35 Burst results for "Fifty Thousand Years"
Volcanoes On Mars Could Be Still Active
"Bars is cold and dead today but the massive volcanoes tell us what the planet used to be like millions and even billions of years ago. But how volcanically. Active is the planet today. That's what nasa mars insight. Lander is to figure out alright. Bars insight volcanoes is there active volcanoes on mars. Today may be and in. This is such a new result. We picked this topic before the science result was published through peer review. And it's kind of awesome when randomness like that occurs. There is a new paper out with lead. Author david horvath and it discusses. How in serbia's fosse there appears to have been explosive. Volkan ism only as within the last fifty thousand years fifty thousand. Wow and soon that's rabid. That counts as active vulcan. Ism today and what's kind of awesome. Is that location. Matches up loosely. With where insight has seen some well seismic activity. Okay so then the question. So i guess the answer then is maybe. Let's let's go back to the beginning here now. I don't know if we've actually done. We haven't done an episode on insight in detail yet. I don't think so. So can you just give a brief overview of what mars insight is. Is there to do so. This is a fabulous little spacecraft that has proven that sometimes a world can defeat the most well intentioned of spacecraft insight landed on mars with two major missions. The first one was to put down a seismograph that would be able to detect faint earthquakes. And it's such a sensitive seismograph that it can see the waves of an earthquake if everything is perfect not just propagate through the world once but actually bounced through multiple times and because of this they can use a single seismograph to do the kind of science that we require multiple seismographs to do here on earth. Were things are a little bit more noisy because we have like trucks mining and things like that.
Prof. Cecilia Lunardini, Professor of Physics at Arizona State University. - burst 01
"Welcome to the site of accents. Podcast where we explore emerging ideas from signs policy economics and technology. My name is gill. Eappen we talk with woods leading academics and experts about the recent research or generally of topical interest scientific senses unstructured conversation with no agenda or preparation. Be color a wide variety of domains. Rare new discoveries are made and new technologies are developed on a daily basis the most interested in how new ideas affect society and help educate the world how to pursue rewarding and enjoyable life rooted in signs logic at inflammation v seek knowledge without boundaries or constraints and provide unaided content of conversations. Bit researchers leaders. Who low what they do. A companion blog to this podcast can be found at scientific sense. Dot com and displayed guest is available on over a dozen platforms and directly at scientific sense dot net. If you have suggestions for topics guests at other ideas please send up to info at scientific sense dot com and i can be reached at gil at eappen dot info. Yesterday's dini whose professional physics at amazon is taking versity. One of the primary of usage focus is new leaders. Welcome to see you thank you. Yeah thanks for doing this. So i know that you have done a lot of work on neutrinos. You have a few papers. That came out recently. And i want to talk to a twenty eighteen paper dalogue and my own neutrino signatures of primordial black holes. invite you say. These studied primordial black holes ph is as sources of massive neutrinos by hawking radiation under the hypothesis that black holes emit nuclear no bass item states be described quantitatively called the pbs evolution and lifetime is affected by the mass and flew munich dialect my own nature of neutrinos before we get the details celia I wanted to get some definitions of folks would know what black court saw a few episodes of black holes Here we're talking about. The pride won't imprac codes owes The these black holes are fall close to the big bang And then as caulking radiation Sort of The black hole evaporating So to speak and that That lady Imitating these particles called neutrinos. Right is that. Do i understand that correctly. Yes so so pry bhutia blackhaws before we get the neutrinos what is sort of the mechanism of formation their ho- exactly what they have formed sure We believe that Primordial hose could form in the early universe from density fluctuations so We know that any object could can possibly become a black hole if you compress it into a very very small volume so this same process could happen in the universe with Density fluctuations that could be a regional space where there is an over density compared to the surrounding and each of over the east coast past Then then it could get to the point of becoming a black hole This this The details of this process are beyond my expertise But this is fairly reasonable thing to expect and The diesel really small rate in the scheme of things. Yes so when i started to Learn about time or their black holes. I was amazed by how different in mass can be. They can be may be the massive wouldn't but they can also be The mass of Being or they can be Even even smaller so they can really be very very tiny. Yes oh so. That's really really small so this is sort of quantum fluctuations only universe Kind of getting Getting concentrated in vide- small areas But we believe those. Those primordial black holes emit nucleus. we Have to go back to stephen hawking for that stephen hawking wrote this seminal paper Which is about what we nowadays. Nowadays call hawking radiation so he demonstrated that any black hole regardless of what it is could be primordial black hole or a stellar. Nicole doesn't matter any black hole isn't really black because it meets radiations so radiation particles And the the process that we call evaporation so Because a black holes fundamentally gravity objects they would meet any particle that couples to raggedy including trees so It's the moment you have a black hole you do. Have hawking radiation and neutrinos are just that are expected. Part of hawking radiation. You're so caulking radiation so that that happens to every black hole even the even the supermassive ones right so i it said gentle phenomenon And so going to neutrinos now Don't typically thing neutrino site Caltrans and electrons are really well known. neutrinos are particles. Dad don't interact with The matter Espionage don't interact much with matters. We don't really see them. They don't really see them. And and so it's difficult to measure that's right and so so this could you give a. What does the history of neutrino vendor we. I understand such things existed. Let's see We go back to the twentieth century and the story goes That the father of neutrino sees Warfare he. He made the hypotheses of a new particle existing as a way to explain Some strange behavior of neutrinos produced by by nuclear decay so It's it's a long story but Let me just say that For a long time. Neutrinos who just the hypotheses and then around the mead of this twentieth century They would actually officer so we started to Know that this particles existed and But that was pretty much heat. So we didn't know much about the properties And one of these properties the mass which we still don't know i'm easy after all these decades but we still don't know if neutrinos have something like a magnetic went for example And something that we didn't learn until much later on is the fact. That neutrinos oscillate. That's that that sounds. That's something that we that were somehow established Turn of the sanctuary around the around the year. Two thousand really after after decades of of testing with the solar neutrino selling trainers. So there are still there are still a number of no on your trainers. One of them is the mass one and the other one is the The nature of the neutrinos being the iraq particles or miranda particles we She's kind of a fundamental cost. So there are that. That's that's that's related to the fundamental nature of the neutrino as particle break. So so they do. They have a mass but masses small. Do they have a chunk. Neutrinos don't have charge so they are electrically neutral and that's Comedy the biggest reason for for them to be a so allusive as you were mentioning earlier on especially in the in early. Nineteen hundreds all the particle detectors so basically a electro-magnetic detectors they were looking for charge or Magnetic behavioral some sort. So neutrinos don't have that and so they They only have the weak interaction At that that we know wolf and gravity of course and so that's why they They escape detection so so easily because their interaction is very weak. Yeah so so. That's sort of the beauty of neutrinos right so because they don't interact V can go back digits of years. Simple hats Perhaps become pickup one on earth and it would have travelled that distance through all sorts of things but would not have affected wider rate right. Yes and so so the other phenomenon of neutrino is that you mentioned that they also late so are they're failures of tinos they go back and forth. Yes it's It's actually a fairly Easy to this cried kwan to sonam on We know that In quantum mechanics there is this Particles described by these function which is called the wave function. And so the neutrinos could be on. Neutrino could be born as a say an extra and then it's quanta way function would evolve over time in a way that after sometime. The wave function is no longer a purely electron neutrino way function. But the has a little bit or even law actually of a different flavor. It could be a new one or tau. So what we observe in the actors. Is this change of flavor and perhaps the most striking demonstration of this phenomenon is solemn. Neutrinos because we know that the sun produces an extra treatments and It doesn't produce a new on and talion trainers so But here on earth we do Have evidence that the solar neutrino flags that we receive has some You wanna talion. Trina in it and that can only be explained by sedation and Actually after this other neutrino data showed this phenomenon. This was also confirmed by a saint men made experiments so it's a fairly established phenomenon it and so that the flavors are Electron new on tall. Yes that's right and so. Did you understand the vendor made in the sun for example there they are made as electron Neutrinos and by the time they reached the earth day the Immunes dot. Yes yes Impart young. that's that's what happens so ease. It always the case that they get a manufactured so to speak as as electoral neutrinos always. It depends on where they are born. There are places where neutrino sutter born in or flavors. A so it's it's it really varies with With the type of environment We are talking about okay. Okay and so in the people you say ph is this primordial black holes. We talked about radiates right. Handed and left handed dutra knows in equal amounts so anybody right-handed unless the cleaners. Okay let me see so Yes you say. Indicates of dirac neutrinos. pba Left neutrinos in equal amounts possibly increasing deceptive number noon pheno species nest. Yes is that explainable. Yes so right handed than left handed. Neutrinos that may take why to explain what that exactly means me. Just say that It's related to the neutrino mass. So if you're truly knows didn't have a mass which we know they do but if they didn't have a mouse They would only exist as left handed particles which means that basically their spin is Is anti aligned with the momentum and but if they have mass and the iraq particles There could be another type of neutrino which is right handed. Which where the This being ease aligned with a mentor other than anti line and so If you are iraq these these two different species could exist and so instead of having one species of neutrino emitted left-handed one Indicators of a massless trina if we have not suv nutrients than you would have to species and so. The black hole radiate war energy compared to The case when neutrinos don't amass so when we started working on this paper i was interested in this phenomenon that A lot of the literature having to do with a developer. Evaporation of primordial black couls. Consider the neutrinos as massless about. Now we know that they are massive. And so i thought well Sixty speaking at primordial black hole could radiate more energy than previously thought. So i found that aspect interesting and then sees you mention the possibility to increase the effective number of species. That's related to what it was talking about. So then you the black hole would ra- gate more neutrino States or more neutrino Species to spe pseudo speak and then Would increase the number of neutrinos per cubic centimeter Data we observe today so I'm kind of glossing over a lot of these days. But basically cosmology gives us a measurement of this and effective which is called the effective number two species. And if you have this right. Handed neutrinos coming from the primordial black holes. This number could be higher than than expected. And so that would be may be a i way to tell that maybe there are more black holes in the universe yet. So so the hawking radiation essentially creation coming out of black holes Expected defined Expected that over a long period of time. Black holes radiate away lap. Later ray out the mass or information that didn't do it And so this. Radiation is hockey. Radio station is it is a new park. Or is it. Fundamentally composed of neutrinos hawking radiation is made of every particle that no of so A black hole. A camera gate Pretty much everything. Photons neutrinos throngs You loans It said cetera but There is the catch here. The fact that a black hole has a temperature which is another Big achievement of stephen hawking to end and others To that the black hole is thermo dynamical object and so Basically the bigger the black hole the lower the temperature so if the temperature is really low The black hole wouldn't be able to immed- Very massive particles because they are thermal energy would be sufficient for that so because masses energy Mc squared right so because massey's energy If a black hole has too low of a temperature It wouldn't have its quantum energy It's it's Wouldn't be enough to produce the mass off a particular particle for example a proton may be too heavy to be produced by a really low tanto black home so so the beaker. The black called the lower the temperature. Yes ed so. So then can expect the bigger black holes to have more of a neutrino content in radiation. Yes because The bigger black holes would as i said be able to radiate the heavy particles and so they would only be able to radiate away the low mass particles and so there could be black holes that only emit photons gravitons and Neutrinos do a of sort of the distribution of this primordial black holes Isn't you know sort of everywhere. What is what do we know about you. Know some of the distribution of bbc's you mean spatial distribution like where they are now. I'm wondering just like the easy would do sort of look at the early universe will find them everywhere Probably at the beginning they would be a more or less uniformly distributed Bug in the universe. Today they would probably be Behaving like the dark matter. Does they would Be part of galactic halos In other words they would be they would class gravitationally on large structures like a like a galaxy placido galaxy so these call still around They would they would behave like like the dark matter down. So they would be in in halo. Galaxies would have by. Now have april would would they not have disappear because it far it depends on the mass That they have when they are born so their if their mass is less than a certain value that trying to remember Basically yes they would have to By now they would have completely evaporate did their masters larger than they will take longer to evaporate and they could still be around So they roughly speaking the dividing line between a black hole. Steve being around today or not. I think it's something like ten to fifteen grams fiery recall correctly into fifteen clams though So this paper. Eusebio obtained the diffuse flux of right hill. Neutrinos from his idea and so so. So so the nikkei actually act to build these neutrinos. They'd be flying here do pbs specifically In principle that's a possibility we Considered that for certain Masses of these black holes and certain density of this black holes the flux of neutrinos that they generate over time could be fairly large and so we could Detect these neutrinos If we had a very Power who attacked so Now life is never ideally in the sense that a real Ut detector have substantive issues like ground And so on. So at the end of the people we conclude that impact is giving given the limitations that current nutrient doctors have It may not really be possible to detect neutrinos trump mortgage black holes but people. That's a possibility and that alone is interesting. Yeah because they suggestion that this primordial black holes could be as as you mentioned could be part of the dark matter that yes to seeking. Is that still About us that has been. There has been a debate on these Kind of going back and forth in the scientific community The latest i heard is that Black whose could be part of the dark matter. Maybe even a large part but probably not they entire dark matter so a one hundred percent primordial Battery is a bit difficult to justify the day. experimental bowels that we already have constrained so various types but there could be scenarios where maybe a fraction of the dark matter. He's made of primordial black holes. I wanted to go into a ended up paper in twenty twenty supernova neutrinos directional sensitivity and prospects for dissertation here the export potential of current and future liquid cinta league neutrino detectors. I decade old town. Mass a localize a super a supernova neutrino signal into sky in douglas was feeding the core collapse nearby star tens to hundreds of english Coated and don't be constructed policy in the detector can be used to estimate a direction to the star so so this is now neutrinos from supernova and You so so we. We have Idea here that before this opened on what happens. If please open over a time period it is creating neutrinos that could pick up and and potentially get ready to see the super bowl. Yes that's what excites me The fact that Think about bitter jews. Beetlejuice is the most famous nearby star. That could go supernova anytime and we don't know when that's going to happen and If it wasn't for these neutrinos that our paper is about we will know until the style literally Collapses and and then soon after becomes superman but in this paper we we Show that before