32 Burst results for "Fourteenth Century"
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Cle i form This is a noun from the fourteenth century. One a the synonyms are ring and halo. One be a closed plane curve. Every point of which is equidistant..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on Brothers of the Serpent Podcast
"Birds so european while ben brings to question again the term species. Yes it does right car these really just undiscovered or they have just had they just shown up the people discovering them using different definitions of the word. Spec- yeah that's that's true. That's true as well. I assume that they're defining them mostly by morphology right by visual anatomical characteristics. Yeah all right. I'll read this short section on european waldman and then we can take a break. Reports of wild men go back a long time. Many art objects of the greeks carthaginians and trust skains bear images of semi human creatures for example in the museum of prehistory and rome. There is an trust can silver bowl on which may be seen among human hunters on horses. The figure of a large eight men like creature during the middle ages waldman continued to be depicted in european art and architecture a page from queen. Mary psalter composed in the fourteenth century. Shows.
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"I've heard people call children chitlins Maybe links to. But i'm not sure which of course that one would be related to in the last episode. We had chit which is just child but Yeah we don't need to be eaten the hogs intestines please and thank you. Next is chevelle. rick. C. h. i. v. a. l. r. I c. cheval rick adjective from seventeen ninety four relating to chivalry shift. See i i think. I added a a letter in their chivalry. Does not schill are valerie. It's chivalry and then synonym is chivalrous. Chivalrous makes more sense than shovel ric but cheval. Rick is a fun word to say. Okay here we go with chivalrous chivalrous adjective from the fourteenth century one. The synonym is valiant to of relating to or characteristic of chivalry and night aaron tree so night is the word with the k. like a knight in shining armor. And then there's a hyphen. And then the word erin. Trie e. r. r. a. n. t. r. y. of relating to or characteristic of chivalry and night erin tree three a marked by honor generosity and courtesy three be marked by gracious courtesy and high minded consideration especially to women. And synonym is the word civil civil similar to shovel and then chivalrous chivalrous lee is an adverb and chivalrous nece is a noun. I like this. We need more of this here. We go with The other the other word in this group is just the word. Chivalry c. h. i. v. a. l. r. y noun from the fourteenth century. One mounted men arms to is archaic to a martial valor to be nightly skill. And the that's the nightly with a k. Three gallant or distinguished. Gentlemen or would it be galant gallant. I think it's gallant. But some people say gallant gallant or distinguished gentlemen four this system spirit or customs of medieval knighthood five the qualities of the ideal night and chivalrous conduct. It's really hard to say this word correctly schill chivalrous okay is there any etymology that we wanna read. It is from the anglo-french chevy from chevalier night. And there's more at the word chevrolet next is chev- noun from the fourteenth century a perennial plant related to the onion and having slender leaves used as a seasoning..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Not clear on cass. Oh did it simply build. Predictability and complex shorthand is the butterfly butterfly flaps its wings pointing in central park. They ran instead of see. I'm right again. Nobody could have predicted the doctor. Groundwood suddenly suddenly jump out of a moving vehicle. There's another example here. I'm not by myself talking to myself. That's that's all right. Let's do one more word for this episode. The very last word on page two. Oh six it is chap c. h. It's the first form noun from the fourteenth century. A crack in or a sore ruffling of the skin caused by exposure to wind or cold. I get chapped lips a lot especially in the winter when it's so dry. So we had channel surfing. Sean song shunned sewn digest. Shinsen shunned sagnier chant. Chanter shanta rail shantou's chantey or shanty shunted clear chanticleer chantilly lace chantrey hanukkah chaos chaos theory and chap. I am going to pick chaos as the word of the episode because i love chaos chaos Us chaos chaos so today is may fourth. It is world asthma day. Lots of people have asthma. It is national teacher day. It is the twenty second day of ramadan in latvia. It is a restoration of in-depth. I'm assuming that's independence. But they did not spell that right. I don't know what that is. Independence of latvia. It is easter tuesday orthodox in cyprus remembrance of the dead in netherlands I would say nothing else but that is not true. It is coal miners day in india. It is dave brubeck day. I think he was a jazz musician in slovakia death of milan radislav stefanik day in japan. It is greenery day. It is international fire fighters day. It is in afghanistan remembrance day for martyrs and disabled it is world. Give day so give to people. Okay in fiji. It is youth day. It's also world naked gardening day. So you gotta go garden naked I don't know if i want that And then. I said national teacher day. If i didn't it is national teacher. Go celebrate teachers and the most important one probably too. Many people is star wars day. Because it's may fourth may the fourth be with you always..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Just okay. That was fun next. We have chanter noun from the fourteenth century. One one who chance one a we have these synonym short. Ester c. h. r. i s. t. e. r. One be the synonym is kantor. You'd probably say cantor c. n. t. o. r. to the chief singer. Nhl injury like a pantry where you sing songs. You go sing songs while you're with your boxed in canned goods. Three the reed pipe of a bagpipe with finger holes on which the melody is played. That is the chanter. that's cool. Didn't know that. Oh i still wanna play a bagpipe next. We have shown terrell shanta rail c. h. a. n. t. e. r. e. l. l. e. noun from seventeen seventy five a fragrant edible mushroom usually having a yellow to orange color. And they scientific name is can't serious. It is a sean terrell next. We have chanteuse shunt. You could also say shelters shantou's c. h. a. n. t. e. u. s. e. We have lots of french. Words okay. this is a noun from eighteen. Forty four the synonym is songstress. Especially a woman who is a concert or nightclub singer. Just watch that movie The united states versus billie holiday. So i think you would consider her a shantou's shantou's this is. French is the feminine of sean poor. Which is a singer a male singer. Yeah shantou's i had no idea about billie holiday's life and if you're on the older side i recommend learning about that next. We have shanty or chantey. Chant with a y. Or an e. Y. or an essay at the front shanty chantey. Okay this is a what is known from eighteen. Fifty six a song sung by sailors in rhythm with their work a song sung by sailors in rhythm with their work. That's that next. We have chanticleer or shanta clear. C. h. a. n. t. i. c. l. e. e. r. chanticleer now known from the fourteenth century. And the synonym is rooster. Where did we see rooster before was earlier in this episode of the last episode. I swear i saw that somewhere. Maybe not i just can't remember. I'm looking looking okay..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"It is pronounced chambalo chambalo noun from Circa eighteen o one. The synonym is just harpsichord. It's sorta like a piano. It's a chen below This is an italian word. Next and last word for this episode is cement. We have two forms the first form. It's spelled c. m. e. n. T. if you didn't know noun from the fourteenth century one a synonym is concrete. Although i think they might be different. But they are similar one. Be a powder of alumina silica lime iron oxide and magnesium oxide burned together in a kiln and finally finally pulverized and used as an ingredient of mortar and concrete. Is cement an ingredient in concrete. But then it says also any mixture used for a similar purpose to a binding element or agency as to a a substance to make objects adhere to each other to be something serving to unite firmly as in justice. Is the cement that holds a political community together. that is a quote from our m hutchins. Three we have these synonym some momentum. So it's the word cement with. Um at the end is that gonna be in tomorrow's episode Some momentum yes. It is number four. A plastic composition made especially of zinc or silica for filling dental cavities five. The fine grain ground mass or glass of a poor free p. o. r. p. h. y. r. y. poor free and then the second form of cement is a verb from the fourteenth century starting with transitive one to unite or make firm by or as if by cement to to overlay with concrete in transitive says to become cemented. Ono i have become cemented. Some mentor is a noun so we had cellulosic cell wall solutia celsius kelt celtic celtic celtic cross kelt assist chambalo and cement. I am going to pick celsius of the episode because we need to get on this celsius train. The celsius train is the train that takes to all the degrees celsius land. Screw fahrenheit okay. Let us talk about some holidays. Real fast Let's see today. Is april sixth. It is international day of sport for development and peace. well that sounds good. It is national. Tartan day t. a. r. t. a. n. Is that like the scottish turns. Oh no there's an ad go away. add Yes like the scottish tartans. is easter tuesday australia. They keep on celebrating easter. They love it so much there in australia. It is southland anniversary in new. Zealand is also tartan day in canada and in the uk. It is uk tax year start. Ooh that reminds me have to do. What my tax is. they are. Due on april fifteenth. For all of you who got to do your taxes as well Let's see here on this. Other page is gonna tell me anything different in thailand. It is chuck re day. It is national. Fisherman day in indonesia it is also new beer's eve in the us new beer's eve.
The Hitler Haggadah with Jonnie Schnytzer
"Joined today by johnny schnitzer to talk about the hitler. Haga a nineteen forty-three judeo arabic haggadah. Which tells the story of the holocaust the second world war and the allied landing in north africa through the passover seder. Johnny schnitzer is a phd candidate at bar. Ilan university with a focus on medieval kabbalah. His dissertation is focused on the fourteenth century. Kabul list rabbi. Joseph ben shallow ashkenazi and johnny is also preparing a critical edition of ashkenazis. Commentary on sefer itsy raw. Johnny also edited an english edition of the etc. Which we're going to be talking about today. The hitler etc is such a fascinating text in many ways even just the title is jarring. And you might think how can you use. Hitler's name in the title of this traditional jewish text and it draws you in to a tremendous piece of moroccan jewish history that reworked the traditional passover story to tell us about the experience of north african jews in the holocaust. I hope you enjoyed our conversation. Where we're going to dive into this text and think about how it can broaden our understanding of the holocaust to include the middle east and north africa in that story and also where we think through the important relationship between jewish roots and holidays with history and historical memory. Thanks for tuning in high johnny. Welcome to the podcast. Thanks so much for joining us to talk about your book that you added. Thank you for inviting me. Lovely to be here. Absolute think this is such a fascinating text. Can you maybe tell us a little bit about it in other words like what is it that makes this different from all other hug adults. I think there are sort of two bombs that this text drops upon any re- debt guest that sort of feast there is on the hit laga and the first one of course is the title and this is what got me interested in this from the outset and that is this sort of sporadic this who has the chutzpah to do this at taking a jewish texts calling it the hit laga. That's the sort of bomb number one. Because you're not even sure what this is about. Who wrote this. But you know one thing you know that the author who is anonymous and we'll touch upon them in a moment takes to keywords. That every juneau's today every jew does not need to google almost haggadah writer passover passover eve where we read the haggadah we all come and we eat together and he takes haggadah and he connects to the other. Keyword that we all know about for a very separate horrific connotation. That's hitler and he puts it together. The first bomb is who has the chutzpah to perpetrate a text. And give it the title. Hit laga taking one of the most sacred texts and connecting it to one of the biggest mom's area if you like in jewish history and then you open the text and you realize that author has done something absolutely fascinating he is done with. The sages have asked us to do generation after generation and that is to see ourselves as if we left egypt red. It's to reenact. Redemptions to reenact. God saving the jewish people taking us out. And what does he do. He takes the structure of the storytelling bit of the haggadah. Right on passover. Eve we have the ceremony we have the blessings and then we reached the mortgage section the mugged section to section where we meant to mcgee. We meant to tell the story. That's what is about right. We tell story we tell the story of redemption. This also explains why passovers become right. This trend of everyone bringing own hug dot. Everyone bringing their own stories. Because it's all about bringing together different pieces of the puzzle. Creating this beautifully rich mosaic. So he takes the traditional structure of the haggadah which tells us about how we were taken out of egypt and it tells us about these different characters. Rabbinic figures leaving two thousand years ago. The told us to do this and told us to do that. And he takes out the content and fills it with a new content whereby he tells the story of the holocaust of world war two of the allied victory of the ex pows over nazi germany. And hitler and mussolini's italy he tells us the story of his generation rights yossi who has something to tell us in the traditional said. There's something about how. How would you meant to do something. All of a sudden becomes the speech of the dictator iosif stalin when we told them the haggadah that i god and not an angel. Not anyone else is going to take you. The jewish people out of egypt suddenly becomes. I shall the goal. I not level not the right none of none of the other vichy high commanding general's. I shall the goal which already tells us right. This is what's fascinating in the hitler etc and this is the second bomb if the first bomb is the title. We still don't know what it's about. The second bomb is when you discover that this was written by an anonymous jew living in robots morocco probably towards the end of nineteen forty-three as a result possibly inspired by operation torch. The allied operation led by the us on the shores of casablanca and algiers. And everything changes all of a sudden this jew living in morocco. Who's lived under a regime whether anti jewish laws jews around him have lost their jobs. Jews around you can't get a jewish education you become by night a second-grade citizen and so out author. It almost seems as if he's taking a text which it's time to write it when we don't yet know the ending. He doesn't yet know about the horrific six million who are being murdered. He doesn't know about concentration camps in poland. But he knows he wants to do something horrific any also is living in a time where his life has changed for some years and as a result of the allied