man. You just can't read all of a sudden fos Gina much more effective and deadly than chlorine. One drawback that was a symptoms could sometimes take up to forty eight hours to manifest so estimated that as many as eighty five percent of the ninety one thousand gas deaths in World War One result of fos, Jane or related agent, die fos, gene. Most commonly used gas war. One was mustard gas impure liquid form it's colorist but in World War One impure for us, which had a mustard color. So gave it his name irritant strong Vesic into blister forming agent it causes chemical burns on contact. Blisters oozing, yellow fluid. That's fun. Initial exposure is symptomless by the time skin. Irritation begins. It's too late to take preventative measures. Now, the mortality rate for mustard gas only two to three percent, but those who suffer chemical burns and respiratory problems were immobilized, you know, they were taken out of the war led to long hospitalizations. You know, and if they recovered they were also thought to be at risk for developing higher risk for developing cancer later in their lifetime. The first World War military submarines made a significant impact. For the first time, the German u boats enjoyed a great deal of success responsible for destroying around half of all the food and supplies transported by the British merchant navy during the war U-boat is an abbreviation for. Thurdsay boats on Thursday boat OTC boot, which when translated into English means undersea boat. So you're welcome when that comes up on jeopardy or some bar Tribus nights. What is the abbreviation for undersea boat? Alex. When the first World War began the German armed forces had Twenty-nine Thirdly, boots twenty nine U-boats their disposal in the first ten weeks of the conflict. They sank five. British cruisers between October nineteen sixteen January nineteen seventeen a grand total of one point four million tons of allied shipping was lost to u boats u boat attacks. These losses were eventually curtailed. When the allies introduced escorted convoys with merchant ship surrounded by military vessels during World War. One Germany built three hundred sixty boats submarines one hundred seventy eight of which lost in total. They're responsible for the loss of more than eleven million tons of allied shipping. Let's talk about planes newly invented airplane entered one as well. The age of the fighter jets right at the beginning of it. You know fights initially an observer, though of enemy activity nine thousand fourteen the importance of the information gathered by this new technological innovation was made evident to all the belligerents in the opening days conflict, the equal importance of preventing the enemy from accomplishing the mission was also apparent right? So it was like, oh, cool. We can go spine his guys find what to put our troops. But then you're like fuck shit. I just got passed by some other plane doing the same thing for the enemy. How can we get rid of that guy will the French were the first to develop an effective solution to spy planes on April? First nineteen fifteen French pilot pilot. What does say pilot French pilot, Roland Garros do d-? The tennis tournament is named after first person across the Mediterranean, be the sky took the air in an airplane armed with they may sheen gun that would fire through its propeller. This feat was accomplished by protecting the lower section of the propeller blades with steel armor plates. Deflect any bullets might strike the blades crude solution but worked on his. First flight Garros down to German observation planes. Yeah. Fuck take. That's by plane. He became a national hero in his total of five enemy kills some stories. Do you think it was four one over that became the benchmark for an air ace? You gotta if you shoot down five, you're an ace. However in April nineteenth garrels was forced down behind enemy lines a secret veal to the Germans, then Dutch aircraft manufacturer, Anthony Falker whose factory was nearby was immediately summoned to inspect the plane. The Germans ordered Falker to return, my I think it'd meet the parents now come on fucker. The Germans ordered to returned to his factory duplicate the French machine gun and demonstrated to them within forty eight hours stressful forty eight hours that's a bitch. He did what he was told. And then some aware that the French device was crude when alternately result in damaging the propeller Falker as engineers look for better solution and the result was a machine gun. Who's rate of fire was controlled by the turning of the propeller, this synchronization assured that both would pass harmlessly just through the space in between the propeller blade, which is amazing to me that they had that level of technological innovation back in nineteen fifteen the airplane. No longer just an observer of the war now. Now, it's a full-fledged participant in the carnage of conflict by the end of the war. Crude bombers also began to be used actually a blimps were used throughout the war is bombers an anti-aircraft guns were created to counteract flight warfare. Each innovation of war would create another talk about machine guns machine gun an important weapon. World War One. When general war began in August, nineteen forty one nine thousand fourteen gives me machine. In guns of armies, largely of the very heavy variety decidedly ill suited, for portability by rapidly advancing infantry troops each way somewhere in the thirty to sixty kilogram range, you know, sixty six two hundred thirty two pounds. That's without their mountings carriages and supplies the nineteen fourteen machine gun usually position on a flat tripod would require gun crew of four to six operators in theory. They could fire four hundred six hundred small caliber rounds per minute a figure that was to more than double by the war's end with rounds fed via fabric belt or metal strip however, machine guns, still jammed frequently especially in hot conditions or when used by inexperienced operators. Consequently machine guns would often be grouped together to maintain a constant defensive position. Especially those trenches excuse me. Estimates of their equivalent accurate rifle. Firepower would vary with some estimates estimating a single machine that was basically worth as many six sixty to one hundred rifles. Eighty is usually the most consensual figure. They're very very impressive. When the war broke out in August, nineteen fourteen two Germans had twelve thousand machine gun to their disposal, a number which would eventually balloon to one hundred thousand in contrast to British and French had access to a mere few hundred machine guns when the war began and then as the war went on. They would get a little bit lighter and the rate of firepower a little bit greater, and then the flame thrower might be the scariest weapon debuted in World War One brought terror French British soldiers when used by the German army in the early phases of the first World War, the basic idea of a flame thrower, just to spread, you know, fire by launching burning fuel pretty pretty simple pretty horrific. I think I'd rather be shot or drowned and burned to death. The earliest flame throwers date as far back as the fifth century BC. These took the form of lengthy tubes filled with burning solid like a coal silver. And and we're used the same way that blow guns were used you have to blow into the tube. And then the solid material inside would be propelled towards the, you know, the enemy the flame thrower was inevitably. Over the intervening centuries. The German army tested two models of flame thrower in the early nineteen hundreds one large one small both developed by this man. Richard Richard fire starter Fiedler that was his nickname. But probably should have been the smaller lighter flame thrower was designed for portable use carry by single man under pressurize Aaron carbon dioxide or nitrogen belched forth a stream of burning oil for as much as eighteen meters or sixty feet shooting sixty feet of flame or second larger model worked along the same lines, but was not suitable for transport by single person. But the maximum range was twice that of the smaller model, it could sustain flames for an impressive forty seconds shoot him over one hundred feet for over thirty seconds. What a terrible thing to see coming toward you, man. Just watch him and burning alive. Screaming bloody murder. The first notable use the flame tour came in a surprise attack launched by the Germans upon the British at Hooge Flanders spring and fourth July thirtieth nineteen fifteen. The Germans made affective use of the portable flame thrower with gas. Cylinders strapped to the back of men responsible for the use of the instrument light nozzle attached to each cylinder, the effective or the effect of the dangerous nature. Of the surprise attack proved terrifying to the British opposition. Although there line initially pushed back with stabilize later the same night in that first, slam tour balanced, today's though of severe severe fighting the British lost thirty one officers and seven hundred and fifty other soldiers to flames that and the Germans would use these weapons for the remainder of the war. The British intrigued by the possibilities offered by flame tours, also experimented with them and readiness for one particular offensive. They constructed for sizable models weighing two tonnes each and went big, and they just built him directly into a trench constructed a no-man's-land MIR sixty ours, and the German line there is gonna burn them out of their trench. But it took you know, took forever to construct these things. And then, you know, then sometimes they were destroyed by shellfire when they're trying to build them highly effective clearing that first level trenches. But then, you know, then they're fucking stuck there the way couple times you can't move. So so they didn't really use math that similarly the French develop their own portable one man flames or using trench attacks in nineteen seventeen nine hundred eighteen getting getting burnt alive or trench. Sounds like hell. Tr true help man during the war the Germans launched an in excess of six hundred and fifty flame thrower attacks. And then no numbers exist for British and French tax with thought to be quite a bit lower. So all of these weapons so many others Newman. Compare these these weapons of the last major European war the Franco Prussian war, dude. Still fighting a lot of them with bolt action rifles, which I know some guy still using you know, we're one as well or a lot of guys, but but that was like more primary earlier bayonets old school cannons cavalry. You know, still a, you know in an important piece of one's army there were machine guns, but really effective ones or ineffective ones prior to one their giant machine that broke down. So frequently were so hard load or so misunderstood is how to use them that they were just really kind of worked irregularly. And now it's wore on steroids gas, flames tanks planes, finding the sky for the first time submarines, you know, elaborate trenches millions and millions of men involved in the fight. Odds are thanks to modern tech part smart bombs needed weapons. All that stuff. We'll never see a war like this again. Thank god. Not. Not guys battling out in a giant sprawling battlefields like like this one. Okay. So now, so now let's get back to you know, about the weaponry of World War One. Let's get back to the progression of the battles. Right. After a word from our last sponsor of the day. It's today's time. So is brought to you by a way travel. I get so many compliments on my away carry on suitcase or four my awake at no shifts even flight attendants asked me about it multiple times. That's when you know your lug is good. It's legit when people who fly for a living. 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Now back to our battle timeline now that we know a little bit more about weaponry September of nineteen fourteen the British French and Germans had begun digging tunnels into northeastern France and the far east German naval squadron commanded by Graf on spree severs, the British Pacific communications cable on the eastern front September seventeenth Austrian forces steadily retreat from the advancing Russian third and eighth armies fighting in southern polish territory along the Russian Austrian border. The Germans and send the newly formed ninth army to halt the Russians. This marks the beginning of pattern, which Germans will aid the weaker Ostro Ostro Hungarian army September twenty second to I ever British air raid against Germany, occurs zeppelin basis at Cologne and Dusseldorf bombed October nineteenth still hoping to score quick victory in the west Germans launched a major attack on your prese in Belgium, despite heavy losses. British French and Belgian troops fend off the attack. And the Germans do not breakthrough during the battle the German send waves of inexperienced seventeen to twenty year old. Volunteer soldiers some fresh out of school, the advanced shoulder to shoulder while singing patriotic songs only to be systematically gunned down in what the Germans themselves would later. Call the massacre of the innocence by November overall casualties will be two hundred and fifty thousand men including nearly half of the British regular army. Holy shit the Ottoman empire. Turkey enters the war, October twenty ninth on the side of the Germans as three worships shelled, the Russian port of Odessa three days later, Russia declared war on Turkey Russian and Turkish troops. Then prepare for battle along the common border of the Russian caucus and the Ottoman empire. New October, November nineteen fourteen Germans and Austrians launch combined offensive against the Russians on the eastern front the German ninth army targets Warsaw Poland. But as opposed by six Russian armies and withdraws the Austrians attacked the Russians in Galicia province northeast Austria with indecisive results. However, the Russians failed to press their advantage at Warsaw and instead beginning split counter-offensive moving both southward against the Austrians. Glacier, and perfectly Shah and northward toward Germany the German ninth army, then regroups and cuts off the Russians at lots Poland. Halting their advance force in an eastward withdrawal by the Russians November first Austrian invade Serbia. This is the third attempt to conquer the Serbs in retaliation for the assassination of friends Ferdinand. The attempt fails like the two before it at the hands of highly motivated Serbs fighting on their home turf the Austrians withdraw mid December after suffering over two hundred twenty thousand casualties from the three failed invasions the British navy suffered its worst defeat in centuries. During a sea battle in the Pacific on November. First two British ships. The Monmouth and the Good Hope are sunk with notes reviver 's by a German squadron commanded by Admiral Graf von spee on November fifth France and Britain declare war on the Ottoman empire. November six and the Persian Gulf a major British offensive begins as six Indian division. Invades mesopotamia. The objective is to protect oil pipeline from Persia two weeks later, they captured the city of Bosnia November seven. In the far east, the German naval base. At Shing towel is captured by the Japanese aided by British and Indian battalion December nineteen fourteen the western front in Europe stabilizes in the aftermath of the first battle of priests. As Germans go on the defensive and transfer troops to the east to fight the Russians the four hundred and fifty mile long. Western front stretches from the channel coast southward to Belgium and each France into Switzerland true from both sides as we discussed, you know, the constructive. Opposing trench fortifications protecting with barbed wire machine gun nests snipers mortars. The six hundred mile eastern front stretches