35 Burst results for "Four Thousand Years"
The Interior World
"Hey welcome to stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb, and I'm Joe. McCormick, and today we're going to be taking a look at interior space. Get Era Two thousand twenty brings to mind the old curse. May You live in interesting times and one of the factors here has, of course, been the corona virus cove in nineteen pandemic and in an effort to fight the spread of the illness, save lives and prevent overwhelming are hospitals. We've made a lot of changes to our lives and these range from the simple such as just wearing a mask when you're out in public and you can't so full. Distance from people to the harder choices about employment, and in life choices, we've all been social distancing and stay at home orders teleworking in quarantine have meant that we've all been spending a lot more time at home. Now depending on your home, this could mean a lot of things, but we want to explore what this means from a biological standpoint for the most part here. Now, make no mistake spending more time at home has absolutely been the right move. But just as it's forced you to focus more on, say that weird stain on your ceiling we wanted to focus on the other often unseen aspects of life in home right much the same way that being say on a Spanish galleon out in the middle of the ocean might have made you pay much more attention to the biology and behavior of of ship rats than you ever would have otherwise I. Think being at home more and more is forcing all of us to Turner is and maybe our microscopes and magnifying glasses to the corners and the cornices and the showerheads and the drain traps and all of the wonderful places in our house where life dwells. we're going to really get into the difference really between the natural world outside of our homes in the unnatural world inside and getting into some ideas about how how we could perhaps enable our interior world to be a little more on the natural side of things. But. Before we get into all that, I wanted to take a moment here to discuss the history of houses in general, you know just to get into the concept of what a house is. Our first and most important interior artificial environment. So you can certainly look at a home as an artificial cave to a certain extent indeed, we have lots of early evidence that early hominids sought out shelter in caves in the same way that many other animals do these can shelter one against the elements and against predators and as recently as one hundred, thirty thousand years ago cave-dwellers were already augmenting these natural interior environments with things like rough stone walls using timbers so So you know, even one, hundred, thirty, thousand years ago we were taking naturally occurring interior spaces and. A little less natural. And of course, on top of just the shelter caves can provide. It also seems that caves had a strong sacred meaning too many of these prehistoric peoples those might be important, but ultimately, proximity to water is far more important thus as Kate Spin Brian fagin point out in. In the section of the seventy grade inventions of the ancient world about homes, most early hominids lived out in the open near streams and lakes built temporary structures, and most of this has been lost a time. But some of the earliest evidence of potential structures for homes goes back a one point seven, two point seven, million years ago with Homo Erectus sites in southern Africa, and these were potentially contemporary with the domestication of fire. The have been temporary tents, but they still would have been artificial interior environments. Now, more secure evidence comes from the Ukraine roughly forty four thousand years ago the the mammoth bone structures from mullet ova with recently see us on the show actually yeah we did talknet these that would have been structures in one of the northernmost habitable regions of the earth the time because this was during a time of glacial. Advance where the polar ice caps from the north were coming deep down into Europe and Asia, and and so this would have been far far north way up among the ice and for some reason, humans were building these structures out of the bones of mammoth and we don't know that there are still things. We don't know about those structures like how how consistently they were inhabited and for how long and so forth. Right? Now beyond this, the history of human homes is is largely dictated by local resources and local climate. Long process of trial and error ends up leading to the development of regional and cultural building forums construction methods. Before nine thousand B C e we see evidence of clay houses and Palestine what is today Palestine and before seven thousand BC we see rectangular dwellings in Anatolia. But but a home is far more than just a shelter. As the authors here point out houses became key to social structure as well.
The Most Dangerous Fruit in America
"To start our watermelon adventure, we called one of the world's great watermelon. Harry Paris he has worked on watermelon science per years as part of Israel's agricultural research. Service. Well, I think the first thing that comes to the first two syllables water right? This is a true rich table. which has a lot of water and which actually probably the first use by people of this particular natural products. Was To quench thirst I've spent summers in Israel, and it is basically watermelon paradise but that's not actually were Harry I fell in love with a watermelon it all started when his dad grew watermelons in the backyard in their home in Brooklyn in the nineteen sixties then Harry gave watermelon farming himself fifteen years old and there was a new variety called Crimson sweets that came out and plans at a few seats in the garden and Lo and behold by the fall we got one nice big sweet high quality watermelon fruit. That we grew in the backyard in Brooklyn and from then on I was just hoped. Harry was well ahead of the local war hipster curve in Brooklyn but the watermelon is neither from Brooklyn nor from Israel, in fact, its origins are a little bit of a mystery. One of the big headlines was back in the mid nineteenth century when the British explorer David Livingstone went to the southern African deserts and low and behold. It was the year in which there was more rain than average and he found a large areas just covered with wild watermelons. He's wild watermelons were hard but does the name says have water say to pound them and so on and so forth but you could squeeze the water out of them David Livingston was searching for the source of the Nile. But apparently, he was also as a side hustle looking for other sources like the source of our sweet watermelons and people thought he'd founded the wild ancestor but Livingston was wrong about the source of the Nile and as it turns out now. We know he was wrong about those wild watermelons to now that scientists can examine the DNA of melons. They found that the Kalahari desert wild melon that Livingston came upon is not the ancestor of our sweet watermelon. But DNA is just one of the tools that scientists are using to try to figure out where and when the watermelon was domesticated, you can't just use one approach. You have to use an archaeology approach you have to use clients science you have to use. Linguistics you have to go into literature some of it'll some of an ancient. And even more than that. Of course, with the latest that we know genetics and genome can assist us first of all the plant Science Livingston was at least on the right continent because there are wild watermelons of various different species all over. Africa. So the wild relatives watermelon their fruits are smaller and rounder not elongate. They have often perfectly round it small fruits the outside looks like a watermelon like little, green and white. But inside they all have this extremely bitter and usually white. Whitish pulpits azan Renner is a professor of biology at the University of Munich and she's another one of the world's watermelon expert Suzanne's as you could boil these Super Beta watermelons for jam or you could use them medicinally as kind of a purge to clean out your insides. Basically, the wild watermelon wasn't a tasty thing to eat raw at all. So where the desert watermelon comes from, there are two things that have to happen to these bitter wild melons to turn them into the watermelons. We love today to specific genetic mutations. The first one is a mutation. That switches off the production of bitchy chemicals and so this mutation occurs in nature as bad for the plan because the plant of course has this bitterness to defend itself not eaten so that the fruits would not be yeah for the plan is better to lose the bitterness but for us, it's good and we can only imagine that native people every once in a while tried one of these melons maybe for what may be hoping for something to chew on and found some that wasn't bitter Suzanne's scientists know what that mutation is and how to find it in. A melon they just to look and the second mutation is the one that turned it red inside rather than white the red colors also well understood this is well studied and it's a completely different set of teens. This is and other scientists know exactly which two mutations they're looking for. Those mutations aren't common and wild melon. So when did they happen? When were watermelons domesticated Harry says the place to look for those clues is archaeology in ancient Egyptian tombs. Archaeologists have found paintings of whole watermelons on a platter there oblong and striped watermelons today not round like the. Wild bitter ones but did those ancient Egyptian watermelons taste like the ones we eat did they have the mutations for sweetness and maybe for the red color the painting can't really tell you that. But fortunately, some other watermelon evidence has showed up in a four thousand year old Egyptian tomb complex the seeds and leaves from the tomb ended up at the q Royal Botanic Gardens in England Suzanne wanted to find out if those remains held any clues about whether the watermelon had already been domesticated by them. So she wrote to mark Nesbitt who coincidentally starred in our tonic. And who runs the economic botany collection at Q. and she asked if she could borrow a watermelon leaf from the tomb, it was in a glass box encased in a box and he opd mark opened it, and he said it hadn't been opened since eighteen seventy one or whenever singles arrived there then and her colleagues analyzed demand the leaf and I they were thrilled the watermelon leaf DNA did in fact, have the mutations that would have made the fruit sweet and read but then when you see fourteen Dating for this material that we had received for Mark Nesbitt, it turned out it was much younger than we thought it turns out the watermelon material in the two had been left there by a later visitor carbon dating showed it was from the late eighteen hundreds huge bummer.
The Most Dangerous Fruit in America
"Start our watermelon adventure, we called one of the world's great watermelon. Harry Paris he has worked on watermelon science per years as part of Israel's agricultural research. Service. Well, I think the first thing that comes to the first two syllables water right? This is a true rich table. which has a lot of water and which actually probably the first use by people of this particular natural products. Was To quench thirst I've spent summers in Israel, and it is basically watermelon paradise but that's not actually were Harry I fell in love with a watermelon it all started when his dad grew watermelons in the backyard in their home in Brooklyn in the nineteen sixties then Harry gave watermelon farming himself fifteen years old and there was a new variety called Crimson sweets that came out and plans at a few seats in the garden and Lo and behold by the fall we got one nice big sweet high quality watermelon fruit. That we grew in the backyard in Brooklyn and from then on I was just hoped. Harry was well ahead of the local war hipster curve in Brooklyn but the watermelon is neither from Brooklyn nor from Israel, in fact, its origins are a little bit of a mystery. One of the big headlines was back in the mid nineteenth century when the British explorer David Livingstone went to the southern African deserts and low and behold. It was the year in which there was more rain than average and he found a large areas just covered with wild watermelons. He's wild watermelons were hard but does the name says have water say to pound them and so on and so forth but you could squeeze the water out of them David Livingston was searching for the source of the Nile. But apparently, he was also as a side hustle looking for other sources like the source of our sweet watermelons and people thought he'd founded the wild ancestor but Livingston was wrong about the source of the Nile and as it turns out now. We know he was wrong about those wild watermelons to now that scientists can examine the DNA of melons. They found that the Kalahari desert wild melon that Livingston came upon is not the ancestor of our sweet watermelon. But DNA is just one of the tools that scientists are using to try to figure out where and when the watermelon was domesticated, you can't just use one approach. You have to use an archaeology approach you have to use clients science you have to use. Linguistics you have to go into literature some of it'll some of an ancient. And even more than that. Of course, with the latest that we know genetics and genome can assist us first of all the plant Science Livingston was at least on the right continent because there are wild watermelons of various different species all over. Africa. So the wild relatives watermelon their fruits are smaller and rounder not elongate. They have often perfectly round it small fruits the outside looks like a watermelon like little, green and white. But inside they all have this extremely bitter and usually white. Whitish pulpits azan Renner is a professor of biology at the University of Munich and she's another one of the world's watermelon expert Suzanne's as you could boil these Super Beta watermelons for jam or you could use them medicinally as kind of a purge to clean out your insides. Basically, the wild watermelon wasn't a tasty thing to eat raw at all. So where the desert watermelon comes from, there are two things that have to happen to these bitter wild melons to turn them into the watermelons. We love today to specific genetic mutations. The first one is a mutation. That switches off the production of bitchy chemicals and so this mutation occurs in nature as bad for the plan because the plant of course has this bitterness to defend itself not eaten so that the fruits would not be yeah for the plan is better to lose the bitterness but for us, it's good and we can only imagine that native people every once in a while tried one of these melons maybe for what may be hoping for something to chew on and found some that wasn't bitter Suzanne's scientists know what that mutation is and how to find it in. A melon they just to look and the second mutation is the one that turned it red inside rather than white the red colors also well understood this is well studied and it's a completely different set of teens. This is and other scientists know exactly which two mutations they're looking for. Those mutations aren't common and wild melon. So when did they happen? When were watermelons domesticated Harry says the place to look for those clues is archaeology in ancient Egyptian tombs. Archaeologists have found paintings of whole watermelons on a platter there oblong and striped watermelons today not round like the. Wild bitter ones but did those ancient Egyptian watermelons taste like the ones we eat did they have the mutations for sweetness and maybe for the red color the painting can't really tell you that. But fortunately, some other watermelon evidence has showed up in a four thousand year old Egyptian tomb complex the seeds and leaves from the tomb ended up at the q Royal Botanic Gardens in England
Stone tools suggest earlier human presence in North America