victory he suddenly possibly is inspired and sees. I get the exodus. The story i meant to be telling i meant to take the passover haggadah until the story that i see and that's how the allies beat the excess power. And how in fact you know retelling the story of exodus mine new-fangled version. I think that the text itself is amazing in the ways in which it on. The one hand utilizes the story of passover very explicitly very specifically in when he talks. About how hitler. Enslaved the jews but also like you mentioned the way in which some of the characteristic aspects of the traditional aspects are transfigured and transformed new. Whether we're talking about the parable of the four sons the for children or the different rabbis plagues. What are some of the really interesting things that are happening in this text that really are utilizing the passover story itself and also the the characteristic aspects of the passover seder that people who read attritional seder would be familiar with but they give it new meaning in this context. If we take right this this idea of the four sons four daughters any jewish figure that we look at it and we want to understand. What is it the sort of a heart of their teachings you know. One of the tricks is to see if they wrote a commentary on the haggadah. What do they do with these. Four boys of for doors. What do they symbolize. And in the case of the hit da it takes us back in time to a sort of moroccan viewpoint of the the north african campaign. And so who is the wise son now. You know it's going to be an allied power. But you're not sure that england or is it america and you'll told the the wise son is england right. The royal air force acts cleverly. He's clearly impressed he he is probably the razzie stance radio. He knows about the bombings. He knows about montgomery and then we move onto the russia. The russia we know can only be one person. That's clearly hitler. Hitler the evil one. He knows that he's a know he. He's torturing the jewish people and yet it's interesting that if you read through the at that we're not quite sure what's going on in europe right off a thinks that there is a concentration camp in berlin so we're not yet show what's going on in the world and our author doesn't yet. Nobody knows that he clearly is evil that he's plotting against the jews there wearing yellow badges which also is interesting. Because we're not sure. If he's referring to the yellow badges of jews in europe or the yellow badges of jews in certain places in north africa and then who is the tam. The time is interesting. Because tom can both mean in hebrew complete simpleton the thomas america and then shane no. You're dillashaw and who doesn't know how to ask questions. The classic version says the fourth son is the son who doesn't know how to ask questions. The newfangled version is and mussalini. Who isn't with the avowed woods and this is very interesting because when i was speaking to holocaust survivors. Oh you know this. Sort of all degeneration and i spoke to people from algeria from tunisia morocco across the board there was a nickname from cellini mar. He was the donkey he was the s. This resonates with this passage whims lead author decides to change it. And say it's not. He doesn't ask question it's that we don't even wanna talk about
Severe drought could make the Old Faithful geyser less faithful
"In yellowstone national park. Large crowds watching as old faithful erupts with a roar launching a spire of water about one hundred and fifty feet in the air. Old faithful erupts at regular intervals throughout the day. But it was not always so predictable. Fossilized wood found on old. Faithful's geyser mound suggest that the guys are once stopped erupting long enough for trees to grow their trees. Do not grow on active. Geyser amounts that her hurwitz of the united states geological survey. His team sent samples of the would for radiocarbon dating and found that all were from the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries so looking into it we found out that that was probably one of the driest periods in the region for last twelve hundred years. He says that as climate change causes more severe droughts. Something similar could happen again. There's a chance that some of the guys will change their frequency of europeans. And maybe even stop erupting depending on the availability of water. A complete shut off is not likely it would take many years continued. Drought but old faithful could erupt. Less frequently. eager tourist might have to wait longer to see the show.
#183 Jamie Lerner Self-Care: If You Dont, Who Will? - burst 03
"We just are and were very well equipped to do it. And it's also interesting about reinvention. Is that we lose a lot of something. That is very important along the way which is south care so women are masterful in reinventing themselves and then they also are masterful in forgetting themselves. How did how did how did he know. We're going to make a transition to self care. I mean seriously on my sheet in front of the next. The next bullet point was self care and you made a wonderful trenches transition to it. So that is what. I'd like to talk about now. And and focus probably the majority of our time is self care and personal responsibility and and especially in this current cova time of chaos and confusion and and one of the things that you told me about when we chatted before the podcast was that you described your passion. Your current passion for helping people find themselves in the moment. Can you tell me what that what that means to you. Find yourself in the moment every moment that we can be present and it is just a moment by moment and establish or reestablish connection with ourselves that that is the ultimate in self care and and i think a lot of that comes from being able to manage our thoughts and then are feeling but first and foremost our thaw and i think it's important cut. We rarely slow everything down and allow ourselves to be in that moment contain. That's why one of the most important things of how we can care for ourselves and then others it's always about foul firth and then others. It's kind of a win win for everybody. Jesus talks about that. When he says you know i it's always quoted love god and love your neighbor but what's always left out is love. Love your neighbor as yourself and to me that assumes self love precedes other love the cacao kangaroo barber care for another if they're not taking care of yourself self love is sort of. it's almost frowned upon that. You are selfish. You are ego centric if you do that and and if you take care of yourself too much and yet and yet if you don't take care of yourself you're you're no good to anyone else you know want when you could on the airplane they tell you to put your mask on on first before assisting other people and there's a reason for that. That is a universal truth. We cannot care for anyone until we care for ourselves without feeling resentment and if we feel is not much then we are not caring for ourselves or another. So you know. I think people don't really understand what it means to wrap third loving arms around themselves and nourish and nurture themselves into connection. That is the most unselfish thing that you can do. And in some ways it sure responsibility if you're then going to assume the care of others whether be children or a teacher or if you're in any role where you're in a leadership role it's just not possible to do it without having spent some time with yourself and nourishing yourself and if they're self some something to give agree with you on that and i was thinking about taking care of ourselves. There's there's just a number of of ways to do that in you know we're going to get into tactics toward the end of the Of the of the of the show. But right. Now i i'd like to disorder. Get a big picture of what do you mean by taking care of yourself. I know account. I have an idea of what i need by but but i'm curious what your interpretation is kind of goes hand in hand with taking personal responsibility to understand that really. It is known responsibility to care for your responsibility to begin to have an understanding of what year in the evening for yourself and then to figure out a way a gentle loving way to kind of implement some of that self care and most people do the opposite. They expect other people to care for them. They don't even know their own news. They expect others around them to know what they need and they expect that they should be given what they need. There's this really Twisted sense of entitlement. just because the very I think the other interesting thing about women reinventing themselves then they get to hide behind all of the roles that they've taken on as they never care for themselves the end up feeling resentful. They ended up feeling overwhelmed. The end up feeling all the things that they should be feeling and yet known even knows what they need. Not even know. They haven't even taken the time to figure out like okay but only know what i need for my. What do i need to do first thing in the morning but the guy can so myself up before we take care of all these other people so to step into that role of personal responsibility for sending the morning and ask yourself now. What are what. I need so myself. That is such a loving and lovely question to ask one and then to answer it with you. Maybe coffee before. I serve an to eat something before i i just some basic things. That really remind us that we're important. How counter cultural that is because we you know we're we're thinking we always have to be givers don't we we. We can't be. we can't be takers. we can't be an it's not even really taking it's it's more of. You're giving love from an empty cup and you've got to fill that love your love cup for yourself because unless you do you end up resenting the very people that you are serving and it doesn't feel good on your and it doesn't feel good on there and either never feels good to be given some things from someone who is representing you in the process so yet to unconditionally give to hand. That is a lovely feeling for the giver and the receiver and the way we get there is by taking care of ourselves so that we can give which hand alternate goal to feel good about the giving and to feel good about the person who is receiving what your kid i have for the last year been very involved on my own in in the in the sort of tradition node as mystic christianity and the mystics and and and i'm reading people of the thirteenth to fourteenth century teresa viola saint john of the cross and and teresa viola sort of my my guru. Now and she was. She was in the fifteenth century. And they talk about spending this time in divine contempt mystical prayer. But she is very strong that you do that in doing that. You are taking care of yourself your relationship with yourself yourself in the divine how how you relate in the divine but that that then becomes the resource for helping others that so you don't you don't just folk off. Yeah you don't just focus on yourself and forget everybody else. You have to focus on yourself but then the result is it results in a self care you. You can't help but want to share that with other people tackle once again. It's a win win for every beautiful idea. Now you want. You talked about personal responsibility in that. And i've even thought about making when i make a title for this show and we'll see what happens after the show. They make the title. But i i'm working on a premise of the me. Look at my own title here. Self care your responsibility to be responsible for yourself. Well is it so you would. You says it's good. I'm glad you agree because you're not title if you said no i don't believe any of that however it's a turn off for people a lot of people do not want to be responsible from south. They feel resentful that they should have to be responsible for themselves. They feel entitled that others should be responsible for their happy. And i think that it just needs to be thought about in a different way because who would know better for you than you know and yet we expect others to know what we need what. We consider south for first and foremost look. We need the great question. People don't ask themselves that question very often. But do you want. Don't ask themselves that either but people will tell you all day long what they want and what they get is more of what they don't want so and it's always someone else's all so you know if that doesn't work very well that way no it doesn't and and how in the world like you said if we haven't even really investigated pin through the thought process of understanding what we want and what we like in life. How in the world is someone else supposed to know that you know great costal one and yet we expect them to set us fai our needs and we've not identified their their needs. I mean our our needs and how they need to respond. You know My listeners heard have heard this before. But my wife. And i for probably. We've been married thirty six years and for at least twenty five of those. If not more. We take every year between christmas and new years now. This happens throughout the year but we take an intentional time of three days away so we can have two nights in one place. You know two full days in place and we ask each other So how was i. What kind of husband was last year. What kind of wife was i. And and what do you want from me. How can i serve you in helping. You find. You know helping you fulfill your needs and so we're forcing ourselves to identify our knees and until the other person. This is what i would like fantastic. I mean that's that's a conscious of our relationship a nice guy. Yeah yeah you know a lot of good writing on that jamie is. Are you familiar with the land baton. Elaine de button depends on how you want to pronounce it. The scarlet life. You know he's rich and really good stuff on that he's ridden maybe the best stuff of love between a man and a woman as anyone is written for you know. He's just barely turned forty now but he just has has exceptional writing on that. You know what i wanna do. I i want to go a bit deeper but before we do. I'd like to take a quick break. And then we will come back. And we're going to pursue a little bit more about this personal responsibility and how the victim mentality may come into play in that. Hi there this is charlie hedges. And you're listening to the next with charlie and my very special guests. Today's jaime lerner A woman who is a therapist adventurer pleasure seeker and a cute devil tae of self care. And that's exactly what we're talking about. And and i think she has so much teaches that i've learned so much from jamie and jimmy. We've talked about a bit about personal responsibility. And that letting other people know not expecting other people to somehow somehow be able to read our minds in our souls and understand what we need. We need to articulate that. What other kinds of personal responsibility you know. We're talking about our own personal responsibility and our self care. How can i take responsibility for myself. Do you have any examples of that for me now. I think that away are rewarded in society. Forbidden since Mainstream media that. They reminded us every moment. That's come we are the victim of everything. We have no control so for me. I always suggest to people to turn off the television and to Find a new source. That is a little more emotionally intelligent. That will allow us to feel good when you're done breathing. You're listening to or watching in fetter feeling paralleling cars. We have to take personal responsibility for what we are chasing to consume and hall. We will fail one way or done firmly cloud video. You know that's brilliant. You know is that we have to take responsibility for what we consume in our media. And and i find pretty much nothing but danger when not not just. Tv in general but for me. It's tv news and tv news. You know their their purpose is to stir up controversy in stirrup.