from the Baltic Sea southward through East Prussia and Austria to the Carpathian mountains the battle of the Falkland islands occurs. In December eight nineteen fourteen. The British navy warships destroyed the German squadron of Admiral Graf spee in the south Atlantic off the coast of Argentina von spee in Tucson serving in his squadron are killed in this battle. December sixteenth brush a Britain suffers its first civilian casualties at home in the war. The German navy bombards the coastal towns of Whitby, Hartlepool and Scarborough killing forty persons and wounding hundreds and then on December twenty fifth Christmas day Christmas truce occurs between German and British soldiers in the trenches of northern France all shooting stops as a soldiers exit their trenches. I'm not making this up exchange gifts sing Christmas carols and engage in a soccer game. This will be the only Christmas truce of the war as allied commanders, subsequently forbid fraternisation with orders to shoot. Any violators? How fucking crazy is that? This is still antique fourteen. The war has barely begun half year old how weird to pop out of trenches exchange gifts play soccer with the guys you shoot nap for months. What's what did you give me? Oh, it's nothing. Nail jap. What's what is this? Pretty sure. Julia. Remember, I sliced it off. When I jumped into a trench a few months back in the tech you with the by net. That's right. Thank you for giving me. My heel back on something. Good to give back to you as well. Now, this is a great to my best friend's helmets. Thanks giving it back to jump in the trench with me, and you blew his bloody head off in a sing some songs all Christmas three. Oh, Christmas three. How lovely are the branches. Oh, Christmas tree. Oh christmas. Tree will die in these trenches. Fucking and saying fucking what a weird thing to do. And then and then the next day right back to trying to kill people. Ha I was getting one thousand fifteen year. Two of the great war the initial Turkish offensive into into Russia is toward it as the Turkish third army stuff. He's suffers a defeat by the Russian army of the caucus near cars the Russians then begin multi pronged invasion of the Ottoman empire. From the from the cacao cacao cockpits fucking got Danny's words, so many fucking words in this one Jesus is sucking me a lot of anxiety, January nineteen fifteen Germany begins an aerial bombing campaign against Britain using zeppelin's bombing Britain with blimps weird is how terrifying that I guess it scared the shit out of the evidence people seeing this giant fucking armored balloon death balloons, little of your city to start dropping bombs for a lot of people. You know, this is probably the first time I've seen any kind of aircraft in the sky at all definitely the first time. It's something that gigantic in the sky coming over to bomb poison gas us for the first time in the war is Germans on the eastern front attack Russia positions west of Warsaw. January thirty first any fifteen. Although the Germans fire eighteen thousand cash shells. They have little on the Russians as frigid temperatures prevent the gas from actually vaporizing go ahead. Go ahead. Jim obsolete gas bombs from Russia. We like we lose weight. Why am I doing Arnold? I got confused as a Russian guy. This is as she was the more. I took a de LA Hoya, the raw Germans gets bones. When Russia we we like smell good like scented candles. You can kill the Russia with such things of the polish will something twenty countries, man. Tune countries fucking keep track of the Turks began forced deportations of Armenians, even more people. Think about now over the next two years. An estimated one point five million Armenians will either starve to death. Dia Thursday in the Syrian desert or be murdered by Turkish troops and bandits during the Armenian genocide on the western front, the French launched their second offensive against German defence lines champagne once again, they're hampered by the muddy winter weather, lack of heavy artillery every month of fighting. Suffering two hundred forty thousand casualties the exhausted. French break off the offensive the first German u boat campaign of the war begins with unrestricted attacks against merchant and passenger ships and the waters around the British Isles within six months, allied shipping. Losses at sea surpassed the number of new ships being built, however, the unrestricted attacks also aroused the anger of the neutral United States as Americans are now killed March. The British navy imposed a total Seib. Lock eight on Germany prohibiting all shipping imports including food trying to starve him out poison gas used for the first time in the western front on April. Twenty second is the German fourth army attacks French positions around you prese, northern Belgium as the attacked Germans release chlorine gas from over five hundred thousand cylinders forming. A poisonous green clouds that drift towards two French African divisions is working times the temperatures not keeping these things from vaporize lacking any protection the French quickly retreat, although those creates a five mile wide gap, and allied lines Germans failed to capitalize due to a lack of reserve troops and cautious frontline troops hesitant. Two fucking storm on into the gas clouds have just built. Yeah. I get it. Why would you wanna do that British and Canadians and plug the gap? Unable to regain regain any ground taken by the Germans, the British then withdraw to the second line defense, leaving a priest and allied hands, but virtually surrounded casualties in the second battle of a pre total fifty eight thousand allies, and thirty thousand Germans, there's so many thousands of people whose dying and every single battle German u boats sinked or first American merchant ship on may first the tanker go flight in the Mediterranean Sea near Sicily may seven nineteen fifteen German u boat torpedoes, the British passenger liner, the Lucy t- can lose see Lucy. Tae NIA Lusitania think listened to you. Fuck all these words off the Irish coast Lusitania sinks in eighteen months drowning twelve hundred one persons including one hundred twenty two Americans president Woodrow Wilson, subsequently sends four diplomatic protests Germany, and by the way, I write these pronunciation guides. They're all over the notes if you look on the app all over. The notes today. But you know, what you can't read those quickly. Least I can't man. I don't even I don't even understand how newscasters they have to world news. I guess you just have to study this is more important than just goofing around and being being a jokester. If you have to get just words, right? You know, all the time for living. Complimenting the French offensive at v me British and Indian troops launched their second attack against Germans around new Chapelle in the Artois may ninth, however without sufficient artillery support to weaken, the German, frontline defences the advancing soldiers are decimated by German machine. Gun fire tack is called off the very next day after eleven thousand casualties may fifteenth nineteen fifteen British and Indian troops launch another attack against Germans in the Artois. The attack is preceded by a sixty hour continual artillery bombardment, but the troops advanced just a thousand yards while suffering sixteen thousand Cassie sixty hours of shelling two and a half days of shelling the shit out of the enemy, then throwing all these thousands of men, and he's still only make thousand yards Italy enters the war on the side of the allies by declaring war on Austria, Hungary, may twenty third nineteen fifteen the Italians then launch offensives along the four hundred mile common border between Australian Italy the better equipped our Austrians take advantage of the mountainous terrain to establish strong defensive positions all along the border, the Italian. Okay. Their attacks on the mountain passes at Trentino. There we Go Italy. I like I like how you put your words together twenty. No. And the valley of the is Andrea I can't you can't you fucking up. Get it countries Belgium with your stupid fucking words won't you pull your heads out of your assets and change your entire language and culture to suit my linguistic forever. This. May thirty first nineteen fifteen the first aerial bombing of London occurs as German zepplin kill twenty eight persons. The death balloons are back killer bomb balloons. I hate I hate regular. I can only imagine how much hate German desk. Balloons, June sixteenth, two French tenth army, launches its second attempt to seize a Vinnie ridge from the Germans and the twat this time the troops encountered intense artillery bombardment from the improve defenses at the German six army, the French achieved their initial, but then succumb to a German counterattack. It's just constant push bowl. Just they did in the first attempt Vinnie the French colostomy offensive with one hundred thousand casualties, the German suffers sixty thousand hundred thousand young men's lives lost just as one offensive. But just one of the many countries fighting this war man, the scope of this war is staggering. I grew up in a town of less than five hundred people over two hundred of my hometown's, all dead and just one battle just one side of one battle Russia. Creates a central war industries committee, July I oversee production addresses severe short. Edge of artillery, shells and rifles on the frontline Russian soldiers in the field without rifles can only get them from fellow soldiers after they are killed or wounded key matching sent into World War One without even a gun. Won't you like you love gun you like to have a weapon you kill someone kill someone with Russia hands strong Russia nuns you take little weapon. That's all you get whip. And now you want to wear when you fight for whip. And the to choose oh, they go to booms. Oh, this dabbing the gossip. You still sounds like with Jomon you sound like we'd pull you get in your Astle them. Russell John was to ground who techs gone. You fight to make Russell proud. Fucking Russian sane Africa. The German south was African colony of Namibia. I got that one. Right. Got that one. I got that word, right? Okay. Taken by the allies following eleven months of fighting between the Germans and South African Rhodesian troops loyal to the British on July ninth thirteenth on the eastern front. The next phase of the combined Ostro German offensive against the Russians begins in northern Poland with Austria Ostro Germans advancing towards Warsaw the Russian army nuggets weaker by the day due to chronic supply shortages. Yeah. Guns and declining morale. Yeah. Bet them Ralph. Oh, you'll feel you got no food. No, boots the weapons got nothing to do fights. You Mick mistake. Once again, the Russians are treats also order a total civilian evacuation. Poland both territory, I guess is the results in great hardship for the polish people as they leave their homes and head eastward clogging, the roads and hampering the move in a Russian troops. I I'm done. Multiple polls right now feel bad for these people. Warsaw taken by the German troops, August fifth that's into century of rushing and troll of the city after take four saw the Austrian Germans move onto capture several other polish cities by the end of September Russian troops were driven out of Poland back to the rigid lines from which they had begun the war in nineteen fourteen for the time being the batter. Russian army has affected been eliminated as an offensive threat on the eastern front free. And the Germans to focus more war efforts on the western front September fifth nineteen fifteen Russian czar, nNcholas the second takes personal command of the Russian army hoping to rally his faltering troops. You know, give them some giving some speeches come on guys. I know you'll sad you have no clothes yells food. You've had no sex for many months you no weapons. But just think it's Russia. You do have little dolls that you take apart to make smaller dolls, and that is something that is more than nothing fights Russia. Losses to his ours. Army from the Ostrow German offensives in Galicia. Poland. Include over one point four million casualties seven hundred thousand captured so speech doesn't have a lot of effects. You know, like listen asshole. We still don't have a Russia's also weakened economically, the loss of Poland's industrial and agricultural output got anymore. Additionally, the ongoing mass exodus of Russian troops. Billions from Poland called the great retreat. Spurs dangerous, political and social unrest in Russia, undermining the rule czar and his imperial government because if you recall from the rest, Putin sucked that World War One would bring about the end of the Russian monarchy Bulgaria enters the war on Germany side with an eye towards invading neighboring Serbia on September six thus far in the war, Austria, Hungary, has tried but failed three times conquer Serbia in retaliation for the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Now, the Austrians aided by Germany and Bulgaria planned to try again with the addition of Bulgaria Germany now has three allies in the war, including Austria, Hungary, and Turkey this alliance called the central powers due to geographical location, primarily in central Europe. The invasion of Serbia begins as Ostro German troops attacked the north on October six five days later, the Bulgarians attack from the east the outnumbered. Serbs have their poorly supplied troops stretched too thinly to defend both fronts. Bill grade than falls to the Germans and the Bulgarians capture Kumon ova severing, the country's northsouth rail line in this leaves the overwhelmed Serbian troops. No option other than to retreat westwards through the mountains into Albany. John January nineteen sixteen president Woodrow Wilson begins an effort to organize a peace conference in Europe. No one gives a shit. In west Africa, February eighteenth, the German colony of Cameroon falls to the French and British following seventeen months of fighting. This leaves only one German colony remaining in France known as German east Africa, April eighteenth, nineteen sixteen president Woodrow Wilson threatens to sever diplomatic ties between United States and Germany following the sinking of the passenger ferry Sussex by you boat in the English channel the attack marked the beginning of a new campaign around the British Isles. But in response to Wilson, you the Germans do call off the u boats. I don't know. Whether just wanted to be like, hey, guys. We're not going to trade with you. If you keep fucking killing us. Okay. All right. All right. All right now on my voice mixed up. Now fucking Chikatilo and source, and they were all in my head in the Middle East, the five months each at Couteau Amara and Mesopotamia ends thirteen thousand British and Indian soldiers now on the verge of starvation, surrendered the Turks largest ever, surrendered by the British army comes after four failed attempts by British relief troops to break through these surrounded garrison. And I yes, April twenty ninth Mark may twenty fifth nineteen sixteen the era of the all volunteer. British army ends as universal conscription now takes effect requiring all eligible British men between the ages of nineteen and forty I would just week by. To report report for duty, excluding men working agriculture mining or the railroads the main German and British naval fleets clash in the battle of jubilant in the North Sea on may thirty first as both sides try but failed to score decisive victory forward battlecruiser from the British Grand fleet or initially lured southward towards the German high seas fleet then completely turn around lure in the entire German fleet. Northward northward as they get near the British blast way, the German forward ships, the Germans returned fire to fleets fire furiously other. However, the Germans aware they