"Coming up I, though he's been looking into some stone tools, new muddling analyses suggest humans may have lived in the Americas thousands of years earlier. The many people bolts. Now the of when humans first arrived in the Americas is a hot debate for archaeologists. Well, it's actually a long debated topic as well. This is an issue that arose in the Americas in the eighteen seventies. This is David Meltzer an archeologist who investigates when humans arrived the Americas. Of the past hundred years, or so since archaeologists have gone back and forth on when this might have happened. More recently, thanks to additional archaeological, Ngoma evidence research, his off, starting to converge, go window from when humans first stepped foot on the America's. What we have coming out of archaeology is a number of sites that are sort of in the fifteen thousand years ago range. And so that gives us a minimum age. We know the people were here by that date the ancient. Is pointing to a split. Between Northeast Asian populations and those groups that would come into the Americas happening around Oh twenty, three twenty four thousand years ago, and that kind of gives us a maximum age so somewhere between that twenty, three, twenty four and fifteen is probably the window within which we got people leaving Northeast Asia crossing the Land Bridge and coming into the Americas within this window for many archaeologists. Archaeologists is most likely. The people entered the America's around sixteen thousand years ago. This is due to the prevailing well-established archaeological evidence, which is also backed up by climatic conditions before this time between sixteen thousand and twenty thousand years ago, it would have been difficult for humans to migrate across the Land Bridge from Asia Ju to the presence of giant bowls of ice in North America. This was a time period within the last ice age known as the last glacial maximum or L. GM. If you get to Alaska during the last glacial maximum your in a cola SAC, and so you've got basically two massive ice sheets better blocking your way out, but this week in nature there are two papers that pushed the date of human arrival back thousands of years before sixteen thousand years ago. One has examined the cave deep in the desert Mexico known as cheeky to the oldest dates. We have our somewhere around thirty thousand years ago. This is sipping our delion, the lead archaeologist examining the cave. Hundred years ago would push back human arrival to well before the last glacial maximum when blocked entry into North America. There were some clues that that cave have something. In those layers belonging to the GM that seemed to suggest humans and I was very skeptical, bought Chiquita Cave. If you go deeper and deeper into excavations without stopping when you hit. The Marker. Of the fourteen thousand orbiting thousand, you may get lucky. You may get into something that's been invisible for quite a while with evidence of human during the last glacial maximum, Ciprian was encouraged to look beyond the SPIRA and dig deeper to older sediments. By taking. SCIPION found an array of unusual stone tools that he thinks made by people that inhabited the cave. flaked stone tools made a very peculiar material, which is re crystallized green limestone. So they searched for this particular kinds of stone around the cave, and they consistently picked the Greens variety and used it to to make very good. Looking artifacts that are already shaped, so it's not the typical flint or obsidian. He would find many places during the Now this isn't the first evidence suggested that humans have been in the Americas this early. That oversights weather have been claims of human occupation born twenty thousand years ago, but these are being disputed by some archaeologists. Also there are comparatively few sites of this age in the US or Canada so far. If, we seem that people initially crossed into Alaska across the lumberjack known as Berangere, and then migrated south would expect to find more traces of them. Well. That's where the second paper in nature this week comes in is offered by one of the researchers who's been investigating Cheeky Wheaty Loretta Devia so we were looking at archaeological and colonel metric, so that's essentially radiocarbon dates, luminescence dates from forty two archaeological sides from north, America and Brinda by collecting and analyzing Archaeological Evidence News Associated Dates Loretta, and her co author were able to build a model of human dispersal as populations found out from Alaska across North America. Whilst? This model doesn't find new dates for out of fax. It uses known dice to suggest when people would have I reached the different sites across North America. We were able to see that. Humans were present in North America before during and after the. Maximum, but that human expansion didn't actually occur until later during a period of abrupt sort of global warming, this only did the populations were low during the last glacial maximum, and then rapidly expanded once things go warmer is also backed up by scipion archaeological evidence from the cave in Mexico as soon as you reach the layers in the deposits of the case that day to about. Eighteen, sixteen thousand you the number forty facts just. triplicated number scipion also things this could help explain what was so little evidence of humans during before the last glacial maximum. It's almost impossible to find them I. mean you have such a huge chunk of our planet with just a few footsteps on it? That's that's how I looked like I mean you can barely coli to. populated, continent, but do these papers roll back the daytime when humans were present in the Americas. Well. It may be too early to tell for David. Meltzer you heard from earlier. It wasn't involved in this research. When it comes to the cave, he thinks of a still questions be asked about the tools that were found based on radiocarbon dates that they have I think the radiocarbon dates look awfully solid. It appears as though this technology lasted for minimally according to the dates around sixteen thousand years with a stone tool tradition bat, long lasting one would expect it to have been far more widespread in the region instead of being localized to this this one cave David. Perhaps archaeologist just haven't found stone tools like this. Unless could account for why they don't appear to be widespread. He did have questions as well regarding wind don't to change over the sixteen thousand year period. They were found. The him is quite strange. CIPRIAN however argues the. Maybe that isn't so unusual. If you look at other places in the world during the Ice Age, the stone technologies did the remain the same for many thousands of years without significant changes. So that's what happens that she reach. It behaves more like stone tool industries in the old world where they remain unchanged for thousands of years for the second. Paper David Vote, but Laurynas analysis was sound. He did have some questions regarding some the sites that were included in the analysis. In some cases, these sites themselves, the data is highly ambiguous, so you've got a well dated site, but the artifacts or the indications of a human presence may just be shattered, bone or cut mark bone, and those of us that do field work that deal with this kind of thing know that there are a lot of natural processes that can mimic human actions on bone or stone, the debate surrounding when humans first came to the Americas is far from solved this newspapers at evidence to it been many ways. They raise a lot of questions as well. Perhaps though they will inspire archaeologist to dig deeper to find the first Americans at the moment subject to change if you look at the converging genomic and archaeological evidence, it looks as though people are coming in soon after the less maximum. So Sixteen fifteen and a half thousand years ago. Could they have been there earlier? Absolutely? But if you're going to make the argument, it's going to require you know well laid out case. That was David Meltzer. From Southern Methodist University in the US you also heard from Cipriani Audet Leeann from the University of Texas in Mexico and Lorena, Sarah Devia from the University of Oxford here in the UK and the University of New South, Wales in Australia, we'll put a link to the papers. Discussed in the show notes
"A lot of playing board games these days and that's pretty fitting human making board games for a long time like a long longtime seven thousand years or more for a bit of historical context. We stopped hunter-gathering and settled down to be farmers about ten thousand years ago rather than try to cram seven thousand years in six occupied continents worth of history into a half hour podcast. I'll hit some of the high points. Especially the less well-known once the earliest gaming pieces ever found are forty nine. Small carved painted stones found a five thousand year old burial mound in southeast Turkey. Similar pieces have been found in Syria and Iraq and seemed to point devoid games originating in the Fertile Crescent. You remember the Fertile Crescent from the first week of world history class. It's the same region discovered alcohol invented papyrus and made calendars all of which you need. If you're hosting game night other early dice games were created by painting a single side of a flat. Stick these sticks would be tossed at once and that would be your role Mesopotamia. Dice were made from a variety of materials including carved knuckle bones would painted stones and turtle shells. No wonder folks used to say roll them bones dice from the Roman era. Looks like the six sided die. We use today though. Some of them had their corners. Cut off to be able to reach a higher number not unlike dungeons and dragons dice. Imagine excavating a distant Roman out host and finding a D twenty serious cricket board games became popular among the Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. And that shouldn't surprise. That board games were a bigger part of life for upper class people since they have both money for entertainment and time to play. Even before the first dynasty Egypt loved a game called Senate. It's even seen on. The walls of tombs and copies of the game are buried with noble people. Ancient Egyptians were strong believers in the concept of fate. And that your luck in the game of Senate meant that you were under the protection of the major gods of the Pantheon raw toe to toe Cyrus. The significance of the game is clear. The game play not as clear. Historians have made educated guesses as to the rules more on that later and Board Game. Companies have used those guesses as a jumping off place to make modern versions. Four Games also became tied into religious beliefs. One such game was Mahan played around three thousand. B C e Mahan was a protective God depicted as a snake with coils around the Sun God raw during his journey through the night the game and the God became intertwined. Tim Kendall and ancient Egyptian historian believes that it's not possible to know for sure with the information we have available whether the game was inspired by an existing deity or the Deity was inspired by the game. Many people think backgammon is the longest plate of all the board games with evidence that it existed around two thousand B C but there is an extant game. That is a little bit older. Relatively speaking the royal game of for the game gets its name from being found in the royal tombs of in Iraq. There was also a set found in Pharaoh. Tutankhamun tune the game. Play is simple but very familiar. You're trying to get all of your pieces around the board first thumping off your opponent's pieces along the way again. Proving there's nothing new under the Sun. The royal game of herb was played with four sided or tetrahedral dice. A D Four for the tabletop games out there. Even though the game's over four thousand years old amazingly we found a copy of the rules Irving Finkel the British museum deciphered cuneiform tablet and discovered. It was the rules for the Royal Game of Earth. He then saw a photograph of a nearly identical board game being played in modern India. That makes the Royal Game of Earth. The longest played game in history and there is a great video of Irving Finkel. Who has ever so pleasantly mad teaching youtuber or Tom Scott how to play Lincoln the show notes and a little clip right here. Because I just couldn't help myself. All sorts of evidence has come to live so that we know how this game was played and we can play it now with a great deal of excitement. Sometimes it brings out violence. Come Times it brings out savagery. I have to say that this so we've decided to bring in a member of the public. I can't remember the name on Tom. Scott I make videos about science technology in the world. Who's never paid this game before? I have never played this game before. I'm Gandhi swift overview of the walls. Hope he masses and I'm getting to play of course play gently at first because I don't say hi to hang I'm to wipe the floor with it wouldn't do it for me even discovered these rules and I'll throw in his mind. Game listing whitlow. Marta is similar to that question of modern. There were some minor differences s today. Each player has fifteen checkers and uses six sided dice to be the first to bear off. All of one's checkers. I confess that I am reading that. From a website verbatim. I know less about that. Yemen do cricket. Backgammon had a renewed surge of popularity in the nineteen sixties which is held longtime for a comeback. Thanks in part to the charisma of Prince Alexis. Obolensky the father of modern backgammon cigarette liquor and car. Companies began to sponsor tournaments and Hugh Hefner held backgammon parties at the Playboy Mansion. At the same time that the Romans were playing Latin backgammon. The Chinese were play. We she or you may have heard of it. Go Que- she may even predate the game of twelve markings and the royal game of Earth. According to legend which has a pesky habit of morphing into history quay g was created by the ancient Chinese. Emperor Yell to teach his son on Ju discipline. Concentration and balance the popularity of wage e grew throughout Eastern Asia especially in Japan. Which is where the name go comes from another ancient game which is still out there and a favourite of nearly every household in my family is the African game of Mangala in our modern parlance. Munkala refers to a specific game. But the name actually belongs to an entire genre of games a genre eight hundred traditional games strong. This family of Board Games is played around. The world is referred to as Sewing Games S. O. W. I N. G. Devotes the way that you pick up and drop the stones playing pieces like you were sowing seeds in the ground. The word Mukalla comes from the Arabic Nicola to move most one college games share a common structure where each player has gained pieces in divots on the board and moves them to capture their opponent's pieces leading them to also be called count and capture games. The boards can be wooden clay even just little holes in the dirt playing pieces of everything from seeds. Stones shells anything near at hand that fits in the holes. The earliest evidence of the game are fragments of pottery. Board found in Eritrea dated to the sixth century CE. Though if the games were played with seeds on wooden boards or pebbles in divots in the dirt the game could be even older. The absence of evidence is not evidence of absence after all that particular logical fallacy is called argument from ignorance at ignorant him. And it's not a good look now. We go to the land of ice and snow of the Midnight Sun. Where the hot springs flow Scandinavians played chess. Like game called. Nevin tough at least as early as four hundred see. I'm sure my clever listeners haven't forgotten that. Viking refers to the raids undertaken by a small portion of the population themselves called Viking US meaning kings table noth- Atoll was a war strategy game. The kings objective was to escape to the edge of the board while the opponents laurel objective was to capture him. The attacking force had the natural advantage at the start of each game. Perhaps mimicking a cultural mindset of a small group being victorious against a larger force like say a few boats full of Viking attacks against the army of an English King Scandinavians spread the game to Ireland Britain and Wales through. Let's call it. Unexpected cultural exchange archaeologists have also discovered that it was popular as far to the east as Ukraine.
