20 Episode results for "Forty Million Years"
92 | Fantasy | Circe by Madeline Miller
"Weirdo book worms unite. We want to share our love of genre fiction with you. Some readers out there may look down on your for your love of horror sci fi and fantasy but not us so. Stop by as we discuss. What we've been reading i- jonah junkies at sandra and this is scott our back with another book review and i'm very proud to present the title this week because this is my birthday we be birthday. Thank you everyone scott. Being everyone kind of cat is cheering and the snake is cheering. I was really really excited to pick this book Surprisingly not a horror book for my birthday but you know we do love our fantasy and this was just really really calling to me to be read and to be discussed and sometimes you just gotta listen to that intuition especially rennert. Yeah so this week we are going to be talking about sursee by madeline miller And of course. I know there's different ways to pronounce her see. We're going with certainty. Because that's the way i learned it. And that's the way like as much as i tried to do different pronunciations. I just can't make it stick. I've heard searcy as well. Yeah yeah hard for me to say goodbye. That's what i know. He s silla view done or watched anything cool or read. Anything played anything that you want to share with the papers. I mean actually yeah. I guess we're just not gonna talk about the fact that we didn't review a book and the entire month about that though. Yeah absolutely yes. I have actually I've been playing a game from two thousand sixteen twenty seventeen called horizon zero dawn older. It's been out for a while. It came out at the same time as a breath of the wild zelda. Actually and i've owned it since then. And i have never played it until now. That game is so good. It's like a scifi fantasy. Mix up with like you know spiritualism as well as a giant robots it's post apocalyptic is post apocalyptic. Yeah it's kind of post post apocalyptic back so many apocalypse feels like twenty twenty right. I'm changing but the game has beautiful. The story is fantastic ashley. Birch vote acting as the main character is outstanding. And even sandra overhearing noticed another voice actor in there. My god is my beloved. My beloved pup legba american horror story. And i'm like i know emit twenty paces. It's papa legba. I thought i thought it was probably. Oh okay that makes sense. I thought that it was touch faciliate. It's hard to keep up with all of my colt boyfriend fiction. That's fair that's very fair. Now i just and they even animated it to look like him to look like the actor too and it was very like. Oh my god. That's like totes him. Yeah it's really. It's a really good game. I highly recommend it if you have the opportunity to play it on a ps four or the brand new ps five. If you've got your hands on one of them has not please send him one. Please send me one of those xbox. i'll settle for either one. Let's see i've been keeping busy watching stuff for the coal show and for spooky summer party a little bit trying to think if there's anything a particular that i haven't haven't yeah well i can say that i'm coming up on the colts show episode. Which is of course podcasts. A youtube channel that we're going to be doing my birthday celebration and talking about the eighties. Classic or film waxwork which is one of my favorite eighties horror movies. It's like it's high up there It's so funny it's so silly. It's weird and quirky and it kind of embraces that about itself but it actually has some really cool gore and make up. Yeah so is really fun to talk about that movie. I've loved since. I was a young teen and then it also has like some really over roddick scenes as well. I couldn't believe that it's been fourteen years fifteen years and i just saw this movie for the first time. You just showed it to me for the for. I don't know why i didn't think about. There's so many movies that you still have to see. I don't like i saw this recently. I certainly think to like invite him in on it. I i don't know. I don't know someone helped me anyway. So very excited. I think personally birthdays or something to be celebrated. I love celebrating other people's birthdays with them too because Being alive is a gift and aging is a gift that not everybody gets and unfortunately in scary time. Slake pandemic were really reminded of that sending. It's really important to to celebrate those milestones your trip around the sun. I really appreciate that optimism and positivity. Why do you think you know. This is good about birthdays fund. Thirty cake fun thirty case. I miss things that like are from like the early nineties like our child had birthdays. Like fun feddie cake. Balloons remember balloons before we all realized how horrible blades helium anymore will end. There is none. And i mean just the the balloon itself. I mean you eat them wherever dopp like there's so many things like man that ignorance was bliss. I wish someone could make a permanent mylar balloon. One with absolutely no leaks whatsoever and you could just keep your helium balloon forever. Yes and not have to feel guilty and then you just get buried with it or burned with to send me. Send me up into the sky. When i look like some of things that i really liked. That are plastic. And like i just stare at them. Sometimes and i'm like yeah. I think i've got with me when i die because otherwise this pisa plastics is going to travel the earth for forty million years lay. That's the twenty first century version of a of a mummy in. Its pyramid me with all my plastic. I'm sorry just. I'm sorry i'll just take it with me. I'll just nobody else's to worry about it. I'm just gonna take it okay. Let's talk about this wonderful wonderful novel spoiler alert. I'm calling it wonderful wonderful. And that would be by madeline miller in the house of helius. God of the sun and mightiest said the titans. A daughter is born but sir is a strange child. Not powerful like her father nor viciously alerting. Her mother turning to the world of mortals for companionship. She discovers that she does possess power. The power witchcraft which can transform rivals into monsters and menace the gods themselves. I call even at that. I'm gonna leave it at that but we're gonna talk a little bit more about the plot as we go but basically what you need to know about this novel is it is a rea- machination Miller did you some source materials But it's a reimagined nation of this character from greek mythology this goddess. Sursee who. I believe they stayed in here. Is like one of the first accounts in lake western civilization of witchcraft which is like so freaking cool and about her life and because she pops up in a lot of those you know a lot of those old stories the odyssey in like that and i was surprised by how much i remembered about those stories when reading this book. Okay well maybe we'll talk a little bit more about that in a minute. We'll we'll put a pin in that Let me just say my experience reading. This book was an absolute unabashed obsession. I coming as no surprise to me. Yeah i i absolutely adored it. I am a huge huge fan of greek mythology. It means a lot to me. I hold very dear to my heart. Maybe i'll say my my sursee story. For the spoiler section make people make people stay around for it. But ever since i was like a gosh may be in fourth grade and i read dual aries book of greek myth for the first time which is a beautiful book of greek myths. Pretty watered down for kids and beautifully illustrated and it just like set my heart on fire with falling in love with this pantheon. So i and then her writing is astounding. This book is incredibly well written. And i just loved the way that crc's just in entire like the wait her thought process and the way that she moves through life as it were. I'm this book was a good read. And i want to clarify what i mean by that. this was like stepping into a cool shower on a sweltering hot day. This was like this is like a specific. This is like a hot chocolate on a winter. Snow it was just like so soothing and friendly and calming and lovely that it just. I didn't want it to end. Because it just it soothes the soul. Yes and that's why. I'm calling it a good read. It was just just so nice. I think i get what you're saying in the last like hundred pages was really hard for me to face and then like the last seventy pages and then the last thirty pages you know. Because i really didn't want the story to end and i was so so emotionally invested in it that it was like painful to like end but you know at the same time. It's like half to know how it ends. Yeah this is a reread book for shell. My god absolutely. This will be reread many times many times for me and something that i find really nice about this book as well as the chapters are set up in such a way where i feel like i could just read a chapter. Sometimes i want to read about this point in her life. Yes yes yes yes. It's not setup where each chapter is. Its own book. It's not like that but each chapter is kind of its own period. If that makes sense right. And i yeah and i think it's you know it's kind of like bolts mythology right where you're like. There's these stories and these lessons or whatever and for these immortal beings that are live for you know in the story thousands of years and so yeah it is kind of naturally like this is when sir c does this thing or meets that person and Miller has this beautiful way of taking those connections of what we know about sursee and her family and other myths and stuff and you know bringing all these other beloved characters from greek mythology into the story. It's really really cool. It's almost like you reading it. You're getting so excited about who's gonna cut. He's gonna come by next. It's rare that. I read a book that has such an alien experience like this as well. There's lots of books were where the characters are very. You know abnormal have strange strange desires and designs. But it's very rare with the whole experience. The whole idea of how life is lived in how they think is so alien from us and this really captures that that experience of what it would be like to be immortal. Yeah i think so too. I think As far as a lot of other things. i've read that have a similar vibe. Her interpretation is very different and is very unique. Of course it being me. I got a lot of shades and a lot of feelings of aunt and rice. Oh because anytime something is just the salaciously beautiful descriptive painter lee words set in a period and especially about you know magical beings like. That's obviously like that's going to feel very an to me. But at the same time like balance totally her own person like totally her own writer. These these guys are their own characters to Gosh me if you have any If you have any knowledge of roman or greek mythology some of these stories are going to be very familiar. But they're told that is very personal and from the perspective of searcy and it really brings a lot of these characters that you know about their adventures and you know about their you know their conquests and and their defeats in a totally different light. Yes i totally totally see that. And i agree. Previous was especially poignant and her meeting him happens early in the book when she's still Like a kid basically didn't explain exactly how god's age but i think it takes like it takes a couple thousand years before you even get like a year older. I don't know exactly what i mean. It goes by in in like a different. They measure in a different passage of time than we do. So there's not really a way. I think we can equate it. There isn't and that's that kind of comes into some of the the alias of it in a lot of respects. It's also it's kind of presented where you're never really a child like you are but then suddenly you're not you're not way and that's kind of true two different mythologies as well But yeah i liked all of the different inter weavings of meeting these characters and seeing it through servcies gays. Because she's not like her family she is not like the other gods and titans and but she's not like totally like a mortal either she. She's very much kind of touching all these different worlds and it's really. The novel is about her finding her place in the scheme of things but Yeah i think seeing prometheus through is really set a tone for me with this book of like. Oh i see what we're doing here all right. I think we're going to give our appeal score. And then hop over to the spoiler section. So this novel is very popular was number one new york times bestseller and is very beloved. This is one hundred percent an absolute mass-appeal without question. Yeah no it's not going to work for every single person who tries it on but it is. It is a mass appeal because it has such beautiful poignant things to say about life it has everything in it hasn't venture it has romance scary stuff a little. Yeah yeah and and at the end of the day it's very philosophical which. I think really sell greek. Hell agree. I think that that appeals. To a lot of people to is a philosophy that's presented in stories such as this cool. I'm glad i'm glad we we agree on that. So we're going to dissect the novel a little bit more and i will tell you all uae. I love searcy enjoying the show. Please like in subscribe online tools. You can find us on twitter and instagram at john junkies and don't forget to visit the website john ritter junkies dot com. Okay welcome back to the spoiler section birthday addition. So you said you had a story for all of us about your experiences with syria. I do and this is a little a little corny but bear with me. So i i mentioned how greek mythology is something very near and dear to my heart Greco roman culture ancient greco roman. culture is. huge to me is something. I love and hold very dearly on so many different levels You may or may not know. I have vinnie. V the v chief which is of course roman caesar augustus tattooed on my arm. I got it after. I did my first half marathon And now i'm not saying i agree with everything. The man did or all the policies of ancient greek in greece and rome. But it's always been something that i have really strongly identified and felt called to so most of us have a unit or two in high school and middle school where you learn about greek mythology because that stuff is very important to the world of literature and storytelling and then to philosophy and stuff as well so i already went into my eighth grade unit knowing quite a lot because i was already so into it for many years at that point and we did this thing where everybody like in the entire eighth grade practically like got assigned a character from greek mythology and it was Not quite like a pageant but like you were assigned that character and you had to research them and you had to like towel like the story if them to the class. Amanda my sister. Of course it's on the show a lot back when it was. She's a few years older than me couple years back when she did. They actually did a pageant where they had like to dress up and they had to like be characteristic ren fest and like they have little boobs in games and like your family and friends come. And i was really bummed that we didn't do it that way but anyway so when i was in eighth grade i was a horrible time to be alive forever for everyone. I mean there's times in that middle school age that is just. It's it's most people you talk to you. It's like yeah that was awful. That was awful And i'm no exception. And it was really bad. And i was really really struggling and i didn't even know how to say i was struggling and i was very different than the other children and in my english class. I had no friends. No friends and i have friends but none of them were in. That class with me and i was teased because i was different. You know weird. Little greenwich goth kid very bookish and it was very very hard for me and my teacher assigned me searcy for my character. Learn about and she said that searcy is like this feminist icon. She's a very powerful. Which he woman who you know can like owns a lot of her power and her sensuality and you know like her confidence and stuff and i was like obviously she probably gave me that character for a reason and so i was so excited to learn about her and i really fell in love with her and Earlier this year. I found a company called common era An outpost a picture on instagram and tag them and they make these beautiful sustainable Pieces of jewelry that depict different goddesses especially from the greco roman pantheon and other i know i don other cool jewelry like for fem identifying people and they're made very ethically and you know responsibly and there was a little quiz where it was like. Oh which you know which one matches your personality like for fun. And i didn't know much about the company it was like well. I love every greek goddess person. So i'll just take it. And i got sursee. I didn't even know she was an option. And i they are not cheap. These are really nice pieces of jewelry. But i had some money set aside and they take payments and i was items is not an advertisement. It's not come out. And i told scott i have a have to have this. This and i were a lot so sursee came preloaded to me this novel as like it would have to be really bad for me to not like it. But i'm so happy for this to be my birthday episode. And that i get to share this with you guys this character that i love so much and getting to see her really in this light and getting to have so much of the spotlight so i'm curious since we're in the spoiler section. I wanna talk about the parts of this. That i did not have a frame of reference for and i'm curious if this was a 'cause you know a little bit more than i do my knowledge of searcy. I mean it was fairly light but was pretty much from Pretty much from odysseus. And then i felt like i remember it a couple of other things about about her son. That maybe Maybe it was presented differently in the book. That i maybe remembering correctly. Or maybe miss remembering. But i don't remember a lot of the stuff from the beginning is that is their stuff in there that have been written in some of those lessons or yes so okay let me kind of explain it and this is actually something i have to refer to madeline miller for this because she's a better person at Wording if then. I she had four major sources for this. She had homer's odyssey which covered thursay's meeting with their dishes. She heads ovid's Metamorphosis which gave the love triangle with sir seek glucose and skill appalachia of roads are godiva which provided the jason a media episode and the lost epic of telephony which we have only in summary so she took kind of these pieces and wove allot and she took some things that homer said about the dread goddess who speaks like immortal which has searcy and she kind of literally moving my hand she wold this tapestry so it was kind of like there was crumbs there for hard to follow and she she fleshed it out because it's a beautiful story it all of the myths and all of the characters coming together is seamless to me. Be right because you have a character that is set on a deserted island for the most part and that is a fricken challenge for a writer and yet somehow she manages to have a full character arc as alien as it is because she's starting from from just complete ignorance of the world. Yeah and yeah and what she wants and she should even want. Oh absolutely i totally agree and you know the relationship she has with her family really really sets the tone from the beginning of how different she is than them And like i said in the first part this is really her struggle to find herself and to not be living for anyone but herself and finding that okay. She's not like the olympians. She's not like the titans. She's not like the mortals and you know kind of finding all of the the good things the pros and cons about all of those races. There was some fun things. I told you. I laughed out loud. When i i read when her siblings are kind of all scattering to the wins and purses says something they give like. I hear they have these things called demons. I think i'd like to see one. It just made me like. I don't know just one of those trivial funny things that god would say like that. I love love love. There's an honest feel to this book too. Which is ominous to put it really. It's a new word for me. You never heard the word ominous. That's what you believe in everything. Okay this week. I believe everything and i don't mean that a bad way and that's a simplified way of putting it but it's like you can believe that multiple divinities pantheon. Some things can exist at one. Time which i think is really cool. Lot of My fellow witches and practitioners are ominous. And there's actually even a point when when they refer to one of brothers. I believe falling in love with a with an ethiopian ethiopian. God i think it was. yeah They talk about a little bit of that. Like with The and they're talking about the gods in the north and like you know kind of this. I mean it's basically the or boris. A snake devour its tail. And they're they're making a like you know Norse counteract prince and stuff but yeah and then there's like these people over here that are working with demons egyptians and all this stuff and i love this idea ellen. Later in the book to when they travel there under the like basically going under these other pantheon's who have no idea about her. And i love that. So much that like all of these pantheon's are just existing simultaneously and things are so unchangeable in their realm. You know but it's like there's world's going on around you but they're all just kind of blind to it you know. It's very centric. Wore a specially with the gods who are so selfish. Like those they're very self-centered they care about their own little world and their own little existence and care very little for anything else as they manipulate you so like the way they come like. Oh no it surprised how much the mortar will beg but you can. You can absolutely understand where if all of the other pantheon's exists. Why they don't even really care to even talk about them like not important to them. They're they're moving their own little pollens across the board. I have to say. I was completely delighted with the betrayal of athena was great loved her so much. Hermes is a favourite god of mine. And you know he's he's not painted in the best light in this. But that's okay i mean they're you know one of the points is that these infernal beings are neither good nor evil. They have a lot of selfishness but there they do their win said they do what they wanna do. But i really did enjoy the portrayal of hermes a lot because a lot of fun and like i said prometheus was really huge to me. Because i mean i i like the concept of a permit paean figure that gives knowledge to the people. You know like a lucifer. Burien sort of like vied and that she gave him comfort and sustenance. It was her it was. It was her first act of defiance. Even though she didn't recognize it as such yes she. She excused herself as being. Okay yeah but but it was her first act of defiance her first a moment of becoming her own person. Absolutely i mean. There's her interaction with him shapes her entire experience. Right it's really. It's really really beautiful passage. That's revisited bit throughout the novel This is such a beautiful beautiful feminist taxed to and so so many ways Dealing with sexual assault was so i feel powerfully and gracefully handled. I agree as we discussed just a few weeks ago. That is a trigger for me. Yeah i feel that it was triggering in this book in a way it was so what i what i appreciate about. Is it something that happened. And she did do things because it happened. Yes but it was not a point in her character progression. It didn't shape who she was. I think i see what you mean. And there's always something about taking a trauma and using it like a lot of people really identify these days with medusa for some of the same reasons of you know kind of like she had to you know get done or be victimized by men and I think that. That's you know like i had to learn that the with these mortals that she has a lot of fascination and love for their. They're not to be fully trusted. And you have to keep your guard. You have to know when to know when the whole of no win the fold. You know what i mean so i told you i knew who your favorite character was in this book that he and i make my prediction. I would like to hear your prediction. Data lewis okay. You're right. i really wasn't sure who you referring to. At that point. I wanted more data louis. There wasn't a lot of data data. He was gray was a really great. I consider him to be true. Love in this book. I agree guardless of what happened at the end which was was beautiful and nice and she she she lived her mortal life yet but i feel like was her one true love. I agree and i think it was because they were too beans. That really needed each other when they found each other and had a connection without any pretense They were really can equals yes. Yeah and he was so he was presented so lovingly as this incredibly brilliant engineer a hardworking person a good person but valuable. Yeah and i was like oh. This just has scott just dripping off of it you know. I'm not even interested in making fabric. And i want that loom i i actually. I do wanna loom wanted one for a while Wear put it so yet. But i want a little in. This did not help. Speaking of the loom yes I wanna talk about the things that she had on her island in her house in her garden. This was my favorite by far depiction of a witch ever in a story. It's so real. It's very cottage core in like this is so scottish. Oh yes but you. I could picture her like garden on the side of her cabin. And i wanted to be out there pulling weeds with her making america making pharmacopoeia. I learned a lot of new words. That i didn't realize were of greek origin. In this black so cool. I mean i know. A lot of our language is of greek origin. But it's so interesting. How much of our language is pretty much directly greek. I think it's probably farmer k. To again i don't. I'll never actually how to pronounce the pharmacy pharma k. Like the there's actually like four or five different. Yes ways ways to say whether it was plural or was what it was referring to. It's just really interesting. I agree this is a great depiction of a wedge somebody working with nature and you know kind of really good league. It's witchcraft is a raft worked at and practice upon and I think this was such a beautiful depiction of that and working with the land and the animals and having a hard balance and as a witch myself i thought it was like for grandma witch like perfect she's describing it perfectly and she passed it on which was one of my favorites who another woman which is so important. She passed on to another woman who had the ability to pass it onto others as well. Yes i love the idea lake. She said you know if you get lonely just told the gods to send the bad because i liked sursee had that role She she disliked the entire time he wasn't built for no but it was a good. It was a good device. Gave me a lot to think about about why a girl would be sent there and that is because they are obstinate and headstrong basically and so. It's kind of light and so like penelope's along more geared towards dealing with that vibe. But i like the idea of. It's like yeah because you're bad ass fem. You gotta go here also love anything. That doesn't have abraham ick homophobic shaming. There was a little bit of talk of achilles because marlin miller wrote a book about achilles. And we'll her son is gay and like that people have different lovers and stuff. And i just love that so much because it's normalizing i from what i understand. It was pretty normalized in greek culture. Yes greet roman culture many other many other cultures you know and it's really cool and important to you say this is necessarily in in my interpretation like gay literature but it is nice to have that reminder of that normalization that actually reminds me. Did you get. Did you get a little bit of the hint that her son might be gay. At the end of the book he tells me is what i got is well. He didn't want to have children and he had his his bodyguard. Who was with him all the time. I wasn't sure if i was reading too much into that. Or he's one of the references to a few different people with same gender lovers in the book who i hate that word lover but there's no blue whether way to put it one passage that i thought was very interesting and it's related to. This was the mentor. That the miniature made me giggle a lot because we'll scott torres and we talk about like the he's the minute or sometimes so it was kind of your hands so it was kind of like i was like really kind of projecting little creature on the scott. A said. it's like you know my love of monsters. I was like. Oh they it. I really. I have trouble pronouncing her siblings names. Yes but her sister. The mother of the miniature. Say sure i. There's very little swear words in this book. But i like how when she was talking to searcy like that was the most like colloquial conversation was like she was she was throwing the f bomb and like she's in the throes of breath mandatory still. It's very it was important. Yeah mortals in. The book had much more of a hottie. Talk to them. Then the immortals did yeah they they were really just more like like s saying things without all of the pretext. I found that interesting. Very poignant all voice. All of very poignant her relationships with her sibling and of course. That's a big turning point in the way. She views her sister. You know a lot to be said about family about parents about found family about cutting out toxic people from your life of course i was. You know i knew where. It was going with glucose but i was like this guy after all she did for you. Any friends zoolander in the end so not cool. Even though he's candidate awesome octopus creature. I the way that he was described. It made me very sad that his true self was just so self centered and yeah but then again that is. She was unique amongst the gods. Yeah it turns you into like your opposite when you use like the m- the moly it doesn't turn you into the opposite. That's one of the things i liked about it. It really was a true self sort of thing. I guess when. I say your opposite is that makes you divine if you're not divine and well he meant if you are divine as she takes it And i think that was you know as a journey to get her to that point to deciding to be immortal and all the wonderful. I didn't ecstasy. That comes with mortality. And kind of like you know. Because she'd been so it's this transformative thing to take this substance and i made these monsters and i did you know i made these gods and all of this stuff and it's like really at her heart. She wanted to be true to herself so then she becomes judah herself when she takes it. Very poignant it is so poignant madeline miller wright fifty million more books this absolutely fabulous story. Absolutely fabulously done beautiful. I i want to like i. Don i i have never read through all of the odyssey one go. I don't want to now. I want to read this. I want this to be my my my true experience. And the way i think of you stories i love it. Read the odyssey. That's wonderful but i is. A lot is a lot anyway. I'm so so happy. I read the spoke. This book is just so poignant and powerful and beloved to me now. One hundred percent hundred and ten percent. I don't know what to give it out of ten out of ten pigs. I wouldn't change a thing about it. I found it incredibly. Poignant an every time. I reread it. I know i'm going to take more and more away from it and have more and more to think about. I am also giving it ten out of ten pigs. fill the sti-. This is a beautiful perfect book. This is going to be a re read is going to be one of those rare rereads. Like i said i will just pick up and read a chapter just to let it wash over me because it's it's a very very good book. I'd love it. Thank you guys so much for celebrating my birthday with me. Happy birthday to you. Happy unbirthday to you Thank you scott. Thank you sandra. Happy birthday oh thanks everyone. Please keep reading pasture bedtime off
Sharks on a bird diet, fossils of fungus, 'lifelike' machines, giant beaver extinction, the beauty of calculus and oil spill dispersants
"This is a cbc podcast a weekly roundup of the best cbc radio programming subscribe to the cbc radio one newsletter digestion of the week's top stories breed indepth articles listen to interviews on documentaries and get the low down on upcoming stories from cbc radio one that you need to hear to subscribe go to cbc dot ca slash radio and looked at the subscribe button the cbc radio one newsletter being team on a tram e t h o the human genome shared inherit crack crack hi i'm bob mcdonald on this week show scientists discover a monstrous marine predator somehow eating animals we usually find in forests and meadows we found that tiger sharks and mainly baby tiger sharks are eating terrestrial songbird also finding a billion year old fossil fungus health spill out deep hole stool of life finding it was specially joy will be focused doesn't fossilized very well end is it alive scientist designer new artificial material with some of the properties of life it can grow at south by adding the necessary building blocks an nhl plus we'll look at what drove the monsters cousin of canada's national roden to extinction imagine the modern fever and then just super size that about five or six times that's what a giant adds a mathematician makes the case for why you shouldn't want to understand calculus you know i mean i see calculus calculus everywhere almost like a kid in the six cents who says i see dead people you know i i look around see calculus all this and more today on courts important tiger shark skin way over a thousand pounds and grow up the five meters in link making them the fourth largest sharks on earth and they get that b they need to eat a lot and they're not that fussy about their menu they have a reputation as the garbage cans of the ocean and have been known to go down metal tires and plastic bottles but that stuff just variety for the most part they feed on fish see snakes and sea turtles but according to a new study these apex predators and they're young pops have acquired taste for exotic food you wouldn't think they typically have access to it was a major surprise for biologist doctor kevin felder time he's the manager of the laboratory for molecular systematic evolution at the field museum in chicago doctor failed hi welcome to correct in court thanks for having me about appreciate it okay so what's the surprising item on the tiger sharks menu stowed this praising item was birds and more specifically songbirds it was known from other studies from other parts of the world that tiger sharks eat birds but these were mainly marine birds so in hawaii for example bull tiger sharks will eat fledgling albatross as they're learning how to fly but we found in the gulf of mexico that tiger sharks and mainly baby tiger sharks are eating terrestrial songbirds wow so summers that so we'd normally find in forest or ending up in in the stomach some sharks how did you find yeah that's right so a a a buddy of mine in the leadoff hitter on the paper doctor markets reimann he's doing basically monthly survey of sharks sharks in the northern gulf of mexico in two thousand ten one of these little tiger sharks actually threw up on tech the sharks do that when they're stressed they throw up very often in he found a feather which turned out to be i'm after some dna now this turned out to be a brown thrasher and so he decided to kind of start this diet study where they would do what's called the gastric glove odds on these tiger sharks in found a lot of and contain feathers wow so what they were catching sharks and making them intentionally throw up on deck that's right that's right so you could basically do you know a a stomach rent essentially of of these sharks boy so how then does a shark lives in the ocean get access to a song bird that would normally be in the forest yeah that was kind of the the question that we had to so so we think is happening is that during migrations these little birds fly over the gulf of mexico and what what likely is happening is that storms they're blowing these bird into the water and you know like when when the goal lands on the water it can very easily get back out of the water and resume flight will be congress can't do that and so they're they're basically stuck in these tiger sharks just come along in and go up wow so the songbirds don't floating in other words they do floats but they they very badly just kind of tried flap their way out of the water which they can't think they're not built to do that now how did you figure out that the feathers that were in the shark stomach were actually songbirds markets were working without pay a north all just talked to oil forty eight and she was actually able to identify some of the feathers morphological early but you know a lot of homework too far gone or were just kind of general wise feathers that you know i'm i'm not a not a foul just seem a feather as a feather the feather but she wasn't able to ideas some of these and so they sent me stomach contents from several different individuals sharks and what i did hear at the live in chicago was to do something called the dna bar coating test to figure out what species the feathers belong to marketing but we could use jeans found in the mitochondria to get eight bc specific sequence to determine what that is is oh i see how many species of songbirds of the shark seeding we found twelve species of of a trust real birds in these sharks stomach so we found things like house friends eastern king birds a barn swallows american cute 'em steps suckers swamp sparrows things like that how many of the sharks have been eating songbirds so we think it's probably a lot more than we initially thought so this study found that two and five sharks had bird remains of those about halfway neonates and so what we think is happening is that this food sources actually important for the first year to of life these tiger sharks until they become efficient predators any bigger thing than and you know essentially become the hunters that they're meant to be taken easy pickings first when they're young right yes so they're you you know they scavenge on whatever else whatever they confined in even adults will scavenge on whale carcass is and and a dead sea turtles and things like that so they're they're definitely opportunistic feeders is well now you said that the chargers sharks can also eat sievers like albatross trusted you also find seabird feathers in these young turks so that was a big surprise bob we found no marine birds no goal no pelicans no marine birds that are common to the the gulf of mexico and these were only songbirds why do you think that is yeah that's a good question you know maybe the vc bird just new to avoid the areas where tiger sharks are terrestrial birds they just get blown into the water and like you said very easy pickings the sharks just come come up and gobble up now if it's happening over water is it related to the migration of the burs assistant seasonal thing so we think so what markets then in orioles orioles did is they tapped into this great database called e byrd an ear bird is mainly a us citizen science a database and according to the website they have over a hundred million birds sightings year in basically found that the number of interaction coincided sided with the peak time that these birds were found in the fall of right before the fall migration and so surprisingly most of these predatory event xt occurred right around the fall migration boy now is they're also a synchronized sation with the time when the sharks were having babies so tiger sharks unlike a lot of other species don't have known nursery ground so these baby you know the the females might be birthing in these areas where they know this food sources available could impact of sharks eating songbirds have an impact on the songbird population well probably know because you know these things once they're blown into the water they've done so the tiger sharks just kinda there to pick up what's going to be dead anyways so it it it's more about this storm blowing these birds into the water during the migration season we hear a lot about how songbirds there in declined because of habitat loss and not do you think the decline of songbirds could have an impact on the sharks so that's an interesting question you know if anything they might have an impact on these new dates her newborn a because a lot of these newborns that were scott had these songbirds in their stomach so that's something that would necessitate more study how important armies songbirds in the baby tiger sharks diet doctor fell time thank you very much for your time thank you that was great doctor kevin felder time is eighty watson armor the third manager of the pritzker laboratory for molecular systematic evolution at the field museum in chicago and i'm sorry about this it's the producers fault it is eighty get their baby baby guy to be shut down the beach did it did embalming shack mommy shacks when you look back in the tree of life like way way back before the first large animals appeared five hundred and forty million years ago there's a big black hole other rare fossils of bacteria we have very little direct evidence of the kind of life that existed back then which is why the discovery of the fossil of a humble fungus and the canadian arctic has scientist so excited it was found in a billion year old rocks in a remote part of the northwest territory's now you may not think much of fungus today unless you're slicing them into a salad or folding them into an omelet but here's two things to think about that might change your opinion first of all fungi are very important to life on earth they play a key role in ecosystems by breaking down in recycling the nutrients from dead plants and animals and secondly this billionaire old fossil fungi might well representing the earliest evidence we have of complex life doctor elisabeth turner was part of the team that discovered the fossil she's a professor sedimentary geology in the heart quayle school of earth sciences and laurentian university in sudbury ontario doctor turner welcome quirks and quirks things on how much of a surprise was it to you that these rocks you gathered in the northwest territory contain oldest fungi known to science it was rather surprise not so much that we had complicated life but that we had indeed eight fungal fossil molecular clock status update genetic information suggests that there should be fun this back then but actually finding it was a specially joyful because fungus doesn't fossilized very well well what those this fossil fungus look like first two things just voted number one exceptionally small no more than one tenth of a millimeter in size and number two there flattened because they've been buried so they're flattened yet still complex photos and they consist of fear connected to some filaments the filament branch off of one another at right angles multiple times in the filaments contain divisions divisions inside of them indicating individual cells separated from one another along the length of the film it so collectively this would resemble what we would think of in the modern world as a fungal spore and fumble filaments really they they look similar to find today now is it's made of the same materials that fungi to their meal now that's a good question we're gonna come links to figure out what made us and of course that's a big question because organic walled microphones comey made of different things identifying this possible at a fungus with based not only on its physical appearance it organization but also in its competition so using a sort of a high end type of spectroscopy we were able to identify the material as he form of titan titan is in organic matter that is produced by only two types of life and they are animals and funky while and this is a billion years ago a billion years ago yeah tightened i've part of that is the size of insects was that is that right yes so there are some animals you did others don't but in particular reforms exo skeletons of things like shrimp lobster is an insect what makes fungi so difficult to be preserved in the fossil rockers if you think about normal fossils the ones that people are familiar with they are shows and bones and teeth and these are what we call hard parts there things that were mineralized during the life of organism they're effectively little rock's themselves and so they are easy to preserve in rocks organisms that don't have hard parts not most of life they don't get preserved very well if at all until fungus of course you know doesn't make hard parts and usually most of its parts of the body are very small so it stands a very poor chance of being preserved in the rock road so then how were these ones preserver billionaires these ones consist of organic matter and it is fortuitous aspect of the deposition environment which they were found that they didn't rot because they were buried quite quickly plans were preserved from bacterial decay and what do we know about environment these fungi libbed in a billion years ago this particular false looking for rocks that have been interpreted as having been positive doing it as jewelry and that is an environment where marine and terrestrial sort of meat it's a place that influenced by both marine and terrestrial processes so does that mean if i'm lifting water on land i would say a conservative interpretation reputation is that it lifted in the marine environment possibly on the sea floor but it is remotely possible that it came from land in which case it was facilitating very early microbial ecosystems on land okay so then paint me a picture of what life in that marine environment was like a billion years ago earth's oceans were teeming with life billion years ago a lot of it was photosynthetic living in the water column in the photo to end on the sea floor in the footage zone but it was for the most part made of bacteria so dear to his teeming with life but it was all microscopic microscopic end bacterial what then were the fungi eating the fund you would have been consuming pre existing organic matter that was from bacteria rather than from plants or animals so they needed each other's then what happened was eating yeah yeah so part of what's really interesting about this assemblage sembler fossils from which the also fungus came is that it's quite complicated there's a federal ray of complicated organisms that are you know not bacteria in this group of fossils that we discovered there are two things that really means number one ecosystems a million years ago or a great deal more complex than we assumed paleo biologist we we tend to think of the cambridge so everything before five hundred and forty million years ago that's just being a whole bunch of bacteria and a world with no life on land but the reality is actually at a billion years ago we had more complex forms of life in a fairly complicated ecosystem included primary producers consumers and even predators as well as the things that breakdown organic and recycling the fun g so that was one of the outcomes of research so what confining this ancient fungus tell about our ancestors these first simple animals and when they appeared on so let's see other main outcome of this work finding a false will fungus a billion years ago has huge implications if you look at these overall diversity of life like the big tree of life the big picture there's really only three groups of organisms there are the two organisms that we consider to be bacteria syria and then there are the more complex organisms and there's a lot of diversity in that realm which we call you wrote an inside that huge diversity of genetic variability that is the complex organisms there's a tiny little corner called pistol konta which includes animals and fringy andy implications of or comparatively new genetic understanding of evolutionary relationships among these organisms is that animals and fun gr their most close evolutionary neighbors in they branched off of the same lineage to put it clearly there are closest relatives and so that means that the branching off of those two lenny just had to happen still earlier than a billion years ago so we that will be the next things look for parking turner thank very much fear time my pleasure thank you figure interest doctor elizabeth turner is a professor sedimentary geology at laurentian university amazing thing what does it mean to be alive well it could be pretty easy determined just comparing yourself to your robot vacuum cleaner and it's not hard to see the difference week and eat grow evolve and reproduce the best year vacuum cleaner can do to ensure its survival is most of the time findings recharging station but scientists are working to closed the gap and create artificial systems that could be more flexible and adaptable and recently in a page turnout a science fiction researchers at cornell university created amazing artificial materials with incredible life like abilities in while these materials are artificial they're made of the stuff of life dna hey doctor dan lewis is senior author of this study he's a professor in the department of biological and environmental engineering at cornell university in new york after law welcome to the program thanks bob now why did you wanna create an artificial system which might flake abilities a lot of has been working towards the goal of using dna at both eight genetic as well as the eight generic material so we have have been for the last almost twenty years to use dna more engineering dna into material that can be used other than biological purple says well why are you using dna for engineering engineering purposes so as you know dna they molecule life but dna is also eight parliament pod warming eight blah molecule made of small molecules also dna is nontoxic naturally trey occurred and most importantly their morning fourth cycles and monica tools such as the dna says they're getting a group dna table talk you name it so if rudy wonderful molecule forget sylvie out of it it's interesting you call it a polymer a cause of policies like plastic right which are very very like molecules like spaghetti so you're using that perhaps exactly dna look like so what kind of lifelike abilities are you talking you're laboratory which your material the innovation of all material is that we afford metabolic activity into this material so you can't imagine it eight jail we added eight metabolic property to the jail which means they can both guys an degraded grow itself is that what you're saying it's it can grow at south by adding the metal building blocks that can help it grow an end the end we believe this has great potential for material development so you have a material evolve into whatever features you want so take me through the process and you've got you're joe what do you make you do alligators in metabolic right so that's exciting so when we first did was to car freely teeny tiny channels on a flat surface talking about really rudy small smaller than one tenth of hair andy on those multiple channels we lock them in there in each china we add or carved another feature which looked like a pillar see we have hundreds those pillars those real small channels and now it's slow the nhl to at at the same time at the front end up this jail we add those enzymes that can make new dna and then the back end up in jail we add another and then what you can't do great dna so overall you'll see this gel move by south again the flow oh i see so it moves goes it's it's growing as a front coming apart it's about exactly any other country with amanda we engineering very specific right okay so then it goes through these channels and you say the channels have shapes and sizes so what comes in right on the side of that is still the shape well we did die for so so live in addition need the metabolic activities they also need special shape or life has special shape it's not like a guru so that the second the future we added to the jail the therapy feature is so called higher key ebeling so in other words you have to build bigger things from smaller things seeing human you start always molecules go to town and then auto sales amble you into all guns in all different organs into tissue and then you into a body same concept here we start with a very very small molecule which you've still got the nickname tied those building blocks of dna and then they just i want to be and they end ending to a different shape i i'm trying to picture this i i think of dna like like a ladder 'cause it's sort of sheep that way like like a ladder so it's like you're on on one side of it you're you're making like an extension ladder you're making a longer on one side and on the other side you're taking ladder apart how exactly all right so once you've don davis and you've created your dna into a particular shape what do you use it for a we have demonstrated that application the first application is it can be used as a factor bottles faster than almost any dna ornate so the the way we did was used a ladder analogy we add a special leather school that only certain color of building blocks will be stick to that ladder and special color you're targeting the civic packaging so for example if it's hepatitis a virus state that xuemei but blue color so that eight below the tempo or river water sample aunt had the virus first inning and then our letter which has a blue essentially hook came to the blue packaging dna and then can't grow and grow and grow into a shape we designed to so by looking at the appearance tearing up the shape dan we stay hot there is a blue virus which is hepatitis a virus in your sample oh i see so other than used as a buyer sensor what else could you're dna material do our dna can be used as they protein producing material without any live cells i would do that so as our material is made of entirely from dna in the gene which kim you'd be used as ten playful protein production is also made of dna so we have this dna grew camp glue those two materials together in a when they come together into one material you add all kinds of added on that the responsible for making the protein and then you just shake and bake you property when our to catch approaching so what would be vintage of making proteins this way compared to the way they're made no i'll as you know currently the top ten drugs