the star collapses which is the beginning of the supernova process We can detect these. These neutrinos That are used at that at that stage and so increase the pool we could know that You know tomorrow. These days beetlejuice exploding and that that would be quite exciting. Yeah it's beetlejuice is is red joy and reasonably close to was really big star. I can remember Cecilia there was some suggestion that It could go supernova within something one hundred fifty thousand years which is obliquely in cosmic time so it is getting ready to go to Supernova right yes. I am not you formed about exactly the number of years give or take but it's it's ready it's ready. It could be any time and any time any time for an astronomer muse anytime the next thousand soviet so we should. We should hold their breath. But it's ready could be tomorrow. It could be in a hundred years could supernova. I know that this is not part of the paper but could the beetlejuice supernova avenue adverse effect on north really know a supernova is very very spectacular event. it's it's a star that collapses so it implodes i and that explodes and then when he explodes It's very bright. In the case of bitter jews we could. We could see by naked-eye shore but in terms of A fact of each radiation and neutrinos in light on on us and on our daily activities. It wouldn't it. Wouldn't affect them in any way so it's a save Show to just enjoy without any worry. Great answer so you talking about supernova neutrinos so so can be actually detect neutrinos from supernova. What different from what we talked about in the previous people Different from pbs I'm not sure. Can you repeat yes. So the new teen emanating from a supernova different from the Neutrinos of expectancy from a primordial black hole. Yes the the different In many ways disney trails have higher energies. So it's much much easier to attack them and indicates will beat the jews. We would detect thousands or even more of dan millions. Probably of them Indiana so different in the way they are born because in our primordial black hole ordinary black hole The processes volcanoes the asian. Which which is a gravity phenomenon in a supernova. You're born out of the very hot and dense environment That the that that the star as after it has collapsed so star collapsing on its own way to become very dense and so In this very dense in hot environment nuclear processes take place that produce these nutrients. So i guess the main difference is that indicates supernova it's most nuclear phenomenon and in the call is really fundamentally a gravitational sonam. Okay you discover technique in this paper and you saved sin principle possible unique the identify the progenitor star so So the existing technology and ideas discussed in the paper viki see teacup a neutrino decode. Identify valid came from or what direction thing from embed you can go back and look at the in that direction if he find to supernova then you could say that the supernova that created in-principle Yes let me. Just say that There are situations and this is not one of them but there are situations where if you have one neutrino you can point to the pointing the sky. What came from in these case. It's a little more complicated. Because what really gives us. The information is the statistical distribution of these nutrients so we are talking about may be the tax in hundred a hundred Gable take from say be for example and What did detector really observe is not the neutrino is kind of a vector which is related to the products of these neutrinos so this neutrino sues interacts with the interact with the detector. And then out of this interaction you have a positive on the new thrown and those can be observed and you can you can create a factory using these two and then and then these rector will have a certain orientation but each each neutrino coming will give you a differently oriented vector but statistically if you look at the distribution of these factors you you can tell you can you can do for with a certain of course The direction of the neutrinos because these vectors are not uniformly distributed they are they have a non uniform distribution of the direction. And so using this information we can we can define a regional the sky where The new three could come from so we can. We cannot now down to a point but we can now down to maybe a cone of a few tens of degrees Width and then we look in that cone and see what stars that com and maybe be juicy one of them. Yeah so As you say you if you see a few Neutrinos Statistics bution of those will give us some some probability That it is in in some region of the sky. And then you say the paper You can then that if it is happening please open nola. You learnt other observational. Modalities multi messagero rations Invisible in radio and other other types of observations Do actually pick up more data so this is almost like a early alert system If it is in place right yes i would call it a very early I learned to because it's we're talking about maybe our worse or insert very fortunate cases. We are even talking about maybe day Before the assad goes supernova and. so that's enough time to plan for for it so a something that fascinated me When i heard about this from a from a an experimentalist is that there is a human factor which was not aware of but The factories so if you have come up with thirty minutes to plan for watching supernova this may not be enough because it just takes stein to make phone calls and get a hold of people and and decide what to do. Come to a consensus in that. I saw in addition to technical things. Like okay have to maybe turn your telescope Direction which takes time. But i i was really fascinated by the human factor. Those things that if you had style we'd be you can kind of gathered. Relevant people decide something but if you have thirty minutes or or or minutes maybe not so. Yeah yeah i wondered. If such a earlier system is in place Perhaps could be something programmatic. Crises is picking up And you have some you know. Maybe some ai techniques or something like that that identifies the region and it goes. Programmatic returned the telescopes look. Yes yes exactly so. There could be a protocol in place For that so e if a telescope was suitable for observing a nearby supernova which which is not always the case than than now that we showed that it's possible to know beforehand if a star is going to go supernova then there could be some sort of protocol in place already so that when the alert comes which is we can just activated the protocol and oriented telescope. maybe automatically will in some sort of Organized way yeah as you say if you remove humans from the process it becomes not better there is actually already working this direction It's called this new two point. Oh a network which has to do with Exactly these using neutrinos as alert for the astronomy community and That has to do with exactly a creating alerts and also creating protocols for how to react to an alert rate. I want to end the people that just came out. it concordant scenario for the observation of neutrino from the tidal disruption. Even eight hundred twenty nine hundred ninety s t You say be induced at phenomenology concordance canadia with the logistic jet of for the title disruption event Between ninety s jesmyn proposes a source of the astrophysical neutrino event. Ice cube So the title disruption even this is star getting cooler into a black hole getting Getting sucked in rate is that the is that even up to the match yes This is something that we We had about be in in popular science stalks What what happens if you get too close to black hole and It's kind of scary. So the answer is you would be ripped apart because your feet will be pulled in with a strong force than your head and these. This is what happens to two statehouse. Use the star gas to close than by guests Ripped the park. Which is what the tied is option means and so instead of a star Rotating around a black hole we just have a stellar stellar That dr intially. I created by the black hole and so This is something that The happy neighbor cops serve did so so we have. This does happen this particularly Eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s and Bequeath actually see a new cleaners from that particular even so tightness. Deduction events are fairly well established phenomenon in astronomy. We have many of them served They they are Fairly a common plays events But what's special about this particular one. Eighty two thousand nineteen years. G is that We could let's say It could have Produced on neutrino that was detected a ice cube so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety s. She is the first either direction event. For which is coincident. Neutrinos detected a dice. Cube in queens. This coincidence is likely to be accidental. So on approachability estimate tells us that these coins. This is pretty causal not accident so eighty twenty nine hundred ninety. The g could be the parent of this neutrino. And that's that's that's a i. That's very interesting. Yes i skew. is a is a big ice cube in the in. The south is I'm not sure it's exactly cuba. But it's it's the biggest block of is which has been Eastern With values Small detectors So it's it's an array of swarner detectors but yeah it's basically a big block of ice which has been transformed into a detective and so so the idea that this high energy neutrinos from what they were System montemar even that happened Out there this high energy neutrinos passing through that ice q. believe some telltale signs All of that happening and yuxi picked up Then began back Just like you were talking about the previous creeper begin. Please back to a region so this is one of those cases where you can tell from a single neutrino of course the with with a narrower where you can tell the point in the sky where three neutrino kate from. It's doable with one single neutrino because this high energy neutrinos when they enter the is They produce ca a shower so they kind of illuminate. They you me nate. The is but the do it in a way which is very much Beat so and then and then the direction of the the direction of bigotry knows. We have a pretty good accuracy often. How often could be a pickup something like that. Do we have an estimate of how often that would happen. Meaning ice cube detects something like this. Every year ice cube the tax Of the order of ten high-energy neutrinos froth outside our galaxy. Tadesse the number for the entire crop of neutrinos that ice cube has It went we talk about tidal disruption events in the specific these are fairly rare phenomena and so they estimated that maybe a few times so percent of the entire neutrino flux the thais cubeys of serving could be from tidal disruption events. Not much more than that. So we are talking about less than half of the total flats being to tell this option events okay and so the tug disruption burned as as you mentioned It starts getting clipped applaud and pulled back into a into a a black hole but this ten percent. Do they have to be these braces as they call it. The things that have a jet that is sort of lying towards us. Is that it necessarily condition for these types of high energy neutrinos. It's it's a plausible scenario Let me just say that. There is an important difference between blazers in tidal disruption events. In the fact that the ablaze is something that has a jet. She's always on so the jets kinda kerman feature of of these particular galaxy but the title is adoption. Event is transient events. Saw dotcoms creates the accretion. This accretion of the star of the black hole produces flair is flair can last year or two but then it would just fade away so There could be jet and in fact in our paper we present where there is a jet so they partisans the user chat But if there is a jet in tiger disruption event. That's a transient suggested. That's born when This starts to create the stellar debris. And then it's on for months or years and then and then shuts off and it has two point in our direction as you as you mentioned because otherwise we would. We would see the trains your so this high energy neutrinos sillier how. How many orders of magnitude are we talking about coming to the one set you pick up. Let's say from the sun I'm not sure about the question. Can you maybe rephrase yet. So when you say this high energy neutrinos that is coming from let's say a tidal disruption events or something like that How much comedy orders of magnitude more energy Outdoors come to you. Know the ones that might be created the sun a lot menu of this magnitude so It is a big difference. So the sun produces new three meals. over a wide range of energies Higher energy neutrinos from the sun reach energies of the order of ten am pt and mega awards and for the ice cream. Neutrinos we are talking about one hundred of the older one hundred t. v. or even thousand teams. Which would be p so. Let's say maybe eighty tortoise magnitude finding the mass rife or okay and so this e. v. measure it is actually measuring the mass of the neutrino of newfield. Now these these neutrinos are have such a Such high energy that basically It's impossible to know their mass Because because as i said massey's energy so they talk energy of neutrino Detected is to be so high that that percentage view to its mass east so tiny that this practice mutual so i was wondering if we know the energy couldn't be sort of back computer to save the mass is or it doesn't follow The reasoning is a bit different and The way to sink about this is perhaps they let me see the formula for energy particle Which used the rest energy Applause the kinetic energy and So connecticut is so high that he thought the overwhelms direct energy. So it's it's and of course every time you measure the energy when three no. There is a narrow associated with the measurement so You we can't really we can't really tell what What led the boss of the detroit news but both roughtly this. This appears to be sort of an early warning system for many many things right topped the supernova the in the title disruption events producing heightened plano's So this could be sort of inundated with a monkey message. Observations protocols as you mentioned that gives us a higher success. Wait suspect. I would think certainly nominated be one right That's the power of multi messenger astronomy the integration of different signals coming from Photos tree knows navigation waves Causing me craze and Danger plays very powerful emmanuel cases and maybe supernova case is the most striking Xenos come first. But that's not always the case So in the indicates of tidal disruption events Did you know that was observed. Came about five months later than the initial dhammika looser version of the tidal disruption events so It's if it can go both ways. neutrinos can be early alert or they only alert could be for example a radio salvation or or an x-ray use ovation and then and then the neutrino attacked or could Focus a surge in that direction as see what they find which which has actually been done ice cube sometimes. Does these these archival. Search this on the basis of others from From for example x ray or gamma ray surveys interested. Exciting eighty that said a lot to be owned It seems It seems like these till don't know all the production mechanisms for neutrinos but if we have robust with to pick them up on than we can place them back and and talk asking questions What might be there definitely So yes so. People celia the next five years Wanted the aid is that you believe Be will make a significant crocus in this Innovative neutrinos then two different areas. That a very promising One is Broadly speaking Manmade nutrients so there is. There is a big push especially hitting the united states to build Create very powerful beams of trainings and then these beams are manmade. So we know that very well. We know that energy we know the composition and we can use them to learn about The properties of treatments and then That other men bead neutrino experiments where Scientists look for the between months so that's also very promising In something i really. I really excited about that. That may be a furious novel with noble the neutrino mass us from these very high position laboratory experience. Then there is the whole Topic of neutrinos as part of the mouth of mike messenger astronomy and in that area. I think what was was to look forward. To among other scenes is the interplay gravitational waves shock waves. You still Somehow a science of its own into a large extent but there are so many possible connections. We've neutrinos tidal disruption adoption events should produce reputation ways so baranov shoot us gradation ways So so there is. There is a a lot of potential there which is still unexplored in and that's where i see myself Working on in the next few years you adjust very quickly The do gravitational waves travel bid closest and new ashtrays and so if If they both are produced in In uneven they're expected to arrive on earth close to simultaneously. It depends on the timing of the production if the answer is yes the waves ending a knows are born at the same time which may not be exactly true because the physics that governs tation waves is different from the one that that governs neutrinos. So but the difference in timing would be the difference Accumulated that birth But but the two were were generated genetically the same time. They should arrive the same time. Just thinking this a systematic difference in the production time than guan lorries given early warning for the other. But that doesn't seem to do a case right. There could be cases where significant lag in the production of rotation way with respect to the production of the tree nose and one example is. We haven't touched on this before but let me just nation mergers so if we have if we have a merger for example we have maybe a merger of a neutron stars or black hole neutral star before the merger happens so when the two objects that kind of still approaching each other we should start observe serving ways and this is what this is what has been seen so Delight experiment observes these these nominal But if we have a merger After the merger has occurred and the two objects have become one than a. Dan could be the formation of of over an accretion disk and he secretion Trainers which we can which we can back so the neutrino We come After they initially asian waves and so relation as would be the alert for the neutrino. That does excellent. your this has been great as celia. thanks so much complaining pleasure. Okay thank you bye. This is a scientific sense. Podcast providing unscripted conversations with leading academics and researchers on variety of topics. If you like to sponsor this podcast please reach out to info. At scientific sense dot com.