"All Welcome to kiss Miss Misery. Sime your host kit chrome hoping you're healthy and staying sheltered in place today. I'm going to talk about scientific hiccups and I'll begin with the woolly mammoths arose about five point. One million years ago in Africa according to the curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York from Africa the mammoth migrated throughout Europe Asia North America. Their evolution continued over millions of years eventually producing the woolly. Mammoth we know today. They began roughly two hundred fifty thousand years ago. Mammoths went extinct about ten thousand years ago. Hoops that's the first scientific hiccup more like three thousand five hundred years ago. Scientists now believe in isolated population of mammals persisted on Wrangel Island off northeastern eastern Costa Siberia and deep in Canada's Northwest Territory and World Heritage Site than Hani Valley. They were there until about three thousand seven hundred years ago. The ten thousand year more of extinction is in most textbooks though. But let's take a closer look at that date. The prominent theory that made it into most textbooks and the cyclopes. Pedia is ten thousand years ago because it was believed for decades at the mammoth migrated from the African continent through Eurasian orth America driven by the last ice age. What scientists called police to seen ice age following the food supply? If that's the case that it makes sense that some ended up in the valley because it was never touched by the last ice age and yes sponsor the mammoth have actually been found in that region. But this isn't the first theory published in a textbook as fact that is founded. It's been believed yes. Baited into text books that the continent of at Artika has been covered by ice for millions of years again. Oops scientific hiccup. The Perry reese map drawn in. Fifteen thirteen shows a northern coast of Antarctica. Ice-free the most puzzling aspect of the map isn't how it managed to be so accurate three hundred years before and articles discovered but that the map shows the real coastline under the ice geological. Evidence has confirmed. How could that have happened or been charted in an ice free age four thousand years ago which is what science states? That was the last time that Arctic was ice free officials. Science has been saying all along that the ice cap which covers the Antarctic is millions of years old. The Perry reese at Arctic amount shows it the northern part of that continent has been mapped before the ice covered it that could make us think it has been mapped a million years ago but that's impossible since mankind did not exist at that time. Furthermore accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice-free condition in that Arctic area the northern tip ended about six thousand years ago the question is who mapped Queen Maud Land of Antarctica. Six thousand years ago which unknown civilization had the technology or the need to do that. I want to state at this point. That the Perry map has been validated as being real and brought back to that data. Fifteen thirteen it is not a about that which made twenty years. I pushed office something true. I want to touch on just one. More scientific kick up nestled in the ancient city of Papun Kabul. Libya are stone blocks that were used to make up a series of pyramids each block. Wade from two hundred to four hundred tonnes. Nothing unusual there. The city dates back to five three six ad yet. The blocks are riddled with carved indentations and in the surrounding grasses were found giant staple liked clamps. That it in place and we're used to hold the blocks together. Wait a minute. How could the indigenous people with no knowledge of metallurgy have created these clamps and worded the metal used for them? Come from? But this isn't the only case of clamps be used to hold giants Jones together and Cambodia's Angor Watt giant sandstone blocks way nearly two tonnes were brought to the side of the temple from a nearby mountain bias. Here's waterways close inspection. The stones that are scattered around the side has revealed carved indentations receptacles for metal clamps. Says kind of interesting. How about an eerie coincidence? Just outside the magnificent ruins of anger. What Stanton Asian Pyramid temple known as boxy CAM gone now from? Cambodia travel eight thousand miles to Guatemala and the ancient Mayan city of Tacoma all among the long forgotten structures at to call is the temple of the Jaguar although the Cambodian pyramid is much smaller than the pyramid Guatemala. The similarities between the specific design features are uncanny both these ancient structures have an unusually steep slope angle that don't exist in other pyramids or temples however most importantly they both feature a stepped formation. There's a massive stairwell going up to the middle of both temples and there's a domed area located on top once there you could see. There's a small door goes inside the pyramid and there's another internal structure that looks the same basically. What you have here is an ancient civilization in Cambodia and another in Mesoamerica despite the fact that they are separated by more than nine thousand miles away featuring credible similarities that no one has been able to explain. Thus my idea of being a scientific hiccup because when you read in the textbooks is different than what facts
What Is Pi?
"Come to brain stuff. A production of iheartradio rain stuff lauren. Bo-bottle here the number referred to as pie has mesmerized mathematicians for four thousand years. It's the rarest of back medical constance and unfailingly accurate ratio. That's also never ending. The digits of Pi have been calculated out more than twenty two trillion decimal places without ever repeating a. That makes it an irrational number. The definition of Pie simple. It's the ratio of a circle circumference. That is the length around the circle divided by its diameter or at the links across the circle. But what's remarkable? Is that no matter. The size of the circle you're measuring that ratio of circumference diameter will always equal three point. One four one five nine two six five three five eight nine seven et cetera usually shortened to three point one four divide the circumference of a tennis ball by its diameter. And you get three point one four divide the circumference of the planet Mars by its diameter. And you get three point one four divide the circumference of the known universe by its diameter. You get the point. Pie is critical to several basic calculations geometry physics and engineering including the area of a circle which is Pie Times Square of the radius and volume of a cylinder which has pyre squared times the height of the cylinder when ancient Babylonian attempted to measure the precise area of circles back in one thousand nine hundred BC. They signed a value to pie. A three point one to five. The ancient Egyptians came up with three point one six zero five the Greek mathmetician archimedes working in the third century BC and the Chinese mathematician. Xue Changsa working in the Fifth Century. Ce ARE CO credited with calculating the most accurate approximations of Pi before Calculus and supercomputers gave us a more definitive answer. Then in seventeen o six. The self taught Welsh mathematician. William Jones assigned the Greek letter P. To this magical number without end possibly because P is the first letter of the Greek words. For periphery and perimeter symbols use was later popularized by Eighteenth Century. Spec petition Leonard Euler but wasn't adopted worldwide until nineteen thirty four. The fact that Pie can be found everywhere not only in circles but an arcs pendulums and interplanetary navigation and intimately long has inspired a cult following that includes plenty of Geeky tattoos and even its own National Holiday National Pie Day was officially recognized by the United States. Congress in two thousand nine but the definitely not square roots of the holiday can be traced back to nineteen eighty-eight and a man named Larry the Prince of Pie. Shaw Shaw was a beloved longtime employee at the exploratorium. A Science Museum in San Francisco California and came up with the idea of Pi Day on one thousand nine hundred eighty eight staff retreat following the death of exploratorium founder. Frank Oppenheimer the date for celebration. Well because the first digits of Pi Three Point one four March fourteenth or three fourteen even better march fourteenth is also Albert Einstein's birthday making Pi Day nerd doubleheader the first Pi Day celebration was nothing more than Shaw and his wife handing out slices of fruit pie and tea at one fifty nine. Pm One five nine being the three digits following three point one four but the holiday quickly gained fame in the bay area. Shaw eventually built be Pi Shrine at the exploratorium a circular classroom with a circular brass plaque at center. Every day celebration at the exploratorium ended with a colorful parade led by Shaw blasting his boombox with a remix of pomp and circumstance set to the digits of Pi and circling. The Pie Shrine. Exactly three point one four times. The parade ended with the singing of happy birthday to Albert Einstein. The prince pipe passed away in two thousand seventeen but the annual exploratorium party continues as do Pi Day celebrations. The world over popular ways to celebrate include. Baking a pie orb some kind of circular treat and holding pie recital contests the current world record for memorizing and reciting the most digits of Pi was set by Sharad Kumar Sharma of India in two thousand fifteen when he recited a staggering. Seventy
"four thousand years" Discussed on 106.1 FM WTKK
"The last delivered and this isn't just a small stone this week maybe two times something like that planted in the ground and the sun comes right over it but there's winter solstice and the equinoxes and lunar observation the whole site is built on a two and a half your lunar cycle which we'll get to in a minute so Kelsey goes on Google or anything if you draw the line on Google earth from the center of America's Stonehenge out to the summer solstice standing stone any continues the line just to see where it goes any continues the line and he continues to live in the cross the Atlantic Ocean Eddie winds up splitting the centre true will fallen in Stonehenge England George you can't do that three thousand years ago four thousand years it's impossible the only way you can do it this is Vance geometry calculus and you've got to be in the air this is the power of the air this is the number one site it was built by the dragon and then the extent of the line and he wound up in Beirut and David is the home of the free nations this is pre flood I bet wasn't notices after the flood has four thousand years ago all right now there was a some kind of mysterious stone found at the site of America's Stonehenge what was that again this is absolutely incredible and we show this in the film I'm actually following Kelsey around with with a little hand held possible camera can discount holy this thing of falling around selection would be role and I'm asking us one moment I'm in the forties but Kelsey as the cameras like right up to him any until he's like give me this for the museum and he goes well this is where we keep all these all these stones with inscriptions on the truth found at the site.
"four thousand years" Discussed on NewsRadio WIOD
"Right over that the next deliberate and this isn't just a small stone this ways maybe to turn something like that planted in the ground and the sun comes right over it but there's winter solstice and the equinoxes and lunar observation the whole site is built on a two and a half your lunar cycle which we'll get to in a minute so Kelsey goes on Google or anything in the draw the line on Google earth from the center of America's Stonehenge out to the summer solstice standing stone any continues the line just to see where it goes any continues the line and he continues to line things across the Atlantic Ocean AT winds up splitting the centre true will fallen in Stonehenge England George you can't do that three thousand years ago four thousand years it's impossible the only way you can do it this is Vance geometry calculus and you've got to be in the air so this is the power of the air this is the number one site it was built by the dragons and then extended the line any welled up in Beirut in Beirut is the home of the free nations this is pre flood I bet wasn't notices after the flood four thousand years ago all right now there was a some kind of mysterious stone found at the site of America's Stonehenge what was that yeah this is absolutely incredible and we show this in the film I'm actually following Kelsey around with with a little hand held possible camera can discount holy this thing I'm following around this is our calling to be role and I'm asking us one moment I'm in the forties but Kelsey if the cameras like right up to him any until she's like two minutes for the museum and he goes well this is where we keep all these all these stones with inscriptions on them which were found at the site so I have no idea what is going to show me okay nine zero and I go what system he goes with the dedication stones so I guess I'll just wait and listen and as you would say and he goes to ball the Canaanite and you hear this this pause.
"four thousand years" Discussed on Newsradio 830 WCCO
"The first life was relatively modest I would say that humans are only homo sapiens like snot chromatic energy and that's all but hi how much Sapienza roughly four thousand years old think about the earth is five billion years old and now for a couple billion years no life and for a couple billion years no humans then around four thousand years ago humans appear now when they appeared in the southeast Africa were apparently in most people believe they first appeared do you think that the elephants at all these other people are going to conquer the earth because they're so big now we weren't that big do you think the lions and Tigers said these slow moving and humans or whatever they're called they're going to conquer the earth now because we weren't seems very fast or do you think that the guerrillas thought that we were to conquer the earth now because we weren't protected we have here with efforts up with someone so we weren't scaring anybody probably so what is it that made it possible for humans to in effect conquer the earth and have the ability to change the earth or destroy the earth away the other animals probably cannot well it's obvious to the human brain nobody else has a brain like this and what do you believe in evolution or god creating this brain it clearly has the ability to create such wonderful ideas are great things I could blow up the earth like nuclear weapons so it is the human brain that is the the greatest invention ever and channeling its capabilities is what really makes life interesting and so when you go to watch performing arts show you're seeing the human brain having created symphonies her ballet or opera see the wonderful things that were done or Shakespeare play or so forth the same is true if you go to watch us something scientific she what humans came up with or whatever it might be so the human brain is really the most amazing thing and and after all these years of science we still don't really know how it works we still don't know really know how to fix brain problems at that often occur but we do know that exercise in the brain is quite good for.