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"So there's not just one four there's four forks it's a quadra forcus. Quadra forcus abbott. And somehow it got into just carrefour so if you're talking about like a square or plaza. Does that mean that at each corner. There's a fork to go to different ways. I guess that sort of makes sense actually because if you think about just like a normal intersection and went. One corner is part of a square or plaza. You've got to other ways to go. I guess that's what that is. I will never look at a plaza the same way again. It is a carrefour luke. We have carole c. a. r. e. l. noun from fifteen ninety three a table that is often partitioned or enclosed and is used for study especially in a library Yeah the called carols who knew this is Let's see from middle. Latin corolla perhaps from corolla. Which is a round dance or something. Circular from latin kerala which is a choral song. And there's more at the word carole c. a. r. o. l. The thing that you sing how that's related to this enclosed desk table study thing. I don't know next. We have the word carriage from the fourteenth century. We've seen other words recently or just since the beginning of the sees that are very Related to carriages. So let's read carriage. There's a bunch of definitions It is a noun from the fourteenth century. I don't know if i said that number one. The act of carrying to a is archaic. Synonym is deportment to be manner of bearing the body manner of bearing the body. Synonym is posture. Oh well i have often very bad posture including right now. I am working on it. I'm trying to be much more conscious of my posture of my carriage. My body carriage. It's the manner that i bear. This body Okay number three is archaic. Synonym is management number. Four is chiefly british. The price or expense of carrying five is obsolete synonyms are burden and load six. A a wheeled vehicle especially a horse drawn vehicle designed for private use and comfort..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"This is our last word of the episode. We got two forms. It is the word carpenter noun from the fourteenth century. A worker who builds or repairs wooden structures or their structural parts. I think we need to give more respect to carpenters. Because they they make stuff for you and you. You just say oh. Hey look i got a thing but what about the person who made the thing. This is from middle english from england. French carpentaria From the latin carpenters which means carriage maker. So that's how it started From carpenter him which means carriage of celtic origin akin to the old irish carpet which means chariot or the word car from which means vehicle. And there's more at the word car. So was jesus making chariots carriages. Somehow i think not next. Is these second form of carpenter. It is a verb from circa eighteen. Fifteen starting within transitive to follow the trade of a carpenter as in carpenter d- when he was young. You don't usually hear this as a verb. I don't think Now we have transitive number one to make by or as if by carpentry number two to put together often in a mechanical manner as in carpenter. D- many television scripts Okay so we had carotid. Sinus carousal corrales carousel carp carp carp carpaccio carpal carpal carpal tunnel syndrome carpark carpe diem car carpal Carpet and carpenter will. I was very tempted to pick carousel as the word of the episode. Because that was very interesting. But i'm going to pick carpet diem as the word of the episode because i very much like the idea of this You know it's We got a lot days live but you never know when your days are going to end. Maybe i should make this into song. We got a lot of days to live. But you never know when your days are gonna end so seize the day or the day whichever word you want to. And it means the enjoyment of the pleasures of the moment without concern for the future. It's just be in the moment. that's what it means. I try to remind myself about this. Every single gosh darn day. Just be in the moment. The future is the future in the past. the past. that's what it is Okay that's all we got to save for today. Think oh oh. Oh i got a. I got a new review just this morning. I should've record foreign in a row. So i i should have read this. A few episodes go. But that's okay. We'll read it now. This was a very nice review. Five stars it just says words. Oh this is from the man. Three three eight three three eight eight. Actually two three eighths was that confusing. No not at all. I love this podcast. I have listened up to forty seven. Well you are way behind because we are in the i..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"They would just go around so people could see them and say yeah you yellow horsemen guy. Let's do this who That's so interesting okay From the italian cata sallow next. We have the word karp. I form in transitive verb from from the fourteenth century to find fault or complain karoo karoo loosely carelessly. That's you're complaining karoo leslie. Carper is a noun. This is of scandinavian origin. Akin to the icelandic word carpet with a k. Which means to dispute second form of carp is a noun from nineteen o four and the synonym is complaint so a carper is giving a carp third. Form of carp is a noun from the fifteenth century two definitions. The first one is long number one. A large variable asian soft thin freshwater corrupted or surrendered fish of sluggish waters. That is often raised for food and has been widely introduced into. Us waters any various related. Curated fish is as the grass carp. I don't know if it's corrupted or submit it. See why i think it's i don't know but the scientific name is syrup Sip sip rinse carpio and number two a fish as the european seabream resembling a carp. But it's not a carpet resembles a carp. Okay now we have a prefix carp or carbo. This is just means fruit. As in carpool goheniem and This is from. The greek prefix carpets or carpets or carpets There's more the word harvest by the way the greek ones with with were with kay's But we have also a suffix carp This means part of fruit or also fruit so you could put fruit at the start or the end of your word and it still gonna mean fruit. We have an example mizzou carp. Also skitso carp. I have no idea what those words mean. But they're related to fruit somehow next rehab carpaccio noun ferrum nineteen sixty nine thinly sliced raw meat or fish served with a sauce and this is used often used as a post positive modifier as in beef carpaccio. This is from vittore carpaccio from the permanent use of red in his painting interesting so nothing to do with meat..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"So you can. You can capsule something. You can capsulize something you put it all into a little box and you will be a capsule later. I don't know. I just made up that word Because i'm not seen that anywhere here. Okay next we have an abbreviation capital c. a. p. t. It is an abbreviation for captain and that is our next word. Surprise surprise lots of definitions I form noun from a book by the fourteenth century. One eight one. A military leader the commander of a unit or a body of troops one eight to a subordinate officer. Commanding a sovereign or general. One a. I don't know what i said before. It should have said. I should have said one a two. I think i did next. We have one eight. Three a commissioned officer in the army air force or marine corps ranking above a first lieutenant and below a major. I think i've said this before. I will never. I will never remember the order of these things. Lieutenant major captain general pawn knight rook. We just watched the the queen's gambit. It's very good I guess there was a lot of hype going into it or there was a lot of hype going into it and i think i just maybe just had different expectations. I really hate watching things when there's a lot of hype around them Because i'm always disappointed. And i don't wanna be disappointed about things that are really good and it is really good. You should watch it Okay now we have one. B one a naval officer. Who is master or commander of a ship. When be to a commissioned officer in the navy ranking a commander and below commodore and in the coastguard ranking above a commander and below a rear admiral. Sorry i mixed up the lines in my brain This is another reason. Why i can't remember all of these rankings because depending on the context of what you're talking about there might be different words. Different names So yeah you kids. Just you can't be expected to keep track of all this stuff. Okay next we have one see. Yeah we're still in the ones one. See a senior pilot who commands the crew of an airplane..
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Dictionary
"Hello words welcome to the dictionary. Today is february. two number two And so we are transitioning from the very bottom of page one. Eighty three the top of page one eighty four and Some holidays some of you probably already know this off the top of your head. It is groundhog day in the us. i guess it's also groundhog day and other parts of the world Which i this. This website is not telling me what what parts of the world celebrate it But i guess there's international groundhog day in estonia. It is the anniversary of the tartu peace treaty. So that's good because that is a piece more peace. We need more peace. Thank you In india it is world wetlands day. So that's probably all about protecting the wetlands of india All over the world actually and then in colombia it is national indigenous day so that seems like it celebrating the indigenous people of colombia and possibly other parts of the world too. I love it all. I love it. Eleven eleven what is that from. I can't think of it. okay. I word is capstan or cap stan. C. a. p. s. t. a. n. Stan is wearing a cap. This is a noun from the fourteenth century. One a machine for moving or raising heavyweights that consists of a vertical page. Flip a vertical drum which can be rotated and around which cable is turned..
The History of Lorenzo de' Medici
"Hello and welcome to the podcast. I'm tracy v wilson and it's january first happy new year. Lorenzo de medici was born on the stay in fourteen forty nine. The medici family of florence was rich and powerful. They had come to florence sometime in the twelfth century although they had started out as just simple tuscan peasants but over a couple of hundred years they became incredibly wealthy and powerful by the middle of the fourteenth century. There were one of florence's leading families and they also had a reputation for being extremely adept at negotiating in the worlds of politics and money and this was through. Legitimate means as well as through things like bribery. Lorenzo domenici was described as the most medici of the medici. He was nicknamed lorenzo. The magnificent he's been described as the most powerful the most famous the most brilliant the most influential in the world of art thanks to his patronage and the most ruthless came to power in florence along with his brother in fourteen sixty nine after the death of their father and the two of them were ruling together and nine years later. There was a conspiracy to assassinate both of them and to take control of the republic of florence away from the medici. This was called the pazzi. Conspiracy the potsy and the medici were basically rival families within florence. One of the things that had led to this whole rivalry in the conspiracy was that the potsy family had taken over the financial affairs of the papacy and that was taking business away from the medici which the medici did not appreciate the ringleader in. This conspiracy was francesco. Potsy and he wasn't the patriarch of the pazzi family. But he was the one that was driving all of this. The fascination was finally set to take place during easter mass. in fourteen. seventy eight and lorenzo's brother giuliano was killed but lorenzo escaped afterward though. Lorenzo sought retro bution against olive his conspirators. There was a lot of hanging people throwing them out windows. A lot of dismemberments overall it was very gruesome and there were more than seventy executions of purported co-conspirators this whole incident though really shaped lorenzo's that his brother was dead so he was on his own in terms of his leadership at the republic and it had also gotten rid of a lot of actors and demonstrated the links that he would go to so after this whole conspiracy and the war that followed food. He had the support of a lot of the people of florence. He ruled almost as a monarch. Although lorenzo really liked to describe himself as just a highly respectable citizen anything special he and others in the family also acted as patrons to writers and artists and architects including people like botticelli and leonardo davinci among many others there was also of course michelangelo. Who was brought up partially in the medici household lorenzo domenici was also a collector of antiquities and of artwork. Basically what they were doing. They couldn't really afford to pay for the most extravagant biggest name artwork so they would find lesser known undiscovered talent of sort of cultivate them by their work for cheap. It's not however totally accurate to say that the medici family single paid for the renaissance. Sometimes they are described that way. Lorenzo was also a poet himself in addition to his patronage of other artists by the fourteen ninety s though lorenzo's health was declining the city of florence. Also becoming less and less enamored with the lifestyle that he had enabled and encouraged. This is a lifestyle that was just full of lavish festivals. in extravagance. He died at the age of only forty three. His son giovanni later became pope. Leo the tenth.