in world some of them are based on prompting an stole current how those protein drugs i made the made by south end you know they are very finicky and they are prone to contamination and a lot and it's not that easy pass cindy stump coaches of all thank you very much for your time thank you very much for the interview doctor dan lewis is a professor in the department of biological and environmental engineering at cornell university one of canada's national symbols is v industrious indefatigable beaver we're proud of its unassuming get the job done kind of attitude but are modern beavers just a pale shadow the mighty creatures of north america's past ten thousand years ago a giant beaver roamed are landscape it was the size of a large man with huge deep the size of bananas but sadly the giant beaver man a fatal weakness unlike a smaller cousin you didn't build dams in fact it didn't even like would end that might be the key to why there are no giant beavers around today according to new work by researcher tessa clinton senate colleagues she studied the giant beaver when she was at the department of earth sciences at western university in london ontario misplayed welcome to coach and corks thank you bob how different was the giant beaver for the past two the one we know today it wasn't two different so if you imagine the modern beaver caster condenses and you imagine that beaver would they long skinny tail instead of a big flat paddle shape tail and then just super size that about five or six times until you have a beaver that's a hundred kilograms of maybe five to six feet long and that's that's what a giant be looked like it was the size of a small black there which is inaccurate comparison for a what evidence do we have these animals today so we actually have a great fall so record's for the giant beaver so there's been fossils specimens discovered all across north america from the last ice age so we find their fossils from florida up into the eastern seaboard great lakes region all the way up into alaska yukon territory well how did you find out what they actually eat so we used stabilized hopes of engine jane beaver bones and teeth figure out their diet so in a stable i still context you are what you eat so that means a stable i saw the composition of food when you eat that carries over into you're issues so what did you find so we found out that these giant beaver was in fact eating aquatic plants it wasn't eating trees archie material eating lots of aquatic plants reads and brushes and you know pond we'd things like that so was it a grudge i mean it's been a lot of its time in the water yup so like the modern semi aquatic end it wasn't a particularly long legged graceful animals so it it it had spent a fair amount of its time and the water shelter from predators i don't suffer food now did this a giant beaver have the same kind of t set the modern beaver does crude eats trees have been monitored that's a good question i would say probably not the shape and the morphology the teeth they're they're not quite the same as a modern beaver so if you look at modern meerut teeth they're very sharply angled street down and they had this really sharp chisel like edge that's ideal for chewing annoying inviting through trees and branches and the driver teeth don't actually looked like this there actually much more curved and they protrude a lot further out of animals face and they don't have that same really sharp she's like edge so they probably wouldn't have been particularly effective if the job easier decided they want it to start taking down trees well if if it looks such a different lifestyle and i didn't need trees i mean how do you know what you've been related to the beaver and revisit this they're so different well from a d is guilty morphology perspective like they do actually look very similar to the giant beaver in the modern beaver 'em if you look at just the skeletons they they are very similar except for duke morphology and of course the size so we do that they are related but they're more like cousins and then you know the the modern not a direct descendant of the giant beaver that you mentioned a it was it was all over north america do you have an idea of how long they moved here so they i believe the false raccoon goes back about a million years so they were roaming around wetlands in north america from about a million years ago up until about ten thousand years ago the last population existed just kind of south around the southern edge of the great lakes in north america so so around southwest ontario new york indiana illinois ohio so that area was the last refuge you could think of the giant beavers before they became extinct globally in were arson with a smaller was we know today with iran that lungs well yes they did actually coexist fair for i believe the last few hundred thousand years for so what happens in why do you think the smaller versions survived and they went extinct so are idea on why the beer went extinct it goes back to of course we're kind of figure out more about johnny fever ecology g and we were trying to look at their diet 'cause if you understand what animal eats you could understand better aspects of its behavior in aspects 'em that would make it ecologically vulnerable so we found out that they were eating aquatic plants and they were very dependent on what lynn habitat for shell different predators predators food and then we can piece that together with what we know about climate change in north america atlanta last ice age and what we find is that john beaver populations are disappearing as a kind of becoming warmer and drier and were seeing less and less wetlands fritz living so it's habitat and it's food sources are effectively starting to disappear and we believe that had a very strong impact on on its survival and eventually it's extinction but why didn't the small and go extinct as well so we have no idea about that we think that with modern beaver because it has this ability to intervene ecosystem engineer it cuts down trees bills lodges it builds dams and that obviously gives an advantage so the driver wasn't cutting down trees wasn't building giant lodges and giant dams and because the modern beaver or it could manipulate environment in that way to create one habitat as it needs that probably gave an advantage over the giant beaver as when habitat starts to be in short supply oh i see is wetlands were disappearing the smaller beaver to make its own and more less very handy yes well this has a lot of familiar elements to it here a sort of sound familiar today we got a warming climate shrinking habitats inability to adopt zero warning warning here the week and take from the joy bieber i think there's a lot that we can learn for sure this the giant beaver of course it's it's fascinating study but it does fit in to a bigger puzzle that researchers have been looking after the last fifty years which is people are trying to understand understand why so many species large bodied animals went extinct at the end of the last ice age not just the giant beaver but things that were contemporary like ma'am sms johnson giant ground sauce and safeties cats and of course the two main hypotheses these are that he was linked to climate change or that it was linked wiz human impact in human activities hunting 'cause this is also the same time period when humans are starting to dispersed across the globe is well so i think it's very relevant to today where you know we obviously we can learn learn from the past and have an idea about props wherever going in the present for what kind of kind of change are human impacts will deleted just further reduction in by diversity in species extinction in the future i've actually seen a model of a giant weaver in white horse and you call there's bridgier center there that has models outside and it was really quite amazing besides the scene and his wife right yeah they're quite large there i have a few photographs actually's me at the yukon branch interpretive center in white horse and other numerous photograph me actually hugging the statue 'cause it's not very often you get to go and you get going hug you're extinct study species split thank you very much for your time thank you very much bob discipline studied the giant beaver when she was in the department of earth sciences at western university in london ontario she's now continuing her studies at harriet why university in the uk a okay i'm just wondering see you're browsing the science section of your local bookshop you pick up a book look attractive cover intriguing title you flip it open and you see something something frightening it's formulas lots of them more has mastered it not just mad i suspect you're one of two kinds of people maybe you clap your hands with delight to march street to the checkout counter or maybe shy like a frightened horse you shaking hands do carefully put the book back on the shelf and head for the self help section to look for something on the anxiety disorders well our next guest is hoping he can take some of the people in that second group and turn them into people in the first group because doctors stevens stroh god's isn't enthusiastic communicator about math his new book about calculus deals with the subject most of us probably haven't thought about since high school but he thinks just because you've forgotten it doesn't mean you shouldn't appreciate it further away it shaped our modern world the book is called infinite powers how calculus reveals new secrets of the universe and stephen stroh gas is a professor mathematics at cornell university in new york hi welcome to the program hi there bob now why did you wanna write a book about calculus wait a minute i got a different question why did you want people wrote a book about calculus well i've been in love with this subject since high school so there's the the giving side of me that wants to give this gift to the world but i i really do think it's one of the great ideas of all time and if a folks could appreciate that i think think it will enrich their life they'll see things through the lens of it i see that see you know i mean i see calculus everywhere almost like a kid in six cents who says i see dead people you know i i look around i see calculus will take me through that i mean how how how does calculus come into our everyday life this is not not just as a fascination for you oh almost anything you look at in your kitchen or in your house you'll you'll there's calculus under the hood you know let's say you're microwave and what's going on in there there's invisible waves of energy the microwaves and as we all know they have hot spots and cold spots if you don't have one of those rotating turntables in there you're gonna burn your mouth you know in certain places in the soup but and the reason for the patterns of of hot spots and cold spots of set the microwave the form of pattern in the cavity of the microwave oven that conjugal those water molecules in the food and and make obviously you know makes you food hot very quickly but but the understanding of those wave patterns and how we can control microwaves all of that is built on the massive calculus well let's start at the beginning what exactly is calculus well i you know if you had to say it in in a word it's the mathematics of change when you have something that's constantly changing especially if it's changing and changing ways like for instance imagining a ball rolling down the ramp you know not the most exciting thing in the world the think about but what's interesting thing about it is that it picks up speed as it rolls you know it doesn't just cruise down at a conscience speedy roles faster and faster and faster if you drop a rock off a bridge at first it's not moving in and picks up speed in accelerates there was a time when humanity didn't understand the the laws of falling objects and you know they had to be figured out by galloway oh in the sixteen hundreds in the math to do it didn't really exist at the time and that led to what we nowadays recalled differential calculus now that again doesn't sound like that's much of a pay pay off you could understand how things roll down ramp but today we used differential calculus understand the level of virus in the bloodstream of a patient with hiv you know when we invented triple combination therapy to turn aids from a what used to be a near certain death sentence now into a manageable they'll chronic illness calculus was a big part in in figuring out the triple combination therapy that has been a lifesaver for millions of people and what you're describing you book a not only how it's about change change but how it's about a curve sing and figuring out areas and incurs and things and you talk about how infinity turns out to be critical for calculus tell me about why why do you need infinity right so definitely true that infinity is a key player and thinking about change of any kind so when you're dealing with a curve shape something's changing their i mean what is a curve it's something the changes direction right if it didn't change direction and be going in a straight line so when you have curves you're talking about a certain kind of change the change of direction in that makes the math difficult on we did a lot of questions in school about triangles and squares and another shapes at are made up of straight lines but when you have something like a circle or parabola apple or any other curve it's very difficult to do calculations of like the area under the curve for so called tangent line to the curb those things are hard because they're not made up of straight lines i mean it's obvious point circle is round it doesn't contain any little straight segment but in calculus we pretend that it does we like to pretend that a circle like give you sumed in on it under a microscope you'd see that the circle will start to look straighter and straighter under increasing magnification and it's almost as if it were made up of infinitely many infinitesimally small straight pieces so this is the great brainstorm of calculus think about an object that's complicated or emotion that's complicated like that accelerated motion i mentioned earlier and pretend it's made up of simple much simpler pieces at the cost of having to imagine infinitely many of them so so harnessing infinity turned out to be the key to solving lots of problems that were previously intractable then you take that further and you're booked a write up to modern graphics a computer graphics which used many little tiny straight line is to make animations yeah that's right that's a great example so if you think about track or toy story you're avatar any of those computer generated movies what's going on if you dive deep into the computer graphics is that say shrek around belly is actually made up of millions of polygons triangles and squares and things they're so tiny you don't see them you don't perceive that his his belly is faceted it looks moves but 'em in the computer yeah we represent any any sort of shape using an enormous aggregation of triangles and other rector linear shapes and so this is this as i say grading inside of calculus even represent anything curved by thinking of it as an infinite combination of these infinitesimally small but straight shapes and shit that's interesting trick if you can't deal with the curve pretended straight lines just a lot well it's very creative you know that's i do love that i'm glad you pick up on it there's a creative fantasy in calculus that you don't okay i can't deal with the curve well it's not a curve it's made up of lots of straight lines not just for things like computer graphics you know in movies okay that sort of whimsical in a way it's entertaining but not that important ultimately but we we've also used the same idea to improve facial surgery you know think of someone who's chin is malformed and sticking way out and they go to the surgeon say could you could you fix my face with the help of computer graphics and 'em computer simulations of the soft tissue in a person's inside their skull they could figure out if they take out certain bones and then so you back up what year new faces gonna look like end at some with the help of calculus that now surgeons have autism effects like a flight simulator facial surgery well i i get it that if you have one problem that you can't solve you solve it by making an infinite number of smaller problems but now you've got an infinite number of problems still sounds large well the strategy comes with a cost as you say that when when you divide a hard problem into an infinite number of smaller and hopefully easier problems you're still stuck with this infinity finnity of small problems and now you gotta put them back together to solve the original problem so that's the other half of calculus that's the part we call integral calculus where you have to integrate all he answers back into and integrated coherent hole and that that is the harder part of calculus and it's the part that 'em certainly are students find more difficult so in the old days and i'm talking about in the days of archimedes in ancient greece like two fifty pc he did it because he is one of the smartest people of all time he could do it in his head he could do it with tremendous ingenuity but in modern times like fast forward almost two thousand years after him to isaac newton in england or godfrey live and it's in germany they found a trick that nowadays we call the fundamental theorem of calculus which property we don't need to go into right here but it's a it's a way of making calculations so much faster and so streamlined the you can now you could teach them to ordinary high school students so that's when people take calculus in high school and now they're learning the great advance of of newton in live nuts that makes calculus quite doable even by people of ordinary dare i say ordinary intellect you spend about half year book delving into the history of calculus in mathematics and it goes back a lot further than i thought i mean you mentioned archimedes you know this ancient greeks this this is got a long history to it it's not traditional to to put it this way i mean it's normally phrase the calculus is the creation of the mid sixteen hundreds as i say from newton in live nuts but you could definitely see precursors a of their ideas two thousand years earlier in the work of archimedes who is thinking about the strategic use of infinity to solve what framework geometry problems about but curved shapes like circles and spheres and parabola and things like that so his his skillful use of infinity than in the the renaissance and later gets used to solve problems about motion how's things move on earth like i talked about the ball rolling down the ramp or but you know the age old mysteries about how the planets move in the sky why the comments behave the way they do and so on so all these things were then the next great success story of calculus figuring out problems in astronomy and earthly motion you spend a lot of time talking about isaac newton in his revolutionary thoughts and calculus and you give him a lot of credit for the industrial revolution take me through that well i think so because a new and if you had to say in a word what was his big big contribution people would often say well the law of gravity or his laws of motion sure those were great but i think his biggest advance was the revelation that nature is logical that you could use logic in the form of math specifically in the form of calculus to predict how nature would unfold in we didn't really know that until newton we had seen mathematical patterns and things like music certainly in charting the motions of the planets but we couldn't really predict very well we couldn't anticipate the future until this tool of calculus was really fashioned by newton into this incredible suit saying instrument you know in that because you could predict the future and because the laws of nature did did exist as he showed well then the hunt is on for other kinds of laws of nature so there were laws discovered about how electricity works or magnetism and in a matter of just a few decades after those things were figured out we had marconi you know creating getting the telegraph in sending wireless messages across the ocean so cell phones and tv and radio those are just a short hop skip from from that kind of work and so that's the thing you know once you have newton showing the universe is logical everybody's looking in for the laws of not just electricity in magnetism but how air flows pretty soon you get people working on airplanes and lift and and so on i mean every part of nature has been math ties and that's given us enormous control over our world and helped to create the modern world as we know it now calculus also featured in a hollywood movie a couple of years ago about the space program oh it's you're dead yeah that's right hidden figures is the the great story of the women african american mathematicians working for with a precursor of nasa and then eventually became nasa they it was people katherine johnson who sort of the star of the movie she's still alive in her i think she just recently had a hundred birthday she and her colleagues helped put the first human beings on the moon by doing trajectory designed for thee from mercury programming later the apollo program and all of that you know when they say it's not rocket science well that was rocket science and it was it was rocket science using calculus as the movie shows it was her knowledge of calculus and and newtonian gravitational effects and including things went beyond what newton had done by the way i mean katherine johnson did not assume as isaac newton did that the earth was a perfect sphere she knew that unfolded newton by the way they knew that the earth was a little bit flattened at the polls in bulging at the equator but 'em taking a subtle effects like that into account were really important or else john glenn when he returned to earth might have you know might have predicted that he'd be landing hundreds of miles in atlantic ocean away from where he did land and it was you know a bobbing astronaut in the ocean and drowned that kind of stuff you don't wanna fool around with you you gotta know where the person's gonna land and be right there when they hit used calculus at in a crucial way in the space program and do you assume that he lon musk uses calculus today to make those precise landings of is rocket boosters that to pinpoint land yeah in florida i mean certainly that it is it is the master of the universe we use it all the time in in every domain there's nothing that has superseded calculus it's still you know it may be old but it's there's no need to replace it it it works this is the way the universe works even in quantum mechanics you know we have this very sophisticated modern subject now for atomic physics and subatomic physics and even though it has been revolutionary in its physical principles the math of quantum theory is still calculus well it's turn to those of us have been out of school for a long time men don't using advanced math is a tool in our everyday life to really appreciate something like calculus so what's the one thing you would want people to understand about it well i would say that it's not a you know you might imagine it as cut and dry but it's very mechanical very black and white i i would like people come away understanding what a triumph of human creativity and imagination it is that it's it's built on this one vision the weekend cut things into a finer in finer pieces all the way down to the infinitesimally fine and what what i find so wonderful about that is that it's not really true we know that there is the smallest thing we know is it there adams and yet by pretending that we can divide everything infinitely finally even though that's only approximately true it works so well that it has been a revolutionary idea and i i mean is it really changed the world so i i find something almost poetic in it that you know picasso has this quote that i like where he says art is the lie that makes us realize the truth and i think calculus is a little bit like that it's built on a lie that the universe is continuous in infinitely sub divisible it's not really true and yet it's such a beautiful vision and it comes so close to being true that it works the language of the universe so i i like to call it that yeah i think that the stroz nuts thank you very much for your time oh it's been a great pleasure thank you doctor stephen stroke is a professor of mathematics at cornell university in new york is new book is called infinite powers how calculus reveals the secrets of the universe coming in with that it's it's time for another corks imports question stewart raising gone from tease water ontario asks what happens to oil spills after their dispersed does dispersing render oil spills biodegradable an innocuous or does it just dispersed oil throughout the entire ocean thereby reducing oil to permissible levels well here's your answer hello i'm kenley and i'm the national senior science advisor for oil spill research preparedness and response suffer fisheries and oceans canada essentially what chemicals this person's do is they transport oil in the small loyal droplets in the water column it's no different than your dishwashing detergent so if currents and other physical processes diluted the very low concentrations below that which toxicity occurs now what people think is that we're just sleeping oil from the surface under the rug in hiding in the ocean in the water column but in reality what happens happens oil is actually degraded by natural bacteria oil is not new the bacteria in the ocean oh there's been numerous oil cbs's we all know around the ocean in fact i tell people that if it wasn't for natural degradation oil will probably be knee deep in oil and so when he was broken into these small droplets these surface area they auriol is increased in bacteria can only attack oil oil water interface and therefore when they oilers in these small droplets it's actually biodegrade at a much higher rate so they all electric chemically broken down and in some cases right down the seal to so destroyed the other thing you have to realize is that you don't really have to use chemicals versus so if you have a big story that we had off the coast of new finland earlier this year where they had eight meter waves when there was a release of oil oil it's naturally dispersed with those crashing waves you will on the surface that she broken in the water small droplets diluted and broken down by bacteria doctor kenley is national senior science advisor for oil spill research preparedness and response for fisheries and oceans canada and just a reminder about a live show will be doing on tuesday june eleventh in toronto will be hosting a cortes in courts public debate are topic should we have humans in space we've got some terrific guests on the show headlined by canadian astronaut chris hadfield if you're toronto we'd love deceive you can get tickets at location information from our website at cbc dot ca slash quirks and that's it for this week's edition oak works in court if you'd like to get in touch truth us just go to the contact lincoln are web page and again to our web page goto cbc dot c h slash courts where you can subscribe to our podcast listen to our audio archives or reid my latest blog you can follow us on twitter and facebook at cbc quirks and you can listen on cbc radio app it's free from the app store or google play courts in courts is produced by cc wong sonia biting edmark crawling end with this show we say goodbye to our intern andre
LNE.news - World Kidlines with Paxton - 3/6/2021 - Rollerblading police in Pakistan, COVAX in Ghana
"At the scene my name s pakistan the world s also. I'm here to help you know and care more about the world beyond the u. s. a. Today's date is march. Sixth twenty twenty one. Our first cat line is please in pakistan are using officers on rollerblades to try to stop people stealing and bothering people. Some people are worried that it is dangerous with the officer's carrying guns even if they're small because if an officer on rollerblades fell gun might accidentally fire. What do you think our second. The kept nine is. China was trying to slow down. Mary people getting divorces during the pandemic but actually cost couples to get divorced faster. How by setting a date for the new law would make getting divorced and more difficult. Many couples raised to get divorced before the deadline are third cat. Line is the former president of france. Alaska. gauzy will go to jaylo will go to jail for three years for influence. Catalin word it means doing things dishonestly in a non fair way like giving your best friend important job instead of giving the job to someone who's better who is not your friend influence peddling means basically selling your power to other people to use both are against the law. Our forth get line is gonna is the first country in africa to get covid. Nineteen vaccine through the world health. Organization's kovacs pergram kovacs sponsored by governments and other organizations to give over two billion vaccines to people who couldn't afford a vaccine themselves are fed. Get line is the fault of a huge dinosaur. Were just found in argentina. This species of dinosaur known ask ninja. Titans appetite that lift over one hundred forty million years ago in the cretaceous period and it was huge and our question of the day is what was nicolas sarkozy convicted of corruption. Be bicycle pedaling or see. Both as the answer is hey nikolas. Cozy was convicted of corruption. Thanks for listening to world complying with paxton. There's lots were news for kids a letter. News ears dot com. We also youtube and major pod casting platforms shine. Your colors glow services for today's kept lying's include c. and and the new york times and the daily mail.
The Geologic Timeline
"The earth is pretty old. Our current best estimate is that it's four point five four billion years old plus or minus fifty million years since you're formed however a lot has happened to help clarify the timeline. Geologists have divided the earth's history into various errors in periods each division of time represents a change in something which happened on the planet learn more about earth's history and the geologic time scales on this episode of everything everywhere daily. This episode is sponsored by the tourist office of spain. in spain. you can find accommodation. It's like you can find everywhere else hotels of all luxury levels and even hostels however you can also find something in spain that you can't find everywhere paradores. A parador is a luxury accommodation usually in a refurbished historic building a monastery or castle or in a modern building with a really great view. There isn't official network of over ninety paradores scattered all over the country in every region in my many trips to spain. I've stayed at several paradores and it's always a unique experience that adds an extra cultural element to every trip. I've stayed at ones in guadeloupe. Caseres and in costa brava. You can research visiting one of the many paradores in spain before your next visit. By going to spain dot info once again that spain dot info. The earth is so old that to make sense of its history. Geologists have come up with divisions these divisions are very broad and cover millions to billions of years depending on what the division is each division also has subdivisions that they themselves can be further subdivided. The three primary temporal divisions of earth's history are eons eras periods and eon is a very broad definition of history. And there's only been three eons your can which goes from the formation of the earth to about two point five billion years ago the protozoa which goes from two point five billion years ago to about five hundred and forty million years ago and the phanor azoic which goes from five hundred forty million years ago to today. There's also sometimes a fourth theon called dan. Which would have been the formation of the earth to about four billion years ago. But it's really hard to study that period by itself. so it's often just lumped with european. I actually studied geology and geophysics for several years and the use of eons seldom came up. Occasionally you hear about the arkin but other aeons are so broad that they're just generally not useful the are. Ken is the period where the continent started to form. The very simplest life began the protozoa. Eon where oxygen appeared in the atmosphere and up to the beginning of complex multicellular life in your ken and the protozoa. There is little to nothing in the way of fossils because there was nothing. That could be fossilized yet. There are some fossilized dramatic light beds which were mats of bacteria. But that's about it. The rest of this episode will focus on the fan zoecke on. That's where most geologic research is done. And it's where all the fossils are. The fenner azoic is divided up into three eras the paleozoic the mesozoic and the senate zoellick the first period in the paleozoic is the one you might have heard of the cambridge in the cambrian is noted for the sudden appearance of complex lifeforms and animals in the fossil record. This is known as the cambrian explosion. Here's where you'll see many of the trial bites which are really common fossils in fact the appearance of trial bites pretty much defines where the cambrian appears in the geologic record all complex life that we know of in the cambrian was in the see. Nothing yet had come onto land of all the periods. I'll be going over. This is one of the most important to have a grasp on it spans. About fifty five million years from five hundred forty million years ago to about four hundred eighty five million years ago after the cambridge incomes the division period it lasted for forty one million years and went from four hundred and eighty five million years ago to about four hundred forty. Four million years ago it's noted for its continued by diversification fish first appeared during this period and probably the first fish with jaws. These were the first vertebrate animals. There still wasn't any animal life on land yet in order vision that we know of there were lots of volcanoes in meteors during this period as well by some estimates over one hundred times the number of meteor strikes that the earth experiences today the next period is the celerion it goes from four hundred and forty million years ago to four hundred nineteen million years ago what separates the division and the celerion is the or division celerion extinction event. This is the first of the major extinction events in earth's history and the second largest in terms of the number of species that disappeared from the fossil record. The celerion sees the appearance of the very first vascular plants on land as well as the first arthur pod type creatures on land. I should also note that as we get closer to the present the information we have become better the divisions in time become more. Precise and there are more subdivisions. Most of which. I'm not going to be going into. After the slurry incomes the devonian which extended from four hundred nineteen million years ago. Two three hundred fifty nine million years ago. If you were to travel back in time to the devonian you'd probably at least recognize the land as being earth life on land had exploded in biodiversity you would see actual forests and seed bearing plants. This was also a heyday for fish. And there was a large increase in the number of fish species nights which are popular and common fossils with a spiral. Shell appeared here as well as the first tetrapods which were animals with four legs. If you ever envisioned a fish walking onto dry land well. It didn't quite work like that but it would have happened. In the devonian following the devonian came the carbon difference it lasted from three hundred fifty. Eight point nine million years ago to two hundred ninety eight point nine million years ago as the name would suggest the carbon period gets its name from carbon in particular many of the coal beds which are found around the world the most common land animal during this period. We're amphibians you also find the very first reptiles appearing at the very end of this period. Insects also saw a radical increase in diversification including species like a dragonfly with a seventy nine centimeter or twenty eight inch wingspan. The high oxygen levels allowed for such huge insects. There would literally be impossible today because sex. don't lungs the kurban efforts period saw the highest oxygen levels in earth's history. In fact reaching thirty five percent it also saw the formation of the supercontinent panja at the end of the carbon difference. There occurred what was known as the carbon difference rainforest collapse this created most of the coal beds we know today and it also created islands of life prior to the collapse. Most land life was widespread all over panja. The last of the paleozoic periods is the permian it lasted from two hundred ninety eight point nine million years ago to two hundred and fifty two point one seven million years ago. The permian saw the rise of amniote. Or what's known as higher level vertebrates all mammals reptiles and birds belong to this class. The thing that really defines the permian is how it ended the permian. Triassic extinction was the largest mass extinction event. In the earth's history eighty-one percent of all aquatic species died and seventy percent of all land species. There is a very clear layer in the geologic record known as the t. layer where on one side you can find permian fossils and on the other side you can't and this is where all the trial bites ended. The premium traffic extinction was believed to be caused by a massive vulcan ism event known as the siberian traps over a two million year period. It covered most of what is today. Central siberia with assault rock and radically changed the earth's atmosphere with end of the paleozoic. We now start to get into periods that you might be a bit more familiar with the first of these. Three periods of the mesozoic is the triassic. The traffic went from two hundred and fifty. Two point one million years ago to two hundred one point three million years ago life recovered from the permian triassic extinction and the primary land life form that developed were called architectures they can roughly be considered reptiles. You also saw the first flying vertebrates called petra soars and in the late triassic. You saw the first animals that we would call dinosaurs. There were also some of the very earliest ancestors of what we would call. Mammals during the triassic fangio broke up into lor asia in the north and gondwana in the south after the triassic came the jurassic. Which i'm sure everyone is familiar with the drastic went from two hundred and one point three million years ago to one hundred and forty five million years ago the tyrannic in jurassic were separated by another major extinction event known as the terroristic and jurassic extinction event. The cause of this extinction isn't as obvious and there's still a lot of debate about it. It could have been a meteor strike or it could have been more vulcan. During the jurassic dinosaurs became the dominant land animal. However i have to point out that most of the dinosaurs in the movie jurassic park are not from the drastic period. They are mostly from the next period. The cretaceous it is the last period of the mesozoic and the longest lasted from one hundred and forty five point five to sixty six million years ago. Dennis ores were still the dominant land animal and flowering plants began to dominate. Plant life the late jurassic and cretaceous saw the period of the largest dinosaurs with species. Like the toronto source rex. This period was relatively warm with forest reaching all the way up to the polar regions. They're cretaceous ended with a bang. Literally their cretaceous paleo gene or cretaceous tertiary extinction was another mass extinction. Unlike the previous ones this one was a little more sudden. The current theory which is now widely accepted is at the end of the cretaceous came about with a meteor impact. In what is today the yucatan peninsula of mexico. There's a very clear boundary in the rock layer where you can see increased iridium which is much more common in mir's than it is on the rest of the earth. It wiped out all of the large mega-fauna on land after the extinction. There were no land animals weighing over twenty five kilograms on earth after this extinction the current era the senate zoellick began in the first period was known as the paleo gene extended from sixty six to twenty three million years ago mammals rose to prominence during this period while they had always been around the last few periods they were rather minor now we're able to dominate and diversify. You saw the rise of large mammals. As well as aquatic mammals one type of dinosaur which did survive was flying dinosaurs. They became what we call birds and there was also a huge increase in bird diversity during this period as well the comments were beginning to move into the places where they are today. Temperatures overall cool but there were some periods with very warm temperatures along the way the next period was the neo gene which went from at twenty three million years ago to two point. Five eight eight million years ago and you'll notice that the dates are getting far more precise as we get closer to the present. North and south america joined up during this period and there was also considerable cooling. The late new gene saw the beginning of ice ages. India was colliding with asia. Forming the himalayan mountains sea levels fell creating land bridges which connected asia and north america. The polls also started developing ice caps during this period many mammals that we would be familiar with today or at least close. Relatives of them appeared. During this period the final period is the one that we're in today the poor ternary. This extends from two point five eight eight million years ago to the present. This is basically the entire time that covers the period where we can point to species that were ancestors of humans. This period is probably best defined the series of glaciations that occurred during this period. I haven't talked about epochs which are subdivisions of periods. But it's worth it for the ternary. The early career ternary is known as the pleistocene it went from two point five million years ago to eleven thousand seven hundred years ago starting eleven thousand seven hundred years ago. We entered the whole scene. Epic be event which divides the pleistocene from the whole of epic is the end of the last ice age and the end of the younger dryness. Younger dreyfuss is a really important period of human history and one that i have scheduled to if you try episode on the start of human agriculture also sort of corresponds with the beginning of the holocene. There will be a quiz at the end of this episode. You don't need to worry about knowing all of these different periods. Although i had to do exactly that when i was studying geology but i think it's helpful for everyone to have a rough idea of the earth time line. You should approximately able to know some of the major events. For example earth formed five point four billion years ago complex life appeared five hundred and fifty million years ago. Four hundred and forty million years ago things moved on land. The dinosaurs went extinct about sixty six million years ago and the first human ancestors appeared about two million years ago. This is just one of the many things. I think are reasonably knowledge. Person should know off the top of their head. As i said you don't need to know everything on the time line but you know where to stick the most important pins the associate producers. Have everything everywhere daily. Are peter bennett and thor thompson. I want to give a big thank you to everyone who has supported the show over i patron and who's left a review on the various podcast sites. The show just keeps on growing. Podcasting is unlike anything else on the internet. There's no algorithm in. There isn't one company that controls everything that means. I can't try to gain an algorithm to grow my audience. I just have to try to put out a good show every day and hope that everyone who listens will tell their friends about it. Remember if you leave a review online or ask me a question via email or social media. i'll read it on the show.
Worlds Loneliest Tree
"Look you're probably never gonna make it to campbell island. It's a teeny tiny speck in the middle of the southern ocean about four hundred miles south of new zealand but from time to time a group of scientists or meteorologists. do come to the island and set up camps. that's pretty much it. Let's say you do happen to make campbell island and let's say you arrive around christmas times. Well that's exactly. What happened to a group of meteorologist who well they were way. Out there on campbell. Island got into the holiday spirit they may have been at the ends of the earth but by god. They wanted a christmas tree. But here's the thing. There aren't a lot of christmas tree options on campbell island. There's even really a forest in fact. There's exactly one tree on the entire island. Well story goes. The meteorologist grabbed a saw through. Open the door of their hot and trudged out through the wind and the rain and headed for this single solitary tree. Don't worry they didn't cut the whole thing down. So what is usually hiccup branch off and stick around the corner of the christmas tree but it turns out. This lonely tree is a lot more than just some sad. Charlie brown christmas tree. The tree might hold an answer to a really big question about human existence and the moment we all find ourselves in. I'm doing this. And this is alice obscure a celebration of the world's strange incredible and wondrous places. Today visit campbell island to see what we can learn from the story of the world's loneliest dream. That's after this. We know you're intensely curious about the world and that's what we think you'd be interested in out travel the system. This podcast brings you inspirational stories about why travel is so important on so many levels and empowers you to go on your next adventure. And it's all built on a solid foundation of data from expedia likened subscribe to travel the system. Your favorite podcast player today kimball island is in the sub antarctic. It's the remains of an old volcano surrounded by these stunning high peaks. It's not super big. It's about twice the size of manhattan with a population of exactly zero unless you count the scientists who cycle on and off the island in getting there. It's not easy. Stormy ocean in the will is on the ocean that connects all the other agents and so whether dominates the whole place getting there. You get beaten up. Is matt advance. He wrote a book called oceans notorious about his travels in the southern ocean. And he's quite unusual in the fact that he's been to campbell island about fifteen times if required a pair of sage. Any to get there. So when you do arrive at does seem like a haven or another when you guys. It's it has a few sit back two thousand years. He just dipping rod beck until we night you hit completely out of control of and it's because it's so remote that this island is this pristine safe haven for plants and animals. They thrive there but when it comes to humans it's a little bit less oasis like it's best described as miserable climate. It's pretty much. Twenty four seven gale-force winds. It rains three hundred twenty five days per year. You're lucky if you get an hour of sunlight a day nonetheless human tried to live there for a bit people. Use the island for forming and they brought over a bunch of species that were not great for the native vegetation and wildlife but the end of the day human beings just couldn't hack camel island was too remote too harsh. By the nineteen-thirties farmers had abandoned the island. But there is still one remnant of humans time left on campbell island one thing. We brought over that still there the tree. The story goes that the tree arrived on the island or in the early. Nineteen hundreds brought over by new zealand's governor at the time he's idea was to use campbell island for forestry and what better way to mark the occasion the my planting a tree. Apparently that's a big thing in new zealand if there's anything with doing Trade and there's usually a public ceremony. The forestry idea died out pretty quickly but would didn't die out was the tree. it's a sitka spruce which is a tree native to north america. And they're handsome stately trees. They can grow to be one hundred feet tall with strong assertive routes. They're actually kind of the perfect christmas tree but this sitka spruce does not look like that in the tough windy climate of campbell island. The tree grows a little differently so they have ice mitchell rugs and if they had caused a win like to kendall on from the waste that can put up to sixty percent of the roots on the scientists to hold them all the last and remember those meteorologists who wanted a christmas tree. They didn't exactly help the aesthetic situation. They blocked off a bunch of the trees branches and they grew back all funky looking. It doesn't look like a seconds. I because it's being around. It looks like a cabbage. Fall military squat in wide. Here is another remarkable thing. The campbell island sickest groups is growing faster than it doesn't. It's normal climate five to ten times faster and it's doing it all alone. It is one hundred and seventy miles from the nearest tree. The tree god its reputation as the world's loneliest. Back in the nineteen seventies after the previous record holder was killed. The guinness world records confirms campbell island trees current status though they note that since no one can quite agree on. What a tree is. It's hard to say with absolute certainty. There's another thing that makes this tree special. It's gnarly tangled up trunk. Could help settle an argument. In a scientific debate about humanity and our time here on earth people like matt. Vance come to campbell island to explore and there are the meteorologists who come for the weather but around twenty thirteen two thousand fourteen. Another group of scientists came to the island and they were looking at some big picture. Climate stuff like in the super remote part of the world could they detect the effects of human activity. The researchers took a sample from the sitka spruce and what they found inside was very specific trace of radiocarbon. And here's where we need to talk about. Geologic time epochs to be specific and he is a period in earth's history ranging anywhere from about three million to over forty million years and each poc is defined by some sort of development that change the planet. So there was the scene. When the climate became cooler and drier and the miocene when land dwelling mammals began to change the dynamics of life on earth and today a lot of people talk about us having entered a new epoch. The anthropology seen anthro as in humans us people so the anthropology gene is defined as an epoch when humans are the big dominant force. That's altering the planet our time shaped by people but the big question is if we really are in the answer proceed. When did it begin dancer. This scientists need to look for a piece of evidence. Maybe something in the fossil record or an ancient ice core some evidence that defines this is the moment found in the geological record when we moved out of our last e poc and in to the answer that piece of evidence is called the golden spike and here is where the sitka spruce comes in twenty four and a mom the radiocarbon those researchers found in sitka spruce is from around nineteen sixty five right around the atomic bomb tests were ending and those tests. They took place mostly in the northern hemisphere which means that for the radiocarbon to wind up in the sitka spruce it had to travel thousands of miles across continents across oceans and settled into the bark of this remote tree. It's the radiocarbon equivalent of carving. Humans were here into its bark. It's important to know that there are other potential golden spikes which might define the start of the answer passing some say that it should be the start of the industrial revolution. Others think that somehow tied to greenhouse gases but if the atomic age does mark the moment when human beings demonstrated a global geological reach then now trace of radiocarbon inside the lonely tree on campbell. Island might just be the golden spike. They're looking for but putting those big questions. Aside part of what makes the tree. So remarkable is that it's still they're still just being a tree going about tree business surviving holding on against sub antarctic winds for more than one hundred years. New 'isolation seems to be suiting at fine. I guess everyone handles isolation in different ice me. I find invigorating. I really don't just little spit in the ocean. Out of the reason. I go back to get that feeling of complete isolation and everything in perspective which is where the tawny in a vastly campbell island in spruce up pretty much the manifestation of that sort of thinking really. Today it enthuses. May i understand. Have much americo lifeless if you actually want to visit campbell island and see the world's loneliest tree. It's possible but you need a permit. It's unesco world heritage site and a nature reserve that's managed by new zealand's department of conservation. Access is pretty restricted but private tour operators do offer trips to the island. If you get all of your paperwork in order thank you to advance for telling us all about the world's loneliest tree and johanna mayor for her amazing work on this episode. Our podcast is a co production of atlas obscure and witness docs. This episode was produced by johanna mayor. The production team includes doug baldinger. Chris nocco camille stanley. Sarah wyman manolas. Morales only gay. Daddy weinberg camille mojica tracey samuelson. John delore peter clowney. Our technical director is casey holford. This episode was mixed by loose fleming. Our theme credit music is by samten. And i'm doing farris wishing you all the wonder in the world witness docs from stitcher ready for a real adventure. Use your mastercard to book an american airlines flight on a dot com and travel wherever your imagination takes you because there is a world of catching up to today and fulfilling your travel promise can start something priceless.