Science News Briefs from Around the Globe
"From Spain. Summers powerful drought out revealed a more than four thousand year old oval of at least one hundred standing stones called the Dolman of Guate- parral which had been submerged since nineteen nineteen sixty three in an engineered reservoir from Russia. Scientists identified a small group of Nordmann's Green shanks among the most endangered injured shore. Birds in a bog. In Russia's Far Eastern Region they held the first in-depth study of the birds in nineteen seventy six and are the first ever to capture a photograph photograph of an adult on a nest from New Zealand. Researchers found that humpback whales traveling near Role Island seven hundred miles off New Zealand's coast learn songs from members of other breeding grounds from Indonesia. Climate models have firmly connected a record-setting cold European summer in eighteen sixteen to the previous year's eruption of Indonesia's Mount Tambora which injected sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere and caused widespread surface is cooling and from Brazil newfound species of electric eel. electrophoresis Volta produces these strongest shock. Scientists have
Löwenmensch: The First Monster
"Back in twenty seventeen. We recorded an episode of stuff to believe my entitled the First Monster and again we ran it in this most recent October over but in the episode we discussed the lion man or the low in inch of which was this. This figure that resembled The was a a human with alliance head hybrid a hybrid being combining animal and human likeness into a single likeness. Yeah now this was This particular killer artifact the mench was discovered in nineteen thirty nine at a stone age cave site known as startled whole or stable cave at Holon Stein near Vogel heard in Germany but it would be another thirty years before anyone got a chance to examine these broken pieces of ivory due to the world wars but eventually thirty years later that's when German archaeologist Johan discovered that these two hundred fragments came together to form a thirty one centimeter centimeter or just over a foot long figure carbon fourteen dated to between thirty five and forty thousand years old. It had the body of a man in the head of the lion. In two thousand and three another lion man was discovered in southwestern Germany this was carbon dated to around the same time period and by by some estimates. Well you know first of all these are amazing just for no other reason. They're just they're just fascinating figures that they give some insight into what ancient people were doing what they were making but also seemed to be the oldest Examples of figurative art. We've seen the Venus of whole fells. Take the title before I think Is from thirty. Five thousand to forty thousand years ago discovered in two thousand eight and two thousand sixteen but while the the Venus is the the depiction of the Feminine Forum and the Law and minch is a human fused with the beast. Yeah and this is what we were drawing attention to the episode. The idea that this is the earliest. I example that we knew about of fantasy art. It is an imagined being yeah as stated by Clive Gamble and archaeologist at the University of Southampton UK UK is quoted in nature quote. They depict an animal world in a semi realistic way. It shows early man moving from his immediate world to an imaginative world. So let's just a brief breakdown of the Lowe and minch certainly go back and listen to that episode that we did if you want more on that topic. But here's the cool thing and in a imagine number of you caught this news already because it was covered a number of places they I even saw it featured on Stephen Colbert show but in December of two thousand nine hundred ninety eight new discovery every was made and it might just blow the lion man and Venus out of the water. This is so cool. Yeah so this story takes us to different. Corners of the world takes us to Sulawesi SC Indonesia one of the four greater sooner islands. And it's actually the world's eleventh largest island I read so we've known about Pleistocene settlements in the the area for quite some time in early Homo sapiens are known to have reached this area between sixty thousand forty five thousand years ago previous studies these from some of the the same archaeologist involved in in this particular fine which is the arch team out of Australia They've revealed prehistoric art and ornaments events. Dating Back Thirty thousand to twenty two thousand years ago in this area and Homo sapiens apparently made it here against some time prior to fifty thousand years ago. So here's how this new finding came about in two thousand seventeen spelunker named Ham Rula climbed into a previously uncharted chamber in Sulawesi. Let's see cave system known as Morose punk cap a limestone cave system in while he was performing a government survey of the case. And if you're wondering ring was Amrullah. His first name last name. Apparently a lot of people in Indonesia just go by one name yet. It's just Just the one name anyway. He he gets. He crawls through a narrow space into at this New Chamber and he discovers cave paintings in the cave paintings were subsequently examined and written about by Aubert at all in earliest hunting scene in prehistoric historic art published December twenty nineteen in nature and again. This is the same arch team out of Australia. Those involved in some previous studies in the area so as the title implies they used some dating technology uranium series dating on Cave Popcorn or mineral deposits that It hanging over some of the motifs in the scene and they were able to date this hunting seeing back to at least forty three thousand nine hundred years ago so that it is twenty thousand years older than the hunting scene on the walls of Francis Lescoe cavs and coming back to the low and mench. That's also four thousand years before the lion man and I realized we're talking about such kind of ironic that we're talking about such big periods of time and there's a large portions of human history that it can also make four thousand years not seem like a lot right which is which is bizarre but obviously four thousand years is a lot of time and to to set the record back. Four thousand years is amazing. So here's an important caveat though there's more work to do as they need to date not just the the work overall looking at the cave popcorn but each figure individually before we can be one hundred percent certain in all of this because there's ultimately the possibility that different portions Sion's of it have been added at different times. Yes now the main archaeologists requoted thing they don't think that's the case but yeah we certainly should date the different parts. I think the the parts that had been that have been dated so far are just the regular animals but the more interesting part. Let's get into that. So yes the overall it depicts what seemed to be individuals using spears against prey animals in a hunt and this would be an on its own with being amazing fine right it would. It would predate any hunting scene gene. We've seen before. But on top of this some of the hunters appear to be what the researchers refer to is theory th- ropes or animal human hybrids as much like the low and Mitch. Yeah some of the humans appear to have tales or snouts right so if this is correct if the Now again and the parts that have been dated already were overlapping. Just the animals that were being hunted buffalo type creatures and pigs. Yeah wild pigs and then a type of buffalo called an no which is also known as a midget buffalo so like a water buffalo except smaller okay And so I think they haven't dated the other figures like the the the theory and throw are the human animal hybrids Yet but it looks like they're probably from the same period we're just not certain about that. Yeah but but if so this would this would probably predate the low and mench making this the earliest evidence. We have of fantastical thinking of like magic thinking among among humans showing human animal hybrids like a human hunting buffalo with a bird's beak. Yeah very cool. Yeah and it's it's we get into it in that that episode about the first monster about what this means right like what what ultimately does it mean to have in your mind. A human with a beast's head on one hand it is imagining something that does not exist in the real world and but then on a deeper level it is taking what this means. What does a bird mean? What are the the ideas that that Just a mere symbol of a bird summons and our DEA two of a human being what happens when these This mix of symbols and meanings collide. What new ideas are born out of that collision absolutely so it? It basically shows that that people from this time period period of four thousand years earlier than we thought may have been dealing with this kind of complex thinking mashing up symbols ideas and concepts concepts even taking aching on a humanoid form. Becky Ferrara wrote an excellent piece on this for the New York Times and she points out in this that the researchers believe that these as may have been animal. Spirit helpers something that's commonly find his shamanistic beliefs so yeah there's a possibility that we're dealing with animism animism and shamanism
Earth's Last Magnetic Pole Flip Happened Much More Slowly Than Previously Thought
"Any study suggests earth's magnetic poles may take far longer to flip than previously. I thought a new analysis reported in the journal science advances shows. The process may take up to twenty two thousand years to complete. That's more than twice as long as the nine thousand years. He's previously estimated this growing evidence that earth's magnetic poles are about to flip the north magnetic pole will become south and the south magnetic pole will become north last time. This happened with some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago when it does happen. It'll be the first magnetic field polarity reversal in modern times times and that raises some serious questions about how today's technology with coq with the change to us me mortals on the surface of this revolving planet around the sun first magnetic field seemed steady and true reliable enough to navigate by your largely hidden from daily life less your pilot. The magnetic field drifts waxes awesome wayne's constantly when i'm flying one of the first things i do when i get in the cockpit of an aircraft is to readjust the cockpits compass to the latest readings for true north both for years. The magnetic north pole was wandering around pats of northern canada but more recently it's been careering towards siberia which recently forced the global positioning positioning system which underlies old model navigation updated software sooner than expected to account for the shift on average the magnetic pole shifts and reverses versus. That's polarity roughly every hundred and fifty thousand years or so that with the last one occurring some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago with long jude for the knicks flip and there are some early signs that a possible paul reversal may be about to occur the accelerating movement of the north magnetic pole is one sign another other is something known as the south atlantic anomaly a weed pad of the south atlantic ocean between brazil and africa compass needles go nuts pointing south instead of north north and it's not just compass needles affected the south atlantic anomaly region causes earth ina van allen radiation belt to move closer to the earth surface dipping down onto just two hundred kilometers in altitude this results in an increase flocks of energetic particles in this region exposing orbiting spacecraft the high than usual levels of radiation listen effect the international space station required extra shielding just deal with this problem nashes reported that modern laptops of crushed aboard space shuttle flights as they a pass through the anomaly and the hubble space telescope doesn't do any observations while it's passing through the anomaly whether or not the south atlantic anomaly really does mean a polls colds are about the flip polarity is yet to be saying the problem is scientists have only a very limited understanding as to exactly why the film reversals occur or how they happen now new research by university of wisconsin madison geologist brad singer suggests the most recent short reversal seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago took at least twenty the two thousand years to complete that several times longer than previously thought and the results further color the question some controversial findings that some polar reversals could occur within inhuman lifetime than you analysis is based on advances in measurement capabilities at a global survey of lava flows ocean sediment at arctic ice coast rose providing a more detailed look at a turbulent time for earth's magnetic field of a millennia. The planet's magnetic food weakened partly shifted stabilized the game and then finally reversed for good to the orientation we know today. The new results provide a clearer m._o. Nuanced picture of reversals at a time when some scientists believe we may maybe experiencing the early stages of paul reversal and you other researchers dispute the very notion of a present day. Paul reversal singer says unless you have the complete accurate accurate in high resolution record of water filled reversal really's like it would be difficult to discuss the mechanics of generating one. We know that earth's magnetic field is produced by the planet's molten alton liquid metallic out of core as it spins around the solid. I and inigo generating powerful electromagnetic currents. What's coda jet dynamo this year dynamic in a creative field. That's most stable going through roughly the geographic north and south poles but the field shifts in weakened significantly during reversals. We know this because <unk> asni rocks formed typically other volcanic lava flows or a sediments being deposited on the sea floor they leave a record the magnetic field the time they were created and geologists can survey this global record piecing together. The history of magnetic fields going back millions of years. Their record is clearest for the most recent reversal that one seven hundred seventy thousand years ago for the current analysis singer and colleagues looked at lava flows from chile to haiti hawaii the caribbean and the canary islands and they collected samples from these latter flows of several field seasons lava flows are ideal records of the magnetic field they have lots of iron bearing ring minerals and as cool and solidify they lock in the direction of the planet's magnetic field the research is combined magnetic field readings and radio acid type dating samples from seven lava flow sequences to recreate the magnetic field over a span of seventy thousand years centered on las reversal they found the final reverse was quite quick by geological standards less than four thousand years but it had been preceded by an extended period of instability included excursions which are temporary partial reversals the polls stretching back another eighteen thousand years. That's more than twice as long as suggested by other studies which claimed reversals wrap up within about nine thousand years the lava flow the data was corroborated by magnetic readings from the seafloor which provided more continuous but less precise source of data than lab iraq's single and colleagues also used at arctic ice core samples apples to track the deposition of beryllium which is produced by cosmic radiation colliding with molecules in the atmosphere. You say when the magnetic reversing weakens allowing more radiation in from space to hit the atmosphere producing more beryllium since humanity began recording the strength of the earth's magnetic field. It's actually decrease in strength by about five percent century century and his records like singing shows. A weakening field seems to be a precursor to an eventual field reversal although it's far from clear that a reversal is imminent reversing planetary magnetic food would significantly affect navigation as well as satellite and terrestrial communications but if the current studies right it means society would have many generations to adapt to what would be a lengthy period of magnetic instability stewart gary. You're
Trump dunes at Scottish course may lose protected status
"Sand dunes at president trump's golf resort north of aberdeen scotland may lose their protected status after being affected by the courses construction the group scottish natural heritage says the dunes which developed over four thousand years no longer have enough of these special natural features for which they are designated and executive vice president at trump international call the statement and utter
"four thousand years" Discussed on Dude Soup
"Yeah, it would be nice if the video games didn't have to tie directly to like bring back Republic sorta suffer. Go go new Republic. Oh, four thousand years in the future, or supposed to be right. It takes place between three and four. Like, yeah. Way back now Republic, the last Jedi wit with Nestle unless that I'm sorry. What's it called fallen fallen fallen jet is orders, right? Fallen on it, which is weird because does that mean shed is supposed to be its own series now because it's like Djeddai Colin fallen order. Right. Right. Stop his Colin's Jeddah. Like or you might be right? I think so shadow of mortar being like just kind of to me. It's so weird that's tight to Lord of the rings. Somebody do something weird actually star Horster made me not because like shadow of war, the second one. Yeah, it opens up with like already doing that thing, where let's, let's reach back to something in lower and make it something totally different sects, like no spoilers because it's in the first twenty minutes, but they make shallow like. Goth leaning. And I'm like what the fuck are you doing? Get what was she's an ancient God or whatever spider expires today. This stop it. She was corrupted and became a spider is that what's supposed to do remember, I think that was just a form. She was taking on that one moment. And she didn't actually. Yeah. Hell out of me some breakfast. The fallen order though, makes sense because you're playing a character that survived order sixty six or whatever. So then it's like it makes sense that you're you. You're a rookie starting with nothing so for. Okay that works for me. But I'm with you Elise where it's like just just look the devs have fun Republican MandA was awesome. So vomit that will never get Amy headings game. I wonder if that oughta that was Disney meddling rather than just meddling as well. It's a little bit of both. Yeah. I, I think I think what my read on it, which is not informed by anything outside from just hearsay and happenstance, but feels like Lucas's control over wars narrative, makes any narrative development so long and costly, that it just becomes not worth it at a certain point when they won't say yes to anything and you have a gambling type, but you can't make a game out of it because they're holding things up or asking for rounds of approvals. And suddenly, you're three years in and you haven't gotten a solid. Yes. To any of the concept, arches, all k-, fine. I feel like a ride a like Amy would also hate that process of hard to get like someone who's been writing about games for a really long time to want to do that, when they like wool in this one, you can't really make any of the choices does that sound fun really. Good actually telling the most basic, template me point. You'd be like, all right. I'm not fighting for it. I don't care. I'm down give up. That's also something she would never be able to say loud, new. Well, she is under NDA, but it does expire. And I'm not sure when but I know India has annex minor day book, deal new job. Yeah. No probably not we're cashing out. All right. I need to do an address. Thank you to mitt. Mobile sponsoring this week's episode of dude soup, there are a lot of things in life that aunt, right? Competent showers eating dip with your fingers, which I have kind of done.
