22 Burst results for "Forty Million Years"
The Geologic Record: The Phanerozoic Eon
"Fenner azoic is divided up into three eras the paleozoic the mesozoic and the senate zoellick the first period in the paleozoic is the one you might have heard of the cambridge in the cambrian is noted for the sudden appearance of complex lifeforms and animals in the fossil record. This is known as the cambrian explosion. Here's where you'll see many of the trial bites which are really common fossils in fact the appearance of trial bites pretty much defines where the cambrian appears in the geologic record all complex life that we know of in the cambrian was in the see. Nothing yet had come onto land of all the periods. I'll be going over. This is one of the most important to have a grasp on it spans. About fifty five million years from five hundred forty million years ago to about four hundred eighty five million years ago after the cambridge incomes the division period it lasted for forty one million years and went from four hundred and eighty five million years ago to about four hundred forty. Four million years ago it's noted for its continued by diversification fish first appeared during this period and probably the first fish with jaws. These were the first vertebrate animals. There still wasn't any animal life on land yet in order vision that we know of there were lots of volcanoes in meteors during this period as well by some estimates over one hundred times the number of meteor strikes that the earth experiences today the next period is the celerion it goes from four hundred and forty million years ago to four hundred nineteen million years ago what separates the division and the celerion is the or division celerion extinction event. This is the first of the major extinction events in earth's history and the second largest in terms of the number of species that disappeared from the fossil record. The celerion sees the appearance of the very first vascular plants on land as well as the first arthur pod type creatures on land. I should also note that as we get closer to the present the information we have become better the divisions in time become more. Precise and there are more subdivisions. Most of which. I'm not going to be going into. After the slurry incomes the devonian which extended from four hundred nineteen million years ago. Two three hundred fifty nine million years
Prehistoric Marine Reptile Died After A Giant Meal
"Of millions of years ago. Reptilian predators called it. Swam the sees their fossils look fearsome but paleobiologist real SUITCA. Motani. Of UC, Davis says, they may have looked more like friendly dolphins maybe in life he feels might have been cute. But at least the smaller ones Martinis team studied one such specimen found in southwest China. It was two hundred and forty million years old fifteen feet long but it seemed to have some extra bones in it, which Montana's team termed to be the remains of a thirteen foot long the ladder sore or see lizard the this or had swallowed and spoiler alert the only reason they were able to see this animal in the belly of the or is that this gigantic meal never got digested the sword died soon after swallowing it. Motamed is careful to say they're not sure exactly why the theus or perished, but the specimen has a broken neck. So he gave a speculative play by play. Perhaps he says the source snapped at the C. Lizard, but the Lizard fought back and the Pike in between the two fierce probably. So the the or fought to subdue its prey damaging its neck in the process then it had dislodged the praised bony head entail from it's juicy midsection. Now, the have to do it through jerking. And twisting like the crocodiles do also bad for the neck and finally the sore had to swallow the animal perhaps using inertia show or gravity to shove the prey down its gullet and the two things are by the kind it was ingested maybe the neck damage was accumulated to certain level and maybe the Knicks could not support the head details of that ancient battle appear in the journal Science. In the reason why this analysis matters is you can only and I so much about who by looking at teeth this fossil offers direct evidence that these ancient beasts sometimes bit off a whole lot more than they could chew.
Science News Briefs from Around the Planet
"Hi. I'm scientific. American Assistant News. Editor Sarah Lou in Frazier and here's a short piece from July twenty twenty issue of the magazine in the section called advances dispatches from the frontiers of science, technology and medicine. The article is titled Quick Hits In it's a rundown of some non corona virus stories from around the globe. From, Turks and Caicos Islands analysis of Ano- lizards collected before and after hurricanes, Irma and Maria in twenty seventeen and eighteen months later revealed that the surviving lizards and their descendants had larger and therefore grippier Topaz. The team examined Lizard photographs from natural history collections and seventy years of hurricane data to confirm the trend. From Italy sediment samples drawn from the tree and see revealed hotspots with up to one point nine million micro plastic particles per square meter, the highest concentration ever recorded on the sea floor. Most of pollution comes from wastewater and sewage systems. Researchers say. From Antarctica, paleontologists found a fossilized forty million year old frog on Seymour. Near the tip of the peninsula, The FROG is related to modern ones living in temperate humid conditions in the Chilean Andes. From Iraq researchers probing the Turkish State Archives found the earliest known record of a meteorite causing a death. The object struck a hilltop in neighboring Iraq in eighteen, eighty, eight, killing one man and paralyzing another. From Japan results gathered from the KAMIOKA. Observatory which includes an underground detector tank filled with fifty five thousand tons of water, suggested intriguing discrepancy in how neutrinos, an anti neutrinos oscillate potentially violating symmetry between matter and antimatter. From Kenya scientists identified a malaria blocking microbe in mosquitoes on the shores of Lake Victoria. Every mosquito catalog with this apparently benign fungus was free of the disease, carrying parasite and experiments showed the fungus prevented its transmission. That was quick hits. I'm Sarah Lou Frazier.
