31 Burst results for "Folsom"

"folsom" Discussed on KGO 810

KGO 810

04:09 min | Last month

"folsom" Discussed on KGO 810

"The spread. The base best bet on sports. No score second quarter. We are at Folsom field in beautiful downtown boulder, Colorado Just outside the downtown actually. It is absolutely gorgeous, though, got the wrong backing right up to the school. This campus is awesome. Yeah. No question. First and ten now for the bears, the great field position at the 47. And a handoff of running plate comes in over right guard, but doesn't get much on the play at all. Ball was carried that time by Damien Moore and it was Marvin Hamm who is no relation to Marvin Hamlisch makes this stop. Not a lot of production. On offense so far, plumber just 9 for 1554 yards on 7 for 27 on a day sort of at three catches 21 yards. Two yard gain to the 45 yard line of Colorado shotgun formation. Going back to throw got time, open receiver. And this 1 may be intercepted. What an Evans name's going on here today, folks. Wow. Picked off on the play. By now, it's read. I'm sorry, Reed. Nico read to fall more from Oakland, by the way, Moreau Catholic. There is a flag on the play. Plumber tens to throw the corner routes. Outside and away, leading his guys out and away. 15 yard penalty automatic first down. Huge penalty against the buffs that time. Oh, wow. Illegal hands to the face. So that's going to bring the ball back to bears get to possess the ball, but plumber tends to throw his corner routes out and away. Guys end up stretching out. With his knee injury, the way that he has to plant, it can change just a little bit of his balance points that when he does that, now he overthrows his guy. It's exactly what happened there. They're running the sail route, which is a go route by your outside receiver. A corner route by your number two and a flat by somebody coming out of number three or a tailback. He had the open receiver, he made the right read, but he just missed stern event on the throw. Colorado got to pick, but it's all negated by illegal hands to the face. What a killer for Colorado. That's that is a tough one to live with. And that is play like that. That is their season in a play right there. Make a great play. It gets negated something happens. They miss a tackle. They're there. They're just not making the plays. Okay, first and ten at the 30 plumber in the shotgun and he's changing the lineup. He actually took his running back and moved him around, Damien Moore was signed up as a receiver. He put him in the backfield it was left. Got three receivers out the wide side the left. Nobody out to the right. Plumber is rolling left. He's looking downfield and there's nobody to throw it to. They're all well covered, throws it incompleted about the 5 yard line. So second to ten from the 30 of the buffs. Maven Anderson got absolutely off that time. He was supposed to come back over the top on a corner route. And the defense was great. Tyron Taylor, the nickelback for Colorado locked him down, shut him out and broke up that route. Balls on the right hash for the bears have three receivers out toward the left side of the field. The widest man out there is Jeremiah hunter. Shotgun formation, no running back at the moment. And a pass incompleted about the 20. And that was there so the backside of the field was completely open. I'm pointing at it from the up in the booth. It was empty. And if you just take a little shot over the top, that's a touchdown all day long. You may not have practiced it. Sometimes you just have to game up. Like as you can play or you gotta be a gamer with a quarterback, see it, make the throw. There's nobody back there, lets you receive a run to it. We're at the 30 at third and ten and they are only two out of 6 on third down so far today. Nobody in the backfield with plumber. Plummer's got time. Throws and caught it. What a

Damien Moore Colorado Folsom field Marvin Hamm Moreau Catholic Marvin Hamlisch Plumber bears boulder Nico Evans Reed Oakland Maven Anderson
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

04:37 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Scatter. Oh, what happened to three? Shoot on three, man. You're supposed to get this squared away. One, two, three, shoot. I totally forgot about that. Because. I actually had a really 2022 release started up there. Let me say though, and this is connected to our mystery guest who I'm going to introduce. My first cousin Todd Marriott and successfully pulled off a double. Where we drew on hogs we're in tree stands. Canada three, we had a little more time to plan. Did Todd do the count? To clay's credit. It was a very last minute like. We were talking about camps and we pulled past the spot that I thought, I bet there's some hogs up there. And I mean, we jumped out of the truck and literally within 5 minutes, ten minutes, I had killed a hog. I had not. Another time with Todd, it was a little more, it was a little more strategic, quite strategic. We went in, found wide okay country dropped rain and acres, hogs on all underneath it went and hung stands. Woke up way too early because we didn't set our clocks back and it was a time change. And we got in a tree like hours before daylight sat there that hugs came in, killed them. Pretty much killed them. It's long story. It's a really long story. But that's connected to Rick's mystery guest. Because Rick knows other first cousin it up. Todd's brother, Sean Marriott. That's right. I've been on this podcast so far. Let's look at my Spicer. Rick, yes, hand clap for Rick. Thanks for Rick was the false napper on which was podcast riveting audio, by the way. So just click right over there. But no, I really appreciated being able to be part of that. I had a great time. Yeah. So the trend with guests that you could in the future be able to forecast who's going to be here. If you're local, you know, I'll try to get you on the render. You know what I mean? Sure. But like, so the other guest would have been renella who's in Montana. I think you're setting yourself up right here. Well, you know what I'm saying? I mean, I'd be careful. There's no hard and fast rules. I think that Rick is special. And that's why he's here. Rick came in last minute and had not made many Folsom points..

Todd Marriott Rick Todd Sean Marriott clay Canada napper Spicer renella Montana Folsom
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

13:23 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Just very concerned about making these points extremely well made. You know, I'd say part of it is just, you know, you can look at different cultures today and look at things that we make and some of us are some cultures are more concerned with something that's functional. It doesn't have to be perfect. If you think about early Germanic flintlock rifles and the Americans, they were extremely well made. There was an art to them, and they were engraved. They didn't have to do all that stuff. But they could. Yeah, yeah, there was some cultural value assigned to the aesthetic beauty of it. Yeah, there's a social value to it. And the key there to think of is that they could do it. They had the time and the resources available. It's not like it was because they were engraving rifles that put their lives at risk for some reason. They had the resources available in the time available apparently to make points that looked that way. I want to hear why it was functional for these points to be this way. But you're saying that there was some there clearly because of the craftsmanship of them, there would have been some just aesthetic value, probably. Yeah. We can suspect that was probably the case. Wow. So there have been there would have been pride in this point. Somebody would have been like, check this thing out. Yeah. And they would go to school. I mean, if you look at some of those, you're like, wow. I mean, they really I wonder what they call them, Devin, because I sure didn't call them Folsom points. Folsom New Mexico had named to sometimes 1800s. They would have called themselves. They would have had to have. Yep, unfortunately, that's one of those mysteries. Wow, I'll never know. But yeah, I mean, some of those you look at him and you just know. Somebody put a lot of extra time and that's when they really need it to. It's an interesting thought to think that these people would have had a specific widespread name for this style of point. It would have been a common word, but it existed and disappeared before written languages appeared on the earth will never know. But they sure as heck didn't call them Folsom points. As a matter of fact, Folsom New Mexico was named after the fiance of the American president Grover Cleveland. Her name was France's Folsom. Man, she got more than she bargained for, and I'm about tired of people name and stuff after famous leaders or their girlfriends in hopes of gaining political collateral. You guys remember the Cumberland gap, don't you? Naming conventions are weird and rarely just. Though human technology has changed, we know that human nature hasn't, and some ancient hunter May a name the dad gun point after his girlfriend. We'll never know. But we've got more important questions with more definite answers. Back together. So why was this point so functional? Because it probably had some function to head to. Yeah. To answer that, I have to go in a little bit about the background of my research, which big part of it was what I'd call realistic experiment. And if you're familiar with that ash, but you'll probably familiar with this because these are the kinds of experiments that he prefers test hunting arrows. And what you do is basically you have a carcass of an animal. It's we don't kill them the ranchers kill them. They've just died. And then we perform a projectile experiment on them where we're throwing replica at alls and darts and shooting arrows and tracking the velocity, tracking where they've hit, and then butchering and with stone tools and then taking the bones and cleaning them. But we keep all the meat. And so that allows you to track specific impacts to specific bones. You can look at the performance as they penetrate and all that. We've done one on a bison and included in that were big heavy darts a couple of big strong throwers drawing them myself. Donnie dust, you may oh, yeah. He's a self described modern caveman. The problem we run into with the Clovis points is that LL darts like I said, they're flexible. When you throw them, they flex, and they compensate for the arching motion of the throw. And they actually continue to flex down range. Okay. When they hit with a lot of momentum, a lot of energy, that acts not only on the target, but back on the projectile. So you have to have a really well designed really robust shaft. If you have any bindings or the four shaft fits in, where the point is have it on, all that has to be really well engineered. And if you're hunting big animals, that's what you want. You know, Donnie was able to throw a point that heavy ass start and hit a bison rib and it fractured the ribbon half and continue to penetrate into the vitals of the bison. And we're getting penetration through and through that animal with these heavy darts. Past all the way through. Like poking out the other side. Intrinsic. So these weapons are powerful. Yeah. The problem is when they hit with kind of a skewed angle. You can have a couple different things happen that's not good. The half fails because the notches, the wooden notches they're holding the point in, snap. And you don't get any penetration. So if the point impacts the animal at an angle at a slight, slightly skewed angle. Gotcha. And especially if it's hitting bone, that's the real problem. Because you needed a broadside, you need to hit them like perpendicular to that bone. You would preferably hit them, yeah. But that's not always going to happen just because of the nature of the weapon. Or you might have it that the point is dislodged in the half and it's kind of turned sideways through the half. And you get failed penetration. That happened a few times. That happened with unfolded Clovis forms. When you flew these things, they're fitting kind of down deep into the notches. That does a couple things. First off, it reduces that lateral motion. So they're locked in there with those fluting channels. And then the second thing it does is that those flutes slim down the half. If you're running a big animal, you want an efficient projectile. We know that as hunters, this is something that I see archeologists overlooking sometimes is if you're hunting big animals, there's a real incentive to make an effective well designed projectile point. Part of what's going to entail is a slim haft because when the hafting part goes in, if it's big and bulky, that's when you see a lot of deceleration suddenly. Okay, so a thinner point means there's more wood around the base of that point a half so that it's stronger when it impacts. Yeah. Wood or we find these weird things called the people call bone rods and actually there are there's at least one for shaft with the actual haft. The notch is cut for a point to fit in. I know I believe it's from Oregon, and that's made out of antler or bone. And that's ancient. So they were trying to compensate for the wooden shaft breaking when it hit. So they said, man, we're going to do something different. And they used it. There's a possibility that some of those bone rods those kind of slat like segments were used in as notches. It was certainly a more sturdy haft. That's an idea that comes out of these realistic experiments. You're trying to reverse engineer these things and use them in these trial and error experiments. You get, you get certain insights like this. The channels lock in the point reduce lateral movement and since you have a long halved with a case of closed points, you have bit of blade sticking out. They have a lot of leverage to break those halfing notches. And you want it to be slim and good at penetrating. The way I think of clothes and Folsom points is that they're coming out of this tradition of landslide points. And where you have things this way. They fit down deeply into these four shafts. You want them to be good at penetrating. And so one way you can try and resolve this issue is by fluting the base. And so maybe what's going on with Folsom is they're really trying to lock in those points. They're trying to make them durable. They're part of a composite, durable, heavy shaft that carries a lot of energy, but is able to break through bones, that to me explains it. Yeah. So by having the flute go all the way to the tip of the point, you can really shove that thing in deep. So that would emit there would have been wood way up on the point. Yeah. And there would have been blade that would be below. Blade along the margins of the half. Yeah, so they were one benefit there is that you support the stone, it's not very flexible, obviously. And you get these bending fractures. Where would you put the sinu to attach the further down the base, they were grinding the bases so that they don't, you know, when you wrap it with sinew, when you do get those skewed impacts or any kind of impact that pushes the point to the side and the half, it can cut through its own bindings, so they ground the bases so they would have put send you on parts of the blade. Up the up the base that was ground, and then you just have this transition where they're no longer grinding it. And so the forward section of the point is unground sharp. Devon did a great job of explaining the details of the functionality of the halfing advantages of the Folsom style point, using his real world experience. So now we've got an understanding of the broad picture, the potential reasons why they implemented this radical technology, but here's an interesting question when did they move away from this technology? When did they stop doing that? So there was a point when we know that they started floating points. And then when did the technology shift after Folsom? So Clovis folks develop the technology and their fluting points. Fulsome take it to really kind of an extreme. I mean, when you're taking a point that to begin with is only four millimeters or so in thickness. And then you're driving off a thin flake that may be just one to two millimeters, that's serious skill. So the technology the pendulum swung really far. Yeah, that happens all the time. Absolutely. Everything. Absolutely. So eventually they were like, hey, guys, this isn't. We've gone too far down that road. Let's back up. I guarantee this happened. 'cause this happens in my life with my dad. My dad gives me a hard time about gear that I use, you know, because he used this kind of gear and I use this kind of game. I guarantee you there was some Folsom grandpa who was like, dad, gum, those young kids, they quit flute in those points. Yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah. Yeah. So the stuff that comes after Folsom is unfolded, but it works just as well. Which told you that floating wasn't necessary. Because you could do it for the next 10,000 years. Nobody was floating points, and they were still killing it. I bet those guys that started doing stuff different made fun of the old Folsom floaters. Or just said, look at all that stone you were wasting because 40% of the time you can't get it right. Way to minute fluting wasn't necessary? What's the whole point of this podcast? My romantic stone point dreams are crushed. And I'm intrigued by this idea of the shift to a new design and how that happened. I wonder how long it took. I wonder if it upset people. I wonder if it was a Folsom floaters kid that started doing something different or an outside influence from another region. We'll never know, but it's probably not much different than the reasons you and I changed gear over time. Maybe we just got tired of the old stuff and wanted to try something new. That seems to be a trend in human history. Here's Steve and I talking about the technology transition. You know what's wild to think about is a Folsom hunter would have been walking across the landscape or would have been in a camp, a historical campsite, and would have picked up a Clovis point, which predated him. Yeah. And he probably would have been having. They probably had podcasts back then, where the Folsom people talked about the Clovis people like we're talking about Folsom. There are sites where post post columbians. So when we use like pre Columbian times, like pre contact times, there are post Columbia Native American sites where in their collections of things were Folsom points. So they saw them as significant and old recognized as something and kept it. Wow. And kept it among their things. They had to have talked about the technology too, because they would have seen the difference in technology and understood that something changed and they did something different than they used to. And they had to would have thought that what they're doing now is better than what those guys were doing or they would have done it like the guys back then because they were shooting it out of bows. They were probably like, huh, that's not a flagon. That's not gonna work. So I go flag at a half an arrow out of a little thin little arrow. You'd have to think they would have looked and been like, yeah, I could figure that out. I could, you know, I get what they were doing there, but it's not something I would make. Not how we do it now,.