are outgunned by the larger British fleet this engage abruptly turn away and the dead night. The Germans withdraw entirely the British do not risk pursuit and instead had home both sides claimed victory, although the German Saint fourteen of the one hundred fifty one British ships while losing eleven of ninety nine ships. The British navy retained his dominance in the North Sea. And the naval blockade of Germany continues for the war's duration. Yeah. I get any food now from these boats. Germans resumed their offensive near verdone France on June twenty second using poison FOSS foster guests at the start of the attack initially take village of flurry just two miles north of redone. But further advance southward is halted by strong. French counterattack of for done is now become a battle of attrition for both sides for months of continual, fighting with the death toll Ardy approaching five hundred thousand men it's just in this one the Larry July first British army suffers the worst single day death toll in its history as eighteen thousand eighteen hundred soldiers are killed on the first day of the battle of disarm, the losses come as thirteen attacking divisions encountered German defences that are still intact despite the seven day bombardment designed to knock them out the British also attacked in broad daylight advancing in line shoulder to shoulder only to be systematically mowed down by German machine. Gunners. The psalm offensive quickly becomes a battle of attrition as British and French troops. Make marginal gains against Germans were repeatedly failed to break through the entire front as plant. July tenth the Germans attack again for done using poison gas advanced towards fort Seville, four days later, the French counterattack and halter just back and forth back and forth. The British launch a night attack against German positions on July thirteenth along a three point five mile portion of the psalm front advancing nearly thousand yards advances halted the German's regroup. The defense is two days later, the British once again penetrate, the German line events, a high would but are then pushed back again back and forth over and over. The war has been going on now for a little over two years with no real progress being made on the western front by other side to so many deaths. Millions by the war's end ground must've just been stained red with blood August twenty seventh nineteen sixteen Romania declares war on the central powers begins an invasion of Austria, Hungary, through the Carpathian mountains. The Romanians faced little opposition initially advanced fifty miles into Transylvania. Dracula comes out of his castle and ask everyone to please keep the noise down. He appreciates the extra nex to suck. Blood out of but he can't sleep at a daytime coughing with all this jelly. Of course, not happen. Didn't happen. Italy declares war on Germany, thus expanding. The scope is again moments like that. I do wonder there's people working directly of love above. And all the hair is just some dude randomly screaming out of nowhere about Dracula and Shelley. August twenty eighth nineteen sixteen Italy declares war on Germany, expanding the scope its military activities beyond the Italian Austrian front August twenty ninth Germany's entire economies placed under the Hindenburg plan. Allowing the military to exercise dick dictator dictator Jesus Christ's dictators word dictatorial dictator, Oriel dictatorial. I think I spelled it wrong. But it didn't show up Ron dictator Oriel. I fucking Joa Diene. Honestly this word exercise dictator Oriel. Whatever Joe Joe does either I say to my ears the Hindu. Allowing the military to exercise dictator Oriel, whatever style powers. I don't know. Why that we're all of a sudden it was like, I don't know how to speak languages anymore to control the labor force munitions production food distribution most aspects, they live all matters is that the whole country's you know, being used for for war. Now wars the only focus for Germany now. How can you help the war effort is the only important question asked of German citizens September fifteenth first ever appearance of tanks on a battlefield occurs as British troops renew. The psalm offensive attacker positions lung a five mile front advancing two thousand yards with tank support. Now, the British developed tanks feature two small side cannons machineguns operated by eight man crew as the infantry advances individual tanks provide support by blasting and rolling over the German barbed wire piercing the frontline defense than roll along. The length of the trench raking, the German soldiers with machine gunfire, man. Vicious November seventh American voters reelect president Woodrow Wilson who had campaigned on the slogan. He kept. Us out of war now for much longer November eighteenth nineteen sixteen the battle of the psalm ends upon the I know fall is a British and French decide to CC offensive this nowhere for anybody. By now. The Germans have been pushed back just a few miles along the entire fifteen mile front, but the major breakthrough the allies plant never occurs. Both sides each suffered over six hundred thousand casualties during the five month battle among the injured German soldiers too bad. It didn't die corporal Adolf. Hitler wounded by shrapnel December seventh nineteen sixteen Lloyd George becomes Britain's new prime minister, his new war cabinet. Immediately begins to organize the country for quote, total war December eighteenth, nineteen sixteen president Woodrow Wilson caps off a year long effort to organize a peace conference in Europe by asking the combatants to L the pay terms. No one gives us yet. February third nineteen seventeen the United States severs diplomatic ties with Germany after you boat, sinks, the American grain ship whose tonic seven more American ships are sunk in February March is a German sink five hundred ships in just sixty days. Holy shipment. Two months. Five hundred ships over eight ships a day, February twenty fifth nineteen seventeen the Middle East newly reinforced and replenish British troops, retake, coot, Alamar and Mesopotamia from outnumbered. Turks the British continued their advance and captured Baghdad followed by Ramadi into Crete, March eight the mass protests by Russian civilians in petrograd, aka Saint Petersburg erupts into a revolution against czar. Nncholas the second and the war we covered that in that razz. Putin suck may war not going well for the Russians at all within days Russian soldiers mutiny and join the revolution against the monarchy, March fifteenth nineteen seventeen to three hundred year old Ramon of dynasty in Russia ends upon the advocation of czar nNcholas the second from the throne in his place in new demo. Democratically minded provisional government is established Great Britain France United States in Italy rushed recognize the new government and hope Russia will stay in the war maintain a huge presence on the eastern front. They do for a little bit British combat pilots on the western front suffer. A fifty percent casualty rate during bloody April nineteen seventeen as German shoot down a hundred and fifty of their fighter planes. The average life expectancy of an allied fighter pilot is now three weeks resulting from aerial dogfights and accidents now things are new the crashing lot April. Second president Woodrow Wilson appears before the US Congress and gives a speech saying the world must be made safe for democracy. Ask congress for a declaration now. No, more peace declaration of war against Germany four days after president Wilson speech. United States of America, declares war on Germany, nearly three years after the war began April nine nine hundred seventeen the British army has one of his most productive days of the war is the third army supported by Canadian and Australian troops. Love our ustralian Canadian. Anders makes rapid advances north of the Hindenburg line at RS and Vinnie on the western front, the expansive first day, cheapen and snowy weather, included, three and a half mile territorial gain and the capture of EMMY ridge by Canadians, however, similar to pass offensive the inability to capitalize on initial success. Maintain momentum against a Germany now paternity to regroup and further gains or thwarted the British suffer one hundred eighty thousand casualties during the offensive while the German suffer a hundred thousand so maybe maybe that four mile per hour tank. Maybe not fast enough to to capitalize on initial victories. April sixteenth, political agitator, Vladimir Lenin arrives back in Russia following twelve years of exile in Switzerland, special train, transportation ridge return, provided by the Germans and hope that antiwar Lenin and his radical Bolshevik party will disrupt Russia's new provincial government, which they will Lennon joins other Bolsheviks in petrograd who have also returned recently from exile, including Joseph Stalin, previous suck. May eighteenth the selective service act is passed by the US congress authorized draft small US. Army presently consistent of one hundred forty five thousand men will be enlarged to four million men via the draft. May I would think that most Americans would be scared shitless to get drafted nineteen seventeen. I mean, they've been reading about people getting burned gas and run the trenches for three years now. No, thank you. But a lot of Americans were the children of parents born in one of the country's the Germans and austro-hungarians we're fighting. So maybe they were excited to defend their ancestral lands. However, if you're the son of Germans or austro-hungarians Bulgarians out man thought again draft must really sick may nine thousand nine hundred seventy the provisional government of Russia announces it will stay in the war, however, Russian soldiers and peasants are now flocking to Lenin's Bolshevik party which opposes the war. And opposes the provincial. Government may twenty seventh through June. First the mutinous atmosphere in the French army erupts into open insubordination, we've got some insubordination with France now soldiers refuse orders to advance more than half of the French divisions of the western front experience some degree of disruption by disgruntled soldiers angry over the unending battles of attrition appalling. Living living conditions, we talked about in the muddy rat and lights and festive trenches. Yeah. Fucking bet. There were cigarette. Three years that shit. Mass arrests followed by several firing squad executions do quell the uprisings. But while the French armies in disarray, the main burden of the western front defending false squarely upon the British June third London suffers is highest civilian casualties of the war as German airplanes now bomb the city killing one hundred fifty eight billions wounding four hundred twenty five the British react to the bombing campaign by forming home defense fighter squadrons later conduct retaliatory bombing raids against Germans by British planes based in France, June twenty fifth the first American true. Oops land in France, you if. July second Greece declares war in the central powers fallen abdication of pro German. King Constantine who's replaced by pro allied administration Greek soldiers now added to the allied ranks September first on the eastern front the final Russian battle in the war begins as the Germans attack toward Riga, Latvia. The German Eighth Army tries a new tactic. They buy bypass any strong points that they move forward. Stormtrooper Italians on with light machine guns grenades. Flame throwers focus on quickly infiltrating the rear areas to disrupt communication, take out your Tillery, the Russian twelfth army is unable to hold itself together, man. He's guys they're. Yeah. They're fucking tired their countries in disarray. Probably no guns a lot of them. They can't hold themselves together into stormtrooper tax and abandoned Riga and then the begin a rapid retreat along the davina river pursued by the Germans September. Twentieth. Revise British strategy begins priests designed to wear down the Germans if features a series of intensive narrowly focused artillery and troop attacks with limited objectives to be launched every six days the first such tack on the meaning road. Near give Galuvao. Produces a gain of about a thousand yards with twenty two thousand British Australian casualties subsequent attacks yield similar results. Shit's crazy losing twenty two thousand men to death or dismemberment to gain a thousand yards. How depressing? October twelfth the priests offensive culminates around the village of passion, Dahl Belgium, as Australia and New Zealand troops die by the thousands. While attempting to press forward across the battlefield of liquid mud advancing only one hundred yards steady. October rain creates a slippery quagmire in which wounded soldiers routinely drown in mud-filled shell craters night. Mayor. These guys are living a nightmare November sixth and seventh in Russia. Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky, overthrow the provincial government in what becomes known as the Tobin revolution the establish a non-democratic Soviet government because it's October twenty four twenty fifth according to the Russian calendar that they establish a non-democratic Soviet government based on Marxism, which prohibits private enterprise and private land ownership Lennon announces that Soviet Russia will immediately end its involvement in the war and renounces all existing treaties with the Al the allies in all Germany, so happy Germany, so happy. They got one less person to. Group to fight November fifteen nineteen seventeen Georgia's Georgia's Clemens who becomes Francis. New prime minister, eight seventy six nicknamed the tiger the Tiga when asked about his agenda. He will simply answer. I wish would apparently they want a strong simple leader. How do you plan on fixing the economy? I wish water money education. How will you improve education was water students? What about equal rights for women? I was water women. Jerusalem captured by the British on December ninth. This ends four centuries of Ottoman Turkish empire control December fifteen nineteen seventeen Soviet Russia signs an armistice with Germany with Russia departure from the eastern front forty four German divisions. Now become available to be redeployed to the western front in time for Luton door spring offensive March third March third nine hundred eighteen breast Lidove it's Soviet Russia. Signed a tree with Germany, formerly ending his participation in the war. Harsh terms imposed by the Germans forced the Russians to yield a quarter of their prewar territory and over half of Russia's industries to the Germans March twenty first Germany's all out gamble for victory begins upon the launch of the first of a series of successive spring offensives on the western front the Saint Michel offensive named after Germany's patron Saint begins after a five hour six thousand gun artillery bombardment as sixty five divisions from the German second seventeenth eighteenth. Armies attacked the British third and fifth armies along a sixty. Mile front in the psalm at first it seems destined to succeed as the thinly stretched British fifth. Army's quickly overrunning wrecked using affective storm trooper tactics. The Germans recaptured all of the ground. They lost nine hundred sixteen during the battle disarm and press forward. However during the two week offensive the British third army manages to hold itself together, and prevents the Germans from taking heiress and key objectives of the offensive April. First nineteen eighteen British Royal Air force is founded upon the merging of the Royal flying corps and Royal Navy service. And by now, the British Abbas aviation industry has become the world leader. So no, April Fools. They really did that April twenty first Germany's red baron Manfred. Von righto Vigne shut down and kill