"forty million years" Discussed on Radio Free Nashville
"And how you can help make it possible liberal and progressive movements need to move beyond a focus on economic entitlements and political rights to embrace a new discourse of love kindness generosity and all these are not some new AG smile and a nice formula or let's get into self transformation before we change society kind of thinking I'm calling for both our American and global societies to embrace a new bottom line so that every economic political societal and cultural institution is considered efficient rational and or productive not according to the old bottom line of how much these institutions maximize money power or ego but rather how much they maximize love and generosity kindness and forgiveness ethical and environmentally sustainable behavior social and economic justice is the bottom line six to enhance our capacity to transcend the narrow utilitarian instrumental way of viewing human beings nature so that we respond to other people as embodiments of the sacred instead of thinking of them primarily in terms of how much they can serve our interests and also so that we can respond in nature not solely as a resource for human needs but rather through awe wonder and radical amazement at the beauty and grandeur of this universe I call this new consciousness revolutionary love and its goal is to create the caring society caring for each other and caring for the earth the vehicle to create this new consciousness we will call the love and justice movement eventually law and justice party the revolutionary possibility of love is the kind of love the breaks through those distortions of consciousness that make it difficult to implement a national environmental policy or to end the many forms of oppression that permeate our world to really amazed embrace revolutionary law requires us to develop a strategy way beyond anything currently being given serious attention in the media the political parties and even many of the social change movements and it requires us to move beyond what seems realistic in terms of the contemporary frame of discourse and there is no alternative if we're to solve the environmental crisis and throughout our society in the coming decades to moving further and further into reactionary nationalism and repression of our own humanity we need a global mobilization of billions of people to solve the problem and this manifesto outlines the first steps to making possible such immobilization to understand the urgency let's consider our current environmental crisis in nineteen ninety two thousands of scientists issued a collective statement warning of the impending dangers to the life support system of planet earth twenty five years later in December twenty seventeen fifteen thousand three hundred sixty four scientists from one hundred eighty four countries signed a new statement that reads in part since nineteen ninety two with the exception of stabilizing the stratospheric ozone layer humanity has failed to make sufficient progress in generally solving these unforeseen environmental changes and alarmingly most of them are getting far worse especially troubling is the current trajectory of potentially catastrophic climate change due to rising green house gases from burning fossil fuels in agricultural production particularly from farming ruminants for meat consumption moreover we have unleashed a mass extinction event the sixth and roughly five hundred forty million years or in many current life forms could be annihilated or at least committed to extinction by the end of the century emeriti is now being given a second notice we are jeopardizing our future by not raining in our intense but geologically and demographically on even material consumption and by not perceiving continued rapid population growth as a planetary driver behind many ecological and even societal threats by failing to adequately adequately limit population growth reassess the role of an economy.
"forty million years" Discussed on Psychedelic Salon
"Into the atmosphere and then the volcanoes could have burst the earth became shrouded in dust and we actually actually have a very good geological record. This is why the flat earth irs the the people who are denials who deny evolution and have a real problem problem here because we can see in the fossil record. <hes> you know the clear division in these barriers when over ninety percent approximately depending on the floor on the final you're looking looking at this species became extinct. The earth became dark and shrouded in dust and then fund drive took over in fact. They've been identify a fungus as predominant imminent culver dubya sporran i._d.'s it would do guess for nineties in the fossil record predominant fungus associated with forest lands <hes> that gobbled up the forest debris him you and so we steer forward to the time of gondwanaland an impact gio and then we ed continents forum with continental drift and then gondwanaland formed and the continents became as they were true. I still remember when i was in the third grade. I raised my hand and geology class. As a teacher looks like this like a puzzle you could just put them together and he goes no coincidence. You know and i think we should listen to children more often. They they can see the obvious so we go forward now from one hundred and forty million years ago hundred and in ten million years ago the oldest representation putatively of a mushroom ever found and sediment layer in brazil mushrooms and very soft so the fact is mineralized to form a fossil is amazing but there is a mushroom one hundred and ten million years ago bosh rooms had their form well before we had ours ars. These are ancestry organisms the dodgers miscellaneous little fungi growing on the ground. These are elders. These are ancient individuals individuals these are.
"forty million years" Discussed on Science... sort of
"<hes> go crocodilians. You can go birds. You can go pick sores. You can go to dr turtles. You know what i'm going to give it to the to tara. I'm gonna give us a chance of such a hipster answer now. Well there may be only two species or one species depending on on <hes> what kind of genetic data and they may live on like singles set of offshore islands near new zealand but gosh darn it. It don't look of all of the living reptile groups. If you saw the skull of love a triassic crock relative it would not resemble like superficially you wouldn't see the resemblance between modern crock. If he's <hes> the scar their living fossils <unk> quiet you we've been talking about that on the show for not a fan of the term if you saw the skull of a turtle from two hundred and forty million years ago and compared that with the skull modern turtle you'd be completely confused by if you saw the skoll all of a sweeney dante cousin of the two atara from middle part of the triassic in hell that up next to the skull modern spending on you'd really see the resemblance right away the weird light sensing organ in some lizards do it to all all. Can you be the one or two species of modern needed on all have like the the pioneer is the light sensitive oregon. Just you situated right in the middle of the top of the head head weird well as long as we can agree that legless lizards who aren't snakes need to get it together because that's just annoying confusing. I think we're i think we're good yeah. It does bother us. Well like don't be if you're a lizard have legs or be a snake. You tell us if there's this phenomenon evolution where multiple groups try and achieve the same anatomical solution possibly resolve fused refused to accept your also podcast her side your your podcast. I am part of a three person team that produces pastime which is a podcast focused on natural history in general we try and target kind of a broad audience if you're if you're someone who listens to the science sort of a i am not sure yes the audience i just i just don't want to bore your audience because pastime pastime is not a boring say that but it's very much targeted at sort of the discovery channel type audience than no science in terms of like the middle school level of understanding understanding but hasn't necessarily pursued it beyond that so we we very much want to target those sort of folks with the the latest in discoveries from natural history from paleontology to inform just the history of the planet. Is there a favorite episode or an episode you you want to point people to if they haven't listened before like here's your first as crappy as the audio is and had like the idea of doing the. I like the idea of doing this special edition dishes with <hes> with more morgan's. The boss is leasing. I like the idea of doing a special edition of actually our first episode of pastime which is <music> <hes> it focuses around interview with paleontologist david kraus about fieldwork in the cretaceous period of madagascar and not only only the incredible fond of of of animals glued dinosaurs mammals crocs all kinds of things that they discovered there but also the general question of how to paleontologist decide where to dig in the first place. I think that's that's a good episode to start with and not only be introduced to myself and and my first co host matthew boards now curator of fossil primates at the duke lemur center. He and i started there and i think that's it's that is a good episode of star easy. If you can recommend the episode that's dead <hes> so i imagine your show is available. Wherever wherever the person is getting this episode from absolute listening listening you go get pastime as well pastime dot org is.