Folsom New Mexico Donnie Grover Cleveland Devin Cumberland hunter France Folsom grandpa Oregon Wood Devon Folsom hunter Columbian times Steve Columbia
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

14:37 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"That's removed. So there's no way I thought that was gonna work. Oh, it's nice. Really, you're holding this three inch long point. Hitting it with a big clubby looking hammer basically, right? And it takes off this delicate flute off the side. And awesome. When you see this process happen, it almost seems miraculous that this long flute just peels off with a single strike. But he's just halfway through. He's still got to do the other side. But I'll save you the stress and drama. Rick was successful at getting a partial flute on the other side, but it wouldn't have been considered a true Folsom style point. Rick said it would be closer to the partial fluting of the Clovis style point. And if you're interested in watching Rick make a point, I'll put a short clip on my Instagram, and you can also follow Rick at pack rat bushcraft on Instagram. The biggest question that remains unanswered is why did they take the risk of such extreme fluting? The point would have killed animals without the fluting, but they employed this technology across vast geographic regions for 1000 years. Think about this. What other technologies in human history have been used for that long? The wheel, the plow? We've been using some form of gunpowder and guns for a little over a thousand years. At the time they might have thought about the fulsome point like we do gunpowder. As an essential thing. Here's Steve and I are talking about the longevity of the technology and entertaining a very interesting idea. The consistency that you see that is clearly handed down through human communication that spread across broad geographic distances for long periods of time. That these people were able to pass down values that yeah, they passed on a technique of a way to make a point. But think about you and I were trying to do with our kids right now, Steve is like we're trying to pass down a value system to them. And all that's left of the Folsom hunters is this piece of stone. Yeah. But there was a bunch of other stuff that came with that too. The culture, what they valued, what they worshiped, what they saw beauty in was translated and it was taught to that son just like it was his ability to nap Folsom point because it wasn't just like one generation and it was thousands of years of people and they did it the same. And that's why that brings up an interesting point is why did they flute this? And I want to hear your thoughts on why they floated it because it's clear that this was a difficult process, the advantages of it killing stuff are because that's the way we would look at it as hunters is like, what's the advantage of this projectile point killing something more efficient so that my family eats rather than starves. And so that's a pretty heated debate. There's an idea that is tossed out there that it was non utilitarian that the point was fluted that it was and I'm not saying I buy it. I'm just saying I like the idea. I used to like that idea too. I used like the idea too. And let's just be fair and acknowledge right now. We don't know, we don't know. We ain't gonna find out. But hear me out. Ice like that, too. Then I realized that there's a joke. There's a joke among anthropologists. If you don't understand, what do you do? You say that muscle had spiritual significance. Religious significance. If you dig a site and you find that there's 5 bison schools at the site and the bison school seem to have been roughly arrayed in a circle, it must have had spiritual significance. Not that. What are they doing that day? And how those carcasses were scavenged by dire wolves and dragged around or whatever happened to just so happens that that's how it ends up there. Or that you're finishing up and your kids are messing around and they put them in a little pile, you know, that tendency to look at things and be like, huh, most have had spiritual significance. There's also just a lot of who knows a long time past. Another give you something on the converse side real quick. I could see the fact that they did it a certain way and they did it that way for a long time. Being a way to make you think that it must have had spiritual significance, right? But it could also be that these were people who lived in extreme isolation at that time. I mean, there were, there were people, there were at the time of the Folsom hunters. There were human beings stretched from Alaska to the southernmost tip of South America, but these people bison hunters out on the plains might have been living in such a sort of cultural isolation that they had an idea. They had a thing they hunted in the way they hunted it and they went thousand years whatever it is without someone coming in and being like, no, no, no, you've always got it all wrong. Here's how you make a good productive. Yeah, here's how you make a good project up one. So maybe there is the way they did it, work for them, and they weren't subject to a lot of new ideas and here's this like these people that had this lifestyle that they live far longer, far longer than any notion of the United States of America has been around. They were at it for a long time. Yeah. Just me sitting here in a chair. My valueless interpretation of it is that it was just it was a function of the equipment they were using. Here we go again with Steve trying to completely rationalize the functional argument for the fluidity of the Folsom points. Here he is with his final thought on making these things. Another cool thing is that certain sites they'll find where someone's making one and they break it. So they're channeling it and break it. There are museum specimens of a never used Folsom point broken and lying next to it and matched to it is the channel flake that came out of it. Knocked the channel out once knocked their channel out, broke the thing, dropped it all done. At the end of the ice age, people who probably wouldn't have been unreasonable, they would have run into a one of the last mammoth roaming around and then some dude day goes, oh, here's a point. Oh, here's the channel, like, and they matched pears. But that I just can't, I think it's utilitarian, man. It just doesn't make it to a coldest point. The Clovis hunters who are using that landscape ahead of the false hunter's probably had were probably after that opportunities on much bigger animals because they were like, this is occurring at what we call the pleistocene housing transition. So the end of the ice ages and you had all this megafauna vanishing. Giant ground sloths, mammoths, mastodons, or vanishing from the landscape. The guys before had a very beautiful, finely wrought point that was big, and then here's this, it's tidy. These big huge animals start to vanish. And then who lives there next? People are making a smaller point. Great point on the size of the Clovis points as compared to the size of the animals they were hunting. But you'd think a guy like Steve would like to entertain a little more romantic thinking in his life. However, I think his point about its utilitarian design is well taken. But maybe it's not that cut and dry. It's possible that it could have been viewed as highly functional, but also held significant beyond that. Let's see what doctor Meltzer has to say. We actually don't know why they flew at these points. There's no particular obvious reason with some colleagues we have hypothesized that the way in which these things were fluted and the way in which these things were have to disappear might have actually served kind of as a shock absorber in the sense that the waves of force would travel through and instead of the point banging into the back end, the base of the flute, where it was thinnest, and again, one to two millimeters thick, it would just crumble. Like a bumper on a car. The bumper on a car is intended to give way it crumbles so your car doesn't break when you hit something. The base of the flute was so thin that it might have crumbled and prevented the entire weight. So the wave of force travels through, it's going to rebound back, but if the base crumbles, all that energy is going to get dissipated. You can remake the portion that broke off and use it again. Exactly. That is the most unique thing about these Folsom points is the mystery of the fluting. I read in your book where it's been discussed that perhaps it was non utilitarian, which means that it served no functional purpose, but was a cultural purpose. And I would like to make a comment on that, doctor melter. As a bow hunter, and as a hunter, when we see this throughout history that cultures do distinguish themselves in establish, identity through the way that they hunt, we do it today. I do it every day of my life. The weapons that I used to hunt are part of my tribal identity, of course. I really like this idea that it's kind of a romantic idea that these people would have been doing something that took an incredible amount of skill to do and actually jeopardized, they say that there's a high percentage of failure when you get a point to the 30 to 40% failure rate in manufacturing. So it's totally inefficient. Absolutely. Absolutely. But why the humans do all the weird things that we do exactly are completely non functional think that to think that this style, this technology, this is essentially a technology that would have been passed down from generation to generation and there may have come a point when the guy was like, why are you still fluting those silly things? They break every time. And you know, at some point that shifted away from that technology, just like it would today, but so much mystery inside of a fluted, Folsom point. Right. But you know, there's hunting magic too. You're going to go out there and you want to have your best weaponry. But, you know, you also want to have your distinctive points. You're going to make your stuff. You're going to be in charge of your gear. And you know, there may be a bit of ceremony associated with going out on a hunt because look, going after an animal that was that big and could be that dangerous there's two risks in hunting. One is the risk you're going to come home empty handed. And the other risk is you're not going to come home at all because you're dead. Right? And so in some in some projectile points, at some sites, you see bits of red ochre, right? They're putting and it may not just be sort of part of the mastic that's holding the point on. It may be that there were ceremonies in advance of the hunt. And everybody's got their own weaponry that they make their own particular way. One of the things that was really interesting to me at the Folsom site, which I could never possibly prove, but it's just one of those things that, you know, I'll bet it's right. I look at the assemblage of the projectile points from that site, and I am convinced that I can identify at least three separate nappers based on the style of the points that they make. And how would you ever prove that? You can, right? But I look at these things and I say, you know what? That really looks like the same person. Yes. And I'm not saying the same guy. Who knows? Maybe the women were making false and points too. I'm willing to bet the same person made this point and that point and a different person made those two points. And think about it too if you want credit? I don't know when you go out hunting with guys. Do you say it was my shot? I had the kill shot. And you can tell because that's my arrow. Yours is over there stuck in a tree. So you would have been able to distinguish. Yeah. You know, that is so unique even today amongst Flint mappers. Is that it's a craft. It's an art. It's almost like a fingerprint. Back in September, I got a Helix Mattress, and I'm being quite serious when I say it is the most comfortable mattress that I have ever slept on. What's unique about helix is that you take a quiz that takes just two minutes to complete and it matches your body type and sleep preferences to the perfect customized mattress. Everybody has a unique sleep pattern. Helix knows that, so they have different models for you to choose from. They have soft medium and firm mattresses and mattresses that even help you cool down if you sleep hot, mattresses that are good for spinal alignment to prevent morning aches and pains, which I did have with my former mattress, helix even has plus size mattresses for plus size sleepers. I took the helix quiz and was matched with their midnight model mattress because I wanted something that was medium firmness and I truly love the mattress. I have slept better in the last several months than I have ever, and that is very true. So if you're looking for a mattress, you take the quiz you order the mattress that your match to and the mattress comes right to your door shipped for free. You don't need to go to the mattress store. Helix is awesome and you don't need to take my word for it. Helix was awarded the best overall mattress pick of 2020 by GQ and wired magazines. They have a ten year warranty and you get to try it out for a hundred nights risk free. They'll even pick it up for you if you don't love it, but you will. Helix has financing options, flexible payment plans, so a great night's sleep is never far away. Just go to Helix Sleep dot com slash clay. Take their two minute quiz. They'll match you to a customized mattress that will give you the best sleep of your life. Now helix is offering up to $200 off all mattress orders and you get two free pillows for the listeners of the bear grease podcast at Helix Sleep dot com slash clay. Helix Sleep dot com slash clay for a customized mattress.

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

06:15 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Again. That's what happens. That broke the era. But yeah, I'll tell you what, I'm gonna clean it up just a little bit. And what basically what this means now is we're gonna end up with a shorter point because I'm knocked the rear, one of the ears off. Yeah. His first hit broke the base. He's gearing up for his second strike. Here we go. Okay. That's not bad. Man. Yeah. You can see that if I flip it over, there's the flute. That's removed. So there's no way I thought that was gonna work. Oh, it's nice. Really, you're holding this three inch long point. Hitting it with a big clubby looking hammer basically, right? And it takes off this delicate flute off the side. And awesome. When you see this process happen, it almost seems miraculous that this long flute just peels off with a single strike. But he's just halfway through. He's still got to do the other side. But I'll save you the stress and drama. Rick was successful at getting a partial flute on the other side, but it wouldn't have been considered a true Folsom style point. Rick said it would be closer to the partial fluting of the Clovis style point. And if you're interested in watching Rick make a point, I'll put a short clip on my Instagram, and you can also follow Rick at pack rat bushcraft on Instagram. The biggest question that remains unanswered is why did they take the risk of such extreme fluting? The point would have killed animals without the fluting, but they employed this technology across vast geographic regions for 1000 years. Think about this. What other technologies in human history have been used for that long? The wheel, the plow? We've been using some form of gunpowder and guns for a little over a thousand years. At the time they might have thought about the fulsome point like we do gunpowder. As an essential thing. Here's Steve and I are talking about the longevity of the technology and entertaining a very interesting idea. The consistency that you see that is clearly handed down through human communication that spread across broad geographic distances for long periods of time. That these people were able to pass down values that yeah, they passed on a technique of a way to make a point. But think about you and I were trying to do with our kids right now, Steve is like we're trying to pass down a value system to them. And all that's left of the Folsom hunters is this piece of stone. Yeah. But there was a bunch of other stuff that came with that too. The culture, what they valued, what they worshiped, what they saw beauty in was translated and it was taught to that son just like it was his ability to nap Folsom point because it wasn't just like one generation and it was thousands of years of people and they did it the same. And that's why that brings up an interesting point is why did they flute this? And I want to hear your thoughts on why they floated it because it's clear that this was a difficult process, the advantages of it killing stuff are because that's the way we would look at it as hunters is like, what's the advantage of this projectile point killing something more efficient so that my family eats rather than starves. And so that's a pretty heated debate. There's an idea that is tossed out there that it was non utilitarian that the point was fluted that it was and I'm not saying I buy it. I'm just saying I like the idea. I used to like that idea too. I used like the idea too. And let's just be fair and acknowledge right now. We don't know, we don't know. We ain't gonna find out. But hear me out. Ice like that, too. Then I realized that there's a joke. There's a joke among anthropologists. If you don't understand, what do you do? You say that muscle had spiritual significance. Religious significance. If you dig a site and you find that there's 5 bison schools at the site and the bison school seem to have been roughly arrayed in a circle, it must have had spiritual significance. Not that. What are they doing that day? And how those carcasses were scavenged by dire wolves and dragged around or whatever happened to just so happens that that's how it ends up there. Or that you're finishing up and your kids are messing around and they put them in a little pile, you know, that tendency to look at things and be like, huh, most have had spiritual significance. There's also just a lot of who knows a long time past. Another give you something on the converse side real quick. I could see the fact that they did it a certain way and they did it that way for a long time. Being a way to make you think that it must have had spiritual significance, right? But it could also be that these were people who lived in extreme isolation at that time. I mean, there were, there were people, there were at the time of the Folsom hunters. There were human beings stretched from Alaska to the southernmost tip of South America, but these people bison hunters out on the plains might have been living in such a sort of cultural isolation that they had an idea. They had a thing they hunted in the way they hunted it and they went thousand years whatever it is without someone coming in and being like, no, no, no, you've always got it all wrong. Here's how you make a good productive. Yeah, here's how you make a good project up one. So maybe there is the way they did it, work for them, and they weren't subject to a lot of new ideas and here's this like these people that had this lifestyle that they live far longer, far longer than any notion of the United States of America has been around. They were at it for a long time. Yeah. Just me sitting here in a chair. My valueless interpretation of it.