The Fermi Paradox
"In a previous episode. I spoke about the drake equation. And the odds of there being intelligent extraterrestrial life. Many people have used the drake equation to argue. That it's almost impossible for there not to be intelligent life in our galaxy however in the summer of nineteen fifty physicist. Enrico fermi push back against this by asking a very simple question. If there are so many intelligent civilizations where are they learn more about the fermi paradox and some possible answers to the question on this episode of everything everywhere daily. This episode is sponsored by scotty vest. If you've ever watched a science fiction movie you know the one thing that aliens never have pockets. Yeah think about it. You never see aliens with pockets. In fact never really see pockets through much of human history. Either ozzy the iceman fifty three hundred years old. No pockets roman togas. No pockets in fact. You don't really see pockets as we know them until the eighteenth century that means that pockets are one of the things that make us modern humans if you wanna flaunt being a contemporary human with pockets. There's no better way to do it than wisconsin. vascular scotty. Vest has geared to hold everything you need including your smartphone cables glasses and water bottles. You can get fifteen percent off all scotty products by going to scott invest dot com and using coupon code everything everywhere all one word at checkout once again. That's scotty vest dot com coupon code. everything everywhere. The first thing you should know about the fermi paradox is that fermi wasn't the first person to ask the question and it really isn't a paradox. A paradox is a statement that is self-contradictory for example. If i said this statement is false that would be a paradox. The fermi paradox is really just an unanswered question. Likewise the association with enrico fermi came from an informal conversation. He had in the summer of nineteen fifty at los alamos. Labs in new mexico. According to legend he was having lunch with physicists. I'm you'll kinda pinski. Edward teller in herbert york. When the subject of a cartoon in the new yorker magazine came up the cartoon showed aliens coming out of a flying saucer. Taking garbage cans. Away firming simply blurted out where is everybody. Everyone present had a slightly different account of what happened but they all recall laughing at the way he said it. The first use of the phrase fermi paradox occurred in nineteen seventy seven in a paper written by physicist david stevenson one of the earliest discussions of the question of where the aliens were was made by russian rocket. scientists content sil- kofsky nineteen thirty-three. However because everyone calls at the fermi paradox. that's what. I'm going to stick with and use for the rest of the episode so with that in mind. What are some possible. Answers to the fermi paradox. Where are the aliens to quickly. Recap the drake equation episode. There are several hundred billion stars just in our galaxy and possibly like three hundred six chilean of them in the observable universe based on our cur knowledge of exoplanets each star probably has many planets orbiting around it and many of those planets might have moons given all the bodies out there your odds are that some percentage of them must have life and some percentage of those might have intelligent life basically because the number of stars and planets is so great. Even if the odds are small they still should be zero. If aliens do exist then. The math would suggest that they should be here by now for example. Let's assume we built a big ship to take colonists to the star closest to our solar system proximus interior which is four point two years away. Perhaps the journey takes a century or two once. They arrive a take a few hundred years of their own to grow their population and create a civilization. And then they do the same thing sending colonists to another star even at this relatively slow rate of colonization using something your current levels of technology. The entire galaxy should be colonized by a single species in about five to fifty million years. That may seem like a long time but on geological or cosmological timescales. It's nothing so based on these assumptions we should have been visited or at least seen evidence of aliens by now. So what explains the discrepancy. There are a whole lot of answers which people have put forward. None of them can be proven right or wrong. They're all just speculation. Here are some of the common theories that attempt to resolve the fermi paradox the first is that interstellar spaceflight just might not be possible. One of the reasons we think it's possible is because it's such a cornerstone too much of our science fiction. Whoever in all those cases involve some magical technical advancement wormholes warp drive or faster than light travel. The true answer might be that the distances are just too vast and we're stuck here on our planet. Another theory which was more popular during the cold. War was that advanced civilizations will destroy themselves before they can get to a point where they can communicate with anyone else. Perhaps they have some sort of cataclysmic war exhausted resources or their star goes extinct. One of the assumptions which is often used as called the mediocrity principle. This assumes that without any other knowledge statistically the earth must be an average planet the rare earth hypothesis suggests that this might not be true and that our planet might be very unusual. The rare earth hypothesis holds that simple life might very well be abundant in the universe. If we were to find evidence of simple life on mars or another world this would lend credibility to this view. Whoever a series of events head to take place to create humans as evolutionary biologist. Stephen jay gould suggested if you roll back the tape of life and ran it. There's a good chance that humans wouldn't exist almost all multicellular life that we know of has evolved since the cambrian explosion about five hundred and forty million years ago however our best estimate is that simple life began on earth perhaps as late as three point seven seven billion years ago and possibly as early as four point two eight billion years ago basically simple life appeared almost as soon as it could have after the formation of the planet yet very little happened on earth for about three billion years. Then something happened which allowed for the rise of complex multicellular life and whatever that was most other planets. Never go through it in more. Generalized version of this is called the great filter. The great filter suggests that there's something that holds most planets or civilizations back it could be the creation of complex life as the rare earth hypothesis suggests or it could be something in our future that we haven't figured out yet if there is a filter we don't know if it's behind us or in front of us a good example of this would be from star trek. Once humans figured out warp drive we were contacted by vulcans prior to that it wasn't worth their time to get in touch with pre warp civilization. There might be technology that we aren't even aware of yet that hasn't been discovered in other words we can't phone. E t until we discover the interstellar telephone other explanations are much more simple one is that aliens have been here but we weren't around to greet them they might have come millions of years ago and might not be back again for millions more. This was sort of the basis. For arthur c. clark's two thousand one. space odyssey. another is that were. I the reason why no one is showing up to the party is that we were the first ones to arrive. This seems improbable. Given what we know of cosmic timescales. But we can't rule it out. Another theory is that we haven't been looking long enough or in the right places our ability to travel into space and do advance. Astronomy is actually pretty short and maybe we just need to look harder and longer yet. Another theory holds that. Maybe everyone is like us. Everyone's listening but no one's broadcasting finally some theories border on the conspiratorial. Maybe we are an intergalactic zoo or wildlife preserve and no one's allowed to contact us or maybe the aliens are already here and we are secretly ruled by lizard people and that is an actual thing that people believe there is almost no limit to the number of theoretical answers. To the fermi paradox. You can probably invent your own and there would be no way to just prove whatever you came up with whoever what did enrico fermi himself. Think the answer to the question was per york who was at the infamous luncheon later recalled quote. He went on to conclude that the reason that we hadn't been visited might be that interstellar flight is impossible or if it is possible. Always judge not to be worth the effort or technological civilization. Doesn't last long enough for it to happen and quote so your guest to the resolution of the fermi paradox is just as good as anyone else's and there's a good chance that we will never know unless of course aliens land on the front lawn of the white house in which case our first question should be. What took you so long. You associate producer of everything everywhere daily. Is thor thomsen. If you'd like to support the show. Please donate over at patriot dot com. There's content only available to supporters merchandise and even opportunities for a show producer credit. If you know someone you think would enjoy the show. Please share with them. Also remember if you leave a five star review. I'll read a review on the show.
Valley of the Whales
"Almost one hundred miles. Southwest of cairo in western desert of egypt. Ah dry wind sweeps through valley. There's a dirty white truck driving across the valley floor. It kicks up a plume of dust behind it a paleontologist in khaki pants and a loose button-down shirt gets out of the car. He looks around either landscape surrounding him. It's an area with magnificent saharan scenes. The desert wind has worked the land into unusual shapes mushroom like mouse with smooth sandy stamps. Spongy looking sand boulders on the valley floor sweeping dunes but jet out of the plateau like sphinxes millions of years ago this was ocean and today if you sweep away the first layers of sand in the valley something incredible starts to appear just inches under the sand or hundreds of whale fossils. I'm sarah wyman in. This is atlas obscure celebration of the world's strange incredible and wondrous places. Today we walked through the remnants of an ancient see and we watch as one of the major stories of evolution unfolds in front of us. Why al hitan the valley of the whales what makes this valley and the bones. It contains so remarkable after this no matter what you wanna protect nobody has more experience helping. Keep it safe than adt. Adt has received the most burglar alarm events in the industry and help save more lives than any other home security provider. Eighty was named the best home security system of twenty twenty by us news and strategic analytics. Twenty twenty says adt is the number one smart home security provider with adt. You get twenty four seven peace of mind from the creators of the home security category. Adt has over twenty thousand employees experienced in helping. Keep you safe and experience matters. That's why millions of people trust. Adt to protect what matters most and keep them safe get all the latest security upgrades from the largest name in home security. Adt stands for quality and timeless protection. Visit adt dot com today. And i can't speak a little bit about the first time. I went there mohammad. Sami has been working in body. Al hitan since two thousand and the first time he set foot in the valley of the whales. He was a park ranger. We were seven on computers and was supposed to be a care about managing the protected area. Muhammed and six other park rangers had been sent to take care of the area and to protect the fossils from unauthorized collectors who came to steal bones. Paleontologists have been digging in the valley for more than one hundred years. They discovered the first whale fossil there in nineteen. Oh two but the teams who came to dig. Were not egyptian in fact according to muhammad. No one in egypt had the right specialty to study. Well fossils vertebrate paleontology as he walked around wadi al hitan mohammed was stunned by what he saw. It was a perk rangers paradise. I i used to call it about an ice because mountains sand dunes emphases in the same area. He could see fossilized mangrove roots and clam burrows embedded in the valley walls. The ground was littered with numb. You lights these flat disc shaped fossils. The fossils in the valley created a sort of time lapse and as mohammed walked through the valley. He could imagine what it would have looked like millions of years ago when it was underwater. Now you're diving was that what using diva's tools now you are. You can see all foreigners that lived in intensity or read you see a fossilized forex charles. You see fossilized shark teeth wales. Uc fossilized wade's this. Water was teeming with life. Crocodiles turtles fish sharks. The evidence is still there all around you as you walk through the valley body. Al hitan contains an unusually high number of fossils. All in the same area and not alone would have been enough to make the valley interesting to paleontologists but there's something else which makes it important on a global scale among all these bones all these plants and animals are the fossils of many different types of wales that stretch back millions of years and the story. Scientists have been able to reconstruct using these whale. Bones is both groundbreaking and surprising why wales came this area. And while you will find all this fussell's in why they hit that goes as a perfect area for wales to come to breeding the small hills. The walls of the valley created a shelter for the whales and the fish protected from currents in the open ocean. They could feed rest and breed. I'd seems as a cycle of fleiss. What is species of wales came to have their babies and other come two hundred so it's thought to be a way of life. For millions of years wales lived and died here and as their gigantic corpses fell to the bottom of the valley. They were covered by silt their tissues decayed and under layers of sediment and pressure. The whale skeletons began to turn into rock. Minerals replaced their bones. Meanwhile over millions of years the surrounding climate changed and the ocean retreated. The whale bones remained buried just below the valley floor. The desert was completely arid there was no groundwater or rain to damage. The fossils paleontologists are still finding new fossils in body. Al hitan even though they've been digging in the valley for more than a century and have uncovered more than one hundred whale fossils alone. The fossils are not the oldest ones in the world but they're remarkably well preserved down to the contents of the whales stomachs and because these whale fossils documents such vast period of time they provide a rare opportunity for paleontologists they tell an evolutionary story providing clues to help solve one of the great mysteries about the whale for a long time. No one was shirt who the whales earliest ancestor was. Or how it had evolved because even though wales live in the ocean even though they swim wales are not like fish for one thing. They're mammals but skeletal e speaking. They also move through the water differently by pumping their tails up and down instead of switching them side to side their bone structure is different from sharks and so it seemed unlikely that whales and fish were descended from the same ancestor. But then where did wales come from. Well in one thousand nine hundred. Five a team of archaeologists working on a whale fossil in body al hitan uncovered something very unusual fonda. I born of zelic. Sahan limb a hind limb. The whale had legs under it was amazing. The time this animal lived in water and besides the legs it looked pretty well like it swam like a while. It had a big tail and its legs. They weren't strong enough to bear weight anymore but they were still there and that was enough to connect the whale to an ancestor. A couple steps higher up on evolutionary ladder. It's funny to try to imagine what a whale with legs would look like walking around omland. It must've looked pretty different than what. I'm imagining this commercial. Even the looked like a wall was a big. This discovery connected the whale. Fossil body all hitan to other fossils ones that paleontologists had dug up in other parts of the world. But until now no one had known that those fossils and the whale belonged to the same evolutionary tree the legs on the whale fossil in wadi el hitan where the missing link the key to unlocking that before whales lived in the sea. They walked on land back in two thousand. Muhammed started working at wadi el hitan as a park ranger but the valley of the whales has a way of turning anyone who goes there into a wannabe paleontologist. Remember what colleagues. As the first day i was there i was. What's up a magnificent area. What i should do so is the lungs. Do now do whatever he wants k. One north so we started to to make lands on mc dreams. That's why i found that inspired me to be another burst. Muhannad studied to become one of the first egyptians to earn a degree invertebrate paleontology. He's now the designated manager of wadi. Al hitan and he's worked on around thirty different excavations in the valley. He was part of a team. Which in two thousand nineteen discovered yet. Another link between the whale and its earliest ancestor. But one of his proudest accomplishments is fulfilling the dream. He and his fellow perk rangers had the first time they visited the valley as they looked around at the rock. Formations and the fossils. I i had a dream man. Mike leagues over better. We we have such beautiful place and it deserves on the wall in a way. Look like people get amazing from what they saw on the failures Civilization on this better. And i won't let them to see that. What then is something. Egypt started with the ancient egyptian nor does started before. That's a million years. Now we we give the people what was in egypt during a forty million years ago so it was a good opportunity to Details all that. We have more cash for more than inches egyptian not only A bit amid spinks will have something more all done that in two thousand five. Thanks in part to muhammad's advocacy unesco declared wadi el hitan a world heritage site. There's now a museum on site where you can learn more about the natural ecology the valley how it's climate change over time and read the evolutionary story. The ocean left in its wake. You can also follow walking paths through the valley and enjoy the open air museum including almost seventy foot long whale. Fossil spread out in the desert sand. This podcast is a production of atlas obscure and witness stocks are production team includes doug bollinger chris. Nocco camille stanley tracey samuelson. John lord peter. Clowney the morale is dylan theorist our technical director is casey holford. This episode was sound designed by chris knockout and mixed by loose fleming. Our theme and end credit music is by samten doll. I'm sarah wyman. Thanks for listening. Witness docs from stitcher.
Ep.13 Interview with Stu Heinecke Copy
"Hi Welcome to the B. Marketers on a mission podcast I'm your host Christian, Club and one of the founders consulting. Our goal is to share inspirational stories, tips and insights from bt marketers digital for nurse and industry experts that will help you to think differently succeed and scale your business. He's still like the last time you and I talked up you know you mentioned that you were working on. A project that you've been extremely passionate about I mean you clearly are a very passionate person, but this one really got going. Can you tell a little bit about that? No. No joking? Come on pretty. Actually, here's the thing I have a couple of worldwide exclusive coming up next league I'm on the big. Growth Summit with Dr Barber Weaver Smith and. So I'm doing the first interview ever about weed about this new book. It's I working title is the We'd strategies okay. and we end. Yeah. So not the kind smoke, right? The ones that are in your lawn. Mowing things. You know we we. So here's so yeah, I'm writing this book. It's a manuscript is due by April. This coming year and Come out precisely when the weeds show up in the northern hemisphere. So that's one of the launch in two, twenty, twenty two. I am really excited about this one. I'm excited I love contact marketing and all those amazing things that people are doing to get meetings but but this would also just has me just crazy excited because. We all know what it means to grow like a weed. We'd all like our businesses. The businesses are likely a weed. In fact, we don't like our personal stocks to go like a weed. Politicians dream of having their countries grow like a weed. I guess in some way we're all driven to to grow like a weed and that sort of expressed in our space programs and so on I mean we really do understand pervasive we all understand what it means to grow like a weed. Now I've been putting together you know. Still, doing research some still interviewing people have interviewed some incredible people Kathy Ireland unbelievable how some people may only nor yeah nowhere as as like the supermodel who is an s Iowa go by. Men would a brilliant thinker? She has never brand been like a brand. Genius so The stuff that you had to say what just incredible and Henry Fisker the founder of fisker automotive. The designer of some of my favorite sports, cars, Aston Martin. And General David Portrayals and deepen picking the legendary oil guy. He was the guy that I I'm pretty sure he was the guy that the movie I started this TV show Dallas was. was founded on or based on but I mean you know just just a legendary figure in the? Business World. and more I think Damon John's is coming soon daymond John is coming and so. There's some really interesting people that have been interviewing Asking them as well you know I'm I'm showing this weeds. This. Weeds model is an acronym for Wheat Inspired Enterprise Domination strategies. So it's a system for dominating your market and expanding and. and defending your turf and all this it's. Really holds up in an incredible way. Okay. Sorry. Just one more time listeners. What is we stopped for? We'd stands for. I'm we've it's fired enterprise expansion and dominations aggies. So it's a whole system of strategies to follow exactly what weeds do to grow your business to grow your career to grow your your personal wealth or stock. it's a grow anything a project what anything that needs to growth to go forward and grow. Reads he weeds have incredible. Insights to to offer and really a framework to offer us and so that's what the books about. Wow. That's an amazing concepts STU might. typicals do Heineken. There's a story behind how you came up with that idea. Well they. Tell us here there is. You know I was just. Driving down the Santa Monica freeway. Many many years ago I'm kind of imagining the traffic doesn't move very fast the freeway. But back then it did it was just racing racing cars and roaring tires all this concrete on actually it was you know here's this median this forty foot wide concrete median between twelve lanes of freeway traffic in in. Of. So driving along and noticed it growing out of a crack in the concrete was Danielson. And you know dandelions look so happy they have those little cute little yellow flowers and brides, and in the floor of the a dependent blown around the one because that's how they blow their see at your own and just not let's incredibly impressive in his see of possibility all this concrete and roaring tires. This little plant found a way to make it work. I thought I, really I hope that I can lift the live up to that standard in my in my career. So I. I. We'll say, I have I think a half. billion. That I will have. Will have paid back. But right assigned you know isn't that just incredible because couple things one it was a so happily on unfurled and running its process and and I just thought we know it isn't that interesting it's not depressed about where it is isn't it didn't say you know I really had I really thought that I'd end up at the beach. The or something it just didn't. Where did it? So. and. You know it's also I think. It's really significant that. That wasn't a Rosebush growing out of the crack because rose bushes don't do that. Why don't we do it I mean it's not just because they're more polite plants I suppose is because they don't find their seeds for miles and miles. Yes. I mean, here's what here's something that I've just been. Filling. Into into my infra graphic about the book. So Just come across this research says that. Every Danny Lyon produces fifteen thousand seeds in its lifetime. They live five to ten years perennials not. Okay. So when you see the top, you know falling off undying as just the process of Senescence just yes. Just the top you know that stuff is has been used up and it'll it goes into hibernation and rechargers I suppose and then poof in in the last week of April first week of May, at least in the. Northern. Hemisphere. Pop Back Against Soda it'll. It'll produce. Fifteen thousand seats twenty five percent of those will germinate plants. So the next thirty, seven, thirty, three, thousand, seven, hundred, fifty, plants come. and which is thirty seven, thousand, five, hundred percent growth factor from the one plant to thirty. Seven, hundred, fifty plants. Yeah and an Acre of of dandelions produces two, hundred, forty, million seeds every year. So, you know look at that. That's really impressive. No kidding. Yeah I. Mean you think about? The difference between US leads is that. We have we've brains and free. Well, we go where we want to do what WanNa do. it. Also, we complain a lot more we can. We can be lazy we can. We can be depressed. We can be I don't know. A lot of ways that that can that freedom can work against us. Whereas weeds on we have been around for Hump the fossil record. Record. Says forty million. Years. So, they've been around a long time and they don't they don't have brain. What they do have instead is this genetic programming to learn a set of processes that had been honed over one, hundred, forty, hundred and forty million years right there really worked out well, Miller, those are solid processes. and. And then part of that programming is that they have. These attributes their they're aggressive and resilience an persistent and they don't. Like. They, don't give up. That is persistent data. They're they're nimble adoptable You know that we know exactly how that we'd grew out of that crack. The medium. Danny, wind blows it sits seeds, blow all over the place. Yeah. I know some some Daniel and seats have actually traveled thousands of miles many tens of thousands of miles. But typically they'll. They'll. They'll learn. They'll disperse around ten mile radius a rose bushes don't do that. I like very few things do that. So it's a very aggressive approach exploring and probing all of the opportunity within a ten mile radius. So no wonder it found its way to the crack. Lure, blue in and then germinated. Such beautiful thing we we think of weeds being such a negative thing but. I I suppose they are in the show up on her lawn but what I hope. So I want the book will be launching in the last week of April first week of May time line. In Twenty, twenty two, and there's a really specific purpose for that. That's when the weeds start showing up all over the northern hemisphere and I want all the weeds to to serve my mediums so. Like people would say, Oh, my God look what showing up at the learning and wait that book. There's a book. All stews founds right. there. Speaking of which of those dandelions behind you. Lose one. stood up with such an incredible story and you know it's again it's testament to your cradle prowess. Sir I mean and and I think it was to your point about like why you came up with a strategy because it's a it's so. To our. Our lives not just professionally but in general, it's a IT'S A. Correct from I'm wrong but like. Resilience. Perseverance and to a certain degree. If you see, we'd state you know they always I'm GonNa. Say they operate in Clusters Suez lump about hurt mentality. Oh. Definitely. Yeah. There's a there's a collective men. Well, there is no mentality, but there's collective strategy guest. Save Your. House, to you know I can I can I just point something out? These folks are a lot like cartoons actually I. think it's all the same process. So I haven't tried it yet. There's one that is just on my mind a oversight when. It's one that I'll be. I'll be submitting to the to the Wall Street Journal at some point. So you dons and one of Masan turned into the other saying lost my train of thought. What was it about? So. We think politics are all barking. I mean there are a lot. There's a lot of truth and you can pull out of that right? A lot of their all I know is it was a funny idea but then when you think about it. It's just that's what humor does it. Just it provides insights. There's a reason why it's funny and that's why it's funny. You discovered it sort of the back way. Back handed way but but that's that's what I think. All these books were is just there's a there's an insight like that and some of turn out to be cartoons and someone's turn out to be books but right say all of them I, just want to have people come away with a little more enriched for having had the experience and it'll be all the better for to yeah right. Hey It's Christian clip here we'll get back to the episode in the second, but I is your brand struggling to cut through the noise. Are you trying to effectively reach your target audience and boost your sales? Are you trying to pivot your business if Seoul Boca call with consulting are experienced consultants will help your business to succeed and scale Go to www dot. I'm like coal for more information salt. You know we've been we've been talking about. You know your craft them for the past several minutes and you've shared like really amazing and incredible anecdotes done. I just want. Throw this volunteer Clark four-minute like you know in your in your professional opinion like what you think is. With, regards to your area of expertise thinks the most underrated tactic. And you're talking about leads Doug, you're talking about about. Marketing doing meeting Scott. I you know. underrated. That's a really tough question to answer because everybody uses email. And they I don't think they use it properly right and it's a very crowded channel. So they all know that's all the things I'm telling people to avoid when people say, how do I stand out using using email and saying and say, well, first of all, you've probably one of the most crowded channels he could be in. Yeah. Maybe one of the things should step out of that channel you something else or Aliki multi-modal in your union we can in your communication. That there is a really really. I don't know whether it's under rain but maybe just until. Disregarded perhaps method or of using email, which would just be too. You could figure out who anybody's email addresses, right? Right, anybody. So you know but if you're gonNA reach out to someone who just years from too many people. What's going to make that email stand out I think wouldn't things that'll make it the two things one is it's got to be brief if it's if it's told word less, that's really good because everybody else's long. Several. I was going to chapter. Chapters long but at their at least while some emails. Like chapters right now. So nobody's GonNa read you and you've just shown you have absolutely no regard for their time rights Oh. So if it's really breathe for its if it's twelve words or less, you are showing respect for their time, it's much easier to respond to you. And do it in a way that has some saying. How on earth? Would you? How would you do that? I think they proxy gave me this this advice on. Saying in a way that has them saying, well, how do you do that? How would you make that happen? How does that work? So so Mark Contra than contributed this one he's at send that email on the weekend not during the week because the there's all kinds of levels of screening and mice. On the weekend and if you do. Time has to be just the right time to do it early Saturday morning. So they wake up there it is and they're. Reaching out to a CEO or someone is a C. level executive they'll probably it. They might check into their email real quickly before they move on with their weekend. So that's a good time to do it Another one is is on Sunday evening when they're back at their computer science, get what am I doing this week just about the heavens of the way. and then and then You know actually you could do it other times you can do it just before work starts for everybody else. So is you know high achievers are usually very early so So maybe eight o'clock instead of nine after nine o'clock, but do it before hours or after hours. So if you do that, then you can actually get your emails responded to by pretty impressive people not guaranteed but nothing is really but that that would be one another one might be using profile scrapes. In a very Ferro way to to produce something some very very why would I called a deep personalization in in get the meeting but used the personalization to fashion something some outreach device or gift that is really going to resonate with personally because you did your homework. You know it's going to resonate with them because you did your homework. and there's this really interesting story. One Guy who who sent a actually picture of a falconry glove. The fellow who were starting to reach was really interested in February. So he sent a picture of A. Glove I'm sending you and the guy wrote back immediately someone that they couldn't make. On. His team had been able to respond at all. He wrote back real quickly said he thinks it's really cool. But I'm not a prospect for your services. Still I really appreciate what you're what you're doing. Thanks so much and the gover- rides and he gets right back in Texas says, Hey, remember I wasn't a prospect will now. Well no I know three people who are through tree. Cio's who are in the market for what you're selling and I'm GonNa make introduction right now. So Reveals three six maker dealer deals. just because he paid attention to who the person is and did something relevant who they are. So I I call it I. I guess I just called a deep personalization. In in this book meeting. After. You'll find that. tastic only in. Thanks so much for sharing that on So one more for the road. What's the best? Piece of career advice that you've ever received you know that you implied. Man. There was no one piece of advice but. I. Really I really have to sort of redirect that to who my mentors were because I i. It was like I was raised by wolves in my. Early career those wolves where the best cartoonist in the world I mean. Leave. This. Included Gahan, Wilson Eldon Dini, Leo Column Above Man Cough the former editor at the New Yorker and I mean these guys and they didn't even realized they just they just became part of my group. I hired them to be part of my stable of cartoonists for my business for that create a business that I started off years ago and by working with them, I learned Oh my God, it was like a classroom. Oh I don't know what more than more than a classroom it was just this mega mentor mentorship program put together for myself. So those those guys will just they were amazing and I derived so much. From them and I think the, there's one other person who served as a mentor from a distance That's Jay Conrad Levinson, the the author of. Learning. And would it be I? Mean I actually had him? I got to have him write the forward to how to get a meeting with anyone early my first published book. the contributor of the forward. Also A it's it's I don't know if it's one piece of advice it was just. I just got such an incredible set of values and Just. Instruction on how to do that I don't know just how things particularly how things work in cartooning and then from Jay have how things worked on the on the sort of audacious of marketing but marketing yeah. That's incredible and I think to your point it's something of a friend of mine. And I discussed a couple of weeks ago it's never underestimate the value of. Having a good, mentor. Number One and number two. You'll be surprised how many people are out there if you ask them. How generous these people are with their time but I think that goes with it. I'm not gonNA throw on a copy out there that comes with a condition of passion the conditions. Yes. To be ready and willing to put in the work you gotta be all and you can't just be like kind of half baked. It's kind of like hiring a personal trainer and you don't learn that. You don't really want to go to the gym workout or so and a couple of months later you're hug we don't have muscles right so So. Stu thank you so much for coming on. This has been such a such a fun and engaging and insightful session You know what's the best way for people out there and like connected you? Well, I just want to say, thanks for having me on. I really. Appreciate it. Way To connect is probably Lincoln. It depends on what level of connection you're talking about. You can find my books. And I would suggest you rebound because if you WANNA. Get meetings they will God I I think I think it was Andre. That's how connected the sort of circle and a story hundred rich got in touch with me in one interview me because he had read my book again, probably both of them but but particularly, how to get meetings anyone. And he told me that he made three hundred thousand dollars from the one of the things you read. The criminal story. That's a good Roi on the book. Yes. So get the book, get the Bulls in and then connect with me on on linked I'm pretty open about it unless you pitch me. I'm gone or sense to a direct mailer. Or? And figuring out where where to send. You got impress me that way exactly Oh speaking of a surprise here for you and arrive in the mail yesterday. Classic Hey you know. That thing. When. We write books. We write them in in isolation. In a coffee shop it. You're just you're nice. I was in my basement when I wrote that book. And It's but now I just going to say that I didn't know how nobody knows how books are going to do that Bob was named after this year was named one of the top sixty four sales books of all time I saw that online dating congratulations and. This week both of them, the meeting and how to meeting with anyone turned up in the top fifty. Sales Books For Twenty twenty when it's it's I was writing sales book. Author. Writing about getting meetings. But of course, we need to get all of US meeting meeting to get meetings. To drive your original point by you drunk driving home everyone needs to get meetings regardless of like what professional? So I mean amazing and I you know cartwright if we were doing this person, ask like autograph the book, but while a virtual signature to do for now. To Heineken. Thank you so much for coming on dog I. Wish you all the best and stay healthy be well, and we'll talk soon. My pleasure. Thank you for joining us on this episode of the B. Two B. Marketers on a mission podcast. To learn more about what we do here I'm like, please visit our website at www I'm like A. And be shorts strand of show on itunes or your favorite podcast player.
LNE - BB&B - S1E68 - Methane in Cow Burps and Farts
"The. Are you four, I am names Brim. And I'm jake. Brims Dad. But some people call me boxer brew. And here's the news well, Ho- There everybody today is Friday may eighth two, thousand and twenty. It is Harry S Truman's birthday. Oh, here is true man. On twin peaks. No, no no, he's a hairiest Truman. Thirty Third President States he's he's. Known for a couple of things. One is. Really involved with ending World War Two, there is a bomb that was dropped that ended but he also was involved creating the United Nations United Nations. What's that? Oh it's organization where different countries they they try to work together world peace. Oh I see areas and also allowed I think about two hundred thousand refugees to come in after World War. Two the imigrants Oh. Refugee refugee is Bram refugee is a person who has been in a war or something like that and they have nowhere to go. Oh, really great. So so listen we're talking about. Lebron James That's interesting. About my project brands is not the time yes, it is. Let me tell you something the other day I was drinking sparkling water you might not. Brock Motor sometimes and I was eating the bananas idea. Why don't we make Bananas Sparkling Water Bram Yes. So basically after the show, well, you can hear a little bit of we're we're going to go outside. We're going to set up a bananas sparkling water stand. Thank you really angry about it. Let's get the news. Story. Program, are you are you really sad No data I'm just talking about the. People are saying that like a lot of important people are now starting to cry know not be afraid to cry like Anderson Cooper and CNN like crying accrued virus Eric or city. I'm from Los Angeles. He's the mayor was Angeles he he's been crying. The Governor of Massachusetts Charlie Baker he was crying recently be his best friend's MOM died. Yes. For a long time, you might remember that I'm two hundred and fifty one years old. I'm not really from this era anyway long story short I. Don't remember anyone like you know a president for example crying co Donald Trump he doesn't cry. He actually say that he thinks that people are weak when they cry okay but the point is that. Leaders are, for example, the head of Mary odd. For example, he he's crying people are now expressing their feelings in crying wasn't always like that. The funny thing is it used to be seen as a strength to cry in front of people but for longtime like back to the nineteen fifties, the leave it to beaver times let's say leave beaver times. The point is that it's okay to cry know I'm not afraid to cry at all. I know last time you told me that you didn't want to talk about harding. Yes Bram I. Don't want to talk about farting wealth. There's a company that's pretty cool. Good neutral mutuel. Yes. Mood draw from Switzerland and they're measuring cow farts Bram. This is a joke. No, it's not. So what they're doing, they're measuring cow farts I if you're really saying that but but it's true they have device it's sort of like a like a grocery store scanner like these shoot like a green laser in the gals is. Basically, they're trying to change the cows Diet Diet. You know diets of what you eat own? Yes. Yes and so one of the major reasons why we have climate change, we have Sumani methane gas emissions brand. You've got to break that down so many things gas. Kinds of things really come in a big way from cows. Beef. McDonald's for example, serves I know billions of people worldwide right. So it makes a lot of farts from the cows did that we eat oh brands kind of. I I don't like this. Idea? This company metron other companies to their changing the Diet. So neutral specifically, they're using like garlic and they're using citrus. That stops the farting nobody changes. The amount of toxins toxins we had that we're before did you forget toxins or poisons oh? This is very exciting. Yes. Yes it is Jewish. So I've got a question for you, BR and everybody. Do dinosaurs swim. Of course, they don't if renew dinosaurs don't swam. Well, Bram some paleontologists think that some rare dinosaurs they actually did swim. Oh, that's really cool. Yes there's a dinosaur. It was called the spinosaurus it was discovered in Morocco. Morocco. Is that near location actually on your any of the Canes Oh yes. So this dinosaurs forty feet long. Lived about ninety, five million years ago, and it was kind of a combination of e Eel and a lizard if you WANNA think of it like gigantic, you'll slash Lizard Oh that sounds scary and. People like that too. I don't WanNa, talk about that. So, the other thing is the reason why scientists really think that could swim as its tail a very, very powerful tail, not unlike the box fish we talked about. True. So. He's a question for you everybody. There are how many continents in the world did you guess? Name is wrong. Bram. Trying to act like the Laura's no no no. So they're seven confidence and how many have frogs Oh, frogs frogs during like warm places right so I guess six, I wouldn't count. Antarctica. there. That's the funny thing. They just discovered frog fossils in Antarctica, their forty million years old they were on a Seymour Island Arctic. If you don't know her Antarctic, find a glue please I'll wait. Wait. So this is the bottom of your map or your Globe Nolan South Pole, right? That's Antarctica. Right. So they discovered that there were frogs their brand. How is that possible along timing dad things were very different. The whole that all the continents were together in a big supercontinent old that's Union. Pan Jia right is called paying and then it's glit- into other parts and what are those parts called Bram what we call parts Laar Asia, and gun wonderland Gondwanaland. Why do they call it that brand? It's a good question and I didn't really know the point is they found a frog fossils there that the they're very similar to a frog that lives in Chile right now. So it's pretty interesting. So you know longtime ago there were frogs seem pretty much everywhere. That's where they think by the way the helmeted water toad is that the toe that I'm talking about Oh that's pretty cool. Yes. Yes it is to sh. Douche. Gross question us. poop go Bram let's not talk about that night is king. And there's a tournament I understand it goes down. But like weird. So bram. Those of you who are teachers, we have a little lesson plan that was prepared that. Talks about this question so That's a little dot com. If you don't know anyway, the poop goes down and against treated tweeted means, chemicals and things they clean it out and they make the water. Nice. Does it make sense in the used parts of the water for plants and all kinds of things? Oh okay. Bram why are you asking? Well, I was thinking. You A. Honeybee. Love Corona virus right. To what if they were examining? People's poop brand. That's exactly what some scientists are thinking about doing. They've done that for many years looking at polio polio. Polio is very serious virus that can be vaccinated against. It's been basically taken away worldwide very dangerous and the coronavirus is so hard to see. Right you can be sick for like two weeks and nobody knows you're sick but you can actually see the coronavirus or something related to it's. A Orrin as let's say it's like DNA DNA oh? Bram Dina's like your genes. What makes who you are oh? Yeah. So you're poop scientific word for POOP is feces, by way Oh. Liked them today. So anyway You can look at the feces. And you can see if coronavirus there that's the idea. Oh, exciting. So maybe we could we could solve the problem faster. Exactly. Is the first time we've done outside. And I've got my little seltzer weather here and. I think you're selling it for a little too much. No think that's the right price but. Spread. Love for ten dollars. Here we go. We'll see you next time. This is to be continued thinks a little news errors I remember as you all the news will get older too. That's right when you become six or seven or eight or nine news will change with you. Oh, I know that by. This week's news. Good little news ears dot com. Don't forget to check out our videos on YouTube dot com and our teacher lesson plans and more a little news ears dot com me your sweetness sean and your colors glow bran sources for today's broadcast include the New, York. Times. Popular Science, and Nature Dot Com. Well. Hello there everybody a lovely Dan a wonderful mood. You know what? It's Friday I started feeling really really good my girlfriend and I during the pandemic. We actually you know take a moment and we stick our heads out the window over small moment and that's our joy. Anyway, my name is Oda but you can call me the Lawrence and today's date is may eighth two, thousand and twenty but today's date and do Sena is one, sixty, six nine, and you are in cave in point and the quiz begins. Our First Class. Yeah. That's what is one surprising thing about the history of crying in public Jimmy is it a one hundred years ago? It was normal for leaders to cry in public is it be everybody was crying yesterday but you or is it see Plato used to tell socrates that he was afraid to cry and the answer is a one hundred years ago it was normal for our leaders decry public plus your number two how big is the device used in measuring methane in parts? Eight, he's like. It looks like a banana it tastes like banana. Be. As big as a Ponderosa a restaurant is it about as big as a grocery store scanner? Any answer is about as big as grocery store scanner in number three spinosaurus Egypt ICUs could be thought of as a cross between a boxer and I'm Matt Be Rocky Balboa and I have see and ill and lizard. The answer is and Keeled Lizard Question Number Four. What is the name of the land with all the continents? Where wants together Jimmy a Fan Dora? Fenjiang visit c three, hundred feet, and the answer is B. Benji question number five. What's one good thing about using sewers to test for the corona virus has at a stink is it's much faster than what we're doing now or is it's sanitation and the answer is b, it's much faster than what we are doing now. Well, Jimmy Hart do out there. Did you do a good job at weren't US slugger bed? Okay, goodbye.