Neanderthal DNA May Be COVID Risk
"The risk factors for covid nineteen are many old age obesity, heart conditions. But early genetics studies have identified another trait that some people who developed severe cove nineteen seem to share a cluster of genetic variations on their third chromosome and that DNA sequence likely derives from neanderthals says Hugo, Siegburg of the Max Planck Institute it is quite striking that S-. This veterans has lingered until house years fifty thousand years ago is. The approximate time humans and neanderthals interbred, and over the Millennia, those neanderthal variants have become more common in some homo sapiens populations than others for example, about sixteen percent of people of European descent carry at least one copy of the neanderthal stretch half of South Asians do and nearly two thirds of Bangladesh's, and that's kind of fascinating is so high that points towards that it must must've been beneficial in the post. I mean it's much higher than we expect. Undone. It's totally expunged in east as shown in China. Some something has happened driving the frequency often certain placing removing a token, the other places they details are in the journal, nature. See Bergen is colleague right that perhaps the NEANDERTHAL DNA happens to boost the risk of developing severe covid nineteen and they point to the fact that in the UK people of Bangladeshi descent have twice the risk of dying of cove nineteen than the general population. But as Epidemiologists Neil of the University of Nottingham pointed out in an email people of African descent in the UK are also being hurt more by the virus. Despite, having hardly any neanderthal genes instead, it's social factors like crowded multi, generational households or working frontline jobs that are more likely to be driving the trend seen in the UK that's according to Andrew Heyward Director of the Institute of Epidemiology in Healthcare at University College London, and as both epidemiologist pointed out, it's worth remembering that you can only develop severe covid nineteen if you're exposed to the virus in the first place.
Mars in Opposition
"Wadham to astronomy, cast our weekly facts based journey through the cosmos where we help you understand not only what we know. But how we know what we know I'm Fraser Cain publisher, of Universe today and with me as always Dr Pamela Gay a senior scientist for the Planetary Science Institute and the Director of Cosmic Quest Pamela. Welcome back from Summer Hiatus I missed you. Thank you. I've missed you too although I have to say it feels like we're like experiencing march. Two. Hundred instead of September at this point time has meaning it doesn't it really has no meaning. Yeah. Yeah. It's a it's a it's a snake in a circle eating its own tail. Made of everything nothing at the same time. I don't know whether I'm coming or going. The days just blur and yet time just takes forever. When do I get my vaccination? You are you are you on I was thinking about this really want to do what I want to go places and see people. That's what I do. To to have gone from having that amazing experience in January where we were together in Hawaii for the W. S meeting. And towards the end of that meeting, we were starting to talk about the news about this strange illness in China and remember the Thursday night on. Talking with a couple of my friends at the conference about. Just want to get home before the illness makes it to Hawaii. And I had no idea that. Nine mice be earlier. Still Yeah, no I guy I had my suspicions but. In. And now I you know we do feel like we're closing in now on the final stretch that more and more vaccines are coming into into the final stage of trials, and there's going to be some kind of roll out but I really hope that that herd immunity will start to get kicked in and we can start to see the end of this hopefully during this season. So we will we will and herd immunity from. Thanks. From getting sick. So we will. Exceed the end of it during the season and. Regular life will return. This season fourteen, our show is major and I feel that having a very cranky year is consistent with going through our teenage ness. Thank you bye-bye. Now this is. All right, every two years or so Mars lines up nicely with the earth it takes only two minutes to communicate with the Rovers. You could see the polar ice caps in a small telescope and it's the best time to send your spacecraft to the Red Planet and also I. Guess. It Mars opposition. Between Your horoscope your Mars horoscope is really good that other works. Maybe, that's Mars in retrograde. That none lucky time. They can happen at the same time whereas in retrograde and an opposition. Yeah. That's true. All right. So so so we're going to talk about how Mars and opposition is a really like the best time for Mars that's Mars really takes over the night sky and shows us what it's got but. Why is Marzano Position? So technically, it is that moment in time when you have the sun, the earth and Mars precisely lined up so that at midnight on earth. Mars is at its highest possible point in our terrestrial sky and if you were to look at it from space. Walk. Would they look from above you're looking down on the solar system and you're looking at? Earth Mars and the sun what would you see? Align they're just nicely in a line. And There's some years where because Mars orbit is a lot more elliptical than earth orbit that we are noticeably closer. There's some years that were noticeably farther apart of back in two thousand and three. There's a lot of Hoopla because we were than. We'd been in hundreds of years would be for another hundred some odd year. He was fifty thousand years was the closest yet had been. Two Thousand and three. And at these closest points, we are more than twenty million miles closer than we are during opposition when Mars is at its far points. So there is a substantial difference, but in the grand scheme of things. Mars is still smaller than allows to see it as a desk without. Really good binoculars or a telescope. So but just to give just to give people a sense of perspective, I mentioned this the beginning of the show it takes two light minutes to communicate with Mars just over two minutes right now we'll win Mars you not position until you can. You know you send your beep boop commands to your over and you're over goes beep boop and sends back it's commands and it's just like you're playing a video game with. Fairly reasonable times, but when Mars is. Old Dial up modem exactly. An Internet game what it gets worse right on average the a the time to transmit to Mars is about twelve and a half minutes and at the very worst when Mars is on the opposite side of the Sun It's twenty minutes. So if you want to send some piece of information to Mars, you've got to wait twenty minutes for the message to get there and then twenty minutes to come back. So. The distances are really significant.
"Night Welcome to kids Miss Mystery Cyber your host kit chrome today. I'm going to talk about how some Mistakes made it into text books and I'm going to start with the woolly mammoth arose about five point one million years ago in Africa according to the curator of the American Museum of Natural History in New York from Africa the mammoth migrated through Eurasia North America their evolution continued over millions of years eventually producing what we know now as the wooly mammoth beginning roughly two, hundred, fifty, thousand years ago. mammoths were extinct about ten thousand years ago. OOPS more like three, thousand, five, hundred years ago scientists now believe an isolated population of mammoth persisted on Wrangel Island off the northeastern coast of Siberia. And deep in Canada's Northwest Territories, World Heritage site in hunt, valley until about three thousand, seven, hundred years ago. Unfortunately, the ten thousand year mark of extinction is in most textbooks. But let's take a closer look at that date the prominent theory that made it into most textbooks. Encyclopedia's remember those was ten thousand years ago because it was believed for decades at the mammoth migrated from the African continent through. Eurasian North America, driven by the last ice age, they were following the food supply. If that's the case, then it makes sense that some moms ended up into Hani because it was never touched by. The last ice age and yes bone. So the mammoth have been found in that region but this isn't the first theory published in Texbook. As fact that there's some founded expend believed and yes, made it into text books that the continent of Antarctica has been covered by ice for millions of years again hoops the Perry reese map drawn in fifteen thirteen shows the northern coast of Arctic as ice-free. The most puzzling aspect of the map isn't how it managed to be. So accurate three hundred years before Antarctica was discovered but that the map shows the real Coche line under the ice geological evidence. has confirmed that the latest date and Artika could have been charted in an ice free ages. Four thousand BC officials sciences been saying all along the ice cap, which covers yet arctic is millions of years old the Perry reese at Arctic map shows, but the northern part of that continent has been mapped before the ice covered it. That could make us think it has been mapped a million years ago but that's impossible since mankind did not exist at that time further and more accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice free condition and already got ended about six thousand years ago. The question is who map Queen Maud land at Arctic six thousand years ago which unknown civilization, how the technology or the need to do that I wanNA touch on just one more scientific nestled in the ancient city of Komo. Polka Bolivia are stone blocks that were used to make up a series of Pyramids Wayne from two hundred to four hundred tons each block nothing unusual there the city dates back to five, thirty, six AD. Yet. The blocks are riddled with carved indentations and in the surrounding grasses were found. Staple shaped clamps that fit in place were used to hold the blocks together. How could the indigenous people? No knowledge of urgency have created these clamps and where did the metal they use come from? This isn't the only case of metal clamps being used to hold giants don't together in Cambodia's anchor watt giant sandstone blocks way nearly two tonnes were brought to the site of the temple from nearby mountain via series of waterways. Close inspection of stones that are scattered around the site have revealed carved indentation receptacles for metal clamps perhaps. How about an eerie coincidence just outside the magnificent ruins of anger what stands an ancient pyramid temple known as backseat clump core now from Cambodia. Travel over eight thousand miles to Guatemala in the ancient Mayan city of Tacoma all among the long forgotten structures at the call is the Temple of the Great Jaguar although the Cambodian pyramid is much smaller than the pyramid in Guatemala the similarities between the specific design features are uncanny both. These pyramids both these ancient structures have an unusually steep slope angle that didn't exist in many other pyramids or temples however, and perhaps most importantly they both feature a stepped formation. There's a massive stairwell going up the middle of both temples and there's a domed area located on the top of both once there you can see there's a small door that goes inside the pyramid on both and there's another internal structure that looks the same. Basically what you have here is an ancient civilization. Cambodia. Another one in Mesoamerica despite the fact that they are separated by more than nine thousand miles, they feature incredible similarities that no one not even science has been able to explain
Ana Forrest & Jose Calarco - Forging Your Own Path
"Hello Joe. It's Jose Calico and Anna Forest Tia on all CA silent USA. And just by what you see what's going on in the mainland in the US I. And we're I a Saif. He only island in a Beautiful Anna's house thirty acres in lush forest with owls and eagles, and deason vouchers. Would really enjoying actually the lockdown. After five or six years of non stop touring thirty five CDs and countries a year. With had the chance to settle down and? We do have still very, very busy with our online channel and running out business each day we do a nice lengthy yoga practice. I'm a vegan chefs are cooking more than ever. Where actually very, very healthy. And so much has changed joke. Since we last spoke the world has gone absolutely crazy. And the US is one of those places where just off the mainland here. And not too far from here there's riots and shooting and racial tensions. All sorts of crazy crazy stuff going on a lot of it is a countdown to the election. Coming up here in the US I. There's a lot of manipulation lots of lies. Very hard to trust many people right now. So. Much. Going on. But We a happy to announce that old during this lockdown. We've had the opportunity to finally record all online yoga music ceremony shamanism philosophy Joe Prayers, go out to Victoria and all Ustralia Week here how harsh the lockdown is over there and I just lucky that we were able to do the lockdown thirty Acre forest. However, we seem to allow best wishes to Victoria and Australia, and we pray that our freedoms come back again. Go, and Jose. Thank you so much for speaking with us today all the way over in New Zealand the beautiful. Put Her. Could. We stop heads of your connections to first nations culture. Would you like to share how you live and work within indigenous communities and Foams what you share today? Absolutely. Well. I have been director all descendants aboriginal and Torres Strait Island Dance Company for twenty. Five years. People can see that descendants dot com you. We've traveled to the four corners of the planet we have done the world's biggest events over forty countries were visited. And this is where I got my background. In, aboriginal culture and my aboriginal Mahba spiritual mother Imelda Willis came from the dingy. Kanju clans Al-Faw North Queensland. She is now deceased. And we still descendants still together. And this just gave us the idea I had already. Doing first nations work in forest job. But I took it a couple of steps further by doing. Exchange all over the world while wearing Australia, we do Australian aboriginal stuff while we're in the US CY cultural exchange with the Americans. All first nations people in Mexico in Canada. Everywhere we go. We liked to do cultural exchange because first nations have spirituality was is beautiful and untouched by white middle class sort of new age is symptoms. So, with the aboriginal culture, it's the world's all this culture. It goes well over fifty thousand years and it was well before yoga and a lot of people site what has first nation. Philosophy principles and culture got to do with Yoga. And it actually has a lot to do with Yoga when we look at Yoga in the broader perspective as a place learning and healing.