"No Sir claritin liquor for boys port for men, but he who aspires to be a hero smiling mystery brandy in the first place. Brandy is most grateful to the Palette and then brandy will do soonest for a man. Drinking can do for him. They all indeed few who able to drink brandy. That is a power rather to be wishful than attained Samuel Johnson. Good evening and welcome to the bar. In the second of my series on the history of spirits I've chosen to investigate brandy. Typically drunk is an after dinner digestif. GRANDY spirit produced traditionally by distilling wine. The basics of distillation have been with us for a very long time, but it wasn't until the ninth century that it was described in the manner. We know today. Eventually, it spread to Italy on the rest of the continent of Europe. By the Fifteenth Century to began to be used all master still variety of basis into spirits. And slowly various national drinks from Volta to whiskey developed. Is Not entirely clear. Wine began being fortified into brandy. In some jurisdictions, wine was taxed volume, and by distilling the wine into brandy. It was possible to avoid tax and mix it with water afterwards. High alcohol content also made the wine travel veteran long voyages, and was therefore used a method of preservation. Anyone, who has visited a distiller can tell you. Aging in wooden casks can have a significant effect on the taste of distilled drink with the aroma of the casks, being drawn out by the alcohol over time. The name Brandy comes from the Dutch word, but I'm D- wine meaning the wine. The name is apt as most brandies made by applying heat originally from open flames two wine. While brandies are usually made from wine or other fermented fruit juices. Can actually be distilled any liquid that contains sugar. All the too quiet that the liquid bailout ferment and should be heated past the boiling point of water. Almost every country has their own national brandy, many of which are not made from wine. GRAPPA in Italy is made from grape skins. slivovitz in Poland made, from plums. Shoot you in Japan is made from rice and born in the united. States is made from corn. Brandy of course is better known as Scotch Whisky. That being said the vast majority of brandies are traditionally made from wine. It is not strange. Therefore, the best and most famous brandies tend to be associated with well known and well respected wine regions. The ALMANAC can cognac regions are among the most famous brandy produces. ALMANAC is the oldest brandy distilled in France and in the past was consumed Fritz therapeutic benefits. In the Fourteenth Century Prior Vitale. Full Cardinal wrote the detach forty choose. It enlivened the spirit. If taken immoderation recalls, the past memory renders men joyous preserves youth and delays senility. Cognac exhibits an abundance of qualities, fruit, subtle rumors wolf intensity, and above all complexity with thousands of flavors, all stemming from predominantly just one grape variety. While you will likely have heard of a few major brands such as running Mata. It is the variety and the small families that have been distilling with secrets passed down through the generations that make these spirits so interesting. Aficionados flocked to the region to obtain different vintages from a wide range of distillers who each have their own unique family history. You may have heard of Cherry Brandy as well. It is not as the name might suggest a fruit brandy obtained by distillation referred to in France's. Rather most cherry brandies in fact, liqueurs with most produces mass rating, their own choice of cherries with the bay spirit of vodka before the addition of other enhancing flavours. Unlike with Jin where a lot of innovation in recent years led to a boom in the market, brandy brands pride themselves on the tradition of the drink. However brand is still trying to align itself with younger drinkers as in some ways that previous marketing has set them up a drink for the sophisticated older drinker. This has led to the majority of the Brandy. Drinkers being in the fifties sixties older. Brandy is being positioned now with a view to find its way into the glasses of people in their thirties, who likely don't have to? Cantor sat at home and might not have considered the drink before. Spanish brandy well placed in this regard is not only is it often sell for a lower price than the more venerable French brands, but it has already started to innovate. Torres has begun to expand into flavored and spiced varieties designed to appeal more to younger ballots.
"No Sir claritin liquor for boys port for men, but he who aspires to be a hero smiling mystery brandy in the first place. Brandy is most grateful to the Palette and then brandy will do soonest for a man. Drinking can do for him. They all indeed few who able to drink brandy. That is a power rather to be wishful than attained Samuel Johnson. Good evening and welcome to the bar. In the second of my series on the history of spirits I've chosen to investigate brandy. Typically drunk is an after dinner digestif. GRANDY spirit produced traditionally by distilling wine. The basics of distillation have been with us for a very long time, but it wasn't until the ninth century that it was described in the manner. We know today. Eventually, it spread to Italy on the rest of the continent of Europe. By the Fifteenth Century to began to be used all master still variety of basis into spirits. And slowly various national drinks from Volta to whiskey developed. Is Not entirely clear. Wine began being fortified into brandy. In some jurisdictions, wine was taxed volume, and by distilling the wine into brandy. It was possible to avoid tax and mix it with water afterwards. High alcohol content also made the wine travel veteran long voyages, and was therefore used a method of preservation. Anyone, who has visited a distiller can tell you. Aging in wooden casks can have a significant effect on the taste of distilled drink with the aroma of the casks, being drawn out by the alcohol over time. The name Brandy comes from the Dutch word, but I'm D- wine meaning the wine. The name is apt as most brandies made by applying heat originally from open flames two wine. While brandies are usually made from wine or other fermented fruit juices. Can actually be distilled any liquid that contains sugar. All the too quiet that the liquid bailout ferment and should be heated past the boiling point of water. Almost every country has their own national brandy, many of which are not made from wine. GRAPPA in Italy is made from grape skins. slivovitz in Poland made, from plums. Shoot you in Japan is made from rice and born in the united. States is made from corn. Brandy of course is better known as Scotch Whisky. That being said the vast majority of brandies are traditionally made from wine. It is not strange. Therefore, the best and most famous brandies tend to be associated with well known and well respected wine regions. The ALMANAC can cognac regions are among the most famous brandy produces. ALMANAC is the oldest brandy distilled in France and in the past was consumed Fritz therapeutic benefits. In the Fourteenth Century Prior Vitale. Full Cardinal wrote the detach forty choose. It enlivened the spirit. If taken immoderation recalls, the past memory renders men joyous preserves youth and delays senility. Cognac exhibits an abundance of qualities, fruit, subtle rumors wolf intensity, and above all complexity with thousands of flavors, all stemming from predominantly just one grape variety. While you will likely have heard of a few major brands such as running Mata. It is the variety and the small families that have been distilling with secrets passed down through the generations that make these spirits so interesting. Aficionados flocked to the region to obtain different vintages from a wide range of distillers who each have their own unique family history. You may have heard of Cherry Brandy as well. It is not as the name might suggest a fruit brandy obtained by distillation referred to in France's. Rather most cherry brandies in fact, liqueurs with most produces mass rating, their own choice of cherries with the bay spirit of vodka before the addition of other enhancing flavours. Unlike with Jin where a lot of innovation in recent years led to a boom in the market, brandy brands pride themselves on the tradition of the drink. However brand is still trying to align itself with younger drinkers as in some ways that previous marketing has set them up a drink for the sophisticated older drinker.
Birth of the Urban Legend
"Today I am going to take a look. At myths and one in particular that is huge a myth that is regarded debated by perhaps perhaps millions of people and it starts in Rome. No one could talk about the Catholic. Church without mentioning. Vatican City. Balance City is an independent city state within Rome. Italy is under full ownership sovereign authority and jurisdiction of the holy. See the area that occupies represents the smallest city state in the world coming in at one hundred ten acres with a population of about a thousand. It is ruled by a type of theocracy minister by the pope while the Holy See dates back to earliest Christianity. The Independent Vatican City state on the other hand didn't come into existence until February. The Eleventh Nineteen Twenty nine this is different from the papal that occupy most of Italy from seven fifty six to eighteen seventy. The Vatican walls were built to keep out pirates during the ninth century. Pirates were pillaging much of southern Italy when they sacked. Saint Peter's in eight forty. Six Pope Leo. The fourth decided he needed a little extra protection. A thirty nine foot wall was constructed around Leone City. An area which included the current Vatican's territory gradually when the threat receded. Many gates were opened in the walls. It was shortly after the wall was built but no connection. Eight fifty five to eight fifty eight that a new pope came into power. The story goes that a lady pontiff rained for a brief time in the ninth century. Disres- was a young woman who disguised herself as a man and entered religious training distinguishing herself as a scholar. She rose through the church ranks and elected Pope John. Eight the year eight five. She went onto rule for two years. Her gender always concealed but he flowery holy robes. Her secret was only revealed. Eight fifty eight when she unexpectedly went into Labor during a papal procession. Some accounts say she died in childbirth while others claim that her and raged followers dragged her behind a horse and stoned to death. Either would've been an appropriate response for the Times before you scoff at the idea of a female pope. Let me lay out some facts. The story of a female pope surfaced in the thirteenth century. Chronicles written by a couple of Dominican Friars then in the fourteenth century. She was mentioned in a book about famous women. Her image eventually graced paintings sculptures and Tarot cards for a short time. She was included in a collection of papal bus in. Italy's CNN Cathedral. Some historians dismissed Pope Joan as a myth that we go. Here's our myth citing that her supposed rain overlaps Pope Leo fourth and Pope Benedict third. Some scholars believe that she was had been expunged from the church history. One ancient scholar provides her nationality place of birth length of her pontificate as two years. Seven months and four days. Then there are some who say she didn't die immediately after giving birth instead she was deposed after her confinement and did penance for many years after her death she was buried in. Estonia were her son held the Office of Bishop generally today all sources a pope. Joan are thought to be nothing more than an urban legend yet. There are hints of a female Pope's existence in both art and architecture on the pillars and Saint Peter's basilica in Vatican City seven sculptures showing a woman's facial expression while going into labor can be found but wait in the oldest surviving com copy of the pump typical the official book of biographies of Popes during the early Middle Ages Pope Benedict. The third is missing completely then are medieval coins that show the likeness of Pope Jonas Elias. Yes there are and this is suggesting that she may indeed have existed. Science had proved that these coins are not fake when archaeological find has documents that Pope Joon US crown. Louis the second of as a holy Roman emperor eight fifty six. Although the available evidence seems to cast some doubts regarding the existence of Pope John. It is likely that some would continue to believe that this figure was real whether it's a piece of fiction or history detail. Pope Joan will most likely on until absolute physical documentation surface. It finally and the
"fourteenth century" Discussed on News Radio 920 AM
"The fourteenth century plague killed three quarters of the population of Europe plague is rare today it can be treated now but it does apparently you it can spread still it's not it's not totally replicated okay miscue does our fear there are other paths the zero vector of the spread of various diseases west Nile virus so far is all kind I mean look diseases that mosquitoes spread have killed more people than covert nineteen will ever approach you realize this Mysterio's start you start up you know right after spring and summer months so you know more people have died from Miskito bites are getting mosquito bites with different diseases than been covered ninety most people fear sharks but the deadliest creature on earth is the mosquito which is responsible for more than three hundred million cases of malaria each year and causes between one and three million deaths malaria affects ten percent of the world's population making it the leading Miskito borne disease three thousand species of mosquito including some two hundred North America they don't carry all the same diseases but skiers can carry dengue and yellow fevers in satellite is canine heartworm LVG ISIS you know you name it west Nile you too can make you sick was he does are active at night we know this you can reduce the risk by B. by wearing some repellent or wearing long sleeves are emptying you know the the the standing water in your house or or near your house or empty the water the gutters or changing bird baths or whatever just keep the swimming pools properly treated mosquitoes don't breed now what about house why yeah the house five what people find house flies more annoying than dangerous but you know they can spread some two hundred pathogens and parasites to humans bed bugs parasitic worms also the leading killers of human beings it was also includes several species of bees and wasps Phyllis's well there are twenty thousand species of bee including social be solitary bee in parasitic babies attacks generally occur when people stumble into a nasty or provoke a B. Africanized honeybees remember when we were kids we were told about that killer bees or specials on TV and movies of the week in horror films about killer bees well acted as honey bees are an exception they were created when African bees were brought to Brazil in nineteen fifty six to breed a better honey bee will the efforts fail their geo engineered bees bear scapes and now you know they've killed thousands of people as they move through Central America to the southwestern United States and of course these Africanized honey bees use aggressive bees deliver a nightmarish agonizing database swarm all over the victim of the attack it was southwest they killed animals as large as horses now after the bees come the wasps the Hornets the yellow jackets unprovoked wasp attacks are very rare what's usually staying subdue prey they do in self defense the people of their strong well they're usually some because bees wasps surjective food rated partly you know you walk into a desk to get started on like dis what's causing repeatedly that's the scary part about what's but what about the murder Hornets Berg murder Hornets you knew I was gonna get to the murder or nets well guess what I will take a break all the talk about the murder Hornets on ground zero eight seven seven seven three three one zero one one you don't get to that subject to the murder on and.