"four thousand years" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"And we are back with Rapallo Brian Fagin as we talk about sages Brian a little ice age or a big ice age. How long does it take from its beginning to its end to complete? Big ice age. Well, what typically happens is winning? It cools slowly, but when he warms it warms rapidly. And over the last million years, I the cool downs have been slow. We don't know how long maybe a hundred thousand years in many cases, but the womb put the law states age which ended up loan fifteen thousand years ago was if you Winnie simply by about three thousand years, and that's pretty old. Okay. Four thousand years. It's not like it's going to take two years to do or anything like that. It's much of that geological time moves slowly human time. Tens today doesn't need to move much Klaus to what what happened in Siberia when they found that wooly mammoth frozen flash frozen with food still in its mouth something tremendous find when you get having basically what it was was deep-frozen. And when you get that these Hugh. How to preserve it? Because you've got to basically keep the thing frozen solid and those things big until you get into facilities can store it. And study it at leisure. And the early mammoths were found they had great difficulty with this. And did a lot of research op in Siberia today, of course, they have much more sophisticated about it, and, you know, deal about what we're really remarkable animals, those famous deep-frozen find is of course, out to the iceman who was a runs age man in the outs in Italy about twenty years ago. And he was frozen in the geisha and was taken to a deep freeze, and is being studied, systematically and has been for us, and they now know that jumble dive into fight they know the diseases have we that we know more about his health. He did. So do. Now when the ice age starts take us through it. Let's assume we're living in that time period. What's happening? Now, which will which ones happen? More often the little ones. Once you get a series of much colder windows, the growing season Scholten's you get. Yeah. You know, certainly with big ones you get ice sheets in Scandinavia north of America expanding. You get sea levels falling. And then as things woke up the ice sheets shrink like family outs. And she was rise. Maybe news to knows that fifteen thousand years ago, the global sea-level was three hundred feet Loa than it is today and side you Alaska with joined by a low lamb, would you could will from Siberia to America the England joined to the channel to the continent that was huge. Continental shelf of southeast Asia. So the open out of open water, but we know in Asia was only about fifty miles. So the world was very different. You talk about how the monsoons these incredible torrential rainstorms were important during the little ice age. How come well? What happened was that high sages monsoons basically to sleep tied to L Neo which is this condition in the southwest Pacific, which causes seed Evans. See temperatures to warm, and you get a very complex via ocean relationship working and one of the effects of this is to calls monsoon rains to dry out. So you have us when the Mon lanes are practically non existence those famous one of this was in eighteen seventy seven with them soon failed so badly that minium off Indians who depended on monsoon waiting for that farms starved and died of northern China. The same happen to people selling Jolan streets for food. I mean, these things can be catastrophic and one of the things about today is that infrastructure is much more sophisticated and the sort of things much wherever, but you still get major famines in that is like Somalia and heath yoga, which are very much effected by monsoons. A major major factor in go. And let me ask you when you said they were selling their children for food where they selling them for money to buy food or were they selling them as food. No, they were selling them for money to buy. Oh god. Yeah. When people when famine happens. Prices grain, obviously rise and the people who get affected the most of the poor. And if they leave the positions level out in the country the way of doing this is to move in search your food, and what we've got the day severe droughts, we've got shortages food, and so on and there was 'cause you migrations of people on a large scale because today that many more people in the world. And this makes what you might call ecological with us into a much bigger problem. You spend a lot of time writing about fishing. Tell me why. A fun savvy notification. Oddly enough, I told him to this because I work at after many years ago as you said earlier, and one of the thing, we found a lot of fish, bones, and fish bones. It's really difficult to identify and we had in this collection. I had to learn how to do it a lot of catfish your bottom fish. We have them in America, of course. And we were able to establish the people eating large numbers of catfish. And this got me into a study of the history of fishing and fishing as being in Nome Asli important in human history. I mean, the people that got fish. Humans about two million years ago. What they probably did was to get catfish in shallow water when leagues dried up they literally just picked them up. Yeah. Yep. Later on. The traditional fishing, which are nets and oaks and things like that. What video audio on as long as the not nee technique of drying, fish and salting them, which are old technology. One of the most remarkable things about fishing discovered is that the technology the basic technology of fishing until the mummy yet with its trollers and diesel engines and I- industrial-scale fishing really was from they similar to that the middle ages, the Atlantic cod fishing used very, very simple technology. And really what's happened is that the wealth thing about fishing being the intensification of it. Because when you started getting civilizations you have to supply of and markets, and therefore you got getting organized to catch fish, drying, so them and. Fill them in markets and cities because many of the world civilizations depended on fishing. Brian. Aren't we today fishing too much? We're we're pulling out so much fish. They don't have chess we produce a major crisis fishing in the ocean of vision as being a problem I'll bleed in the North Atlantic called for two or three hundred years even in Victorian times. And then what complaints about a tool as taking fish from the seabed and destroying the habitat of fish? And today's the problem is major questions because you've got extremely. Fictions foaling.
"four thousand years" Discussed on 710 WOR
"And we are back with athropologists Brian Fagin as we talk about ice ages Brian a little ice age or a big ice age. How long does it take from its beginning to its end to complete? Big ice age. What typically happens is cool. It cools slimly, but when it warms up it warms Lapid Lii and over the last million half years the cool downs being slow. We don't know how long maybe a hundred thousand years in many cases, but the womb up of the Las Stacy's which ended up loan fifteen thousand years ago was if you Winnie simply by about three thousand years, and that's what he told. Okay. Four thousand years. It's not like it's going to take two years to do or anything like that. Than that kill time moves slowly human time. Tens today to move much close to what what happened in Siberia when they found that willy mammoth frozen flash frozen with food still in its mouth, something tremendous. When you get having basically what it was was deep-frozen. And when you get that these Hugh. How to preserve it? Because you've got to basically keep the thing frozen solid and those things big until you get into facilities way, you can store it and study at at Eliza and the videos early mammoths were found they had great difficulty with this. And did a lot of op in Siberia today, of course, much more sophisticated about it. I mean, no deal about what's remarkable animals, those famous deep-frozen find is of course, out see the iceman who was a bones age man in the Alps in Italy about twenty years ago, and he was deep frozen in a glacier and was taken to a deep for us, and is being studied, systematically and has been for us. And they now know that full jumbo dive into fight they know the diseases, and we do that we know more about his health and he did. So there was a lot of Lou. You know, when when the ice age starts kind of take us through it. Let's assume we're living in that time period. What's happening? Which will which ones happen? More often the little ones. Once you get series, much, colder windows, the growing season Scholten's, you'll get. Yeah. You know, something big ones you get. I since maybe a north of you America, expanding you get sea levels falling and then as things warm up the ice sheets, shrink like say on the outs and sea levels rise. Maybe news to know that fifteen thousand years ago, the global sea-level was three hundred feet lower than it is today, and we in Alaska, but joined by a low land, would you could walk from Siberia to America the England was joined to the channel to the continent. That was a huge continental shelf off southeast Asia. So the open out of open war between Australia nation was only about fifty miles. So the world was very different. You talk about how the monsoons these incredible. Torrential rainstorms.
"four thousand years" Discussed on KNST AM 790
"And we are back with Rapallo Bryant Fagin as we talk about ice ages Brian a little ice age or a big ice age. How long does it take from its beginning to its end to complete? Big ice age. Well, what typically happens is it cool slimly, but when it warms up it warms rapidly. And over the loss million half years, I the cool down so being slow. We don't know how long maybe a hundred thousand years in many cases, but the womb of Stacy's which ended up loan fifteen thousand years ago was if you win. Simply by about three thousand years, and that's pretty Shulte. Okay. Four thousand years. It's not like it's going to take two years to do or anything like that much. Than that geological time moves slowly human time. Tens today doesn't need to move my Klaus to what what happened in Siberia when they found that woolly mammoth frozen flash frozen with food still in its mouth something tremendous find when you get having basically what it was was deep-frozen. And when you get that the issue is how to preserve it because you got to basically keep the thing frozen solid, and those things make until you get into his way, you can store it and study it at leisure and the early mammoths found they had late them with this. And did a lot of research op in Siberia today, of course, they have much more sophisticated about it and know great deal about what we're really remarkable animals, those famous deep-frozen find is, of course, out see the iceman who was a bones age, man. In the outs in Italy about twenty years ago. And he was deep frozen in the glacier and was taken to a deep for us, and is being studied systematically and has been for years, and they now know that jumbo dive into fight they know the diseases, and we do that we know more about his health and he did. So there was a lot of new now when when the ice age starts kind of take us through it. Let's assume we're leaving in that time period. What's happening? Now, which one are you doing? Which which ones happen? More often the little ones. At once you get series of much, colder windows, the growing season Scholten's, you'll get I, you know, I certainly with big ones you get ice sheets in Scandinavia north of America expanding you get sea levels falling. And then as things woke up the ice sheets shrink like say on the outs. And she was rise. Maybe news to know that fifteen thousand years ago, the global sea-level was three hundred feet lower than it is today and side you in Alaska, we're joined by a low land, would you could walk from Siberia to America the England joined to the channel to the continent that was a huge continental shelf of southeast Asia. So the open out of open water between Australia in Asia was only about fifty miles. So the world was very different. You talk about how the monsoons these incredible torrential rainstorms.