"All Welcome to kiss Miss Misery. Sime your host kit chrome hoping you're healthy and staying sheltered in place today. I'm going to talk about scientific hiccups and I'll begin with the woolly mammoths arose about five point. One million years ago in Africa according to the curator at the American Museum of Natural History in New York from Africa the mammoth migrated throughout Europe Asia North America. Their evolution continued over millions of years eventually producing the woolly. Mammoth we know today. They began roughly two hundred fifty thousand years ago. Mammoths went extinct about ten thousand years ago. Hoops that's the first scientific hiccup more like three thousand five hundred years ago. Scientists now believe in isolated population of mammals persisted on Wrangel Island off northeastern eastern Costa Siberia and deep in Canada's Northwest Territory and World Heritage Site than Hani Valley. They were there until about three thousand seven hundred years ago. The ten thousand year more of extinction is in most textbooks though. But let's take a closer look at that date. The prominent theory that made it into most textbooks and the cyclopes. Pedia is ten thousand years ago because it was believed for decades at the mammoth migrated from the African continent through Eurasian orth America driven by the last ice age. What scientists called police to seen ice age following the food supply? If that's the case that it makes sense that some ended up in the valley because it was never touched by the last ice age and yes sponsor the mammoth have actually been found in that region. But this isn't the first theory published in a textbook as fact that is founded. It's been believed yes. Baited into text books that the continent of at Artika has been covered by ice for millions of years again. Oops scientific hiccup. The Perry reese map drawn in. Fifteen thirteen shows a northern coast of Antarctica. Ice-free the most puzzling aspect of the map isn't how it managed to be so accurate three hundred years before and articles discovered but that the map shows the real coastline under the ice geological. Evidence has confirmed. How could that have happened or been charted in an ice free age four thousand years ago which is what science states? That was the last time that Arctic was ice free officials. Science has been saying all along that the ice cap which covers the Antarctic is millions of years old. The Perry reese at Arctic amount shows it the northern part of that continent has been mapped before the ice covered it that could make us think it has been mapped a million years ago but that's impossible since mankind did not exist at that time. Furthermore accurate studies have proven that the last period of ice-free condition in that Arctic area the northern tip ended about six thousand years ago the question is who mapped Queen Maud Land of Antarctica. Six thousand years ago which unknown civilization had the technology or the need to do that. I want to state at this point. That the Perry map has been validated as being real and brought back to that data. Fifteen thirteen it is not a about that which made twenty years. I pushed office something true. I want to touch on just one. More scientific kick up nestled in the ancient city of Papun Kabul. Libya are stone blocks that were used to make up a series of pyramids each block. Wade from two hundred to four hundred tonnes. Nothing unusual there. The city dates back to five three six ad yet. The blocks are riddled with carved indentations and in the surrounding grasses were found giant staple liked clamps. That it in place and we're used to hold the blocks together. Wait a minute. How could the indigenous people with no knowledge of metallurgy have created these clamps and worded the metal used for them? Come from? But this isn't the only case of clamps be used to hold giants Jones together and Cambodia's Angor Watt giant sandstone blocks way nearly two tonnes were brought to the side of the temple from a nearby mountain bias. Here's waterways close inspection. The stones that are scattered around the side has revealed carved indentations receptacles for metal clamps. Says kind of interesting. How about an eerie coincidence? Just outside the magnificent ruins of anger. What Stanton Asian Pyramid temple known as boxy CAM gone now from? Cambodia travel eight thousand miles to Guatemala and the ancient Mayan city of Tacoma all among the long forgotten structures at to call is the temple of the Jaguar although the Cambodian pyramid is much smaller than the pyramid Guatemala. The similarities between the specific design features are uncanny both these ancient structures have an unusually steep slope angle that don't exist in other pyramids or temples however most importantly they both feature a stepped formation. There's a massive stairwell going up to the middle of both temples and there's a domed area located on top once there you could see. There's a small door goes inside the pyramid and there's another internal structure that looks the same basically. What you have here is an ancient civilization in Cambodia and another in Mesoamerica despite the fact that they are separated by more than nine thousand miles away featuring credible similarities that no one has been able to explain. Thus my idea of being a scientific hiccup because when you read in the textbooks is different than what facts
Ancient Artifacts on the Beaches of Northern Europe
"Now speak with Andrew Curry a freelance journalist based in Berlin. His new article in science explores hidden treasures that have surfaced on the coast of the Netherlands. They include such things as neanderthal tools. A willy mammoth tooth and human remains from thousands of years ago. These remarkable fines lending significant insight into the ecological and anthropological history of the region. Hi Andrew All right. The story highlights a variety of people from a nurse to university professors who were studying the samples from vastly different perspectives. Generally speaking who were the scientists involved in the research so it's kind of an incredible array of different disciplines that are being brought to bear on the same questioner region there geneticists archaeologists geographers people who specialize in underwater mapping. And then. There's also one of the things that really interested me in a story. There's a big contribution being made by amateurs interested in the fines and spend time just looking for the stuff on each where it washes up right so these things are just washing up on shore. What are some of the most compelling fines that have been dredged up so some of the most compelling fines are stone and bone tools and human remains that date back seven thousand or more years ago some of which goes all the way back to fifty thousand years when the the area was populated by neanderthals? They're also finding animal remains. They found Bama's skulls all kinds of things that date back to a time when the shore off the Netherlands and the UK in the North Sea was actually above water. So how are these finds turning up on the beach in the first place? It used to be that these finds would turn up in fishing nets and sort of at random but in the last few years as the Netherlands has really focused on coastal reclamation and protecting their coast against sea level rise. They've been dredging sand and gravel offshore and bringing it and dumping it on the beach and in those massive hundreds of thousands of tons of sand and gravel that they've brought in from offshore there are bones stone tools human remains that slowly then get uncovered by the waves and they're amateurs who go out to the beach every day almost and just look for the stuff as it as it comes out of the sand. Pick it up. Send pictures of it to archaeologists then identify it and they work together to analysts. Awesome and like you said. These fines are eating found by all these different types of people. Could you outline some of the techniques being used to analyze the fines? There's actually geneticists who are scraping DNA straight off the sea floor and showing what kind of plants and animals live there when it was terrestrial land. The fines are one aspect of the whole effort. Devoted to trying to figure out what the landscape under the North Sea looked like before the last ice age ended and flooded the area so at one point there was an area three or four times bigger than Modern Day Holland. That was all above ground. There were forests there were rivers and it was probably heavily populated. Sounds pretty beautiful actually. Yeah what kind of DNA is being analyzed. So geneticists are using ancient DNA techniques to look at both the soil to get DNA from there and also analyzing human remains. The collectors have found on the beach. That are actually really well preserved because of the cold and wet at the bottom of the sea to get whole human genomes and you can then look at the ancient. Dna from these populations that lived in an area that is now underwater very cool. There's a specific item that surface that holds huge significance. And that's the landscape of the area being studied. What are some of the most important lessons learned about the landscape of this submerged region? I mean part of it is just that it's cool to go is one of the researchers. I talked to said. They're getting maps of a country that you can't visit so there's this massive landscape that was once above water and they're testing out all these different ways to look at it could also be applied to other coastal regions. That were once habitable. That were once passages to new lands like the landscape between Alaska and Asia for example Barron. Jia they call it yeah and look at how you know how these areas worked for human migration how humankind spread around the world. There are these key gaps in our knowledge because the sea levels today are thirty meters higher than they were twenty five thousand years ago right and you mentioned these maps that they're able to make out of information being collected and one of the sources of that information are these energy companies. Could you explain how these energy companies are contributing to the data collection? And what that data help discover sure. It's been a really interesting and sort of inspirational collaboration. Between scientists and industry in the North Sea is a is a tremendously important commercial area for shipping. And then there's a lot of wind farms oil. Well gas well drilling and so companies went out and did these seismic surveys to see what was deep under the ground. And for the archaeologists it was a very top level. That wasn't maybe commercially. Valuable but tremendously valuable. In terms of the knowledge it contains about the landscapes so they worked with the companies to get that data. And then we're able to start. These maps based on seismic survey data. There's also been some interesting collaboration. Between companies that dredged gravel for construction use and then led archaeologists have access to the stones and dirt that are dragged up from the bottom of the sea which was once land these maps and some of this information really revealing what humans were like thousands of years ago what civilization was like before this landscape changed. So what did this region? What does this research teach us about human history? The very end of this landscape was populated by modern humans. Just like you and me who were hunter gatherers. At first they were in a landscape that was probably a lot like the most fertile parts of England were Hollander Belgium today and then slowly over a couple of hundred years. Some of the research has revealed that as the water levels rose it transformed into more of estuary wetland area but people kept living there and they managed to adapt and change their lifestyle to the rising seas which I guess goes to show you. The climate change is an old story of course that that begs the question right. This begs the question of sea level. Rise impacted these civilizations and we can see it. Is that going to tell us? About our present. On the one hand they managed to deal with a certain level of sea level rise and then there came a point about seven thousand years ago when there were a series of nominees and the landscape completely disappeared. It was rendered uninhabitable su-nam as that's That's pretty familiar. Actually yeah I mean for a while. Archaeologists were reluctant to get into this one expert. Told me because they didn't want to be seen as digging after chasing after lost continents or Atlantis or something like that. But as the techniques have gotten more and more advanced it turns out that they can do some really scientific
'Ghost' DNA In West Africans Complicates Story Of Human Origins
"So turns out prehistoric humans didn't always stick to themselves there's a lot of evidence showing the intermingled and have relations with other species of human relatives ling living alongside them and here's where Kennedy reports scientists believe ancient humans in West Africa pro created with an unknown human species about fifty thousand years ago researchers have found traces of what they called ghost DNA in the genomes of present day west Africans ghost because they think the DNA comes from a human relative unfamiliar to scientists here's for rom Shankara Roman a computational biologist at UCLA it doesn't seem to be particularly closely related to the groups from which we have Jill sequences from over the past decade we've learned that humans today all around the world Kerry DNA from other species that weren't as successful over the course of evolution present a Europeans and Asians have Neanderthal DNA and people in Oceania have genes from the Dennis solvents our understanding of the human family tree is growing more complicated more tangled there are these launches splitting off coming back together into beating and we're only beginning to piece together small pieces of the speaker of the UCLA researchers combed through genomes from more than four hundred people for their paper in the journal science advances chocolate almond says the method goes along with the siege genome and pulls out chunks of DNA which we think are likely to have come from a population that is not modern human scientists hope to learn more about these previously unknown relatives one way to do that would be to find physical evidence like bones with DNA that's been a challenge in Africa due to the climate so Sherin Browning applies to test X. professor at the university of Washington the parents have to stay intact in the DNA within those burns has to stay intact to some extent Browning adds the technology that can extract useable DNA from fossils is rapidly and van that could one day help flush out the mysterious ancestors behind the
Neandertals Tooled Around with Clams
"Around one hundred thousand years ago in what what is now. Italy are nandor tall cousins. Wait it out into the shallow. Coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea in search of clams. Big Grant the the molluscs from the sea floor and perhaps even died for them in deeper water and they also simply collect clams from the beach but the creatures weren't just food in a recent Study University of Colorado Boulder archaeologist Paolo Villa inner team report that neanderthals modified the clams hard shells into tools for cutting and scraping. The clam derived implements were found inside the grow today. Motion rainy a coastal cave. That was first rediscovered around eighty five years ago by examining wear and tear on the shells the researchers determined that about seventy five percent of the tool source material had been found found dead on the beach. These shows had been worn down from being battered by waves and sand but the remaining shells were smooth and shiny indicating that the clams lambs were still alive on the sea floor when they were gathered. These shells were also thicker and therefore might have made more durable tools so even though gathering clams underwater took more work than picking them up on the beach. The effort may have been worth it also found in the growth at any pumice stones volcanic eruptions that occurred to to the south of the site. Those stones may have been used by neanderthals as abrasive tools. The study is in the journal loss. One neanderthals else were making these tools than fifty thousand years before modern. Humans first arrived in Western Europe but neanderthal intelligence was dismissed by the scientific community. Munity during much of the twentieth century in recent years however evidence of their tool use and even artistic abilities has grown neanderthals hunted. That'd made cave art cooked with fire us boats and when fishing just last year for example research by villa and others found that neanderthals tolls living not far from the grocery knee. Site used resonant. He serves to attach handles to stone tools. They may have gone extinct some forty thousand years ago but it's becoming ever more clear that neanderthals were intelligent creative. People who lead fully human lives.