by the British this German ace was credited with shooting down eighty allied aircraft. Some historians thinking shutdown actually over one hundred airplanes he was buried with military honours by the opposing British dude. Eighty fuck in planes shot. Down by one pilot knows little dogfights, you know, or more by the time. He's twenty five men tough sport to be a no man dogfights. Now, those areas one loss in you're eighty and won a record of eighty and one gets you just did as a record of own one may twentieth. Twenty nine troops the US in first infantry division captured the village of continue con t knee from the Germans and hold it the American expeditionary force. The af is commanded by general. John Pershing determined to maintain all American fighting units rather than parcel out American troops to the British and French every other than that. When we we heard about other than the hell fighters by now, six hundred fifty thousand American soldiers have arrived in France with number growing by ten thousand per day. The battle of bellawood involving the us second infantry division begins on June sixth during the three-week fight against Germans Americans. Experience their first ignorant battlefield casualties with five thousand killed but they did win this battle June fifteenth Austrian troops begin an offensive along the Piazza river in Italy at. At the urging of the Germans although suffering from lack of food, horses and supplies the cross the river and established a twelve mile front. But then realized they could they cannot hold it against the now revitalize Italian army withdraw after suffering one hundred fifty thousand casualties following this Austrian soldiers in Italy began deserting mid nineteen eighteen soldiers from all sides, get fucked up by the flu. Yeah. Flu of one thousand nine hundred no joke troop losses from the flu epidemic soon exceed combat casualties, especially weakening, the hard-pressed German army the worldwide epidemic lasts for about a year killing an estimated twenty million people then vanishes strangely is is had appeared. Ain't that a bitch, man? Especially for dues in the trenches on top of all the other horrors. Now, you have the worst deadliest flew up. Prenatal shit yourself to death in an already shit field trench. July fifteenth to the seventeenth nineteen eighteen the last German offensive of the war. The the Marne Rheims offensive begins with two pronged attack around Reims France by fifty two divisions. The allies have been -ticipant in his battle in line. Wait, the German attack to the east of Reims crush that day by the French to the west of Ramsey advances blocked by the US, third infantry division, followed by successful, French and American counter attack September twelve nine hundred eighteen the first standalone attack by Americans occurs as the US. I army attacks the southernmost portion of the western front in France. The offensive is supported by an unprecedented one thousand four hundred seventy six allied aircraft used as part of a coordinated air ground attack within thirty six hours, the Americans take a hundred excuse me, take fifteen thousand prisoners captured over four hundred pieces of artillery, and the Germans withdraw the allies push the Bulgarians. And by the way, if I if I have a weird pronunciation for a artillery, some people pointed out fucking deal with it. Right. Some sometimes just west they should the allies. September. Fifteenth pushed the Bulgarians out of Serbia is French Serbian Italian troops make rapid gains advanced nearly twenty miles north from Greece and three days Bulgarian troops attending to redeploy Westford throughout the narrow cost Torino pass a relentlessly bombarded by airplanes and overall troop morale collapses, meanwhile, political turmoil strikes at home as antiwar riots, erupt and Bulgaria cities along with Russian style. Revolutionary fervor that results in the proclamation of local Soviets September nineteenth nights eighteen in the Middle East allies launch a cavalry tack to push the Turks out of Palestine Australian and Indian Cavalry Division smashed through the Turkish defences around Megido on the first day and galloped northward as British infantry follow while the RAF an air fighters, disrupt communication and supply lights as the Turkish army's collapsed, they withdraw northward towards Damascus with the allies in pursuit September twenty six US. First army French fourth army, begin a joint offensive to clear out the strongly defended corridor between the amuse river and the Argonne forest here, the German. Do not fall back in the battlefield resembles action. From earlier years in the war amid a steady rain the troops advanced yard by yard over the muddy crater field terrain with seventy five thousand American casualties. Suffered over six weeks of fighting September twenty eight confronted by the unstoppable strength of the allies and faced with the prospect of outright military defeat on the western front. General lewd indoor suffers a nervous breakdown at his headquarters losing all hope for victory. He informs us. Superior paul. Von Hindenburg the war must be ended. The next day Luton door company by Hindenburg meet with the Kaiser urge him to end the war. The Kaiser's army is becoming weaker by the day. Admit irreversible, troop losses declining disciplined about writing is due to exhaustion illness food shortages, desertions drunkenness. There's like fuck it. Let's get drunk, right? We might not be alive much longer. The Kaiser tastes he'd from Hindenburg and Luton dwarf and agrees that they need an armistice September twenty-ninth Bulgaria signs an armistice with the allies becoming the first of the central powers to quit the first. World War October fourth nine hundred eighteen president Woodrow Wilson receives a request from the German government sent via the Swiss asking for armistice discussions on the basis of his fourteen points. The Germans have bypass the French and British states. He's going to be little more lenient. They're disappointed though. When Wilson response was listed demands to pray clue discussions, including during withdrawal from all occupied. Territories in total halt of u boat attacks. They're not quite ready for that to over fifty allies breakthrough. The last remnants of the Hindenburg line the system of trenches and fortifications on the western front finally breaking through those trenches October six a provisional government proclaims the state of Yugoslavia, signaling the beginning of the breakup of the old hops Berg Austria Hungarian empire in central Europe, which had existed for six centuries shit is change in Europe, October, seventh Poland every Paul formerly part of the Russian empire proclaims itself as independence day gift for you post. People get for you, a Tober thirteenth Germans engage in general retreat, along six mile portion of the western front in France. Stretching from San Quinton southward to the Argonne forest is French and American armies steadily advance Tober fourteenth, German Germany, abandoned positions along the Belgian coast and northern France. British and Belgians steadily advanced October twenty ninth the checks declared their independence from Austria two days later, so wlac. You declares independence from Hungary? Czechoslovakia is subsequently formed a Tober thirtieth Turkey signs, an armistice with the allies becoming the second of the central powers to quit the war, December first Belgrade is liberated by French and Serbian troops. November third. The only remaining ally of Germany Austria, Hungary, signs and artists. I mean, they're losing fucking big chunks of the land. They signed an armistice with Italy. They leave Germany alone. Now in the war, November ninth six days later, the Kaiser's imperial government collapses in ruin as a German Republicans proclaimed with Frederick Ebert heading the new provisional government. Kaiser will Ville him then seeks refuge in Holland. Admit concerns for safety November. Seventh nineteen at five ten AM in a railway car at company, France, the German sign the armistice which is affected at eleven AM. The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month eleven eleven fighting continues all along the western front until precisely eleven o'clock. Then then it's like the clock out. Sadly, two thousand Cassidy experienced that day by all sides, what a fucking waste it's over. They know it's over, but they still other artillery barrages also erupt at eleven eleven AM draws near soldiers urine to claim they fired the very last shot in the war November twelfth one last little final battle occurs as Germans in Africa encounter British troops northern Rhodesia. Sadly, news of the armistice has not reached the Germans there yet. So more die just after the war's actually over following the end of the war early nineteen nineteen league nations is found a champion by president Wilson as a means of peaceably resolving future. Conflicts Germany's include for the time being June twenty eighth nineteen nineteen at the palace, averse, I and frantic German delegation signs. The tree for Cy formally ending the war. It's two hundred thirty pages contain terms that have little in common with Wilson's fourteen points as the Germans hoped. Germans back home react with mass demonstrations against the perceived harshness, especially clauses that assess sole blame for the war on Germany tough shit. Germany, April nineteen twenty one the reparations commission. His Germany must pay back allies twenty eight billion over forty two years via annual payments of cash and goods such as coal and timber. January twenty nine hundred twenty three after Germany falls behind on his war reparation payments, French and Belgian troops occupied the rural industrial region inside Germany workers there react by walking off the job in defiance show support the German government sends money to out of work protesters. However, the soon leads to ruinous inflation and devaluation of the German deutschemark eventually four billion to the dollar as as the government prince an unlimited amount of money to try and satisfy its needs. And then things continue to spiral downward for Germany until the total economic. Elapsed nine hundred twenty nine causes further turmoil. The generates popular support for Hitler, resulting in the election, Nazis to the government and the path to World War Two is now set and that takes us out of a fucking weapon time suck timeline job soda made. It back, man. Man. Wow. What a epic giant war, man. I'm I'm tired. I'm just been talking about it. I know it wasn't made as many jokes as usual in this one. But jeez, it's just it just fell to confusing to take too many tangents in this already so complicated and complex suck. This isn't like someone's life. You know, you can just follow us a long series of many developments lead to along very complex, so many multifaceted battles war, and we still glossed over so very much. But but I hope I didn't make it to complicate. And I hope it didn't make it overly simplified. Hopefully, most you'd understand World War One a lot better. Now. I know I do I didn't I I really don't know shit about it before this this war that ended one hundred years ago hundred years ago and one day ago. Exactly when this episode has released the casualties suffered by the participants in World War One dwarf those of previous wars. I mean, this is unreal. Some eight and a half million soldiers died as a result of wounds and or disease the greatest number of casualties of wounds reflected by our Tillery, followed by small-arms, then poison gas the bayonet which was relied on by the prewar. French army is the decisive weapon actually produced few casualties. A war was increasingly mecca. From nineteen fourteen on and produce casualties. Even when nothing important was happening. Even a quiet day in the western front. Many, you know, hundreds of allied and German soldiers with die the heaviest loss of life or a single day Kurt on that yet July first nineteen sixteen. We talked about the battled Assam when the British army suffer nearly sixty thousand casualties checkup these country by country total number of soldiers killed and these numbers changed, by the way. When you go from reports report just because it is it's guestimations. They didn't have exact numbers Russia though. One point seven million soldiers killed another five million wounded British. They gave over nine hundred thousand soldiers lives to the war over two million. More wounded France lost over one point three million young men over four million more wounded, Italy sacrifice six hundred and fifty thousand of their young men and nearly a million more wounded Romania gave over three hundred and thirty thousand sons and brothers another one hundred and twenty thousand wounded forty five thousand Serbians died fighting over one hundred and thirty thousand more of them wounded the. United States lost over one hundred fifteen thousand young men in more than two hundred thousand others were wounded, and these are just some of the allied countries losses. I mean, look at the central powers Germany lost over one point seven million soldiers lives with over four million more wounded Austria, Hungary, lost one point two million soldiers lives over three point six million wounded Turkey loss, three hundred twenty five thousand men another four hundred thousand one to Bulgaria lost eighty seven thousand five hundred men over one hundred and fifty thousand others wounded altogether over again, over eight point five million soldiers died some stories actually place that number closer to ten million over twenty one million others wounded, another seven point seven million other taken prisoner or gone missing. Plus an additional seven million civilians were killed the total number of both civilian and military casualties. Estimated to be around thirty seven forty million people the entire combined population of everyone washed in Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Montana. All dead another twenty million wounded. Wow. Wow. Wow. Wow. Wow. Thanks for taking a second taking thanks to a couple hours. The listeners episode, you know, one hundred years after all this ended long after everyone who involved who was involved in it died, truly hope all their souls rest in peace. Hope the world never experiences anything as ugly as this were ever ever ever again. No, it's at the internet today. This is too much. Had I spend all my time on the on the war now time for top five takeaways. Time away. Number one. The key ingredients that lead up to World War. One were romanticism of the notion of war the rise of early twentieth. Century European nationalism patriotism, good, nationalism, bad always propaganda towards other nations. The short war theory. You know, it gonna be quick and easy. Notions of imperialism know, you'd be lucky to have our culture, the rise of multinational lines and the instability of the Balkans. Or if you want to simplify things it was a fucking Germans. Number two, June twenty eighth nineteen fourteen the assassination of Archduke an heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne. Fran Ferdinand is really what kick things off in World War One number three trench warfare blows unless you like drowning in mud being covered by lifespan chewed on by rats or losing your feet to trench foot vote no on trench warfare. Now before the war came to an end with Germany's surrender on November eleventh nineteen eighteen and that is why November eleventh is Veterans Day and World War One left. The whole shit ton of veterans in his wake over sixty five million total troops fought in that war. That is such a crazy number number five. New info, Germany, not only lost the war and a lot of truth. But also a lot of German shepherds over two hundred and fifteen thousand German shepherds would fight in the great war German shepherd carrying battalions used