Hook, Line, and Sink-Her, a History of Fishnets
"Mechanization of textile production as you know what really kind of signal the beginning of the end. For many of these handcrafted industries like lace knitting and simple sewing because these things increasingly transitioned to being made by machine and the latter two are the means by which the majority of people socks were saying sewing and knitting That's how most people socks and hosiery were made for centuries upon centuries and we just want to say that we've received numerous requests to do an episode on knitting. But I think you and I kind of intimidated by this topic. I know it's a huge. I mean it's just a giant giant topic. Yeah knitting and there's actually entire podcast just about knitting. Yeah it's very true and and just diving into this topic as you know just for this past week or two. It's very clear that this could be an entire. The history of knitting could be its entire podcast because its existing cultures around the world for hundreds if not over a thousand years ancient Egyptians appear to have been some of its earliest practitioners. I guess there's a there are extent I don't guess I know. They're extent knitted socks dating to the third or fourth century. Ad So well they also at the Vienna have really helpful instinct quote unquote history of knitting essay. I think we'll probably post a link of that somewhere. And they tell us in this essay that there is evidence of knitting goods being produced and circulated in Europe from the fourteenth century on so knitting was used in the production of men and women's hose at the time and we have to remember. We're not talking pantyhose. They were not fully fashioned. They did not have a crotch. These are two separate garments one for each leg and foot and as we can imagine and I'm sure many of our listeners who knit can relate. Haning hose was a labor and time intensive process. So you would think that people might have been a bit relieved when the English clergyman William Lee invented the first mechanical knitting machine or stocking frame as it was known the sixteenth century when he created it but alas they were not they are actually quite pissed well and like with many modern technical innovations. This is all had to do with the fact that many people's livelihoods were depending on the old way of doing things right so in this case the hand niggers the knitting industry exactly and so when lease machine that had stockings were presented to none other than Queen Elizabeth. The first herself she rejected them for this very reason. She reportedly told him quote. I have too much love for my poor people who obtain their bread by the employment of knitting to give my money to Ford invention that will tend to their ruin by depriving them of employment and thus making them bakers and from this moment on lease stocking frame and its subsequent evolutions. Were incredibly controversial. You just have to look at the protection of stocking frames act. Seventeen Eighty eight which rabbit hole people go. It's fine and the destruction of stocking frames act of eighteen twelve to realize that people wanted these machines. Gone that go away. They would not lease machine might represent one of the first examples of mechanization of textile production. But it would absolutely not be the very last you know. His invention was first major stage. In what would become the textile industries wide revolution that transformed the ways at textiles and dress reproduced. To this very day and these some of these other inventions include devices such as the cotton gin the card loom and ultimately the sewing machine so these machines like so many textile innovations of the industrial revolution. They would transform the industry but they would also displaced thousands of workers in the process and by the end of the Eighteenth Century. Lease stocking frame was being adapted to produce lace. But it would be John Heathcote. Bob Monette machine that is credited with perfecting it. Heath Coats machine produced plane net lace which we might refer to as tool today. April this is where stocking production and technology begins to go way over my head. I can guess because we have a ton of like textile trade industry publications in the collection at fit and they have like all the machines and diagrams and scientific information mean that this is like hardcore science. We're talking about. Yeah and there's a lot a lot of innovation happening in the knitted hose industry in the eighteenth late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries so it was a bit overwhelming and you know this because textile and specifically stocking production was incredibly integral to the British economy economies of the world over so there are these highly detailed reports about its development throughout the nineteenth century about the development of knitting technologies and netting technologies and there are a lot a lot of developments as April mentioned in the eighteen forties. Commissioner was appointed by Queen Victoria to report on the State of framework knitting industry and he produces a densely packed. Sixty five page report. Sixty pages complete no with not only the history of the knitting industry but in the country but also a quote list of the various kinds of machinery made use of in manufacturer of hosiery and lace with the names of Inventors From Fifteen Eighty Nine Aka. William Lee. We just spoke about two eighteen forty to eighteen forty three the present day so needless to say by the beginning of the nineteenth century the list which spans hundreds of years at this point was quite extensive and includes everything from lease stocking frame and Heathcote Bob an ATM machine to numerous others including casts quote machines for Lang. Hair and Jose remade wigs. I think I I think I need to know more about this and even eighteen. Oh three a fishing net machine but apparently it's failed being made by fishermen cheaper than by machine at this point so I guess the point would really trying to drive home as that lace and lace net where being machine made in the early nineteenth century and by eighteen forty five. There's a journal. Being produced by Pennsylvania's Franklin Institute and they reported on the modes quote of Work Fabricating Lace and Framework Knitted Manufacturers introduced from foreign states and this included machines for round fingered gloves from Madrid in Spain. Figured Work Shawls and quote unquote nodded hose without seems from. Leone and Barcelona and a quote cylinder particular machine for making fancy net hose and that came from a sound sturdy little bit. I think I'd take layers a needle. Okay okay but still just say but these these were not fishnet nets right. They're not for catching fish or fish. Net Hose No. They're not and I'm at but I am actually happy to finally share things to these evolutions and laze technology and eighteen eighty nine. We find the very first use of the term. The actual term fishnet in Harper's bazaar in relation to women's dress and they write the fashionable diesel returned from Paris bringing down with many new features gowns of India soaks Chinese crepe a fish nets and leases. But I did not find the use a fish net in relation to hose or stockings until over twenty years later in their nineteen twelve fall fashion number the trade publication dry goods reporter reported on a quote. Black Vallejo's of pure silk in a fish net pattern but they assure the readers at the hose were not intended to wear next to the skin but to produce novel effects when worn over white or colored hopes so from the very first introduction of fish net hose into women's fashion. We are already seeing these associations with eroticism. Yes you know. And they're kind of scared of that association right because they assured their readers again that quote. The new fishnet hose that we illustrate in this article has been shown to newspaper representatives. And some of them have used it as a subject of humorous articles. Conveying the impression that it was to be worn next to the skin. You know so this erotic potential of this garment is literally illustrated in this article. There's kind of the irony of it because they have this woman modeling this novel. Hosiery and April. We see her ankles. No what are we GONNA do. Candle shock and awe article continues on quote. The hose may never become a big seller on the market but the effect produced by them. Is Novel any store? Having at least a single pair of them for exhibition purposes could attract unusual attention to their hosiery department. So that's hilarious. There were basically like saying Ou. Come look at these scandalous stockings. You don't have to buy them. We're not really selling them right right. And I mean. It remained a novelty throughout the teens. Basically until nineteen twenty and this is where we see a more widespread acknowledgement of what the dry goods reporter calls the quote Unquote fishnet effect. In
Explaining Occam's Razor
"Today we're going to discuss a problem solving principle that many of you probably heard of and we've we've definitely referenced on the show before and that is autumn's razor that's right. It's it's one of the classics one of the hits of like the skeptical toolkit and I think it's a really one to get into because it's something that is widely known but in different ways and often To whatever extent it actually does have value. It often gets deployed in ways that do not actually make use of its value right like like an actual razor blade. It may be misused from time to time. Yes now. What one specific place that. I know we've talked about it before. Is that is in the context of Carl? Sagan's recommendations for the the tools of skeptical thinking he these out and one of them is autumn's razor. He writes all comes razor this convenient rule of thumb urges us when faced with two hypotheses that explain the data equally well to choose the simpler. Okay now why did we end up talking about this today? We we were in the studio the other day Discussing upcoming episodes. And you said that. Seth had mentioned this our producer Seth Yeah. I was in here and set a nickel Johnson was working on. A crossword puzzle was at the New York. Times he tells us it was the New York Times And he he asked me how to spell. Autumn is in razor and I took a guess at it and I can't I can't remember. I was correct. I was probably wrong but also probably hit one of the multiple acceptable spell things for razor But anyway we started talking about it and I was like. Oh Yeah we we could do that as an episode and so here we are. I'm very glad we picked this because I think one of my personal favorite genres of of critical thinking is is being skeptical about the tools of skepticism. You know is sometimes people who identify skeptics can ca- can I get a little cocky. You know they get a little too sure of themselves about what the reasoning tools they use and it's worth putting those tools to the test. Giving them a closer look. Yeah absolutely now I have to say I definitely remember. The first time I encountered the concept of outcomes raise or at least the first time I encountered it and it on some level stuck with me and that was when viewed the Nineteen ninety-seven film adaptation of Carl Sagan's novel contact the movie. I can't watch without crying. Oh Yeah Yeah Yeah well. Why does it make you cry? Oh God there's no point especially the first part where you know it. Zooms out from the earth and you're hearing the radio signals go back in time and then and then it shows the young. L. E. Airway experimenting with the Ham Radio and her dad's helping her and get so emotional. Yeah Yeah it's it's been a very long I. I haven't seen it since initially came out and in fact the main thing I remember from it is seen in which jodie foster's character. Eleanor Airway has having this conversation with Matthew mcconaughey as character. Who How old was Matthew mcconaughey at this point? I don't even know how old he is. Now is this ageless demon but anyway. Here's this character He's scared Palmer. Joss in the scene in question foster's character brings up autumn's razor in a discussion on the nature of God she. She says well which is ultimately the simpler hypothesis that an all powerful God exists or the human beings made got up in order to feel better about things and then this ultimately comes back around is kind of flipped on her later on film regarding her characters encounter with an extraterrestrial intelligence right. Is it more likely that she really had the experience? She thinks she had with With all these aliens or that. She like hallucinated. Something that would give her emotional closure. Yeah and so. Yeah I think I was in high school at the time so it was. It was interesting concept especially in the context of of atheism verses of faith in a creator deity inserted to suddenly have this tool from the chest. Skeptical thinking just thrown up on the table and you and seemingly used by both sides. Well Yeah I think this is funny. This is a great example because it highlights some of the most common features of all comes razor as it is actually used to like. It's often invoked in a kind of fuzzy way without an objective measure Just kind of invoked to back up your intuitions about the probability of something right but another thing is that this example shows how. It's not always easy to find a way to compare the simplicity of two different propositions like is the existence of God a simple hypothesis or a complicated one that I think that really depends on kind of how you feel about it like like what kind of objective measure can you come up with to evaluate that question right. It's GonNa depend so much on your like your background your culture what you grew up with. And you know how you how you've come to view the possibility of Of God's existence. Is it just kind of the bedrock of your your worldview or is it this thing from the outside that you are contemplating and also how do you view it at like the coherence of the idea? Do you view it as something. That's like That's full of all these little kind of ad hoc accommodations or something that is a holistic coherent Sort of like fact about nature. Yeah you know I it's I I think this is a perfect example. That shows like win. People used the idea volumes razor in a way that is not helpful and doesn't really doesn't really get you any closer to figuring out what's true now if you're if you're still questioning what the concept really means. Don't worry we will get to some. I think some very understandable examples of how it can be a used properly and used improperly. But let's go ahead and just start about the concept itself the the word autumn You know where this comes from. We'll get to the origins of autumn's razor so Oxfam's razor is also known as the principle of parsimony and parsimony means a tendency towards cheapness or frugality. So I like that. It's like the principle of parsimony is like you. You want to be cheap with your with your logic right yeah. I don't need more than two steps of logic between me and the solution. Don't give me one with four or five. And it was named after the Medieval English philosopher William of autumn. Of course William of Arkham So he he lived in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries from twelve eighty five to either thirteen seven or thirteen forty nine. I've seen different death dates given forum. I've seen different birthdates as well. Eighty seven twelve. Eighty eight looking at That's interesting so he was a prolific scholar. Franciscan friar we'll get more into his ideas in a minute. I you know one thing I've always wondered is where the heck is awesome. I've never heard of that. Well yeah because the word sound has kind of like a remoteness to it. It sounds alien in some ways. Autumn is very much a real place. It is a rural village. In Surrey England. You can look it up online. You can find that the website for the church in Oxfam for example and this area has been occupied since ancient times. It's about a day's ride south west of London and it was the birthplace of the individual who'd come to be known as William Volume now beyond that beyond the fact that he was born here. We don't know a lot about William's life We don't know what his social or family background was or if his native language was French or Middle English. As Paul Vincent Spadea explains in the Cambridge companion to Arkham he was likely given over to the Franciscan order as a young boy. Before the age of fourteen and here Latin would have quickly become his language of not only writing but also just conversation Grey Friars Convent in. London was likely his home convent but later he traveled he visited Avalon he visited Italy and he lived the last two decades of his life in Germany. Now philosophically William was a Nominal List and spayed writes that the two main themes of this for William were the rejection of universals and ontological reduction in these two teams are are not necessarily interconnected like you can you. Could you could believe in one but not the other and vice versa but basically like let's get into what these mate so the first rejection of universals is perhaps best considered and this is very brief and broad Certainly you can find so much written in instead on this topic but basically think of it as a rejection of the tonic idea of the realm of forms. So that idea that all chairs that we might make design and carve a symbol are an attempt to create the perfect chair which doesn't reside in our world but only resides