"Is it possible that there are big prehistoric animals that paleontologists have never discovered of course it is done. The distant past is poorly known and. Paleontologists find fossil evidence for new large animals all the time in two thousand nineteen to American researchers reported discovering the fossil remains of carnivorous mammal larger than a modern lion and even larger than. The prehistoric Sabertooth Tiger it live twenty two million years ago in what's now Africa really. Were they find it. They found it in a museum drawer at the Nairobi National Museum in Kenya how museum drawer it's not as strange. As you might think decades ago a team of paleontologists dug up fossils of its jaw portions of its skull and some other parts of its skeleton but the team was looking for fossils of prehistoric apes so they. Just catalogued it started and forgot it so the modern researchers most of fun something interesting about the fossils that the earlier team didn't they did. They found that the fossil creature was a mammal but not closely related to any modern. Modern Group of mammals it was a member of an extinct group called the hyena dance for forty million years after the extinction of the dinosaurs. They were the dominant group of Mammalian predators in Africa. They all died out when their environment changed the scientists named the Creature Simba Kuba Kotoka Africa since there were apes in Africa back then it's possible that this giant Predator with Canine teeth as big as bananas may have dined.
"forty million years" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU
"Years ago. There were forests on Antarctica, and Greenland, so we can look back in time and see evidence of situations that we might encounter in the future. How do you walk away from an exhibit like this? If say you are not sold on the science behind climate change, or if you're religious views questioned the existence of dinosaurs to defined them as existing thousands of years ago, rather than millions of years ago, how religious views our political views you're gonna have to square them with scientific news as well. And this sort of three levels of Ewing, so people come in here with all sorts of leaves that we welcome everybody to the museum. What we're presenting here is the scientific record of our planet, so it's just data and you don't have to believe science for it to be true, but has to get a little sticky for a federal museum, the kind of deal with so many people with so many different politics in views. I don't really think so. I mean, I think we are a science based nation. So he present scientists, we're not making statements like you must believe this, or you must achieve this policy where saying, here's what science tells us about planet earth. Talk about how the exhibit deals with some of the uncertainty around paleontology, new fossil discoveries. There's this Tanna site in North Dakota, there was a New Yorker article about it in March. And this disagreement as to whether it contains evidence of an asteroid that killed off the dinosaurs. How do you do with that kind of ambiguity or, or an unresolved? Question superior intelligence are really good of ambiguity, because we're looking at things happened a long time ago. And sometimes it might say, well, this fossil is forty million years old, plus a million years. That's a lot of ambiguity, plus or minus a million. That's a range, a pretty big range. But what we do this, like, okay, here's the uncertainty is plus million years. Can we work in that? Can we get better data and push it down to plus or minus ten thousand years? And that's what scientists do in general, is they built hypotheses they test them, and they get it increasingly better and better constrain view of what happened on planet. So that site in North Dakota that you mentioned we learned in one thousand nine hundred eighty that an asteroid struck the planet, and the idea was. Did this asteroid actually caused the extinction of the dinosaurs? Lots of debate about that between one thousand nine hundred and nine hundred eighty eight nine hundred eighty eight most the scientists is the world, like, yeah, there's actually enough evidence. We find this layer from the debris from the asteroid all around the world. The dinosaurs are right below it never above it, and not only that, but other kinds of animals, and plants should same pattern of extinction. Exactly at the level where we find the evidence of the asteroids, so that went from being a crazy idea to being settled science in a matter of a decade, as more and more people studied. And that's what science, does it always challenges. It's always testing in, you repeat your apps. Evasive. You the same observation multiple times status say, hey, this might actually be real a bunch of our listeners wanted.