Löwenmensch: The First Monster
"Back in twenty seventeen. We recorded an episode of stuff to believe my entitled the First Monster and again we ran it in this most recent October over but in the episode we discussed the lion man or the low in inch of which was this. This figure that resembled The was a a human with alliance head hybrid a hybrid being combining animal and human likeness into a single likeness. Yeah now this was This particular killer artifact the mench was discovered in nineteen thirty nine at a stone age cave site known as startled whole or stable cave at Holon Stein near Vogel heard in Germany but it would be another thirty years before anyone got a chance to examine these broken pieces of ivory due to the world wars but eventually thirty years later that's when German archaeologist Johan discovered that these two hundred fragments came together to form a thirty one centimeter centimeter or just over a foot long figure carbon fourteen dated to between thirty five and forty thousand years old. It had the body of a man in the head of the lion. In two thousand and three another lion man was discovered in southwestern Germany this was carbon dated to around the same time period and by by some estimates. Well you know first of all these are amazing just for no other reason. They're just they're just fascinating figures that they give some insight into what ancient people were doing what they were making but also seemed to be the oldest Examples of figurative art. We've seen the Venus of whole fells. Take the title before I think Is from thirty. Five thousand to forty thousand years ago discovered in two thousand eight and two thousand sixteen but while the the Venus is the the depiction of the Feminine Forum and the Law and minch is a human fused with the beast. Yeah and this is what we were drawing attention to the episode. The idea that this is the earliest. I example that we knew about of fantasy art. It is an imagined being yeah as stated by Clive Gamble and archaeologist at the University of Southampton UK UK is quoted in nature quote. They depict an animal world in a semi realistic way. It shows early man moving from his immediate world to an imaginative world. So let's just a brief breakdown of the Lowe and minch certainly go back and listen to that episode that we did if you want more on that topic. But here's the cool thing and in a imagine number of you caught this news already because it was covered a number of places they I even saw it featured on Stephen Colbert show but in December of two thousand nine hundred ninety eight new discovery every was made and it might just blow the lion man and Venus out of the water. This is so cool. Yeah so this story takes us to different. Corners of the world takes us to Sulawesi SC Indonesia one of the four greater sooner islands. And it's actually the world's eleventh largest island I read so we've known about Pleistocene settlements in the the area for quite some time in early Homo sapiens are known to have reached this area between sixty thousand forty five thousand years ago previous studies these from some of the the same archaeologist involved in in this particular fine which is the arch team out of Australia They've revealed prehistoric art and ornaments events. Dating Back Thirty thousand to twenty two thousand years ago in this area and Homo sapiens apparently made it here against some time prior to fifty thousand years ago. So here's how this new finding came about in two thousand seventeen spelunker named Ham Rula climbed into a previously uncharted chamber in Sulawesi. Let's see cave system known as Morose punk cap a limestone cave system in while he was performing a government survey of the case. And if you're wondering ring was Amrullah. His first name last name. Apparently a lot of people in Indonesia just go by one name yet. It's just Just the one name anyway. He he gets. He crawls through a narrow space into at this New Chamber and he discovers cave paintings in the cave paintings were subsequently examined and written about by Aubert at all in earliest hunting scene in prehistoric historic art published December twenty nineteen in nature and again. This is the same arch team out of Australia. Those involved in some previous studies in the area so as the title implies they used some dating technology uranium series dating on Cave Popcorn or mineral deposits that It hanging over some of the motifs in the scene and they were able to date this hunting seeing back to at least forty three thousand nine hundred years ago so that it is twenty thousand years older than the hunting scene on the walls of Francis Lescoe cavs and coming back to the low and mench. That's also four thousand years before the lion man and I realized we're talking about such kind of ironic that we're talking about such big periods of time and there's a large portions of human history that it can also make four thousand years not seem like a lot right which is which is bizarre but obviously four thousand years is a lot of time and to to set the record back. Four thousand years is amazing. So here's an important caveat though there's more work to do as they need to date not just the the work overall looking at the cave popcorn but each figure individually before we can be one hundred percent certain in all of this because there's ultimately the possibility that different portions Sion's of it have been added at different times. Yes now the main archaeologists requoted thing they don't think that's the case but yeah we certainly should date the different parts. I think the the parts that had been that have been dated so far are just the regular animals but the more interesting part. Let's get into that. So yes the overall it depicts what seemed to be individuals using spears against prey animals in a hunt and this would be an on its own with being amazing fine right it would. It would predate any hunting scene gene. We've seen before. But on top of this some of the hunters appear to be what the researchers refer to is theory th- ropes or animal human hybrids as much like the low and Mitch. Yeah some of the humans appear to have tales or snouts right so if this is correct if the Now again and the parts that have been dated already were overlapping. Just the animals that were being hunted buffalo type creatures and pigs. Yeah wild pigs and then a type of buffalo called an no which is also known as a midget buffalo so like a water buffalo except smaller okay And so I think they haven't dated the other figures like the the the theory and throw are the human animal hybrids Yet but it looks like they're probably from the same period we're just not certain about that. Yeah but but if so this would this would probably predate the low and mench making this the earliest evidence. We have of fantastical thinking of like magic thinking among among humans showing human animal hybrids like a human hunting buffalo with a bird's beak. Yeah very cool. Yeah and it's it's we get into it in that that episode about the first monster about what this means right like what what ultimately does it mean to have in your mind. A human with a beast's head on one hand it is imagining something that does not exist in the real world and but then on a deeper level it is taking what this means. What does a bird mean? What are the the ideas that that Just a mere symbol of a bird summons and our DEA two of a human being what happens when these This mix of symbols and meanings collide. What new ideas are born out of that collision absolutely so it? It basically shows that that people from this time period period of four thousand years earlier than we thought may have been dealing with this kind of complex thinking mashing up symbols ideas and concepts concepts even taking aching on a humanoid form. Becky Ferrara wrote an excellent piece on this for the New York Times and she points out in this that the researchers believe that these as may have been animal. Spirit helpers something that's commonly find his shamanistic beliefs so yeah there's a possibility that we're dealing with animism animism and shamanism
Scientists discover how lethal malaria parasite jumped from gorillas to humans
"Research suggests the child's genetic mutation in a deadly strain of the malaria virus allowed it to jump species with realistic humans around fifty thousand years ago so to say they believe two types of the virus infected agreement at the same time in exchange genetic information the result was that the plus modem felsic ponen strain responsible for hundreds of thousands of human deaths a year was able to infect people the researchers hope the findings will help develop new treatments
Earth's Last Magnetic Pole Flip Happened Much More Slowly Than Previously Thought
"Any study suggests earth's magnetic poles may take far longer to flip than previously. I thought a new analysis reported in the journal science advances shows. The process may take up to twenty two thousand years to complete. That's more than twice as long as the nine thousand years. He's previously estimated this growing evidence that earth's magnetic poles are about to flip the north magnetic pole will become south and the south magnetic pole will become north last time. This happened with some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago when it does happen. It'll be the first magnetic field polarity reversal in modern times times and that raises some serious questions about how today's technology with coq with the change to us me mortals on the surface of this revolving planet around the sun first magnetic field seemed steady and true reliable enough to navigate by your largely hidden from daily life less your pilot. The magnetic field drifts waxes awesome wayne's constantly when i'm flying one of the first things i do when i get in the cockpit of an aircraft is to readjust the cockpits compass to the latest readings for true north both for years. The magnetic north pole was wandering around pats of northern canada but more recently it's been careering towards siberia which recently forced the global positioning positioning system which underlies old model navigation updated software sooner than expected to account for the shift on average the magnetic pole shifts and reverses versus. That's polarity roughly every hundred and fifty thousand years or so that with the last one occurring some seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago with long jude for the knicks flip and there are some early signs that a possible paul reversal may be about to occur the accelerating movement of the north magnetic pole is one sign another other is something known as the south atlantic anomaly a weed pad of the south atlantic ocean between brazil and africa compass needles go nuts pointing south instead of north north and it's not just compass needles affected the south atlantic anomaly region causes earth ina van allen radiation belt to move closer to the earth surface dipping down onto just two hundred kilometers in altitude this results in an increase flocks of energetic particles in this region exposing orbiting spacecraft the high than usual levels of radiation listen effect the international space station required extra shielding just deal with this problem nashes reported that modern laptops of crushed aboard space shuttle flights as they a pass through the anomaly and the hubble space telescope doesn't do any observations while it's passing through the anomaly whether or not the south atlantic anomaly really does mean a polls colds are about the flip polarity is yet to be saying the problem is scientists have only a very limited understanding as to exactly why the film reversals occur or how they happen now new research by university of wisconsin madison geologist brad singer suggests the most recent short reversal seven hundred and seventy thousand years ago took at least twenty the two thousand years to complete that several times longer than previously thought and the results further color the question some controversial findings that some polar reversals could occur within inhuman lifetime than you analysis is based on advances in measurement capabilities at a global survey of lava flows ocean sediment at arctic ice coast rose providing a more detailed look at a turbulent time for earth's magnetic field of a millennia. The planet's magnetic food weakened partly shifted stabilized the game and then finally reversed for good to the orientation we know today. The new results provide a clearer m._o. Nuanced picture of reversals at a time when some scientists believe we may maybe experiencing the early stages of paul reversal and you other researchers dispute the very notion of a present day. Paul reversal singer says unless you have the complete accurate accurate in high resolution record of water filled reversal really's like it would be difficult to discuss the mechanics of generating one. We know that earth's magnetic field is produced by the planet's molten alton liquid metallic out of core as it spins around the solid. I and inigo generating powerful electromagnetic currents. What's coda jet dynamo this year dynamic in a creative field. That's most stable going through roughly the geographic north and south poles but the field shifts in weakened significantly during reversals. We know this because <unk> asni rocks formed typically other volcanic lava flows or a sediments being deposited on the sea floor they leave a record the magnetic field the time they were created and geologists can survey this global record piecing together. The history of magnetic fields going back millions of years. Their record is clearest for the most recent reversal that one seven hundred seventy thousand years ago for the current analysis singer and colleagues looked at lava flows from chile to haiti hawaii the caribbean and the canary islands and they collected samples from these latter flows of several field seasons lava flows are ideal records of the magnetic field they have lots of iron bearing ring minerals and as cool and solidify they lock in the direction of the planet's magnetic field the research is combined magnetic field readings and radio acid type dating samples from seven lava flow sequences to recreate the magnetic field over a span of seventy thousand years centered on las reversal they found the final reverse was quite quick by geological standards less than four thousand years but it had been preceded by an extended period of instability included excursions which are temporary partial reversals the polls stretching back another eighteen thousand years. That's more than twice as long as suggested by other studies which claimed reversals wrap up within about nine thousand years the lava flow the data was corroborated by magnetic readings from the seafloor which provided more continuous but less precise source of data than lab iraq's single and colleagues also used at arctic ice core samples apples to track the deposition of beryllium which is produced by cosmic radiation colliding with molecules in the atmosphere. You say when the magnetic reversing weakens allowing more radiation in from space to hit the atmosphere producing more beryllium since humanity began recording the strength of the earth's magnetic field. It's actually decrease in strength by about five percent century century and his records like singing shows. A weakening field seems to be a precursor to an eventual field reversal although it's far from clear that a reversal is imminent reversing planetary magnetic food would significantly affect navigation as well as satellite and terrestrial communications but if the current studies right it means society would have many generations to adapt to what would be a lengthy period of magnetic instability stewart gary. You're
Our Ancestors Healthy Living
"Echo assist, which is the polar opposite of a narcissist with satisfy some curiosity, the notion that you should eat healthy and get were exercises all the rage these days. And there's an idea that humans didn't evolve for our modern lifestyles, which is helping drive these trends from herbal remedies to the paleo diet. But the human race survived, for thousands of years without easy access to food or hot Pilates classes at the local gym. So have you ever wondered were are ancient ancestors healthier, than we are the answer is complicated? But here's what we know in two thousand seventeen Georgia Tech researchers analyzed, the DNA of humans from a wide range of time. Periods. Dating all the way back to fifty thousand years ago. Then they compared these. Jeans to modern variance that we know cause diseases to see how genetically healthy each sample was, and they concluded that things are about the same for modern people as they were for ancients with similar risks for hereditary diseases and percentiles for thing called genetic risk score, of course, whether or not our genes are similar tangent. Humans you could still argued that our lifestyles are less healthy hunter-gatherer civilizations had fewer cavities than we do since the advent of farming brought sugar and carbohydrates into our diets that scientists believe change the bacteria in our mouths and it's a myth that our ancestors, rarely lived long lives, although infant mortality was higher, most humans, who survived childhood lived to the ripe, old age of seventy so, like I said the answer to the question of who is healthier is a complicated one. There is one thing we could look to our ancestors for, and it has to do with processed food.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KLBJ 590AM
"Maybe another fifty thousand years, and the number would be around two hundred thousand years old on this planet and your book and the way that and Danielle is book the way that your evidence has been collected. Is that date is actually pushed back another six hundred thousand years, and it's tipping things over correct? Yes. That's right. It was it's bad to say as well. You know, I'm I'm kind of changing what what was once can say that most most games because I mean, again, there's reasons why you say that, you know, the for a long time. I would have said now that we arise about two hundred thousand years ago, they even the mainstream may starting to change date that they're having to ship back as well. Is they've realized that they've had it wrong. They understood you know, what's made us the way we are. And and the different human ancestors. It looked different how they will feel today mixed. You know, so you might get some David quite looked like us, and they all they went home. But then they get that group makes a discreet make and all of that mixing as well, which is made us. How do they they are also pushing back the the dates on the species now where I am. Yeah. Which is the point that we just have peered here. Whether it's two hundred thousand years ago or eight hundred thousand years ago, there isn't the evolutionary steps that Darwin has suggested that would have taken tens of millions of years in front of homo sapiens. Sapien that we just appeared in there are reasons for that. We've got about ten seconds can. Is it alien is an ET are those the reasons for my position. Yes, it's an AT engineering event. And you know, we'll give evidence about this is coast to coast AM. I am your host Jimmy church live from the UK. What's that? Oh, you want to go ahead. And okay. We've got about another minute, Bruce. That is according to my engineer here in the studio when when we talk about ET doing this is a genetic thing where we seated here. How's it possible that we would just appear and there's nothing else on the planet like us? Yeah. Me too angles rarely seating. Penn. I I am panspermia theories. You know as many academics. You know, I think all DNA live the product again with a seating event, you know, four point five billion years ago, and that you can see it almost as if in the way that if you see Joe garden, Jimmy, you know, if you see to garden, you probably go buy, then you, you know, you Walter at you all PLA you maybe even hybridise them, you know, the people do gardens, and that at some point later down the line, these challenges have come back in, you know, they've modified a home in which is also result of meddling. But that home, and is being upgraded if you like in the way, the bigger brain and all that, you know that show. It's it's a continuum. This is not just one strange event. There's it's strange, you know, from beginning to present our guest tonight, Bruce are Fenton live from the UK this coast to coast AM, we'll be right back..