Rick Steve bison school Folsom South America Alaska United States of America
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

07:53 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Driven up the face on both sides from the base, a big flute. And what this is is it's a flake that runs almost the entire length of the point and just takes this channel. Takes the side of it. So if it's like a three inch, imagine a three inch point and you just could just take a saw and just cut a slab of the side of it off. Yeah, if you could just, I would say if you could take your point and take a gouge and just gouge out a nice channel. Yeah. Out of both sides. Both sides. Yeah, but you have to deal with that. That makes it thin. It makes some very good. Would it be done with one motion? Yes. They got to get right one time. Pop, hit it. Yeah. And probably what they had since they were doing. This was a cultural what we call an industry is stone tool industry. They had a specific method of doing it that everybody knew and that worked for them. And probably for Clovis points and Folsom points that were fluted. That probably entailed some kind of a vice or a way to hold the point tightly and then make a very controlled strike probably with what we call indirect percussion where you actually taking the tool that's going to do the work of not driving off the flake and you're taking another tool that you use as a hammer to strike that. Okay. So you can see it be like, you're trying to knock a flake off a rock, you'd put a chisel on top of The Rock and then clack it. You can get the indirect indirect percussion. Your chisel analog is right on because you could get the angle of it just right. You could put it right where you want it and hold it just straight angle and then quack. That's probably either driving off those flakes and a very controlled fashion that was extremely they had an art down to make these things. The craft involved in making these points is undeniable and I want us to be immersed into the process of making a Folsom point. I want to hear it. There's some real world drama because of the investment of time and using the valuable material that much energy was expended to acquire, and the risky floating process right at the end either makes or breaks the point. No pun intended. Seems like the burger's podcast there's a lot of putts. But I want you to meet my friend Rick Spicer. He's an experienced mountaineer and a bushcraft expert. He's one of the owners of a cool outdoor store in Fayetteville Arkansas called the pack rat. Aside from climbing big mountains, Rick is a primitive bow hunter. He makes his own bows and naps his own stone points for hunting. I asked Rick if he'd be willing to try to make us a Folsom point, which he doesn't do very often, but he agreed to try. Okay, so what I've got here are a handful of different preforms or bifaces is another term that they're often referred to as a preform is simply kind of like a first stage of a stone point that an indigenous person first people would have created that would have been lighter weight that they could have carried with them. And then from there, they could have further refine that more into a specific tool. So this would have been this is like a three inch point. This would have been like a big rock. So they wouldn't want to carry on. So they would have gone to, you know, like in alaba or quarry, a stone core that would have quarried this and obviously stones heavy. Like, they don't want to carry any more than they have to. So they would have cord this out, they would have done what's called spalling that would have cracked off pieces of that. And then from those balls, they would have further refine those down into these bifaces or pre forms. And then they would have hauled those off to their hunting sites and then a camp, they would have further refine those into specific tools. Exactly. So you have some, so you've already built these preforms for us today because that would have taken time. This was a whole hour. Tell me how you're going to turn that into a full something. Yeah, so that's where the rubber meets the road, right? And so the thing about your real fulsome. Right, right, right. So the thing that's so unique about the Folsom is the fluting process. And basically what you're doing in that process is you're striking it at the base of the preform to remove a very large flake off of it. When you're thinning that point down to basically the maximum amount so that when you fit it in the four shaft, it's very, very easy. You basically just splitting a stick and sliding it into the end of it. And by removing these flutes and what's really unique is the way that it's symmetrical. It's on both sides. And to do that on a Folsom point and not break the thing is really, really hard. So talk to me about how they think they did that with the jigs with. Yeah, so there's kind of three ways you can go about getting a flight to release on one of these types of points. One way is through direct percussion. And it's the most simple, but it's arguably the most difficult. And basically you're going to hold the thing in your hand and you're going to strike it with a hammer stone or an antler or something like that. And you're just going to try to knock the flake off. But there's so many things that can go wrong, trying to do that. To get the angle right to hit it in the right spot, all that type of stuff you end up breaking them a lot. The second way is going to be through indirect percussion. And that's where you use what's called a punch typically. You're going to put that on the side or basically lay it on the platform and then hit that tool with another tool with the hammer. That allows you a greater degree of control over the angle and the striking surface, but it's still a lot to now you're working with like multiple things and trying to hold it all together, which is really hard. And the final way and I think a lot of anthropologists and certainly nappers would agree that it's likely that they were using a jig of some kind. Now modern nappers have man-made jigs that they use out of lumber and that sort of thing. But I have seen I've never done this myself, but I've seen demonstrations where basically you're driving a couple of sticks into the ground, you're putting the point upside down, embracing it up against these two sticks, which provide a stable surface to press against. Right. And then they're using a lever to sort of gradually apply pressure and basically like pop that flute off of the back. Yeah. And it's a very, I don't have experience of doing it. I'm not used jigs before. I've always used either direct percussion or indirect percussion. But I also break a lot of points in the process, so with this, though, we're using heavy duty tools at a late stage point in the process. Where it's brittle, it's thin and the likelihood of doing something wrong and busting the thing is really they say that they estimate 30 to 40% failure even with the falsehoods and people. Let's do it. Yeah, let's get it going. So I'm gonna basically work away, Rick is working on building a platform at the base of the point that will give him a specific spot to strike. That in theory will cause the entire side of the point to flake off with one strike. The likelihood of failure seems really high to me. What are the chances this is gonna be this is gonna work. I'd say there's a 50% chance I'll get a decent flute on it. There's probably a 20, 30% chance that I'll break it and an 10% chance that we're gonna get a flute that's even remotely close to a full some style flute. So yeah, so the platform is ready to go. Again, this is a direct percussion method. So I'm going to take, in this case, the copper billet, and I'm going to strike it at a steep angle to try to get a flute to release down the center of this thing. I.

Rick Spicer Rick Clovis Folsom Fayetteville Arkansas
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

08:38 min | 11 months ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"To look into the technology and design the Folsom stone point. These points were first discovered in the wild horse Arroyo in Folsom New Mexico, scattered amongst the remains of 32 bison antiques. If you've been listening to this series, you know all this stuff. These bison were killed some 10,000 years ago by ancient human hunters. Some of the first Americans, the technology at this point was radical in terms of its engineering, and the reasoning of the ancient hunters to employ this risky style of point is a mystery. All the experts agree the design has utilitarian function, but the reward of that function came with great cost, and some believe there was more to the point than just in the field performance. Was it cultural? Was it spiritual? It was at the tendency of early man, just like it is today to push engineering to the furthest side of the pendulum before the system breaks. We'll never know the full answer, but we're in search of why they fluted these points. I feel pretty good about what we've learned regarding the events of this ancient hunt that we've been dissecting. We've covered a lot of ground while we've been in pursuit of our layman's PhD on Folsom. From George in the former slave who found the site to the speculation on how the kill went down to Gourmet butchering to who these ancient people were and how they lived along the way we've been leaning on the inside of Steve brunella meat eater. His insight and ability to ask some interesting questions have helped open a broader vista on this subject. Here's Steve, opening up our conversation on the uniqueness of the Folsom points and the inferences that can be made about these people because of their craftsmanship. The finest of a folsome point. The craftsmanship that goes into making a Folsom point, where you make this very perfect point, every one of them kind of falls into a certain dimensional characteristics, certain shape. You do something really hard to make a point. And then you do something like knock these channel out of each face, running the length of the point, which has a very high failure rate. So even people know like contemporary navra to try to experience it. It's hard to make the thing and knock the thing out most are not going to work. Just a delicate seeming but probably very deadly thing. And so finally rotten from such perfect stone, did I think that adds a lot to the mythology of the Folsom hunter. And to demonstrate, I mean, I used to be friends. He passed away, but a guy that introduced me to the Folsom site. His name was Tony baker. He come from long line of anthropologists, arrowhead hunters. He would talk about some cultures, just the projectile points. He didn't seem to like the culture. I don't mean a way like judging them. He couldn't get excited about certain cultures because they used a lot of junk stone and their points were and their points were crude in course. And he was making insinuations about who they were, their character. They were they weren't picky about the stone they used. They were sloppy. They would leave they would leave like they wouldn't clean every face. So sometimes they had like a patina to it. And he was just like, dismissive. Not like dismissive of the religion or the belief system. He just couldn't get excited about people that made that use karate stone to make a rather crude implement. The guy had been an engineer. He liked the Folsom point to him. It was like, no, that's a good people. His attitude, you know. Think about if you use that same idea and projected in the future of what people would say about us. It's a judgment you make when you drive down the road, man. You see, you know, you see a nice house. Everything's organized, nice, beautiful garden. There's a boat. Boat looks rigged up, ready to go. You're like, hey, it looks an industrious person, you know? And then you go buy a place and everything's all falling down and disrepair and junk everywhere. You most I'm not saying you, most people make up old passing judgment about what that person's they're sort of like how they feel about craftsmanship, how they feel about organization. Whether they're fastidious and tidy, you know? And in a similar way, I look at that point and I'm like, holy cow, man. We're in fern, a lot from the beautiful point. Let's say someone somehow anthropological techniques get buried. So sophisticated that we learned somehow that the Folsom hunters really yelled at their wives all the time, okay? Terribly rude to their wives. I'd be like, oh, man, that kind of goes against my impression. Never based on the projectile. Never never meet your heroes, Dave. You never want to meet your heroes. Based on the projectile points I find that very disappointed. Perhaps they were a little bit thuggish with their lives. It's a very real idea that how we manage our material things reflect some parts of our internal value system. Do you think that's fair? Do you think that we're coming to accurate conclusions when we infer this much about these people from the craftsmanship of their stone points? I figure it's pretty accurate and no doubt an interesting thought. Like I said before, doctor David melzer of SMU literally wrote the book on fulsome. And before we get much further, we need to understand what a fulsome point looks like and how it's made. And it would probably help if you took a second and Googled Folsom point and looked at an image of one. Here's doctor Meltzer describing what they look like. So Folsom points are some of the really wonderful examples of Flint mapping. You will ever encounter. They tend to be about I'm going to do this in centimeters because I've been doing this. I don't know the centimeters, doctor Meltzer. Okay, so if you were a false and point, you'd be in two and a half to two inches long. Okay. There we go. We're going to have to go millimeters though here, clay, because I can't tell you what two to three millimeters in thickness is. Understood. Like an 8th of an inch thick that less than a quarter, much less than a quarter. We might be we might be talking sixteenths. Make them about an inch wide. And they have this very distinct flute. Think of it as a 20th century bayonet, right? A groove up the face. And in fact, when they were first discovered, it was thought because when they were first discovered, it was World War I was just a decade less than a decade old. It was thought that these were actually bloodletting channels. But then they realized that for better penetration. Well, for better penetration and then, you know, the animals bleeding, and it just goes down that channel and out. Well, as it turns out, these points were hafted by which we mean they were attached to spears. And the base of the point would have been anchored in the tip of a spear and it would be wrapped and held in place. And there might be some four shafts or perhaps a notch at the top of the spear in which the point would be wrapped up. Oh, he's got one. I've got one in my hands. This is not authentic, fulsome. And in fact, it's a replica Folsom point. But the base of the point would have been or anchored into the tip of the spear. It might have been wrapped by sinew. They might have used some sort of mastic to kind of glue it in there. But what that means is that the fluid itself would have been buried inside the half area, so it couldn't have been a very good bloodletting channel. These points were beautifully symmetrical. They were often finally trimmed with what we referred to as gentle sort of pressure flaking up and down the edge. Quite sharp and would be used for hunting. These are not necessarily points that often had multi uses. So earlier, Clovis points, we often see that they were used as knives as well as projectiles. These things are built to hunt. These are really this is a specialized point. Yeah, it's a point that is intended to bring down an animal, but a lot of the time because it's so thin. It's thinness makes it fragile. We often see impact damage. When stone meets bone at high velocity, it breaks..

Folsom Steve brunella Tony baker Arroyo New Mexico David melzer Meltzer Googled Folsom George karate Steve SMU Dave spears Clovis
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