"forty million years" Discussed on News Talk 1130 WISN
"I I will get absolutely no praise from anybody on the left for this. The caricature of is Mark Belling is gonna rip any liberal for anything. They ever do it. He'll defend any conservative anytime that they do anything. Whereas those of you who listen to the program are aware that not only is that not the case. Some of you think I do go to soft in cases like this forty five. I'm just telling you, I got to sit here, and defend what it is that I say on this show and the only position I can take that I can defend it feel comfortable with is the one that I have even if some people think. I am getting adult. Three northbound before capitol drive, a rollover accident Brie with me on this. Do you know, I do agree with you? Yeah. No. I I believe that you have to look at these things as what would you do if it was on your side, and you have to be consistent on that. But yeah. But if it was a Republican that did it she'd she'd be destroyed. No, I'm saying, you know, your think what I do. Yeah. In other words, you're saying I would offer the same commented defending a Republican who had this sort of thing. So that's what I have to do on the other side. The the point is is that it's smooth because the Republican. No, you're right. In the first place because the left does there's no way anyone on the left in the state of Wisconsin would give the take that I gave here with regard to a democrat. And again, I stream Lee mixed views on this in terms of a politician running for office. That's a different thing because those people make policy and make determinations. This woman any decision. She makes is made because Tony Abrahams is the governor whatever lefty way, she runs her agency another left. He's going to be running the agency that's in there. So in terms of power and control of anything that matters. That's not the or for example, a judge is going to rule forever and ever and ever. It is going to be on there iversons if she doesn't get the job Iverson's going to replace it with some other lefty that's out there without regard to this action that occurred, and I think you have to weigh that into the long term consequences of deciding whether or not you're going to allow the class, the constant liberal, double standards to remain in place. And I admit here, I'm holding a liberal to a lower standard than any conservative would ever be held to if something like this. Came up Brett Cavanaugh that he poked a kid in the hand with a pen forty million years ago. I I mean, they'd be they'd be hauling him off. And I'm not comparing the US supreme court with a cabinet position. But we know what the standard would be. And we know how the double standard is applied. And we know that lefties use any type of accusation is a way of destroying people. And I just think that this one isn't sufficient to apply that standard, and I'm not saying she should get a pass. I'm saying that if this is all they have they ought to confirm. That's what I believe high forty three northbound.
"forty million years" Discussed on The End of the World with Josh Clark
"Sadly, we would probably not all be transformed into incredible hulks. The life that did manage to survive. The initial burst would have a rough time of it afterward gamma radiation is particularly good at burning away. The ozone layer the protective blanket of three atoms that reflects most of the sun's radiation when flooded with energetic gamma rays, those three molecules destabilize and those own layer would deteriorate leaving earth exposed to the full brunt of ultraviolet radiation from the sun. UV from the sun can be bad enough with the full ozone layer without it. It would be utterly catastrophic. The intensity of the UV would prove too much for even photosynthesis in plants. So following the blueprints of the KT extinction. In a matter of days or weeks, the bottom of the food chain would collapse and everything else above it would starve as a result. The oceans to be crippled by the increase in UV. It would destroy the plankton that makes up the basis of the marine food webs. The effect be pronounced enough that a game. Ray burst is considered to be able to sterilize a planet close enough in its path. And it's possible that the earth has experienced them before one theory for the or division extinction. Four hundred and forty million years ago is that earth got in the way of gamma Ray bursts? As majestically dangerous as they are gamma Ray bursts happened in the universe. Once a day at least, well, that's how often we noticed them since the nineteen sixties I should say humans have been aware of supernova for thousands of years. First noting the appearance of bright new stars in China almost two thousand years ago, but we spent the entire lifespan of our species up until the nineteen sixties blissfully unaware that invisible death rates went off in our universe. At all. It was all because of the Cold War that we ever found them in nineteen sixty three the US, the US us our and Great Britain signed a treaty banning nuclear detonations in the atmosphere underwater or in outer space, but we didn't precisely trust our comrades. And so the US launched a satellite capable of detecting large sudden spikes in nuclear radiation, and the satellite founder, but it wasn't from nuclear tests that satellite provided the first evidence of gamma-ray birth. Since then we've found that. They are extremely common stars claps all the time. It seems. The universe is full of rocks and collapsing stars and gamma-ray bursts. Which by the way can also form from two black holes merging or from the hiccup of an exotic and frightening type of star called the magnitude type of dwarf star made of nickel it's been hundreds of times per second. And produces the strongest magnetic field in the universe. This dangerous place there. I mean, the the universe is is has gone no care for life on earth. And and I think that it's worth remembering that when you look up in the nice guy when it's looks very peaceful and static. And and it's dangerous..