Fossils Are Filling Out the Human Family Tree
"Archaeologists who discovered fossils of an unknown human species from over fifty thousand years ago plan more diggings in the northern Philippines. Filipino. Archaeologists are Monsalve adore me. Harris said the discovery of the remains in the Cayo cave makes the Philippines and important research ground on human evolution his team found six fragments of bones from the feet hands on by and seven teeth from three people tests show that two of the fossil fragments had minimum ages of fifty thousand years and sixty seven thousand years, according to a study published by the scientific journal nature me Harris says he plans to resume the diggings next year, and he hopes to find larger fossil bones artifacts and possibly stone tools used by people in those
Bones discovered in an island cave may be an early human species
"Up, we have Lizzy Wade. She's back on the show this week to talk about a previously undescribed type of ancient hominids hominids or things like Denisovans, the Android halls, homo Florencia census. These are close cousins of modern humans that have not survived into modern times, except as bones and small bits of DNA integrated into our genomes highly has there. So I'm really excited about more hominids this find is actually based on bones from the Philippines. What exactly was found? And where were they found? They have been excavating in a cave on the island of loosen in the Philippines for a long time. And Luzon is the biggest island in the Philippines, Manila is the caves called KO k-, and they've found quite a few Fussell's from what looks like a very unique kind of human this. Paper is based on some teeth some finger bones and some toe bones mostly they also have one can broken leg bone from. They can tell that it would kinda growing juvenile. So kind of Atta lessened during the years when you grow to your dole size, the bone isn't complete. So they can't tell how how tall this species was right? And that's a really good segue into what can we tell about them from teeth hands feet and part of a leg Mon on the one hand not as much as antecedent lichen on the other hand kind of a lot. First of all the bones were found in layers that have been dated to sixty seven thousand years ago and fifty thousand years ago, so this may or may not overlap with homo sapiens on that island. They don't have any evidence of homeless cave. But this is around win poem Assyrians were were around southeast at this point. So I teased they have like the upper right jaw of one individual, which is pretty cool. So you can see the ratio between different kinds of teeth. You have molars than the somewhat smaller teeth in right before your molars are called pre molars. And so in this species or population, the pre molars are kind of the same sizes, homo sapiens, pre molars, but the molars are like really really small like they're smaller than home Aflou instances, even which is a really small human. That's sort of the that's why they call it the hobbit. It was like three tilts. These molars particularly are even smaller than the hearts molars. And that's like suggestive that this person. Also may have been quite small, although they can't say for sure. Yeah. I was gonna say the teeth may not be the best marker of general size. Right. Yes. So I mean, it would be much better to have like a full leg bone or a full arm-bone that would they a lot more, but he's do generally correlate to body size but suggestive, but not conclusive as usual. Okay. And Hans hands and feet that might tell you something about what they did. Or what they were good at or those kinds of things. Yes. So that handed feet or also really interesting. So they particularly have fingers and toes like pieces of them. The fingers toes were both quite long and curved. That's something that's quite unusual in the homo genus. It's very similar shoe to us show kiss, which is Lucy who's from Ethiopia three miners, or whatever this is sort of been interpreted as kind of a mid point between chimpanzee feet and hands and human feet and hands on. Unexpected to see so much very very unexpected to see fifty thousand years ago like a lot of this past. So that you know, it whereas a lot of questions about who. They're drek ancestors may have been obviously curve toes and fingers are usually interpreted to be really good for climbing trees. So there doesn't seem to be a lot of freshmen that homo loosen. Insys was by people in some way. But it may have also been very good at climbing trees still or whether that that trait survived or about the gun on this island. There's another really weird thing about one of its toes the third toe where it connects to the foot on all other homo species that part is really strong in. It's quite flat. And it's like what gives you a lot of propulsion when you're walking upright. Everyone has this all the homeless habit, and this when doesn't it's really really different. And nobody knows what that might mean. Nobody knows what it might do. Nobody knows why. But. It's very unusual. That's really interesting. So as you mentioned, this is about these are about fifty thousand is sixty seven thousand years ago, homo sapiens, might have been around and homo Florencia ances- which was founded Indonesia, they were also around at the same time. So how do we know that it's not one of those? How do we know this is a different species? Yes. So the fingers toes look somewhat similar to for instance. They also have kind of these curved fingers toes teeth, really look different. So it doesn't seem to be from Francis. And another possibility if you're finding a known human species in southeast Asia would be Denisa vans for whom we have very few fossils as yell, but we do have teeth for the Denise, Vince. And they have really gigantic. Teas though, this seems and this has really small T. So that seems to be pretty obvious that they're not related, and it's very sad that there is no ancient. Dna in this paper. Does that is there likely to be any ancient DNA from phones from his teeth? They tried to extract intraday, and they couldn't they didn't find any this deposit in the cave. I mean, it's in tropicals of these agents are hot, humid, the particular pen of layers in which these bones were in the dirt was like, really wet. And so like this is really terrible situation for DNA preservation. Yeah. So it's possible. They'll find other fossils in this caver elsewhere that will be slightly better conditions or as possible. You know, our introduced techniques will get a lot better, which they are. They are getting better. You know, I wouldn't rule out ever having into DNA from this disease. But it wasn't particularly surprising that they don't have it. Now, how does this fine fit into this trend of finding more kinds of humans than we knew what we're around before? And how does this fit in with the overall understanding of human migration yet that's sort of? Million dollar question. Of course. But you know, one thing that definitely shows is that the human story. This story of our ancestors is so much more complicated than we ever thought even ten or fifteen years ago like the amount of discoveries in the last literally ten years about. Yeah. All the species of ancient humans that we're all kinda living at the same time in the place seen is like truly wild was. So an expected and it just keeps happening over and over again. This will definitely not be the last new human answer tickets discovered or meter news human species, it also shows that something very interesting going on in southeast Asia, which coma flurries census, also obviously suggested and that's not entirely surprising because there are thousands of islands in this region and win animals of all kinds get isolated on islands some very strange things. Start to happen to them. They can get really big they can get really small. That's what seems to have happened with whom Afri census and possibly with homo, loosen. Insys too. Clearly, something is happening on the islands of southeast Asia for interns human of Lucien, and it looks like we're just scratching the surface of all of that.