the dogs extensively on the western front for offenses on French and British trenches one infamous unit, the seventy fifth Hon division had over three thousand. German shepherds and two thousand German storm troopers the dogs alone were credited with over four hundred casualties. I'd like Dagon eat. My fucking dog trench in Assam valley battle on June. Third nineteen seventeen the germs even Germans even fit of the dogs with masks for gas attacks in the fall of nineteen seventeen. However, French forces realized the they could just throw tainted meat into the no man's land. Between trenches and poison the dogs, they poison over a hundred thousand dollars this way in the winter of nineteen seventeen nineteen eighteen and then in the spring of nineteen eighteen to French realized they also get you down animals, and they used cats to get the dogs to bark and giveaway German positions and the one hundred and seventh putting boots division was formed three hundred French soldiers thirty five thousand tabby cats, one podcast, ho ho slide is ass off. But all of this get the fuck out of dogs with gas masks around story. Now never happened dogs are not part of that German Denver to now like that. And there was not a French. Putting boots. If there were actually though hundreds of thousands of cats put into French French is not not jokey now to counteract the rat problem, the rush she brought in for the war effort and also dogs. We're actually using the war generally century dogs and cows dogs by by all sides, prayed, jingles, bojangles are three legged one item, mortal mascot and warrior would have won the whole warm self. We would have thought it whereas tangles will want us having a century dogs would stay with one soldier or guard. And we're taught to give warning sounds as growling barking when they sense a stranger in the area or close to camp dobermans a lot. We're used as introduction by the German actually, casually dogs are trained to find wounded or dying soldiers on the battlefield to carried medical equipment to so injured soldier could treat themselves, and they they would also stay beside a dying soldier to keep them company. Oh my God. Man dogs are the fucking best. And there are some pretty adorable pictures of dogs helping ourselves we'll we'll one on the web. If you want to look at something unhappy about World War, One praise bojangles in deed. Time. Away. Holy shit World War One did it debt. Sacked didn't know if I finished that one. In tennis, big suck almost broke my damn jaw just trying to suckle those dudes fighting suck. And so many dudes suck and sixty five million muddy trench fight and dudes that's a lot to get your mouth. Thanks again at the time. So team high priest is comedy Cam. Jesse guardian of grammar dope. Ner Reverend Dr Joe paisley time saw high priest Alex Dugan. The guy's a bit elixir design in the app, keeping the website going danger brain space lizards and merge. Wizards access apparel. Write a little note some people's merged when they send it out. Queen of the suck. Lindsey Cummins boss of everything. Polish post wizard another special, thanks to bojangles. Researchers Sarah and Rebecca REBA lily, the hammers of knowledge forgiving me so much. Good info to start to suck with. Suck in another world topic next money the new world order conspiracy time it's been while time suck been a while since Monday conspiracy suck the switch it up. What the hell is the new world order that Alex Jones, David I and other wack doodles are always talking about where does this conspiracy about an emerging clandestine to Tallaght -tarian world government, even come from what does it encompass? Why did they hear my dad and his friends talk about too much in high school? Why does so many people online seem to be so very into it right now the common theme of conspiracy theories about a new world order is that a secretive power leaked with globalist agenda is conspiring to eventually rule the world through an authoritarian world government, which will replace sovereign nation states, an all encompassing propaganda whose ideal ideology hills. The establishment of the new world order as the culmination of history's progress. Lizards doesn't involve spaces. I don't know. I hope so got hope so at least a few lizards we're gonna find on next week a big idiot to the internet coming up next week. It's gonna be great. It's going to make up for the lack of when this week now time now for time suffer updates. Time. I up wonderful time suck Jesse writes in letting us know that a triple M'S saved her not kidding. Michael McDonald savior for real YoM. Oh, say to who almost two. Jesse writes, dear master, sucked embassador, the most mousers so much right? And the head missionary of Nimrod. I'm writing to you today because I wanted to tell you how you and your love for the triple m made me realize that I was not in a good space and in an unhappy relationship, I found you originally on Pandora and became obsessed or comedy us. And I would listen to you while I did housework which was the concent- job since I was the only person in the house, cleaning cooking and taking care of two puppies. Do not let Lindsay ever listen to this. Then I heard your ad for your podcast, and I started to bench at the time. I lived in our from work. So I would I would listen to you through my long commute eventually while he did housework. What struck me the most from your podcast? Was your rendition of triple M'S? I keep forgetting we're not in love anymore. The more and more you kept laying down those sweet sweet lyrics more realized I was not allowed anymore. My relationship was falling apart, and I was willing to ignore because we were comfortable the more. I tried to ignore it. The more you seem to keep seeing my ears. A keep forgetting not in love. Not in Vinnie. Mo- kief forgetting things we'll never be the same. Okay. And eventually I couldn't situation. My depression was going nuts. My exiled he was having a field day. And I wanted to be happy. I finally packed up. My stuff and left. I am now a hundred times, happier visibly, happier. Found someone who makes me happy and getting back to my strong independent women status that Lucifer FINA would be proud of hails FINA. So in conclusion never stopped triple m because you might be shaking someone awake realizing they are not a situation. They would like or maybe even scarier in situation with you might not be safe master Tucker. Thank you from your disciple of mush mouth IRS Jesse. Thank you. Jesse hilas Safina? You can be independent. You just you've got to try some see the Rodas. Some say this. He. They say it's a hopeless five, but I got to try. Rush that they affected up that was a lesser known. Michael McDonald song, it's harder. It's harder for them. You know, I actually wanted to go with Jesse Danna Danna jesse's. Oh, which also doesn't make sense is your Jesse years ago. Let's get on to the next phase. But I'm glad you do. Well, I'm glad you're doing. Well, I'm glad some Michael McDonald helped you out next up. Joe motherfucking bojangles guessing that's not as legal last name said on the Email, and Joe is ghost believer regarding me asking for real supernatural counters the other week, Joe writes, insane absolutely believe in ghosts and spirits. I have a lot of stories I'm going to tell but the first one if you want just share with brothers and sisters of Nimrod tuna now, whatever you do after listening do not, and I repeat look behind you behind your right now known right there. Sa- grown-up I live next to a graveyard, my bedroom is lily twenty feet from a dads, fucking sucks. It was nighttime. Oh, by the way, there's a graveyard. Thirty yards from the suck dungeon, by the way. Not even kidding big graveyard directly across the street. From where I am right now. It was nighttime and getting late my cousin. I were heading to bed. I was in bed in my he was on a mattress on the floor had a TV on my headboard of the bed and we're trying to fall asleep. The TV turned out of stars flipping through channels. I say Billy turn the TV off. He says Joe, I don't have the remote. It's not me. I find their about remote next to me. And I think accidentally hit it or whatnot. So we talked about turn it off seconds later. The TV turns back on a flip through the channels has a Billy. He says Joe, I swear it Amy we both sit up, and I turn it off again in the fucking TV turns out once more as I have their vote in my hand, we are getting fucking scared now, I said fuck this and unplugged it, and I swear to you that fucking TV turned on again after plugged it flipping through channels. We both ran out of the room to the living room, which you can where you can see my room down the hall. Just watching the TV flip the channels. It finally stopped. We stayed in living in all night. And didn't sleep told my mom the next morning. What had happened? She told us years before she had the same thing happen to the TV and living room and the whole not looking behind thing before just to fuck with you. Guys by the chills now. So in the same home, we had a lot of crazy shit happen. And not just to me. My mom is well neighbors around us. But I know I've seen ghosts. My mom told me when I was real young. I would have an imaginary friend like most kids do Lancers Pacific questions to this friend, and it would create her the fuck out. Well, when I was about sixteen woke up for school one morning opened my bedroom door, and I looked down the hallway, and I swear there was a little boy now so a little boy living room by the couches tear in back of me. Scared. The hell out of me. I slammed my door. Shut got dressed ran out the back door and went to school same house. Again. I had a buddy stay that night at bunkbeds. He slept on the top bunk. My momma gone to work about five AM. I woke up went to the bathroom. I laid back down started hearing footsteps hallway from Iraq. I knew my mom was at work. So this laid there that's the worst. I hear the front door opening and closing the sound of somebody banged against washing the bathroom and cabinet opening. Then something came in my room. Well, I got chills on my legs. Now got goose was on my legs. Now is awesome. Sounds like you might remember this point under my covers my bed. Started shaking like someone was hanging on the bed posts all of a sudden the footsteps running down the hallway out the front door get up wake up, my friend. We go to the living room in the front door is still bolt. Locked call the police on my mom, please everything there's no sign of a break in nothing taking not a fucking thing. My friend never states night again. Yeah. I wouldn't. So my home I live in now the day, I signed papers to buy it. I had to meet my realtor an hour before my house to make sure everything was marked off got a little early. It was walking around, and I met my neighbor we got to talk. And he tells me it's a shame about the old woman who's live here. I asked what does he talking about? And he goes into tell me that there's old woman that originally owned died and one of the bedrooms nothing gruesome, but it was still news to me. But anyways, it was Tober come December Christmas Eve, I had my son who was five at the time a mom came over. We open presents are then had to run to the store real quick. So my mom, stay with my son. I get back on my mom has a weird look on her face. I ask her what is wrong. And she says Brady's scaring the shit out of me. We were on the four plane and all of a sudden he busts. Source running down the hall. Yeah. Bussed starts running to the asking what he's looking at. And he says the girl won't stop staring at me. And then he just went back to plain. I've had quite a few things in this house happened like hearing footsteps and cabins in the kitchen opening my brother, stay with me a few months back in scared. The fuck out of him. He's six three and two hundred sixty pounds doesn't scare easy. He was telling his girlfriend about all the shitty was hearing. Well, she was over. She didn't believe him. Then they were my kitchen. She was mocking and making fun and something poked her out of her chair. She started to apologize and got the fuck out. I saw her. She said, I don't know what the fuck is in there. But but I'll never make fun of it again will I got more. But that's good enough for now. Hope you haven't pissed yourself yet. No. But I'm definitely got goosebumps. I will think I will say that. I think of myself as a pretty rational well-thought-out guy was an honor student school joined the navy afterwards. Thank you hold pretty damn good job now. So I definitely believe and I have no other answers other than to what I've seen throughout the years. Okay. So that was that was that was terrifying. But thank you very much Joe for for sending that are way, man. And we've got another believe in it. We got time. So Rocco also thinks goes to real he writes in Hello master sucker, insert, forty five other random data's titles. I've dropped few emails. I've dropped a few emails and have since become a proud member of the colty curious on Facebook along with my wife, Danielle what a fucking awesome group. Amazing people. Yes, I love how much love the goal to cure his face through keeps getting out fucking standing. He says anyway, I don't know how much their stories were made up to make money, but I do have re- regarding the warrants, but I do have quite a bit of experience dealing with the supernatural or supernatural TV shows me, my biological father lives here in Fort Wayne and has been featured on several shows to which include paranormal state and might go story. I can say this for sure those shows were one hundred percent flat out bullshit. His house. Does have a gory past. And I haven't sitting in with them in her shit banging around on the second floor random footsteps coming down the stairs and the chandeliers moving around for. Apparent recent? The shows are bullshit for sure because I've been there when they film what they do generally send it producer and cameraman. Yep. And sometimes only Cameron they also like to send local paranormal experts who generally like Dolly Parton fucked. Cousin had some weird mutant offspring tag along to help. Find the goats Cameron will set up his camera, and if you had a laptop or or, you know, and I guess like an ipad was script you read from the script while here she films, then they will move around the house to stage Shostak along with script. How do I know this because I was the fucking ghost. For his episode of my ghost story. Yeah. That's me. Bang and shit around upstairs. You're welcome viewers watch the paranormal St. segment called Satan soldier my dad, and it explains the history of the house. The my goal story episode of camera. The name can be found if you search for Fort Wayne good money to be made. If that's your thing and people believe in it like gossiping, if you read please tell my wife Danielle that rocko loves her. Oh, that's sweet. And I'm going to haunt that ass when I get home from work. Nice Danielle hot that ass. I'm gonna have to get some of what he's paranormal paranormal repellents common for your. Shouts out to my awesome. Friends on the cold curious Facebook page, Hailu Safina, my brother and keep up that outstanding fucking work. Rocco aims? Well. Thank you for forgiving that update. That's cool. Like how you relayed that? Hey, you know, what happens on those shows is fake and your experience, bud. Be you have heard some shit that does not fake. That's that's very interesting. Very cool update. Now from new time sucker Chad regarding the Candyman suck. Sometimes it's easy to forget that the people we talk about here on the socks. Victims of tragedies are all too. Real Garrett reminds us writing. Hey, dan. I'm a new listener, I found you via last podcast on the left. Just in his listening to the Candyman episode. Joseph Allen Lyles was my uncle he went by Alan, I was born in seventy nine. So I don't know