within this realm of forms. So all chairs that we create our like an aspiration for the ideal chair another way. I've thought about it at least as I understood it was. The nominalism is kind of the idea that there is no such thing as a chair. There's only this chair and that chair in this chair over here. There is no chair right like this. This is the kind of the situation gets too. When you you get into the genre classifications of say albums artists or movies. You care a great deal about and someone tries to limit it to a classification and say oh well that's classic rock where that's alternative rock near like. No no no no no. Don't don't try and fit there is there. Is these categories. Do not apply. There is there is only you know whatever. Your band of choice happens to be. There is only tool. There is only primis or whatever right there yeah there. There is only things not category right. Now let's move onto the second theme here. Ontological reduction this is as Britannica defines it quote the metaphysical doctrine that entities of a certain kind are in reality collections or combinations of entities of simpler or more basic kind. I think your classic example here is molecules atoms. Yeah so another example. Here's while our aristotle defined ten categories of objects that might be apprehended by a human mind. These would have been translations vary on on how you wanted to find these but substance quantity quality relative place time attitude condition action and affection. William cut these down to two substance and quality. He's really getting in there. That's the razor. That's what a razor Dutt. Cia slices away. It cuts off the fat and gets down to the meat. Spayed writes quote. Although these two strands of thinking are independent. They are nevertheless often viewed as joint effects of a more fundamental. Concern the principle of parsimony known as Oxfam's razor okay. So we're getting to the razor. Yeah so William. Devoted a lot of energy to arguing against What spade calls the bloated onto logical in inventories of his contemporaries and became well known to his peers for this as such either towards the end of his life or shortly after his death a kind of greatest hits album came out on his thoughts and ideas titled On the Principles of Theology? Now it wasn't actually by William of Arkham but it featured his doctrine as well as verbatim quotes there is no ascribed author either so later generations would often just attribute it to him as well as the notion of outcomes razor however the specific phrase was apparently never actually used by him. He never said autumn in the house. I'M GONNA get the razor out and started carving on some some some some some ideas
Saint Marcellus's Flood - January 16, 1362
"Welcome back I'm your host eaves and you're tuned into this day in history class a show that takes history and squeezes it into bite size stories. Today is January sixteenth. Twenty twenty you. The day was January sixteenth thirteen sixty to a massive southwesterly early Atlantic gale known as Saint Marcellus flood or the growth among Daca hit the British isles the Netherlands northern Germany and Denmark work it resulted in at least twenty six thousand deaths. The event is also known as the second Saint Marcellus flood since a similar disaster. Astor happened on January sixteenth in twelve nineteen Saint Marcellus is flood took place during. What some Matala Gist? Now call the little ice age. This period wasn't an actual ice age. The term coined by geologist F e Matt refers to a climate interval after the medieval warm period did when mean annual temperatures declined and the weather was unstable though climatologists and historians disagree on the exact span of the period and by many definitions. The so called Little Ice Age lasted from the fourteenth century. To the mid nineteenth century around the twelfth century a series as of large storm surges started occurring in the North Sea. By this time though Europeans were already familiar with storm surges caused by the Gills of extra tropical cyclones. An extra tropical cyclone is one that forms in the middle or high latitudes. These cyclones are driven by temperature. Sir Contrast in the atmosphere where two air masses meet and create a front though tropical cyclones create higher storm surges and get a lot of attention an extra tropical cyclone cover larger geographical areas. These storms led to the loss valuable land enforced communities to relocate. Europeans could not predict when the next flood would happen but they did build coastal defenses to protect against big storms and reclaimed land from the sea using innovative techniques. The low countries including the Netherlands western Germany Denmark Belgium northern France were particularly vulnerable able to storm surges and destruction. The first Saint Marcellus Floyd occurred in twelve nineteen drowned an estimated. Thirty six thousand people mostly mostly in West friesland and Groningen which are now locations in the Netherlands in twelve eighty seven. St Lucia flood killed more than fifty thousand people in the Netherlands in northern Germany. This storm over the North Sea destroyed sand dunes and natural clay barriers that separated a lake in the north west of the Netherlands. Orlands from the sea that turned the lake into a bay that became known as the designer say or southern fee villages were wiped out in Harlington. A town that was landlocked became a seaport. England was also affected by the storm. Surge the second Saint Marcellus flood was also devastating it. It hit large parts of North Western Europe. On January sixteenth thirteen sixty to a southwesterly Atlantic gale swept across the British isles. The Netherlands orlands northern Germany and Denmark high tides combined with the storm to flood large parts of the low countries. Wrong whole report. On the island of Strand in the Duchy of slippy reportedly completely stuck into the C- The city attained a sort of mythical status with debate later rising being over whether it ever even existed the port of Ravens is in England was largely wiped out the storm further open designers aid to the sea eighty and around sixty parishes in Denmark were reportedly destroyed. The storm changed the shape of the Danish German and Dutch coastlines. The death toll of the flood has been estimated at at least twenty five thousand people up to one hundred thousand though. The exact number is disputed. January sixteenth is the
Prince Harry and Meghan's Shift Draws Attention to Royal Finances
"Royal Family is funded busy with the combination of public funds funds from taxpayers and private wealth that the family has accumulated over the last few centuries Essentially take the queen for example Apple. She has three sources of income. She has what's called a sovereign grant which is a sum of money paid but taxpayer to her every year to cover her royal duties. She has what's called the Duchy of Lancaster which is a huge tract of land was the monarch Kazaa owned since the Thirteenth Century which basically pays out? It's prophets prophets to the queen every year and. She has her private wealth. And we don't know how much that accounts full but that includes things such as Sandringham estate the the bow moral estate paintings another assets that we don't necessarily know about We don't necessarily know how much worth okay. So That's how the Royal Family Family itself is funded. How is Harry currently funded? So one of the the complicated things about the royal family is that effectively. It relies on a huge system of patronage patronage between the For instance Prince Charles effectively funds Prince Harry through his own estate called the Duchy of Cornwall which again has been been in the family since the fourteenth century and again as a large tract of land which pays out a profit every year which Charles than pockets and he then redistributes some of that it to his own children Harry and William last year got around five million pounds in payments from Prince Charles But Harry is also independently wealthy. The inherited money from his mother the late Princess Diana and also from his great grandmother the Queen Mother what would a as the tabloids call that makes it look like then financially for Prince Harry and Meghan Markle. Well that depends to a large extent Whether Harry is allowed to to monetize his sovereign connections and do things like get paid for speeches or endorse products. or he they've already Looked kind of trademarks and and products associated with them such as greeting cards and socks with the Brand Royal Sussex Whether they can monetize that but again. It's a big balancing act because if you're the monarchy you don't want to cheapen the brand having Sussex royal socks being peddled on street corners and don't want and you don't want your you're the younger monarchs the the ones we're not direct as the throne going off and associated themselves with people who have potentially of ill repute So that's the big balancing the we're GONNA see how and it's not just about how they earned income right there's tax implications and security implications as well if they decide to split their time between the the United Kingdom and Canada. Yes and I think security is a big issue because the British Tax Pat Karney. Foots the bill run into the hundreds of thousands of pounds every year to make sure that prince it's Harry and his wife Do get round the clock protection from police officers. Obviously if they didn't go to Canada it's unclear. Who's going to foot the bill? Is that going to be the Canadian tax expert. Who pays that? I think the Canadian Finance Minister yesterday was asked about this and seemed surprised that the idea that this would be the candidates problem And so I think these missile things have to be ironed out and the Queen Today said look. There's going to have to be a transition period while we work out to resolve this and frankly it's unclear the stage That will go. Why do you think this has caused so much interest not just in the United Kingdom but around the world? Well I see the two people involved in this Sir extremely famous. I mean Meghan Markle Harry go married in this big Gorgeous lavish wedding in two thousand eighteen and the whole well tuned into watch it and so and in a way people have been following that progress ever since and they were seen as quite an atypical. Couple this mixed race. US born filmstar marrying this the minds of the storied story family it. It seemed to sort of romance made in heaven. Now obviously you know the practicalities of that marriage and now being tested and people are intrigued is a great story. Korea is a great piece of gossip and something that in times of trouble when the world looks a little bit unsafe and
"fourteenth century" Discussed on KUGN 590 AM
"I'm just not sure this is the John master chef James his new book they will have to die now most soul in the fall of the caliphate based on his reporting twenty sixteen to twenty seventeen and the fall of most solely reporters the New York times and National Geographic other distinguished publications we have met the critical family the family from most saliva Fahad aba Amar and his children Omar and how moody what is important now is their city their pride in their city James most so we're going to take it back to the fourteenth century BC and the arrival of the Assyrians muscles in fact two fortresses one on the west side one on the east side what is important about them well they're not in tar they're not very important at that point they will become important in the one on the west side will become important because that will become none of under the Assyrians and in the neo Assyrian empire as we call it in the early first Milliman millennium BC that will become the largest city archaeologists think in the world got my geography correct the river and east of the river is none of us yes east of the river a lot of and the weather of the river it's a bit confusing because it's actually more like north south but yes he's not used to and west of the river most soul and the very famous mosque and where the final that's right life so right none of that becomes important to the Assyrians and one Syrian king Sennacherib Sabah I believe get Mirai appear James because you've done a wonderful job archaeological a chronology makes Nineveh his capital yes however your attracted to the ball relief and then of answer printing them the VS Syrians were what we are led to believe a sort of the original Islamic state they were ruthless I we don't know if I'd quite put it that way but you were but you're you're certainly right in the sense that day kind of invented holy war as we think of it now they they a day in the Babylonians I should say came up with this idea or at least let not came up with perfected this idea of war as a means of expanding V. the sacred into the profession as war as a means of of expanding holy territory into chaos the Assyrian king them at one point James reports stretched to the north caucuses where I am headed momentarily to the east to the west all the way to Egypt and lovers shores of Egypt in and to the east to what is now Rob Persian so it was a faster come from yeah in fact even further to Cyprus we have evidence of the Assyrians in Cyprus the important character here's the grandson of Sennacherib who made Nineveh his capital archer bottom Paul what do we need to know about him Ashurbanipal was is perhaps the most famous of the Assyrian kings the neo Assyrian kings there was just a marvelous exhibit about him and his artwork at the British Museum Ashurbanipal was the king at the very height of the neo Assyrian empire when the empire was historians believe the largest in the world and his capital Nineveh the largest most populated city in the world he also was a man who according to one assyriologist gave wore a bad name he was so brutal and so sadistic and so devoted to to gratuitous torture according at least to the release and the inscriptions and like to brag about it and love to brag about it and would love to produce inscriptions about it and about it he may not have been worse than any of his forebears were followers but he knew how to detect and broadcast his sadism more more vividly than anyone else moving forward three thousand years we come to the Ottoman Empire which range from the fifteenth to the twentieth century and the fall of the Ottomans gives over this vast land of the Ottoman Empire to the colonial victors in the first war chiefly France and Britain and they're the ones who draw these arbitrary lives that we have inherited as national law are the people of muscle Opeth odd number of our and their children who are educated and they're quite proud of their city they are they are they educated in there or did they have the understanding of this fast sweep the importance of their city how it is at the center of civilization and also of modern conflict Abu Omar and Abu Fahad certainly did because they had been educated during the Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein we tend to forget it was actually very serious about public education he made a rock one of the most literate societies not just in the region but the world he was even given an award by UNESCO I believe one year for his efforts to educate women I think this was for in any event Abu Fahad an up armor certainly they would have learned about the glories of Mesopotamian history of course and not only that but they would have been able to visit the sites of those glorious such as none of and and which is right across right which is right across the river exactly know they would have seen the walls of the city and and there would've had the marvelous muscle museum their children not so much their children were educated after the American invasion his daughters had no education at all Abu Omar's that was his choice but even his son Omar who did go to school in my from what I can tell knew very little of this a muscle the name I skipped this detail why the two fortresses none of it is a fortress and James excitingly has a an opportunity to descend into the catacombs that are opened up underneath a mosque that is linked to the Assyrian history James did a time machine travel for moments in his book I wanted more but of course we have to get on to the battle on the key on the west side muscle itself means fortress one of the original words for it I believe the Akkadian word there were several different words for it but one of the words meant as you say western fortress there was also in ancient Braddock word for it that meant Hebrew fortress so historian suspect there may have been a Hebrew population they're going back a very long time in other words we're looking at a city not on like the not The New York in which all people from the Assyrian empire and all the other empires could traveling allied quarters there was ecommerce for the vast number of variety of religious occupations well specifically because it was an empire they congregated there but we also have to remember that not all of them chose to go there he was of course had been kicked out of Judah well I am as an ideal so it's it's thought error it's it's it's suspected that perhaps there was a Hebrew population there who had fled after the the Acadians that occupied was it today yeah so but no one is of course for sure a time machine itself but we begin the retake of the battle with big guns and air activity with James for rainy they will have to die now muscle and the fall of the caliphate I'm John bachelor this is the John about social.