Fossils Are Filling Out the Human Family Tree
"This is crazy evidence of a new human species, founded Philippines, according to the Wall Street Journal, fossils unearthed, a limestone cavern part of a previously unknown human species that roam the island about fifty thousand years ago, they found a handful of fossilized teeth and bones. And they said that it looks like it's so far. It's evidence of what they think is a previously unknown human species small jawed with dainty teeth able to up all walk upright. But with Pete still shape to climb. They said these island creatures were mix and match patchwork of primitive in advance. I features a unique variation in human form, very interesting. So there's going to be I can't wait to remorse about it. But they said that that they think that they're. These specialists in human fossils, think that half dozen or so species of hominids as as closely related human species recalled may have coexisted around the world between fifty thousand and two hundred
A new hominid species has been found in a Philippine cave, fossils suggest
"This is crazy evidence of a new human species, founded Philippines. According to the Wall Street Journal, fossils unearthed, a limestone cavern part of a previously unknown human species that roam the island about fifty thousand years ago, they found a handful of fossilized teeth and bones. And they said that it looks like it so far it's evidence of what they think is a previously unknown human species small jawed with dainty able to walk upright. But with Pete still shape to climb. They said these island creatures were a mix and match patchwork of primitive and advanced features a unique variation in human form, very interesting. So there's going to be I can't wait to read more about it. But they said that that they think that they're. These specialists in human fossils that have dozen or so species of hominids as as closely related human species recalled may have coexisted around the world between fifty thousand two hundred fifty thousand
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on The Moment with Brian Koppelman
"Just a couple more things. You once told me, I think like the first thing that that you love to be proven wrong that one of the things you love is to have a core convinced ideology about something. And then to be able to accept in a flash that can you talk a little bit about that about why that's valuable and about how you either trained yourself or just were we're that way. And what what the gains are of living that way so start with saying, it's aspirational. Yes, sure. I've actually tried to figure out why this is so people treat their ideas like their children, and I've actually try I've actually gone back. I've been reading doing a lot of reading legs ecology neurology. Behavioral sciences about behavioral economics is about this idea that we fall in love with the we get we get wed to this thing. So I think I find I've done enough reading. I think I've finally figured out. Why this is the case I think it literally is it seems like we're treating ideas like children, we I think we're literally treating your ideas like their children. So I think you I think it's never luminary thing. I think in the evolutionary context in which we are genetics were developed right 'cause they're genetics are unchanged over the last fifty thousand years affectively fifty thousand years ago, there weren't really ideas. Just children. Like, you're not sitting around the campfire speculating on like abstract. There's a life. You're like trying to get through the frigging day. And then you've got this infant in your desperately trying to keep the infants alive. And so we've got this like there's something heritz Oriel protective like this is my thing. This is my offspring. This is my legacy. This is my this is everything valuable and important to me is like right here in my hands. And it's going to die without me. And like my God, I have to like emotionally like and after all these rational things, you know, to protect it. Like, somebody said kids like you change your entire priority ordering like neurologically changes when you have kids. So basically, I think literally what happened is. I literally we now. Now, we live in a world of ideas, we weren't like it's weird. Like, the whole concept ideas comes from kind of rationality, which was somehow showed up on our wearing. But like, we're still we still have this kind of legacy wiring and the legacy wiring, basically says okay now, this idea is my kid like this is the thing I believe in I want to protect I wanna foster I wanted nursery. I want to grow part of my passion. And then it's like, and then anytime that challenges you get the threat response with somebody challenging your kid. You know, you get your you get that you feel it you feel it in your limbic system was like your pulse rises, your your back. Gets up your you. Flush people you start to get people get fence defensive you get the defensive reaction. It's like why the why are you defending an abstract idea? Like, nothing's going to happen to you. Right. But you're about what it feels like it. So so what do you go look for that? So here's the problem. So here's the problem is like most your ideas are wrong. Like like, let's say especially say, especially if you're in my business. Let's even say, especially if you're me like mostly ideas are wrong. And so at some point the thing I figured I started doing the back test. Call in financing, call the back test, which is basically, okay, take whatever algorithm system. I have for trying to figure out what's gonna happen. The future whatever set of rules derived on kind of how the world works and how to predict things go back and back test..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KTLK 1130 AM
"Us the author of the cygnus key, the Denisovans legacy, go Beckley Tempe and the birth of Egypt will also take your questions and comments Andrew if we look at good Beckley tip pay. Have we found symbols of the swan there that would connect it directly with the Denisovans? They symbol of the swan is a symbol of sickness. The sickness was saying as I different types of bud in different parts of the world in America. For instance, not only was associated with the swamp. But also with with with the goal the Hoke, but in south west Aisha in the area of capacity pike the birth sequence code selection, end with the the the salt becoming a bird and entering into the next world was the voucher. So instead of the swamp pie. We have to vote show. He's a symbol. That's very prominent on the styles. Found as sculptures generally always in association with I human skull human scholars, the symbol of the salt. Just as nice of American tradition. It because you know, it's believed that the soul resided in in the head. You know, when the song was released from the party the symbol that was used for. It was either, you know, hey, scholar or even just to suck with a couple of hours or something like that. Exactly what we go back up high, and there's a very famous stung, honest, the vote starting or pillow Foote's, right? This is in the low flow f- western section of the oldest and most sophisticated enclosure there, which is in your day. Now in clashes day. The axis is aligned perfectly to the setting off the bright star in the constellation of sickness. I'm the actual voucher misspelling which next to this alignment is a perfect representation of the sickness constellation around nine thousand five hundred base say which is exact timeframe with the construction of this enclosure. So was Quebec a built by the Denisovans or their descendants. It was built by the descendants. I think an to die there is no noticeable Denisova Danae anywhere west of central Aisha almost certainly would have been there in the past. I mean, for instance, a lot of our earliest ancestors came into Europe, actually, come over from Siberia, the old type things year will mountains gradually my kidnapped. Why into western Europe down into what sounded solid Anatoly obscene modern Turkey. And they would have been carrying with the ancestry Aniko legacy. Yeah. In other words, only if the technology that culture, they post Mullarkey, a narrow ideas. I'm so this would have reached Quebec kneecap. Hi, this is not just speculation. We can say almost like a pipe a trial coast through they tolls. And the very specific means of manufacture of the different toes, the originally in the area of the old time, and it's a southern Siberia for fifty thousand years ago. Very slowly all the way across until they eventually got down between the black and the Caspian say across the coke assess Manson's down into wasted. I di- Turkey. We can say it's a very specific row. It's acknowledged by. And all my certain like, the people's ideas broke. They starting toes Turkey inspired the create should off Capac pie around nine thousand five hundred base say I mean, even professor Klaus Schmidt the fight Mishal discovered. Good back pike, but leave the vice that were responsible for the manufacturer kabaddi type. I came in from the north but slightly from Russia, which is exactly the policy that they would have taken through Russia. I love the Russian step down. Across the Caucasus eight so Anatolia by taffy Turkey, but doesn't orthodox anthropology? Tell us that eleven thousand years ago. Martyr man was you know, nomadic and and we were basically hunter-gatherers how would such large groups of people been organized into. Let's say, you know, labour party's that would have been necessary to construct something like this know, it's something big happened around eleven to twelve thousand years ago, we started to create what's known as a monumental architecture for the first time it saying Quebec tap high. It might well be there. Other parts of the world places. Like don't put thing in Java. She's a huge pyramid hill structure there. An even at Stonehenge me. The earliest phases of Stonehenge got back to eight thousand base c. Something happened around this time of what was it? Well, the fact is they've been a huge cataclysm the devastated the world around ten thousand eight hundred base say trickier in a whole series of other events, including I mini eyesight, wildfires burned for many hundreds of years, probably Saddam as Christ Cannock eruptions. Certainly this was triggered by a common impact. This seems to be pretty well recognized the beginning of last year there were two massive pipers in jealousy magazine. Citing every possible pace of evidence showing the cosmic cats place some actually took place, and this would have absolutely devastated. The world particularly North America. Where it was the greatest impact devastated that American man landmass, and this has an impact not only on the devastation of, you know, Sheva populations possibly as much as seventy-five percent was devastated this time. But beyond that, it's the fact that people lived in fear that this place would return. And I think that what they did was like shamans and said, look, you know, you'll the people we can turn to what can we do about it? So they said look you like just follow our instructions, so we will make certain that the supernatural creatures that cosies they catch basins. Yeah. Never return. And I think that this involved the creation of these these monuments in clashes the only stunt circles, the earliest megalithic architecture. The the monumental architecture anywhere in the world. In other words, they they super suddenly started to supersize everything in the belief that by creating these monuments allowed them easy access to the sky while the easy access through these virtual stock. I if you like, you know, if access into the realms where they could deal with a supernatural creatures vice responsible for the cataclysms that they would this with Mike. And this is exactly what we see in the midst of legends around the world, obviously, we know about the story of the the the great flat of the bible. Well, of course, what was the one of the first things the now at daas off to the great flat. He creates the first o. You find this again and again in these flock miss they dissolves to miss Rosa survived. The first thing they do is create the first temple of the first Ota to to to to try and appease, the goats deci. Look, you know, we survived placed on this again. And I think that this is a memory of this cat's place some never spoke to they this in many ways kick-started alisonville is I should material civilization. But prior to this time you all right? Of course, there were ugly cycled hunter-gatherers people that did the wrong thing you talk to their family their media social world, they were United States through that. 'cause Mullarkey and their ideas that technology. It's what I call the shamanic civilization different types of civilization. It wasn't one was bound through roads and cities and towns. Towns, but through beliefs, and ideas, and a state of mind what about human sacrifice where did that come from? I mean is there any link to the deaths events and human sacrifice. Don't know. It's a difficult one. I mean, the one thing that we can say at the moment as the numbers they stories two ways the giants like what kind of ballistic which therefore suggests that that. That's you know, I hesitate to use who a sacrifice, but that would occur and that you know, that people would be at. But whether this was by the Denisovans are some of the multi generation hybrid descendants is very very difficult certainly doesn't give us anything to suggest that this is something that took place. They some slight evidence Neanderthals might have been kind of ballistic, but many of our own ancestors. What kind of ballistic, you know, even the NFL say, you know in North America. Cannibalistic? But we don't know why this was used whether it was to create a fear within society, or whether it was simply the some great ancestor some great person, you know, died within the community people were you share some of that. So. Teich in this design says the ship that could be passed on from generation to generation that's a very difficult one uncertainty for places like this, no evidence that human sacrifice took place. Are you ready to take some calls? Andrew. That'd be great. Yeah. All right. Let's start with Barry and South Carolina. Barry, good morning. Welcome to coast to coast AM. Hi there. Richard water great program tonight. And I really mean that and keep up the good work. I can't wait to hear tonight sounded night show with you on and anyway for Frederick, thank you so much. But this version you're talking about my favorites. Joe Beckley not Jimmy church. And I talk about it. Each time. I talked with him on coast to coast. And my question is we know already that go back. We he is approximately twelve thousand five hundred years old, which is eight or nine hundred years older than they saw any place was. But do you think that the that's that's go back? We could have had something to do with the killing of Jesus Christ. In in Israel, and so forth. And thanks guys. Keep up the great work, Richard. All right, Barry. Thank you for that. I'm not I'm not quite following the dots. Their Andrew what would have to do with the crucifixion. Directly probably very little. But but what he does bring us in. So as you know, the people of Quebec, except even if they did come from the no, which is what we suggest is the case. You know, what was the relationship with the area today as rile Palestine, and the fact that there was a relationship between Egypt all the way up into south east multi Turkey from ten to twelve thousand years ago know, the very Timika pie. And what you find is stung toes that were manufactured by gradually find that why all the why into Egypt. There's a particular type of style told the hell one point they're very specific type of Arrowhead, and you can try. It's you know, it's progress from the heirs Quebec pie older why right within the science of the great pyramid. And I'm pretty certain that the influence of Quebec pie came into H. It any spot the creation of the great pyramid. Which is why? At Giza pyramids there aligned to sickness. In exactly the same way as the mining closures Quebec except I are aligned to the exact same starting. Exactly. It's fine. My this cannot be coincidence. When you start looking at this. She start finding the same alignments toll sickness a fan of the well, they within right to American ma'am complex complex is for instance, by my colleague, Greg littlest. I'm incredible work examining the. Yeah. The al-qaeda astronomy the alignments various if they attain a period Hopewell, period man complex is an IRO saw aligned sickness and earlier you talked about a Ryan you said, you know, yes, you've heard about the idea that Orion is linked to case. But you never heard about sickness sicknesses the alcohol for the story because what we find is that there was an ancient deck journey that was. Universal around the world an bicycling begins with this leap for five towards the constellation of Orion. And at that point, you pick up the milky why and you then traveled from a Ryan around to the sickness constellation, which is where the Milky Way splits in intern. And at this point, you will be judged you'll saw will be judged and then allowed to go into the off to life. Oh, it will either be cost into oblivion or allow to reincarnate and that point of entry into the off to life with the sickness constellation the nets universe. So in other words with Iran. We've only had half the story. We've now got the other half of the story. And I think that my colleague Graham Hancock, we'll have something to say about this in his new book America before which is published in pro which will also be covering a lot of area of the Denisovans as well. I'm sure you might well be talking to him about some of the subjects which I'm introducing te'o. But will soon become mainstream? You're you're providing us. Primer. Andrew to be sure. One of the things we're heading into a break. You a very quickly one of the things. That's always confused me is when we're talking about the alignment of ancient sites, whether it's Beckley tip bay or the pyramids at Giza or Stonehenge is. I mean, how do they figure that out which constellations they're relying too because we have this procession of equinox and for and the constellations, but also the possibility of poll shifts, which would totally sort of muddy the water, wouldn't it? It would. Yeah. But there's no evidence of massive shifts certainly in the last seventeen years, I mean in the past before that. You know, perhaps they might have been shifts. But in the lead up to the creation of her own civilization. There's nothing that suggests the album monuments, you know, like tobacco tap pie. Or other similar monuments around the world have shifted their positions in any in any particular, y you know, in other words, they not several degrees off no because some shift in the policy that just doesn't seem to have been the case because they are accurate. The aligned to the stars that they seem to be focused upon in the timeframe that construction. To.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KNST AM 790