Woolly Mammoth cells 28,000 years-old reactivated by science
"It have. We not learned anything from Jurassic Park. A team of Japanese scientist is attempting to bring back the long extinct, you guessed it, Ernie woolly mammoth the animal has been extinct for nearly four thousand years. I thought it was longer than that. But the scientists have emerged to extract the cells of a twenty eight thousand year old mammoth and transport them into a mouse, the cells show signs of life. We're gonna have a woolly mouse. Here we go. The cells were taken from a mammoth that scientists call Yuka would have been seven at the time of her death. Okay. Her carcass was in pretty good shape. And they found it in Siberia back in two thousand ten now. You may be asking Ernie rightly so how soon until we start seeing these hairy beasts in our woods. It's only going to be a matter of time before we see him over in Waco. Oh, sure, they say could be quite a while. While the cells took to the mouse eggs, the cells divide to create anything like a fetus. But it did prove that science. It did prove to scientists that they could reawaken cells isn't a Willie ma'am at the size of an elephant speaker is even bigger than the elephant much planting this what did they think how big do? They think the uterus of the mouse is gonna ho- how big is this thing gonna have to know the science behind this. But it will be fascinated. The I want to be there for the discussion of where do we put them? Do. We put them exactly where they were. Yeah. We put them in Madison Wisconsin or wherever the heck large populations of them were found dead or do we just like, well, we got to put them in Montana and do they have to be in cold climates? Do they have to the plane in Texas? Well, Waco, actually does have a giant mammoth? Sanctuary study dig whatever you wanna call it. But that was four thousand years ago. I imagine the weather was much colder. No, no, no science on that has been settled. I don't know the science of the weather twenty eight thousand four thousand years ago. Neither does anyone else. Unfortunately, they settled the science. So if so we have to unleash and Canada, I candidate deal with it. I would suggest this that if you're going to rebuild the woolly mammoth, which are you in on. I know I think you are weak. You shouldn't be I think, hey, you had your day it came and went you're gone. Didn't is man to blame for them not being around. And you know, no man is not to blame Jesus Jesus. That's right. You had your shot you blew it. You sat around drinking beer watching TV all day. You got fat all of you had heart attacks, you're gone. It's done. So I don't want these things coming back. But if you're gonna bring them back, I would like you to modify the genes to where we smaller version. Yeah, they're the size lapdog. Yeah. They could be the size of a lapdog, and they're domesticated because I'll be happy to have a woolly mammoth at the house a little horns. Yeah. Tiny little horns, it's really adorable or you trick them out to be like those Ali fonts Lord of the rings that have long horn. I like that. Yeah. Something something like that since we're really tricky since we're playing the part of Jesus here. Let's go ahead. And trick these suckers up when they come back or just here's a better idea. Let's cross him. So when they come back, they have mink coats, look, really, really snazzy, nightlife. Yeah. Really soft. You can sleep around with them. Chinchilla? Yeah. Exactly beautiful. Now. I don't like the idea of see I'm all about it. Are you? I when I die. I'm figuring unless something kills mega tell about ninety. Okay. I think by ninety we'll have it figured out. And if I could see a willy mammoth for die man, that'd be great. But what if a kick ass, but here's the problem if they can do that. Then eventually they can bring you back and then you'll see the woolly mammoth in life number two. Nobody's gonna wanna do that. No guy. They don't bring back. The key had his shot. Kind of like how you talk about it. You had your shot you blew it. Let's
Why Are Peat Bogs So Good at Preserving Human Remains?
"Are pretty awesome. As far as sweeping mud fields of dead buried plants go. They store the energy of generations of plants there mass which can be harvested as Pete they're also havens for mummies artifacts buried beneath bugs, including human bodies may be kept in astonishingly good condition for thousands and thousands of years. They've all got stories to tell and today. We'll look at the weird science that makes their preservation possible. Common in cool. Wet parts of the world bugs are waterlogged grounds. That formed when decaying plant matter known as peat accumulates in low lying areas bugs are usually found in cool climates and often in lake basins created by ice age glaciers that no longer. Get a steady flow of river or stream water overtime Mazas cover the heap, like a blanket, and in most cases. This mossy layer is primarily made of a mosque called sphagnum. Spackman moss has the power to transform an entire landscape water dirt trapped beneath sheets of it will be cut off from the normal supply of oxygen from the atmosphere. Also, spelled them soaks up calcium and magnesium, which makes the underlying soil and water mildly acidic since bacteria and fungi. Find those conditions in hospitable. The dead vegetation decomposes at phenomenally slow rate instead of breaking down right away. It lingers piling up over time masses of the botanical waste gradually turned into Pete a soggy, mud colored sub. Instance peat can be used as animal bedding, and as a fossil fuel which makes it an important commodity in places like the Irish Midlands and in Scotland where it's the traditional fuel for fires that dry out grain to make scotch whisky in parting smoke, and it's flavors along with that heat. But to archaeologists Pete is a lot less valuable than the human corpses. That sometimes come with it bogs have long fascinated humans not just for their fossil fuels the spongy soil has intrigued people as far back as the bronze age many people died in these bogs or replaced their after their deaths and these bog bodies as they're known have been found all over the world. The wetlands of north western Europe. For instance, is a bog body hub hundreds of these corpses have turned up in Germany England, the Netherlands and neighboring countries in twenty eleven Pete harvesters working in Ireland accidentally ran over. A bronze age corpse with a milling machine dubbed, the Cashel, man. The harvester found all that was left of an adult male who probably died in his twenties. His body was riddled. With injuries, including a broken arm and a nasty cut across the backside. Some of these may have been caused by the compressing weight of the bog moss above him or the blades of that milling device. Nevertheless, archaeologists have reason to suspect that the Cashel man was a ritualized sacrifice victim other European bog bodies have displayed stab wounds, slit throats and evidence of torture historians things that the local wetlands were once a hotbed for religious sacrifices carbon dating tells us the Cashel man perished about four thousand years ago, seven centuries before king Tutankhamun was born to date. He's the oldest Earp, Ian, bog body on record with intact skin. That's right. The corpse of somebody who's been dead for four millennia still has its skin attached. And this isn't a fluke. Lots of bog bodies, retain, some or all of their original skin, the talent man at twenty three hundred year old corpse recovered from Denmark peat bog in nineteen fifty has skeleton is tens but elsewhere his skin is so well preserved that little details like the wrinkles on his forehead. Are still visible, although the talent man skin didn't rot away. The medication process did change its appearance and texture like the Cashel man and lots of other bog bodies. He sports leathery dark Brown skin. Some of them also have preserved hair that was dyed red after death. This is most likely caused by a recently discovered polymer called Spackman, which seeps out of debt, Spag them moss. If you think of leather it's made through a process called tanning that strengthens the bonds between some of the natural fibers in animal hides as a tanning agent Spag man has the same effect on human skin rendering, tough and tea colored sphagnum also binds with nitrogen, which bacteria needs survive. So by removing nitrogen from the environment Spag, Dan helps prevent the spread of microorganisms that would normally be breaking down human and animal remains and Furthermore Spackman along with the acid that it turns into polls calcium right out of dead bodies bones. Get weakened in the process, although sphagnum. Does a fine job of preserving skin. It's calcium. Thievery isn't great for skeletons mummies have been found in certain Boggs with soft extra flimsy bones. That are about to studies cardboard and that have been distorted by heavy Pete. But that's assuming the decalcification process doesn't altogether eliminate bones. Lots of bog bodies have been found missing bones. And some of the monies are totally boneless. The latter are basically human shaped bags of leathery skin, wrapped around pickled organs. Not all Boggs are so hostile to bones, though, the waters acidity level varies from bogged bog, and this impacts corpse preservation archaeologists have discovered that in really acidic peat bogs. The resident mummies have lots of skin and soft tissue and weak or non-existent bones. But there are some boggy places with relatively alkaline water here the environment pretty much has the opposite effect on corpses. A take for example, the window ver- archaeological site Pete bottomed pond in Florida that became the final resting place for dozens of native Americans between. Seven and eight thousand years ago skeletal remains from one hundred sixty eight people have turned up in the Pete a large deposit of crushed up snail shells, lying under the pond supplies the water with magnesium and calcium carbonates that makes the water. More alkaline neutralizing the span into an extent instead of mummified skin bags. The bog is rife with naked bones and skeletons a bears they are on the outside the ancient bones had a big surprise in store for scientists brain tissue was found in more than ninety of the wind over pond skulls making them extra fascinating fines,
"four thousand years" Discussed on News Radio 1190 KEX
"It tells us that the disciplines Mike, well, they using they similar abilities. Before their disappearance about forty five years ago, and this is very potent. Because what we find is in in in the same region. Southern Siberia is showing me off this time the earliest modern humans that Bill de societies. There have this extraordinary knowledge. All celestial bodies movement around the skies eclipses of the sun and the moon, and they incorporate vase onto bone plaques, which show knowledge of number counting that goes into the not just hundreds of thousands, and tens of thousands and relates to numbers which lights a pop in sacred architecture, and it's like cred literature around the world in places like China in Cambodia, but I put in Java it medspa titania in India numbers that involve the crop up again. And again, one I like fifty four to one six four three two and these exist as early as twenty four thousand years ago in the very same area, the Denisovans an and hybrids must've existed that did this knowledge of the as this counting. They celestial cycles come from himself. I think the outreach. Yes. I'm wondering when the the Denisovans encountered. Less technologically less advanced civilizations more primitive cultures. The Denisovans must have been likened to gods. It's difficult. It's difficult to not. I mean, I mean, yeah, what happened when we first encountered them. I mean, obviously, we've been gradually moving a whites outs of Africa from certain from about two hundred thousand years ago, but the NBA Steph we've got into Brayden between modern and Denisovans. He's probably about fifty thousand years ago, and this as to where this took place issues, a mattress dispute, some people believe that that it was in south East Asia where there's quite high levels of of DNA it Muslim populations places like Papua, New Guinea, um or even in Australia. But it seems more likely they first encountered Denisovans as like cross crossover from central Aisha into the likes of southern Siberia came across state. Who would have been in the area of the old type mountain who existed there for tens of thousands, possibly even hundreds of thousands of years. What they were saying are these incredibly toll fakers that would've looked to my Slyke tree, which is very strange, actually. 'cause there's a lot of accountancy masala cheer about individuals being the height of trace even the so called watches methylene, right? Griped as as looking like trace. And I mean, I would think that was probably some kind of standoff between the two sides initially. But I think that the Knicks events himself would have realized that time was up as more and more modern humans turned up, you know, and try to hike over that. Territories. Yeah. The Denisovans would have set some stuff. Well, what what can we do? And I think that one of the possibilities is actually allowed the interbreeding tight supplies because they knew that their legacy would continue on love they disappeared in the descendants of themselves. The hybrid descendants who remember continue to exist to this die in many parts of the world. Do we have? DNA in us today. Can we can we determine that? We can. Yeah. I mean, there are many of these DNA testing kits that we'll tell you. Whether you have the the, Dan I cycled archaic, humans you like to check to make sure that they do do they something some of them. Some of them talked quick question before we we're coming up on a break here. Andrew a quick question before we go into the break when Joshua sent his spies into Canaan, and they came back with reports of giants in the Old Testament. Were they Denisovans? Well, I certainly wouldn't have been Denisovans may well have had something, Dan. Yes. Absolutely. This every racing suspect. I think that that the giants evolved is a memory of the events Denisovans hybrids, followed them, and where did the Denisovans get their technology from where did they get their knowledge from? I think it was something that they they created an extremely long period of time possibly many hundreds of thousands of years. But I think that this combined with an extremely different type of mindset one that was partly autistic vice now don't think we can see them in terms of autistic people knew district spectrum that we we do today. Because in some ways, we got a bit of a Gupta idea of health testing people are represented in society,.