"forty million years" Discussed on The Naked Scientists
"Exactly what these molecules came from. Modern cholesterol from us. Unions is a modern living molecule, but what we found is actually Fussell molecule that has changed structure where we can estimate proxima how old is and the structure of the molecule fit perfectly the age and the maturity of the rock refounded in. So you're saying because we can see this slightly different form of cholesterol that is the signature of complex animal life, and it's in the context of this fossil. We think it's come from the fossil, but could there be, for instance, microorganisms living on the fossil. The themselves made this funny form of cholesterol or other organisms that are coming on since and lived around the fossil a night. Put the cholesterol there and you're saying, well, it's from the fossil, but it's not. It's something else. All right. It's a very, very good question. What we found is a little bit more. We can imagine a slip of rock in the middle of this beautiful fossil. So. Rounding the Fussell's actually fossilized microbial mats because consumer was living on the sea floor living on this microbial mats that are full of Santa bacteria and algae, and this Mets were also fossilized around the consortia. So what we did is we analyzed the molecules Indican Sonia, but also the molecules from the met surrounding concern you then we compared the two. It was a huge difference between Sonia was full of fossil cholesterol, which is typical for animals and surrounding was typical of different type of molecule which is produced by green algae. Now you have got this. You set you can say at this moment in time we've got what looks like this animal. It's not a plant. It's not a fungus is not some of these other possibilities. How does that change? Our view of what was going on almost six hundred million years ago and how that line led to us. It really changes the story how we perceive our earliest animal ancestors when and how they evolved now that we know that they can Sonia actually wasn't animal and probably many of those idiot animals. We know that there was already an enormous animal ecosystem been five minute seventy and five hundred forty million years ago, but they were very peaceful animals. There were most Tarrin's none of these fossils has bite marks or predation marks, and then but five hundred and forty million years ago. Those peaches died out and modern type animals appeared. And it's actually quite possible that the modern type animals drove those idiot to extinction. By simply eating them dog eat dog world, even then wasn't it. You'll can Bronx there from the Australian National University and the paper that described that work has just come out in the journal science. Now the noble prizes show the very best of human scientific endeavor. But have you heard of the ignoble prizes they've just been announced and Adam Murphy has been speaking to one of this year's winners. Every year. The Nobel prize is awarded the most humanity advancing breakthroughs the pinnacle of a chief -ment, but they're not what's really important. The ignoble prizes are awarded the science that makes you laugh before it makes you think prizes this year we're taking home for analyzing the potential of saliva as cleaning fluid and for the effectiveness of employees using voodoo dolls against their bosses. But what else wins that kind of prize? I got to speak to one of this year's winners. James Cole of the university of Brighton about the work that earned. him such a persistent honor. I was looking at trying to date the calorific value of the human body, but in the context of looking at pay excites and human evolution that is to say, did ancient humans eat people? Is that nutritionally useful? Or does it cost you an arm and leg? So we know from the correct word that human cannibalism seems to be at least a persistent behavior through our evolutionary journey. One of the the oldest sites that we have goes back almost a million years now, we have a relatively small fossil record, and even within that small fossil record, we still see signs on bones, cut marks, lumber cage, even teeth marks that demonstrate that this cannibalism baby was present. What is unclear though is exactly why this behavior was done. If you compare the calories that you get from a human body, which is what my study was trying to work out to animals that we know successfully hunted by our ancestors..
Researchers interpret new experimental data aimed at showing dark matter interacts with ordinary matter
"You remember going to Sern couple years ago now and when they were talking about the the discovery of the Higgs bows on the confirmation when the key elements in that discussion wasn't that they, they didn't observe the Higgs bows on directly. They saw the decay products inference. Yeah, and so they are used MU on decay to sort of track back that the Higgs boson occurred. And this week Sern announced that they doubly confirmed in a different decay pattern because Higgs bows on supposedly has more than one decay pattern that what we saw. So what they tracked was actually a bottom antibody court. Decay pattern. Yeah, but naming pattern in in court. Pretty great. We haven't talked about charm corks very much here on on the podcast, but. The standard model predicts something like fifty to sixty percent of Higgs boson decays I think it's fifty. Seven percent would decay in this bottom antibody quirk. Pattern and they finally saw it. So this does just confirm more aspects of the standard model. And if you remember most of that trip, they were like looking for ways to break the standard model of physics. This adds the confirmation, but they're hoping that it's just another point along the way to breaking it.
"forty million years" Discussed on Aerial America
"This is the Wm observatory on the summit of Monica, a dormant volcano, so remote. It's one of the best places on earth to study outer space. Eleven nations have telescopes here where they've made key discoveries about the formation of stars and the origin of black holes. The volcano sits near the center of the big island and on its southern end is the most active volcano in the world kilowatt part of Hawaii volcano, national park. He's been emitting steam and lava since nineteen Eighty-three in what are called quiet. Eruptions meaning gases escaped slowly, instead of in one violent burst. The natural forces at work here, help scientists study how landmasses may have been formed millions of years ago. And are still being formed today as cooling. Lava expands Hawaii's coastline bit by bit. A Wii itself was born around forty million years ago from Seve all Kino's and the shifting earth which helped mold this spectacular scenery on the Maui coast. The eight islands were annexed by the United States after decades of fighting between native Hawaiians, an American businessman over who should govern them. The last monarch of the islands was overthrown in eighteen ninety three, but many in congress opposed annexation until the Spanish American war in eighteen ninety eight. When the strategic importance of Pearl Harbor became clear two years later, the why became a US territory and in nineteen fifty nine, it became a state. Over the years, its unique location. Thousands of miles from any continent has helped protect the diverse and stunning landscape.