29:05 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"The site the most important in North American history at the time. We talked about George mcjunkin in part one, in part two we talked about the nuts and bolts of the Folsom site and how they unearthed the remains of 32 bison antiques, a relic form of ice age bison no longer here, but the real kicker was they found around 20 stone projectile points in the bone pile, giving us undisputable evidence that they were killed by humans thus proving human antiquity in the Americas was much older than we thought. And like I seen on a cake, the stone points were of a style that had never been documented. They were a unique fluted technology that would become known as Folsom points. These Folsom hunters weren't cartoon cave men. These were human beings with the same cognition, desires and rudimentary needs as us in 2021. These people experience pain and discomfort, emotional highs and lows from relationships, disappointment and failed dreams. Hope in what the next month might bring for their family. I don't have to tell you to do this, but put yourself in the shoes of the Folsom people. Imagine the cold, wearing clothes made of animal skin. Imagine no knowledge of the world beyond what you can see. Imagine being a pleistocene human. Because the life that you live is a very rare human experience. To put the fulsome people in our lives into context, stew on these numbers. It's estimated that a 117 billion homo sapiens have lived on Planet Earth since the dawn of time. By the year, 1000, there were 300,000 people on the earth. By 1650, roughly 50 million lived here. By the year 1800, there were 1 billion. In 2021, we have a population of 7.8 billion. The population of the earth today represents about 7% of the humans that have ever lived. It's hard to make sense of these numbers, but we can easily say that most humans that have lived have lived much different lives than us. No demographic data exists for 99% of human history. I got all these numbers from an article on PRB org called how many people have ever lived on the earth. It's pretty interesting. But what are the implications of a species do and stuff way different than we've ever done? What are the implications of being trapped in time and thinking that our lives are normal? That's exactly why looking back into the lives of these Folsom hunters has value. On the last podcast we heard from Steve rinella of meat eater and he helped walk us through the bison kill. He and doctor Meltzer believed that the bison were herded into a box canyon where they were met with a quote rain of spears. But Steve has another unanswered question. And hey, I can't say this with enough certainty. If you haven't listened to the first two podcasts, go back and listen to them in order. Here's Steve, jumping right in with some more unanswered questions. Here are some things we know that they were dealing with an animal that they could manipulate. They hauled meat away. They hauled some meat away on the bone. They took the tails somewhere, probably the tail stayed with the hide and they took the hides away because the tailbones aren't there. Here's the thing that kills me. They had that many animals on the ground. It had to have been days worth work, but they can't find where they slept. Somewhere around there within a couple hundred yards. Has to be the coolest place on the planet. If they had been well preserved, was where they slept in butchered all that stuff and cook stuff. Well, let me ask you a question about finding their campsite. So when I was at the Folsom site, I was struck by how small it was. It's not like they came in there with, you know, big caterpillar cranes and started just cleared out four or 5 acres of ground. I mean, the whole fulsome site that they actually excavated can't be more than 60 70 feet by 60 70 feet, so it's just this square. And now granted, they took that square and they dug out every single grain of sand and dirt from the surface to like ten feet down. I mean, essentially. But you got to remember that it was there was the two digs. The first guys went in there with a wrecking ball. Yeah. In the 1920s. Yep. Later people went in there, Meltzer. Went in there, let's be honest. He went in there in a way that in a hundred years will probably be regarded as he went in there like a rack and ball. Part of the restraint of modern day archeologist anthropologist is to leave some of that stuff intact because you just know that through technological progression. Wow. The same way that when those guys dug in the 20s, they were looking for. They wanted big bones. They wanted stone tools and air and air to wash and stuff away. All the seeds and pollen and small flakes and things that may be like little, some ability to extract DNA from other contemporaneous creatures that might have been associated just gone, right? You could imagine some future in which someone could go in and tell you a lot more. They'd be like, I don't know, they'd be like, this temperature that day. There were fires burning somewhere nearby. There's evidence of a mixture of male and female humans based on dander. You know, who knows? But in 1920 they weren't going to imagine radiocarbon dating. Yeah. If you just said to a guy in 1920, you know what? Hang tight on that because before long. He'll tell you the exact date this happened. He had been like, give me a break. I mean, basically, we think we're so technologically advanced in 2021. But we are going off of just hints. I mean, some cowboy back in, you know, 1908, randomly saw bones sticking out of a bank, went and pulled a bone and here we have that false sight. Yeah. And now we're banking almost we're banking so much off this seemingly coincidental find by this cowboy. Yeah. And that Arroyo's channel moves all the time. When I was there, I went in the new channel, which is over yonder awaits. And now the channel is off in a different direction now. And I was over in the other new channel off yonder that's been caught since McDonald. Guess what I found. It killed me. I found a big bone sticking out of the wall. And I was a year down there at the pulls themselves with an archeologist. This bone is 12 feet from the top of the ground. I told you the story before, and there was every part of me. Wanted to pluck that bone out of there. And that guy was with the state archeologist house was having none of it. He took some photos of it. This isn't in the renala collection. He took some photos of it. He took a GPS way point of it. But I was like, how can you resist? He's a pro. Did they ever go back? I don't know. I don't think so. You know, there's a little bit of restraint in place. You and I both like arrowheads lot. The argument about picking up junk on the ground is as hard as it is not to pick it up. Is you never know that you might be standing on the next Folsom site and you just ruined. It instead of George mcjunkin having said someone's gotta come look at this, right? He had just found some stuff and periodically went back and dug around the shovel and hauled it off and put it in a put the point that coffee can and then gave it to his grandkid in Illinois, right? And it never would have turned into turned into what it turned into. And then we still think, if that had happened, then we'd still think that humans have been here for 3000 years. Steve brought up two interesting points that we'll talk about later. Radiocarbon dating and the cultural effects of blowing up our understanding of human antiquity. How's that for foreshadowing? But first, I want to talk to the Folsom authority, doctor David melzer of SMU. We're going to jump right in after the kill and ask the question of what did they do with the meat. I want to talk about this idea of what we now call Gourmet butchering when they essentially took the prime cuts. And I think it's kind of interesting because we have this idea that paleo Indians or even Native Americans would have used every scrap and every possible piece of meat and bone for their subsistence. But these people didn't have refrigeration. They didn't have preservation or they didn't have modern preservation techniques for meat. So talk to me about the evidence that we have and what they used, what they took with them, what they preferred and how they did it. We actually need to clarify this a little bit in the sense that Gourmet butchering, it's a term that is used to describe the fact that they're basically taking all the good cuts and moving on. And that's certainly true of a lot of Folsom sites, but not all sites from this time period. If you're there, if you're hunting in the summer, your point is well taken. There's not a whole lot that you can preserve. You can butcher the meat hanging out really quickly. Hope it dries and the blowflies don't get into it. Or if you're living on the northern plains, yeah, actually you can make a kill. And if you're there through the winter, you can actually preserve it. We have some Folsom sites where people overwintered. And in those instances, they are using everything. Okay. All right. Because it was cold. Just because it was cold and if you're snowed in, you don't have a lot of options in terms of game that's wandering around or your ability to go after them. In fact, what's the old phrase they used to use in Chicago and the meat packing plants, use everything from the squeak to the tail? We have Gourmet butchering at the Folsom site proper and at a number of other fulsome sites where we had people on the move in the fall. They were going someplace to hunker down for the winter. And that tells us they were on the move. Absolutely. Absolutely, because they're only taking the good cuts. Had they had they stayed in that spot? We probably would have seen a very different record, because had they stayed in that spot, had winter set in, and they had these 32 animals. You can be pretty darn sure that by January, they're cracking open the toe bones and sucking out the marrow, because in fact, we see that at other Folsom period sites where people are hunkered down, so they're using absolutely everything. This idea of Gourmet butchering is a polite way of saying they left a bunch of usable meat. Today this would be illegal under our modern wanton waste laws. This is not a slight against these people at all. That would be a form of historical revision, applying today's value system out of context, but it's an interesting thought. If you remember in the boon series, old DB reported that while he was tracking the Indians that had kidnapped his daughter jemima, he found a quote writhing snake that the Indians had killed and not used. Secondly, they killed a buffalo and only took the hump meat. Again, this is not a slight against these people, but it does dismiss the romantic idea that 100% of the time indigenous people used 100% of the commodities from the animals they killed. Here's some more from doctor Meltzer. So what did they take at the fulsome site? They took the good stuff. So they took hump meat from the thoracic vertebra because the vertebra are gone. Yeah. In a lot of cases, and in some cases it looks as though they simply stripped out that big hump meat and left the big thoracic vertebra there. So they would a de boned de boned it. In some cases, it looks as though they snapped off entire rib racks. We have the ribs broken right at the head where it connects up to the spine. And it looks like they would just grab a whole rib rack, snap it off and haul that away. They took long bones, particularly the upper limb bones, bison, bison drum sticks. I like to refer to them because those would be easy to transport, right? You just kind of sling that on your shoulder and you go for a hike with it. What did they leave behind? They left behind heads, butts and feet. We also know that they did eat the tongues out of them, and we know that because of cut marks on the jaws. Yes, where the tongue attachment was. And we know that this is a delicacy at honestly it's not for me. I don't do tongue. But certainly a documented historic times and still today, tongue is considered a delicacy of bison and raw tongue. Doctor Meltzer has in his lab at SMU the jawbone found at fulsome that has the cut marks from a stone point. Pretty wild. If you've never had tongue, it's nothing more than a fine grained muscle once you remove the outer tongue skin. It's the most accessible chunk of meat on an animal that doesn't require skinning back hide and hair. It would kind of be like grabbing the fries out of a fast food bag and eating them before you knock down your burger. But let's get into some bigger questions. That's a lot of meat. I mean, I think about what it takes to process a single animal that we would kill in modern times with modern conveniences and modern transportation. We've got side by sides. We've got mules and horses. We've got trucks. I can't imagine carrying away that much meat. So my next question is like, who were these people and what were they doing? We actually know where they'd been. We think we know where they were headed. And we know the time of year. So we can conjure a story an inference, a narrative. What we know what we think we know is that they'd been on the Texas Panhandle. And we think we know that based on the types of stone that was used to manufacture their projectile points. How far would that be? Oh, we're talking hundreds of kilometers. Is it that far? Oh, yeah. All right, so what we know is that or what we infer is that these folks had most recently been in the Texas Panhandle area. In the area around Amarillo, where they obtained what's known as agates, agita dolemite, we just call it chart, and tokov is chert. The distance is just straight line distances from there to fulsome are on the order literally of hundreds of kilometers. Amarillo, the elevate source is about 260 kilometers away. The source for tacos is almost in 375 kilometers. That's like a 150 miles. Absolutely. Absolutely. And the reason we think that they were there most recently before they got to fulsome is that that's the dominant material at the site. We have other material that they had actually collected in far northeastern Colorado and what you're seeing there is their cycle. And so far as we can infer it based on the projectile points that we found because we found points that were made out of stone from each of those three areas and some like the home range of a wild animal. There you go. And if you look at a map, all of those river systems like the Canadian river and its tributaries, if you're leaving and kind of heading north northwest out of the Panhandle a lot of those drainages, they won't necessarily take you right to the Folsom site, but they're going to take you into the neighborhood. And there's a number of passes that go through there. The most famous of course is raton pass, where the Santa Fe trail came through. But just north of the Folsom site is another pass known as trinchera pass. It's not as well known as raton pass, but let's say that you've moved out of the Panhandle of Texas. You've headed sort of northwest out of that area. You end up in the neighborhood. You're going to have to get through this sort of range of high basalt mesas and volcanic peaks. And you're heading for trinchera pass. You're going up going up and you spot a small herd of bison. You know, often the distance. You send scouts kind of around and they come back and they say, you know what? There's a bottleneck. There's a pinch point on this array. So from trinchera pass, you could see the Folsom side. I can't quite see it, but if you were headed there, as it happens, the full subside is what 8 kilometers from the pass. And that's why I think that's where they were headed. I say, so you make the kill. And because it's September, October whenever, you know, plus or minus, right? This is an area that gets a lot of snow. You don't necessarily want to be stuck there in the winter. It's higher elevation. It's like it's 7000 feet, 7000 feet. Yeah. I was actually quite wrong about an aspect of this narrative, which I'm going to tell you about in a second. My original thinking, okay, so you make the kill. You butcher the animals, you take all the good stuff. You've done your Gourmet butchering gig. And then you just continue on through chinchero pass. You drop down into southeastern Colorado and you know you find some place to overwinter. Here's the part where I was wrong. It's always good to admit those sorts of things keeps you honest. I thought there's no way you're going to want to spend the winter at 7000 feet elevation. It's just going to be too cold too much snow. It's going to be too miserable. You're going to find some place lower down, protected valley, et cetera, et cetera. Then I got invited by a colleague out in gunnison, Colorado, who said, hey, I've got a Folsom site here. Well, as it turns out, that Folsom site is at about 8000 feet. It's in one of the coldest places in North America in the gunnison basin, and it was occupied through the winter. So I was wow. So here I'm thinking, okay, these guys are going to go to Florida. Exaggerating. But no, as it turns out, these folks were pretty darn adept at dealing with winter as I wasn't when I was sort of originally sort of thinking about Folsom was that they had to ski daddle out of there. No, no. I think what they were doing. So they get there, they make the kill. We know they'd been in northeastern Colorado before. So I think they used trencher pass to get past that geological formation, drop down into southeastern Colorado, where they went from there. I don't know. And so what I'm envisioning is that these folks were sort of moving up and down the front range. They weren't necessarily going deep into the mountains. They were mostly exploiting the environments that were on the edge of the mountains on the edge of the plains. And probably we're making a pretty darn good living doing so. I just can't get past the mystery of who these people were and what their daily lives might have been like. They are absolutely shrouded in uncrackable mystery. I've got more questions. Do we know much about their social groups or do we have any did these people at this time? Did they did they make art? Did they have social hierarchy? What do we know about the Folsom people? Yeah, so art definitely. The amount of artistic expression is hard to gauge, and the reason is is that in some societies, artistic expression is material. So you've got groups that are in Europe at this time that are paintings, spectacular paintings on cave walls, but artistic expression can also be elaborate stories. And things told around the campfire. Nowadays, we have artists, we have writers, we have musicians. In those days, they probably had what we could see as artists, writers, musicians, but they're not writers, they're weaving stories with their voice, right? Yeah, yeah. And they were probably making music. We haven't found a lot of musical instruments from this time. They were making material culture that was decorative. We didn't find any of that at Folsom. I mean, Folsom is, you know, this is a hunting group. They're just moving. It's just a kill site. But where we do have them, staying in place. That's when, you know, we start to see the other kinds of artifacts that are not just used for slaughtering 32 animals. In terms of their social hierarchy or not, we tend to think that these are egalitarian hunter gatherers, tell me what that means. So you sort of think about chieftains, where you've got somebody who's in charge. We don't think that the society was necessarily stratified in that manner. We start to see social stratification haves and have nots, much later in prehistory. Right. And it's often detected in burials, where you have individuals who get buried with lots of grave goods, whereas individuals who get buried maybe with a few tools that they use over their lifetime. I want to read an excerpt from Ian tatter Saul's book becoming human. He's one of the world's leading paleoanthropologists. Here's a passage from his book. Quote, all of this, of course, begs the question of the origin of modern human behaviors. As we've seen, we find dramatic evidence for art, music, and symbol, very early in the upper Paleolithic record in Europe, well over 30,000 years ago. And symbolism lies at the very heart of what it means to be human, as I'll emphasize in the next chapter. For if there is one single thing that distinguishes humans from all other forms of life, living or extinct. It is the capacity for symbolic thought. The ability to generate complex mental symbols into manipulate them into new combinations. This is the very foundation of imagination and creativity of the unique ability of humans to create a world in the mind and to recreate it in the real world outside themselves. Other species may exploit the outside world with great efficiency. As we saw in the case of the chimpanzees, but they still remain in essence, passive subjects and observers of that world. Even Neanderthals remarkable as they may have been, were in all likelihood, hardly more liberated from this condition. We didn't find art or symbolism at the Folsom site. It was just a random kill site, but you don't have to stretch very far to infer that people sophisticated enough to make false and points likely had art and music. When I think about early humans, I can't get away from these early indicators that we weren't just your average terrestrial mammal. The fulsome site is one of these early indicators. Tattersall said, quote, humans in general are and were slow moving creatures and modern humans are incomparably successful hunters because they exercise, craft, guile, and unparalleled perception of the cues offered by the outside world. Probably hunting by guile as we know it is a peculiar property of our own species. Stacking up these bison was a really human thing to do. In tattersall's book, he talks about how humans arrival was unprecedented on the earth. And the major factor of this uniqueness is in our ability for what he calls self reflective insight. Remember that phrase. He said, quote, the depth complexity and biological importance of human interpersonal relationships, which far exceed any other animal would be impossible without the capacity for self reflective insight. I guess my point is this a bunch of apes couldn't have killed 32 bison with stone points, butchered them and used the mate for an entire winter. What I'm trying to say is we aren't apes, though from a merely biological standpoint, our bodies aren't much different, but humans aren't just bodies. A Neanderthal could have told you that humans had something very special. That escalated quickly. To stare the ship in a slightly different direction, I wanted to ask doctor melzer how these Folsom hunters would be related to more modern tribes of Native Americans. Here's what he said. Okay, it's very, very difficult to take a modern day tribal unit and trace it back 10,000 years. Because people move, people add mix, groups split up, groups come apart, which is not to say that there weren't tribal groups back then, and in fact, okay, they're almost certainly were. But remember, too, that these are people who'd been in the Americas or whose ancestors had first arrived in the Americas, you know, maybe a few thousand years earlier. And if we assume that the first people who came into the Americas, let's just say it was a single group, speaking a single language. Over time, as the groups would disperse out across the Americas, they would become isolated from one another. Initially, you would get new dialects emerging, and then you'd get separate languages emerging. But if you're still early in the process, there's certainly going to be far fewer language groups far fewer tribal groups than there would be 10,000 years later. I see. So humans basically we're social animals and we socially structure ourselves. So would the groupings have looked like they do today in modern times. Hard to say, because it's impossible to draw a nice clean lines between them. But would they have banded together in groups of 25 or occasionally get together several groups of 25, we get together in groups of a hundred and swap stories, Mary off their kids to one another, almost certainly. They're highly mobile hunter gatherers and think about this too. They're on a landscape with not a lot of other people. So it's obviously advantageous to them to be able to maintain contact with these other groups. You know, in those days, it made more sense not to shoot first and ask questions later because it made more sense for the health and welfare and survival of your group to be able to meet up with another group who maybe you haven't met before, but are probably distantly related and even if they're not, you tell stories to each other that create a relationship and create an alliance because if you're out on a landscape with not a lot of other people, it's really helpful. If you encounter another group and they say, you know what, if you go, however they measured time. If you go this many days or this many weeks in that direction, you will find this. Hunter gatherers is really striking. Mobile people know about a huge landscape. They haven't necessarily been over that entire landscape. They've talked to other people. And so in the early 20th century, anthropologists working in the high Arctic would talk to native individuals who could put together a map of hundreds of thousands of square miles, and they hadn't actually done all that themselves, but they listened very carefully to the people that they met, who they had traveled, where did you travel? What did you see? Let me tell you where I've traveled and what I've seen. I mean, look, this is survival knowledge. Right? Yeah. You want to be able to know, okay, I'm going to place I've never been before, but I've heard about it. And I know that these kinds of things are available if I keep going in that direction. I see that mountain peak. You know, I was told we met somebody years ago who told us about that mountain peak, and that if you go to the other side, there's going to be this really beautiful valley, and you're going to find game there. Or you're in a small group of, you know, there's sort of a magic number 25. These hunter gatherer groups, plus or -25, right? And your kids get to be a marriageable age. Okay. When you encounter another group, they've got kids of marriageable age. Hey, go ahead. This has advantageous. Yeah. That is such an interesting thing you're bringing up because what it makes me think about. I'm very interested. And I think the intrigue of trying to understand who these people were, is comparing them to who we are today. I think about the social structure and the things that they would have queued in on that maybe it would have been lost inside of a world where we don't get all our information from life from talking and looking in the eyes of someone and building relationship with them. I mean, we get, we get our information from life for from our phones, and from books, which is a good thing. These are positive things. But these people the data point for their life in so many ways would have been these personal relationships that they had with people. And it would have been wonderful to sort of be a fly on the wall and all those conversations because you would see that's their Internet. That's the pleistocene social network. The pleistocene social network wasn't Facebook. It was just face. You'll chuckle later.