"four thousand years" Discussed on FT Money Show
"Bobby seagull university challenge stall now quite possibly the UK's Mace famous maths teacher, and of course, F T columnist. Welcome Bobby, a happy new year happy new year to you say we've invited you to Capers present the cost with me stay because of see your quiz expert in a legendary brainiac say can we kick off by offering any insights into why human beings make New Year's resolutions. Yes. We're gonna have to a time machine backed four thousand years ago, four thousand four thousand picture yourself in ancient Mesopotamia around the Euphrates, and we were the Babylonians. So they were actually the first to come up with New Year's resolutions. Although there yet start in January but in March, I think to do their agricultural seasons and the the rising for the floods but actually their resolutions are based on financial ones. So they made two types of resolutions. One was they make a promise to the gods to pay off their debts. And Secondly that they'd return any objects at boards, really sort of fancy astute resolutions, they had that's amazing. So it was actually grounded in a financial promise or contracts. Absolutely. But the only difference is they missed their resolution nowadays, you know, you get county charges or fines there's sort of be falling out of favor with the gods. And that's perhaps more in eternal damnation than one of the Bank. Well. Depends depends on how how recently you've checked your your credit file, and how did it progress than thirty years because it didn't just stop with with the babbling. We wouldn't have our resolutions of the Romans and pick up the mantle so that Giza Julius Caesar. So he changed the calendars from March to John the first at the start of the year and pop quiz question. January is named after which Roman God Janus waterfall ten points exit S T boat. So he so this God looked backwards and forwards backwards at the past year and Ford's into the future so Romans as you offered sacrifices to this God and may promises or resolutions for good conduct for the coming year the first resolution, but we have to go bit more forward in time for the proper resolutions that we sort of see nowadays. It's a step forward founder of Methodism. John Wesleyan seventeen forty leaving of does naming Avella tool from bridge. Studies at school. This is a few few. But yes, so this man, John Wesley. He created the covenant renewal service. Jeez..
How Can We Make Better Resolutions?
"In two thousand and four in a tiny town. A young woman named Rebecca Gould was brutally murdered nearly fifteen years later her killer is still on the loose. It's just really surreal walking around. Ideal. Mention so much ear to guys out there yell depressed, dude. I'm Katherine towns. And this is Helen gone binge all of season one now at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, bring stuff I'm Lauren Boga bomb and the concept of creating New Year's resolutions is so ingrained in US culture that the government keeps a list of popular resolutions and resources for achieving them. It's a baker's dozen of good intentions including drink alcohol. Eat healthy food, get a better education. Get a better job get fit managed at manage stress and recycle digital research. Backs up this lists universality. According to a twenty eleven Marced university poll losing weight top the list for one in five resolution making Americans closely followed by exercising more with spending less than saving more quitting smoking. And being a better person all tied for third. But is it true that most people don't keep their resolutions? The answer as many of us around the house to forks office were relieved to discover appears to be a resounding. Yes. Richard Wiseman as I collagen and author with a penchant for mass participation experiments found that fifty two percent of people making New Year's resolutions or confident that they'd stick it out yet only a scant twelve percent really did. So why bother a New Year's resolutions are as one author wrote a triumph of hope over experience there a way to quantify what we wish for selves, their means of cataloging, our personal satisfactions, and perhaps most importantly their method of racing errors of the past year. Yes. New Year's resolutions are all about hopefulness. And it's always been that way. Of course ringing in the new year isn't a construct of modern Americans some four thousand years ago by balloons rang in their new year with an eleven day festival in March and ancient Egyptians celebrated the advent of their new calendar during the Nile rivers annual flood by forty six BC e Roman emperor Julius Caesar had moved the first day of the year to January first in honor of the Roman God of beginnings. Janice, an idea that took some time. To catch on however in fifteen eighty to see pope, Gregory, the eighth breath January first new year back in vogue with the Gregorian. Calendar. A concept the persists today. The origin of making New Year's resolutions rests with the Babylonians who reportedly made promises to the gods in hopes that earn good favor in the coming year. They often resolved to get out of debt. Sound familiar? Many of us are still making that resolution today. So what's the secret to actually keeping it just wanting something to change is not enough? You need a strategy to make it stick one way to do. This is to share your resolution with others. We spoke with Joe Ferrari, professor of psychology at depaul university in Chicago as he pointed out when you keep resolutions secret. No one is going to check up on you. You're only accountable to yourself. He says that a party to publicly share your resolutions an admirable way to ring in the new year. Social media offers another avenue to let others and on your goals. But once you've involved others in your resolutions. What steps can you? You take to ensure that when they do check up on you. You'll have something positive to report. Success of your New Year's resolutions starts in your head limiting yourself to a few resolutions, maybe even one and being specific are a few things to keep in mind. This prevents overload and frustration for example, I want to lose ten pounds by March first or I want to save fifty dollars each paycheck. The best goals are challenging but manageable, and that's a sensitive balance that only you can find for yourself overly ambitious goals can drain a person's confidence when they're not met instead build on small observable victories and possibly achieve bigger goals down the line and take things on one at a time. Whatever goals, you do tackle be sure to monitor your progress. Ferrari said if your resolution is to lose weight check your weight regularly if it's to save money right down where you spent your money monitoring those few challenging goals, you set will dramatically improve your success rate. Sometimes just the active recording everything you eat or spend can cause you to eat or spend less, even if you don't consciously change anything else. Whatever. Your New Year's goals. Give yourself some time to make them a reality more time than you may have planned on actually while most people cling to the widespread belief that new habits can be formed in twenty one days. New research is Justin that we need a longer timetable one. We study found that it took participants average of sixty six days to do something different and stick with it. Today's episode was written by loyal dove and produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other fresh topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. I'm Katie golden. I studied psychology and evolutionary biology at Harvard, and I pretend to be a bird on Twitter and my new podcast creature feature. We've you nature in man from a new perspective each episode asking comedian to get inside the minds of animals, so we can explore the startling connections to human psychology, you'll find blood bounds and treachery that make game of thrones seemed like a dumb show for babies. Join us every Wednesday and subscribe on apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Unearthed tomb called the most "significant discovery in decades"
"CBS news, ancient history, unearthed in Egypt. Archaeologists have found a sprawling tomb at the Sakarov pyramid complex, just south of Cairo more on that from CBS news correspondent Jonathan bigly. Audie. It's an ancient treasure chests spread out over two levels a tomb so perfectly preserved. It's been called the most significant discovery in decades more than two dozen statues guard the chamber and drawings of a family are spread throughout like Egypt photo album, the walls covered in carvings depicting, some of their favorite activities, hunting, musical performances, and even sailing. I like that description like an Egyptian photo gallery. The tomb is more than four thousand years old. It's from the fifth dynasty of. The
Egypt Unearths Tomb of Royal Priest From 4,400 Years Ago
"A one of a kind ancient tomb has been discovered in Egypt the final resting place of a Royal priest. I'm more than four thousand year old private tomb containing exceptionally. Well, preserved drawings has been discovered south of Cairo. According to Egypt's ministry of antiquities, the tomb had been discovered at the Sikora archaeological site and was from the fifth dynasty of the pharaohs which ruled roughly four thousand four hundred years ago, the tomb belong to a Royal terrific ation priest and contains five burial shafts. Kara is also home to the famous
BrainStuff Classics: What Is The Oldest Living Thing?
"Support. For brain stuff comes from our friends at rocket mortgage by Quicken Loans are excited to introduce their all new rate shield approval. If you're in the market to buy a home rate shield approval is a real game changer. And here's why first Quicken Loans will lock your rate for up to ninety days while you shop, but here's the crucial part every up your rate stays the same. But if rates go down your rate also drops either way you win. It's the kind of thinking you'd expect from America's largest mortgage lender. To get started. Go to rocketmortgage dot com slash brain stuff rate shield approval. Only valid on certain thirty year purchase transactions. Additional conditions or exclusions may apply based on Quicken Loans. Data in comparison to public data records, equal housing lender. Licensed in all fifty states and m s consumer access dot org number three zero three zero. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren bulk ObamaCare with a classic episode from the vault our earth while host Christian Sager is exploring a tangling question. What is earth's oldest living thing? Neighboring stuff Krishan Sager here. So as far as aging goes humans have it pretty good. I mean, we're no giant tortoises, but we're generally capable of living for decades some of us for more than a century here at brand stuff. It got us thinking, what is the world's oldest living thing. Well, that's a tricky question. And the answer depends on how we define living and thing, I let's tackle what we mean. By thing. If we say a thing could also be a clone will colony than the competition heats up quickly. There are numerous plant and fungal. Clone. Colonies that have been around for tens of thousands of years, and they're still barreling along. There's king clone the creosote Bush in the Mojave almost twelve thousand years old, and we can't forget pando the gigantic male quaking Aspen, colonial colony in Utah. He is about eighty thousand years old. Incidentally, he's also the heaviest living thing weighing in around six million kilograms. But what if we stick to sing? Single organisms if so then the tiny end lifts are strong contenders. These extrema file Methuselah like to kick back and take it easy for millions of years. They've lived a mile and a half below the ocean floor with metabolism slower than molasses only reproducing once every few centuries or millennia. I mean that makes pandas look like rabbits, there's a big let's call it loophole in the definition of living dormancy what if something was frozen in time trapped in stasis and then revived like captain America the alien in the thing in two thousand and eleven professor Brian Schubert published a paper on just that he discovered bacteria in what he called a kind of hibernation state inside tiny bubbles of thirty four thousand year old salt crystals. Other scientists have claimed to find older organisms such as the two hundred fifty million-year-old bacteria in southeast New Mexico. But Schubert's work was. Independently reproduced. So if we allow an organism to take a time out and spent thousands of years in stasis there are loads of competitors for the title of oldest living thing, many of which may still lurk undiscovered in the isolated hinterlands of earth. You know, deep oceans remote mountains, endless Arctic wastes. Now, I'm thinking of HP lovecraft well moving on. There's one other important thing. Some organisms might be immortal. Now, don't get jealous. We're not talking about some super sexy vampire type immortality. No. We're talking about jellyfish specifically hydra and the turritopsis Dory. The turritopsis is only four point five millimeters large, but capable of something that may be unique in the animal world after reaching sexual maturity, it can revert to its polyp stage, it can reverse and reset its aging cycle rendering it biologically, immortal, and the hydra doesn't seem to age at all. That means that potentially the oldest living organism could one day be a jellyfish. But for now, even counting states of dormancy, the oldest living continually active things on earth appear to be the extreme file organisms collectively called Endo Litz. But of course, there may be something older varied in time. Dormant waiting for intrepid humans to wake it from its deathly slump. Today's episode was written by Joan McCormick and produced by Tyler playing to hear more from Joe check out his weird science podcast stuff to blow your mind wherever you tuned podcasts. This vary up perhaps. And of course, for lots more on this and other well preserved topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. I'm Katie golden. I studied psychology and biology at Harvard, and I pretend to be a bird on Twitter and my new podcast creature feature. We've you nature in man from a new perspective each episode asking a comedian to get inside the minds of animals, so we can explore the startling connections to human psychology, you'll find blood bands and treachery that make game of thrones seemed like a dumb show for babies. Join us every Wednesday and subscribe on apple podcasts for on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
"four thousand years" Discussed on WTVN
"To four thousand years ago had a developed construction site using available materials, which are glacial erratics to basically predict solstices and and other other celestial events. So it's, you know, decided that you know, they were no less intelligent than we are their technology that they had available to express. These ideas was was different. But the underlying ideas are no different from those expressed at Stonehenge or other places that came much, you know, in other parts of the world using different technology. Well, I gotta tell you. My mom was born east of you in Fitchburg, Massachusetts and spend our summers there, Mark. And just New England is just gorgeous. Yeah. And what's next for you? We're gonna take calls pretty soon. But what's next for you after this project? Well, this this I'm going to stick with this project for a while. This is going to be it for a while. I in the book has gone because this is such a it's worldwide, and there's so many different dimensions and threads in this investigation. The book kinda does a very I do go deep in a few areas. But it's it's very broad. And so I anticipate in fact, I'm currently working on on not revisions the book per se, but expansions of it that I'll probably begin to publish on my blog on at before Atlanta's dot com. I also mentioned a technical paper that'll be coming out in the spring, and I'll be posting it information either on the blogger I've before Atlanta's Facebook page, so I'm gonna go. Oh, I'm going to start drilling into these different areas, these different places and engaging with, you know, local subject matter experts that know these sites I've already started to do that a little bit and to really try to bring this methodology into into the fold. And so, you know, get people thinking about it. And as a tool to, you know, maybe give some new fresh insights on as to these sites, and maybe some people that someone will come up with some new idea, and it'll just another thing just to sort of move things along so we can begin to learn more and try to figure all the south park. We're gonna come back and take the calls next with Marc car lotto on coast to coast AM. Watch. The most popular artists of today. Go to our website and see them all on the El Dorado to downstate Eldorado cited onstage under music media or use keyword stage. Experience the newest games and a lot more fun only at El Dorados downswing problem. Call one eight hundred five eight nine nine sixty six the skills you can develop as a.