"forty million years" Discussed on Science for the People
"So what happens in these beetles is the little guys sneak in on the sly instead of trying to go in the front door and fight that big guarding mail. They dig their own tunnel and they go down a little bit. And then they cut horizontally and they intercept the guard at tunnel beneath the guarding mail. So the big guys up there guarding the entrance and the little guys sneaking into the tunnel beneath them, and they can get in beneath fat meal, shoot down to the female mate with females, sneak right back out again essentially before the big guarding meal even knows what's going on. So here's this beautiful system where their selection for bigger and bigger and bigger weapons because the males of the biggest weapons really do win. They guard the tunnel. They have access to the females the most consistently, but the little guys are cheating. They're breaking the rules and they're sneaking in on the sly and finding their way down to the females. And in almost every animal species that people have looked at, they found similar types of. As of cheating or breaking the rules. So you can talk about frogs where the males are calling calling calling from the territories in the females are consistently coming to the territories of the biggest sexiest males with the deepest calls calls that little guys can't cheat. They really aren't big enough to produce the frequencies in the sound that the females like there's no way they're going to win by calling. So don't even try. So the little guys will lurk up to the edge of the big male territories and sit there silent. Basically, looking and acting like a female and they sit there and then when females come in attracted to the cause of the big meals, these guys can intercept them. And it turns out that that is also parallel with military arms races. So you see an arms race, like the ship designs. We talked about where the battleships get bigger and bigger and bigger and bigger, but you see technologies that break the rules and do an end run and get around the costs of producing these crazy weapons. And so I can give you some fun examples if you want, but I'm almost every arms race that has resulted in. Strawberry expensive state of the art weapons technologies has also seen ways of cheating and breaking the rules that don't involve expanding all the extraordinary costs. Arms racist obviously can go on really far far enough to create these enormous structures or in the human parallel to create these enormous worships, but they can't go on forever. It seems like they have to stop at some point and either revert or find some sort of balance. I'm wondering, is it often things that arms race to the end? Yeah. Or like is there a pendulum swing where it just out of goes from one side to the other and a kind of endless loop? Well, there's a couple of things, and this is a really fun area. This was one of the most fun areas for me as I was researching this stuff because here's an area where biology didn't offer that much. I mean, we could tell by looking at groups of organisms like the Beatles talk about Beatles. They're my favorite example. You can reconstruct the Filon that looks at the diversity of species and you can trace the evolution of weapons on. On this sort of map if you will, of all the diversification among species that has happened through safe forty million years of beetle history. And when you do that, you can see that weapons are really dynamic. They pop up all the time. So when we did this for dung beetles we looked at like fifty different species covered a time period of about forty million years brand. New weapons had popped up at least fifteen different times. So boom, this lineage has a whole new horn that wasn't there before, and it's off to the races and boom over here. Another lineage has a huge horn that wasn't there before off to the races. You can also tell when you do this, that lots of times the weapons disappear. So these arms races must end, but we didn't really have a good idea why enter how they end..
"forty million years" Discussed on Ross Patterson Revolution!
"Was horrific and these guys wouldn't punch each other at all and he was just like running away from each other deon tire fight so there was only like five kicks thrown i don't even know if shot landed but they gave the winner of the fight if you can say there was a winner to the guy who threw the five kicks the other guy didn't throw the kicks and i saw dana white walk over to joe rogan which is like cut the fuck interview 'cause usually they interview the fighters in the ring afterwards not only for the arena but for the people at home and pay per view and he goes don't you dare fucking interview those motherfuckers fucked them yes they're out and i was like oh shit i've never seen that i watch pretty much every ufc championship and never seen someone not get interviewed i don't think well you don't know because they may be well i sometimes i wait but also look sometimes i get up for food but you can hear it on the background or you know you go get a drink from the kitchen you can hear the interview and you're like what secondplace that one in person i can tell you they instructed him do not ring they don't deserve an interview and it was awesome and i was just like good for dana white get zero fucks boss boss so then that was saturday tuesday i got to go to the contender series which is incredible because these are guys that are trying to get a contract they're fighting for uc contract therefore they are kicking the shit out of each other because you gotta go for broke and that's it like those type of fights don't fly your can barely kick each other maybe as a professional you can get away with one but you cannot do that as a guy trying to get a contract in the there's only about fifty people there and i would say forty more family members the rest of us that were there were sponsors or involved with the sponsors whatever and it was awesome because it's a fullsize ring full cage if you want to but it's like you're all just sitting around it like in folding yes but i wanna make it clear it is a fullsize octagon some people were like oh hey maybe they shrank it because it looks smaller no it's just the venue itself is smaller and it's it's in a warehouse essentially so you go there and it's kind of of the back of a warehouse or you're just like all right cool it felt like a production studio which it was laid out the ceilings and put in lights and all that stuff they jibs in there and everything and that's definitely what it was made for a little warm in there because you're in vegas and it was about one fifteen about the insulation and put those lights in it gets it gets hot yeah but in between fights they were like hey would you like to go and chat with dana i know just like fucking i would love to not only do i enjoy dana white is a person and enjoy his whole shit is interviews are great every time he's always extremely honest which i like but you wonder in this the same you wonder about everybody celebrity wise how it translates person if they're really like like that or not like that and he was exactly what you hoped in thought he would be just a fucking cool guy and like all business because he's sitting across from you and like you figure somebody that busy that rich because he sold the ufc about a year ago for four billion dollars and they kept him on to run it and i think he's getting maybe like fucking forty million years something just to keep going whatever but like in these small fights and all this shit like you can genuinely tell he was looking for the best people who are up and coming and he was there and not only that but like to take the time that he did to chat with us was insane to me where i was just like dude you're the busiest dude on the planet and he was just like no man you know this is this is what we do and we love it and she's a cool fucking guy and a complete boss like eight a beach is hey let's let's cut the bullshit let's let's do this kick the shit out of each other let's try to the best fights we can get and just a complete businessmen.