Folsom George mcjunkin Meltzer Steve rinella Steve Folsom authority David melzer Colorado SMU Americas Texas Panhandle Amarillo tokov
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

03:34 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Never know. But there are full some points real full some points. In a lot of places. I wouldn't even know where to start to tell you how many we have. But I mean, for sure, thousands. And you can find one today. We were at a farm in Nebraska a couple of weeks ago in the farmer shows Steve renell and I his collection and he's got half a Folsom point that he found on his farm in Nebraska. Wow. I mean, it's not, it's very uncommon, but at the same time, they're around. So when I was at the fulsome museum, which if you ever go in that part of the world, you got to go there. It's really cool. It's just like this old time. It's not like, you know, it's kind of a museum going and pick stuff up. Oh, wow. Yeah. Yeah. So there's this case of Folsom points. And I'm like, can I open that? What? And it was like, sure. And I'm gonna post it. I'll post a video at some point of me holding a folsome point. And yeah, so they're around. My kind of museum. Yeah. Yeah, they're around. But we will nerd out on the technology of the Folsom point on the fourth episode. You guys do some kinetic energy testing and stuff? Oh man, I talked to the as my understanding goes, the nation's leading expert on Adel adults. He did his PhD on adults and he demonstrates detail on why they use that why that technology the Folsom point was so good. I'm excited for that one. Yeah, it's really neat. I just, again, that one's very interesting to me because I've shot enough critters with a compound bow points 70 pounds that you get three inches of penetration when you hit up some bone inside of a white tail. The fact that these people were hand sharpening rocks, fixing them to a wooden arrow of some sort with what like cattail fibers or something..

Steve renell Nebraska Folsom
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

04:26 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Broadheads. I was wondering what the cutting Diane was on that false point compared to your mega me, you know? How effective are we father to expandable and they go these guys were real jumps? Hey, actually, rusty, I have pre expandable than three, four, four blade fixed heads and my quiver. And I've shot way more fixed bites over the last 15 years than expandable. I'm proud of you. I know you did. No need to be proud. I just killed stuff in the Dallas. No what's so awesome. It's the mystery of this that is what makes it so unique. How did they kill these bisons? We don't know. We wouldn't. I thought Steve's, I mean, this was Steve's good at is like the idea that this was just a snapshot of time. Yeah. And trying to understand if this was a big deal or if it wasn't. Yeah. Was this another day? Normal day. Yep. Well, we need to go get our meat harvest for the next three weeks. Let's go get them. Yeah. We're talking about it for years. Or did they talk about it for the rest of their life? This is the pictograph on every wall in New Mexico. Is this bison hunt? Incredible. Yeah, it makes me think how much of that got when that flood came, how much of that stuff is gone? Four or 500 yards down further, you know? Yeah, so many of those bones. That brings up a good question of mine that I had or my major question of the pivotal point is there's so many different weather events and different climate changes in the past 10,000 years. I'm wondering if some kind of weather event may be artificially moved them together, the site or maybe the erosion and then the covering, the erosion. How many cycles of that occurred over 10,000 years and how that may have affected the site? There's just a lot of questions that I have that I don't know if we'll see. We do. We do. With the certainty that with the highest level of scientific certainty, what they did when they went back 70 years later at Folsom. Yeah. If you read that textbook that doctor melted between your law books between all the logo, that's exactly what they went back to understand. They call it the paleo geography, which is what was the geography of.

Steve Diane rusty Dallas New Mexico Folsom
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

05:12 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"And at the time they excavated it, you know, we didn't have the technology that we do now with radiocarbon dating and I couldn't get into all the detail of what Meltzer studied. I mean, it was like wildly deep stuff about the sedimentation, the sediment layers. They were able to take those 10,000 year old bones and understand how long they were in the sun before they were covered with silt. Because the decay, you know how bone? If you had a beer bone, you know, somewhere. Wherever the sun was hitting, it would turn white. Exactly. It was touching the dirt. It was maintained as natural color. And they felt like pretty quickly. Like within a couple of years that thing was silted over. And that's the reason it was preserved for 10,000 years. And then it was only uncovered once in recent times within the past hundred. What was the 70 years before Meltzer did? It was the first. That was the excavation. They didn't leave anything in the ground. On purpose. George mcjunkin found a small section of bones. Yeah. You know, imagine a 32 bison killed right here, and there's a drainage right here, the new, the flood, push the cut bank that drainage, you know, imagine three or four feet this way. Yeah. Exposed these bones enough for George to be like, those are cool. Somebody needs to come down here and check this out. Yeah. You know, and then he dies. Nobody comes. Finally, they come, and then this guy named Carl Swahili, who was a friend of George's. The museum hired him. He was just he wasn't even an archeologist. He was just a dude. You know? Yeah. And they hired him to get them a bison and take with skull, because by that time they had been like, hey, those are best buys Nintendo. That's pretty cool. We need one of those. They hired their Carl Carl goes in there, starts digging. Carl finds that Folsom point, which at the time wasn't the Folsom point. He just finds his own point. It's like, dude, I found sweets don't point. It's pretty cool and Meltzer's book. He has Karl himself handwritten notes. Carl was struck at somehow to write notes of what he found every day. This is late 1800s. No, no, this would have been 1926 and 27. Something like that. And Carl, it was a pretty good artist and he drew in his notes. A picture of the Folsom point that he found. And it looks just like it. That's cool..

Meltzer George mcjunkin Carl Swahili George Carl Carl Folsom point Carl Folsom Nintendo Karl
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

03:38 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"And the other thing that's kind of shocking to me, at least from what I gleaned from your podcast was they found the bison remains. They found some Folsom points, but there really wasn't any other artifacts that were found. Nothing other that suggests that they made camp there for a while while they dealt with these bison or that they were in the area for any significant period of time. Right. So like that was going to shelter. So probably on part three, you'll hear David melzer talk more about that because part three asked him, I said, who were these people? What do we know about these people? I mean, these were these were humans. They were like us. They had emotions. They had feelings. They were just like us, but they used Flint rocks to clack together to make fire and they made stone points out of church that they were a little grittier than us. So I asked him, you know, who are these people? And that's when he began to talk about how we do not know where they camped. And that's his biggest frustration. He told me, as he said, we were there, we know so much about this site. He said, we can not for the life of us find where they can't. Because they had to camp close. And there could have been remnants of a camp there, but over that long, what's going to be left is the stone and not the other things that they might have had. And I said this to doctor Meltzer and I'm not sure if it was an offensive question to ask an archeologist, but I was like, I'm standing at the Folsom site and you would have walked past it and it looked like every other place. You wouldn't have thought something special happened here. Yeah. Look like every other place in banal. You know, the second excavation by melter was done and it was over 20 years ago, so this is look like a drainage, you know? Yeah. And I'm standing there and I ask the guys I'm with. I'm like, how do we know there's not something incredible 12 feet under the ground right there? Yeah. Nobody ever dug there. We don't. They literally dug up a spot about this living room wall that probably the kitchen door. That whole box canyon hasn't been excavated. No. What? My measurements might be wrong, but I'm telling you, you could have shot a recurve bow. Any side of that to the other one, it could have fallen something this important, they would have went way beyond the bounds. Back home would have been in there. Well, no, you gotta be careful because every time you destroy, okay, and this is when you learn about archeology, which I'm doing now, you realize how much it's like surgery. I mean, it's like saying, there's something wrong with the sky. Why don't you just go in and fix it? Well, it's not like I mean, these guys are like taking months and months to excavate like a small area. I mean, they're like removing. I mean, so it's just an excavator like back in George's time. Shave off the bison skull to fit in the box. Yeah, yeah, exactly. You got a catalog. All kind of data points too before you can even remove the item. Right. You said that the paleontologists got there first and was concerned with the bones. That's right. Then later the archeologists came and they said that a lot of what the original excavation did took no regard to humans. That's right. Yeah. Yeah. They were worried about the bones. And so they weren't that concerned about anything else..

David melzer Folsom clack Meltzer George
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

08:01 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Associated with something else, much bigger. They were tightly associated with a relics form of bison called bison antiques. Not something that went extinct, a relic form of the animal that lives here now. It was bigger, had different sort of horn configuration. It was about 25% bigger. They call it like bison antiquus. They had a lot of fidelity to a certain style of point. They had a lot seems to have a lot of fidelity to bison and they lived and what is now the American great plains. That's where they're found. So you can find them in the Panhandle of Texas. You can find them in New Mexico. You can find them in Montana. You can find Folsom points in southern Saskatchewan. You can find them all way the western Nebraska, but they stayed to the great plains. Where the most of the planes buffalo were. Yeah. And at the time, it was probably cooler and wetter, but it was an open grassland, and it was just going by how few Folsom sites there are and how widely dispersed they are and kind of the imprint of those people. It was probably insanely low population densities. I can't no one can say this for real, but I've run this by professional anthropologists. It's not unreasonable to think that a band of these hunters, which would be an extended family group. These bands of people, it makes sense that they were maybe they maybe didn't exceed ten or 20 individuals. It's not unreasonable to imagine that they could go a generation without it encountering individuals that you're not immediately related to. It seems very few people occupying that landscape at that time. Take a minute and imagine the North American continent 10,300 years ago with human populations that scarce. By the time Europeans arrived here, roughly 10,000 years after the Folsom bison kill, which would be about 600 plus years from the present backwards from the present. The place was basically like an urban center crawling with people. The civilization of the American Indians was in full swing at highly developed compared to when the Folsom hunters were here. Some American Indians are undoubtedly the descendants of the Folsom hunters. Wildly, though, of all the things these Folsom hunters used in life, there is one thing that has outlasted the rigor of time that we infer an incredible amount of data from. One of the things I like about the projectile point, since it's made of stone and it lasts a long time. So it winds up being some people that are ninja what we'd call Indian arrowheads. Sometimes don't get the fascination with it. A way to think about it, it's not so much that it's the arrowhead. It's just a piece of something that survived sometimes in a perfect state from the time they handled it. Their bones are gone, to large measure, they're homes and structures, the things they wore, the wood that they employed, I'd be as excited to find a spear shaft, but they're not laying around. It's like, but here's the thing that a guy can drop that thing. And it's considered for 12,000 years. What other thing can you drop on the ground? We talk about how long our stuff lasts, right? How long plastic glass? You set a plastic bottle. Underground for 12,000 years to come back and look at it. There might be something, but it ain't gonna look like a portable. Imagine archeologists 10,000 years from now. Well, I doubt this place will be around. But them taking just one of your material possessions and making vast inferences about your entire life from it. I wonder what they'd say. I had some questions about how an archeological site is verified, so it's legitimacy is known. I think it's important for us to understand the bigger picture of what's happening here beyond some dudes digging up bones and finding stone points, Q, the Randy Travis song. It's a pretty complex world and there were many missteps in early archeology and in the original excavation of the Folsom site that almost disqualified it. So from an archeological process, there's a prescribed way that a site should be excavated and understood. As I understand it, there were other sites in Texas and Nebraska and maybe even in Kansas that potentially had similar type evidence of humans in these older animals that are now extinct, but they were mishandled and so they have to be it's like evidence coming into a courtroom that was acquired the wrong way in the judge goes. I can't use this. That's exactly how it played out. But we also need to put a little bit of historical context here. This is the late 1890s, early 1900s, the teens. There weren't clear cut methods for field excavation. A lot of these excavations were not conducted by what we would now recognize as sort of professional scientists, professional archeologists, professional geologists, and they didn't know what they were doing. It's really what it came down to. So we had this site out in Frederick, Oklahoma, where it was a gravel quarry. And the folks who were working the gravel query said, oh yeah, we've got artifacts associated with mammoth bones. Well, you know, it requires a certain amount of expertise to sort of really be able to in an excavation know, okay, these are deposits of a certain age. These are things that are associated with those deposits. We know that they belong in those deposits. And so because there were not agreed upon field techniques and clear cut field techniques at the time, and because some of these discoveries were made by folks who really didn't understand what they were seeing. And they weren't even archeologists. You know, they're guys that work at the quarry. Yeah, yeah, yeah. And they're just their job is just to shovel that stuff out of the way. So you find an artifact in the spoil pile over here and you find some bones in the spoil pile over there. That doesn't mean that that artifact and that bone were associated back 20,000 years ago, 15,000 years ago. In retrospect, a couple of those sites, not the one in Frederick, but one out in Colorado city, Texas. In retrospect, we looked at the artifacts and we said, well, you know what? There is a possibility those artifacts could have been associated with that bison. But the problem was, in 1924, and this is a few years before Folsom, the bison was being excavated by a fella, who was just a local guy. He had discovered this bison in this creek bed and he wrote to the museum and said, you guys want it. So the folks folks in Denver said, yeah, we'd really like to have that bison skeleton. And they gave him instructions on how to get it out of the ground, plaster it, and put it into crates and ship it up to Denver. He excavates the bison, plasters it up. He puts it into a crate and the crate had been, you know, the folks in Denver had said make a crate, you know, this big by this big by this big, and so he had this giant plastered bison. Couldn't fit it into a crate. Instead of building a bigger crate, he simply knocked off chunks of the bone. Shoved it in there. So this was not done well, right? And even though they found artifacts with the bison, they didn't realize that that was of interest, or significance. Wow. And so they just ignored them, and it was only after the fact somebody was visiting Denver and said, hey, you know, I'd watched your guys excavate this thing down in Texas and did you know they have points that came out with the bison and the folks in Denver said, we had no clue. So, you know, you can't basic case for people having been here a very long time ago or hunting bison or a very long time ago when you had that kind of excavation. And so that very well could have been a totally legitimate site. And I think it is actually the Folsom site was originally excavated by an amateur archeologist named Karl.