Egypt opens a 4000-year old tomb to the public
"In Egypt. The public getting a glimpse for the first time of a four thousand year old tomb near Giza Egyptian archaeologists he Hawas says the tomb discovered in nineteen forty belongs to an ancient Egyptian high ranking official name may who who is related to the first king of the sixth dynasty without hieroglyphic inscription. Didn't about this, man. That was very
"four thousand years" Discussed on Never Not Funny
"Hans solo what car would han solo drive but what car would hunt solo be if he were a car that's what hot wheels is doing this to me when i write so the halloween costumes of the seventies where it's like why would you have a picture of yourself on yes yes more so like the thing is is the the jurassic park ones are actually really cool there's like a stegosaurus car there's that makes sense try serotypes car like they're really they're actually quite what i don't like iota dune buggy like that doesn't make any sense to me or like there's like eating the bugs bunny coop though no i have it in my car it's quite i want him trying to get to know here's a piece of jimmy part of trivia that's never come up before my favorite dinosaur triceratops early yep i i don't give a shit today but as a child the treasure atop says my favorite of all the the way i don't care today of course because i don't believe they ever existed impossible well i believe they lived four thousand years ago with the earliest men that's certainly what my bible we all have different theories on when they were here why don't they just really you guys that's what i believe i believe there's at least x living among us what's your favorite dinosaur checking i was just thinking about that and how i do not remember learning about dinosaurs as child oh my gosh right possible well i think because i was raised four thousand years ago and the dinosaurs right so dogs school yeah you don't i yeah i don't i literally just remember land of the lost and that's it for done a source as at this not your best that's on my best response knew what your best response decided your best way to learn about the oh no no good it is a good i like the ankle source or an kyla source on ice it but that's the guy that telfer knows ula she'd has he's i one of his favorites too it's a very low and hard shell and then it's his tail is like oh yeah that what do you what do you call that like yeah but it's it's almost it's like almost unbeatable because like the t rex can't get through that hard shell tripping happened but you know who can triceratops well he might be able to flip them all three fucking hordes come at you try means three matt can into that soft belly on the horns so i was watching a ted talk about dinosaurs and this guy was like you know how there seems like there's all these different kinds of dinosaurs that seem kind of similar it turns out that maybe the truth is actually that they're all just the same dinosaur at different ages so the triceratops like you have the three horn one but then there's the one that only has two horn so possibly the three horrid is like the older caribou to a moose or vice versa i don't know whether that's true or not is a caribou an older moose okay so two different animals i was willing to do that i said caribou all i was careful to my wagon to not more like a reindeer bush got reindeers third animal third animal three different things three different animals reindeer has fuzzy antlers right donal they know they know a lot about their privates fuzzy dice on their river mir drive certainly got that slid sure i here's a quick circle back to chess here's a quick funding anecdote.
"four thousand years" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Having us by the way really honored i'm sitting on years thousands of years of his tell tell us more about this place the history of jerusalem is the history of the word and this beautiful anchin citadel the city which became the symbol of jerusalem represents all the layers from history starting and the eighth century bc with a beautiful wide war from kings of judah probably has a kiowa and then continue we has many and maccabean period and then king harald the roman period who built his royal palace exactly here and you can actually see the ruins off that king herod tower yeah you can recognize the architecture just like the wailing wall he was the one who build a temple the temple in the second second temple now from that period this place became the citadel of the city all the rulers of the city used to sit here continue with byzantine period early islamic period mamluk period crusader everybody used to sit exactly here and this citadel became the museum of the history of jerusalem the full story of jerusalem four thousand years of rich history and you mentioned how how important archaeology archaeology is to the people here tennessee little bit about yeah archaeology of of course it's science but everybody wants to find an evidence evidence to the bible everything's you know to historical sources and here at the citadel we found a chilly evidence form the kings of judea from the maccabean from all the periods of jerusalem and can see thousand years of rich jewish history and then christianity and then islam and this is meeting point between communities and people this is the place to meet and to know more and learn about jerusalem we believe that knowledge is power because more you know more you can understand more you can respect the other jamie is that true knowledge is power is it not saying because it seems sometimes that there's a lot of knowledge but people just speak past each other i'd use a slightly different wide as well as use the word legitimacy as well i think i think for many of us israelis and palestinians but also on a religious level as well when we come as christians muslims or choose to to the city of jerusalem we're looking for legitimacy for our beliefs we're looking for political opinions and many of those things come from the.
"four thousand years" Discussed on KTLK 1130 AM
"At eyesight is there take it there and then it just lies there and you can't get it out unless you have a tremendous vulcan ism and the currents that are created in the ocean carry it to the eruptive point and then a is blasted up into the atmosphere that's how it gets up there and so that's what happened and then of course carbon dioxide is the element that causes global warming it heats up the earth right and that's what melted the ice sheets in four thousand years otherwise it would have been one hundred twenty thousand years to melt and you and i are just finding out what it's like here here's a little thought i had on allen art you were talking about the shape of the earth and yeah it's bad and i noticed that alaska has experienced thirty years of warming and it's alarming in south alaska around so there's a tremendous infestation of spruce beetles that have killed all the trees tundras melting and the thing is that it's warmed up there and now it's fine habitat for some of these obnoxious insects like that and so on now alaska has clean air as opposed to southern california and i would expect if global warming was caused by human beings that southern california would have more evidence of global warming than alaska which is a lot cleaner but it seems like it's the other way around alaska is experienced tremendous warming and.
"four thousand years" Discussed on AM 1350 WEZS
"This is the phone with phones oh everything's digital nowadays and is trying to cross breed itself van wall you the oh folks system right he's still there well here we got you have because he see i'm using digital computers as it goes through the system can't keep up with transplantation that's right and as far as microwaves go you know it's just a different way pattern one cooks one does you know analogue unless you increase the intest in the of the output on analog about i that's not what i called in about i called in because i've been doing a little research you know get away from all this mess going on your brand and i are not talked about yes yeah well i got the looking into that and it would really shock you at the facts that registered trademarks and copyright brandon iron really started copyright and registered trademarks some of the very first ones are branding iron has nothing to do with patents patents a totally different law from what i've researched yes it is i got to thank i got the thanking to i also news report that more and more people are getting tattoos removed and in the history of brandon tattoo on was richly goes back four thousand years ago where they brand people slaves.
"four thousand years" Discussed on WGIR-AM
"The it's nothing short of the most significant event in human history all of human history points to it four thousand years of history and i know some it's going to say it's longer than that stan no it is it's four thousand years of history leading up to the birth of jesus christ and then two thousand more years uh living in a world that has the knowledge of what he did and what he could do leading to today which is pretty darn close to the end of six thousand years of human history uh and we got one more thousand left to go uh which will be uh jesus living with us here on the earth uh when no more mystery no more i can't see them they'll he will be living here with us as came and we'll were so that's the seven thousand years of human history i guess i ought to pause to say how can i possibly believe that and still be a scientist who understands how long beams of light have been travelling towards the earth since the beginning of the socalled big bang and how can i possibly believe that everything that we have evidence of prior to six thousand years ago um how do i i do i justify goes to things i've just one of my most fun topics uh and when you talk about christmas miracles if you think of it in the context of uh two out all of these miracles uh god has demonstrated that he has f was it control over the universe uh i like to say if this world is not a matrix it's god's matrix he has the same kind of control of it as if it were a simulation in in terms of the things that have happened uh neither other accounts is are uh given to us in the bible if you just think about some of those uh uh miracles that happened uh guy with a withered hand you know think of it uh everything all nodded up and suddenly he stretches out his hand and everything is repaired think of microsurgery the number of surgical operations necessary to do that and with jesus it was stretch out your hand and it's done uh combing the sees the stormy sea uh if you're a physicist and you look at that you understand that in a cottage whether environment with water and win moving in all sorts.
"four thousand years" Discussed on WIBC 93.1FM
"About the river jordan i four thousand years ago and this population has the most of it in it the dakotas shoe and so he says that that genetic marker is evidence that the animal rights were uh over here and what was your second earlier question i think oh artifacts ya um i'm real eight kia about removing anything uh from one of these sites that's almost and that's almost two sinn isn't it well it is and i don't know what's attached to it that's a good point and i had a friend one time go with me and the picked up a couple of rocks and even know the earth work was about a mile and a half fact it's like you've gotta take those back and you're definitely not bringing them in the car 'cause i don't want you don't know what to attach do anything and so i'm very careful now not to take anything with me you really do dabble with the paranormal don't you well i'm i'm i'm hesitant and you know i i take a lotta caution about it lau to err on the side of caution is probably the smart thing to do he added is when you're dealing with the napoli might think i think it is while i i tell you the something to the biblical stories and i think uh you're beginning to one covers some evidence that would back up the bible when what fascinates me about the bible is is depending on how you interpret it i i think it's i think it's true i think almost everything in the bible is probably true and the huge it's all subject to interpretation but it's right out there it's laid out for you i mean fallen angels were the ts i think that's up for debate but something happened don't you think it is a great history book and even what the meg olympic era you know that dino confound archeologists just like it's all in the bible they talk about stones and they can even god says you know the i resigned in this stone now it's all day and we're coming back in a moment with final phone calls with fritz zimmerman author of mysteries of ancient america next on coast to coast.
"four thousand years" Discussed on KTRH
"The river jordan i four thousand years ago and this xu population has the most of it in it the dakotas shoe and so he says that that genetic marker is evident that the am rights were uh over here and what was your second part of your question i think oh artifacts ya um i'm real kia about removing anything um from one of these sites that's almost and that's almost a sin isn't it well it is and i don't know what's attached to it that's us a good point and i had a friend one time go with me and the picked up a couple of rocks and even know the earth work was about a mile and a half fact it's like you've gotta take those back and you're definitely not bringing them in the car 'cause i don't want you don't know what to attach do anything and so i'm very careful not to take anything with me you really do dabble with the paranormal don't you well i'm i'm i'm hesitant and you know i i take a lotta caution about it allowed to err on the side of caution is probably the smart thing to do yeah it is when you're dealing with the netflix my thank i think it is well i i tell you there's something to the biblical stories and i think uh you're beginning to one covers some evidence that would back up the bible and what fascinates me about the bible is depending on how you interpret it i i think it's i think it's true i think almost everything in the bible is probably true and the you've ju it's all subject to interpretation but it's right out there it's laid out for you i mean fallen angels were the eta ease i think that's up for debate but something happened don't you think it is a great history book m even what the mega lipik era you know the do you know can found archaeologists just like it's all in the bible they talk about stones and they've and even god says you know the i resigned in this stone delfi it's all there were coming back in a moment with final phone calls with fritz zimmerman author of mysteries of ancient america next on coast to coast.