him. However, I grew up hearing, my aunts and uncles seven them total. My father all talking about him and not knowing where he went or what happened always suspecting deans involvement. Yeah. Dean cold Michaela. They didn't identify his body until only about five six. Years ago at High Island. I believe I may be wrong about that. I have to ask my aunt, Donna. But I wanted to say when you said his name on the podcast, I felt a bit of a chill down my spine. And then a sigh of relief that our family finally had closure when they identified and tied him to the many young men. They were taken by dean, thank you for being thorough and giving Allen if even if only a line about his abduction, a tiny voice. Thank you. Sincerely, Chad grizzly Laos. Well, thank you, Chad, man. Yeah. Man. I try try to you know, we talk about horrific things, but try to be respectful of the victims. And acknowledged you know, what what horrible things happen to them now time sick Garrett shipowner writes in with another fun Ed in the rain warn suck update. This is about this legal case regarding the stand Bosque versus actually trial. Dear suck master general. I just finished last week suck got really excited when you mentioned Stampe stamp of Oscar versus Ackley, I graduated law school in two thousand seventeen. This was my favourite case we read about in law school great explanation of the holding, by the way. However, I think you have missed the opportunity of reading some comedic gold. In the form of a judge using legal language to shit all over the absurdity of this case, for example, quote, New York law fails to recognize any remedy for damages incurred as a result of the sellers mere silence applying instead the strict rule of caveat, emptor MTR therefore the theoretical basis for granting relief. Even under the extraordinary facts of this case is allusive if not ephemeral pity me not but lend vice series hearing to what I shall unfold that's from William Shakespeare's hamlet. Also from the perspective of a person in the position of the plaintiff here in a very practical problem arises with respect to the discovery of a paranormal phenomenon who you gonna call as a title song in the movie Ghostbusters asks. Applying the strict rule of caveat emptor to a contract involving a house possessed by poltergeist conjures up visions of psychic or medium routinely accompanying structural engineer and terminates men on an inspection of every home subject to a contract of sale. Yeah. And that's the the the legal language there. Keep on sucking from Garrett PSI went your show in Washington DC. And last last you, and you probably don't remember me. But I was the idiot afterward that mistook Chad Daniels job one of yours. I remember you and yeah, I get that about once a weekend. Someone's like man love your love your passport joke. I don't even correct him. I don't really make them feel where it's almost. Yeah. Thanks, man. I think fucking chaired Daniels. Finally last message nother goes message time from Charles Jordan, Sony, goes Charles wrote saying Hello have a picture of a ghost encountered to share. This image was captured by a trail Cam set up to catch trespass on my grandparents property in two thousand fourteen my car in the background set the camera off as I was leaving. Both of my grandparents had passed in two thousand eleven two thousand twelve known living here any longer does. This look like a lady in address too. You also another latest story a couple of years ago, my girlfriend now wife, Victoria, and I were removing grandmothers quilts from this house before they were destroyed in the abandoned property while washing them preparing them to vacuum sealed for storage. My wife made a comment about how my granny should be happy. Now that her hand made quilts were being protected, and what detergent would be best to use on them since they were old after this comment directly after a bottle of detergent one of the free and clear brands. It doesn't have any dies or sense falls off the shelf, happy sucking, Charles Jordan, PS, this image is one hundred percent on altered. It is not Photoshop edited, etc. Who was taken straight from the Trump Cam. As now I have posted this picture that I'm talking about is spooky shit on my Instagram, which is at Dan Cummins comedy. So if you want to check it out go there. Thanks, everyone for writing in on today's time sucker updates. Thanks time. We all have great week time suckers, don't get stuck in a muddy lice-infested rat filled trench will being gassed and burned by Germans this week and capon suck. And. Maybe like the squirrel nipples.
Timesuck with Dan Cummins
Aired 3 months ago 48:18
How the Navajo Code Talkers Worked
Steffi Chinook was supported by Amazon music with Amazon music. Avoid is all you need. Discover over fifty million songs thousands of curated playlist and stations across all your devices just by asking find your favorite songs at the tip of your fingers and the tip of your tongue new customers. Get three months for only ninety nine cents at Amazon music dot com. Renews automatically cancels anytime. Welcome step. You should know from how stuff works dot com. Hey and welcome to the podcast. I'm Josh Clark. There's Charles w Chuck Bryant over there, and there's Jerry. So this is stuff, you should know. This is gonna be a good one. This is a grab stir joint. Did you want to talk about soup? I. Getting. Yeah. I was kidding. Oh, I thought you were serious and now it was bad soup. But I mean on that pad. I mean, right before we started recording. Like, this is how how awesome things are down. Here. We were talking about how bad your French onion soup was how do you mess up French onion? Yeah. That's what I was wondering. And he said say that I wanna talk about this. And I thought you were serious. Yeah. I was kidding. No. We'll in here. We are. I was kidding. Yeah. We were talking about the soup. Anyway, how do you mess up French beef, broth, salt onions, jeez bread? Yeah. They put too much in it melted in the crock pot. The yes, this the onions they use were way too. Sweet. I think they use like onions dipped in sugar. It was not good. Yeah. Not good the Intel. We shouldn't call them out now obliquely. No. That'd be pretty mean. Sure. I mean, they just don't know what they're doing a soup. It's funny. But there are soup restaurant. Sh. There are a lot of soup restaurants. He I guess you. Remember that dumb one? I think they're out of business now. Let us sue prize. You dumb. Lettuce surprise, buddy soup and salad that that's out of business. Right. Yeah. There's something called sweet tomatoes. That's basically the have heard of that. Yep. Hey, I like a good soup and salad joint. Yes. So what was wrong with lettuce surprise you? I don't know. I don't like cutesy names. Well, unless it's on the Simpsons, and I think the teas were made of carrots. Yeah. Yeah. For sure. Well, that leads us, right? Into Navajo code talkers. Exactly quite well. We should say right out of the gate that we're like you just said we're talking about Navajo code talkers. There were plenty of other code talkers. Other native American tribes. Yes, this episode is mostly about the Navajo code talkers. Because there was so many of them and so much is known about the codes they made, but we'll also mentioned other tribes as well. Yes. And straight up respect to all of them for sure it always kinda stinks. When one thing gets all the glory. When there were many vaccines of that thing. So. Yeah. Right. But I think that's better than just naming this episode like how code talkers work, but only talking about the Navajo code talker. Agreed. I think we covered everything right greed. So if you have ever seen or familiar with the movie called wind talkers V seen it I didn't see it. But I did look it up today, and it is widely regarded as not only garbage garbage movie, but a real disservice to do a great to do a movie about the Navajo code talkers. But it's really movie about Nick cage. Right directed by John. Woo. Yeah. It's a violent war movie that happened to to be structured around a really interesting historical plot, right? Like, let's let's take this really amazing story from history, and let's more fit into a story about a. White soldier. It's like dirty dancing to Havana nights. Basically. It's funny. Yes. A wind talkers. I do I do not endorse that film. I've not either. And neither of us have seen it, and we still don't endorse it. No. I just need to see the reviews on that one. But the the the the point of it was that there was a native American. I don't know if he's a novel or not in that movie because again haven't seen it. Yeah. But who was who is charged with speaking his native tongue to someone else on the other end of the line at the front lines of battle in the Pacific theater gets World War to to transmit messages in code and unbreakable code and that actually happened like that part of the story happen, and it was true that there were in World War, Two native Americans enlarge part Navajo who were speaking to one another in Navajos like on Guadalcanal or in the Mariana 's or the Marshall Islands or Okinawa. Who were there? There. Yeah. At all of these major massive battles. Oh in the Pacific theater between the the United States in Japan that actually eventually led to this island hopping process led to the the atomic bombs being dropped on here. Shema in Nagasaki from the Marianna ze. Yeah, code so. Well complex to are dumb ears to the Navajo. They were just like this is just our language to. But even if you're a linguist you like, this is those your drawer narrowly difficult language. Yeah. But so complex that it can founded the Japanese who were really good at busting codes. And they were like, I don't know. What's going on here? You're right. Yeah. This is a never heard anything like this, which was a huge reversal because prior to the institution of Navajo, code talkers. And I think nineteen forty two like late nineteen forty two the Japanese had our goat with are coded transmissions because for the for. Number one. There were a number of Japanese people who'd been educated in the US in between World War One World War Two and had gone back to Japan prior to World War Two, and they were totally fluent in English. Yeah. So they could speak English like up down inside ways. Yeah. Plus on top of that they were really good at breaking our coats. So they knew basically everything we were gonna do every step of the way. So the Navajo code talkers coming into the Pacific theater was reversed our fortunes. There's there's it's not an overstatement to say that they basically helped the US take the Pacific. Yeah. From Japan, not single handedly but through their code. Yeah. For sure. All right. So let's talk about the Navajo in general to begin with a native American tribe that inhabited the American southeast or what you know. Now, we know what is the American southwest. Back then it was known as the south. The exactly you're like what this isn't the ghost American South. I wish everyone could see because Josh literally just pointed in the other direction. I wonder if he pointed wets. Is that west? I'm not even know hold on. Now. That's that's north. Okay. The American ended south the American South north. They the original people's were they believe from Asia. Well, yeah. Maybe ironically in the end when you sail the story goes and settled in south west around fourteen hundred CE in the sixteen hundreds a lot of things changed the next few hundred years were they were warring with the Spanish they were warring with other native American tribes. And then that was all kind of leading up to the eighteen hundreds when the United States popped up and said, hey, here's what we're going to do. We're going to wreck your Konami. We're going to destroy your crops and livestock in poison your wells and kill all your buffalo and put you on reservations and Marci Marci to to New Mexico where your new home will be and will be known as the long walk. Yeah. It was basically there. Their trail of tears. Yeah. Exactly. It was just right out of the westward expansion playbook. Yep. And so the Navajo found themselves. I when was that the mid it was eighteen fifty seven I think yet like walk. Why I mean, it's important for lotteries ins, but the men who ended up being the Navajo code talkers in World War Two their grandparents were were these people that were forced to go on the long walk. Yes. It wasn't you know, hundreds and hundreds of years later, right? Like direct descendants, the ended up fighting for the United States. Yes. And this is not like, hey, do my moving over here. It was it was very much like the trail of tears. It was movement three hundred miles to a reservation against their will at the barrel of a gun. Yeah. Like, I don't wanna go. Okay. I'll shoot you the. Yes, exactly. There were reports of of the injured of the tired people who fell. Hind were just shot by the US infantry. There was at least one family that reported that they're pregnant daughter was there were forced away from her. She was kept behind and they heard her being shot as well. Yeah. It was it was it was just a violation in atrocity done to the Navajo lake. It was done to so many other native American groups and by the nineteenth century like basically eighteen fifty seven on the Navajo lived exclusively on reservations in in the south west. Yeah. In starting in about the eighteen seventies. The US government said here's what we're going to do. You have to assimilate into American society, we want you to forget your culture as you knew it, you can't speak your native language anymore. We're gonna round up your kids and send him to American boarding schools. Teach them to read and write in English only, and you're going to be punished in forbidden from speaking your native tongue from singing in your native tongue. Yes, you will be beaten. We catch you. Speaking Navajos to one another, and they think you just said the they would kidnap children take them to these schools. Just like they did with the aboriginal tribes in Australia. Just like they did with the first Americans in the first nations in Canada. And it was just not only have we taken your land. Not only be forced you to live in this one area that no one else wants to live in like, we want to destroy your culture. Now, like, we're going after your culture, we wanna blit you guys completely. We'll let you live. But under these conditions were not we're gonna murder your culture. And so not only were these code talkers, the grandchildren are the grandsons of the people who went on the long walk. They were the very people who went to these Indian schools, and we're beaten for speaking Navajos, and then about nineteen forty to the United States military, specifically the marine showed up and said. Hey, we'd love for you to come speak Navajo officially for the United States government. Would you mind doing that? Yeah. And this was after World War One it it went on in World War One actually World War Two got all the press in the nab, Hove course did more than anyone else. Like, you said, but in World War One there were in one thousand nine hundred and there was a captain from one hundred and forty second infantry regiment who heard to Choctaw soldiers speaking in their native tongue, right? And it was like man, we're getting hammered with the Germans and the French cracking are codes. So I think that this language could be of use to us because this really complex Germans have no idea what what's going on with your language, and I think we could put you to use. And so the very first code talkers. I think were these Choctaw code talkers, more one. Yeah. The the well, we were fighting with the French, and we were talking to the French the German spoke, French and English and we're using regular. Telephone lines and World War One. I guess sure. They just had them tapped. So they were just eavesdropping. And we might as