The Monster Slayer
"I want to tell you a story about a monster slayer Robert Are you game I am gay okay so once upon a time in medieval Japan there was a warrior named minimal oh no Raiko he was daring swordsman and he was famous everywhere for his bravery and his resolve and Reiko had in his service a companion named watanabe notes Suna who was also courageous and he was a formidable fighter in his own right and he wielded a bow and Arrow war suit of armor and they rake Oh and sooner were traveling on the road to key to Yama when they saw a skull floating in the sky flying in and out of the clouds above now sooner we're curious how such a thing could be so they decided let's follow the skull and they followed the flying skull all the way to Keg Arocca where it leads them to a crumbling old mansion from ancient times the decaying manor was surrounded by wild overgrown weeds in an old gate choked by vines so Reiko ordered Suna wait for him outside and Reiko entered the mansion alone as he approached the threshold he started to become aware of a presence there was an old woman lurking behind the door and he called out who are you she replied I've been living here for a good long time I am too hundred ninety years old and have served in their turn nine lords of this house and then Reiko saw her she was a horrible sight to behold before the war years is the old woman grasped her own eyelids with a tool and she flipped her eyelids back over the top of her head like a hat then she pushed her south open with a large hairpin and her lips became gigantic and she took her lips and she tied them around her own neck and her breasts began to sag down to her lap like rags the old woman began to speak again she said spring comes in autumn goes but my sad thoughts remain the same years again end but my misery is eternal this place is a demon's din no human dares pass through gates my sorrowful youth has gone but my old self sadly remains element that Bush warblers depart and swallows on the beam fly off in her sorrow the wretched old woman begged Reiko to killer with his award and put her out of her misery Reiko could see that the old woman was out of her mind so he left her alone and he instead decided to go into the house to see what had happened in salt the mystery of the flying skull and what was afflicting this woman making her think she lived demons den so he went inside the house and outside the sky grew dark and pherson winds begin to blow but soon awaited loyally for his master and inside the House Reiko began to hear the sounds of footsteps echoing like the beat of a hand drum then he saw coterie of spirits and goblins coming into the room with him but the creature didn't attack instead they only danced around and then after his fear before passing out through another door in their place came into the room a tiny woman no more than three feet tall but with a gigantic taste more than two thirds of her whole height and she had stick heavy eyebrows and when she opened her mouth Reiko could see her front teeth were black she wore we'll have an a red Hakima with nothing underneath her arms were so thin they were like strings and her skin was Pale as snowfall then that woman disappeared and Reiko realize don was nearing almost as soon as the strange woman left another woman came into the room this time the woman was graceful and calm and so beautiful that Reiko could barely believe his eyes he thought that this woman must be the true mistress of the old house finally coming out to welcome him and her is shown as bright as the reflection of a bonfire in black lacquer but when Reiko was distracted by the woman's beauty she got the better of him she lifts did up the him of her Hakima and from underneath it she heaved at the swordsman some kind of material what looks like balls of white cloud and the balls of white cloud blinded him they got his is in a rage Reiko drew his sword and a slashed the woman but she evaporated into thin air he slashed so mightily the soared passed through the floorboards and cut a foundation stone and the tip of the blade broke off where the woman had been there was now nothing but a pool of white blood on the floor with a trail of more white blood leading off somewhere else Reiko and soon joined together again and they followed the trail of white blood out of the else up into the mountains and finally to the mouth of a dark cave out of which white blood was flowing like a river at soon as suggestion the two of them made an effigy of written and vines in the shape of a man and they carried it before them as they enter the cave inside the cave they found a gigantic monster in the form of a mountain spider but nearly two hundred feet tall and wore a brocade on its head its eyes were as bright as the sun and the moon the giant monster bellowed what has happened to my body it is so painful then the monster hurled something at them in the dark and the projectile hit the effigy that they carried in front of them and knocked it down Reiko and SUNA examined the object the monster had shot at them and they discovered that it was the broken tip of Reiko says award together they took hold of the creature and they began to drag it out of the cave and the monster put up a good fight and it was a terrible monster indeed strong enough to with boulders with its legs so Reiko said a prayer to the sun goddess a Montereau sue and asked her for aid with the fight Reiko in Suna pulled and pulled actually the monster collapsed and fell belly up on the earth without hesitation Reiko drew his sword and chopped off the monster's head soon Aranda slash chopin the monster's belly but found when he got there that it had already been opened by a deep gash this was the wound Reiko had given it inside the house when it was in the former if the woman in this proved that the giant spider truly was the beautiful woman that he had seen from the gas in the giant spiders belly one thousand nine hundred the ninety heads tumbled out onto the ground the warriors cut open another part of the spider's body and many smaller spider monsters swarmed out each about the size as of a seven or eight year old child when the warriors looked further in the stomach of the spider beast they found twenty human skulls knowing what had to be done Reiko in Suna dug a grave in the ground and buried the twenty skulls and then burned the giant spiders din when the emperor heard but Reiko and soon had done in eliminating this heinous monster that had been plaguing the country he gave them promotions and appointed them governors of their own provinces and this is the story of Moton no Raiko and the giant spider that is a fabulous story I love it I just like the the the layers of the adventure and then just the the revelation ends about the horrific monstrosity that they're faced with I like how it's weird and rambling like it takes a long time to get to the final form of the monster you don't really know where it's GonNa go it takes you to a haunted house I something about that feels both unusual and intuitive the so that they start off seeing the skull and I have to assume that I guess the skull was some form of the monster I don't know but but also like how in a lot of the monster slayer stories you come across there's a more specific reason that the that the hero must undergo the quest to slay the monster that they have to rescue a princess or something right this time they're just detectives investigating something weird that they saw eventually leads them into the monster's cave to kill it which also ultimately kind of makes you feel bad for the monster like it didn't even kidnap anybody they knew they just like made their way to it seems to be entirely recreational on their part yeah well I mean I guess it kind of makes them like a some kind of roving police force almost in a way or maybe they just needed the experience points I mean that it's true so this giant spider story comes from an early fourteenth century Japanese picture scroll called the Sushi Goumas Soci- and the version of the worry that I read is as translated by the scholar Dr Nuriko T- writer who you've referenced on the show before I think in our episode about cuteness and monstrosity ooh that would make sense yeah so so my version of the story I just told was based on her translation of this fourteenth century scroll and this is not the only legend `bout giant spiders in early modern Japan the Sushi Ghouma were earth spider was a common monster found in no plays and in supernatural narratives in the following centuries but there are also other spider monsters like the ONI which was sometimes described as like a giant spider with the head of a bull and it attacks fishermen at the water's edge and there's also the jurors Ghouma which is the literally the prostitutes spider and it's another ghost like creature that appears in the literature of the Edo period shape shifting like the Sushi Boom Oh between the forms of a beautiful woman and a voracious arachnids luring men to their deaths a classic trope of of monsters appearing as is desirable humans or even non human entities of course and you see that too in in the Sushi in the story where the spider monster appears as this beautiful woman in the House and distracts the swordsman with her beauty Just long enough to throw clouds white matter in his eyes who knows what that's supposed to be I don't know if I guess it's the Silk Right Oh maybe yeah I don't know it's supposed to be I mean it's it's described as literally like clouds it's hard to know exactly what is referring to it seems to be some kind of magical substance all right yeah so we're doing something a little bit different today than we usually do in our October assode where we love to focus on monsters today we wanted to take a look at the immortal enemy of our beloved monsters the monster slayer Yeah the thing that defines the hero other times there's not a lot to say about the monster itself except certain hero of note gave it a good slaying at some point yeah and it's almost as deep and as old as the monster mythology itself ride the oldest monster stories you can find when you go back in time very often are Mr slayers stories there's a monster and there's a hero who must venture out often alone or with a faithful companion to face the monster and destroyed Royat in the monster slayer archetype is actually classed as a particular type of like myth archetype the the the princess in the Dragon type story which appears all all over the world in different cultures in you know in the that's the very broad take you know that there's like a princess who's being held captive or being threatened by some kind of monster and a hero must venture out with courage and face the
New research casts doubt on cause of Angkor's collapse
"Is cost data what autumn caused the collapse of the once great city state of ankle in what is now Cambodia the nearest search by scientists at the university of Sydney has revealed that the ancient city of ankle underwent a slow gradual decline rather than a sudden abrupt catastrophic collapse. Archaeologists have long debated the likely causes for the demise of the ancient capital of the chimera empire which flourished between the ninth and fifteenth centuries. The ruins of Angkor located amid forests and farmland north of the great lake and include over a thousand temples ranging in size from nondescript powers of brick rebel scatter through Russ fields to the world's largest single religious monument. The great ankle watt satellite, images and grant observations of concluded that ankle was the largest pre industrial city in the world with an elaborate infrastructure system. Connecting urban sprawl of at least a thousand kilometers the end of the Ingraham period. Is generally set at around fourteen thirty one the ankle was sacked and looted by tear invaders, but the civilization had already been into Klein since the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries during the course of the fifteenth century nearly all of ankle was abandoned except that is for ankle what which remained the Bush trying. Scientists have developed the glass
These 1,000-year-old, blue-specked teeth could rewrite medieval history
"Where they scrape your teeth, and they take is called dental calculus or tartar off your teeth is that lesson for any. No. But luckily that is a relatively new thing and back in the day. And like medieval times, people were not having their teeth scraped every three to six months, and I say lucky because there's precious information hidden in that dental calculus may be able to learn about the oral microbiomes of the people who live in the past and also about different diseases that they might have had. And now, it's also telling us things about their occupations what they did every day or or kinds of chemicals encountered in their lives. I have Christina Warner here. She's gonna talk about some dental calculus that was contaminated with a blue mineral, so Christina. What did you find these blue particles associated with dental calculus on these remains was when we first saw them? I mean, probably the last thing I would have expected to find we were trying to look at it in house. Yeah. We expected the bacteria has after all calculus is made a plaque dental plaque. Which is made up of bacteria, and we expected to find little bits of food because when you're alive, and you have plaque on your teeth, and you're eating or your smoking or your breathing and pollen all these little things. Get stuck in your plaque overtime, the plaque calcified at mineralized in your mouth from the minerals in your saliva. In fact, it's the only part of your body that fossilising while you're still alive, and this actually happens over and over again these layers actually build up almost like tree rings or layers of an onion. So after you've calcified one layer you'll form another layer that apply can keep doing it. This woman that we looked out. We actually cross section debt, and there were so many layers. It really looked like this calculus hadn't been removed in twenty or twenty five years that had so many layers built on top of each other. But for an archaeologist this is a gold mine. It's like a time capsule that tells the story of of this woman's life. What was the first thought from the group if you know, they saw these little blue flecks in in her teeth under the microscope? We had no idea what it was. We could be some sort of contaminant is there's something in soil. That's blue. Yeah. No, no. There's not we looked into extensively actually blue minerals are very rare. They tend to be things you have to mind from deep in the earth. They don't occur in surface sediments. So we thought well, maybe maybe it's a it's a mineral of some kind, and maybe it's a paint. Because certain was so blue was Royal blue the brightest brightest blew it looked like Robin's eggs tiny little, Robin. I bet it. I was probably as right as right is a pretty common mineral, it's a pretty inexpensive mineral, and it's really widespread across Europe. And it was used by are in the middle ages. I was pretty sure it was as right? It ended up being fairly complicated to identify for a number of reasons. One is as we were looking at it the blue began to fade and disappear. Oh, yeah. This happened over and over again it took a while. I figure out what was happening, and we finally figured it out when you wanna look at calculus under a microscope. You can't just put under microscope. It's too compacted. And you have to break it up and the usual way of doing this is to apply a little bit of weak acid, and it just dissolves the mineral enough to allow the particles to come out. It turns out that many mineral pigments are actually unstable in the presence of acid and they lose their color. That's what we were seeing. So that gave you