"forty million years" Discussed on Talk Nerdy
"X you know we're not there's not much prospecting in the baluchistan hills today because of human conflict right but there was historically yeah up until up until a few decades ago there are a lot of people were prospecting and so they would find these fossils of or the earliest wales in the way that we know that the early whales has to do with features on the on their skulls on the cranium specifically with ear bones so they have ear bones that look unlike any other mammals except for living wales kief features in the book i talk about this exactly when you say ear bones deeming like the inner bones of the year okay so it's features of the inner ear and also the middle ear as much outer ear bones of whales in a point in their evolutionary history start to decouple those from the rest of their cranium and become isolated from the rest of the skull so when we go underwater if you go swimming you can hear sound but you generally have a hard time figuring out to recreation of that sound you don't really know where we actions coming from wales don't have this problem and that's because for the last about forty million years they've had acoustically isolated ears so they can hear were sound is coming obviously you can imagine what a great trait that is that could confer advantage seek as really interesting this goes back to like many iterations of life going from living off furtherance from going on land and see seek house are this way too they have christophe isolated your bombs a manager so duke is managed as have very parallel sets of aquatic adaptations wait what's the first word you said herald do do not do something amnesty house ado gongs manatees you do go along is a special flavor of sea cow that lives in the arabian sea in australia in waters off australia they look like a manatee except they have a forked tail so the tail more like a dolphin manatees coca like tails and their snouts are shaped differently they actually have tusks barely emerge out from their muzzle and manatees have toenails on their flippers which is totally cool menu never if you want a better example of evolutionary history just look at flipper you know and they look like what would happen if you swished in elephants foot gash manatees are pretty weird that you're mentioning that but in what's cool is that manatees dugongs together they have a fifty million year history just like wales do but they're clearly they've had a differential success right like we don't have eighty species of manatees dugongs on the planet the way we do with wales in i think that they're differential success can be attributed to the fact that one's a herbivores and the other one's a carnival wales evolved the ability to eat fish and squid and krill in so they have access to resources that weren't just limited to the coasts the way that sirens are have always had to be herbivorous they didn't have that added ecological need yes so not only does that give them less options fewer i should say few are options so they they're the restricted to certain areas but it also means that they have to i'm assuming eat a hell of a lot more food nutrition this is what's really cool about studying wales when he start examining these just basic facts their ecology you very quickly get at big questions about a whole discipline so this is now discussion about the vizier oils how do we know how much they eat well that could be a question you might be able to answer from putting a grad student on zodiac in binoculars have them kind of come up with some metric for measuring consumption or could get at from gut contents or you might do echosounding available on prey patches from krill in other fish in the water so all these ways that we'd want to be able to answer that question seems like it'd be pretty easy say well at expect a fully carnivorous mammal to have an elevated metabolic knee versus the cool but how do you can actually put numbers on that and is.
"forty million years" Discussed on The Ross Bolen Podcast
"They were often kept as pets in the sixty seventies and they were already at risk of being endangered even by the time they were first recognized as a species in the nineties this guy ricky gums he said the turtle takes a long time to reach sexual maturity up to twenty five to thirty years and as their vulnerability was discovered late we lost a whole generation due to the pet trade and now they're population has become very small to put this to give you some perspective on this whole pet trade situation every year for like ten plus years over fifteen thousand mary river turtle hatchlings were sent to pet shops across australia and since humans were pillaging their nest sites to get these hatchlings we have successfully driven the species to the brink of extinction so wait a go no other turtle in the world is even closely related to these things because it diverged from modern turtles around forty million years ago for some perspective we humans we only diverged from chimps and bona bows less than ten million years ago if you're into science so these fuckers are very very old ancient as a result the mary river turtle it has features that no other turtles have like a super long tail which can grow up to seventy percent longer than the linked of its shell and those chin fingers that we mentioned earlier which they used a fuel around the soft riverbed of the mary river.
"forty million years" Discussed on First Things First
"Downside to that the downside that is sometimes run out of players sometimes all of a sudden it's like man we'd love to have danny amendola back but not at six million year we'd love to have grain and cooks back but not at forty million years old nate solder back and it's like oh so we didn't sign in the bad contracts but now there's only bad football players left assigned to good contracts like that is the risk that you run so lay what they do with is there a team that has done more with less that is their team that has gone farther with other people's if you wanna call it trash that they turn into treasure then the new england patriots noone nolan's so i don't think they're as concerned coming up we got a lot of conversion to be doing a lot of conversion trash to treasure conversi yes big thursday friday saturday and sunday coming up so don't make plans sit on your couch watch nothing but television because the question is is tiger showing signs he can win the masters this is the first things first podcast i'm nick right before the show moves along i wanna to tell you about today's show being brought to you by ziprecruiter are you hiring posting your physician jobsites and waiting and waiting and waiting for the right people to see it ziprecruiter knew there was a smarter way for us so they built a platform that finds the right job candidates just for you ziprecruiter learns what you're looking for a dentist people with right experience and invites them to apply to your job these invitations have revolutionized how you find your next higher in fact eighty percents of employers who post jobs on ziprecruiter get a quality candidate through the site in just one day ziprecruiter doesn't stop there they even spotlight the strongest applications receive so you never miss a great match the right candidates are out there ziprecruiter is how you finding businesses of all sizes trust ziprecruiter.