well have been speaking German for as well as they were translating. These coded transmissions. Yeah. No of a sudden, they're like, what is what is this? We've never heard this language before ever. It's just a couple of Choctaw guys talking to one another. But it was a for Germany and unbreakable code at least as long as we're war one was going on. Yeah. And I don't think this early World War One code was so much code as like you're saying like, right? We're just going to put a Choctaw on one end and a chucked on the other end of the line. And they'll just relate the messages that we tell them to and their native tongue and the Germans were like nine. Only word I can think of pain whole good as well. We're too. Hsun come years later. So it wasn't just a Choctaw members of the Choctaw tribe who were code talkers in World War One also the Comanche played a role. Yeah. The FOX which is also known as the. Oh, man ahead. It have you ever heard of the FOX tribe from I believe Mississippi. I don't think so you know, there was also the Comanche. They played a big role and some other tribes did as well. Yeah. But there's like we're talking a handful of people in the capacity like you were saying, it's like just say this in your native language to this other guy who speaks your native language, and he'll tell you know, the guy on the other end what you just said in English yet. And here's the rub. I mean, there it is rich with irony throughout this whole story. But here's the rub in World War One is that native Americans weren't even granted citizenship until nineteen twenty four. So the World War One code. Talkers were not even American citizens yet they were doing this. And they were not even recognized by the United States and acknowledged and thanked until two thousand eight thousand eight ten years ago, France, even recognize them, and I think one thousand nine hundred eighty eight eighty nine. Yeah. Eighty nine. Did you say that now? Okay. So. France recognized them I and it took another twenty years before the US recognized them financially. Unbelievable. It is unbelievable. But the the the problem with World War One is it worked, but we became friendly with Germany in World War One and World War Two and Germany said, we're gonna hedge our bets here, we're going to send some people to the United States to learn native, American, languages, and culture. So that if we ever go to war with the United States, again, we'll have their number, and they did apparently there were plenty of. Well, I don't know plenty is the right word. But there were Germans who spoke. Cherokee comanche. Chalk crazy so that so much. So that the the some of the American commanders in World War Two were like, we can't use native American language because there's Germans who know this already they were compromised, basically. Yeah. Between World War One and World War Two. You wanna take a break? Oh, yes. All right. Let's take a break. And we're gonna come back and talk about the dawn of World War Two and a man name Philip Johnston. Chuck you, and I have pretty decent voices. I guess sure. Yeah. All we have to do is use voices on Amazon music, and we can discover over fifty million songs and thousands of curated playlist and stations just by talking just by doing what we do normally, which is flapping our gums. That's right. You can request popular music from a decade or even a specific year. Like, hey, I want to hear some sweet new way the eighties jams, and it's that easy. Yeah. And it works across all of your devices to you have some friends coming over tonight, just say play music for dinner party, and your device will say why are you talking like a robot? Are you making fun of me? It's right. And here's the goal is part. If you can't remember the name to a song, which happens to us all but you can't remember some of the lyrics. Just ask for the song that goes, blah, blah, blah lyrics or bomb took awhile while that's right, listening to music is never been more, natural simple and fun everybody. And right now. New customers can get three months for only ninety nine cents. Yeah. That's Amazon music dot com. Renews automatically cancels anytime. All right. So right before World War Two those a training exercise going on with with soldiers for Michigan. And Wisconsin there native American soldiers involved. And there was a man, and they were you know, they're testing out. These coded transmissions. We did it will wear one. Let's try again, those a man there named Philip Johnston. Who was a white, man. But he actually grew up on a Navajo reservation. I think he just read an article about this actually, really. Yeah. He wasn't in the army this time. Right. Right. 'cause they brought him in like he was way too old way too old around this time. I think it was about fifty years old. Yeah. But all he had the benefit of growing up on a Nebo reservation considered himself. Navajo spoken language following more one and said, I wanna make a comeback and want to go back and fight and World War Two and start up this crack team of Navajo code talkers. It was. His idea. Yeah. And they said he went into the office of whatever higher up general he needed to spoke some Navajo to this worked once why can't work twice and they were like by George. I think you're onto something they said, we'll give you a we'll give you a chance to demonstrate this. So apparently in Los Angeles, he recruited four Navajo men. I guess he was friendly with because like you said he considered himself Navajos parents were missionaries. Yeah. And apparently, he spoke Navajo. So well that age nine he served as the official translator for a novel delegation that had gone to Washington DC to lobby for better treatment and writes for the Navajo nation, which is a mazing because as you'll learn the not a lot because there were other white people who spoke Navajo that tried to be co talkers, and none of them made the cut, no such a hard language. So this guy must have just had year four to. Yeah. And was raised with it yet. But. He he said, we I know you guys are trying to make a code of got this language of got these four guys from Los Angeles with me just give him a shot. And so they gave him a shot. I think camp Elliot, and they gave to they took the to the four Navajo guys broke them into pairs put them in separate rooms and said here say this in Navajos say this English phrase, the eagle lands of midnight will say all right that'll fit and tell your buddies and see what they say they transmitted the eagle lands of midnight, or whatever it was over the phone in Navajo the guys in the other room took it Navajo translated back into English in like a minute. And the guys at camp Elliott were pretty impressed by this. They said we're going to bring in some German Japanese people to listen, right? And they're like get that. I have no idea they said nine and whatever the Japanese word is for note. You know that Nieta yet? I really know was like that sounds grudges the word from now, they say, no, so infrequent, but say, you know, I don't know that because all you says. Yes, when you go there. Yeah. Sure. I'll take more. Yes. More please just bang my bowl on the table. So so, yeah, they they actually didn't do that. I'm kidding. Of course. But they said this is great in. This is the trick was not only was it like basically impossible to crack. But like you're saying it was super fast way faster than machine codes. Right. So that's a huge advantage that this. This offered was using Navajos speakers to send a coded message prior to this in an addition to this. You would you would use basically machines that used algorithms to encode decode a message, and it could take hours hours if you're trying to send a desk. Britt message on a frontline battle in the Pacific theater. You don't have hours for that thing to get across. So the idea that you could do the same thing in minutes in code that you were just positive the Japanese would have no idea what to do with those a huge advantage for. Sure. Yeah. And like the grabs for pointed out, it it was taking a long time with the code machines that the Germans in Japanese cracking anyway. Right. So the solution. There was like, no, no downside to it. Are it's like we said Johnston was Philip Johnson was a far too old because he was a World War One veteran. They gave him a special commission said you're now a staff sergeant in the marines again, or I don't know if he's the marine or in the army, initially, you know, I don't know. But at any rate, he was in the marines this time, and they said year gonna lead the code talker project, go out and recruit. So he went to reservations recruited, young men. And between three and four hundred of these young men became code talkers. He recruited more than that. But a lot of failed out for various reasons. Like, you know, they still go to camp and all that stuff. See still to be a soldier on top of it. Although it was a kind of a truncated version boot camp because it get in there quick they needed him so badly. They're like, okay. Yeah. You're fine. Yeah. New we need to take you to code school, basically. Yeah. But the whole thing started with thirty. They originally recruited thirty Navajos speakers one of them dropped out. So twenty nine there were twenty nine original Navajo, code talkers. And they were put to work initially, creating the code because very importantly, the Navajo Kotok is not only spoke to one another novel, which is incomprehensible to basically anybody living. It listening to who doesn't speak it. They would also. Use a code. They would use code words in Navajos. So what they created was a code within a code was as unbreakable as as any any codes ever been come up anyone's ever come up with. I think we should you. And I can't speak Navajo. I'm I'm rusty. I think we should play just a little bit of Navajos. Oh, all right. And then I'll translate act on nine KYW. I chaired the Jill Blackie, a Nadia AXA Aji, LA Nina Zad, legal achie-, alkyl odd sitting Jila are not yet. Yeah. Opens is. So what you just heard enough Hajo was this is from the the parable of the prodigal, son. If this is from the movie wind talker. What you just heard was not long after that, the younger sewing gut together all he had set off for a distant country, and they're squandered his wealth in wild living. Something everybody does from time to time. But that was that was what you just heard in Navajos. Yeah. And it's it's so foreign sounding for a reason like it's a really difficult language in that like the same vowel can have four different types of intonation and four different. Meaning so one word can have four different meanings based on the whether you know, you go up or speak through your nose or whatever. But you're saying the same word, you're just intoning it differently. And that just changes the meaning dramatically one reason why it was so impenetrable yet. And like you said they they memorized five hundred codewords three different versions of the alphabet and went to war. I mean, I use the word irony. That's that's sort of under sells it what was going on. And why these men would would sign up for something like this and an Edward points out. Like, you can't get into the head of them or explain every person's motivation. Sure because it was all different. But through interviews, you know, what what sort of stood out was that they still even though that the United States had stomped them down into near Livian. They still had a tide of that land and that was their land. And regardless of what had gone on in the past the Germans, and the Japanese were were invaders that they were threat to their holy land. They were still a common enemy between the United States in the Navajos. Oh, yeah. I mean system says so much about their people that they could just put all the other stuff aside and the genocide in the long walk in the trailer. Of tears and say, well, this this is still my land. Even though I'm on a reservation, and I wanna help protect it. Right. Amazing. Yes. Some of them were were joined up because they're the subscribe to the novel warrior culture, the Navajo definitely had their own warrior warrior, cultural, though, that wasn't like this the -sarily the central focus of their culture. Right. Others were like, oh, man. You're gonna get me off of his reservation, and I'm going to go travel world. I've never even been on a bus before. Let's go. Yeah. Someone were like this GI Bill. You're talking about others were drafted didn't wanna go, but they were still drafted and they went so there were just like to to paint. It any other way is to make it like to give it the wind talker treatment. Yes, the stuff, you should know way. There were as many different people. I think there were four hundred twenty one novel co talkers who ended up serving in World War Two. I'm sure there were four hundred twenty one different reasons for why they went. Yeah. That's just the way it is their people. Yeah. And we're talking about people here for twenty four twenty one now. Dolor short daily. So let's talk a little bit about this code within a code. Here's one example, so troops moving forward to the lake is what the grab start came up with. And they wouldn't just get on the horn with their Navajo counterpart on the other end and say troops moving forward to the lake and Navajo they would substitute. In different words. Sometimes they would spell out some words one letter at a time with that letter being represented by a word like the first letter in the word that they say, and it was the I mean there were rules for the code. But the person on the other end they were so in sync with one another that they didn't necessarily look at a chart and say, well, this is means this, and this means this. They were just able to converse rather organically within this code within the code, right? And they all knew that that code. That was like, this means this and this means. This. Yeah. But yeah. From from from the research, it seems like they were able to shift and and like you said make organic. Yeah. On the fly. And they knew what one another was saying kind of threw out the playbook a little bit. I imagine in certain circumstances. And I'm sure the American, you know, the generals and the people in charge were just like just do it, man. Just do your thing or they were like, I have no idea what you just said. They had no idea they throughout the playbook a lot of times they had to do that. Because there weren't a quits of certain words, like they didn't have words for a bomb barred meant and and shell casing and things like that. Because they didn't have the things in their culture. So they had to make up things that they would be able to understand both ways. Well, they they were also. So there is an an alphabet. Right. So every three bet three. Yes. So there were three different words for every letter of alphabet Sommese. Okay. But there's something that is really easy to look past that we really have to to think this is one of the reasons why this is so unbreakable if if you wanted to use the letter, I would say the Navajo word for ice. Right. Okay. But the novel word for doesn't have it doesn't begin with the letter. I they probably didn't have for putting it's funny. The the weird thing is is that they did. They did. Yes, they have ice. It was their most closely related to a native Alaskan tongue. They think so natural. It's like evidence linguistic evidence, they came across the Bering land bridge. Gotcha. So yeah, they also have a word for shark, which is like that doesn't make any sense either. If they they're they're from Arizona, basically, Alexa, Kellyanne shark thought. Yeah. They're like Chevy Chase. Yeah. But they, but they have like a lot of they have one for salmon copperheads, salmon. And that's you know, those in New Mexico beyond is delicious. But the the point is the novel word for ice doesn't necessarily begin with is. So even if you knew