October 22: A big concern for a lot of little ones
"Well many theaters are still empty. Lamey is back with a brand new season of binge worthy audio dramas featuring powerful theatrical productions from some of the world's most acclaimed creators for the stage experienced exhilaration of theater. Right from the comfort of your own home. Everything from provocative dramas to a reverend comedies. You can listen and subscribe to play me on. Cbc listen or wherever you get your podcasts. This is a cbc podcast. Hello i'm carol off. And i'm chris boden. This is as it happens. The podcast edition tonight and big concern for a loss of little ones health. Canada is expected to approve. Pfizer's co vaccine for children. Five and up and dr who's young patients are new to canada. Says she hopes they will not be forgotten. The age of dinosaurs. A new study finds that a couple of hundred million years ago. Dinosaurs lived in age segregated groups which paints a new picture of life in the heard. Uncharitable behaviour alberta's inquiry into foreign funded. Anti energy campaigns finds that no charities did anything illegal but that doesn't seem to have changed their rhetoric of the provincial energy minister n. evolving situation. A researcher explains why he believes a spike in elephants. Born without tusks in. Mozambique is a rapid evolutionary responses. To poaching he struck so many chords that struck so many chords. Montreal pianist describes the moment. He won the prestigious frederic chopin international piano competition and he says he's still composing himself and a come from behind defeat. The canadian business community is twitter and snicker over reports that a plant. Corporate upset at rogers was upset by bud. Dial that exposed the plan and allowed. Its target to do an end. Run as it happens. The friday edition radio. No sometimes you bum yourself out. Parents the country are waiting to see whether health canada will give the go-ahead to pfizer's cove nineteen vaccine for kids last week. The pharmaceutical company asked for approval of the shot for aged five to eleven and yesterday prime minister justin trudeau announce that if that approval is granted canada will receive millions of doses from pfizer. Enough to give everyone in that age group of first dose. Dr shaheen suleiman. As a pediatrician at saint michael's hospital in toronto. She cares for children who are new to canada. We reached her in toronto deficit. Are the parents with whom you're speaking. Are they eager to get their kids vaccinated. You know i. I hear i hear lots of different perspectives. There certainly some parents who are eager and want to run to the front of the line and there are other parents who have lots of questions and so what would you say that to those who are hesitant to are wondering whether they want to get their five year old vaccinated against cove. You know the first thing i would tell family is is is i i hear you. I know that you're coming from place of love and concern and you want what's best for your child and as your child healthcare providers. So do i. And so for any parent that is concerned or has questions i would say. Go talk to the provider that you normally see for your child's health and engage them in conversation. We know your child. We know you and we want to help you make that decision. That's right for you and we're here to listen. So that's really what i would tell families is that you're not alone and making these decisions. Consider your child healthcare provider as part of your team now. The some of the concerns. I'm sure you're hearing parents. Is they say look. They what they're reading is that the risk of cova making their kids severely sick is much lower than it is for for the rest of us and so maybe the the benefits don't outweigh the risks. Maybe the risks of because there are risks That maybe it's not worth it. Given the fact that they don't think the kids would ever get really sick. I first of all totally hear where the parents are coming from. Where they're worried. And a few things i would say as you know we do. Covert affecting children and covert a disease evolution with different variants concern. We've seen more cases in schools. We've seen more children be affected. And we've seen more children actually get severely ill. Vaccination does slow the appearance of variants of concerns. And that's something that we can keep in mind the other thing that i would you know. Ask folks to remember. There was a time when we used to think of chicken pox. Way you know. I remember going to chicken pox. Parties are being told about the growing up and and for the most part children who got chicken. Pox were otherwise fine if they got sick but there were some children who got severely sick and there was some children who died and now we have a vaccine for chicken pox and so we don't have to risk any child for whom that might be and because we don't have any way of knowing if you are going to be the person who does get severely sick and you also end up protecting not just yourself that your family and your community especially those who are immuno-compromised with the chicken pox parties were they to expose the kids to it so they can build up natural immunity. Exactly that was before we had a vaccine for chicken pox. What we've seen over these months of having a vaccine is many inequities in how it's being distributed right. I mean we've seen that while people living downtown are living in wealthier areas. Have time off or they can get time off. They've been able to access the vaccine. We saw somebody pockets of where people just didn't have the hours or the or the transportation or whatever in order to get vaccinated do you. Are you concerned that that's going to happen with the kids to absolutely carol you know i. I do think it's important that we remember that. Children are not little adults and not a vaccine strategy for children absolutely needs to be accessible to every child and that means children with disabilities children who are not narrow typical children who have parents and caregivers who are working and can't take them to vaccinations. Parents who have who family may not speaker read english or who are single parents or don't have oh hip every one of these children need to be thought of we're making our vaccine strategy and it's so important that we make the vaccination as low barrier and accessible as possible thinking how we can do this in a child friendly way in spaces that children feel comfortable in the families feel comfortable in with providers that children trust you know. I think really important that we also think about. How are we thinking about the caregivers of children for example as we know there were temporary sick days put in place for individuals who needed to take time off to get vaccinated and recover from the vaccine. We need to think about having paid sick days for parents and caregivers to be able to stay home with their children after vaccination as well. And i'm very eager to see how we learn from what we did earlier on to create an equitable vaccine strategy for all children. We're already hearing that public health. Units across the country are making plans for vaccinating. Kids ed's providing pharmacies. Doctors offices isn't the logical place then because they they go to one. It's called school and isn't that the logical ground for where kids should be getting their vaccines. We've definitely had really great success with school. Based vaccination strategies certainly and ontario. You know hepatitis b. and hp. Vaccinations are ones that are done. Routinely in schools and again school is another place that children feel safe and comfortable in and it would be a wonderful place that that could be engaged in a vaccine strategy Remember also a lessons learned as you're discussing that The government federal government said at the very beginning. If you're hesitant about the vaccine discuss it with your family doctor and then of course we know is that so many people do not have a family doctor. So where where can they go. Where can people go to get the advice. The reliable council. They need to make this decision. That is you know. I i think the first thing is. I'd love to make sure that everyone in our in our country can can seek care when they need it and that's a much bigger conversation for another day but for the vaccine i would tell parents one reliable resource that is great is caring for kids. By the canadian paediatric society that has information presented to parents. I would also invite people to reach out to their public health unit certainly in the city of toronto. They put out fantastic resources in a number of different languages also child-friendly and youth friendly language. Those are two resources out immediately. Come to mind as resources that i know are are written for parents And children with their needs in mind and not get their advice from facebook. You know it's always hard to to to make sense of what you're what you're seeing on social media and so i always even for me. I tend to go. Who to the places that i know. I'm getting good information. Good advice dr sullivan thank you. You're welcome dr suzanne. Suleiman is a pediatrician. At saint michael's hospital and then assistant professor at the faculty of medicine at the university of toronto. And you can find more on that story on our website. Cbc dot ca slash ah english when alberta launched its three point five million dollar inquiry into the foreign funding of anti oil and gas campaigns and twenty nine thousand nine premier. Jason kenny spoke darkly of hostile interest groups trying to dictate the province's economic destiny and a campaign to defame and landlocked canadian energy. Well that inquiry is over and it found. None of the above a report released yesterday found that some foreign money had gone to charities that have concerns about oil and gas development but found no wrongdoing or illegal activity all the charities appear to have been operating well within their rights. That didn't stop alberta's energy minister sonia savage from claiming the inquiry as a victory. Well i think. I think the starting point is the is the report was never meant to be something that was was intended to censor or impugn or punish anyone What the report was meant to do is to find. Document campaigns that were meant to delay or frustrate resource development and the The report not only found Many sophisticated campaigns but it found a lot of money coming across the border and extensive coordinated sophisticated campaigns they carried out and they executed their strategy with precision and resulted in a lot of job loss in the province but was albert energy minister sonya savage speaking to cbc calgary's the eye-opener this morning. Simon dyer is the deputy executive director of the pembina institute a nonprofit. That's mentioned in commissioner. Steve allen's report. We reach mr dyer in edmonton. This is her minister. Savage say this inquiry was never meant to censor impugn or punish anyone you were in your organization on the receiving end of this investigation. Is that what it felt like to you well. I don't think that's true. I mean if you look to win. This inquiry was launched. The press conference when prema- kenyan minister savaged. Introduce the. i mean the rhetoric they used was Was very damaging. They talked about Finding evidence of defamation and misinformation they talked about wanting to find evidence of illegal activity those even using about funding from russians and hundreds of millions of dollars in the semi. There's been a lot of rhetoric in the meeting criticizing The penalties shoots hammas sustainable energy. Think tank where we non-policy and obviously with very proud of the quality of research and just to have this sort of background it certainly is damaging though of course it was very positive to see the report findings and no evidence of wrongdoing. But even off that the minister i think has continued to to polarize this discussion and sort of misrepresent the findings of the report. She's in Encouraging all albertans to read it says it's extremely interesting. It shows exactly how these organizations like euros wanted to hurt to alberta's energy sector That albertans have a right to be upset. that the environmental campaign resulted in lost jobs in revenue because of canceled energy projects. Is there evidence of that in this report. I mean there's there's a lot to unpack their. I mean first of all. I mean the findings of the report Actually suggested that the amount of international funding to support advocacy around. All sands was was tiny three million dollars a year over a fifteen year period. I mean that might sound a lot but when you compare that to two hundred billion dollars proposed oil sands expansion over the two thousands and hundreds of millions of dollars in terms of government Pr and individual company investments in peo- and lobbying. I mean this is a very odd sort of reverse david and goliath and going on here in terms of trauma macrame. This is The environmental community is some picking on the a massive oil and gas sector and is being recession in alberta as you know this being a decline in the price of oil is changing markets and the oil and gas industry is in permanent decline as a result of changes to energy systems to try and sort of the crank up a battle between albertans And and the armadillo community makes no sense. I don't know of any anyone in the environmental community who sort of sit surrounds. Hoping people a suffering as part of this transition quite the opposite you know ensuring that transition is is equal and fair and we take care of everyone as we see changes Infosys fuel dimond around the world. This is essential. What what was it that jason kenney had hoped that this report would arrive at. I can't really answer that question. I mean i think from feminist perspective Of course Confident there would be no findings all the wrongdoing. I think it's It was largely political theater designed to create an enemy and You know change the narrative about the real systemic changes that are happening to the energy sector in our voter and You know use that for political benefit but you think that jason kenney actually believed that there was some kind of international conspiracy to to damage alberta's energy exports to some advantage of foreign interests. You'd have to ask the governor about on that point but it is. I mean if you listen to the Initial press conference. It is interesting. What sort of frame this is alberta. They perceive alberta being the only place in the world where the people criticizing oil and gas and As we've seen in the pasta couple of years it's amazing how quickly the conversation organizations like the international energy agency and the national panel for climate change really being clear about the long-term changes in trajectories that are underway. So so i don't know but As inquiry a- report sound you know there is no no evidence. tying the activities of environmental conversations to those to those changes in the end. The minister Sonia savage says that she believes that the commission did expose what they had believed was there and that even if they found that there was no illegal activity or proof that it damaged the oil and gas sector of alberta. That albertans believed that it did. Do you think that's true. No i mean. I don't think so. I mean a couple of things i mean. I feel like the. The government's really moved the goal posts in terms of you know what they said. If inquiry was about even in their press release the government leads off with a fo statement to inquiry found evidence of misinformation. That clearly is not the case. The commissioner said. He didn't look at that. So the government voter. I think continues to dig in on this but I think the biggest thing is just the damage this continues to do. Alberta's reputation alberta's dangerously behind in the global conversation and mainstream action on climate. Change no amount of the public relations and rebranding been addressed the fact that Alberta does not have a twenty thirty talking about it has no climate plan and voters made no commitment to support kanter achieving. Its twenty fifty heads august. So i mean we really urge. Governor voted to join the mainstream and released on climate action. That's the only way that help voters in previous reputation on these issues clearly missed it. I will leave it there. The line does seem to be breaking up a bit. Thanks speaking with us. Thanks very much. Carol simon dyer is the deputy executive director of the pembina institute. We reached him in edmonton It took almost five minutes for bruce xiaoyu to begin playing in the final round of the frederic chopin international piano competition. When did start. He barely stop for forty minutes. Nobody listening wanted him to just twenty four years old. Mr you was named the winner of the prestigious competition in warsaw this week along with the title. The montreal pianist takes over forty thousand euros grand prize. And the kind of high assume one only gets from a performance that ends like this The audience at the warsaw philharmonic concert hall applauding canadian pianist. Bruce xiaoyu after his chopin piano competition win this week. We reached mr lee in warsaw. Based first of all big congratulations. That's that's that's it's still surreal from. I mean i don't have the time to celebrate. Even is a bunch of Of things happening in. Kim going so and so. Have you planned for how you going to celebrate. I have to think about it. I don't have the time at sea sleep. Even the united slept three two two or three hours for two dating the rule so and this particular competition the federick chopin international piano competition. How big a deal is this. I think it's For every kid who is learning One of the biggest dreaming not participate competition. I think it's one of the it's disney most prestigious. I think ends minoshe obama's so special you know it's only one capozza. Dedicating one composing wykeham position is really something to play chopin before that audience at that competition in warsaw. What did that mean for. You does a good question because only the that playing stop in here is already. Ah you know like a historical moment for me as a kid who was born in parison was origin of chinese and who grew up in montreal canada. You know and this means like to prove that this music is real universal language and there's no cultural barrier. Let's say you know the fact. That's playing here really stressful in a way. Because i think everybody in the audience is kind of like an expert. No they really know what you're listening to and at the same time it's stressful but at the same time it's really satisfying experience. Because he know that you're playing to a very knowledgeable. People i watched some Performance warsaw obviously. But i watched On youtube your people have described it as intense That the audiences breathless when they hear and watch you play and it just seems you go so deeply inside the music it sometimes. Playful sometimes dramatic. Where do you go when when you're there when you are so intensely engaged that are you like where does that place like. I think all you know all these conclusions are made from outsiders as myself. I don't even know what i was doing. I was really just into my mood on the moments on the stage. I think every time he's a little different in a way it's like of course. We have logic when we practice in everything but on stage. Of course we keep this logic and we don't do any random things but at the same time there is a really freedom. There's a room for improvisation. So it's hard to describe because every time it's different now you were not a child. Prodigy is not. You said elsewhere that you piano is just one of your hobbies as a kid and but something obviously is obviously not a hobby anymore. Just a hobby. What is it that that drew you into it. Why why did you become so engaged with the piano to this degree. I think it's still a hug. Well i think. Naturally because i had so many hobbies as you know and I think music. I think i choose. I mean i spend more time on this. Because i think let's say simple ways that the older you get the better you get away so it's a very long long step in On unlike many other things that's the life is really short. Tinos music is accompanying you for the for the rest of your life for sure so i think maybe that's something that's you know i feel more and more and i think just naturally put more on more time. It's twenty four years old. So i think he's got a lot more distance on this journey with your music. And where do you say you say you still. It's still a hobby but So where does this this winning this competition. Where does it take you in your hobby. I guess just into a hobby. That i can do more the reason i say that because i think i don't want this to become like a routine or anything The fact that hobby is something. We're always interested at not doing it because of we have to do it. That's that's the reason why is say that you know that you're much admired by the people who teach you people your mentors other quote from canadian pianist yuna fuel cough scott who said that Who knows you says on top of your immense talented talented. She says you are such a good and delightful human being which is not always. The case with super talents has failed to hear that kind of praise from those who really really kind of. Yeah that's feeling is really satisfying. When you hear that people you respect so much in you admire a lot you know same goes to my teacher dongtai son and you know the these. These guys are in. My childhood is like someone that i think i will never have the chance to even reach because it's like so high like the top people in this in this in this music world. Yeah so i think I'm really touched by this better sympathy and support for short. That's what you're hearing from people who know your music who have worked with you. What's your family seeing. What are your parents saying. How do they react. Funnily and surprisingly My my dad's specially is he. Of course he's happy but he's more concern for the for the rest of the continuing. I think that's a that's what's really close people. Think for me. It's that's there's no time really to be happy at because you know winning. This is a huge responsibility So your parents. Your father worries that you're not going to have time do. Enjoy your life and have fun. It's just there's a lot of new things to learn. let's and it's it's not ending. It's just the start you just finished your performance and so now are you heading home. Yes i'm going back to the hotel and soon the conductor canada. No i have actually. I cannot go back home through for a long long time. Which is something. I didn't expect because after this. There's a huge list of just tours and doesn't give any time to go back to canada which is very sad because i really wish to go home after this really exhausting experience. But it's just start as said. I think i know what your dad was talking about. Then bruce i wish you the best. I wish to get some rest and And finishing interview will help that. So thank you so much. Thank you thank you good night. Good night bruce. Xiaoyu canadian pianist and the winner of this year's frederic chopin international piano competition in warsaw poland. That's where we reached him while. Many theaters are still empty. Clammy is back with a brand new season of binge worthy audio dramas featuring powerful theatrical productions from some of the world's most acclaimed creators for the stage experience the exhilaration of theater right from the comfort of your own home. Everything from provocative dramas to irreverent comedies. You can listen and subscribe to play me on. Cbc listen or wherever you get podcasts. It turns out that millions of years ago a bunch of dinosaurs invented the dreaded. Click a new study published in the journal. Scientific reports has found that the dinosaur must source lived in a herd and the fossils that paleontologists found in argentina. Are the oldest ever. Confirm this herd mentality vassall. Fernandez is a paleontologist at the natural history museum in london and a co author of the study. We reached him in london then. So how would you describe the scene of where these fossils are found. So it's a citing fatigue ganja which is a very dry end days like civil arises Sediment where or specimens have been discovered. Can you tell us what you and your colleagues discovered in argentina. So the site. I've been i've been Explored for of today. Kate's now and the golden a dinosaur eggs and juvenile dinosaur of missouri's and young adults of all of the same species. And what does it tell you the way that you found these fossils so it tells us that this dinosaur was a leading as a health and also extending us that there was a what we call age segregation so the the young one while living together to sabotage together and so it was helping fall the do good social evolved as a whole defined this among dinosaurs. It is quite an unusual It's we had some a the findings in other places in the world like in bolivia in china into the us But it was never everything in one place and now and also the age this they are almost two hundred million years old. This site right. So is that does that. Set a new precedent for the this kind of herd mentality among dinosaurs. Yes it does because the Social behavioral that we had indicated because i'm forty million years younger than that to it setting it forty million years before that which is a big number but it's also setting that just before the rise of do syrup dinatale the big one with the long neck and the long tail so it's important to understand the success of that lineage. Right and so now. What is your evidence. How come you're so sure that they this. These dinosaurs organize themselves as a heard. So it is a. It is a nesting site and we have so. We have three succession of leo's undefeated recalled during different next. It means the thing is. We are coming to the same site a novell to to nesting thing. If it was just for nesting maybe just adult could go their next Extent crooked idea that just a good to a place and they do their honest and then they go back to to living group but here they go to the nesting place with the the young adult. We've do juvenile with the new bonds. So they were own moving together. Evan for something like missing and so and did they stay with their own. Mothers or did date. Was it like other animals who are in her today. Are they sharing the rearing of the of the young. So that's the thing it should So do Aspect means like they were there were groups of different ages and they do that because it means they have to synchronize the behavioral. They have to eat together so when the as a group only one of them has to be vigilant for a prayed for prenatal fit means rapidly. The mother was the mothers were poverty. Do i don't actually well not taking care of the of the of young ones. They were probably taking care of very one. 'cause they need protection and the diplomacy needs to be fed at the beginning but rapidly a pub. The maybe y'all to maybe they were quite independent. Right see found the evidence of this heard as they would have arranged their themselves with the where they were laying their eggs and where they were Rearing their young and in fact found some exit had embryos in them. So what killed this herd of dinosaurs. So we don't really know It could be severe thing so we know that they wear the we knew that the the eggs and discrediting we've found they've been recovered by some wind blown deposits so we don't know if it was a a drought and it was like a an average season. That was a bit longer than usual. And all was it like a like. Was it because of the wisdom that came and basically saupiquet them. So it's not very clear exactly why but We know they were bayer windblown. Sediments could have been a really sudden death for all of them in the fact that the If we have so many animals in one place it means it would have happened in a very short time south. Thank you for telling us the story. My cell phone numbers is a paleontologist at the natural history museum in london. He was in mountain and her son says she was suspicious of literary awards but she also knew they could be enormously helpful which is why this week. The estate of science fiction and fantasy writer ursula kayla announced a twenty five thousand dollar literary price coming next year and just like the late authors work including novels like the left hand of darkness and the earth see series. The prize is full of surprises at a time. When speculative fiction is full of grim end of the world scenarios the ursula kayla gwynne prize for fiction will celebrate those who imagine a non apocalyptic future instead. It will honor imaginative fiction. The champions hope and freedom alternatives to conflict and a holistic view of humanity's place in the natural world. Ms gwynne was all about those kinds of big ideas about big ideas. As you'll hear in this speech he gave after accepting a national book foundation medal in two thousand fourteen to the givers of this beautiful reward. My thanks from the heart and i rejoice in accepting it four and sharing it with all the writers who were excluded from literature for so long my fellow authors of fantasy and science fiction writers of the imagination who for the last fifty years watched the beautiful wards goto the so-called realists. I think hard times are coming when we will be wanting the voices of writers who can see alternatives to how we live now and ken sees through our fear stricken society and it's obsessive technologies to other ways of being and even imagine some real grounds for hope we will need writers who can remember freedom. Poets visionaries the realists of a larger reality. I think we need writers who know the difference between production of a market commodity in the practice of an art. We who live by writing and publishing wont and should demand our fair share of the proceeds. But the name of our beautiful reward prophet. Its name is freedom thank you. That was the late ursula. Kayla gwynne twenty fourteen. The first ursula kayla gwen prize will be awarded on october. Twenty first twenty twenty two which would have been her ninety. Third birthday We knew that elephant numbers were in serious decline largely due to poachers. But now we know that humans have killed so many elephants so rapidly that the animals were forced to evolve over the course of just a couple of generations. A new study finds that more and more elephants in mozambique are being born without tusks. Scientists say that might be an evolutionary response to out of control poaching during mozambique's two decades long civil war. When tusla's elephants were less likely to be hunted down. Dr robert pringle is one of the evolutionary biologists behind the study published. Yesterday in the journal science we reached him in princeton. New jersey professor bingo. You focused on this one national park. Mozambique how many more tuskless. Elephants did you note. How much is this. Population increased well So the population of elephants in gorongosa national park went through a population collapse. Basically down to a small number of individuals and then a recovery over that period we found an increase in the frequency of tuscaloosa females from about eighteen percent eighteen and a half percent to more than fifty percent so the female elephants that survived. The war. were much more likely to be those. Without tusks. we found that they would pass that trade along to their offspring. The first generation of elephants born after the war also had a higher frequency of the tusk straight and so this period where there was this rapid decline that the numbers of elephants in general was during the civil war in mozambique right when we're both sides hunting the the elephants the tasks that refunding their war effort weren't they. That's right as far as it's known. This is a tragically frequent occurrence throughout africa's that ivory poaching and rhino horn. Poaching associated with conflict. Is convincing evidence that you know this was a regional conflict with other countries involved as well and that ivory smuggling was involved in financing the conflict and went on for many years so that had quite an effect. Maybe you can just explain to us. Why the poaching of the ivory from their tusks has resulted in this population of tusk elephants. Yeah so that's elephants are are not a new thing. They've been observed populations and often in populations have been subjected to intense thing but the link between those two things never been firmly established. It's been hypothesized but But never really quantified documented in a rigorous way and the inference. That we were able to make. Was that the intent selection that if it's natural selection but imposed by human on elephants with us and that is a custom much more likely to be the ones that are shot and therefore there's a survival advantage to animals without us and that this is what led to the increase in the frequency of this trait and a change in a trait In population through time is evolution and they'd tuskless elephant classes a genetic mutation. Yes and this is another feature of the studies that we tried to get some insight into what the genetic basis of the trait wasn't indeed whether it was heritable which is a precondition for evolution. And we haven't conclusively unravelled the all of the granular molecular details on how this works but we have identified probable what we call candidate regions parts of the genome that consistently differ between tests and tests elephants better implicated in but but you mentioned that the tuskless elephant population is. It's female. So why is it only passed onto the female elephants. yes the evidence that we presented. Our paper seems to suggest that this is an excellent dominant male lethal condition but it basically means that we don't find any males in this population and throughout africa plus with males appear to be vanishingly rare finding so many huge percentage of these elephants. Without tasks i mean i presume they have. There's a reason for them having tasks. So what is life like for elephants. Don't who have this mutation and don't develop tusks that's a great question and that's one of the things that we want to try to get a better. A better sense of elephants use their tusks for a wide range of purposes. they use them for social communication and interactions. They use them in feeding peeling tree bark from trees to eat their various ways in which we could imagine that not having us would influence your ability to go through normal life as an elephant. How how would you damage. Is all this done to them even the ones who are surviving in going to second and third generations. I have a fairly nuanced view of of what all this means. It's obviously it's an evolutionary responses to strong human pressure and it changes the anatomy of the animals that is another way in which the the human footprint is massive and profound at the same time. It's the response that helped this population survive this tragic long war and the population is now recovering and it may take many generations for the frequency of toughness to go back down to what we would expect in a fairly intact population but the population is there and it's growing if protection of the population continues in the way that it has for the last Twenty years that over time the disadvantage of being topless will be selected again and the population will cover so there is a story of resilience here as much as there is a story of damage and and human footprint. Very interesting wrinkle. Thank you thank you very much for having me. Dr robert pringle is an evolutionary biologist at princeton university There are a lot of reasons. To be transfixed by the high stakes boardroom. Drama happening in the rogers communication empire right now but the main reason is the pivotal role of a butt. Dial for those who missed that. Crucial detail the globe and mail reports that the company's cfo pocket or but dialed the company's ceo and overheard him talking about plans to unseat him with the support of then company chair edward rogers who has since himself unseated. Thanks only in part to that mistaken call from one seat of power to another about all seems a bit below the belt still. We'll take this moment to mark the return of the butt dial to the cultural prominence. it deserves. It's not that it ever stopped. Being a problem necessarily just seems to have taken a back seat lately so this is a timely reminder that your bottom can still lend you on your backside just ask former georgia state employees james stevens who has his own cautionary tale. Thanks to a lack of caution from his tail after a long call from his boss. One evening from april twenty eighteen. here's carols conversation with mr stevens concluded. I put the phone in my pocket and walked into the kitchen where my wife was and apologized to her for the intrusion. And while we're in the privacy of our kitchen she made a few less than flattering comments about my job and Everything she said was truthful and methane. That really was unkind. Just things that only an insecure person would get upset and fire someone over and so what the issue here is that okay you you were at home. You'd come home for dinner. Your wife was waiting for you. You took this call fifty minutes here almost an hour on the phone with your boss. How is it that he came to over here this conversation. Well when i when. I my phone in my pocket and walked into the kitchen. Apparently you have a result. Way down the previous number that i had Had owned land back to him. And i was unaware that that had occurred but it was. It was a minute road pocket. Dial my phone did initiate. What point did you realize that you had the phone open My my pocket illuminate. I noticed my pocket illuminated. So i pulled the phone out saw. Let's connective and said oh. Explorer said a word that you'd have to be if i say i disconnected call. We have all i guess. Many people have but had this happened. Where you find yourself hearing a conversation or someone has pocket dialed you and you can hear what's going on and I guess we listen in. But we generally don't tell tell the people that we were listening and we say puckett dow. Maybe we don't you don't refer to but that's not what happened to you is what happened the next day. Tell us what happened when you saw your boss high To two hours into my work the next day. Mr cohen asked me if i could step into his office and he had to. Hr representative there and tell me that Based on the phone conversation he had hurt the previous not that He didn't feel any longer work with me. And that he'd give me the option to resign or or he would fire me. And i said you're going to terminate me for a private conversation. I had him on home. And he said i have spoken with the attorney general's office and they Said that i have already to do that. And that's your choice. You can refine our. I will fire you. James stephen speaking with twenty eighteen about how abud dial ended up losing his job as georgia state employees as far as we can tell his lawsuit. Against his boss is still pending. You've been listening to the as it happens. Podcast our show can be heard monday to friday on. Cbc radio one and on sirius xm following the world at six. Listen to the whole show on the cbc. Listen download it for free from the app store or from google play. Thanks for listening. I'm peril off. And i'm chris out for more. Cbc podcasts go. Cbc dot ca slash podcasts.
Our Warped Milky Way
"I love this podcast. Support this show through the acoss support supportive. Hr it's up to you. How much give. And there's no regular commitment just hit the link in the show description to support. Now i'm john pro host of the checks and balances podcast from economists each week. We are looking stories trends. Shaping american politics join by the economists journalists from around the world plus expert guests we against the ideas data countries complex history to answer the big questions about where it's headed that's checks and balances join me today. Start listening on a cost. You put cost wherever you get your podcasts. This space time series. Twenty four episodes seventeen for broadcast the seventeenth of february twenty. Twenty one coming up on space time. The milky way warped following a galactic collision discovery of a new kind of magnetic explosion on the sun and almost space to launch. Its first customer next year over that and more coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd stewart gary and you study has confirmed what some people of long suspected. The milky way galaxy is warped the findings reported in the of physical journal providing scientists with the most detailed look yet at the geometry of the galaxy like all spiral galaxies the milky way features a rotating disc of spectacular stellar arms flowing out from a central bolger of mostly ancient stars the inside on spiral galaxies. A usually thought of being incredibly flatten thin. The study's lead author jinglin. Chang from the university of virginia says the usual picture of a spiral. Galaxy is a flat disk thinner than a pancake peacefully. Rotating around at center but the reality is far more complicated. Astronomers have known for decades that many spiral galaxies actually have disks with slight twists in them like a potato chip in fact these wars occurring about fifty sixty percent of all spiral galaxies including our own milky way however because the earth stuck deep inside the galaxy along one of those spectacular spiral arms. We talked about astronomy surprisingly little about the war in the milky way so instead they tracing out the shape of the walk by carefully studying the positions and motions of stars across the milky way you authors used data from the sloan digital sky survey to obtain the most detailed picture of still emotions around the area of the war as star star to move up and down as the walk passes and they were able to confirm not only the location of the war but they also discovered that it's traveling around the galaxy once every four hundred and forty million years thing that a bit like a way of going round the stadium as spectator stand up and sit down again to reach their conclusions. The authors use the high precision apogee spectograph on the petchey point observatory galactic evolution experiment. It's almost ten year. Lifetime apogee is observed hundreds of thousands of stars in the milky way. The apache spectra provides information about the chemical makeup emotions of stars allowing astronomers to separate them the different groups which in turn allows them the fall of the war separately within different groups of stars. the authors also use the european space agency's guy space observatory which was launched in two thousand thirteen to measure the position distances and motions of billions of stars guy gave the authors extremely precise distance measurements to millions of stars in the war field by measuring their para lacks the tiny back and forth wobbles in the direction of star as earth sun. It's the same effect you get when you hold your thumb at at arm's length. Look with one eye shot and then look at it with the other eyeshot. Urban i i. Of course by combining the abajian guide. Data your three to create full three dimensional maps of stars in the milky way with detailed information about eight staff position velocity chemistry. The analysis shows how the wolf is caused by the wave traveling the milky way causing individual stars to move up and down through the plane of the galaxy as it travels authors. Say the most likely explanation for the war is an interaction with a satellite galaxy. Possibly the sagittarius dwarf royal galaxy around three billion years ago which created a gravitational ripple and that ripples continue to move through the galaxy forming the wave. This space time still to come. Discovery of a new kind of magnetic explosion on the sun and gilmore space as a launch. Its first orbital customer next year. Old that most come on space time. Scientists have detected a magnetic explosion on the sun the likes of which has never been seen before in the scorching upper regions of the sun's atmosphere large loop of material cortisol prominence which was generated by an eruption started default. Fall back down onto the. I fear the visible surface of the sun but before it could make it all the way back down the prominence collided with a smile of magnetic field lines. Triggering a magnetic explosion scientists had previously seen the explosive snap and realignment of tangled magnetic food lines on the sun. A process known as magnetic reconnection bide a report yesterday of physical journal claims. This was the first seem to have been triggered by a knee by eruption. The observations confirm a decade old and could help astronomers understand k. mystery about the sun's atmosphere namely why the sons furthers fear is a temperature of around six thousand degrees but it's atmosphere the corona riches temperatures of several million degrees after all things are supposed to get cooler not hotter the further. You are away from a heat source. The findings could also help. Scientists better predict space weather and may also lead to breakthroughs in controlled fusion and lab plasma experiments here on earth a similar type of magnetic reconnection not spontaneous reconnection has previously been observed both the sun and around earth but this new explosion driven event called forced reconnection has never been seen directly though it was first theorized fifteen years ago. The previously observed spontaneous reconnection requires the region. We just the right conditions in order to occur such as having a thin sheet of ionized gas plasma. That only wigley conducts electric current. But this new type forced connection can happen in a wide range of places such as emplacement with even lower resistance to conducting electric current however can only occur if there's some type of eruption that triggered it the eruption squeezes the plasma and the magnetic fields causing them the connect while the sons jumble of magnetic food lines are invisible they nonetheless the material around them a soup of ultra hot charged particles known as plasma scientists. Were able to study. This plasma is observations from this. As solar dynamics observatory spacecraft looking specifically at a wavelength of light showing particles heated to between around one and two million degrees the observations allowed them to directly see the forest reconnection event for the first time in the solar corona in a series of images taken over an hour the prominence in the krona could be seen falling back into the photos fear as dropped the prominence ran into a snarl of magnetic field lines causing to reconnect in a distinct x shape. Spontaneous reconnection offers one explanation for how the krona reaches temperatures of millions of degrees hotter than the laura atmosphere. Scientists looked at multiple ultraviolet wavelength to calculate the temperature of the plasma during and following the reconnection event. The data showed that the prominence which was fairly cool relative to the blistering corona gained hate after the event. This suggests that forced reconnection. Maybe one way. The kronas hated locally. Spontaneous reconnection can also hit the plasma but forced reconnections seems to be a much more effective heater. Raising the temperature of the plasma quicker higher and in a more controlled manner while prominence was the driver behind this reconnection event other solar eruptions like flares and coronal mass ejections could also cause forced reconnection since these eruptions drive space weather bursts of solar radiation which can damage satellites affect telecommunications vacation systems and blackout to rest. Your power grids. Understanding forced reconnection can help. Scientists better predict when disruptive high g charge paddock. Who was comes. Speeding towards the earth and understanding how magnetic reconnection can be forced into controlled. Way could also hope plasma physicists reproduce rate connection in the lab. This is ultimately useful in the of laboratory plasma to control and stabilize them this report from nasa tv in the scorching upper reaches of the sun's atmosphere a corona scientists have just seen a new type of magnetic explosion. The explosion known as forced or controlled magnetic reconnection is triggered by an eruption on the sun which causes tangled magnetic field lines to explosively snap and rely shooting particles and energy. The discovery may help. Scientists understand a key mystery about how the corona sons outermost layer is millions of degrees hotter than layers below it. Previously scientists had only seen spontaneous reconnection which is not necessarily linked to interruption or external forcing on the sun. The forced reconnection event was clearly visible when the scientists used observations from nasa solar dynamics observatory to look at a wavelength of light showing plasma heated to six million degrees. The data showed a prominence a large loop of plasma moving from the visible surface of the sun. The photos fear in a series of images taken over an hour. The prominence could be seen falling back into the photos. Fear on route the prominence ran into a snarl of magnetic field lines causing them to reconnect in a distinct x shape. The data from the events showed that the prominence which was fairly cool relative to the blistering corona gain heat from the event the temperature of the reconnection point was also elevated. This suggests that forced reconnection might be one way. The corona is heated locally. The scientists are continuing to look for more forced reconnection events with more observations. They can begin to understand the mechanics behind the connection and how often it might happen this time. Still the com- gilmore space. It's first customer next year. And a new record for spacex all that and more still to come on space time cospes space rocket company gilmore space technologies executed. Its first customer. For the maiden flight of its new aries orbital launch vehicle australian startup space machines company is contracting go more to launch thirty five kilograms spacecraft into orbit next year space machines companies developing in space transportation capabilities to inserts more into orbit ranging from low earth and geostationary assis- lunar orbits q. New hybrid fueled aries. Rocket is designed to carry payloads up to three hundred and five kilograms into low-earth orbit two hundred and fifteen kilograms of five hundred kilometer high sun synchronous orbits or three hundred and five kilograms into five hundred kilometer. High equatorial orbits the companies hoping to be launching a rocket every month by twenty twenty-five this space time still to come another new record for space x and later in the science report and you study shows that cancer chronic kidney disease diabetes and hypertension are the main co morbidity to death from covid nineteen old daughter. Come on space. Time spacex another new record launching landing the same falcon nine booster eight times. It follows last month's achievement. When spacex launched a record one hundred and forty-three satellites on a single rocket. The latest mission set another sixty styling broadband telecommunications satellites into orbit bringing the total number two somewhere around nine hundred fifty five the mission was flown from space launch complex thirty nine at the cape canaveral space for station florida three to one zero one important number nine successfully lifting off truth nominal from had thirty nine. Am kennedy space center carrying a stack of starling. Satellites took orbit and we are throttling down the vehicle The engines in preparation for max q or maximum aerodynamic pressure this is the largest structure that the vehicle seize on a sense slowing down the vehicle helps us pass through the short period that call out that we've passed through mask max q now in about a minute. We'll have three events happening. That'll be main engine. Cutoff or what we call meco stage separation and one which is second engine. Start one now. Meco is where we shut down all nine of those m wendy engines on the first stage to slow the vehicle down in preparation for state separation. And that's where the first stage separates from the second stage for stage. we'll start making. Its way i start making. Its way back to earth for landing while second-stage continues on its journey with the third event. Which is one for second engine. Start one and that's where we light up the end beck engine and it propels the second stage along with these starling satellites to orbit. We're just about fifteen seconds away from those three events nico stage. Separation and at one stage separation confirmed and condition and waiting on farrington. Play coming up here shortly. Confirm and with that stage separation that confirms the eight successful flight for this falcon nine booster on a sense very exciting and as a reminder we will be attempting to recover. The faring has today with our recovery ships. Mystery and mischievous satellites was successfully deployed an aaron four minutes after launch. Meanwhile spacex also received clearance from america's federal communications to launch ten styling satellites into polar all but for the first time company plans to eventually have some five hundred and twenty starlings in synchronous polar orbits this space time and tom meditate. Another brief. look at some of the other stories making using science this week with a science report a new study has confirmed that cancer chronic kidney disease diabetes and hypertension are the four main co morbidity leading to death from covid nineteen the global meta analysis by griffith university looked at databases med scorpius web of science and embrace including three hundred and seventy five thousand eight hundred fifty nine participants from fourteen countries. The findings reported in the journal. Embyro determined that chronic kidney disease was statistically the most prominent co morbidity leading to death from covid nineteen some point four million people have now died from covid nineteen and another one eight million people who have been infected with the deadly virus since it first emerged from its warhead china epicenter in november twenty nineteen. And you study is found that covid. Nineteen patients suffered a cardiac arrest. Either in or out of hospital were far more likely to die than patients who would not infected with the virus. The findings reported in the european hot journal also showed that women were especially affected being nine times as likely to die as women without covid nineteen. The study looked at records for some two thousand people who had a heart attack outside of hospital and another thousand who had an attack in hospital religious found that overall people with covid nineteen with three point four times more likely to die following an out of hospital heart attack and two point three times more likely to die following an in hospital attack. New studies found that too. Many refined grains could be bad for your heart but white. Rice is okay. A report in the british medical journal looked at the diets and health of one hundred. Thirty seven thousand. One hundred and thirty people. In twenty one countries previous research had shown that eating whole grains is good for heart health. But this is the first study to show that eating highly processed refined grains is bad for your heart and chances of survival. Scientists found that people can seem that leasth region fifty grams or seven servings of refined grains per day with twenty-seven percent more likely to die and thirty three percent more likely to suffer severe heart problems compared to those wait lists and fifty grams of refined grains. Daily archaeologists have discovered one of the oldest animal burning ravings ever found the one hundred and twenty thousand euro. Carving was produced by middle paleolithic middle stone. Age hominids a report in the journal. Court tannery claims engravings consists of six incised. Lines found on a bone from a now extinct species of arcs. The specimen was recovered from an open. Air archaeological site on the western slopes of the judean hills in central israel and east. That is found that. Australia's largest telecommunications company telstra as the highest level of five g coverage while optus offers the fastest speeds researches found telstra's five g reception was available in seventy eight percent of tastes while optimises five worked forty eight percent of the time and verte ferns five g coverage was available in six percent of tests however optus turned the tables on tells when it came to speed tests with the fastest average download speed of three hundred and sixty two megabits per second and the highest single tip speed with the most impressive one thousand four hundred thirty one megabits per second by comparison telstra's average five g speed was two hundred ninety five megabits per second well. It's highest single. Download speed was manager and four megabits per second her roy from it y dot com says telstra was able to reverse the situation with average upload speeds of forty one point two megabits per second just ahead of optus on forty point to show up to starting okay and they'll come out quoting studies of change that on average there five days they also ensured the and melvin a twenty two percent hostile tells hotels for being the top the strategy. At and t. In the us and they're saying that that had a top speed recorded a one thousand four hundred and many each telstra fights back now has fifty percent of whereas worklife travel through tablets. Wanting to strateg-. I have a telstra khan and a five g and are able to get five g emitting clashes and there's only one five g provider in that area than that. By definition process. Par g get opinion mobile huge inserted. Think of neo con. Los angeles in comparison nevada. Yeah yeah there's the of course. The term certainly stadium and Up to climbing it has internet but telstra we'll have seventy percent of the middle of the year and optus vodafone telco five way behind telstra about and for those people looking for five g. You haven't got one yet. The good news is getting cheaper. Yeah in china. They started right about two hundred. Us dollars h. And that's charts for entry level models and they go up straight last. The cheapest quality finalists seven hundred and forty dollars distributed in the last couple of wage. Really to one of these challenge. Chinese brench with the five g. The real chevron five g four hundred ninety nine dollars and that like me brian which premium at this lower price point with interest trying to undercut tanjong and apple. And everybody else we namo palpable funds out. Not real. how fun. But it's the first sub five hundred five g. Phone industries edgy saying totta this is the original version of edge and now like she was the browser that i come out windows ten launched but because it was fed browser it wasn't five bucks wasn't crying. Struggled to get the attention that crime and five bucks crime of course to the world's most popular bradtha. Google has the creamy open source browser. A number of competing browsers made on and microsoft desire to design. The new edge based on crime are chuck compatible. But scott compatibility little chronic nichols micro. The past. he has been able to refine differential. had the browser with some special features. You'd have to having stockton score on other bosses and about three percent market to about a tension. My browser browsers use it. I mean i used to hire. Maximum are used in preference to envision to fox and crime and shoved browser microsoft. He's back rows space. But yeah there are so people held out on internet explorer and up discontinuing that one when i chain with the big update the legacy browser. We'll be uninstalled. And if you don't already have new edge carney and browser will be insulted mccain. Probably the one the one of the windows. You want to do anything. Maybe you should not be using the old ed legacy browser anymore. there are would be security vulnerabilities and microsoft has said that if they're all apps that people have written using the legacy rendering will that role continue being developed at least for the time being the old browser show. We'll be gone. That's alex our royd from. It wide dot com. That's the shut for now. Space-time time available every monday wednesday and friday through apple podcasts. I tunes stitcher. Google podcasts podcasts. Spotify cast amazon music bites dot com. Soundcloud youtube your favorite podcast download provider and from space time with stewart gary dot com space times also broadcasts through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iheart radio and tune in radio. And you can help to support our show by visiting the space time store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies all by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to triple episode commissioner free versions of the show as well as lots of burners which doesn't go away access to exclusive facebook group and other awards. Just go to space time with stewart. Gary dot com for full details. And if you want more space time please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as heaps of images new stories loads videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space. Time with stewart. Gary dot tumbler dot com. That's all one word. And that's tumbler. Without the aid. You can also follow us through at stewart. Gary on twitter at space time with stewart gary on instagram through uh space youtube channel on facebook. Just go to facebook dot com forward slash. Space time with stewart. Gary and space time is brought to you in collaboration with australian sky and telescope magazine your window the universe. You've been listening to space. Time with stewart gary. This has been another quality. Podcast production from dot com.