Folsom Nebraska Texas Panhandle Saskatchewan American Indians New Mexico Montana buffalo Randy Travis Denver Kansas Frederick Colorado city Oklahoma Karl
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

03:18 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Misstep, would you have known about the Folsom side? Because I'm married to you. I wouldn't know I wouldn't say, oh, I know a whole lot about that. But I would say you've heard about it. And this is a lot of clay's pillow talk. This is archeological sites. For sure. Talking about some points. So talking about finding stone points. What's interesting is that the Folsom point, you could find a Folsom point in my front yard. Did you know that? No, you could not. Yes, you could. Yeah, because the Folsom point will be talking about this. 14..

Folsom
"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

Bear Grease

05:20 min | 1 year ago

"folsom" Discussed on Bear Grease

"Matt tell me tell me where we're at. How is this? We're here at the Folsom museum in Folsom New Mexico. And it's a mercantile store in bank, and it was built in 18 86, 89, I guess. And this was your families building. Yeah. Oh, my great, great grandfather's. He came from Ireland, back about turn the century and ran a bank in a mercantile store here. So you guys have been toughing it out here for, you know? Hundred and 130 years or so? Yeah, pretty much. The Folsom museum is one of those places you'd stop thinking it was a cute place to buy a souvenir. There's a hand painted sign on the door that says no horses or dogs allowed in the museum and it's not a joke. However, upon entering, you realize the place is a historical gym. It's a legit museum with over 4000 pieces. What's the most prized possession in here? I don't know. We probably have to be some of the Folsom points. We have stuff from Charles goodnight. Some buffalo skulls from the extermination of the buffalo in the 1860s and a prehistoric buffalo skull from about 9000 years ago. Lots of different things. And then lots of George mcjunkin stuff. Yeah, we have his hat, some branding irons used ledger book that he actually wrote in. For the last three podcasts we've been focusing on the American Southwest and we're continuing on that track. I'm in search of all the Intel. I can get on this man that Matt speaks of George mcjunkin. The information on his life is limited because very few new of the significance of his accomplishments until after he was dead. Like a passing moment we'd wish we'd paid more attention to George's life past like water through fingers. It was only documented by the few people that perceived he was special. But it's probably not that strange when you understand the circumstances around his life. This is the voice of Matt dowry. His family has been in Folsom New Mexico for a long time, and they know a lot about this town's history. It's deep history. So this is George mcjunkins, his old hat, is that right? Yeah, we think so, it was found in the hotel, you know, where he died in the same room in a box that about the same time period and it looks pretty similar to the one in all the pictures. So that'd be a beaver felt hat. Yeah, I would imagine. It's what all the real cowboys wore. Yeah. Yup. None of these beanies that they were today. Human life and I'm talking about the actual act of living is bound by time and has a strict starting and stopping point. We're odd critters when we want to remember a human life which we can't capture and preserve. We memorialize it by gathering up material things that are absent of life that were used in the life of the one that we're trying to remember. If they put your cowboy hat and your horse tack in a museum, I wanna know who you were. If George mcjunkin.

Folsom museum George mcjunkin buffalo Charles goodnight Folsom Matt New Mexico Matt dowry American Southwest Ireland George mcjunkins ledger Intel George cowboys
Another Group Favored By Chicago's Loretto Hospital Exec Got Vaccinated Early

WGN Programming

01:05 min | 1 year ago

Another Group Favored By Chicago's Loretto Hospital Exec Got Vaccinated Early

"Hospital is accused of giving covert 19 vaccines to another group of ineligible recipients. According to W Be easy. Nearly 30. People from a neighboring Grethe Orthodox Parish got the shot earlier this month without qualifying. Others with connections to the hospital leadership have been able to do the same, including judges and workers at Trump Tower, Ah, high end jewelry store and a steakhouse mere life, it said. Loretta needs to come clean about the extent Repeatedly that Momir we're doing that. But clearly that's not true. And so now it feels like it's death by 1000 cuts for them where I'm quite my understanding is there's at least one other story in the works. So they've got to take care of their business They've got to do. Ah, Folsom applauded and you've gotta own responsibility for what has happened. That is not happened yet. And then they've got a reported the C V P H and truthfully, the mayor is waiting for that internal audit before deciding how to proceed below. Roberto is no longer receiving first doses of the vaccine. The hospital's C 00 has resigned.

Grethe Orthodox Parish Momir Trump Tower Loretta Folsom Roberto
"folsom" Discussed on NewsRadio KFBK

NewsRadio KFBK

01:33 min | 2 years ago

"folsom" Discussed on NewsRadio KFBK

"Travel restrictions, so they're really wasting no time. Here. All right, ABC, Zain as delicate terror there in Washington, D C. Thank you. Thank you. Came for 20 now, traffic and weather together. We do it every 10 minutes in the afternoon news Now is the time Here's Dana has thank you brought to you by my dell. And right now, Kitty, that accident he's found Cap City Exposition Boulevard. Apparently still working. We've got about a 10 minute drive as you go from 50 to 80 on the cap split. The Roseville is gonna be eight minutes And there you are. Douglass Boulevard 11 minute Ride south on I five. They'll grow about 14 minutes. 99. We have some fairly heavy traffic getting away from midtown and then his go between Mac and Sheldon. The usual pattern came the developing now downtown to Folsom 18 minutes on eastbound 50 westbound, 50 said. We still have that we had an accident westbound at East Bidwell, and it looks like they're still working on that one out the full to Mary of Downtown to Woodland north on I 5 16 minutes to Main Street, nine minutes based Boulevard and Davis on westbound 80. New Year. New budgets When you partner with Adele Technologies Advisor, you get real time tailored advice right now get special financing with Del Business credit and big savings on select business computers with Intel core processors to speak to a Del Technologies Advisor call 877 Ask Del Having gone the tens, every 10 minutes mornings and afternoons. State ahead Snooze 93.1 kfbk. We'll see. Increasing clouds tonight with a passing shower or two late tonight will reach a low 43 to 47.

Cap City Exposition Boulevard Del Technologies Advisor Dana Roseville Del Business Adele Technologies Advisor Folsom dell East Bidwell ABC Kitty Sheldon Davis Washington Intel Mac partner
The Timothy Leary Conviction

Today in True Crime

04:44 min | 2 years ago

The Timothy Leary Conviction

"On january twenty first nineteen seventy former harvard professor and so called priest of lsd timothy. Leary was sentenced to ten years in prison on drug smuggling charges but in september of that year. The fifty year-old academic broke out of a san luis obispo facility with the help of the weatherman. The daring escape only added to the mystique of the man president. Nixon wants declared the most dangerous man in america. But just what made leery so dangerous. Well it might not surprise you. That richard nixon may have been exaggerating for his own political game according to authors. Bill minna tag. Leo and stephen l davis nixon's advisors suggested he find a public enemy to distract the public from his own flagging approval rating the war in vietnam and the struggling economy. They leary a prominent figure in the counterculture movement and because the former professor was a proud exponent of hallucinogenic drug use. The president's ir fit right in with his war on drugs narrative timothy leary was something of a self appointed spokesperson for the benefits of drug use. Which heat enjoyed since one thousand nine hundred sixty after an experimental magic mushrooms trip. The already noted psychologist became excited about the possibilities. Mushrooms and similar drugs had on the human brain during his tenure. At harvard he conducted academic experiments on the effects of hallucinogens. Drawing the attention and admiration of other notable nineteen sixties figures famed authors. Like gin berg and jack kerouac willingly participated in leary's experiments and it was perhaps their involvement that catapulted the professor onto the national stage before long leary was touring the country speaking about his research and reportedly brushing up against the rich and famous inevitably a backlash arrived. Leary's teaching colleagues criticized his experimentation with lsd. They believed research of that. Nature should be left to medical doctors not psychologists meanwhile psychology experts who once lauded leary's earlier work now made it clear that his drug centered experiments were less praiseworthy. Despite these blows leary insisted that taking lsd was quote a sacramental ritual one that could expand human consciousness. Harvard university did not agree and fired him in nineteen sixty three but by that stage leary had a new life. He was a counterculture touchstone for the masses and a legitimizing scientific voice in the pro drug movement. He rubbed shoulders with marilyn monroe and sang with john. Lennon and yoko ono in short he was a powerful voice advocating for drug use throughout the nineteen sixties. He even appeared before a senate committee to argue in favor of legislation. That would make it legal for adults to use hallucinogenic drugs. So when richard. Nixon assumed the presidency in nineteen sixty nine leary was squarely in his sights. Ostensibly nixon wanted to eliminate drug use in the country. Leary very much did not. That made him dangerous. So it's little surprise that when leary's appeal of his nineteen sixty five drug-smuggling conviction was overturned. The government wanted a second bite at the apple but any joy nixon and his cabinet might have felt in putting leary. Away was short lived using his network of contacts. The former professor escaped prison remaining on the run until nineteen seventy three when he was detained in afghanistan and sent back to the united states. There he was jailed in the notorious folsom. Prison and briefly befriended charles manson and though his sentence was for ten years leary was paroled in nineteen. Seventy six having served just three. It's a surprising twist day given that so many drug offenders imprisoned for decades on similar offenses then again timothy leary was famous and white which might have had something to do with his early release

Leary Lsd Timothy Bill Minna Harvard Stephen L Davis Nixon Gin Berg Long Leary Nixon San Luis Obispo Timothy Leary Richard Nixon Jack Kerouac LEO Vietnam United States Yoko Ono Marilyn Monroe Lennon
Intel Ousts Chief Executive Bob Swan

The KFBK Morning News

00:29 sec | 2 years ago

Intel Ousts Chief Executive Bob Swan

"Big changes for Intel, which will have special importance to a lot of folks out in Folsom. Bob Swan stepping down as CEO and Pat Gell singer who is currently the CEO Of'em, where we'll be taking over. Hat not only very successful CEO of bm where, but he also was the former chief technology officer at Intel worked there for many years, so he knows the company. He is a tech guy. Bob Swan was World finance guy, and it just didn't work out for bomb on a number of different fronts.

Bob Swan Pat Gell Intel Folsom
"folsom" Discussed on NewsRadio KFBK

NewsRadio KFBK

01:42 min | 2 years ago

"folsom" Discussed on NewsRadio KFBK

"Folsom. So the Folsom Fire Department is reporting a covert 19 case within their staff. They say that fire chief Qin Cassano tested positive yesterday after experiencing some covert 19 symptoms. Okay. Thank you, sir. And Folsom is the news. Thank you Appreciate that. Governor Newsome issued a warning yesterday at his news conference to any medical provider. Who is tempted to give a vaccine shot to a friend or a relative. Don't do it. Yeah, well, and then I'm hearing about this. A Disney employees in Southern California says she was bragging on Facebook. Basically, that she got this vaccine early because her husband's aunt Is a big deal at the Redlands Community Hospital. That's outside of L A. And she posted about it and on Facebook, and you have people weren't too happy about seeing that. She's not a frontline health care worker. Okay? I want to just read to you. What the what the governor said quote. I just wanna make this crystal clear. If you skip the line or you intend to skip the line, you will be sanctioned. You will lose your license. You will not only lose your license, We will be very aggressive in terms of highlighting the reputational impacts as well. That's a pretty stark warning for any medical personnel who thinks that they want to give up this vaccine to a friend or a relative, right? I think that something like this I mean, we really need to think about The importance of following the guidelines and who needs it first, and who needs it? The most, UM, because there's millions literally millions of people waiting. So the governor's telling doctors don't be pulling any shenanigans. It'll be interesting to see what the penalty maybe if that happens for the first time in two years, the Boeing 7 37 Max said to take flight today, when where and what it means for the airline industry coming your way in a live report in three minutes With.