yeah, Navajos, oh, you wouldn't necessarily know that this is the word for the letter. I yeah. And the confounded even more if there's three different words for the letter. I even if you're spelling like. What's the word with multiple is hurry up and give me one quick illicit? Yes. Okay. If you're spelling illicit out, you could use two different words for I and that cuts down on letter or in this case codeword repetition, which is one of the easiest ways to break coat. Yeah. Look for repetition, right? Right. And pair those up with the letters that are used most frequently in English. Yes. For using three different codewords for a single letter. You can mix it up spelling it out. So cool makes it even more impenetrable. Yeah. Like, this is just such a gorgeous code. Yeah. They used imagery a lot of times, which is makes it kind of strangely lyrical like a dive bomber was chicken hawk submarine was an iron fish. And then they also use you know, you heard a cockney rhyming slang, which is she's we we could do podcast on that the become cool. Okay. I won't even get into that. But it makes basically make compound words in English sound like a word in the message. So the the examples that the grab Stor got was like the word secured. They would say the Navajo words for sheep cured or dispatch became dog is patch. And now behold though, right? So even if he knew Navajo her dog is patch. You would know that that meant dispatch, right? And if you didn't know Navajo, you wouldn't be able to hear and be like oh that rhymes with dispatched. It doesn't sound like anything you've ever heard before in your life. Yeah. And like you said they would they were so familiar with it and comfortable with it that they would switch it up on the fly in in. You know, again, technically, they had they would do something to alert the the person that was like a system in place to say like now we're going to use this version, but they they didn't even need to do that. Really? Right. That just seem like a formality. And it sounds like. Yeah. But I think one of the reasons why they were so able to shift like that. Because these these guys who were raised in the Indian schools, they had to speak to one another Navajos surreptitiously. Yeah. So they had to be able to shift on the fly just between like nuance and Nava, which is a very new once language to begin with. But also between Navajos in English depending on who is coming their way. Right. So there was a I think I. It's my impression that from there. The treatment in Indian school. I would have made it easier for them to understand what somebody was saying when they broke the the rules of the language really quickly. Yeah. It'd be able to follow. And then check there's one other thing that made this code even more beautiful. It wasn't written down in nineteen forty two. There was no book. No document. No texts that get in teach yourself Navajo, your couldn't get. No. And like you said even some like white kids that were raised out on trading posts and spoke Navajo their whole life. They washed out of the Kotoka program. They had basically a success rate. Non Navajos who had a success rate of basically zero in the code talker program for Navajos coat. Yeah. It was just that hard. Yeah. And that nuanced amazing. All right. We'll take another break you. I'm pretty I'm pretty jazzed up here. Yes. All right. And we'll come back and talk about how this how this really affected the war right after this. You know, if you run a small business. This is a great time to do it because you can get practically everything on demand. Everything you need to run your small business, which leads us to the question. Why are you still going to the post office? Yeah. Because you can get posted on demand with stamps dot com. That's right, stamps dot com. You can access all the amazing services at the post office right from your desk or home office twenty four seven when it's convenient for you. Yet by imprint official US postage for any letter any package using your own computer and printer, and then the mail carrier picks it up he's just click print a mail, and you're done you can get back to the business of running your business. And right now, it gets even better everyone you can use S T U F F for the following special offer up to fifty five dollars free postage a digital scale and four week trial all by going to stamps dot com before you do anything else clicking on that radio microphone at the top of the homepage and typing in our handy dandy. Echoed S T U F F that stamps dot com. Enter stuff. All right. So like we said at this point in the war when they were brought in the Navajo, code talkers. It was the fighting in Europe was dwindling and the Pacific theater is where things were really happening. And so the first action for the actual Navajo code. Talkers were Guadacanal and. I hope we didn't paint a picture that they're sitting in offices talking to another in an air conditioned office on telephones and just sending orders to go bomb. This place on Saturday. A lot of times these men were on the front lines and relying positions. And what's what it's like on the ground and what's going on? It wasn't just directives to go do this. They were laying important information like live in the moment on the front lines. And to add to this. There was confusion a lot of times even among American soldiers like. To an American soldier fifty feet away. A Navajo code talker. Might look like a Japanese person. Does it where these like the very dumbest soldiers of all? I don't know, man. I mean, it's on record that there was friendly fire because of this. So so there they were actually fired on I saw that like they had like guns pointed at them at some point. And would be like marched over to be interrogated. It was such that they felt like they needed to assign them personal guards has forgive Nick cage. And that's what that movie was about is that he was a white soldier assigned to guard one of the Navajo code talkers because they were being mistaken for Japanese soldiers. Right. But he was also secretly ordered to kill that code talker. And let them fall into the hands of the Japanese. Yeah, I wonder if that's the thing that was wholly created for that movie. Like, it's a I I don't know. I could see it go both ways. Yeah. And I don't know. How smart the soldiers were? And confusing. I don't I don't think it happened very often. And I think all it has to happen is two or three times in all of a sudden, it's part of the legend, you know. Yeah. Maybe so, but it did happen. I mean like it was happened from time time there's a guy named think George McCabe who was enough who co talker who was taken prisoner by American American. Yeah. Because he was standing in a Chow line on the beach Guadalcanal waiting to get food. And the guy was like, you Japanese exactly what it did pointed a gun at and said, you're coming with me. And there was like sorry, but William McCabe, I'm sorry. But that was that's yeah. I if you look at a picture of a Navajo code talker. Yeah. Look at a picture of Japanese person. I don't see the the resemblance you should been on the front lines, my friend. I would have been like to. What are you doing? Yeah. The the language itself. And again, this is kind of funny because the language sounds nothing like Japanese, but sometimes US radio operators would jam the frequency. I guess I mean, the grabs her said the because they mistook it for Japanese. I imagine they just heard a foreign language and just jammed it, right? I don't know if they necessarily thought it sounded like Japanese sounds like its own thing for sure. Yeah. Maybe they had no idea what Japanese or Navajo even sounded like it was just like, it ain't English. Maybe they were under orders for like. Yeah. It's not an English jam. Yeah. Possibly could see that. So these like we said the speed was one of the real keys and just how quickly they could get these messages delivered. And it allowed them to. Here's a his a great quote from Philip Johnston who started the program he said during the first forty eight hours, and this Iwojima he said while we were landing and consolidating our short positions had six Abajo radio. Nets operating around the clock in that period alone. They sent received more than eight hundred messages without an error in forty eight hours man, eight hundred messages, no mistakes. No mistakes. That's amazing. And they're relying these messages again in minutes in each of them would have taken hours to decode. Yeah. Without the the Navajo Kotok. There was another quote from guy. Major Howard Connor who is on Iwo Jima as well in the signal corps. And he said paraphrasing here that the marines would not have taken ill Jima headed not been for the Navajo Kotok the entire operation. It would seem that, you know, the very famous like flag-raising statue Jima. Yeah. Basically a turning point in the Pacific that the entire operation was done in Nava. Who did that was what was spoken over the radio for the tannin operations? Amazing. It really is. I mean, like if you think about how many American lives were saved by that. That's been there was just such a direct contribution to the war. Yeah. Jima EVA's huge. Yeah. I'm gonna tell you say, yeah. This this deserves its own movie treatment like sorta like Hidden Figures. Yeah. Like these. Minority voices who really had this huge impact that never got do. And you know, with never who code talkers, they came back to after the war, and it was classified. What went on until nineteen sixty eight. Apparently, they may have done this in Vietnam and Korea. Although I don't think anyone is totally knows that for sure seems to be rumor. Yeah. But they did not you think like oh. And after nineteen sixty eight they were just put on a pedestal in praised all throughout the United States. That is not true. They were basically sent back to the reservations with what awaited them there, which was poverty and hardship and alcoholism and disenfranchisement and some I mean, some of them were were lucky enough to bootstrap up from military. Imagine I think ones that stayed in the military afterward made a career out of it tended to do better than ones that you know, back. Right after the war. Some of them were able to get into college. Some of them tried to buy houses on the reservation through the GI Bill, which was very much there. Right. As veterans after World War Two, but through a fluke of the treaties that put them on the reservation, they don't they? They didn't actually own the land the land that they owned was held in trust. So they couldn't show the Bank actually owned this land or the guy I'm trying to buy land from owns the land. So the GI Bill was useless for a lot of 'em. Which is a big black eye on. It was just basically par for the course for how most of them retreated afterward. Yeah. I mean, just right back on the reservation. It was just the usual reservation. Life again, nineteen sixty-nine. There was a a reunion at the fourth marine division and seventy one Nixon awarded them a certificate of. Thanks. And a light punch in the arm. Tricky. Dick, nineteen eighty to August fourteenth was declared national code talker day that was for all code talkers, yet, not just Navajo code talkers. But those original twenty nine we're giving a congressional gold medal in two thousand and in two thousand fourteen on June fourth the final original code talker. Navajo Kotel ker Chester nez passed away. And just look at the picture of Chester nez in easy. That sweet face. And he's got the veterans had on that says Navajo code talker on I love those hats, pretty amazing the the the award ceremony. So they were warded the congressional medal of honor in two thousand they originally twenty nine, but when they actually presented the award thousand one by the time, they're only four of them left alive. Yeah. And that's a big criticism to that. It was like probably done this a little little sooner while they were alive. Still. Yeah. Could might have taken sixty something years to sort of get that ceremony in order. They wanted to get everything. Just right. But that was amazing. And yet, hopefully, somebody will make a movie about it. That's not mostly about Nick cage is character. That'd be a white guy. If you want to more about code, talkers, you can search them on the internet, and there's some fascinating stuff out there. Oh, and Chuck if you wanna know more about Navajo, code talkers, and you happen to ever be in ca- Yanta era Zona there's a Burger King. They're in. It has basically a Navajo co talker museum. Oh, cool. What's basically display case? But it counts qualifies mini museum. Chur grab a Walker learned something. Yeah. And since I said that it's time for listener mail. I'm to call this easy bake oven. Follow up from Oregon, so guys. Just listen to easy bake ovens of always been a big believer in kids playing with whatever towards they want. And as a kid I spent a great deal of time playing in the dirt with my brothers making roads and parking lots for Hot Wheels flesh for twenty years. My son wanted me to take him to the toy store to spend some six birthday money sixth birthday money. You got followed him as peruse the remote control cars various action figures, he disappeared around the corner and before I could get to the other final became trumping back holding easy bake oven. He asked me if he had enough money to buy it. And he did awesome. This one nineteen ninety nine about twenty bucks. As he as we walked to the counter asked him if he wanted me to carry it for them for the car because the box was about as big as he was the insisted on carrying it himself, though of always encouraged him to play with what he wants of surprised that he wanted to carry it himself. His dad was not always so open minded voice playing with what he called, girl toys, and probably still isn't. We are no longer together. Needless to say, anyway, we pay for the oven in my son carries it to the car. He won't let me put it in the trunk or even in the seat next door. He held it on his lap. The hallway home stories just adore and every way while we were driving. He examined the box and made a haram sound asked him what was wrong, and he said he was mad and asked him why he said the boxes pink. And there's only girl on it. But boys like to cook to mom film. I agree. So I guess you could say he is always been woke. He made many treats with his over the years. And I even have a photo of him somewhere wearing his grandma's frilly. Cooking apron of the big smile on his face that is from davina imbera in Portland, Oregon, another Mberi zehr. Another one. Yeah. Really? Yeah. We never really figured out how to say that last name. But there was like within the last month or two. An MBA. I wonder if it was her. Thanks davina. Yeah. Maybe maybe I think the other one was with the e that's with an eye. Okay. Yeah. Gotcha. I will figure it out one day. Yeah. If you want to if you're an embarrassing, an MBA, or whatever you want to get in touch with us. You can join us on social just go to stuff, you should know dot com and find all the links there percents on Email stuff podcast house. Works dot com. For more on this. Baffles of other topics. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Matt I have yet to ride one of those bird scooters. 'cause I hate those things see that does not surprise me at all. But you know, I've been getting Instagram adds to give me to become a bird to join that gig economy. Oh, that's right. Just like Uber folks are getting targeted to start side hustles to make an extra buck or even to try to make a career out of it. But should you? Do it not all side. Hustles are created equal exactly. Every week. We dive into practical money topics like this on a podcast. Listen, it's scribe to our show on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast. Just search for how to money.
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