Missing the playoffs a blessing for 2020 Cowboys
"It's Friday, January 5th, 2021 this off the Cowboys beat on clns media. Emery temkin of a season is over and I gotta say I'm actually happy the Cowboys didn't make the playoffs home tell you why coming up in a moment, but first today's episode is brought to you by betonline.ag but online that AG your online Sportsbook experts also on our own minds you to hit subscribe if you have not yet already. Because well, I would appreciate that very much but also because beyond my appreciation, which you probably not even care about It also allows you to hit subscribe and then each and every week a new episodes delivered right to your feeds. You have to search for to look forward to find it's just right there blahblahblah every Friday morning when you wake up. It'll be there to comfort you thought this entire offseason as we Meander through it together. So it subscribe if you have not yet ready, please you can also follow me on Twitter at r e sports sports and please, you know pose your questions or comments there as well. So I started off as saying I'm glad the Cowboys going to make the playoffs and so you might be listened to that thinking come on why the plants are fun? It's fun to play extra games and it's fun to wake up on the morning of playoff game would be excited about it. And the Cowboys met so few playoff games in you know, the last two-plus decades that anyone that they get is good and I get that but my concern with this team making the playoff is that would mask the obvious flaws and limitations of this football team. This team is clearly not going to win a Superbowl in 2020 it major limitations even break the injuries. So I was I was hoping that if they made the playoffs that that wouldn't Shield the front office from addressing the issues that they actually have because the Cowboys Can be good at that? masking their actual limitations I know that because these have been limitations for the Cowboys for years and so my fear was the Cowboys make the playoffs and that all would be forgotten about why the Cowboys war or they were wage which was not in a good place. Now what the Cowboys did end up making something out of this season and getting some positives out of the season but the ultimate goal in a Superbowl That's the Cowboys did in the nineties almost every year. I know because I lived it and it's hard to remember it today because it seems so long ago. But the Cowboys and I said this if you listen to the Cowboys beat. And you've listened throughout the year and and in this past off-season. I personally appreciate that. Thank you very much for doing that. But I said if this defense is average this team will win a Superbowl but I am not convinced that this defense was going to be average and here's the problem the Cowboys go into this offseason. They can sign Dak Prescott. They can hire a new defensive coordinator and they can get healthy on the offensive line in Ireland on and they could spend draft picks on the defense side of the football. I still don't know that that will those moves alone will suggest to me. This defense is good enough to be average. Regardless of all the window dressing and all the Pomp and Circumstance be here out of Jerry Jones this offseason. This team's flaws reside in their inability to address the secondary in any credible way. I mean, they they drafted a corner in the first round four times in the last twenty years and only once did they sign that corn to a second contract and that's Terence Newman. They had signed first-round draft the first round safety and twenty-five years. but it's not just drafting either because I feel like that's the commitment the Cowboys have continually made to improving their football team and I just don't know how much you can improve this defense, especially the back end of this defense exclusively trying to improve it through Thursday left. I am not going to buy the BS that the Cowboys are going to be piling on when they show the training camp with Anthony Brown and cheat on cheat contracts and Trevon Diggs and then a bunch of rookies that they've just dressed in their secondary. I think Trevon Diggs is going to be a really good player. I'm very excited to see him develop but it takes years to develop at the corner position and the safety position. So digs is good, but not really counting on a bunch of guys you just draft it and then a bunch of other guys that have been flameouts for your team time and time again, that's the problem is the Cowboys inability to understand how to improve their football team be on the draft or or inability to do so and you know, we know that they're going to a seller cap limitations because this point we're not entirely sure what the cap will be maybe around 190 190 million, which is you can be ten million less than it was this past year. So we'll see and obviously a huge piece to this and having any center cap whatsoever available to sign a corner or sign a free a safety free agency depends on their ability to sign Dak Prescott to a long-term contract because if they franchise tag him again, I mean, you've got no money nothing. You're going to basically be spending the entirety of your salary cap. On the quarterback position forty million years, whatever it's going to be we're as in a long-term contract you obviously can space the money out of the course of multiple years. Look for years. I've been imploring the Cowboys to to do something in free agency to improve the safety position for years. The Cowboys have said safety position doesn't matter. What we've seen years of evidence to suggest that it does but this year more than any other year show the Cowboys the importance of having a a free safety in particular. That can cover and can make up for deficiencies and issues that you have your life back and core. And with your Corners Cowboys had far too many breakdowns in coverage. I think they found a strong safety and animals, but he can't cover. He's a true in the Box something strong save you need a legitimate free safety. Who can make sure that you're not hemorrhaging 80-yard touchdown passes to wide receiver down the field we can make sure you're not hemorrhaging 85-yard touchdown runs because your safety is not good enough deal to make those plays down the field as your last line of defense. I have seen this team throw away too many seasons because of their inability to turn off their blinders and really be introspective how to fix this team. Fix it and not just through the draft before we get to Patrick on I need to tell you about our exclusive wagering partner betonline.ag and look you've got NFL week 17 wage. Of course, the postseason college bowl season is here with a tremendous lineup of of ball games throughout this week. And then of course into the weekend for the college football playoff home. There's only one place that has you covered in one place that we trust which is betonline.ag said today for a free account at betonline.ag and use promo code clns 54. You're 50% Welcome bonus clns 54, you're 50% Welcome bonus get all the news the inside the information place your bets prop bets in one place been online that a g. And when you sign up today for a new account, make an initial deposit you get 50% free cash back when you use clns 50 don't sit on the sidelines anymore. Get in on the action. Don't forget to use promo code CLS 50 to receive a 50% bonus with your first deposited been online. That AG been online. AG your online Sportsbook experts on the Cowboys beat. Let's visit one final time with Patrick on here at Pat Sports guy who has long been a tremendous partner here and co-host on the show for on and off now for a couple of years. Yep, and Patrick is moving on after this week's episode, but I do want to obviously do this one final time to to give you my thanks and appreciation for your insights and perspectives and time and effort and love into the show and this community and you will be missed but appreciate it man. It's been fun. It has been fun, you know so many years ago. I wanted nothing more than to cover the Dallas Cowboys. I got that opportunity through various platforms. And so, you know, it's it's a little Bittersweet but at the same time I have a lot going on the college level and you know, I'm going to be in the game of football and NFL draft and all those things so long, I want before definitely won't be far away and we'll definitely have you on as a guest in the future but aside from the sappy stuff. What's your Porsche post-mortem on this team in in 2020, you know, there was a given what happened what transpired was the last month of the season was a lot to be positive about it. I know I'm finishing 6 and 10 and missing the Playoffs. Obviously that's a sad part of it, but I think you saw growth. I think you saw a lot of things like defensively like I still believe in my heart of hearts that Nolan isn't the answer but you saw things from the defense that gives you optimism. That if they were able to sign the quarterback, which we all believe they need to and they should then outside of me yet. They can sign him any time. I mean time we're just waiting on that news to hit right side effects Twitter. I'll see over here constantly refreshing Twitter exactly anything. No, no. No cause you got like two things you're going to have like three phones going at the same time as you're looking for two things deck signing in Magnolia being fired. Yes, but I would say the fact the fact that they had the most turnovers created in the final month of the season that's positive. You saw what Randy Gregory could do you saw what came out in Smith could do you saw flashes of Neville, Gallimore? Demarcus Lawrence kind of it felt like as the season progressed. He finally became that player that we've been waiting on all season. I mean, he's always been that guy who's going to make his Mark but he was finally getting to the quarterback more. He was creating turnovers. The only question I had really is who's going to play safety and what do you do at home? Turn on the tape or a Timken turn on the tape. Yeah, I I do think the Cowboys need to cut Jaylon Smith everything to cut him for a couple of reasons. But one of those is because of that the delusion that that he has that I don't know. I mean so Jaylon Smith was asked after the final game, you know, if you'd be back with the team next year and he was just shocked that that would even be a question. Just just me I read the team in tackles and it it's just it's just this that whole idea of celebrating when there's nothing to be celebrated by May when you make a play or when you not even make a play but when the defense makes play and you're the front, you're the guy front-and-center celebrating like just so much of what Jaylon Smith his whole shtick is just bothersome and I do think that it's it's not just like the The theatrics of it. I do think that that stuff matters like in terms of the heartbeat of a defense. I just I just think you got a guy that's completely delusional and I think that hurts you on defense. Yeah. No, I mean I agree with you a hundred percent. I think I think the Antiques on the sidelines on the field are are one thing and and it always and I know that it's not going to be a hundred percent thing right where You're not going to be focused on football hundred percent of the time and you shouldn't be because Rob lives and everything, but it always felt to me like it was about Jaylon Smith brand and not Jaylon Smith the football player. That's now that's that's the Optics of it. Right? And so I look at that and go not a fan. I'm not really a fan of that and the fact that he was always the one on the field long ways when they would take a linebacker off. They would take Leighton Vander esch off. They would take Sean Lee off the field. I just I think they're really going to have to find a couple of linebackers. They've got a reply failing who they're not getting a return on the investment. That's that's my thing. You can talk about. Oh, he led the team in tackles. He's doing this. It's it's not the quantity of tackle the quality. You know, what's the average? What's the average depth of those tackles? When when you're making a tackle 15 yards down the field after a guy makes a first down you celebrate it. I'm not excited about that. You injure a player down in the end zone and then you're doing a little swipe thing. I mean, it was just a constant thing for me. Do I think Jaylon Smith is a good football player? Yes, but you have to ask yourself. Is he good for this football team? Is he good for this locker room, and that's where I look at it as he's not and said I would say find some more linebackers in why don't we go ahead and make Sean Lee defensive line the linebackers coach passing game coordinator, whatever you got to do to get that guy coach cuz I think that's where his biggest impact is going to be for the Cowboys in 2021, but I'm with you on like safety and linebacker, you know, and I I firmly believe in the draft they could really go any direction defense just just take any player on defense, but I I want to see for this team like for this to be a Super Bowl Contender legitimacy will consider next year there have to be upgraded linebacker and safety and and for me, it's got to be more than just the draft for safety. You know, I just I hope this year serves as an indictment on the front office for their inability to fortify that position for a decade now. Yeah, I mean you talked about the last time that they drafted a safety in the first round was Roy Williams around I think it was 2002-2003 was the last time it took the safety in the first round and round and and that and that itself is an indictment on this front office and who's been at the head of that the entire time Jerry Jones and they do need to change some things and they do need to change maybe the way that they go about things are free agency. I think that they do need to draft a safety or defensive back with their first pick that's where I would lean especially if you're picking a number ten, I think safety or Corner Patrick surtain at Alabama would be a perfect guy Caleb fairly out of Virginia Tech's another guy that I've kind of looked at. I don't know that there's a 650 right now that comes to mind but I think you can get a good a good safety like a you know, there's a couple of guys out of TCU Trevon morgue is I think would be great in the second round. I think you do that and I think you suck. Supplement that with another safety now, you do have Donavan Wilson, which he he grew tremendously and I think that's another indictment the fact that this guy hasn't been point, right? Cuz you saw what he did. He created turnovers. He created plays he was a he was a bumper on the back end the the guys that I am. Absolutely if you want to know my three guys that cannot be on this team next year. I'm going to give it to you right now and love it cannot be here Xavier Woods cannot be here. Jordan Lewis cannot be here. I'm tired of the Antics. I'm tired of, you know, the inability to make plays and if you ever want to be a contender, you need an average defense and you can't have an average defense with those three guys running around. I agree. I agree you cannot have an average defense Channel playing the amount of snaps that he's had to play for them and and shame in the back end Lewis is just too hit-or-miss. Like he's he made some good plays but there's just so many plays of the course of games and he makes that wage. And then bonehead decision after the right exactly bad penalties not I mean, he's just consistently not able to cover same with Woods. I'm with you there. I just walk into the season and we both kind of talked about how limited is this defense and that, you know, look I think so much the focus off. She is going to be on signing back and the offense and I get it but this all fence is going to be very good next year that like a difference between this team winning a bunch of games have this great offense but not doing anything in playoffs is is the ability to for them to to understand where their limitations were defensively in to fix those limitations Beyond just the draft am going to yeah. What I was going to say is you take a page out of the book of the Kansas City Chiefs. They knew what their liability was the year before they won. Exactly. They didn't have the number one defense in the league. It was middle-of-the-road average right when you have a quarterback as dynamic as Patrick Mahomes. That's all you need. And I would argue and I'm not saying he's on the same level because off. Patrick Mahomes is a superstar Dak Prescott. He gives you that same level of dynamic. He can run he can throw. Oh, by the way, you got I don't know the best Trio of wide receivers in the league. You should have your offensive line back, you know, there's a lot of positive on the opposite side. I'm not worried about the offense it can we talk about Dalton Schultz my God. Nobody saw that coming. I mean, he's one of only four tight ends. I think in the last twenty-five years to record 60 receptions in a season or three in the last twenty-five years. Jason Witten did it numerous times? Now you can add Dalton Schultz for that list. Jane double-check was another guy. I mean, these are no big names and in the fact that he was as productive as he was I think you know speaks volumes to what they have and and wage dynamic duo with Blake. Jarwin cuz we see what he can do when he gets snaps as well. Will you feel confident would you feel confident? If this team had potential next year if the Cowboys only address their needs and on the defense of the ball in the draft. well, yeah, I think I'd be pretty confident in that because I think it's a step in the right direction because when you look at this team You know, you have a Mario Cooper under contract. You have Michael Gallup. You have seen any lamb you look it off into weapons. You look off into the line. Now, I would like to see them address them offensive line, but I would be comfortable giving that you expect a healthy. Turn Smith. You expect Lyle Collins. You expect Zack Martin, you know if they can figure out the center position and when I say figure it out play be odd, cuz I don't know what you're doing and then let the two Connors duke it out for left guard. I feel good. I feel good about that. I feel good about You know a lot of people were hard on Ezekiel Elliott. Let's remember what he was running behind was remembered that he was playing with four different quarterbacks and he gave it his all I mean, we saw it against Philadelphia with a bum leg he ran for over a hundred yards on a bum leg, you know, and it hurt him significantly against New York, and that's probably why he wasn't as as effective, but I think everything it's offense this fine. There's no worries if you signed a canned and don't make a move on offense, I think you're okay. As long as they stay healthy and he has two big thing defensively. Yeah, I think you need any you need to address defensive tackle in the middle. You need to really it's just up the middle of the defense completely defensive tackle linebacker safety. That's that's where the meat of this draft needs to go. Patrick on Pat Sports guy on Twitter go check out the great work. He's doing on college football Pat. Thank you so much for your commitment to this show over the years appreciate it very much. But I love you. All right. Let me see you ma'am. We'll talk. We'll talk soon cuz you know drafts coming up and I got a I got you get my draft on awesome dude. Thank you brother take you to Patrick on for joining us on the podcast today as a guest. I suppose for the final time previously the coast now as guest, but we'll have not again soon. Make sure to hit subscribe if you have not yet already greatly appreciate that and Also, give us a rating and helps as well. Can always tweet me at our Esports kri Sports and we are at the beginning now of a long and interesting offseason. So no matter where this offseason road goes off follow it with us here at the Cowboys beat. I'm already temkin Cowboys beat is out. He's dead.
Fri. 07/02 - The Restaurant Taco Bell Lifted Their Taco Recipe From
"Welcome to the cocky. Ride home for friday july. Second twenty twenty one. I'm jackson bird the restaurant that inspired taco bell it's larger legacy in the question of authenticity. Plus the new species of beetle that was discovered in some fossilized dino dung and the communities of people who devote their time to uncovering the mystery of dog man. Here are some of the cool things from the news today. So on tuesday. I talked about mcdonald's. French fries how. They've changed over the years and what made them so great in the beginning. The original fry recipe and methods started at the very first. Mcdonald's in san bernardino california in the nineteen forties. They're the mcdonald. Brothers perfected their hamburger. French fry and milkshake recipes. To great success. Lines regularly went down the block as people flocked to get their fix but san bernardino is not notable in the history of fast food just because of the mcdonald brothers two miles away along route. Sixty six still in san bernardino. There was another young man with a hamburger. Stand trying to make his mark and in the late forties. He was realizing he really couldn't compete with mcdonald's hamburgers. They weren't his only competition though across the street from where he hawked. His burgers and hotdogs was a neighborhood staple a family run restaurant with a revolving door of regulars. That place was meet. Hefei started in nineteen thirty seven by mexican immigrants. salvador lucia. Rodriguez lucia was in charge of the kitchen and early on. She decided to incorporate one of her family's dishes from back in mexico one they primarily eight around lenz. It was a hard. Shell tacos stuffed with mashed potatoes instead of mashed potatoes for the cafe version. However she just used what they had on hand which happened to be ground beef cheddar cheese tomatoes and iceberg lettuce. The tacos reminiscent of keita's dorados. Where a hit with the local mexican american community but the young white man with the burger. Stand across the street saw an opportunity. What if he could do with tacos with the mcdonald brothers had done with burgers so he started hanging out at me look. Fa to learn more about how they made the tacos and figure out how he could scale them up to mass produce them or as irene montano daughter-in-law of salvadoran lucia put it to writer. Gustavo arianna quotes. This white guy used to come in late at night. Ask a lot of questions about how we made tacos and then leave and quotes and within a few years he had added tacos to his own menu and they were a hit. Although the bbc notes his mostly white customers pronounced them take owes at first eventually. He dropped the burgers and kept expanding. The taco stands running through many names before finally settling on one that played on his own. Name glenn bill which became taco bell. Mr bill never really gave me cafe credit for the dish that defined his empire. They really only came to light win. that writer. Gustavo oriana was reading a biography of bill in which bill describes the intersection of his first hamburger. Stand and says there was a popular taco restaurant across the street. Arianna drove out to the intersection. Not expecting much and was shocked to discover. The original meatloaf cafe was still operating more than half a century later. Michael montagna a grandson. A salvadorian lucia told the bbc quote. Before gustavo came in. We hadn't really made the connection. We had antiquated taco bell with glenn. Bill will makes it feel a lot better is that my grandmother is finally getting some credit for her place in the history of mexican american cuisine. She came here with small children and made a small business out of almost nothing and quotes steven alvarez. A professor at saint. John's university in queens explained to the bbc quote. It's important to recognize. That bell was a failed fast food entrepreneur before he had the realization that the restaurant across the street from his flagging. Business was booming. The meatloaf cafe what happened here is a white guy seen opportunities to market mexican food to a mainstream audience for the love of prophet and not the love of mexican people and quotes. Fortunately meatloaf cafe is still around and thriving in arianna says. It has a multigenerational appeal. Because it's quote a time capsule of mexican food. From the first. Half of the twentieth century patricia escorts sega described meatless tacos in the l. a. times a few years ago as quote eight tidy crisp omayad to mid century. America probably ought to be displayed at the smithsonian and quotes the bbc notes. How largely because of taco bell a lot of folks put up their noses at hard shell tacos and accused them of not being authentic mexican food. I mean i'm not sure what can be more authentic than someone sharing their own family's recipes but we have weird relationship to the idea of authenticity. John paul bremmer of the popular ola poppy newsletter wrote in a fantastic washington post op. Ed in two thousand nineteen quote a recent study of yelp reviews for new york restaurants that serve. Nonwhite cuisines illustrates. This clearly reviewers tend to give mexican in chinese restaurants in particular lower ratings if they don't perceive them as authentic. What makes something authentic as with writing most of the hallmarks seemed to be about pain dirty floors plastic chairs anything. That aesthetically connotes struggle. The cooks and waiters ought to have accents. There should probably be a framed photo of someone's dead grandma. Paradoxically many of these traits are also ones that america actively punishes which is why immigrants are often desperate to sit them out of their families and quotes and brammer went on to bring up another restaurant similar to meet luck. Hefei quoting again. Authenticity is restrictive. It limits the imaginations of non white people according to a beautiful sad story in eater. The demand for authentic mexican food is threatening to wipe out a unique kind of taco in kansas city. The taco found at restaurants throughout the area is fried and then blanketed in parmesan cheese. David lopez who runs one of the establishments that features it said. His grandmother had embraced parmesan because it was cheap and around. Thanks in part to the proximity of italian communities. My grandmother made tacos with peas in with potatoes. Lopez said because she couldn't always afford ground beef for some mexican americans this gets at the essence of the way we eat. I can't think of a better example of the fraud of authenticity than this story. Which shows that too. Many people are more interested in the aesthetics of poverty than in poverty itself more invested in the feeling of realness than in any kind of truth end quote. In that vein. I think it's crucial to note that meet. Law cafe has kept going since nineteen thirty seven. Not because it's known as the inspiration for taco bell knew they didn't even really know or care about that until about a decade ago. But rather because it's good and has its own history as an important community hub. Quoting outlets obscure meal. Cafe quickly blossomed into an important meeting point for mexican families of the day. Cesar chavez was irregular in town and lucia's husband made patrons out of a powerful group of local businessmen who would go on to form the mexican chamber of commerce church and civic leaders met here in the nineteen forties to sue the city in gaining access to public pool. The ruling in favor of the mexican americans plea served as the precedent for the case that desegregated california public schools in nineteen forty six and quotes and as eater describes meatloaf cafes legacy quote the story. That deserves is one of vitality and enduring success. The original cafe still stands in the same location with historic designation sign outside and framed photographs on the walls inside showing generations of important mexican american history. Some lost time and others well known more than a simple all day. Eatery meatless still stands as the voice of a quiet revolution that helped expand mexican food throughout the world that brought relative peace to a neighborhood in a city. That was desperate for it. End quote if you're on the cusp of making some major financial decisions for the first time like buying a car house. It's perfectly normal to feel more than a bit nervous. 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Good credit karma dot com slash podcast or the credit karma app. How often do we talk about cyber attacks on this podcast seemingly every other day right. Well think about this to win to compromise. You cyber attackers only need to be successful once. And they're out there looking for twenty four seven as a cyber defender you must be successful in ending attacks. Every single time cyber reason reverses the attackers advantage and puts the power back in your hands. Cyber reasons future ready attack platform gives defenders the wisdom to uncover understand and piece together multiple threats. They also give you precision focused to end cyberattacks instantly on computers mobile devices. Servers and the cloud cyber reason delivers over the horizon visibility and high fidelity convictions of both known and unknown threats. So defenders can leverage the power of true prevention and cyber and significantly reduces the time required for you to investigate and resolve attacks through both automated and guided remediation with just a click of the mouse cyber reason and cyber attacks from end points to everywhere learn more at cyber reason dot com your beetle you're hanging out in the late triassic period hoping to make a name for yourself when all of a sudden you get eaten by a dinosaur and if that's not bad enough two hundred and thirty million years later your legacy is not all the great achievements of your short life but rather that. You're the first insect found preserved in fossilized feces great disappointing while it may be to the beatles and their reputations or even the dinosaur whose bowel movements are now being discussed by news outlets around the world. This discovery is a major one. Not only are these beetles. The first insect species described in the fossilized feces of vertebrate animal but they're also an entirely new previously extinct species and much much older than any insect specimens that have been found in amber. They've been dubbed. Try mix copper litho the species part of that name referring to wear the beatles were found in copper lights aka fossilized dung quoting the new york times. Scientists suspect that the waste belonged to silence soroush up insists a close relative of dinosaurs. That lived about two hundred thirty million years ago though. It's tricky to police. Once separated from its point of origin. The cop relate was collected near the village of crashes. Zhao in southern poland at a quarry where remains of as up lenses and other late triassic vertebrates have been excavated and quotes. The study of copper. Late has been growing practice as it can lend huge insight into the diets of various species and is capable of preserving things like hair feathers and more quite well for millions of years. It can be tough to look inside and find anything though in this case. The specimen was scanned irradiation facility in france and then rendered in three d researchers say they were surprised by how intact the beatles were but they were able to confirm that they were actually digested by the dinosaur in part due to some of them being less intact than others quoting science alert the triassic is thought to be a crucial period for insect evolution especially for beatles which are the most diverse order of organisms on earth today unfortunately many beetle fossils from this time only give us an imprint of the species not a three dimensional view amber deposits the exception however these usually date no further back than one hundred forty million years. The beatles found in dinosaur. Poop are nearly twice as old end quote sam heads curator of paleontology at the illinois national history survey who was not involved in the study explained to the new york times that the triassic period was quote kind of like a black hole when it comes to our understanding of the insect fossil record and quotes and part of that is that according to science alert quote it took until the early cretaceous for treason to be abundant enough to capture early insects. In action and fossilized them during the triassic there was far less tree resin around which means we don't have amber deposits to tell us what insects looked like at this time and quotes so as heads points out. This particular discovery is really significant and most of the researchers agree that copper lights will likely be the key to understanding way more about insects in the triassic period which is good news for anyone who loves bathroom humor and on that note for anyone listening. Who has kids. I've got a recommend the most relevant possible picture book series. The dinosaur that pooped written by mick fly band members. Tom fletcher dougie poynter. The picture book series includes such titles as the dinosaur that pooped a planet and the dinosaur that pooped christmas. Sadly no the dinosaur that pooped two hundred thirty million year old beatles yet but maybe they're working on it so you know about ghost hunters and ufo enthusiasts. But i just discovered there are also people out there who devote substantial amounts of time and effort into sightings of dog men there are numerous sites and community boards dedicated to people reporting sightings or encounters. There's even a dog man encounters radio podcast which is over three hundred episodes deep and released a new episode just last week. Although most recent episodes are behind a paywall you may be wondering what exactly dog man is. Is it just a werewolf. No actually the crucial difference between a werewolf and a dog. Man is that a dog man is always in canine form whereas a werewolf lives as a human outside of the full moon quoting dog man encounters dot com that appellation dog man describes a group of more than one type of crypto zoological beings that are large and sometimes described as looking like upright cannons one type of dog man. I call a. Canine type is described as looking like an upright. Canine another type of dog. Man which is commonly referred to as a type three is described as looking like a sasquatch with a muzzle instead of having a flat face eye-witnesses who've had encounters with type threes also report seeing clause on the tips of their fingers and toes instead of fingernails and toenails. The way a sasquatch would have eye-witnesses who've had dog man encounters also often report that the one they saw was ambulation by pettily which is obviously an unusual trait also end quotes some of the most legendary doghmane sightings include the michigan. Dog man cited in michigan in eighteen. Eighty seven in which allegedly reappears every ten years and the beast of bray road cited in wisconsin in the nineteen eighties and nineties but encounters can happen anywhere. The north american dog man project maintains a map of north american encounters and there is a global map at dog. Man encounters dot com. In case. You wanna double check if there have been any dog man sightings near you. So there's your dose of subculture for the week and shout out to author and halloween historian. Lisa morton who tipped me off to the dog man community in her newsletter today. Well we've got an update in billionaires racing each other to space news. Richard branson has now announced that he plans to go to space on virgin galactic unity. Twenty two mission on july eleventh nine days before. Jeff bezos is scheduled flight on july twentieth. This is slightly expected as virgin. Galactic seemed to be fast tracking plans ever since phases announced. He'd be joining the blue origin. Flight later this month but nonetheless kind of ridiculous still i. I don't know. I'm not sure what to think of this in the whole billionaire space race thing not that. I'm necessarily rooting for any of them. But wouldn't it be kind of funny if elon. Musk just decides. he's going to push up. The launch of space x is next crude mission to the iss to like next week and hop on board himself beating the other space obsessed billionaires both in time and distance from earth since spacex actually goes into orbit whereas both virgin galactic and bluer jeans. Flights are sub orbital. I really would have liked to have been a fly on the wall. When bezos heard this news. And i'm really not envious of anyone working at virgin galactic. Who's probably had to pull. Repeated all nighters because their boss couldn't stand coming in second place anyways just a quick production note for you before i go this weekend. Is independence day here in the us. So will be taken monday off to observe the holiday. The show will be back on tuesday but whether you celebrate or not. I hope you have a safe and happy weekend. I'll talk to you again on tuesday.
E154 - Where the Magic Happens: Implementing Core Values to Promote A Better, Long-Lasting Team | with Raj Goodman Anand
"Let me guess you signed up for every free lead magnet and binged on every marketing youtube video and thought. What am i missing. Why isn't my business exploding like that. Well i can tell you. You're not alone whether you're just getting started or have an established business. Entrepreneurship can be really lonely. But it doesn't have to be overcome your fear of launching or building your personal brand or figuring out how to scale. It shouldn't be held you back. It should be empowering on this podcast. We're going to deep dive into the mechanics of what it takes to build your brand make your mark and state your claim the digital marketing space. I'll be chatting with people from all walks of life and stages in their careers. I will be getting inspiration from real. Experts share their actual strategies and techniques to go loyal raving followings and sell more stuff. This is entrepreneurship from people. Who are already. they're making it up. My name is jeff mendelsohn. Join me and welcome to the one. Big tip podcast. Hello everyone welcome back. My name is jeff mendelsohn and this is the one big tip podcast and today. I am really pleased to have with me on the line. Raj goodman non. Rush is the founder of goodman lantern. A team of native of native english content writing services that help businesses sell better in grow. Faster is an engineer by profession. He has founded three startups raise capital and taking one venture from zero to acquisition. He not only has a flourishing career with startups but also with large and mid sized organizations working on launching startups or new products within them products. He has built have made companies in income of excess of forty five million pounds rise. Welcome to the show. Jeff good to beyond. Thank you for the opportunity. Thank you so much for being here. Can you please take us through a little bit a little bit deeper about your career so starting out as an engineer like i started out as a software engine i started out as a visual basic programmer. And sort of you know. Move my way up into you. Know to building websites and eventually you know jumping over a few hurdles to get into digital marketing. Can you please tell me a little bit about about your trajectory and how you got to where you are today. Show thank jeff so a began with studying computer science and a. Ai was research. I did my ai. Genius back when people live in. No way i was my my mom thought. I was the studies of ufo's so that was what i was. My mum obviously boss over today is very important in social media and beyond so i began Research i was going to. Phd chimes left of the first year. I company in building social media software. Basically facebook loans or large organizations in the uk traveled and government. That didn't go as planned. Wrote a book for peace in education and financial times on social media. Then start a company which was a entertainment company which i eventually sold a work for a large organization. Spain took themselves not million to forty million years in revenue And then thought mon company. Because i realized that actually have value in b2b marketing especially is storytelling. Did did that really rarely company. I thought hang on making money. Maybe it's time to make make money for myself. And so i kind of thought mon company may company which i could run from a boat which is interesting And because method company done ones one sale already the only about me and making money about a bigger factor bigger mission which is to empower women. So we hire of women in a company really helped impala them and Beheld to help the industry which is dominated to technology. You have more women. So we have a more neutralize ecosystem. Wow that's amazing. That's amazing that's amazing You know mission as well because basically what you're doing is that you're you're making it a point to to bring on in underrepresented in underrepresented group into this You know onto the stage. I've done that also with With virtual assistance as well and especially from countries where where women may not have as much of a say you know in what goes in what goes on in you know in their governments in our society and all that but you know they share can bring the money home when they're you know they're you know when given the chance to work so That's a really great mission. Thank you so much for sharing that. What kind of doubts or or wants we're going through your head you know as you're thinking like okay. I'm going to turn this all this knowledge that i've accumulated into something that's actually profitable and profitable for myself and my family. Well i mean initially all. I had was to jump in with a gut feeling you know. It's not easy to jump in with that. Because you feel vulnerable you feel like oh what if it doesn't go well with the back of my head. I always knew that. I have a i can always go back to a job. Winstons i knew that i could go back to a job. This is not the first time on a business. I've kind of done this before. So i i understand that there is a need to follow the to get from say zero to five hundred five hundred to one million million to ten million for example. It's kind of a bean in that. The boat before understand how it's done but also i think when there is a a sort of a big mission bed there is a process in place when there's a focus not to look in the business on the business and the different mindset altogether and i'm i'm very focused on making a job for myself in this company. My focus really is the to hire people. Employ people actually allow myself to be having a helicopter the of the company. I run so yeah. It was tricky. I mean i'm kinda guy. I do likewise money anymore. Responding in business it didn't go according to plan a more of a person and i've actually lose business from literally you know maybe about five dollars ten dollars of revenue initial capital. And it really helped me gonna grow because sometimes it is just jump right into it. You know sort of this idea of sort of a You know thinking about stuff and not analysis browse is is the worst thing ever in the country. I just jump brought into it and get on the make the mission work as you proceed further on on the tracks that is honored percent correct. You know that whole analysis paralysis thing is just. Yeah i i. It's one of the things that you have to beat back with a stick almost on the daily so i definitely feel that you're what you're saying there. This actually segues nicely into your one big tip which is to focus on the team and higher members. That not only have the right skill sets but also share your company's core values the que- i start out by talking about. What are the core values that you're speaking of here. And then how do you ensure that you are hiring people for those core values as well in addition to you know the requisite skills to work with you. Well i mean well us. Values is everything. I actually had to buy mine. Technology team doesn't in nineteen at the beginning and hire a new team altogether. Imagine the imagine the pressure burning a company and then have to hide the whole team again and the pay letting go of a very very good team. The main concept i found was that ben people are aligned by money or by just dana. The job done and move on. They'd have performed. They will put the heart and soul into it so having core with the company for example we have improvement. Integrity encouragement allows team members to always be driven by his cool values to really focus on these values and we use that as a yardstick. Not company to see if any step we take in the organization is correct or not and if the demons we hire are aligned to our big mission. So i was i thought of by the team in nineteen because they were not aligned to core values and we were actually thinking more of them as you know they know that their stuff you can get things done harass but actually. They're not helping us. The company up to the next level. Vr team now. Becky interviewed them and an all mindset is dead core values remain the same that they are work or especially a place for example at home with family for instance so often we ask people about their situation for example. They help someone to improve their ability to work better. Maybe at university or college maybe at school. Maybe at maybe. The family for example had their sibling to be a better You know better the correspondence all these small things. We demonstrate within their life and at home and school acuras implement very well into into their company work to do as well and today. I'm just say that we have a team of ninety percent plus women we each of them has been interviewed based on their skills and core values in really helps us from a company which is each person the company represents the company they really are aligned with our mission of vision and our values and so that that means that. If i'm not there in the call i know can leave it with somebody else who will represent me and the company exactly as i would have done. You know what's really interesting about what you just talked about. Is that around the same time. So what does it Around july of twenty nine thousand nine. I did the exact same thing. I fired my whole team right. And it was mainly because i had a team of copywriters and i would just get the dumbest the dumbest copy written for my clients right and Just to give a very american example right you know the fourth of july right which is our which is our independence day here and you know the one who wrote it was a you know was you know. She was born in the us. She grew up here right. You know there was no reason for her not to know not to know that you don't say hey have a happy july four rate. And that's what she wrote all over the social media for all my clients. And i didn't catch it until about a day afterwards and i had to like you know. I started second guessing myself. I'm like wait a second you know. Coup refers to the holidays july. Four and i. I asked americans i has down. Americans is people that never even lived here. And you're like no. It's fourth of july dummy and that's when i realized like okay stop second guessing and like you said was very painful right it was very painful. Both emotionally that actually firing people. You know that. I'm letting him go because nobody ever wants to do that. I would think right but at the same time it's like you know. Common sense is not that common in when you're hiring for you know when you when you hire someone to do a job like writing like you would expect them to rate well right. I mean i'm not a. I'm not a high school english teacher right so i i don't feel it's my job to go in there and correct basic. You know you know A basic errors in blog post. So i definitely feel you right there so when you go in and you you know you're having these interviews right. I find that That interviewing for the skill set is actually kind of the easy part. It's still a little precarious because anyone can give you you know. Oh here the last ten blog posts. That i wrote and you don't really know whether it's them or not you know i've had a few instances where you know. It became obvious the day after. I hired them that. The examples they gave me were not. There's going back to this part about the core values. Really what you're trying to do is ensure first of all that you are hiring for the long-term right. You're not just hiring for project. You're not hiring for someone to just come in and work for a few months until they get a better gig. You really want them to stick around. You want them to really be there for the long haul. I and that's what i want as well right. I don't want to keep on hiring new people every three or four months. I wanna i wanna work with someone for years and when i conveyed that the people like i get equal parts. Awhile jeff. that's really cool in other parts. Jesus guys nuts like with chelsea. Want from me right how do you. How do you source somebody like that. I mean is there. Is there some kind of magical. You're like a something that you put into the job description as you're putting it out there or is it just something that you get a feel from how you're how you're interacting with these people whether they are in it to win it or just there for the for the j. o. b. How does that work for you. Well let me stop it but this sort of a bit shocking thing. We haven't put a job description out darrien for job. Advocaat that the last few months probably almost more than a year. I would say probably two years because we get so many applicants coming in and most of hiring happens to people the only work with recommend people they know from the previous job for instance or somebody day nor from that the family or friends is because they believe in the mission of what we do. We don't do shotton things not with the customers. We don't even want to work with customers. Who wanted to do a one time thing with us because really we don't have that kind of process. Our belief is that magic happens when he when he worked together for a long term. And you understand each other. And for example with clients every can't be ever worked with. We spend the first two months learn about the mission division the core values because you don't understand them and right in their language that tone and how they would do instead for instance. So that's really important for us. And we just don't believe in in short-term not with our team members over the partners of the clients and i think that commitment to the that the team leads them to believe in. What would all doubt that leads to them recommending their defense and family and their clicks. That means that all costs include people is minimal. Actually in addition it'll all manages. All of them are part of a policy so we give them bonuses. Every month as we are earning more from customers so there's device to not only perform because of the job which was it was a do a great job at but also 'cause it's actually a reward every month or the hard work that is a really cool mission. thank you so much for sharing that razz. Can you please let everyone know how they can. How they can find you at goodman lantern and how they can find in how they can reach out to you directly. If they'd like to get in contact short thing if you look me up arlington linton on raj and and find me easily gonna london just google us. Hope you find us on the first link because in the content writing after all so yeah. Just just google us to london or find. Lincoln raj goodman end. Amazing stuff rash. Thank you so much for being here. I really appreciate you You breaking it down for us and talking about how you How you bring on the right team members for a you know in order to grow your company. thank you so much like the jd appreciates.