Facebook Folsom Fire Department Folsom Governor Newsome Qin Cassano Redlands Community Hospital Disney Folsom. Southern California
Cleve Jones: Queer Spaces After COVID-19

LGBTQ&A

06:04 min | 2 years ago

Cleve Jones: Queer Spaces After COVID-19

"The reality is that the Gayborhood are going away. So, if you look at San, Francisco's Castro district or Seattle's Capitol Hill or Washington DC's Dupont circle or boys town in Chicago West Hollywood or anywhere you want to look lavender Heights in Sacramento wherever you look where there's a defined gay neighborhood. It's not just a place where there's bars though bar life has always been an important part of our culture. It's where very important things happen. I is political power. When we are concentrated in specific precinct gives us the power to elect our own public office the the power to defeat our opponents, the power to pass legislation that directly affects our lives in our wellbeing. As we are dispersed. We lose that power. Another super important part of it was the cultural vitality look at all the amazing stuff that's come out of West Hollywood that's come out of my neighborhood I mean it's no coincidence that the rainbow flag and the First Gay Synagogue and the First Gay Film Festival and the Aids Memorial Quilt and the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence all were born in the Castro because there's that magic that happens when creative people when choreographers and filmmakers dancers and deejays and painters. Are All in that same area and I. Know that collaboration can occur very effectively online but there's nothing like the magic of face to face contact close proximity for that cultural vitality, and then the third thing that's at risk are the specialized social services for our most vulnerable population. So. Whether we're talking about people like myself who are getting old long term survivors of HIV or queer kids trans kids who were fleeing trump's America where do they go? They can't come to the Castro a little crappy studio apartment in the Castro is going to cost you twenty, five, hundred dollars a month. So this is the reality that nobody's really quite talking about that that community that has given so much and strengthened us in inspired US moved. US forward. Being threatened and there's many factors technology. Many. People will say, Oh, well, we can live anywhere. We want. No, you can't. Tell me that try it. You know go to Duluth and walk down main street and hold hands no offense to duluth or any other city. You Might WanNa try doing that outside of a gayborhood. So we need these these spaces they're important and we need to figure out what's our next move? Do you have a solution. There's no easy solution but yeah, when people say oh, cleave. Cities Change well. Thank you for that brilliant observation. Yes. Of course, it has changed but we want to. Be Thinking about that change and the big factor is that cities have changed in a way. That's profoundly new. For generations since the industrial revolution, the cities were the place where refugees went immigrants, Bohemians, counterculture people, artists, homosexuals, and all these people of all these different backgrounds and ethnicities genders would you know create this these cauldrons of creativity and and they would climb their way up the economic ladder move out to the suburbs and that was really accelerated in the Post Warrior the nineteen fifties, the nineteen sixties, nineteen seventies, the phenomenon of white flight. So when I got to San Francisco, the population of that city had been declining steadily since the end of World War Two and we were able to go into these neighborhoods that had been largely abandoned by the working class immigrants that had built them originally. And create what we created I on Polk Street. Then on Castro and folsom street hate streets you know he's really vibrant communities. These are now some of the most expensive neighborhoods in the world. So the district that gave us Harvey Milk. is now inhabited increasingly by wide heterosexual gendered millionaires when you arrived in San. Francisco, you had a sleeping bag and a couple of shirts and forty two dollars and you were welcomed into this guy's home. You would never met who was not expecting you. It was an address you have from a friend and there was a safe place to live and to get on your feet. Even, if it's not as San Francisco, like that mentality is so unique. I think that's pretty much now partly because it's just so difficult to survive. So the young people I meet in their early twenty S. You know these and of course San Francisco, it's all tech And there's a lot of anger towards the tech invaders but I have a lot of empathy and. Real concern for them because first of all, most of them are working sixty seventy hours a week. They have no job security. There would never use the the phrase exploited workers to describe themselves but are blanche you are but I think also back then and especially in San Francisco it was still Kinda Hippie dippy. And it was very counterculture. It was very communal. And everybody was kind of expected and really encouraged to contribute in some way. You didn't necessarily have to be all that good at what you did, but you needed to do something whether it was a drag show or video or film or A. Poetry contest or something there was A. There was a real nurturing of people's creative pulses and a lot of support for there was so many places I knew where if I was hungry I just show up and there would be every night. There would be a communal potluck dinner. There were probably six or seven of those households within a few blocks of where I was living on Castro Street. So I never went hungry.

San Francisco Castro Hollywood United States Francisco First Gay Synagogue Duluth Sacramento Seattle Dupont Circle Chicago Donald Trump A. Poetry America Harvey Milk.
The Prison Music Project

Good Life Project

07:08 min | 2 years ago

The Prison Music Project

"I'm really excited just to sort of bounce between the three of you I might. Wow so powerful. So amazing just a such an awesome I can't wait to kind of deconstruct the story in the story behind it with you. Don't WanNa Kinda get off with you. It probably makes sense it just Kinda like dive into. Before you start actually even showing up at folsom before any of this happened what were you up to sounds like you were you were out in the world doing work as singer Songwriter Jimmy certainly the picture of your world before then I twenty five. So I don't know what? Like twenty, five year old singer-songwriter folksinger. To sort of starting my career I quit this band that I was in with my called vermillion lies and we were like this Vaudeville, very theatrical cabaret. It was in that that cabaret renaissance that happened with dressed in dolls and all of that world we're in that. World and then a I quit that band with my sister and then started doing my own thing and right around the same time I started going into the prison. So I had just really started playing my solo music out in the world when I brought it into new folsom. Yeah. What was at that point in your life? What was music to you or for you if fell lied In. It still feels like it has always felt like as soon as I found it, it was like Oh. Yeah. I can't not make this. This is not a choice I'm making this just pours out of me. I'm GonNa, make it whether I share it with people or not but turns out I really love to share it with people. But at the time. I really wanted to write about things outside of myself. Social issues, political issues. Environmental issues and I never really could figure out. How to do it in a way that felt good it always felt contrived or luxury or. Yeah it fell way to able for sure somehow way more vulnerable than singing about my broken heart. Amen to that. Political songs hard. So hard I was working in the prison and working on those songs that brought me to that over many years took a long time for me to be able to write my own collaborating with folks who I mean it's You know folks who are impacted by incarceration, just their lives and their own stories are. You know it's like a social issue because. Incarceration as a social issue. So just writing about their own experience. It is a political song. So being a part of this collaboration, I think opened that door for me which. Were And Zoe were you on each other's radar at that point or like you kind of just doing a shepherd things any awareness of each other or did that happen later on I mean I certainly knew who she was. I did not know who so he was yet. Until she walked into my living room. Yeah. That was a bunch of years later. Yeah. So you end up going to new FOLSOM, which for those who don't know what that is described, what was it, and when you're showing up on the first day, what do you think that you're going there to do? What do you think your commitment is I'm going there to play three concerts? Yes. So new folsom prison, that's this nickname. The official name is California State Prison Sacramento. and. It's right next to the famous folsom prison, which has lower security new folsom is Neil. It's a newer, very plain looking concrete. Facility three buildings three yards houses about three thousand people. Non consensually. And it's a men's prison the as hopefully most listeners know. The prison system, the criminal justice system Miss, genders people a lot. So there were women trans. Women inside the as well. So I just want to mention that when I call it a men's prison. Yeah, and I was there, I committed to playing three concerts and I'd heard about them in advance. Through the person who who ran the program there he brought in artists to perform and teach workshops and stuff, and so I was there to perform and I was gonNA play in a library. To libraries on two separate yards, and then the one concert we were in contact for a few months before I went in an every couple of weeks he'd email me like are you sure you WanNa do this one concert? This is the one for men in solitary confinement. Are you sure you WanNa do this one it's really intense. and. it will never been one to. Shy away from something That might be yeah like emotionally challenging or. I don't want to hide a reality from myself a reality of our. Society I WANNA see it all even if it's ugly maybe especially if it's ugly because I wanNA know. What we're up against I, want to know why we're fighting and to be able to see it and experience it in that way. Yeah it is intense, but it's helpful. So I said, yes. Even I kept checking in and I kept thinking you're asking me again if I really WanNa do this one concert. Okay. So yeah, that's I. I didn't know really what to expect even though he told me but it's different to hear. To hear him describe it in. He told me you know you're going to be playing for these. People in cages, they'll be in these little cages when you play for them in this little room. And I just. It doesn't matter how much you hear a description of that seeing is. Totally different thing I mean. You know how you feel when you see an animal in a cage. It's a human being so it's just like ample. You know when you go to the zoo and you're like man I'm really sad. Well, you can identify with a human way more than you can identify with an animal and it's just like. I mean I think it's a yeah it's I. Think it's traumatizing to be in that environment even when you're not the person who's being. Caged and so I think about. Prison staff to just anyone who has to be in an environment where that level of dehumanisation is happening on a daily basis. It's. I think it's I really think it's dehumanizing for everyone which is not to. Diminish the fact that it is obviously much much worse and much more unfair for the incarcerated people.

Folsom California State Prison Jimmy ZOE Official Sacramento.
Getting Naked in San Francisco: A History

Bay Curious

04:01 min | 2 years ago

Getting Naked in San Francisco: A History

"Who other than reporter just plot check could take on this not safe for work assignment off she goes from. The state of California has indecent exposure laws, but those only apply if someone is being sexual like masturbating in public or intentionally offensive flashing someone. But what if you're just hanging out naked minding your own business? California leaves that up to local governments. For the first half of the Twentieth Century San Francisco didn't have public nudity laws. FRISKIN S- just didn't go nude much but then the sixties arrived and with it naked people. Some saw disrobing as a form of political artistic or personal expression college students got a taste for streaking and then there were the hippies. It's just delightful to be in I'll be in and that's what this is another exotic prank to add to a growing list of student oriented rites of Spring. It's sort of a happy happening for hippies in San Francisco hippies wanted to get closer to nature and they got naked a lot in golden gate park. Here's a quote from police chief. Thomas Hill it wasn't uncommon for a Gal that come out of the bushes there in the. Panhandle. Without a damn stitch and stand right in front of you with our hands up. I was out in the park in two started going to it on the lawn beside me just to remind you sex is sexual and as such already illegal according to the state. But still conservatives wanted tougher local laws to prevent this kind of behavior and they eventually got nudity banned in the parks. However, the rest of San Francisco was still fair game. As time passed other cities made public nudity illegal among them, San Jose, and Berkeley Berkeley's interesting because it's been mostly due to one naked Guy Andrew Martinez a student at the University of California Berkeley. Decided that American society is sexually repressed and in an effort to write things he began attending classes and going everywhere else in the nude save for a pair of sandals backpack people theorized that Martinez was able to go nude without major complaint for so long because he was easy on the is Martinez attempted shock tactic soon, became old news among his fellow students to me was simply the naked guy. Administrators however sent Martinez home to stay warm until his case can be considered by a student conduct board in Nineteen ninety-two Martinez was expelled showed up naked to his disciplinary hearing at UC. Then in one, thousand, nine, hundred, three here arrived naked to a Berkeley city council meeting members were offended and voted to make public nudity a misdemeanor crime. Back in San Francisco Nudist, enjoy their time in the Sun City developed a reputation for bodies in the buff especially at certain public events like folsom street fair a leather fetish festival or Beta breakers of rambunctious twelve k race who was an exhilarating experience people on the sidelines cheering. Go naked people go. All right. This is a rich Pasco in nineteen, ninety eight he started running naked in Beta breakers. Pasco is also the coordinator of the Bay Area Nature rests we're group of people who believe that the human body is God's divine creation nothing to be ashamed of, and that our interaction with Mother Nature is enhanced by removing the barrier of clothing. POSCO says it wasn't just public events where people could let it all hang out there also newt approved beaches in certain places where nudists would congregate lose a group of people in San Francisco who thought that going new to Jane Warner Plaza would be a good idea. It's that plaza in the Castro with a few benches where the streetcar stops, it's a little urban park. In this little urban park became an urban nude beach,

San Francisco Guy Andrew Martinez Golden Gate Park California Pasco University Of California Berke Reporter Thomas Hill Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley Bay Area Nature Jane Warner Plaza Panhandle Castro San Jose UC Posco Coordinator Newt
Getting Naked in San Francisco: A History

Bay Curious

03:17 min | 2 years ago

Getting Naked in San Francisco: A History

"Who other than reporter just plot check could take on this not safe for work assignment off she goes from. The state of California has indecent exposure laws, but those only apply if someone is being sexual like masturbating in public or intentionally offensive flashing someone. But what if you're just hanging out naked minding your own business? California leaves that up to local governments. For the first half of the Twentieth Century San Francisco didn't have public nudity laws. FRISKIN S- just didn't go nude much but then the sixties arrived and with it naked people. Some saw disrobing as a form of political artistic or personal expression college students got a taste for streaking and then there were the hippies. It's just delightful to be in I'll be in and that's what this is another exotic prank to add to a growing list of student oriented rites of Spring. It's sort of a happy happening for hippies in San Francisco hippies wanted to get closer to nature and they got naked a lot in golden gate park. Here's a quote from police chief. Thomas Hill it wasn't uncommon for a Gal that come out of the bushes there in the. Panhandle. Without a damn stitch and stand right in front of you with our hands up. I was out in the park in two started going to it on the lawn beside me just to remind you sex is sexual and as such already illegal according to the state. But still conservatives wanted tougher local laws to prevent this kind of behavior and they eventually got nudity banned in the parks. However, the rest of San Francisco was still fair game. As time passed other cities made public nudity illegal among them, San Jose, and Berkeley Berkeley's interesting because it's been mostly due to one naked Guy Andrew Martinez a student at the University of California Berkeley. Decided that American society is sexually repressed and in an effort to write things he began attending classes and going everywhere else in the nude save for a pair of sandals backpack people theorized that Martinez was able to go nude without major complaint for so long because he was easy on the is Martinez attempted shock tactic soon, became old news among his fellow students to me was simply the naked guy. Administrators however sent Martinez home to stay warm until his case can be considered by a student conduct board in Nineteen ninety-two Martinez was expelled showed up naked to his disciplinary hearing at UC. Then in one, thousand, nine, hundred, three here arrived naked to a Berkeley city council meeting members were offended and voted to make public nudity a misdemeanor crime. Back in San Francisco Nudist, enjoy their time in the Sun City developed a reputation for bodies in the buff especially at certain public events like folsom street fair a leather fetish festival or Beta breakers of rambunctious twelve k race who was an exhilarating experience people on the sidelines cheering. Go naked people go. All right.