"forty million years" Discussed on First Things First
"Right now i think it's left tackle i just i i don't think there's a you got a four year old quarterback yeah i mean i think it's left tackle but i also think when you say talk about those guys i think it is worth noting that every single guy we just mentioned including an ad brennan brandin cooks list were guys they tried to resign guys they would've liked to bring back but the price became too steep and i know cc like you don't there is sometimes the anyone's ever been doing auction okay whoever wins an auction for an item they almost by definition have overpaid because they have raised their paddle when everyone else says that's too much so almost by definition you've overpaid the patch refuse manzini talks about this they have a walkway number then they walk away and that has served them very well it's one of the reasons they don't ever have these bad contracts that are killing agent not have one bad contract on their ross they're still gonna transaction right but there is a downside to that the downside that is sometimes run out of players sometimes all of a sudden it's like man we'd love to have danny amendola back but not at six million year we'd loved to grain and cooks back but not at forty million years old nate solder back and then it's like oh so we didn't sign any bad contracts but now there's only bad football players left assigned to good contracts like that is the risk that you run so what they do with their team that has done more with less than is there a team that has gone farther with other people's if you wanna call it trash that they turn into treasure than the new england patriots nolan's so i don't think they're as concerned coming up got a lot of conversion to be doing a lot of conversion trash to trust you conversi yest big thursday friday saturday and sunday coming up so don't make plans sit on your couch watch nothing but television because the question is is tiger showing signs he can win the master.
"forty million years" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Right so before we get to the twelfth century cambodian carving of a supposed stegosaurus we should look at these tech source itself this powerful conan of the prehistoric world this fascinating old her before with its plates and it spikes and its tiny little head i wanna know all about it robert let's go in all right well like i said earlier stegosaurus was certainly one of my favorites as as a child and my son by the way he likes to stegosaurus but he actually prefers the kindrence sars which is a smaller contemporary from east africa oh yeah yeah believe as far as i know that's the only one that was ever found in africa right i believe so yeah so this one you if you're unfamiliar with the with what this specimen probably look like the illustrations and the the fossil reconstructions tend to show it with typical bony plates roughly halfway down its back and then it has spikes so it looks like a cross between a proper stegosaurus and a pin cushion but now i should say that even though the sars was smaller it was still sixteen feet or five meters long which is still pretty enormous yeah a proper stegosaurus stegosaurus own goddess would have reached thirty feet or nine meters in length and would have weighed somewhere in the neighborhood of five point three to seven times so this was an herb of war and it lived in what is now north america during the late jurassic so roughly one hundred sixty three to one hundred and forty million years ago carnegie corey at the us dinosaur national monument is a is one of the places where you'll find a wealth of stegosaurus fossils in fact i was reading where one prominent paleontologist had even complained at one point that the stegosaurus fossils were in the way of the sorrow pod fossils that he wanted to to to fully examine oh like can we get somebody in here to sweep all these stegosaurs out of the way to have we have a nuisance stegosauruses.
"forty million years" Discussed on Psychedelic Salon
"You know you have to look at fungi fungi our primary decomposed that means they can only live on became life that significant mean that they are lady vulgar or at least not early vaulting mushroom very often bodied and filler all fungi there no record no fossil record of mushroom older than forty million years what back the tiny fraction of the time light has been on the earth now when i asked paleontologist about this he said we'll their thought beat and they don't fuck the light easterly but hey we have black worm from the gun clinked shirt south africa they're four point three billion years old if they left detroit off the record think there would be more the traits that mushroom if you d condition your precept position and just look at the much him it looks to me number one as though it is capable of dividing an extra terrestrial environment in other words if you have mushroom board than you want to store them for longterm lunge eddie you seek an environment that much like outer space if you can find you store them in liquid nitrogen minus two hundred degrees and they will laugh virtually her apper if you look at the color of various events sport that in the brown mushroom family the sports are deep purple almost black that the color you would paint fake craft if you wanted to store long long wave raibh if you look at the sport you know what is that attack at the lies dna thing go mature to ferry you this mushroom when borey elating will shed up to three million bores a minute for up to two weeks three million spores minute her two week.
"forty million years" Discussed on The mindbodygreen Podcast
"Um that's the hard problem of science rate no if you go to the internet to new dipoto toward the open questions and signs today you'll find their about 100 in 25 open questions which means we haven't figured out towards the answers are the number one open question in science today is what is the universe made off now that's a very interesting question because according to our current turns seventy percent of the universe is actually an entity that science because dark energy but when you go deeply into what is dark energy it's a mathematical construct that mathematicians and physicists use in the equations to explain the fact that the universe is expanding faster than the speed of light so the distance green galaxies history expanding right now faster than the speed of light so even though our science tells us that the universe came into existence forty million years ago this mysterious targe bang the cosmic horizon which means the farthest distance from where you are not sitting is forty seven billion light years away because this expansion in what's expanding is space the space between galaxies is being ripped apart faster than the speed of light is that of factor is that a meta medical explanation for actually making showed that the standard model of physics works that's my question but in any case seventy percent of the is this mysterious unknown thing that leaves thirty percent of the universe of which twenty six percent is invisible dark matter and the reason is called dark matter is it's not atomic yukon seed because doesn't reflect light absorb light emitted light so why call it matter well it explains most of the gravity in the galaxy so we're living in the milky way galaxy now according to current signs that a two trillion galaxies seven hundred sixty million stars.