Has the worlds oldest known animal been discovered?
"This podcast is sponsored by national. Grid's the clean energy revolution podcast. Climate change is one of the planet's biggest challenges from enormous wind farms to the energy. We use it home wit all on the same journey to reach net zero greenhouse emissions in the clean energy revolution from national grid. Helen skelton looks at the huge progress. We're all making towards cleaner energy to help save planet. Listen wherever you get your forecasts and follow us to make sure you don't miss an episode. Sounds so simply had no idea but now the data's finally not only refreshing but but at some level astounding nature. Welcome back to the nature podcast. This week possible fossil evidence of the oldest animal ever and eavesdropping on glitziest. Seismic whisper. i'm benjamin thompson. And i'm noah baker. I on the show. You might remember that. Last week we had a story about sponges. Well it seems when done we have another sponge story coming up now. We'll be from much further in the past. Here's reporter nick. Petra chow with more. When did the first animals evolve. It's more difficult question than you might think. Well to be honest. We don't understand when animals arose at all this is. Rachel would a geologist of an interest in the evolution of life and this is for two reasons first of all. The fossil record of animals is incredibly difficult to decipher. We have fossils which we being paleontologists and geologists. We can put our hands on our hearts and say this is definitely a fossil animal and certainly many many fossils in the cambrian are undoubtedly animals so the campaign started at approximately five hundred and forty million years ago so anything younger than that we can be pretty secure is an animal but going back into older rocks it gets more and more uncertain. Scientists are pretty. Calm that some fossils from around five hundred and fifty million years ago animals but much earlier than that and things get much more murky and hang on. Didn't rachel say there were two major problems. The other set of problems as if that wasn't enough. Is that the other way. We have tried to work out. The origin of major changes in the evolution of life is to use what's called molecular biology. So this is really just a family tree based on relatedness of dna and when you do this for elucidating the origin of animals most molecular biology suggests. The origin of animals was anywhere between approximately six hundred fifty eight hundred fifty million years. There were also many varies what the earliest animals may have looked like one points to sponges one of the reasons that sponges in particular such a focus of interest is they're often accepted to be the most basal of animals sponges and yes. They are animals. Think about that victim. Time you in the shower don't have complicated nervous circulatory or digestive systems. They survive by filter feeding from water. They also have half your cell types than the animals so they may not be a bad place for an evolutionary starts and this week in nature. There's a paper that claims found a sponge from eight hundred nineteen million years ago. His elizabeth turner the paper offer. It consists of little cubicles. Hey so they're thirty. One thousands of a millimeter across approximately and they're filled with little calcium crystals. That are clear and translucent. And they're embedded these little tables are embedded in a ground mass of much more finely crystalline calcite crystals. So they look darker. So what you see. Is these little worthy tubes inside a darker grandmas and what's important about the little tubes is that they anastomosis in a very distinctive way. So they form a three dimensional meshwork of divergent branching and rejoining three dimensional which is a quite a complex micro structure. That can't be explained as being you know any of the other possible things that could have been around at the time like like fungi or algae or bacteria. These little worm cubes branch or an eskimos in such a way that elizabeth believes it points towards an animal origin. A sponge elizabeth believes that these fossils look very similar to some more recent fossils also thought to be sponges. I've got picture on my spin now. The to the two fussell's side by side the ones that we described five hundred million years ago and the one that's elizabeth has found and i honestly don't see a difference they need to be identical to me. This is robert writing another ancient sponge hunter describing a fossil sponge. He recently published a paper about we. Were looking at rocks. Much young about five hundred million years old and they always been taught to be dramatic lights lights which calcified microbial mats. Like you see present day in places like shock bay australia but when you look at them closely you see these delicate network of tubes which we convinced a sponge fabrics. And they're interfered with dramatic light fabrics. The bacteria fabric and the fabrics that dispense fabrics in. Those are very very. I would say they're identical those that Elizabeth is found robot and elizabeth suggests that their fossils represents sponges that would have had a close relationship with bacteria in fact in the harsh eight hundred nine hundred million year old world. They think a relationship like this would have been necessary so they lived in a wreath. Okay so these wreaths were built by for synthesizing organisms. And this is important because at the time you know eight hundred some odd million years ago. Eight hundred ninety years or so. Earth didn't have a whole lot of oxygen in its atmospheres ocean so an animal's obligatory require a certain amount of dissolved oxygen in water or in the atmosphere. In fact where. I find them living is in little pockets and crevices little tiny caves just underneath reef surface. Little caves that are centimeters diameter. Also if these fossils are indeed that live eight hundred nine hundred million years ago that would mean that they survived some of the harshest parts of of history very cold period known as the tri geniune. Where it's possible that nearly all of earth surface was frozen referred to by some a snowball earth so that fusion away handle on the asians. It means that the must've been life even if we haven't found it yet. The must've been animal. Life surviving the snowball glaciations. But as you might remember from the beginning the further back in time you go. The more uncertainty this fossil would predate any uncontentious animal fossils by several hundred million years. So how likely is this to really be an animal. Foucault his rachel again. So i would like to say that. It's great that this ideas being proposed. It's going to agenda a huge amount of discussion and debate. No doubt heated discussion debate and controversy. The author is that this is a sponge fossil based on its similarity to very very similar fossils that are found in much younger rocks but the problem is are these younger fossils themselves sponges when you read the literature on this. It is actually slightly tentative. The proposal is that they are interpreted as sponges brutal. Who wasn't associated with this latest research believes that they're over possible interpretations for this fossil. I think a bacterial origin or eight. Some sort of a general microbial origin. An origin of structures formed by biofilms. Which of these sort of consortia. Or communities of different microbes that form slimy surfaces. They can create these interesting and seemingly complex micro structure. I think all this suite of microbial precipitates needs to be explored amir behind the paper. Elizabeth is quite certain about her sponge. Interpretation me i'm quite confident. And that's because i may carbonate photographer one of the things. I understand really well in this. World is one stones and how to understand. The evidence of life is preserved in. That's what i do. And so this. Particular type of micro structure that i see in that i've documented is very very well documented now in younger rocks and not at all controversial. The younger rocks the material evident of is identical to to the stock. So i mean it's it's almost a no brainer robot to thinks that sponge is the most likely conclusion. Let's let's go for ninety nine point nine percent because i can't tell you what the differences the only difference i know is in age otherwise they look identical. So i'm i really very strongly convinced everyone i spoke to for this story did agree however that there will be a debate regarding this finding but that could stimulate more research to try and track down animals early ancestors in fact they seemed mostly enthusiastic about this after all scientific debate could be a great catalyst the discovery by proposing this identity for material. This old. i'm already you know putting myself into an area of rather pronounce controversy there. There are people who who really won't like this. And that's why i'm just throwing it out there folks you know discuss rate that was elizabeth turner from laurentian university in canada. You also had from robert writing from the university of tennessee knoxville in the united states. And rachel would from the university of edinburgh in the uk you can read more about this discussion in. The paper published this week in nature. We'll put a link in the show notes and nick has been very busy. There's also a video. What about early animals which has got it on youtube channel. Check the show notes that too coming up. We'll be heading to greenland to hear about the researchers unconventional attempts to eavesdrop on a glacier right. Now it's time for the research highlights read by shamanee bundle. Getting buzzed on. Caffeine has been shown to improve learning in bees. Bees are known to like caffeine. And they'll actively see count caffeine containing nectar but now researchers in the uk have shown that caffeine can boost be learning helping them to remember and find certain kinds of flower to get a reward. The team taught bumblebees in a nest to associate particular strawberry. Like smell with the delicious sugar solution. Then they let the bees roam free in a room with different smelling fake flowers to see which ones they visited. I bees. who'd had caffeine added to their sugar. Solution lent the association better and were more likely to head straight to the strawberry smelling flowers. This result supports the idea that caffeinated bees have better memories and the findings could be used in agriculture to help train bees to visit certain plants and pollinate them sniff out the full research in current biology. Archaeologists have reconstructed. The last meal of an iron age man believed to have been richly sacrificed. Two thousand four hundred years ago. The incredibly well. Preserved body of the so-called talend man was found in danish bog in nineteen fifty. His contents were analyzed at the time. Revealing a last meal of porridge made from various kinds of seeds but knowledge and research techniques have improved a lot since nineteen fifty so scientists in denmark decided to reanalyze gut samples. They discovered that the meal included fish. That the porridge was cooked. In a clay pot and that it probably contained water from a nearby lake or bulk they also found signs of several parasites including tape worm whip worm and more which he probably got from consuming contaminated food or water. The exceptional preservation of the bulk body combined with the new techniques provides an amazingly detailed glimpse into life. If you're hungry for more of that research you can find it in the journal antiquity. Okay on the twenty first of july two thousand nineteen in fjord at the foot of the towering boden glacier in northwest greenland a handful of people onto small boats lowered heavy size mamata about the size of a small fridge into the sea equipped with an array of senses to probe descended two hundred forty meters anchored to the sea floor. Quickly meets rock. My colleague once told that it looks like sputnik this is yevgeny. Polski glaciologist from her kaido university in japan describing his size monitor it dropping to water and then hope it will come back but no matter how hard you hope. Things don't always go. According to plan this is the story of yet guineas unconventional quest to eavesdrop on a glacier. He had a hunch that his measurements could offer new insights into our warming world. But getting to that point proved more difficult than anyone bogging for but more on that later. I some background if you want to know what is. The future of is discharged into ocean. You want to know the basal conditions and this is the crux of glaciology. Where a lot of effort is put because this is what we want to nobody. It's very difficult to excess. You've guineas recent work has focused on greenland where the melting of vast ice sheets is said to have global consequences now. Research is often monitor that behavior of glaciers by measuring seismic activity but in such an inhospitable environment that be tough from swirling arctic winds to falling icebergs isolating. The right seismic signal can be very difficult. It's ridiculously far. Full of seasoning field. And when besides burks full we can recognize it five hundred kilometers away on stations in canada. These events are so loud that they ruined. Us attempts to monitor underground soviet nuclear tests during the cold. War yevgeny wanted to find a way to cut through that noise and listen for the subtle movements of greenland's enormous ice sheets by tapping into seismic noise not at the surface but at the base of the glacier often though that requires a lot of drilling which can be difficult and dangerous. So yevgeny had another idea. So the idea was why. Don't we drop as ocean bottoms small matter which is used by marine geophysicist. And in our case we could do that. We will be seating this in this quiet place safe from this monster icebergs floating in baba's without being touched and destroyed and we will be listening like eavesdropping. Exactly on the surface on which this massive slab of ice is moving several meters day. You've guineas idea to trump approach to the foot of the glacier seen scientifically sound but when it came to actually trying it out. Well that proved more challenging. I was asked several questions by my colleagues. Like do you have port. No do you have research vessel with the cran. No we don't have. Do you have electricity. No do you have technicians. No do you have permissions. No and is it risky. Yes was monster and then okay. Let's do it now here. Is where yevgeny story. Takes a somewhat adventurous turn. He simply didn't have access to the kind of resources. Seismologists usually used to carry out readings on the ocean floor so he had to get creative and garnered the help of some inuit greenlanders who know the area better than anyone. I assemble this equipment with my hands in the hunters hut with transported by legal rubber boat. Fishermen's tiny boards. We traveled to the fjord and make final progressions next to the post covered with wail blood because three subsistence hunting in the area for novel. And then we make very fast operation because we don't want to experience this acog gerate tsunami which can happen at any time. Mindful that skyscraper sized icebergs could forward overwhelming tony boats at any moment yevgeny team of researchers an inuit people lifting the probe into the water. I slept so well after. I dropped it because i was preparing for that game. Because it's like assembling your own parachute because any bolt any peace. If you make something wrong you're screwed with the size moment sir. The bottom of the sea yevgeny relaxed and returned to japan but his little probe was not out of the woods just yet sixteen days later one of his colleagues went to retrieve it by playing an acoustic signal that causes the probe to release its anger return to the surface but something went wrong. The probe didn't heed the call and it was nowhere to be seen a satellite phone. Call let you have any no the bad news i made by morning coffee and it no longer made me happy. Couldn't drink it because this was a huge disappointment. When like all his laws and the most restraining thing is that when this happens you have no idea what when wrong people in oceanography loose sensors quite a lot and in the arctic. Some underwater sensor destroyed by is berg or something. It happens that. I have a borough this instrument from a colleague of mine. It's not mine not only. Did you have any to tell his colleague that he'd lost their expensive probe. He also lost a trove of data. Not a great day but just when it seemed like always lost it wasn't miracle yevgeny received word from some inuit. Peoples several kilometers from whether probe should have resurfaced brightened his mood. They are looking for whales in this yard and they have incredible ice. Pick up things to notice things in the water. A hunter found our center in the open water. And you spread and mike leaks could come and pick it up with the probe. Successfully retrieved yevgeny could get to work analyzing the data we had collected to look for the subtle seismic signal of the glacier rubbing against rock as it made its way to see and he found it and even used it to make some estimations of the glossiest movement in our case. Glaser is making this rumble continuously. We can say how fast the glaciers moving by looking at siesmic noise. How incredible is that. Because by leasing how loud things are. We can say a high. It's moving at one point. One meters per day there is a very nice correlation which is wonderful to kind of keep things we find that we can see how fast moving from the shaking off the cost around. Of course there are already a variety of different methods to measure. I see a movement radar. Gps drone mapping and so on but yevgeny says that his method offers some advantages as the probe can be dropped off and left alone regardless if conditions on the surface and he says that it could be used together other incites to things like friction levels and water pressure. the base of the way glazer's move depends on this base. Oh conditions which we want to know to be able to represent them in models to predict sea level rise in the next decades the glazers they're finishing so for example. Our glacier at some point may detach from the base so when this happens to detect it. It's very difficult. So was this kind of method. I think we can see what are the impacts of this changing climate. On glaciers gaining the discovery that glitziest but use continuous detectable tremors. They slide confirms something that he suspected for years. Nevertheless he says the end of his quest has changed the way he perceives this often cold and inhospitable parts of the world. It's mind blowing to think that the greenland cost is shaking at times proportion to this speed glaciers sliding on their beds. Now i stand there. It was a very different kind of feelings that was guinea petoskey from her kaieda university in japan. You can find out more about his work on the boden glacier in greenland in a nature communications paper hoop linked to that in the show notes. And that's all for this week as always you can reach out to us by email with pocus that nature dot com or on twitter. Where at nature podcast. I'm noah vacant. An i'm benjamin thompson. Thanks for listening.
Material Crucial for Life Discovered on Asteroid Itokawa
"I love this podcast. Support this show through the acoss support a feature. It's up to you how much you give. And there's no regular commitment. Just hit the link in the short description to support. Now this is space time series. Twenty four episodes thirty coming up on space time organic material crucial for life discover on the asteroid itokawa a journey through the main asteroid built and some twelve hundred starving satellites now in orbit all that more coming up on space time to space time. We'd still gary. Scientists discovered water inorganic material on the surface of a sample from the asteroid. It 'akaola it's the first time that organic matter capable of providing the chemical precursors for the origins of life have been found on asteroid this time the findings published in the journal scientific reports a based on a sample collected by the japan aerospace exploration agencies first high bosom mission to the asteroid to cower back in two thousand and five single grain sample dubbed amazon with studied by scientists with the royal holloway university of london. It was part a cloud of little more than dust regular collected by the first high but a spacecraft from the asteroid it. A cow is a three engined. Thirty meter wide potentially hazardous near earth asteroid. It's considered to be a peanut shape. Rubble pile consisting of little more than boulders rubble. Dust of varying sizes held together by their own combined. Gravity into a single body. Technically kaur is what astronomers referred to as an s type asteroid. It's a class of mainly iron. Magnesium silicate meteoroid which dominate the inner part of the main asteroid built and are also common in the central part of the bill became rare of further out this one migrated to the in a solar system and he's part of the apollo group of earth crossing asteroids the fact that they're robots cross the orbit of earth is what makes them potentially hazardous feature threat. The analysis shows that the sample material collected by bosa one evolved chemically over time. Preserving both primitive and process hated organic matter within ten microns. That's a thousands of a centimeter of each other. In other words there was hated material right next to that hadn't been hated the organic matter in the grain sample that had been hated indicates that the asteroid itself average temperatures of over six hundred degrees celsius sometime in its past. It seems itokawa underwent episodes of extreme heating dehydration and was even shattered to pieces in a catastrophic impact however the prisons of an hater againing matter right next to the heated material means that info primitive organic matter must have landed on the surface of the cower sometime after the asteroid cool down so the asteroid gravitationally reassembled itself from the shattered fragments and it also soaked up water from surrounding space. Dust or carbon rich meteoroid. What all this analysis shows is that s type asteroids could be every bit as likely as a source for the chemistry of life on earth as carbon ritzy type asteroids which were previously the main focus of attention. This space time still to come. We take a journey through. The main asteroid built and spacex has successfully launched its twentieth styling mission carrying another sixty of the telecommunications satellites into orbit means there are now of twelve hundred stylings satellites circling the earth. All that and much more stood accom on space time. The main asteroid belt between mars and jupiter is a tourist shape. Region occupied by hundreds of thousands of asteroids eighty royds and rocky debris ranging in size from the nine hundred and fifty kilometer wide will find it series all the way down to tiny grains of dust the total mass of the asteroid boats just four percent that of the earth's moon with around half of that contained in the four largest asteroids series. I the palace and hygena. The material in the main belt is extremely thinly distributed occasional collisions between bodies do occur resulting in the generation of families of asteroids whose members all have similar orbital characteristics and compositions astronomers speculate that the asteroid built form from the primordial solar nebula as a group of planet decibels between mars and jupiter planet. Testimonials are the precursors of planets which themselves eventually grow up to be planets however from jupiter imbued the planet tests and was with too much orbital energy for them to be able to create together form predator planets collisions became fire too violent and so instead of fusing together the planet decimals and any protoplanets. That look like they're about the form simply shattered as a result of this. Some ninety nine point nine percent of the asteroids original mass was lost. During the first one hundred million years of the solar system's history as jupiter and saturn migrated inwards. Some of these fragments would have been flying into the outer solar system then later is jupiter and saturn migrated back out again more of this debris would have been flying inwards to the inner solar system. A lot of it impacting the inner planets leading to an event could the late heavy bombardment about three point. Nine billion years ago even today the orbits of asteroids in the main belt continue to be appreciably perturbed whenever they period of revolution around the sun forms an the resonance with jupiter individual asteroids within the main asteroid built a categorized by the spectra with most fully into one of three basic groups c type carbonaceous asteroids the s type silicate asteroids. We talked about earlier and m-type middle rich. Asteroids as their name suggests c type carbonaceous asteroids cabin rich they dominate the asteroid belts outer regions and comprise about seventy five percent of all the asteroids in the built their identifiable in that they have already hugh than other asteroids in the built and also a very low albedo reflectiveness. The surface composition is similar to carbonaceous contract. Meteorites chemically inspect your match the primordial composition of the early solar system with only the lighter elements in volatile s type silica rich asteroids are more common towards the inner agent of the asteroid built within about two point five s genomic. It's from the sun and astronomical unit is the average distance between the earth and the sun better hundred and fifty million kilometres or eight point three light minutes. The specter of this type which asteroid services revealed the presence of silicates in some metals but no significant carbonaceous compounds now. This indicates that they materials have been significantly modified from their primordial composition probably through melting and re-formation easily identified because they have a very high beato reflectively and they form about seventy percent of the total asteroid population in the main belt. M-type middle rich asteroids form about ten percent of the total population they to resemble that of nickel. Some a belief deformed from the metallic coz of differentiated progenitor bodies that would disrupt the three collisions. The number and distribution of type asteroids peaks at semi major axes of around two point seven astronomical units. It's still not clear. Where the oil m-type asteroid's composition similar or whether it's simply a label given the varying types of asteroids which don't neatly fit in the main cnn's classes one mystery of the main asteroid built is relative rarity of title basaltic asteroids theories of asteroid formation predict that objects the size of vesta or larger form crusts mantles. Which would be composed of many basaltic rock resulting in more than half of all asteroids being composed either of soldo allah wien observations however suggests that ninety nine percent of the predicted basaltic materials missing until two thousand and one most basaltic bodies discovered in the main asteroid built will believe originated from the asteroid vesta hence the use of v. for the classification however the discovery of civilized roads with slightly different chemical compositions. From that of other basaltic asteroids suggest a range of different origins while we often think of the main asteroid is being quite massive in terms of the total number of asteroids contain they. It's actually quite small. Compared to the millions upon millions of transplant gene objects asteroids comets. I see debris orbiting beyond the orbit of neptune in the outer solar system. What are these shows. Is that understanding the evolutionary history of asteroids and the main asteroid build itself is far more complicated as jonathan alley. The editor of strand sky and telescope magazine explains that. I do it and how much you have. A story is all about the asteroid belt where it came from what it's made of and what it can tell us about how planets such as you and the other rocky planet formed yesterday. Bill if is a loose collection of hundreds of thousands of being small from sars of holding your hand up to or planet size and they mostly orbit the sun. Roughly halfway between the orbits of mars and jupiter fairway out the full biggest asteroids making a fifty five percent of the total massive all the asteroid but that total mess. It's still if he's not ready to all of the astros put together with any have about five percent of the massive a lot of people say that all the asteroids would form the planet but now there was never enough material. The of does not. There's not it's sometimes describe it as to build as rebel left over from the beginning of this all sort of lift just no one wanted and just in a nicer vic- between two and look not all asteroids in that asteroid belt but most of them are and the other thing too. Let's get let's create this up right at the beginning and people will have seen movies like star wars. Whatever we you would be through dodging asteroid. You're gonna tell me that's not real. It's not real real. I'm trying to remember now. The figure i saw the average distance between. I think it's something like ten meeting kilometers. It's it's certainly in the millions. They are very far apart. Even though there's thousands thousands thousands of the is small and spacey's be so they are a long way apart. You could just in effect. I mean back in the seventies when necessary some of the state space probes off the voyages in the party. They have to go through. The asteroid built on quote and everyone kept their fingers crossed. The that's straight through. But there were pretty much. They would sow straight through because of the empty space basically with some rocks here and they're all just happened to orbit around the one pop around the sun. So yeah it's not like it is in the movies and all but nonetheless it's still a pretty fascinating place. Because the interesting thing about the asteroids is that might have thought to remain mostly unchanged from when they formed billions of years ago bucks to them and so they be considered time capsules right. They sort of frozen in time from the early years of the solar system so they give us a glimpse into the all assistance past which is why nasa and the japanese space agency had since spacecraft to asteroids and. They've now brought him back in. There have been fly bys asteroids over terrestrial that kind stuff though. Scientists really interested in studying the things because they also time capsules so that they handy for figuring out some of the characteristics of the material that went into making the rocky planets such as earth and mars and and mercury and maybe the caused the other participants in brooklyn them as well so in the magazine. We take a look at some of the hypotheses about how the asteroid belt formed. Because no one's quite sure just yet and win. It formed and what scientists to plan to do to conduct further study so neatly straddles snow line in the solar system beyond which i see bodies form and on the sun. Side of which volatile are evaporated away in the mountain. You get you get certain sort of vegetation to certain elevation and all of a sudden you get reached the point where the snow gets down to and things change a little bit so the vegetation might be different even the the Toronto like talks or whatever could be different because it's getting different sort of weathering up as location. So yeah you're quite right. Volatile cosplaying isis and things that will evaporate easily or or or Sublime lisa where and he goes drippy from an ice to i guess if it tasted rubbing the liquid size in the middle so yeah look yes workplace is is fascinating for all sorts of reasons and largely unknown. These tiny rox A long way away from outside of for most of scientific history always been able to do is just see them as panis it'll dots of light in the sky. Then in more recent times he'd be able to expect for scopes and analyze the coming from the medals but only in the space age been able to get up close and early. Probably i'm guessing from your and about a dozen times. Roughly speaking since the nineteen eighty also have been able to get a push to asteroids. So there's still plenty to learn and we've only had one mission that really carefully explore them with had some missions have gone through that area but Really it's only being the the one nessim mission actually hung around and study that area. Yeah the door in mission. Well of course that was hope to go to vista n series which the two largest asteroids and series being so big of course that it had enough of a gravity to pulled into around which is why they call them. It's an asteroid. It's amount of into the dwarf planet. It's also things at once. That's jonathan a finality editor of australian sky and telescope magazine. And don't forget if you're having trouble getting a copy of a stray and sky and telescope magazine from your usual retailer. Because of the current lockdown travel restrictions can always get a print or digital subscription. The magazine delivered directly letterbox or inbox subscribing easy just go to sky and telescope dot com dot. Au that skied telescope dot com dot. Au and you'll never be left in the dark again and this is space time. Still to come spacex successfully launches its twentieth styling mission and later in the science report and you study shows that people diagnosed with adhd hood a more likely to develop a psychotic disorder in late all that and more still to come on. Space time spacex successfully launched its twentieth styling mission carrying another sixty or the telecommunications satellites into orbit the flight aboard a falcon nine rocket from space launch complex. Thirty nine a at the kennedy space center brings the styling broadband constellation to over twelve. Hundred satellites now in orbit funding the mission the falcons first stage booster successfully returned to earth landing on the drone ship. Of course i still love you which had been pre-positioned down range in the north atlantic ocean. Nine startling go. And there's a final go for launch lists this an enter terminal count on nine eight seven six five four three two one zero ignition pitching down ridge today chamber normal t plus forty seconds into flight. It is dark but we can definitely hear falcon nine. We have successfully lifted off from pad thirty eight. And he space center carrying our stack of starling. Satellites into orbit Right now we're currently threatening down the engines of preparation for max q That is the period of maximum aerodynamic pressure where experiencing largest structural load the vehicle during sent us a slow the vehicle down helps during this period. Max q and there is the for max q. We've just passed the period of maximum pressure on falcon nine in about a minute. We have three events happening back to back. I is main engine cutoff. Also known as meek old this is where all nine merlin engines on the first stage or shut off to slow the vehicle down in preparation for the second which is staged separation during stage separation. The first and second stage will separate from one another with the first stage starting to make its way back to earth for a landing attempt on our ship while the second stage continues its journey with the third event. Second engine start one also known as s. During second engine start one this will light the merlin merlin vacuum engine on the second stage and propel second stage along with the starling satellites into orbit. Meco stage separation confirmed in the first stage separated from the second stage making its way back to earth and we have a beautiful startup of the merlin vacuum engine on the second stage coming up in a few seconds. Here is faring. Deploy airing separation confirmed and off. Goes the faring. Have exposing those batch. The batch of satellites on top of the second stage as a reminder. We will be attempting to recover the sharing out today with our recovery ships. Go searcher and go navigator. Stage is going to execute to burns in order to make its way back down to earth. The i is the entry burn. Where three of the m. Wendy engines will reignite and this will help slow the stage as it reenters. The upper part of the earth's atmosphere the second burn is the landing burn now. This is a single engine burns that will bring the vehicle speed down rapidly. In order to land on our own chip. Of course i still love you. Bermuda and again. Our second-stage is carrying a sixty starlink. Satellites to leo or low earth orbit. That's about five hundred and fifty kilometers above the surface of the earth reference. Most satellites are actually in jio or geostationary orbit which is over a thousand kilometers above the surface of the earth. In the reason that we have our starling satellites in the slower orbit is that it reduces the round trip time that it takes data to travel between the user and the satellite reducing. What is known. As latency and improving performance in activities like video calls and online game the first stage it is coasting down getting ready for the start of entry. Burn in about forty seconds. Here it is using its four hypersonic. Good fins and the occasional burst of nitrogen gas from attitude control system getting ready for its entry. Burn in ten seconds here in the second stages looking good with our starling. Satellites one entry burn startup. Here's the call out for stage. One intrigue burn startup stage. One entry burn shutdown. We've had confirmation of a successful stage one and tree burn second-stage continues to let good one landing. Burn startup here. The call for our start of landing burn. This'll be about twenty seconds on landing leg deployed to second-stage looking good. We did just have confirmation of our successful stage. one landing just had a call out. I see co one. In fact i second stage and a confirmation for a good orbit successful retrieval oven class rocket and the eighth retrievable for this particular. Booster spacex is designed the block five version of its falcon nine. First stage booster reused at least ten times. This is space time and turn that take a brief look at some of the other stories making news in science this week with a science report. A new study analyzing data from twelve previous studies looking at some one point. Eight five million participants has found that people who diagnosed with adhd chartered were more likely to develop psychotic disorders in later life. Although this type of study can't show that having. Adhd actually causes an increased risk of psychotic disorder researchers say children with adhd should be followed up beyond the age of eighteen. The findings reported in the journal of the american medical association recommends further studies to investigate how these disorders could be biologically linked and the early intervention for adhd might reduce the risk of subsequent psychotic disorders. Microsoft is issued a warning that chinese government sponsored hacking group is exploiting security flaws in its exchange email services to steal data from businesses. The hacking group named ham has a history of targeting infectious disease. Researches law firms universities think tanks and ngos the attacks focus on stealing emails and effecting computer service with tools that allow access to take control remotely last year beijing was found to be behind numerous cyber attacks targeting coronavirus search at least thirty thousand. Us organisations including local governments currently being hacked by an unusually aggressive chinese cyber espionage campaign. It comes as the chinese government is warning. Its military to be prepared to go to words. Short notice crippling computer systems could be part of that campaign paleontologist of uncovered. The fossilized remains of a twenty made along titanic so dinosaur in argentina scientists. Say the discovery dating back. Some one hundred and forty million years to the beginning of the cretaceous period may represent the oldest titanic so ever found tight. Tennis os are a type of serra dinosaur and include the biggest living creatures ever walk on the earth and the new discovery means tennis all survived much longer than previously thought from the beginning of the cretaceous right through to the end of the age of dinosaurs. Sixty six million years ago and just in case you've forgotten. Let me again remind you that. Sarah pods of those big rigs dinosaurs. That look like fred. Flintstones pitino with elephant like bodies and legs and a long neck and small head at one end equally. Long taylor the other a new study claims night house may be twice as likely as early birds to underperform work. Around ten percent of males and twelve percent of females are night al's the findings reported in the journal of occupational and environmental medicine also suggests that night hells run the heightened and risk of early retirement gyda disability the authors found that night people tend to cure sleep de after catch up on the weekends the other hand morning people tend to go to bed early enough to get the recommended. Amerisleep the authors say around one in four night house reportedly performed at work at age forty six significantly higher than the early birds. Of course. if you're ira night it could just get a job that let you work in the evenings. In which case the out outperforms everyone else pity. So many manages aren't smart enough to work that up by now the cia. A nineteen ninety-one document showing that american spies had wrongly believed that the soviet union had successfully undertaken experiments in extrasensory perception and could transmit thoughts gain information and even move objects using only the mind the document details bizarre experiments and siberia apparently undertake during the mid to late nineteen s. Volunteers would sit in the middle of a room. Position between two concave mirrors while the scientist tried from afar to transmit psychic energy to the subject in another experiment. Volunteers attempted to use telepathy. Transmit images of geometric shapes such as circles and squares to each other the soviet union's fascination with sp stretches back to at least the nineteen fifties to mendham from a strain skeptic says the soviet union wasn't alone the cia. Apparently studied mind reading remote viewing telekinesis in other areas of parapsychology the many decades but with no more success than their russian counterparts. I've got book on russian. Esp experiments. there was a day for about twenty thirty years ago because this is a espn extra sensory perception as a term that was coined by parapsychology research. At night maybe ron back. Waiting in the thirties and forties. You thought that craft sake might refer to them exist among certain people and wanted to test them and the story was was with the russians. We're following tasting people especially people suppose we all with telecom. They could move things and they did a lot of experience. The the cia and probably the american military did tests will say things in another country. Also you could bones in other areas like sedation theft. Three nuclear arsenals could be exploded psychic. But this thing about the russian basically just some somali styles. That have been released that yeah. It was classified and also their fat released to the public. There's nothing new and nothing unknown that people are buying these in russia for. Abc style are happening. Really the tests would not even russia and the tension with in the us with the cia and the military. You can read the book. Cold men who stare at goats book looks a lot of that going to take gaming on america. That's a that's worth having look really nothing. Kind of there was a lot of excitement when some particular could move a matchbox or something like that but magicians can do the same thing and i have demonstrated that in fact that james randi do that to agree for researchers in america i think as military is getting very excited about someone who can move like matchbox. Something like that and he just did it in front of them looked embarrassed and all too often. 'cause i on this thing and then like just show magician can do except as well as the espn subjects. Who supposedly real. But i would say we're fakes all along. Who would basically be kicking the researches which is not too difficult sleight of hand is like the thing was must be slaughtered breath. But yeah i seen from. The sinus fellow in america could make pages and it was obvious that he was blowing on them until train. 'em stuck her shaker prospects between him and the pipe and say nabala hesitated easy offense and the scientists because on these two subjects chasing mice in laboratories have spent chain but people do. And that's the parapsychology tests. That have been going on really seems free light. I think hundreds also promoted by the second world war and a supernatural beliefs of hitler and his mom yes yeah yeah by with very much into the paranormal day. What sort of impact to these to this state where the other countries would take advantage of. I knew about it. And they're taking advantage of one fabric plane dropping leaflets finding nostra adamas predictions. They would upset the gentleman that you're gonna lose. There was a lot of strengths. Thing that hitler and i think able to definitely believe a lot of strange area to the extent that theories about sort of sending nazis standard wayne toxic underground bunkers. Damn or something that they still think. Because you know what's the history channel enough it's all. Ibm february but yeah. I mean russia as pay american as the type that nothing is coming with use of this technology skills indicates that was probably nothing like that. It's from a strain and skeptics and that's the shifu now. Space time is available every monday. Wednesday and friday through apple podcasts. I tunes stitcher bugle. Podcasts hakka casts spotify cast amazon music bites dot com soundcloud youtube your favorite podcast download provider and from space time with stewart gary dot com space times also broadcast through the national science foundation on science own radio and on both iheart radio and tune in radio. And you can help to support our show by visiting the space time store for a range of promotional merchandising goodies or by becoming a space time patron which gives you access to triple episode commissioner free versions of the show as well as lots of burners audio content which doesn't go away access to exclusive facebook group and other awards. Just go to space time with stewart. Gary dot com for full details. And if you want more space time please check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as heaps of images you stories loads videos and things on the web. I find interesting or amusing. Jus- go to space time with stewart gary dot com dot com. That's all one word. And that's tumbler. Without the aid can also follow us through at stewart. Gary on twitter at space time with stewart gary on instagram through uh space-time youtube channel on facebook just go to facebook dot com forward slash. Space time with stewart. Gary and space. Time is brought you in collaboration with australian sky and telescope magazine your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with stewart. Gary this has been another quality. Podcast production from bites dot com.