San Francisco Guy Andrew Martinez Golden Gate Park California Berkeley University Of California Berke Reporter Berkeley Berkeley Thomas Hill Panhandle San Jose UC
How Winston Churchill defeated Nazism despite his 'black dog'

Between The Lines

11:38 min | 3 years ago

How Winston Churchill defeated Nazism despite his 'black dog'

"Now today on the show visual defend our island whatever they got maybe we should fight on the beaches on the landing grounds the field and in the street fighting the hill will never surrender churchill the subject of countless plies movies drama series documentaries and biographies indeed believe it or not there have been a thousand Churchill Biographies One thousand the first biography was written in nineteen ninety five and the author of the latest one is our guest today now according to the prominent British columnist and historian Tom and heffer regular guest on this program this most recent Churchill biographies the best single volume imaginable of a man whose life would seem take impossible to get into a single volume the book is called Churchill Walking with destiny and the author is Andrew Roberts who's written other water declined books including a biography on Napoleon and the storm of war a new history of the Second World War Andrew Welcome to ABC Radio Thank you Tony took great on us now as I mentioned they've already been a thousand Churchill books published what's different about yours when I was very fortunate that there's been an enormous amount of sources that have come out over the last five years since I've been writing this book the Queen allows me to be the first Churchill biographer to use of his diaries and came due to sex mets church every Tuesday at the second mobile church who trusted him the great secret civil war and luckily rate down everything churchill say within forty one new sense of papers have been deposed to church college archives in the Cambridge University and other people like the servies investor time I even mice gate rations diaries basic become available giving those same in fact now on top of the dates and accounts of the war cabinet but I discovered six years ago allows me to have some they pretty much every page book it's never appeared in nature to focus okay well let's start with Churchill's upbringing can you tell us about Winston's parents briefly well he's talking to the upper cloth he was a charismatic successful Victorian politician he became chance of Exchan- so you never saw any of genius in Churchill and green to netted frankly they all the Stanford right to any sound full of contempt and to stay and his son Winston continue to love him and Martin and when his father died when Winston was twenty he raises who's focusing in Winston sorry randolph someone's name and he basically didn't allow it to to scream up whereas his mother also route took nations over to she was a great American future in society maybe something offense with the Prince of Wales Austrian about Saddam heels Okay and you went to school did he do you have did you have much luck at school I mean what sort of student was he he was a monster the student and he made himself out to be it's very rare for politicians to try and make themselves out to be thicker than they genuinely All I it should be in fact that being the dumbs 'cause he portrayed himself broke free my life he in fact was in the top third of all the classes ooh okay well let's turn to Churchill politics because he wasn't always a conservative he crossed the parliamentary floor in Nantes in four over the threat four government opposed to free trade in non white at thirty three he was the youngest cabinet member in forty years and then of course he was pretty significant figuring the British military from an early age this is of Relevance to Australians Andrew What do you wrote about his filings glibly in Nineteen fifteen well of course he was responsible for the idea of the of attacking the Straits of the dodgers novels and it was a brilliant idea to come off name one of the great strategic tunes of the of history of all Pfaff but as we all know say silently on the eighteenth of March nineteen fifteen Liane go six ships foods straits and then of course largely town to Him we double down and and landed all the way through fifteen and of course over the next eight months few one hundred forty seven thousand casualties suffered in the in the West Inside Straight so this was a drastic and terrible decision but one boots the real problem came in implementation well yeah okay now we went into politics to elect liberals rejoined the conservatives in the mid nineteen twenties what did he do that because the conservatives came back to the idea of free trade they it'd been the policy that let's say that's the party he joined the Nipples does the Conservatives dumps feature each and David intense you're often attributed with the quite quite I if a man is not a suspect I by the time he's twenty he has no heart if he's not a conservative by the time he's forty he has no brain churchill really say that I am and unfortunately there are lots of great lines like that but he didn't say he might have if you're going to keep going for example make the safest shape about about lady astor drinking coffee around any number of things keeping lucky men like Groucho Marx no power say funny things people with cheating too even if you didn't say those funny things it was talking about Winston Churchill with Andrew Roberts now Andrew your account numerous occasions when Churchill cheated death in your fi. He survived a school stabbing Cuban Bullets Boer Artillery German shells on the western front a near drowning replaying crushes three car accidents and a house fire Croaky and I'm actually very serious mainly at the age of eleven nomadic agent doctors administered brandy to the inevitable and which she wanted to be so you will send you make the point the church will develop the art of seeing virtually everything through the prism of history yeah it was the fact that he wasn't himself from historic congruent several extremely good he's a genius he was widely seen as Virginia wasn't he won the Nobel Prize for literature and actually he's unhappy about that because the price for peace that he was going to win communicants history who actually has been disappointed when he got the Nobel Prize which shop now we talk about a lot of people think of Churchill he's attitude towards the Nazis and Hitler and of course the British policy of appeasement toward Nazi Germany people forget this but in the late thirties it was actually popular with the British people tell us more about how Churchill riled against the spirit of the Times in the lightning thirties well he was only a final team is it's like jeeze you grew up with Jesus father did like the whole day with them they appreciated the service they it says humanity he was honest from quite an early age and saying he had an early warning system came during the Nazis that a lot of the other people in many wrench AC- rights didn't have also were so we mentioned earlier in being an historian he he sold the threat let's go to the European balance of power that we opposed and EDUC- seen fanaticism place in his life in a way that the other primary tonight people standing Naples we will never change and didn't say he was the first major predisposition of the decade the only major politician to not only warn against Hitler Nazis but also talk with an idea about what do I e rearming especially in the air the by the way you know you obviously know John Howard our second longest serving prime minister did you know that he's middle name is Winston it was named by his parents in mid Naughty thirty nine? When as we've discussed Winston Churchill was anything but the flavor of the month he was seen as yesterday's man rod that shows John's parents and Great must be full size. This is searching tremendously impressive actually I didn't know that's in Ann Arbor got I think yeah well during the war Churchill husband and relations with the United States which meant that America applied an important role in helping Britain defeat awesome but what about the altar pace conference towards the end of World War Two was not Churchill's finest hour why well because they back large number of famine of Yugoslavs to to get to Marshal Tito too because he he basically killed them and a hand backlog Germans and ethnic Germans who an ethnic Russians as well actually Cossacks to stone promptly murdered them as well so as far as the share sort of real politique day was concerned they had to believe result in general had to believe starlings were vulne- that he was going to get to respect the integrity and independence another eastern European countries but unfortunately Adelson those deals went shot which net new Mexico's yeah false assurances by S- talented the free elections would be held in eastern Europe but I mean you bit hot on Churchill because many historians would decide that the dying FDI he essentially stitched Churchill up I didn't believe that case I've been I've found myself we H mccown superbowl cabinet Churchill held on return from Yalta in which very much that he thought he could business was done in the deeper deep stalling the only alternative to trust on of course he was for that much thin walls and it's very other fueled fairness of course because in a million Russian soldiers variant at the time he was also at Folsom Missouri in March Ninety six When you made the Great Iron Kerr in speech the first major Western politician to warn against started was doing in eastern Europe

Winston Churchill Nobel Prize Bullets Boer Artillery Virginia Germany Naples John Howard Prime Minister Hitler Croaky Marshal Tito Yalta Europe Ann Arbor Yugoslavs Adelson Britain America United States
Li-Fi Makes New Waves in Aerospace Industry

WSJ Tech News Briefing

05:10 min | 3 years ago

Li-Fi Makes New Waves in Aerospace Industry

"The university of Alabama school of law online, choose between an l l m and tax or business transactions for lawyers or jurists master in taxation for non-lawyers. Connect. And learn with live lectures details. Had Bama by distance dot U, A dot EDU. This is tech news briefing, im Tanya, Bustos reporting from the newsroom in New York. Coming up, you've heard of wifi. That's old news. It's all about life. I now much faster than WI fi. It has become one of the biggest innovations in the aerospace industry. Lightning fast internet on aircrafts is about to take off more after these tech headlines. The FBI is looking into whether lab testing startup, you bio used improper billing codes in claims and sought payment for unnecessary tests. You buy ohm had been trying to build a business on testing patients microbiomes the microorganisms in the gut, and other parts of the body based on emerging science that suggests microbes can play a role in health as the Wall Street Journal. Previously reported FBI agents searched the company's San Francisco offices in April step to date with the very latest on the probe and the tech behind it at wsJcom. The CIO journal says information technology executives are pushing to make their systems, more energy efficient developing and tweaking software to cut waste. And now tracking how much energy their operations consume. IT leaders are choosing to play a bigger role in reducing the energy consumption of the hardware, and software as well. A crucial part of this is the companies moved to the public cloud, which of course, cuts down on energy guzzling data centers. Take atlassian Corp Sydney-based maker of online collaboration tools for business. For instance, the company aims to run all of its direct operations primarily buildings on one hundred percent renewable energy, including wind and solar by twenty twenty five and care for one of Europe's largest grocery retailers is unloading most of its operations in China were big box retailers are struggling to keep up with nimble delivery providers the kind that are currently winning over shoppers. The move also marks. The latest retreat by a western company in China in the face of stiff competition from home, grown rivals care for is selling an eighty percent stake in its Chinese business, including more than two hundred stores. This comes at a price tag of about seven hundred million dollars. The French company wants a dominant force in many tiny cities saw its sales in the market fall, five point nine percent last year. This comes as western companies are finding the country, brutally competitive and fraught with regulatory hurdles McDonald's. Hewlett Packard and Uber. Armone those who have pulled back or chain strategy in recent years. Coming up picture this lightning fast internet on aircraft. That uses light to transmit signals have the airspace industry is taking it to the next level with life by the university of Alabama school of law online Jews between an l l m and tax or business transactions for lawyers or jurists master and taxation for non-lawyers. Connect and learn with live lectures detail. At Bama by distance dot UA dot EDU. One of the biggest innovations showcased at the recent Paris air show. The one that still has all the airspace enthusiasts talking is life by French company pardon. My French and I mean this, I'm sorry let's say co year. Claims lie fi is up to one hundred times faster than WI fi. Here's surge Barringer senior VP for research and tech at the company explaining the difference. So the wifi is working with a radio frequency. Where was your life fibroids with, like making life by even more notable? It eliminates the sensitivity to radio frequencies, a frequency was impacting health, Folsom, people addict sensitive fall some others that doesn't work but know not lots of a wifi embedded in the prophets. It will impactful her of people in town and for all the five G hype. Here's where something like five G really comes into. Play for WI fi. It's by cutting the costs of satellite operations, which then makes more of the tech free for airlines and passengers to use for the satellite communication gonna do the across to the rest of the will does have limited bandwidth, but in the coming years to sip all to the five G deployment, launch number of satellites willow to reduce the cost of set. Calm and enable and support the deployment of five G himself countries will be faster than in others, but in a long term, you will have a better and cheaper connection than in these today to from from your cuff to the rest of the will catch up with more of what you may have missed. The Wall Street Journal, has full coverage of the latest in airspace technology. That's it for the tech news briefing from the newsroom in New York. I'm Tanya boosters. Thanks for listening.

WI University Of Alabama School O FBI Bama New York China The Wall Street Journal Barringer Tanya Hewlett Packard Atlassian CIO Paris Europe Bustos Corp Sydney-Based Maker
Stan Lee's ex-manager arrested for elder abuse

News, Traffic and Weather

00:39 sec | 3 years ago

Stan Lee's ex-manager arrested for elder abuse

"News, business partner and friend of marvel comic. But creator Stanley is now under arrest on a warrant from the P Morgan arrested in Arizona Phoenix and Scottsdale. Police accused of elder abuse against Stanley before his death last November. The PD says lease estate was worth fifty million dollars. And there were no clear protection stopping someone from taking advantage that Morgan stepped in allegedly taking hundreds of thousands of dollars from Lee Morgan is also accused of. Folsom imprisonment for allegedly movingly out of Hollywood hills home and into a condo. Morgan is facing a list of charges, including elder, abuse and expected to be extradited

Lee Morgan Elder Abuse Stanley Arizona Phoenix Partner Scottsdale Fifty Million Dollars
Gunman in 2012 shooting rampage at California college dies in prison

Pat Walsh

00:34 sec | 3 years ago

Gunman in 2012 shooting rampage at California college dies in prison

"A man serving a life sentence for fatally shooting seven people at his northern California vocational college has died in prison. The California Department of corrections and rehabilitation said Wednesday that fifty year old the one go died at Folsom California state prison on March twentieth. Go was convicted of killing seven and injuring three people during the shooting of waco's university a Christian college in Oakland. He told investigators he was angry with the school administrators for expelling him and refusing to refund is tuition CDC. Are spokeswoman Vicki water said it causes of death hasn't been determined. She did not respond to requests for more

CDC Folsom California Vicki Water California GO Waco Oakland Fifty Year
California regulators fine Folsom's Vibra hospital in patient death

The KFBK Morning News

00:33 sec | 4 years ago

California regulators fine Folsom's Vibra hospital in patient death

Trump renews attacks on protesting NFL players

Ethan Bearman

00:32 sec | 4 years ago

Trump renews attacks on protesting NFL players

"Kim McAllister in for Brett. Burkhart here's a look at what's happening a red flag fire warning is up for the, area around the Mendocino complex fire overnight. Who's made some progress fighting the flames the two. Fires making up the complex ranch fire now fifty three percent contained and the river fire is now ninety percent. Contained so far more than three hundred seven thousand acres have burned. Themselves to fire started fifteen days ago a baby is dead after a crash last night near Petaluma police say the seven month old baby girl was. Pronounced dead at

Donald Trump NFL Kim Mcallister Sacramento Petaluma Thomas Washington Burkhart Jeddah Thomas President DMV President Trump Jerry Brown Mendocino Brett Folsom Jets Ficials Seven Month Three Hundred Seven Thousand A Fifty Three Percent
Zach Lowe on Kawhi Leonard - NBA

SportsCenter AllNight

02:28 min | 4 years ago

Zach Lowe on Kawhi Leonard - NBA

"A lot of it doesn't have anything to do pertain to winning getting lebron james is a heck of a a get by the lakers i think the roster building outside of that has been for me a little bit peculiar usually you're trying to surround james with as much shooting instability as you can and it looks like they've actually gone just the opposite of that very little shooting and some unique personalities to incorporate alongside james because lonzo ball rondo all those guys they're not gonna handle as much as they normally handle because if they do in james doesn't have it then that makes no sense either so i found the james acquisition to be for them obviously a great day in laker history but as far as the rest of the roster construction it's been a little peculiar to me so the thought processes at the spurs will ultimately trade why to his destination being the lakers but not so fast as tom throw a bleacher report who joined freddie and fitz simons top choice for collides camp is not the lakers anymore ever since lebron james went to the lakers tune has changed lebron james is the guy and kawhi leonard guy essentially michael barry report david was that he doesn't want to play for the lakers second fiddles and lebron actually he does angeles clippers you know if you're a team like the philadelphia seventy sixers most confusing is if you're going to give up the farm for kawhi leonard and you know that he wants to make it back to california you know i'm going to be a real reluctant to put in marquel folsom that deal with the miami twenty twenty one pick that holds a lot of value being unprotected and who knows what happens with the mind eating a couple of years seventy sixers have the assets to get a deal done but if you can't guarantee that he's gonna stay long term that's really difficult at the end of the day i think i think kawhi leonard is going to end up in the philadelphia seventy sixers organization simply because i think colli leonard would make a lot of sense going east that's straight talk wireless nationwide coverage on america's.

Lebron James Lakers Spurs TOM Freddie David Philadelphia Kawhi Leonard Marquel Folsom Miami Twenty Twenty Sixers Michael Barry California America