a clue that maybe it wasn't as right? We'll also breaks down from we actually tested many different reference, pigments and determine which were stable in. Which were not. So like cobalt blues is stable. But as right is not and Lashley was not there, aren't that many lose that were available to the medieval painter, they had a admitted access of the blues that they had available to most blue because of particular element. So cobalt blue is split because cobalt, Azure is blue because of copper, Vivian. I is blue because iron Rapids Lashley, actually, not one mineral. It's a bunch of minerals together. Blue component is called laterite. There's also white minerals in they're called slug apply and also pyrite the golden flex that. People often recognize one thing your paper reminded me of is that in a television show, and they say what is this mineral residue and just handed to the lab and that have hands and back and answer is never that easy. You had to go through a lot of steps to identify. What exactly was going on here on these T? So what were some of the tests that you had to subject this mineral to will the trouble with Lazarie? The blue mineral is that there's nothing unusual. About it. In terms of its elements made up of the same elements that are found in soil just configured very differently into in their mineral structure, and so we use a technique called Rahman spectroscopy which actually allows us to look more at the mineral structure itself, and that we were able to get a very good match for lodge right after we identified the blue crystals as being a match using two different methods for laterite. We thought let's test some of these white particles that ordinarily would completely ignore and they turn out to flog apply laterite and flog pie only Coker together in legislation that gave you that confidence that you what you are looking at. But it's really surprising that that's what you're looking at. It was extremely surprising. This Lashley was one of the most expensive and rarest artists materials of the middle ages. We did not expect to find it. I think it's hard for us understand how expensive it was. And how difficult it would have been to get their lap. Lashley only had one source during the middle ages, and that WAS FG. Anniston? So this pigment had to traveled from its source in Afghanistan overland along the paths of the silk road, basically at through the Islamic world. Whereas probably refined into a pigment traded up into Venice. And then distributed into Europe made in extraordinary six thousand kilometer journey to make it into the mouth of this very ordinary one about that in women. What about that last little bit of the journey? How would it end up in her mouth? I mean, there's no way this could happen completely Occidental's. She must have been exposed in a very intimate way. But help Osprey happen. Now, we spent a long time debating what the possible scenarios could be. I have my favorite. It's not the one that it is my favorite is all the the book kissing that people were doing it. The look if think has so so this is really incredible during the middle ages, but but actually later than the that was eliminated it. Yeah. Yeah. During the fourteenth century, there's this sort of fat. Bad for what they call emotive devotional osculation so says like intense kissing books, and the idea was to become very affectionate with the images. Eventually they started creating these little osculation targets at the bottoms of the pages to try to encourage priests, for example to kiss the target and not the face of Jesus because it was wiping away face that one was discarded because it was it wasn't the timing wasn't right. And let's turn to one of the what are the likely scenarios in which woman would have introduced us into her mouth. So he came up with two of the we thought were more likely that either she was trying to produce a pigment herself. And thus may have inhaled some of the dust, and that was so she would probably producing it either for herself or one of her sisters or she was an artist herself with the first scenario, although it's possible. I don't think it's likely for one reason. And that is because if you just take lapis largely Sony new grind now you'll. Will get a really dull gray pigment. It's not nice. It has too much of the flog pie and other minerals inside that dole the color. So what you have to do is you have to refine it and the technique use to refine lavishly at this time wasn't really known in Europe. It was primarily performed in in the Islamic world. But what I think is probably the most likely is that she was an artist herself, we do know from some artists manuals around the same time that one technique for producing a really fine point for for fine painting work involved. Compressing the the paintbrush between the lips the lap is largely was quite distributed through her mouth zone. It wasn't Dustin one place. It was also really disperse. So it didn't seem to have been incorporated as a paint, for example, if she had kissed it had gotten stuck an also there are some really amazing letters from right around the same time period. Maybe a little bit later. Also in Germany where there is a men's monastery. There's an or Mario. Who is the keeper of the books and he had commissioned the production of several new books from a neighboring women's community. So when you say when you say she was an artist it's more about eliminating manuscripts than it is about making paintings, correct? It was very likely for eliminating manuscripts. Because it was a lot of book production right at this time. It gives evidence that women were producing books and they were producing important books. Yeah. But unfortunately, these letters don't stay which pigments were being used we can tell by the amount of silk, and the amount of parchment that he was sending for these books to be made that they would have been quite nice books. Is there anything else from the grave site or from the ruins of the monastery where where this this remains were or anything else there that would help with that the women's community from the letter was different one. Okay. Not this community. The remains of from a site called doll. Heim doll Heim is located in western Germany and today. It's actually the site of museum about monasteries and the cemetery that we focused on was one of the very associate with one of the earliest religious communities that was founded in this area, and it was a women's community with interesting about all Heim is almost nothing survives at all. Today. You can go and visit and I recommend doing. So it's really fun. But all that's left of the women's community is the stone Dacians, none of the walls. Are there? There's no art that survives. There's not a single book that survives this poor women's community, which at its at its height supported actually, very small group of women. Only about a dozen women live there at any given time it underwent multiple fires burned to the ground multiple times. It was sacked in at least to battle. It was hit by plague and eventually it was abandoned during another war and a non was murdered and the whole community fell apart this was centuries later, and then later a group of monks moved in and they built a monastery, and that's the monastery. That actually release revives there today. And that today is really the museum people go to visit. But you can still find this kind of traces of this little women's what they call a frown closer this little women's monastery, a little women's community still bear the church foundations and the foundations of of the place where they lived, but it's very small kind of tucked away and forgotten. It's like had just been a rate how absolutely race. And so to me that was something that was so interesting is in this totally unexpected context from this very ordinary seeming woman from the cemetery we've been able to identify someone who was likely in live, quite extraordinary person. She must have been a very talented artists, and I say artists here because lapis Lashley was not used by scribes who is not used typically to write words, it was used to illuminate pictures. Wow. That is amazing. So other other remains from the
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Last Word with Lawrence O'Donnell
"Trump administration who has repeatedly used the fourteenth century word lodestar meaning a star that leads the way our guides our way the anonymous op Ed piece says Senator John McCain should be our lodestar quote. We may no longer have Senator McCain, but we will always have his example a load star for. Storing honored to public life and our national dialogue. Mr. Trump may fear such honorable men, but we should revere them. One of the more unusual words in the sl is lodestar, which it turns out people have looked is a word that you have used many times. Sure. Must again be our lodestar with vigilance and resolve as our lodestar. It really was the lodestar. Do you think someone purposely put that in the to try to set you up? I wouldn't know. I wouldn't know. He knows he knows that if he is not the author of the anonymous op Ed piece, then yes, the author was definitely trying to set him up by using the Mike Pence word lodestar. And that would mean that the resistance to Trump inside the Trump White House is as disgusted with Mike Pence as with Donald Trump, if you disapprove of the job, Donald Trump is doing as president as so many of Bob Woodward's Trump administration sources. Do as the anonymous author of the New York Times up piece obviously does then you are part of an overwhelming American majority. A Quinnipiac poll shows Donald Trump's job approval at thirty eight percent with fifty four percent disapproving and a new CNN poll tonight.
A New Kind of Musical on Broadway
"As you can hear the music for west side story is very dramatic in nineteen fifty seven. When the show opened Broadway had never seen or heard anything like it, the plot was familiar enough. It's based on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet that to fourteenth century Italian teenagers who fall in love, even though their families are at war. But west side story takes place in New York City and the teenagers are caught between warring. Gangs. Tony is a polish American who falls in love with a Puerto Rican girl named Maria. Joss manteca neymar. And suddenly that name will never be the same.
"fourteenth century" Discussed on The Flop House Podcast
"Ju the muslims in the fourteenth century like those kinds of uh uh those kinds of and like things hangover people for centuries but here's the thing if that's the case how can i everybody everything else is exactly the same even the veterinary everything is exactly the same here in a city called los angeles which is named after angels which is an explicitly like judeo christian muslim thing and it's specifically a catholic thing because that whole part of the country was originally settled by spain and mexico like the idea that it's like we had this dark lord and there is magic and stuff there's jesus in aging i'd you have so many there's so many weird anachronism 's and weird will not even mechanisms just like weird things that scene would make sense that they would exists a world with you now why works cern elves and stuff that i would love to hear a commentary track for this movie where the guys from the magic tavern podcast explicitly every winter chief among them i think is the part where like they referenced the movie shrek enjoying the movie shrek wouldn't work in a world where these things are actual may have actual majet in snow it would be like in magic tavern where they play that office roleplaying game like shrek in the in that world would be would be set like in normal place was just normal people or something like that at all splits at one point the orcas like if they were like hey the movie shrek exists and all the orcs think it's fucking race it's like war us i like the thing they thought if he gets amazing and they always are listening to like fucking smash minor like allstars the like pork theme song hey that's a movie damn go tell maxland is to change it so let her the fact that there was a moment where there's a there's a latino and he goes and the work cop is like because i'll tell you the plot emma that cop is like.
"fourteenth century" Discussed on Stuff You Should Know
"Interesting mmhmm platelet uh he's a 1940's historian i guess so uh could a sworn as plunkett so tft pluck net says that um fourteenth century parliament was the first time impeachment eh came about and during that time there were a couple of different uh cases over a like an 11 year period that had a pretty big shift from one to the next frame how impeachment works right so at the time back then and then the fourteenth century right yeah the um the king could point there were all manner of like positions that the king could appoint and what you were appointed by the king that was it you only answered to the king yet i do anything you wanted it as long as you had the king's favour there was nothing anyone could do so um at one point and i'm not sure how they took it upon themselves but this article says that it grew out of a trial of roger mortimer who was convicted in in um executed for arranging the murder of king edward the second yet that counts and then a chief justice willoughby uh who was accused of corruption untried um these two guys were like high appointed officials and they were removed from office and the way that they were removed was basically the parliament got involved so this idea of impeaching people grew out of the the notion that wait a minute parliament and specifically the house of commons which is if you take parliament aimed a congress in the united states.
"fourteenth century" Discussed on Stuff You Should Know
"Uh yeah it is like they w they were christian at base nah sticks but then they had like yeah they had this other occult ideas in addition to it right so like the kafer's for catheters or good example of that they were in the think like the twelve th the fourteenth century france and they were like christian plus right they were they the caters means like the pure one seven um they were so christian that they felt like just being a normal paya's christian wasn't enough in you actually had to be baptized again the basically like a bornagain christian process yet but in again like 12 13th century france they were considered heretics and they were persecuted you could call them nso tick order because it didn't follow prescribed christianity orthodox establishment christianity into a t it either was lacking some or had extra and then you're you're a heretic and hence satanist an esoteric order believed in damn brown books basically the dell that stuff is true all the of he writes about his about like esoteric orders well here's the thing though they were all labelled as satanist but the but there's there's no evidence whatsoever that any of them where satanic in like in truth yes in know while i was reading about one the luciferians they actually it they may have a hand although there concept of satan wasn't that he was evil their concept was that he was the one true deity in that he had been tricked into being kicked out of heaven unfairly by a treacherous jehovah interest and that um it was actually lucifer who was supposed to be in charge and that jehovah was oppressing everybody so if that's true than yes as far as the church goes that is as satanic as you can possibly get in your beliefs yet because they were in total opposition to the church in their beliefs as well but that's i mean for the most part most of these other groups were not in any way shape or form satanic as as you would think of it today we end eddie than points out in here the grab stir that but uh that that there's.