Hitchhiking Solo in South Africa & Swaziland (Eswatini): 26,650 Miles
"Your adult aware doing what i crazy. Aunt tam welcome to many roads traveled. I'm tomorrow and i have one question for you. Do you love to travel or that. I invite you to join me on my thirty thousand mile road trip from paris to capetown back to nairobi. More thing we'll be traveling back in time to nineteen ninety-three before the internet google maps and cell phones however not to worry because i d give up to date info on each episode plus you can always find more information on my website. Many rose travel dot com so without further ado. Let's hit the road. He's in big news. My youtube channel is up and running. You can get there by. My website. may travel dot com double in traveled straight on youtube. Okay see you there and enjoy the show cheers. okay so it's episode of fifty five and on today's episode. Well it's pretty much. All about my hitching in south africa as well as swaziland which is now known as it's store swat how's it esau teeny so i'm just going to stick with swaziland and honestly i by guardian angels. Were definitely on my side during this episode because it was just amazing i'm also covering about five hundred fifty miles. That's take us now up to twenty six thousand at six hundred fifty miles so fought as you can tell. I'm on the back end on my way. Back up to nairobi. So it's around day. Four hundred twenty eight roughly. It's early march. Ninety four and i left january seventeenth ninety three so obviously. We're going back in time before the internet cellphones google maps all that stuff and i did have a guidebook so i will literally winging it and i said i. My plan was to hitch by myself but from durban south africa. Backup to nairobi. You know at least as much as i could. So we're going to pick up where we left off last episode. So if you haven't heard that or does your first episode. Then yeah please come along and watch you know. Listen from the first episode and joined the trip the hallway threat. 'cause there is a lot of crazy adventures at god knows how i'm still alive but i okay so as i said we're picking up from last episodes so i guy who own hostile is staying in. Johannesburg he was able to put my money transfer that i had sent over from canada. Which some reason to capetown. Instead of joe berg is able to put it in his bank account and then he was able to take out the money. Give it to me. So at least i finally had some money in my pocket again which was great and he also dropped me off kind of on the highway to like joe. Burks easier for hitching. By i ride was with a bit of a slime dog which you know happens but luckily it was willing to short ride and he took me to town called bitoni but then things discount better and better basically as the next few days unfolded so when from otani i got picked up by two young afrikaans. Guys really sweet and they end up by me lunch which is great. I'm always up for freebies. Did literally as they were dropping me off this other car pulled over literally two minutes later and offered me right and they were two older afrikaans guys who happened to be ex cops. They're called opie and charles at really lonely solicitor in like like in the backseat of the car. Got in it. They had to be a cold. Beer ex- cops. Okay jake drive. It awesome of the driver was drinking so at least that was good ended yet so we ended up chatting away and they're going to nail sprint. Which is kind of the way i was going. The eventually also will wear you're staying. We'll drop you off there. And i was like i have no idea. I have a book day. They have no clue. Just hopefully find a campground somewhere cheap hostile and they're like well. Listen we've booked like to hotel rooms. You can have one of the hotel rooms and we'll just share the other word. I was like what gets on business. A business account when i'm paying for it anyways. No problem at is okay. So our way to the hotel. They picked up bucket of kfc. Chicken and vodka mixers and we checked in and yeah. I got my own room. There other room was next door. Obviously edwards flares. Because they were really big guys. Like i would say close to three hundred pals easily each of them. Ed regarded short ribs. It was just like what queen size rabi king size bed so they had to share a bed in order to give the other group. So i saw that quite funny too big africa guys. Cut-up it together a bed though we just kind of watch. Tv shouted I think we've played cards. Just drank that bottle of vodka in eight chicken and you know as usual or of course you know. They tried it on slightly. You know flirting and everything. I was just like no you guys enjoy your night together. Are greta definitely joy. Why super hotel room the next morning and it was so nice like was like oh my gosh. I actually have a proper hotel room because you know. I've been staying in also except for stay. I stayed at my uncle's six weeks. In durban you know is either. Camping are cheap hostels or literally like prison. Rooms look like concrete south with disa- single cottam. So this was luxury. Am queen size bed. Tv air conditioning is awesome next morning. Met the guys for breakfast and it was an all you can eat breakfast. Buff included like. This is sweet. Yeah make jobe to a barber tune road so kind of again like the highway slash maine road and i got picked up almost right away again and they took me to to actually babington the town then lynch only wait about fifty minutes and then got picked up again but other guy and then he took me to that. He took like through the heidfeld. It which is absolutely beautiful like the mountains stunning and he took me to the top of their and he was going different directions. So i was waiting at the top of these mounds which is fine is beautiful. Which only about fifty minutes then got another ride to pigs. Peak which is a great name. Pigs pig swaziland. Awesome or so. Of course i crossed. The borders wasn't no problem and it was no country number twenty eight on this trip and my nineteenth african country and then managed to get a ride to pigs. peak didn't wait there very long and then got picked up his lovely man called allen and he was like well. I'm going to many If you wanna come. And i was like yeah. That's sounds great. I said but. I do have to go to the capital of a bond to ply from my mozambique visa. And he's like okay. I'll take you there okay. Unfortunately by type of got to mozambique embassy we'd missed it by ten minutes so it closed for lunch. I guess so they said okay. Come back in an hour and you know you can apply then so allen was like well do you wanna go grab a beer like sure. That sounds great so we went to this bar and copiers and chatted is really nice guy and then we went back to the embassy to wait for half an hour because honestly people who work at. I mean not all of them but many especially in africa who worked in these embassies accustomed things like that. Just power trip. So much drove me up lee bonkers because then after winning half an hour. They're like no reclosed for the day. Why not tell us. The first time we were here that you know had to come back in the morning and then we come back and then you make us. We'd hafner and then tell us note. Come back tomorrow. Like that's be just so annoying and a waste of time and also like alan was doing this favor and i've taken waste an hour and a half of his time as well so he's like don't worry about it you know. Take you back here tomorrow. Because my wife's in pig pig in the hospital. So i'm kind of going back and forth every day and you go through in bonn to get picks pick for manzini. So then he was like. Oh where are you staying in manzini. In as oh. I don't know a find somewhere he's like. Well you can stay my house. I've got like big three or four bedroom house. I'm the only one there. Okay that sounds great. Do you have to listen to your gut. O these things but so far so good i was like i give it a go really lovely house. And then he was like. We'll do wanna go for dinner tonight. I was like sure so. We went to this club. He belonged to and had a really nice dinner. Some prawns and share bottle wine chatted loads. And i mean he was probably in his forties and at the time i was twenty four so big age gap south. African guys were in their forties. So i guess they just like the young girls right. What olbermann note though basically just web practice house. It'll had my room. Obviously you know a close my door. And what are you still always do. Is i had like a metal water bottle. So whether wherever i stayed i'd always put that on the other side of the door so if someone tried to command they would knock over night here at wake and then i usually have my knife six inch blade knife very close to not switched houses and things like that but definitely also the camping yet about. I'd never had to use it but my uncle gave it to me before. I left and it just kind of gave me a piece of mine that i'd never want to use it but it just it was there if i needed it kinda thing. I'm not up for violence or anything like that. But sometimes you just have to protect yourself right especially as a solo female travel. Now that i'm advocating carrying six inch. Blades probably cream and do that now customs. But i didn't have a problem traveling everywhere. I did with it so i'm sure that has changed. I remember just say like. I'm having so much good. Luckily like i'm gonna get shot in mozambique or something bad could happen because that's how it works. You know the highs or followed by the lows and vice versa. So i was like definitely gonna get shot. Mozambique anyways next morning breakfast and then he joe young jobe to the back to in amman to the mozambique embassy dropped me off. Because he's going to the hospital. I was like yeah. That's cool so. I managed to get my visa which was no problem and i'd have to come pick it up in a few days because i think it was like friday now so i had to come back on monday to pick it up so i managed to hitch back down to manzini because our in give me keys to his house. Stay there as long as i need to do. So while i'm hitching back from emad to manzini. I get picked up like this mercedes brand new mercedes pulls over. I mean these roads are pretty badly dirt roads potholes everywhere right and now quick sponsor break. Listen i know. Covert is getting us all down. Because we can't travel. However i put together some awesome hotel package holidays and they are great for either solo. Travelers families or couples the best thing is zero cancellation fees zero kovin re booking fees and zero single supplement fees head on over and check them out at many roads travel dot com forward slash deals double ellen traveled and hopefully you can get going somewhere suit. Okay now back to the show is this necessarily pulls over his guys like. Do you wanna ride like where you go. I was like i'm going to and he's like. Oh that's where i'm going to top in. So this guy was called peter and he was from boston and the states and we started talking and everything and then i find that like he's a multimillionaire. He had shares in a very well. No international donuts store also wineries and things like that and basically he was there to open up. This donut stores franchise in manzini in swaziland. I'm just like watch. This is crazy. I definitely getting shot. Mozambique sooner is about to eighty. He's like well. What do you wanna hang out for the afternoon. I was like yeah sure so. He went to his hotel. Which was the nicest hotel in all of manzini which isn't saying much but it did have a pool and you know things like that. Yeah just hanging by the pool and he had like a box of cuban cigars like they were fifty dollars per cigar back in one thousand nine hundred ninety s like the top range head. He's like oh do i would i yes i do. So we had a few drinks chattan away and everything and then he was like well. How long are you going to be in swaziland for nicely while. Probably 'til monday because Get my visa. And then i'm headed to. Mozambique he was like well. Why don't you stay longer. it's also my birthday in a week's time. I like now i gotta get going on the road down for sixteen months in i wanna get up to nairobi. And then i moved to england will he was like well. I really really like a company. And what would it take to stay. He goes. I can write you blank. Check i was like well. What do you mean to stay. So he's basically give me a pretty woman offer. I was just like he's like well. I mean like stay with me at nighttime too. I was like well. Let me just think about that for a minute. 'cause i didn't have a lot of money. I had a few by hand. Maybe five hundred bucks six hundred dollars not including my flight back so i could. I have my money flight. Box separate and then by starting out nairobi. I was thinking about it. I mean he was all right. Guy is short. Jewish got bit chubby. It probably in his late forties. Fifty and i was just like You know what because we had been talking and he was telling me how lonely it was to actually be millionaire because you never knew what people wanted to me. They just want you for your money or for business things or whatever right business deals and yeah he was. He was very guys was recently divorced. His wife was trying to get every penny out of them. He had two sons who were around my age. Who didn't have anything to do with them. There's willing to die to inherit his money so yeah he was really really lonely. Got so after thinking from it. Oh ten minutes or so. Why peter. i think you need friend. And i'll be your friend and i'm happy to hang out with us long as i'm here. But what's his befriends co thing and honestly. He almost started crying like he was like. Wow well. that's actually where the nicest things was ever such as like what crazy he's like. Okay that's fair enough right then. We'd like watch a movie in his hotel rubber anything like that and of course he would still continuously over the next two days flirt with me and stuff like that but he didn't you know wasn't nothing i could handle. It wasn't too full on kind of thing. So i would leave room. You know six seven o'clock day. When i'd hear the when i hear knock on the door and that would be his prostitutes. I would say goodbye. Let her in and see him. The next day just so bizarre and then i go back to. The guy had met the you know the day before giving me his house. Basically there was crazy. Because i said he would be a hospital with his wife almost all day right. So then i get back to allen's house ed that night like he kind of going on about how lonely he was and he hasn't had sex with his wife for three months because she's just had hysterectomy and all this stuff and he's fighting it difficult being with us too young beautiful woman in his house and blah blah blah. You know just kind of left it open. And i'm like okay a little bit crazy now. I kind of politely like genn not interested in. Just wait for your wife. She'll be healed up in no time so it was kinda getting a little bit awkward and then on the next day. He said he had fence coming to visit him. So if i could find somewhere else to stay that night eat appreciate that. And i was like yeah. Of course. it's your house band. So i went back to peterson hotel and it was because we don't even appear was there. If i went to the hotel he told all the staff is anything. I ate or drank. Whatever like swim the pool just put it on his tap. So that's what was doing pretty much hotel the whole time. That's why we're they. So then he got back. And i said oh allen's asked me to leave for the night because he's got company so i to sleep in your like in the other bed in your room and he was like a dick and then he finally said okay so did that kept tends to cell. He was fine. I mean there was too bad so it was okay. Didn't luckily get a prostitute in that night. Because i've been really awkward and then the next day i went back to eyelids later on that day. And he's like he's like. Where have you been this whole time. I was like well with this other guy at his hotel and ella stargate really jealous. That it was just weird. And i was like you know what it was monday. The next day like sunday so monday next is getting my mozambique visa anyways. I was like okay. Well i'm gonna. I'm gonna be leaving tomorrow if you're going that way. That'd be great. Give me a ride to the bar so he did do that. And i brought all my stuff with me. And i was like okay. Well thank you so much for everything you know. I'll make my own way back to manzini in that. I'm just gone straight to mozambique so really appreciate you know. That's what is your wife all that stuff so one down so again went back to peter's and hotel and he's like oh i've got a guy for you. I was like what he's like a good friend of mine. He's in town a business. And so we're all gonna go out tonight this casino and have dinner and you can eat them. See what you think. I was like okay so did that. Peter gave me some money to gamble with 'cause they're all like going crazy gambling at blackjack and things like that. So i gambled a little bit with peter's money. Save some to my needed it but yeah we have this like all you can eat really really fancy buffet as like all the seafood. You could imagine all my drinks recover and this guy was actually all right. He was called paul and he was a sales manager for mercedes. So i guess. That's what peter god's car samuel. He's tall dark and hansa. Yeah we had a blast really junk. And then i did end up. Staying at paul's house at night didn't sleep with them but we didn't you know had some snogging kissing making out sessions and That i just went to sleep. Basically but i got woke up in the morning by the made bringing me a cup of tea in the morning which was weird because my uncle automate to housemate and i always thought it really really awkward. 'cause i didn't really want to do anything for me even though that's their job and i don't know it's just weird if i ever got super-rich are might have a house cleaner a chef. But that's kinda different. I dunno as we are remember. I'd say like twenty four so now he's like okay so you can hang out here today if you wanna go to work yourself at home if you wanna make phone calls do that slides like okay awesome. He left ed. I noticed that the bait had washed my running shoes at ira. no it. 'cause i went to put the bod. They're perfectly clean. I was like okay. Thank you so much political claire. Who's my english friend who i'd met in nairobi. And we trump together for three months. And i was planning on her. We're going to get a house together in leeds england when i got there basically so i haven't talked to her for quite a while so i was like. Whoa paul said help myself so called her at work surprised hair and we ended up talking about halford hours so does filling in with everything. That's been happening all this stuff so it still making sure was up for showing house and all that stuff. So there's all get cut a matatu back to manzini to peterson hotel and two goodbye to him. Because i was like. Yeah i go in. He did give me a ride. Outside of manzini against the highway psyche hitch a ride to the muslim big border Which i did so. Yeah so just an awesome. Basically hitching experience for me now. I was at the mozambique border. And i was like okay. Let's hope i don't get show but are leave. Mozambique till next episode. And now it's time for temps talk tenths tip. Number one is about hitching specially as a solo female traveller. I mean now that. I am in my early fifties if one. Yeah i don't know. If i would do it i don't know like i dunno have fixed a change although i did try to hitch when i was in central america last year's so but i mean to this extreme. I don't know. I'm sure as hell. I wouldn't get the attention. I got back dead now. So with jake i would say listen to your gut first off for sure and i always liked to get if his pickup trucks get in the back of pickup. Because then i have a bit more of a chance to escape if things go tits up basically and also you might want to. You know hitch with families. I mean i dig. It picked up a few times with families. This time it was. Just oh men. And i actually my whole time hitchings throughout africa it was predominantly men with a few families never just alone woman driver never which was weird that would be the biggest number one thing is listen to you got and try and get families but obviously nowadays. You've got your phones and you could. Do you know the families can track your phone. Find firefighter or whatever it is why your friend. So that's probably you know recommended as well. I didn't have that option. I do remember thinking sometimes like if anybody did opportunity like white family does even know what country i meant. Because i didn't call home that often and you know i'd send postcards for every country but that they could take weeks or months leaving at home if they make it at all so i wasn't because i was trying to keep my my parents family in the darker france like it was just because weeding how social media we didn't have the internet you know it's so much easier like you could literally tell people where you are to instagram facebook. Talk and stuff like that. So it's much much easier to keep track of where you are for your family and front. So i would say totally up to you but hitching thing but yet listen to your gut. Okay tip number two is about things you can do around sprint. In south africa number one thing probably is very close to kruger national park which is a huge national park in south africa. Probably the most well known seeking me based in nelspruit to do that. And i mean you're looking anywhere between for four a budget safari kind of between eight seven hundred fifty two thousand dollars per person but that would include everything food combination and our five day luxury budget that you're looking at like eighteen hundred plus basically and this is an american dollars. 'cause it's also great because it's halfway between johannesburg and the mozambique border so its great location and it is really. It's beautiful area as well. I mean i didn't do it because they i didn't have the money and be like but this time i had seen mostly all of the main animal. The only animal hadn't seen in the wild as was a leopard which i mean they are you. You hardly see those guys because they sleep all day. And they're out at night so i had seen all the other animals which is just amazing highly recommended. I not a heat fan at this far like it depends sums far a great some not so much because what happens is people. All these minivans are gps or this far japes. They don't stay on the path like especially in masa mar and sergei brutal see. You know you'd see a lion trying to chase down an antelope. At fifty bloody minivans and gps following like going off the roads through the fields or white to the land to chasing the lion chasing the antelope. It's just crap and it really affects the animals. So you wanna stay is kind of in the background as possible right so at least these animals are don't feel like they're in a big zoo aids as the lot of the main roads like throughout these countries. You drive through these parks right for free. And i saw a lot of animals badly too. I only did one safari in those nagoya crater. Because you have to do safari to go there. And i'd highly recommend that. That's where i saw almost like all the annals except for leopard and is absolutely beautiful. It's like a garden of eden. So cowan i would recommend on. They're very good about staying on the roads and things like that. Anyways i digress so other things you can do nelspruit it is. I mean there's big sinoe there. There is also blind river canyon nature reserve and there's also some like these cage called somali caves that are two hundred forty million years old i of love to jail not finding existed back then but okay and tip number three is for swaziland or swab teeny and their local currencies called the long may but they also accept south african rand and they're like one for one so it's roughly around fourteen of those or south african rands to one. Us dollar and swaziland or s. Twenty is it's like a little low like little island in the middle of south africa and next to mozambique and like said there's also these mountains on the east side which are studying and they're called the dumbo mountains. They also have quite a few nature reserves and eight national park there as well so you can check that out and i have a feeling that the far seir was able to play cheaper than so that. Forget because it's it's smaller known as many people built there. Okay i mean. I had an awesome time. You could see how nice people were in the area so really really lovely and they might tip force sola female. Travelers is besides like the charm. Offense was under multi. Bile people victim hitchhiking. A problem felt very safe in swaziland and personal africa. I actually felt safe all throughout south africa. Joe berg was maybe the only place that has some dodgy areas that i didn't go to so even there. I felt fine. I really really loved south africa and swaziland ilisu so this whole southern part of africa was amazing. Had some crazy times there but like said and don't forget. Listen i know. Covert is getting us all down because we can't travel. However i put together some awesome hotel package holidays and they are great for either solo. Travelers families or couples the best thing is zero cancellation fees zero kovin re booking fees and zero single supplement fees head on over and check them out at many travel dot com forward slash deals double l. and traveled. And hopefully you can get going somewhere suit. Not only is it great for you but also helps support the show. Thank you now. i'm going to mozambique. I was convinced. I was going to be shocked because i had so much. Good luck lately. So make sure you turn into the next episode to see if i did or not or if my leg change okay. Obviously as usually you can find more info on our website. Made rose travelled dot com. Okay so until next time save travels.
Live From The New Mexico Museum of Natural History
"This week on the children's hour in a broadcast from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History Rian Science in Albuquerque we learn about the latest in fossil discoveries worldwide including an ice age armadillo found in New Mexico featuring musical guests Rowan and the Youth Jazz collaborative. It's all in an hour. The children's hour is produced by the Children's Hour Inc.. A nonprofit dedicated to producing high-quality Ludi kids public radio support provided by the friends of the children's hour learn more at children's our dot. Org meow Wolf is a proud supporter of the children's hour meow. Wolf believes that engaging educational content is one of the best ways to fuel a child's imagination and that's truly powerful thing. Stay tuned for in our case. What do you call l.. A. Dinosaur that wears a cowboy hat and boots. I don't know what age Iran is. Source the children's hour from on how in New Mexico <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> there <music> yeah <music> <music> Rohan in the Youth Jazz collaborative right here on the children's hour. We're are at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science. We are so delighted to be here. I am Katie stone with the children's hour right here in Albuquerque New Mexico and the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science is a treasure here in Albuquerque for learning about fossils and natural L. history. We're GONNA find out all about it on the show. We're interviewing paleontologists and so much more so I I wanted to introduce everybody on the crew which let's start over here. Hello it's my hi. I'm Sienna Yellow Sally. Hi It's Miam- Hello Hi and my name is Evelyn hide seven hello. My name is Ruby Hi. My name is Katharina hello. My name is Daniel. Wow what a crew. Let's hear it for the crew. Everybody Hello Crew Hi. Lou Yes up here. We are broadcasting testing with a huge fan and there I would love to know more about this ban Rohan and the youth jazz collaborative. Can you give us an introduction and tell us who's up. There are the music director for the Youth Jazz collaborative. We have we have kids. This is a program for for kids twelve of eighteen middle schoolers and high schoolers. I'd like to introduce Roadmap Gypsy Piano and Josaia AH FIDEL ON PIANO vibraphone. I think you Isaiah Garcia on trumpet and Drums Zac Nunez on Bass Melissa Hinman on Vocals Ukulele and Percussion Grace Wilson on trombone. Tom and Hannah Wilson on clarinet. Well thanks guys. Grace also plays drums on the show today here at the museum <hes> we are going to be seeing for the very first time at a fossil that has never been on display before. We're GONNA learn all about it. This is an ice age fossil that was basically an Armadillo the size of a car hard to believe such animals existed but yes Rohan in the youth jazz collaborative. Can you play another one for us sure we're this is an original composition by on around the gypsy. It's called Mitre fantasy children's Sir <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> breath <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> give it up for Rohan McKinsey and the Youth Dad's collaborative the quite delighted to welcome back on the children's hour a longtime friend of the show but also a man who does a lot of heat. He Digs New Mexico like literally paleontologist Gary Morgan Welcome back to the children's hour so glad time in the studio now you get to show all your cool things to people all over here in the end the lobby hair so well Gary Moore when we have a lot of questions for you and the very first question is coming from our friend Evelyn Evelyn. Are you ready for your question. Why is Palin Child. Just we'll paleontologist study fossils but to simply we study ancient life so people study history they studied the history of people and we study the history of life on earth so and we do that through the study of fossils and it could be plants it could be dinosaurs could be our friend that flipped it on the giant armadillo that I'm GonNa talk about any other study of fossils history history of life. What is the difference between a paleontologist and an archaeologist. That's a good one. I get that all the time because not not to be disrespectful that I get it being get accused of being an archaeologist all the time mostly by reporters if we're out in the field and and it's a lot of archaeologists on my best friends are outlets. They study studied history of people culture. Archaeology is what archaeologists will dig up whatever archeological sites look at artifacts and things like that but they all relate to people were looking at as I said again plants and animals so not so you study the history of people the cultural a cultural anthropologists if you study plants animals fossils than your paleontologists. That's the difference okay so I have a question too. I was wondering do you find fossils just about everywhere in New Mexico New Mexico's terrific because we have a very diverse geology literally in the entire history of life. Not Everything is found in the all over the earth but last five hundred million years of time and we have really good fossils almost rocks of almost all those ages are represented in New Mexico so you have to know something about the geology about the rocks to know where to go. Do you WanNa find a dinosaur. You go one place you WanNa find a mammoth third one of these scripted on she goes somewhere else but anyhow. New Mexico is a great place for fossils. How deep are fossils are. How deep underground are fossils well? It really really varies a actually pretty much have to be on the surface for us to find them. We do a lot of what we call surveying. We'll go to an area where we think there are fossils and we walk around on the surfacing. We'll find like we found the bones of this eroding on the surface and then we dig and then sometimes we'll have a court we call chlorine. Sometimes they'll go very deep but for the most apart we tend to find things right on the surface they eroded out of rocks at the surface of the Earth Gary. Can you talk about the you brought out for the visual. Audience and we're certainly posting photos to radio on Instagram facebook and twitter but you brought out this never shown before fossil and it is quite a special guy now that looks like a toy that you're just as I realized through my career as a paleontologist not everybody's he's had comparative Anatomy classes in college so they have trouble going from a bone to what the animal looked like in life so I bought this at our gift shop. I'm not doc plugging the gift shop. I'm just saying that you'd go to any gift shop and a museum around the country and you'll find dinosaurs but only rarely do they have mammals. I study mammals. I'm not a dinosaur paleontology million dollars. You'll talk to Tom Williamson little bit who has a dinosaur paleontologist but any rate this animal was found south of Las cruces and it's actually a new discovery. That's that's an old discovery. I found this thing twenty years ago before. Most of the kids format to all the kids here in this audience were born. I didn't think it was much there was much to it. It looked a little scrap you so we made what we call a plaster jacket we use plaster and Burlap to chase the fossil to preserve it brought it back here and it sat in our Museum Storage Bridge Facility for twenty years until somebody needed a project we'd run out of projects and we have a fossil works lab right here. People volunteers will remove fossils Chirac's just about a month ago. The volunteers started working on this and all of a sudden. It was way way more interesting than I thought it was. It turns out to be the skeleton. Never baby flipped it on this. This is what an adult clipped down would look like if you multiply this by about forty times it would be about six feet long. Maybe three or four feet tall weigh about a tonne baby. No I'm sorry the adult the adult the baby is maybe not a baby sort of juvenile a youngster like a teenager they had a shell that was made out of bones very thick bones and you might wonder why haven't Armand it is an Armadillo I mean I'm just going to say for the listening audience. He's basically quickly showing us. Everybody loved bill but this giant lifted on is a relative of the living everybody's favourite folk critter the armadillo. You'll find that on the road in Texas all the time in Florida where I spent a lot of time. This is an animal. That's it's a mammal. It's originally from South America and the Glickman's sounds originally came from South America and that's a little bit of the story also how they got to New Mexico from South America but any rate these guys have a shell. That's actually made a bones so underneath what you see here which looks like maybe a material like our fingernails. There's bones and in fact he's getting more stuff his tray right now and there's a pattern pattern that pattern has helped tells us that this animal with bones this about an inch thick that formed a shell completely impervious your shell that was used for protecting against predators so these are called lifted on. We're talking to Gary Morgan. He's a paleontologist here. At the New Mexico Museum Ziam of Natural History and science year listening to the IT will be children's hour is produced by the children's hour incorporated a New Mexico Zico nonprofit dedicated to producing high quality kids public radio. You can find out more at children's our dot Org support provided by friends of the Children's fronts our <music> <music> <music> <music> row in the Youth Jazz collaborative. The children's hour we're broadcasting casting from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science here in Albuquerque New Mexico and with us on the show is is Gary Morgan. He is a paleontologist here at the museum and also joining us Dr Tom Williamson he is also a paleontologist kissed. Are you are a paleontologist curator. Something like that was your official title. Oh I'm a curator of paleontology just like every so we're both curator's and your doctor Tom. That's right okay. I'm so excited you're here. Gary just is revealing to us for the very first time a glimpse to don that has has never been shown before and it was discovered twenty years ago but never really explored until a month ago and here it is. It looks like an Armadillo Gary. Tell us about these creatures. When did they live? And where did they live so this one is about two million years old. We found it in a fossil site south of LAS cruces between Las cruces and the Mexican border but the group. I showed up about forty million years ago in South America so they've been around for a long time as I mentioned earlier their relatives types of Armadillos at B._U.. Are Living animal that would be most similar and then about. I'm going to say three million years ago. North America and South America at that time South America was an island incontinent. They became connected at Panama kind of where the Panama Canal is an animal's could go back and forth. It's called an inner change and these giant Lipid ons lumbering along somehow managed to walk all the way from South America to New Mexico and left their bones behind for us to find. Is it important to study paleontology alien technology well to me. It's important just to be able to understand what lived on earth before and a lot of these this glinted on you haven't seen one walking around their extinct so we are specialists in studying studying extinction and this is naturally occurring extinction but as we all know there's too many extinctions of living animals and plants going on today so we hope that maybe by studying the natural extinctions how those occurred maybe we can prevent extinctions of modern animals animals that we don't want to go extinct. We have a question here from an audience member. Yes please. How did you find this fossil in the ground so this was actually as I meant mentioned in my earlier it was right on the surface? That's how we found it. Whether it's a very well known fossil collector in fact his name is Paul Sealey. He's the one that found the best Ibiza and it's named in his honor found owned a couple bones on the surface of the Shell and he showed them to me and I recognize my thought is a baby flippant on for my experience and then we started digging and I made what I described that we used strips of burlap so can plaster to make cast around this thing to bring it back to the museum but really just a couple of little bones on the surface and from that point I used my experience variance to determine the I think looks like something interesting. We should take this back home. Is that what it takes scary to know if something is a fossil or just a boring question very commonly. How do you know this is a fossil at it's it's really just an experience you know where you are in other words? I know that geology so it's a certain certain age there's a certain kind of animal from my experience. I should be looking for so when I'm looking for these. I'm not looking for dinosaurs because the age of the Rock is wrong but the texture the size I used to shape are different from rocks and we do get people to bring in rocks of the identified all the time that they think are fossil so it it happens yes. How do you know how old it ladies well that that's where the geology comes in we study? Tom And I are both taken. Many geology courses at U._N._M.. And other places and you can buy certain air techniques geological techniques one is there's a geochemical technique where you can determine the age what we call the absolute age of volcanic rocks and if we find these volcanic rocks that are near some of our fossils that will tell us that say the dinosaurs are seventy five million years old because of the rocks. You can't really for the most part date the fossils themselves directly so you describe to the listeners at home what did on looked like sure so I had my little model here. His little model looks like a little model but it's funny. A lot of people have described this thing as looking like a tank. You know a giant land tortoise that you'd see zoo there reptiles but this is the mammal answer to the giant land tortoise so it had a big shell big dome Shell. They were as much as six or eight feet long there are three or four feet tall and weighed about a ton so they're very large animals. They're very slow. They had this big thick bony shell as armored armored Shell to protect them from predators because they couldn't escape they were too slow and the other thing is that they were not predators. They were that very tall teeth that indicates that they <unk> a coarse grasses and other things got a lot of grit in their diet so they were herbivores. Not Predators armadillos today the the grandchildren eh they are actually and there are some study that was done just recently. You may have heard of this. They're actually being able to now extract DNA. They called ancient d._n._A.. From fossils from bones primarily Gerald from the Ice Age they did this on clip it on from South America and they're very closely related to Armadillos in fact they nest so to speak within the family you you may know that there's probably ten or fifteen kinds of armadillos and South America not just we have won the night the nine banded armadillo Patagonian South America. They have fifteen kinds of armadillos but within that group Armadillos the lipid aunts fall out according to the ancient DNA Gary Morgan is a paleontologist here at the Natural History Museum. Thank you you for being with us on the children's hour. We're GONNA leave here for folks to look at for a minute and while we're talking to Gary Morgan about this did on it got me thinking about the the biggest I beast and for folks who are not dinosaur lovers like myself Dr Tom Williamson. Can you explain the Bist I beast yes so I'm a paleontologist like Gary but I tend to find fossils. That are quite a bit older so I'm looking at fossils from the late cretaceous. These are are about sixty five to seventy million years old and I collect these mostly up in northwestern New Mexico so back in the late nineteen ninety s <hes> I excavated the Bist I beast and we have a big animatronic. A big robot dinosaur. That's based on the best I beast real name of. It is Big Stock Iverson C._P._I.. So the Sealy I is based is because it was discovered by a volunteer we're here Paul. Sealy Misaki verster is kind of a Latin and Greek and Navajo words for destroyer from the badlands. It's fair to say it at this. animatronic beast is he's starting to come to life which means every thirty minutes he comes to life and you're GonNa hear that on the radio here in just a second <hes> Dr Williams and he really looks like a tyrannosaurus rex like what's the difference for those of us who are not you to know how that that's not a T.. Rex a t Iraq's is the biggest and the very last of the big tyrannosaur dinosaurs bestow he reverser the BIS type East lived about ten million years before forty racks and he's a he's a distant cousin so he's not only older. He lived alongside a bunch of other translators that are all related to transverse rex. He did not give rise to t rex. He's kind of an off branch and he's we say he's more primitive so he doesn't GonNa have a lot of the same features of T. Rex but he resembles T. rex a lot. He's just smaller. Have you found any real large. Fossils news of dinosaurs like the T. rex here in New Mexico. Yes t rex has been discovered in New Mexico. Probably the best specimen comes from of all places elephant butte reservoir so for non new Mexicans. This is a damning of the Rio Grande and SORTA southern New Mexico and it made for a huge you know kind of like a lake mead sort of Lake that people water ski and vote on Oh. My goodness here comes the best I beast you could hear it in the background and would you agree with Gary that even your discoveries are right on the surface or it seems like if you're discovering something hundreds of millions of years old we'd have to pig yeah all our discoveries made kind of the old fashioned way we walk around out in the badlands so we go to places where there's a lot of erosion you find that in in the Badlands New Mexico has lots of badlands and those are the perfect places to find dinosaur bones. I love it and can you talk a little bit. What about did you always love dinosaurs? Are you like one of those kids who loved dinosaurs so much and you thought I have to do this for the rest of my life. Or how did you come about being being a paleontologist. How does someone become a paleontologist? I loved dinosaurs. I'm a You're listening to the children's hour we are broadcasting from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science. Will we're GONNA come back with more educators worse in just a minute. This is Andrew Poly. Hey on the hugh grant to do keep a Saturday trouble up Dan. We can make it through got enough. How many times CBS things there's Aw hey you when the day's news came came Jason shattered between the Ah aw fish ah <music> loudest in Canada in two two three four thirty well aw also lead John blanding you know years ago. Eh Planning now the children will wake up Bob and the flies to get along without me. They'll say it really go it. I wish dinosaur back take on China <music> dinosaur to come back. I wanted to come back sat back down uh-huh the routes in the modern lovers. I'm little dinosaur before that. Tiny dinosaur is interim polly from a release called ear snacks and you're listening to the children's hour. I'm Katie stone and and here with a bunch of kids. We're going to interview next Mike Sanchez. He is a museum educator here at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science and we've got questions for you right off the Bat Mike Sanchez. Are you ready. Wonderful sounds good. Do you think you've found fossil. That's an excellent question. If you find a fossil you never know if it might turn out to be something very very important. What you do is if you find a fossil when you think it might be a backbone and might be a bone or something take a picture of it. Don't move it if you can help it and bring it to the attention of your local goal university or your local museum and let them know what you found interesting story little boy three years old was out in not too far from where we live here in Albuquerque and he found dinosaur eggshells and it turned turned out to be something very very important and so if he hadn't had his eyes on the ground and figured out exactly exactly where those were from. We would never know about those so so find something. Let somebody know all right. It's important the minute. A specimen is taken away from where it was found. It loses loses. Its scientific value and what it's all about. It's all about the science wait. WHY DOES IT LOSE. Its scientific value if you move it from where you found it. That's a great question the layers that they are in tell you something about when the fossil where what comes from age it is all this information if it's moved from that suddenly you lose that very very important information they do all kinds of interesting things with fossils even sometimes in jackets rockets they will not only get a G._P._S. point on it. They'll even put a compass on there and glued into the jacket so they know which way was north when the fossil was deposited posited after it's been found. Why do all those details matter like what direction the fossil was found. Why does that matter well. Every time we study a fossil we learn more and more and more about when the animal died about things that we never even knew kind of really interesting interesting is that somebody might be an asking asking a question twenty years from now that no one even thought about today and if we didn't have that information mation then that's stuff that has gone away. It's basically you lose it. Once you take something out of its context out of where the fossil was found or were was it suddenly it just no longer as you never even know what questions you might be asking one. Ask Twenty years. Here's down the way Mike Sanchez is a museum educator here at the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science in Albuquerque and and telling us what to do if you think you've found a fossil I've just going to ask and you can just answer. My crew can just answer in a big yes or no. Do you think think you've ever found a fossil yeah. My Dad found petrified woods petrified wood. That's pretty cool. I think I found an alien fossil social and alien fossil. That's cool. I think you should you should take a picture of that and to show that in to your museum educators just like Mike Sanchez inches in the background rowing in the Youth Jazz collaborative. You're listening to children's museum in Albuquerque. It will be right <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> give it up a Rohan and the youth jazz is collaborative broadcasting from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and science here in Albuquerque and there are there's an animatronic dinosaur right in front of us the beast and he's he's opening his mouth and closing his eyes and he sure looks alive. He's animatronic yen here around the children's hour we love to feature kids who are talented and that's why we would really love to hear something else from Rohan and the Youth Jazz collaborative and I think they're ready for us. I believe so they're getting in position and there's probably I don't know eight kids up there playing jazz just for us here at the museum and some of these tunes are original written by row and MC Jim Z.. Himself self and others are not but these kids practice a lot and you can tell so whenever you're ready Rohan in the youth jazz collaborative take it away. Staw <music> shy will <music> <music>. I spoke to because she grins. Souso mm-hmm <music>. Yeah <music> G <music> Rohan in the Youth Jazz collaborative. Wow can we give it up for them. We something something wow vocal Melissa fantastic wow. How old are you Melissa. Right now sixteen singing ever since I was in the second grade so yeah what of voice what an incredible voice you are listening to the children's. Are we're GONNA come back to more ruin in the youth jazz collaborative in just a minute and in the meantime. We thought we'd give you a little taste of this. This is Laurie Berkner. This is her classic but she decided to make this as a remix. Tell me what you think and we we we. We are the dinosaurs. Bill Orange Park part. It's time time <music> Saint Louis mm-hmm ed we we the we we aw sores were here and now they're gone. Nobody seen one for alone aw dolls on a sores Taran source rex. Isn't it interesting how the world has changed a source plants and some eight meet worms roots things that we don't <music> them imprisoning how the world is <music>. They do great very his tail award. Despite soliver his enemies will tell you <music> knows when he sees the animals mm-hmm sixty thousand dollars that this look like the <music> everyone hit the decks when they saw a rent a source left to his life always waiting for always always ready for a day or night sights so don't worry you'll never see them unless you go with your mom and dad to the museum 'cause dinosaurs with some lace. No one is sure nobody Birdie and find them. Many just their insurance <music> interesting how the world interesting how the World Enchaine <music> interesting how the world <music> <hes> that in the days of the dinosaurs when Durant Soroush rex was king and there were plans and insects to some of them had wings though the dragonfly was much bigger were then his wings were two feet across and the helped him stay well out of the way of Tirana service wrecks. The boss us back in the days deserve the dinosaurs Wednesday Zora sparked the round. They were big bugs buzzing up in the air. Bugs is on the ground though the cockroach men on appeal to you survival was his game and if you see I want to say that he looks just about the same it back in the days of Tinus owes two hundred million years ago and there were insects. We don't have now. Are you wondering how we know. Some of them were left behind behind pieces of them for us to five bosses. Tell the story to of the insects. The Earth wants new you back in the days of the dinosaurs when Theron source cracks was king. There were plants and insects to some of them. I'm good saying well. The cricket had lots to sing about. That's become very clear though the Dan he is still here <music>. Oh and some of them were behind pieces of us to fossils. Tell the story to you the insects the earth wants new <music> <music> <music>. You're listening to the children's hour in the background Rohan in the Youth Jazz collaborative many thanks to the New Mexico Museum of Natural History Rian Science in Albuquerque for hosting our show today special thanks to the museum educators deb Novak and Michael Sanchez Sanchez Paleontology creators Gary Mergen and Dr. Tom Williams the children's hour our is written and produced by Katie Stone with help from all of us kids on the crew. All of us on the kids crew and dress mm-hmm. Martinez provided are alive engineering and Jerry did Totta ran up Randa Board back at K._U.. And now we'll be back next week with another another edition of we're we're going to hear another one many many many things to Rohan and the Youth Jazz collaborative give it up for them. I hope you guys will play A._S.. Another one they're coming on with their last song. Thank you so much for being with us. Thank you to our live audience. You guys are awesome and we'll catch you next week. For another edition of the Children's Children's hour <music> <music> <music> <music> yeah <music> <music> <music> <music> <music> the <music>. The children's hour is produced by the children's Hour Incorporated a New Mexico nonprofit dedicated to producing high high quality kids public radio support provided by the friends of the children's hour find out more at children's our dot Org there you can also find and our podcasts photos from the shows and our newsletter sign up meow. Wolf is a proud supporter of the children's hour meow. Wolf believes that engaging educational content is one of the best ways to fuel a child's imagination and that's truly a powerful thing y'all wolf dot COM com support also provided by the Albuquerque Community Foundations Infinite Gesture Fund our theme Music was written by C K Barlow Arlo. We'll be back next week with another addition of our kids.
03: Is Betelgeuse About to Blow?
"This is space time series. twenty-three episode three for broadcast on the eighth of January. Twenty two thousand nine hundred coming up on space. Time is the red supergiant bengals about to blow discovery of the earliest known. Examples of capitalism and China launches its most powerful rocket. Ever Oletta. Let an all coming up on space time. Welcome to space time. We'd Stewart Gary Breath. The Red supergiant battle is steaming. Rapidly and astronomers don't know why strange activity is causing growing speculation and the astronomical community that battle girls may be about to blow and again probably not that'll goes is a semi regular variable star. Aw located some six hundred and forty three light years away in the Constellation Orion. The hunter which this time of the year is located in the northeastern sky calculations ends of its mass range from slightly under ten to a little bit more than twenty times. The mass of Our sun and it has some one hundred thousand times. The Sun's luminosity in in fact is so huge were located with the sun is at the center of our solar system. Its surface would extend that almost as far as Jupiter engulfing the orbits of Mercury rebe Venus Earth Mars and the asteroid belt. Bill has always been one of the largest and most luminous stars visible with the unaided eye. That's all recently. It was the ninth brightest star in the night sky and the brightest star in Iran representing the Scorpion. Sting on a Ryan shoulder armpit. But it's only about half as bright now is what that was five months ago and is in fact the faintest that spin in the century. That means it's dropped from nine down to just the twenty-first brightest star in the night sky bettle goes is thought to have a complex and tumultuous service that frequently throws that impressive still as astronomers have been watching bill goes brighten and dim over and over again for more than a century team is normal for semi regular variable stars. Like biddle goes but it's the rate of dimming during this latest episode which he so unusually rapid rapid based on bill goes past dipping and brightening patterns it pays the cycle in brightness through to cook herring patents as short period cycle lasting four hundred twenty eighty five days and a longer cycle lasting six years. Now as these two separate patents superimposed upon each other they occasionally sync up. And that's exactly what's Tatton right now and that could explain the rapid deeming now. If that holds true in battle girls were richards faintest in the next few weeks and then start to brighten the game. The big question on everyone's mind however is whether it's about to explode as co collapsed type two supernovae and then idea isn't all that far fetched say pedal goes began. Its life as a blue giant about ten million years ago. Astronomers Think Stars of beggars mass usually live for somewhere around eight to nine million years. They burn through their nuclear fuel really quickly compared to yellow star like our sun which will live for maybe ten or twelve billion years. So it'll goes is ten million years old and stars like bill goes usually live for about eight or nine million years on average then it could very well go shipping over any day. Now of course coursing astronaut Michael terms any day. Now could mean tomorrow or could mean in a million years time when it does explode it'll temporarily outshine only at the stars in the Galaxy easily easily outshining the moon and it will be clearly visible in the daytime sky from Earth. The last Seen by humans to go Supernova now galaxy was tyco style back in fifteen seventy two and that was before the invention of the telescope and before we go we bit clear up the name. It's county referred to by journalists as beggars which which is being commonly corrupted beetlejuice than say three times. Both names are actually tortured mispronunciations of its original Arabic name. Meaning the hand the big man the big man of course being Ryan the hunter. There's a lot astronomers still don't know about. The behavior of variable giants like bell goes so any strange activity. Seventy such as what's happening now provides the chance to learn more about the lives of these truly massive stars. Needless to say we'll be keeping a close eye on to. You're listening to space. Time still come discovery of the earliest known example of cannibalism. We discover how well you really know our place in the Milky Way Galaxy and China launches. Its most powerful rocket yet. All that and more coming up on space time breath astronomers have discovered the earliest known example of Galactic Cannibalism and observation dating back some thirteen billion years. The findings reported on the papers. Physics Archive Dot. Org provides another piece in the puzzle of Galactic Evolution. GALAXIES LEXI's growth through merging with or consuming the galaxies stellar streams in our galaxy the Milky Way to how galaxy has grown to its present size through exactly exactly the same process. And even today. The Milky Way's busy cannibalizing. At least three other small satellite Dwarf Galaxies the Sagittarius Dwarf which is on the Assad the galaxy from where we are and the lodge and small Mitchell any clouds Beth which can be seen in the southern hemisphere night skies and in another three point seven billion years from now the Milky Way itself would be cannibalized by an even bigger galaxy M thirty one in andromeda astronomers are pretty certain that galactic mergers must have been occurring right throughout the entire evolution of the universe. But exactly. When did it all begin? It's logical Lewis would be very early cosmos at two in the universe was more compact packed and things were all a lot closer together each other exactly. When now astronomers using Alma the Atacama Lodge millimeter submillimeter array telescope in Chile Bella have observed spectral signatures of oxygen carbon dust from a galaxy? cataloged be fourteen minus sixty five six six six located some thirteen billion in light years away in the direction of the Constellation sextans. This is now the earliest galaxy with this useful combination of three signals has been detected by comparing comparing the different signals. The authors determined that the galaxies actually two galaxies merging together making it the earliest example of merging galaxies evidence covered. The study's easily author to Korea has immortal from Sadah University says because the finite speed of light the signals received from fourteen today by Alma have travelled for more than thirteen a billion years to reach us. Now that means they showing what the galaxy would have looked like thirteen billion years ago. Just eight hundred million is after the Big Bang. The data later analysis showed that the emissions divided into two separate blobs now previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope revealed to stock lost is in B fourteen gene but now with the three emission signals detected by Alma Hashimoto and colleagues. Were able to show that the two blobs doing fact form a single system but importantly they moving moving at different speeds and that means the two blobs are in fact two separate galaxies in the process of merging and that's what makes this the earliest known example of merging galaxies. He's the authors estimate. The turtles still a massive bay. Fourteen probably less than ten percent that of the Milky Way and this means that must be one of the earliest phases of its evolution may fourteenth producing stars one hundred times more actively than the Milky Way and such active staff formation is another important signature of galactic mergers. Let's because gas in these galaxies being compressed by the collision that's triggering starburst formation of lots of stars has she met her says the combined data data's armor and hobble together with advanced data analysis allowed astronomers to put the pieces together to show that be. Fourteen is a pair of merging galaxies in the earliest era. The universe merges are essential for galaxy evolution so astronomers are eager to trace back. The history of collecting manages the authors are now turning the research to the hunt for nitrogen and cabin monoxide to other total chemical signatures saying in galactic merger. Events will keep you informed. Ulises listen the space time. Still to come China launches its most powerful rocket ever and later in the science report. Scientists think. They've worked out. Why Wells can get so unbelievably huge all that and more still to come on space time? Okay so we all know that we live in a small terrestrial planet orbiting a Yellow Dwarf Star in the Milky Way Galaxy. But what do you really know about the Milky Way Galaxy Aleksey and our place in it. He's what most people don't know how Milky Way Galaxy's what astronomers referred to as a bad spiral it contains an estimated one point point five trillion solar masses. It has an overall diameter of around two hundred and fifty eight thousand light years on average. It's approximately a thousand light is fake. I contains an estimated made one hundred to four hundred billion stars. Ten billion why tools a billion neutron stars and a hundred million black holes. The solar system is located head at a radius of about twenty seven thousand light years out from the Galactic Center on the edge of the Orion. Ah One of the many power shed concentrations of gas and dust which characterize a spiral galaxy. The Sun orbits around the Galactic Center approximately every two hundred and forty million years the stars in the innermost ten thousand light years from the Galactic Center former bulge and one or more Baz that radiate out from the bulge. The Galactic Centre contains an intense radio source known as secretaries a a star which is assumed to be should massive black hole with about four point three million solar masses. The Milky Way's galactic plane is inclined by about sixty degrees to to the ecliptic. That's the plane of Earth orbit around the Sun. The Milky Way consists of bash eight core region surrounded by a woke disc of Gas Dustin. STAS house now. The disk of stars in the Milky Way doesn't have a shop edge beyond which the Rana stars instead it's simply a case of the concentration of STA's ask decreasing with distance from the center of the galaxy for reasons not yet fully understood the number of stars per cubic pasic drops much faster with radius yes the underrate. He's a roughly forty thousand light years from the Galactic Center. Interestingly statin gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center all of it at roughly two hundred and twenty kilometers per second. Now that's interesting. Because such a constant rotational speed regardless of radio contradicts the laws of Kepler in dynamics and suggests that around ninety percent of the mass of the Milky Way must be invisible to telescopes neither admitting nor absorbing electromagnetic radiation and that suggests that most of the Milky Way is is composed of dark matter that mysterious substance which interact only gravitationally normal bariatric matter. The stuff that stars planets houses trees dogs WCHS cats and people are made of surrounding the flat. Galactic of the galaxy is a spherical Galactic Halo Stars in Globular Clusters which extends much further Atwood's but he's limited in size by the orbits of two of the Milky Way Satellite Wolf Galaxies. The largest clouds closest approach to the Galactic Center is about one hundred and eighty fastened. Light is the oldest stars in the Milky Way a population to stars more than thirteen billion years. Old It's nearly as old as the universe itself love and thus probably formed shortly after the Dark Ages of the Big Bang the Milky Way galaxies moving through the universe with a velocity of approximately six hundred kilometers the second with respect to extra galactic frames of reference. And it's not alone. The Milky Way has around fifty satellite galaxies. And it's the second largest galaxy canal local galactic group the largest member of which is the M thirty one galaxy andromeda this local group of galaxies of which the Milky Way is just one small part pot forms part of the virgo super cluster which itself is a component of the logic linear chaos superclubs. Sta Almost all the stars you see when you look up into the night sky. Allocate it within the Milky Way's Orion on the Orion arm or Orion spur or even a Ryan Cigna Sam depending on which name you prefer. It's about ten thousand. Light is long and some thirty five hundred light years wide. It's named the Orion After the Ryan Constellation which is one of the most prominent constellations in the Southern Hemisphere summer and Northern Hemisphere winter. Not Sky's the arena is located between the Korean cemetery Assam which is more towards the Galactic Center from we're Wailua and the perseus arm which is more towards the average of the galaxy from our point of view the Percy's arm is also one of the two dominant arms of the Milky Way. Yeah that being the sect sent Torres on the Iran was long thought to be simply a mine extractive spur between the two longer adjacent arms perseus and create a such a terriers but evidence units was presented in two thousand eight hundred chain that the Arana might will be a branch of the Perseus Or possibly even an independent I'm segment itself L.. Solar Ola system including the earth is located about halfway along. The Orion I'm close to the interim in what's known as the local bubble local bubbles a cavity in the interstellar medium and within the Orion on containing other things the local interstellar cloud which contains al solar system and the G. Cloud. It's at least three hundred light years across and has a neutral hydrogen density of zero point zero five atoms picky accent him later and that's just one tenth of the average density for the interstellar medium within the Milky Way away and about a six that of the local interstellar cloud the hot diffuse gas in the local bubble emits x rays and is the result of a supernova that exploded within the last ten to twenty million million years was once the most likely candidate for the remains of this Supernova was Demingo a pulsar in the constellation Gemini. More recently however it's been suggested just the multiple Supernova in a subgroup known as be one of the players moving group. We're more likely responsible becoming remnant super. Shell our solar system has been in traveling through this local bubble for the last five to ten million years. Its current location is in the local interstellar cloud a minor region of dense material within the bubble this cloud formed with the local bubble and another bubble called the loop. One bubble mate gas within the local interstellar cloud as a density of approximately zero point. Three atoms spit cubic centimeter. The local bubble isn't spherical but seems to be narrow and the galactic plane becoming somewhat egg shaped or elliptical and may widen above and below the neglected to become more like an hourglass shape and it abuts other bubbles of list dancing to sell a medium including the one bubble by the way the loop one bubble was created by Supernova instill a wins from Scorpius in Tourist Association. Some five hundred light years away. And it's easy to spot the loop one bubble because it contains the star Antares. He's the antithesis of minds. There are several tunnels collectively known as the lupus tunnel which appear to connect the cavs the local bubble and the one bubble how the bubbles pitcher adjacent to the local bubble of to bubble and the three bubble. That would've showing us. Is that our region of the universe is far from empty. The Milky Way is there's a special feature in Australian sky and Telescope magazine joins us now with the House is the magazine's editor. Jonathan Alley is actually a pretty big galaxy galaxy. Alex Got Right now university. It's it's one of the giants from end to end From side to side at Galaxy Spans will ever one hundred thousand light years. Most of us off saying say one hundred twenty thousand light years wide some say a hundred and fifty thousand light years wide some say even a bigger so it's a really big galaxy. It depends whether or not you include the halo as well but I take it. You're talking about the extent of stars that we could highlight. You can probably say two hundred thousand light years wide or something like that and in fact so huge galaxy galaxy that all the stars in that galaxy so far away that you can't see them with the naked eye the ones you can see with the naked eye out there in the night sky pretty much all of them within I've seen just the local spiral I'm in which the our our solar system and the Orion Spurs yeah the Iran one but The Ryan I'm you can call it a must astronomy just calling for local. Yes that's the one. We live in the very imaginative. Sometimes within the Milky Way we think has four main spiral arms also the winding Out from the central regions of the galaxy. Some people say it's just not really the right thing You know those gardens. Sprinklers that have got four spouse spin around and as you spend around around the water sort of swells it's a bit like that but much much slower recourse and if you to get a bow galaxy and Bob the sort of northern part of that galaxy look down you could see the Milky Way just slowly spinning clockwise. If he gets very very long time looking at I think it takes about two hundred million years into Do One fool spin so It's a it's a big slow majestic twisting spiral galaxy out yet whether it's as big as an drama our biggest nearby neither and drama shoe most estimates say it's much larger than the Milky Way but lately there's been a lot of debate as to whether or not there is much of a mass difference difference between the two. I know for a long time. People have said the German is much much bigger and yes the same sort of thing that maybe the size difference needs to be adjusted a bit but my feeling is from what what I read that they still think that Andromeda. Yeah I will will answer that question about three point seven billion years from now when the two come together just count why. That's Jonathan. Nellie the the editor of Australian sky and Telescope magazine and this is space time. I'm Stewart Gary. The United Launch Alliance says it's new Vulcan. Central rocket is on track to have its maiden flight next year. The first completed launcher is expected affected be moved from the company's Alabama production line to Cape Canaveral for process preparation later this year. The United Launch Alliance was created as a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin in two thousand and six by this time Lockheed Martin had already phased out its famous titan launch vehicle inherited years earlier live from Martin in favor of Lockheed's own Atlas Lewin system which is brought into the new United Launch Alliance joint venture may while the other half of the alliance Boeing brought. It's don't alone system into the new partnership and the two separate loan systems have been running parallel ever since the new fifty nine minute. Toll Vulcan Central. Oh is designed to replace both the Atlas and Delta with a new single rocket loan system the Vulcan first-stage will share the five point four meter diameter of the Delta search for common core booster but it will use blue origin new be four engines burning liquid methane and liquid oxygen propellant instead of the Delta Force liquid hydrogen on liquid oxygen engines. The Vulcan co-stage can be fitted with up to six strap on solid rocket boosters allowing lift up to almost thirty five tonnes into low-earth orbit and more than seven tons in a stationary orbit vulcans OPPA stage will use an upgraded variant of the Common Central Central Three booster which is currently used on the atlas US five Vulcan Willan the gate human rating certification. That will allow to carry both Boeing C one hundred stylone which is currently being launched on Abbas fives and the News Sierra Nevada dream chaser spacecraft as well the Vulcan central is maiden flight each slated for July twenty twenty one from space launch complex forty one at Cape it can never carrying the Paraguayan lender on a mission to the lunar surface. China has carried out a successful launch of its most powerful rocket. The Long March five the fifty seven meter tall launch vehicle blasted off from the wind. Chang Satellite Loan Center in the southern Chinese island of an carrying the new Shangzhang. Twenty experimental high throughput telecommunications satellite. It's only the third time Beijing has flown the Long March five. Its last flight in two thousand seventeen ended with a multi-million dollar mid launch failure and the destruction of both the launcher and Shenzhen Eighteenth. Satellite Satellite Payload and that led to the granting the Long March five two years law match five is designed to carry payloads of the twenty five tonnes into low-earth orbit annually nearly fourteen tonnes energy station transfer Ovitz the rockets co-stage uses to liquid hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen Y of seventy seven million engines. which bird for nearly eight eight minutes and four liquid fuelled kerosene and oxygen strep on twin? Engined boosters the failure of the previous mission was traced back to the design of the why of seventy seven main engines and that design has not been modified the Long March fives up a stage uses liquid hydrogen and Liquid Oxygen Wife. Seventy Five D main engines to carry the payload the rest of the way to orbit as for that payload the Shashank Twenty well. It's the first spacecraft based on Beijing's new h five telecommunications satellite platform home and it will replace Shang. At which was lost during the last long match five launch attempt China had successfully launched. Its First Long March five Becky EH. Twenty sixteen official Chinese News Agency claims this successful fight will pave the way for the Long March five to be used on future K. missions including clued launching China's first Mars probe flying the twenty five lunar probe and launching a core module for Beijing's New Space Station in twenty twenty two Beijing aging is investing billions of dollars into its space program. In fact it's now spending more on space than Russia and Japan combined in two thousand and three it became came under the third nation after the Soviet Union in the United States to put a human into orbit and exactly a year ago January twenty nineteen China became the first nation. Asian demand a probe on the far side of the moon. anti-matter take a brief look at some the other stories making us inside this week. Science report processions of found that the impact of losing intact tropical rainforest is far more devastating on climate than previously thought. The study by the University of Queensland has revealed that the clearance of intact tropical rainforest between two thousand and two thousand thirteen as a result in the much higher level of carbon being emitted in the atmosphere. Then I believed the data reported in the Journal. Science advances has shown that it's resulted in a six hundred twenty eighty six percent increase in the calculated impact on climate. An e study has found that the emissions of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide from rivers listen. Streams has been increasing dramatically since the nineteen hundreds largely. Thanks to the use of nitrogen based fertilizers. In agriculture. A report in the journal Nature Climate Change Inches found that small rivers were the main contributors to global nitrous oxide emissions from rivers and streams tropical regions areas with intensively cultivated crop lands such such as the central United States Europe India Southeast Asia and East China with the major sources of revenue nitrous oxide emissions on the plus side these emissions have declined client since the early two thousands about the authors will and this is largely Judah plant growth being boosted to higher levels by another greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Aw and you study is warned that aiding more ultra processed foods such as cakes. Ready meals sweetened breakfast cereals. Burgers and hotdogs has being linked to an increased risk of developing type two diabetes. The findings reported in the Journal of the American Medical Association looked at over one hundred thousand people. Researchers found that those with a high proportion of ultra processed foods and there died were also at higher risk of type two diabetes scientists think they finally cracked. Why are so unbelievably huge? It turns out like most other animals think again. Size of Wales is determined by the balance between between the energy that can get from their foods and the energy they need to expend in order to get food. It's just that wells are able to gobble up so much. More than other animals such as tagged and attract hundreds of whales and found that tooth wells at limited in size by how much they ate during one. dixie dive while toothless wells are limited. Only by how much cruel that can engulf rather than prey availability. You can read the findings in full in the Journal. Science Kiala Gist of discovered two Bronze Age tombs tombs containing a trove of ancient engraved jewellery and artifacts that promise to unlock secrets. About ancient life and grace the two behind shaped tombs it uncovered in the file US reign of grace during excavations the tomb of the Griffin Warriors. Camilla later buried with weapons jewelry archaeologists from the university Kosinski natty. Who made the discovery say that just like the Griffin Oire is to nearly found? Tombs also contain a wealth of cultural artifacts and delicate jewelry that could help anthropologists justin historians fill the gaps in science's knowledge of early Greek civilization the Griffin Warrior was so named for the mythological creature the Griffin Patti go pat line which is engraved on an ivory plaque. And he's too which also contain armor weaponry and gold jewelry. And that's the show for now. You can subscribe download unload space. Time is a free twice. Weekly podcast through apple podcasts. STITCHER BITES DOT COM Puckett cast soundcloud YouTube audio boom trunk space facetime with Stewart Gary Dot com or from your favorite podcast download provider. If you want more space time check out our blog where you'll find all the stuff we couldn't fit in the show as well as loads of images news stories videos and things on the web that I find interesting or amusing. Just go to space time with Stewart Gary Dot Tamil Dot Com. That's all one word in lower case. Yes and that's Tumbler. Without the also follow us through at Stewart Gary on twitter at Space Time with Stewart Gary on instagram on facebook just go to www dot. facebook spoke dot com slash space time with Stewart Gary and you can also find us on the space time with Stewart Gary. Youtube General space-time is brought to in collaboration with Australian sky and Telescope magazine. Your window on the universe. You've been listening to space time with Stewart. Gary this has been another quality. PODCAST PRODUCTION FROM BITES DOT com.
Ep. 114: Sci-fi Inspiration, Tarpon, and Trail Cams
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There's very few things that can make it into my rotation. But i recently got stuff from free fly which is like an outdoor fishing brand. I got a set of breeze pants. Which i can confidently tell. You is the only pant. I wear named after the wind. Also got a bamboo hooded shirt. That's great for sun protection and it is comfortable and doesn't stink. You can get twenty percents off when you visit free fly apparel dot com forward slash c. l. again that's f. r. e. f. l. y. a. p. p. a. r. e. l. dot com slash cal from mediators world. News headquarters in bozeman montana. This cows weaken review presented by steel. Steel products are available. Only at authorized dealers for more go to steal dealers dot com. Now here's your host ride ken. How kellyanne russian scientists from the soil chronology laboratory at the push tino center for biological research recently pulled an animal out of the siberian permafrost. That was still alive after twenty. Four thousand years for those of you not in the know soil. Chronology is the study of very cold dirt and permafrost is any patch of ground that stays completely frozen for more than two years straight. So siberia is a good place to study subzero soil. And the things that come out of it when it starts to thaw now before you get excited about a blind woolly mammoth staggering around like han solo. After being thought out of carbonate what came out of the permafrost was a much much smaller animal. The deloyed wrote a for road. Offers are microscopic filter. Feeders that you can find an almost every body of water on earth from the pacific ocean down to your backyard bird bath. This particular species is the deloyed. Wrote a for your only hearing me say deloyed but that name is spelled b. d. e. l. l. o. Id from the ancient. Greek word for leach. Which is what these guys are shaped lake. Or i should say what these gals are shaped like. There are actually no males of the species. Deloyed wrote a first reproduce through parthenogenesis which means that each individual female gives birth to a female offspring without being fertilized by another road of for as sexual reproduction. Like this has its evolutionary advantages. You don't have to go to the trouble of finding a mate but it leads to a lack of genetic diversity that makes it very difficult for an animal to adapt to new threats. So species that evolved into parthenogenesis often go extinct before very long but deloyed wrote offers have been around for at least forty million years and have at least four hundred and fifty distinct subspecies which means they have been able to adapt to every kind of environment you can think of. Scientists think this is partially because deloyed road. I have developed something called horizontal gene transfer. Which is the ability to incorporate the genetic material of the other life forms. You consume. Let me pause here to emphasize how fricking cool this is. Scientists have analyzed the dna of road defers and determined that at least ten percent of their genes come from the bacteria algae and plants that they eat this. Genetic diversity allows them to adapt when something in their environment changes that could have potentially wiped them out brings new meaning to. You are what you eat. Read this would be like you and me. Eating salmon and our kids developing gills. Then the neighborhood floods and those kids being able to breathe underwater. Live while those that don't have gills. You know you get. The genetic wizardry is also how individual rhoda. I like our friend from the siberian permafrost can survive so well after almost twenty five millennia. If you drive a road for out completely or freeze her solid or shoot ionizing radiation at her her cells will suffer a certain amount of damage and for most animals that would be the end but in a process. Scientists don't fully understand wrote a further able to repair their damage. Even down to the level of individual strands of dna that have been broken apart by radio-activity so when the russian road for was warmed up in the lab and giving some calories and fresh water she perked right back up and even gave birth to several more road offers and found the story. Amazing which is why. I wanted to share it with you and possibly exposing as a source of inspiration for all of those marvel comic book and sci fi writers out there this week we've got tarpon wild horses and trail cameras. But i i'm going to tell you about my week. And this week. I am back to looking like an absolute jackass on the front of flats boat looking for tarpon. I say i look like jackass. Because it dawned on me that to get good at tarpon fishing it requires a lot of time on the water and essentially just show up and hope the stars align. I'll catch one more out of luck than skill. Tarp and i have talked about many times. They're an incredibly cool fish. Species much celebrated and oddly much-maligned tarpon inhabit both coasts of the atlantic the even swim through the panama canal and enjoy a small portion of the pacific tarpon or a living fossil having swum almost unchanged for some eighteen million years. They're obligate air breeders meaning they have to occasionally sip air from the surface. They have a highly vascular swim bladder which can absorb oxygen from the air at holds. This is in fact. The primary survival strategy of the baby tarpon that end up in very warm stagnant coastal waters. They can survive there amongst the swamp and mangrove in waters depleted of oxygen. Where many of their potential predators cannot right. Now folks pay a lot of attention to this fish for. It's incredibly fun recreational fighting ability. They call it the silver king they form lives and businesses around chasing them understanding them and catching and releasing them. Tarpon were in. Us waters and are still uncertain. Other areas of the world thought of as a fish that occupied too much biomass. They're big and they're tough to eat and they eat a lot of other fish that people like to so wouldn't be good to clear that biomass out and replace it with something easier for folks to eat and easier for folks to land and easier for folks to put in a net so through gill netting even dynamite and poison in some areas. These fish were rounded up and used as fertilizer their scales use for jewelry or nail files or guitar picks and there was an attempt to get them out of the way so other fish could be brought in. The tarpon is currently listed internationally as threatened by the international union for the conservation of nature. One of the things that has landed tarpon in a safe place is the fact that the recreational tarpon fishery here in the us is worth roughly six billion dollars dubbed again the silver king. They are charismatic. They're incredibly strong full of energy. High endurance their big jumpers. They're very photogenic. These fish are sought after and they put on a show for flying lawyers. They'll eat smallish flies and they happened to look up towards the surface. Making fly presentations pretty darned effective. These are bucket list type creatures for folks with a hankering to travel with their fly. Polls and fisher out. Never mind the fact that the incredibly hard to catch elusive and picky fish. You just chased all day. Is the exact same fish that has congregated at certain marinas and doc lights to eat just about any food scraps or virtually any old bait tossed off the sides of the commercial fishing boats within easier each of any interested child the largest recorded terrapin was over eight feet long and three hundred and fifty five pounds. The world record all tackle tarpon is a two hundred eighty. Six pound nine ounce fish caught on eighty pound line out of guinea-bisseau and the fly line world record is a two hundred and two pound. Eight ounce tarpon caught on twenty pound line they get big in fact a potential new all tackle world record out of columbia of three hundred twelve pounds. Just hit the social media feed this week. This particular trip. I am on. The weather has been crap but i broke off a really big tarp on a bad hook the first day my friend. Brian landed a fish in the seventyish pound range. He hooked fought and landed and released that fish and under ten minutes the next day more frustrating conditions. But we eventually got her gap in the weather and we were able to find fish. I hooked up first and broke one off. He wore through the heavy bite. Tippet which was a bummer. In a way but also in a way it was a good thing. I was a little sloppy. Didn't exactly have myself dial. I couldn't quite get into play all the advice i'd been given. That fish broke off somewhere around the eighteen or nineteen minute. Mark should have been boat side before them after that. Brian jumped up and hooked to fish. In short order he got a couple of great jumps out of it right next to the boat sun shining water all exploding around it. It was beautiful but a loop of his flying line. Caught on the handle. The real and leader snapped all over in maybe twenty seconds after that we retied found more fish this time the sun was out and we could see the tarpon coming from a long way away. I finally made a nice cast. I had plenty of time. I put the fly in front but not too far and slowly moved it ahead of his nose. There's a big eat attorney and jerk of the line with my slack hand i buried the hook and the fish's mouth. He made a couple of big long runs. I applied heavy drag. We chased him with the boat. In very short order sub ten minutes we had another tarpon next to the boat. This felt great. Not just because. I landed the fish but more so i am rookie in. It is really fun to put the skills being thrown at you by experienced anglers to work learning fun you know. Even though this type of sport fishing is catch and release versus catch and kill. There's always a chance at the act of fighting and exhausting fish in order to get it to the boat will be enough to kill it and dead is dead. Even if you don't see it happen catch and release. Mortality is a thing in anglers. Need to do what they can to mitigate it if you are in low oxygen water and the fight goes too long. If you feel like you're messing it up you can always choose. Just snap the line and proceed on with your day. Sometimes that means being rigged up for this having a stretch of lighter mono in between the thick bite mono that connects the fly to the leader in trout waters. Unless you're strictly fishing to keep fish don't fish for trout and water temps over sixty seven degrees which are typically low. Oxygen waters a stressful environment for those fish that sixty seven degree mark is a temperature range. Where already getting into in some waters back in my home state of montana. It is always a good idea to not bring a fish in the boat or over the boat. If you intend to release it if they land on or in the boat they can quickly beat themselves up beyond reasonable recovery before you can get them under control enough to get them back in the water handle a fish with your hands as little as possible that fish slime is there to protect them. A recent study titled migrations and movements of atlantic tarpon revealed by two decades of satellite tagging was published in the january twenty twenty issue of the journal fish and fisheries. This study is based on an eighteen year. Data set following three hundred. Adult tarpon outfitted with gps tags. According to this study atlantic tarpon are now threatened throughout their range by recreational fishing release mortality directed commercial harvests intensive harvesting of key prey species and habitat degradation. Which is extremely interesting that catch and release mortality made the list of threats amongst commercial harvest habitat loss and loss of the food species. That turpin eat. I have some thoughts as to why and they revolve around the fact that the three hundred tagged fish came out of almost strictly recreational fisheries. The fish i landed fast. I did choose to handle. I got out of the boat. My guide and friend. Euro brewer had the tarpon by the lip. I grabbed his tail. We quickly lifted him mostly from the water for a photo go outside deep and then released him it was in all maybe a three second maneuver. You never know what will happen when you release a fish. They go off into the ocean or river or lake. And who knows what happens. You just have to use your best judgment in this case. I am very confident that this fish had lots of fight left and was as fine as the previous fish we released from the boat. But what was the point. A picture a lasting memory. Yes of course but the side benefit was. I really got to feel how heavy thick and powerful this fish was. I got to realize the potential of how powerful this fish could be in the future by grabbing its tail. Mostly getting my hand around it and feeling it's heft. I appreciate the tarp and more a lot more. If i'm being honest do. I need to get in the water with one. Every time provided there is another time. No i'd rather get back in action and try to get another tarp to eat but if there isn't another time in my future i'll be glad i held that fish for it has increased my understanding of the fish. You know. I spent a ton of time outside in the sun and with the irish lineage. It's not that good for me. So recently i've checked out gear from free fly which is like an outdoor fishing brand. They make ridiculously comfortable performance clothing out of buttery soft bamboo. Recently i tried their brees. Pant and a bamboo hooded shirt with a little pocket on the front. If you're ever on the river or the trail or lounging around outside this stuff is super comfortable. And i recommend it it's got ups protection wicks away moisture and it doesn't stink. You can get twenty percents off when you visit. Free fly apparel dot com forward slash cal. Again that's f. R. e. f. l. y. a. p. p. a. r. e. l. dot com slash cal. We're proud to welcome and introduce a new show sponsor chevy silverado and the strongest most advanced silverado. Ever we all know a chevy guy. This community of diehard silverado fans and hunting and fishing just continues to grow. The chevy silverado was designed engineered and built to thrive in the great outdoors for the ultimate off road adventure. The chevy silverado trail boss is ready to off road right from the factory with the inch. Factory lift automatic locking rear differential rancho shocks dual exhaust and goodyear wrangler dir attrac- tires goto chevy dot com that c. h. e. y. Dot com or your local chevy dealer. And see for yourself. What happens when legendary. Dependability meets modern capability the chevy silverado. The strongest most advanced silverado. Ever moving on to the wild horses desk remember that stone saw horse anyway. The nonprofit group friends of animals recently filed suit against the bureau of land management over the blm's feral horse adoption program. The federal government currently houses almost fifty thousand feral horses on the tax payers dime in a quote humane attempt to manage this population. The blm developed a program. Offering one thousand dollars to anyone willing to take one of these horses home. You won't be surprised to hear that animal rights groups have a boner to depict with the program side note. My uncle mike walton went over two miles city montana home the cowboys and home of the annual bucking horse sale and where he cashed in on this thousand bucks by buying a feral mayor who was pregnant or bread and those two have lived on his dime well beyond the thousand dollar payment. He received for over twenty years. If you own horses you know what i'm talking about. They're expensive to those two wild horses bianca and bernard i say if you're listening you won the horsey lottery anyway. You're hearing me. Say feral horse instead of wild horse because none of the animals in question are actually native to the us. The horse did in fact originate in north america in the species spread west across the bering land bridge in into eurasia but the original north american population went extinct at the end of the pleistocene about eleven thousand years ago horses didn't reappear in north america until europeans introduced them here which is a cool around the globe migration but it still makes modern day non domesticated horses in the us quote feral. And you could say invasive. Because non domesticated horses are absolutely punishing the habitat in which they roam and reproduce since the nineteen seventies populations have steadily grown and in many places. Their numbers are way way over the carrying capacity of the land for example one especially famous heard in the onacki mountains of utah. You can beat me up on that right into a k. C. a. l. That's ask how the meat eater dot com or own aci mountains anyway. That mountain range has an appropriate management level of at most two hundred and ten animals but the owner k. Heard is now at least double that size statewide nevada. The appropriate management level is twelve thousand eight hundred animals but the current population is estimated to be more than thirty four thousand. You can predict what happens next. Native vegetation gets eaten to the ground and has no chance to regrow native animals have less and less to eat and even the horse population itself begins to starve with all the edible vegetation gone non-native inedible plants like cheek grass have no competition and spread like crazy once cheat grass gets established. It leads to more frequent brushfires which further damages native shrubs and allows even more cheat grass spread. We could talk about the soil effects for days. All this means that the goes to great lengths to control feral horse numbers and they don't have a lot of great tools at their disposal. For instance you cannot hunt feral horses. Historically speaking it's weird that you can't hunt horses. Remember that pleistocene population in north america i mentioned those pleistocene horses where a staple of the human diet in prehistoric europe horses and reindeer were the main prey animals of homo sapiens for thousands of years. I'm going to stop here. I know i'm not going to convince the american public to allow horse hunting. I'm taking my life in my hands. Even talking about the term crazy horse people exists for a reason but we do need to do something in the beal adoption program take a horse and get a thousand dollars seemed like a decent idea but the friends of animals lawsuit argues that the blm isn't doing enough to prevent adopters from eventually selling the horses to slaughterhouses and canada and mexico. The beal does have guidelines in place to try to make sure no one's gathering all the horses up and shipping them to the dog food factory. No individual can adopt more than four animals a year. And you only get two thousand dollars after having the horses in your possession for one hundred twenty twenty days but past that the om can only do so much tracking and enforcement in the lawsuit says they should do more. There are several happy endings with the adoption system. One for mustang has become a dressage champion. Which is a life very much not wild. But it seems that many folks of of being a champion dressage horse is better than being. Let's say champion sausage horse. But what else can we do. We can't hunt them. We can't turn them into kibble. And the option of sterilization is an expensive one and does nothing to address the issue of overgrazing and land degradation to give you an idea of what sterilization looks like a new mexico based company called the wildlife protection management developed a feeder. That delivers contraceptives to horses to to alfalfa. In been the horses have to fit their heads into a shoot sensors on the shoot determine which horse is at the feeder and if that horse needs another dose of birth control a small dart shoots out of a refrigerated box onto one side. The horses seems startled. But not hurt. The units are powered by solar panels. And they're getting cheaper as facial. Recognition is replacing our f. Id tags to tell which horses which early trials seemed to show that the units could be effective. Just keep in mind that the beal doesn't have enough money to effectively round the horses up to give them away. So how are we going to pay for. Satellite tags solar power facial recognition refrigerated contraceptive dart shooting alfalfa benz. Anyway horse advocates. Say we should let them expand their range and limit the domestic livestock that grazes the same land. Which is an interesting perspective as livestock are regulated and let's be honest so or the other grazing animals elk deer and pronghorns three animals that you could argue heavy much greater claim on the land than the feral horses moving on the arizona. Fish and game commission recently voted unanimously to ban the use of trail cameras across the state for quote the purpose of taking or aiding in the take of wildlife meaning anywhere in the state public lander private property all year round even for preseason scouting. You can't use trail camps to hunt. The decision here comes down almost entirely to water or rather the scarcity of it. Arizona is in the middle of a historic twenty year drought which means that as smaller water sources have dried up while game and many other animals have come to depend more and more on big water catchments almost all of which are on public land and on everyone's map and so more and more cameras have gone up around these water sources when people come to check their cameras they disrupt the potentially stressed wildlife and occasionally bump into each other and unfriendly ways the drought also plays into fair chase game and fish commission chair. Curt davis made the argument that interstate with plenty of places for animals to drink the ethics of trail camera. Use are completely different. Davis said quote. If i live in minnesota or alabama. i wouldn't even be having this discussion. But in an arid state with highly limited water sources. Do cameras really allow an elk or deer a fair chance of escaping detection. I was interested to see that the ban applies on both public and private land on one hand. The ruling doesn't unfairly hold the public land hunter to a different standard than the landowner or the hunter who has access to private land. But it's hard to see how the enforcement of this rule is going to work on private land. No one can ban the use of cameras to say. Track the cattle on your property or to keep an eye out for trespassers or see if that cactus wren has laid eggs in their nest. And if while you're looking at those images you happen to see if you buck scraping their antlers on a nearby tree trunk. Well i mean come on enforcement might be hard on. Public land to cameras can be well hidden. They don't give away the owner's identity and they're pretty cheap to replace if they get taken down. Public opinion came out strongly against the ban of trail cameras. In the to comment periods. The nays had the white majority of emails letters and testimony many commentators said that he hadn't experienced any shootouts with other trail cam users and that their feelings hadn't been permanently hurt by online feuds but the commission still did what commissions do they make decisions based on all available evidence take into consideration the public opinion despite the unpopular outcome. This is a much better path and if the state legislature had passed a law on the matter or if a measure had been decided by ballot initiative this one can be changed in comparison to the ladder easily. It'll be interesting to see. How the trail cam ruling ages and whether people will eventually come around it makes me think of the controversy when a lot of cities and towns started banning smoking in restaurants and bars. Both bar owners and patrons came out against the smoking bans worrying that it was going to kill nightlife but instead those bands led to more people going out staff who were happier at work because they didn't have to breathe secondhand smoke and a decline in cancer rates. In retrospect the smoking bans became extremely popular. We'll see if that happens here. I will say trail. Camps can be a simply fantastic way to get new hunters out into the woods. Hunting can have a hard time competing with sports and video games and other high stimulation pastimes. A lot of days you go out and see exactly zero animals. While hiking having photos of those animals along with the times they were. There can be an awfully strong draw. Of course the not knowing can be a strong draw to. It certainly is for me. That's all i've got for you this week. Thank you so much for listening. remember hunting. season's coming up. You may want a fancy new powerful quiet battery-powered steel chainsaw if you're in the market go to. Www dot steel dealers dot com and find a local knowledgeable. Awesome steel dealer near you. Look for that iconic orange sign and most importantly. Don't forget to let me know what's going on in your neck of the woods by writing in to as k. c. a. l. That's asked cal at the meat. Eater dot com. Thanks again. i'll talk to you next week. So you know. Recently i've checked out this outdoor fishing company called free fly. And i gotta say some of the stuff's pretty darn nice. I recently tried out there. Bamboo hoodie which is awesome for sun. Protection very comfortable and hot weather as wearing it. When i was in hawaii you can get twenty percent off your very own shirt by visiting. Free fly apparel dot com forward slash cow again. That's f. r. e. f. l. y. a. p. p. a. r. e. l. dot com slash cow. So you know recently. I've checked out this. Outdoor fishing company called free fly. 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