"Was with us the author of the cygnus key the Denisovans legacy go back late and the birth of Egypt will also take your questions and comments Andrew if we look at Beckley tip. Have we found symbols of the swan there that would connected directly with the Denisovans? The the symbol of the swan is a symbol of sickness. The sickness with saying as I different type of bird in different parts of the world in America. For instance, not only was associated with the swamp. But also with with with the goal of the Hoke, but in south west Aisha in the area of Quebec pike, the boat that was a sideshow sickness code selection. And with the the the salt becoming a bird and entering into the next world was the CIA. So instead of the swamp pie we have to vote show. He's a symbol that very prominent on the styles. Let's be found as sculptures generally always in association with I human skull, the human scholars, the symbol of the salt. Just as nice of American tradition. Yeah. It because he believed that the soul resided in in the head. And you know, when the song was released from the body the symbol that was used for. It was either, you know, Hedo scholar or even just to soak with a couple of hours or something like that. Nice. Exactly. What we call a comeback the top. And there's a very famous stone. They noticed the voucher starting or pitiful teeth three this is in the loaf loaf. Western section of the oldest and most sophisticated enclosure there, which is in close day. Now in question day, the access off it is aligned perfectly to the setting off the bright star in the constellation of sickness. I'm the actual voucher. The stock which next to this alignment is a perfect representation of the this constellation around nine thousand five hundred say, which is exact timeframe of the construction of this enclosure. So was Beckley Tempe built by the Denisovans or their descendants. It was built by that descendants. I think an today there is no noticeable Denisova, Dan, I anyway, west of central Aisha over certain it would have been there in the past. I mean, for instance, a lot of our sisters that came into Europe that actually come over from Siberia, the Ural mountains gradually, my then why into western Europe down into Anatolia modern Turkey. And they would have been carrying with the the ancestor hanikos Lakers fake. In other words, all if the technology that culture, they post and their ideas. I'm so they would have reached Quebec kneecap. Hi, this is not just speculation. We can say you almost like a type of trial coast through the tolls. And the very specific means of manufacture of the different toes. The originally in the area of the old time and into southern Siberia folks fifty thousand years ago, I'm very slowly. All over way across until they eventually go down between the black and the Caspian say across the the Kokusai Manson's down ain't so wasted. I modern day Turkey. We can say it's a very specific row. It's knowledge by archaeologists. And almost like the people that wrote these ideas broke they stole toes in Turkey inspired, the creation of capacity pike around nine thousand five hundred base say I mean, even professor Klaus Schmidt, the famous all kill it just discovered go back pie beneath the those that were responsible for the manufacturer kabaddi type. I came in from the north by slightly from Russia, which is exactly the Paul Teich and Russia, I love the Russian step down. Across the coca says eight so Anatolia southeast Turkey, but doesn't orthodox anthropology? Tell us that eleven thousand years ago. Martyr man was nomadic. And and we were basically hunter-gatherers how would such large groups of people been organized into. Let's say, you know, labour party's that would have been necessary to construct something like this know, it's something big happened around eleven twelve years ago, we started to create what's not as a monumental architecture for the first time it saying that Quebec Lee turnpike, it might well be there. Other parts of the world places. Like don't put putting in Java, which is a huge pyramid hill structure their uneven at Stonehenge mean the earliest phases of Stonehenge got back to eight thousand base eight something happened around this time. What was it? Well, the fact is they've been a huge cataclysm the devastated the world around ten thousand. Eight hundred they say triggering a whole series of other events, including I-, Minneola, eyesight, wildfires burned for many hundreds of years, probably Saddam as us folk Cannock eruptions. I know my certainly this is triggered by a comet impact. This seems to be pretty well recognized the beginning of last year there were two massive pipers in jealousy magazine, citing every possible pace of evidence showing the cosmic cataclysm actually took place. This would have devastated the world, particularly those America where it seems that the greatest impact to PC's devastated that American landmass and this had an impact not only on the devastation of of the Sheva populations possibly as much as seventy-five percent devastated this time, but beyond that, it's the fact that people lived in fear that this can't be cataclysms would return. And I think that what they did was. Shamans and said, look, you know, you'll the anti papal we can turn to what can we do about it? So they said look you like just follow our instructions, so we will make certain that the supernatural creatures that cosies these cataclysms never return. And I think that this involved the creation of these these monuments in clashes the early stock Circassian megalithic architecture, the the earliest monumental architecture anywhere in the world. In other words, they they super suddenly started to supersize everything in the belief that by creating these monuments allowed them easy access to the sky with the easy access through these virtual stock. I if you like, you know, access into the realms where they could deal with a supernatural creatures responsible for the cataclysms that they would this would make right. And this is exactly as well. It's we see in the midst of legends around the world. Obviously, we know about the story of the great flat of the bible. Well, of course, what is one of the first things. The now does off to the great flat. He creates the first and you find this again. And again in these flat miss they dissolve the Rosa survive. The first thing they do is create the first temple of the first Ota to to to to try and appease, the goats decide look we survived this, please don't ever do this again. And I think that this is a memory of this cat's some never spoke to they this in many ways kick-started alisonville, I should material civilization. But prior to this time, you are right there were ugly cycled hunter-gatherers people that did their own thing. You talk to their family. Their media social world thought they were United States through that. 'cause muller. And their ideas that technology. It's what I call the shamanic civilization. It's a different type of civilization. It wasn't. It was found through roads and cities and towns, but through beliefs and ideas in a state of mind, what about human sacrifice where did that come from? I mean is there any link to the dissidents and human sacrifice don't know. It's a difficult one. I mean, the one thing that we can say at the moment as the numbers they stories two ways. The giants is like we're cannibalistic which therefore suggest that that. That's you know, I I hesitate to use who a sacrifice, but that would occur and that that people would be at. But whether this was by the Denisovans are some of the multi general hybrid descendants is very very difficult certainly doesn't give us anything to suggest that they see. Something that took place they some slight evidence that Neanderthals my husband, Kenneth cannibalistic. But many of our own ancestors, what kind of ballistic, you know, even the NFL say, you know, in North America cannibalistic, but we don't know what why this was used with. It was to create a fear within society. All whether it was simply some great ancestor. You know, some great person, you know, died within the community people would you share some of their their? So that they would tycoon designed says the ship that could be passed on from generation to generation that's a very difficult one uncertainty for places like this no evidence that human sacrifices ever took place. Are you ready to take some calls? Andrew. That'd be great. Yeah. All right. Let's start with Barry and South Carolina. Barry, good morning. Welcome to coast to coast AM. Hi there. Richard water great program tonight, and our that and keep up the good work. I can't wait to hear tonight sounded night show with you on and anyway for Frederick, thank you so much version you're talking about my favorites. Go back. Shefty Jimmy church. And I talk about it. Each time. I talked with him on coast to coast. And my question is we know already that go back recap. He is approximately twelve thousand five hundred years old, which is eight or nine hundred years older than they saw the place was. But do you think that the that's that's go back? We could have had something to do with the killing of Jesus Christ in Israel and so forth, and thanks guys. Keep up the great work, Richard. All right, Barry. Thank you for that. I'm not I'm not quite following the dots. Their Andrew what would be have to do with the crucifixion directly. Probably very little. But but what he does bring a same. So as you know, the people of debate it's up. I even if they they did come from the nose, which is what we suggest is the case. You know, what was the relationship with the area is today as rile of Palestine. The fact that there was a relationship between Egypt over way up into south a multi Turkey from ten to twelve thousand years ago, the very Tomica pie. And what you find is stone, toast that were manufactured by gradually find their why all the why into Egypt. There's a particular type of style told and understand when point they're very specific type of Arrowhead, and you can try. It's you know, it's progress from the heirs Quebec older why right within the science of the great pyramid. And I'm pretty certain that the influence of Quebec pie came into H it and inspired the creation of the great pyramid. Which is why? Five at Giza pyramids there aligned to sickness. In exactly the same way as the mining closures Quebec except I are aligned to the exact same starting. Exactly, my this cannot be coincidence. When you start looking at this. She start finding the same alignments sickness a fan of the world. Did they within right to American ma'am complex complex is for instance, by my colleague, Greg littlest? I'm incredible work examining, the the al-kaud astronomy the alignments various assays Adena period. Hopewell period, man complex is an IRO side aligned sickness and earlier you talked about a Ryan you said, the, you know, yes, you've heard about the idea that Orion is linked to Geza. But you never heard about sickness sicknesses the other half of the story because what we find is that there was an ancient journey that was you. Universal around the world, basically begins with this leap for fife towards the constellation of Orion. And at that point, you pick up the milky why and you then travel from Aram around to the sickness constellation, which is where the Milky Way splits into. And at this point. You will be judged you'll saw will be judged and then allowed to go into the off to life, or it will either be cost into oblivion or allowed to reincarnate and that point of entry into the off to life with the sickness constellation the next universal in other words with Iran. We've only had half the story. We've now got the other half of the story..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on WBAI
"Now, why did they do this probably because as people redacted to life on the East African savannahs, which is where we believe all of this very early stuff in on the origin of modern humans. And so these are grassland dwellers. These people would have wanted to follow the game the food and the grasslands bleed you into central Asia out of the Middle East. They don't lead you across Anatolia and into the Balkans. The Balkans are mountainous, forested, etc. And so probably we believe they they migrated into central Asia following the herds, and there's very good genetic evidence for this because the people who lived in central Asia. Later migrated westward into Europe, eastward into East Asia and ultimately into the American. Okay. So we have the second migration with the m eighty nine marker going north going into now central Asia. And then at that point splitting in half more or less one group, then going into Europe becoming the Europeans and the other part going into Asia becoming the Asians. Yes. Okay. Now where do the native Americans now come into play? Well, the native Americans come out of this central Asian cauldron if you will. Bubbling cauldron of humanity which spewed out people into Europe and Asia, some of them rated north into Siberia at around fifteen thousand years ago, or so certainly no earlier than twenty thousand years ago based on the genetic dates we have a few of these people went across the Bering land bridge which existed at that time as a result of the last ice age the sea levels had dropped. And so there was a land connection between northeast Asia and the north western part of North America. They migrated across into Alaska and ultimately down into North America around fifteen thousand years ago. Okay. Now as I understand you can actually trace in native American peoples not just one wave, but actually several waves of early humans that went through Alaska into the Americas. Is that right? Yeah. This is the earliest wave of migration, and it's the one that made it very rapidly down into South America. And it is the main wave of migration, we believe simply because it's it's these markers the most common once we see a native American populations. But there's good evidence that there was a second migration around six to eight thousand years ago along the coast because at that time, the Bering land bridge had been submerged again the ice sheets had started to retreat. And so the only way that people could have gotten there is by using boats. And in fact, the distribution of the lineages that probably composed that second wave of migration are found in the western part of North America. They're not found in South America. So it's consistent that genetic pattern is consistent with what we know about the paleo-climatology the geology and so on. So the second migration came across into North America and the people settled along the coast and then from there migrated somewhat inland. Now, there's a controversy going on right now concerning Kennewick man that you're probably familiar with. And we have the remnants of a very ancient. Remains of an individual that seems to predate many of the other other native American fossils that have been found. And this person may not even resemble the other native Americans, according to facial reconstructions that have been done. But the question is who owns these bones? Native Americans that it can can they bury them as their ancestor or do scientists analyze them nothing, but one of several waves that came over from from Asia Kennewick is interesting, but actually not anomalous because all of the skeletons or skulls that I'm aware of dating from around that time Kennewick is actually a fairly early remain. It's it's from around nine thousand years ago. Most of the remains the skulls that have been recovered from that time carry the kind of eight to eleven thousand year ago, period look more European than today's native Americans. And it doesn't matter where they're founded they found skulls in Brazil from that time period that also look a little bit more European. Why is this where they, you know, Europeans migrated across? No, clearly again, you look at the genetic lineages in all native Americans came out of Asia from Siberia, the reason they look perhaps a little bit more European again, traces back to this this origin in central Asia. Remember, this is the same group of people who gave rise to the Europeans. So it's it's probably as a result. Of the shared ancestry with Europeans long ago in on the steps of central Asia. So that begs the question, why do today's native Americans not look like that as well? It's possible that the second wave of migration, which we believe came further East Asia could have brought people who looked a little bit more East Asian or mongoloid in a and perhaps be the mixing of these groups changed the appearance of the native Americans. It's also possible they were local events that people, you know, over time change anyway, you move into a new area, particularly if the population size is small at your appearance will change your gene frequencies will change somewhat due to something we call genetic drift. We don't know exactly. But very clearly the people living in the Americas today, the native Americans trace their ancestry back to this part of of Asia. And it's not that there were wandering bands of Europeans here before them. Okay. Now, let's talk about the Polynesians way to the Polynesians fit into this. The politicians are are quite interesting. They alternately trace back, and I talked about this in my book, the journey of man, they ultimately trace back to an origin in southeast Asia. And they probably their expansion into the Pacific was driven by the expansion of rice agriculture and East Asia, which increase the population pressure and people set out on boy just to find new lands to, cultivate, and so on and as they migrated southward down into Indonesia and ultimately out into Melanesia around a Guinea they began to take longer and longer voyages and some of them at some point around five thousand years ago four thousand years ago set off into the Pacific. And you can literally trace the migration of people from island to island with these genetic markers. But they do trace back to this region of southeast Asia. And we believe due to the timing that it probably was ultimately driven by this expansion expanding population. As a result of the development of rice agriculture. Okay. Now, we also have a genetic mysteries that go back centuries, for example in northern Japan. We have the I know people who are extremely hairy to some of the hairiest Caucasians on the planet earth from what I understand. They don't look like the the native Japanese who are Asian looking. And so where did the I knew of northern Japan come from? Well, the first thing I point to to make is that physical appearance can actually change fairly rapidly. If you if you take the evidence at face value, we all everybody living in the world today shared ancestry in Africa around fifty thousand years ago. That's only a couple of thousand generations. It means that within the last couple of thousand generations, we have generated all of the physical diversity we see in the world today. And in fact, even on local levels, you you find people changing their appearance today through something we call sexual selection was first suggested by Darwin over one hundred years ago, as the reason why people do look so different. You choose people to mate with on the basis of what you find attractive that varies according to where you are in the world. I read a story in the times of London a couple of years ago about a village in Romania where all of the women have mustaches because the men in that particular region find it very attractive, and you know, over time this may become a defining feature which distinguishes them from people in the surrounding area. So simply because people look different doesn't mean that they have a very different ancestry from the people living nearby. Now in the case of the I knew there are certain markers that are at higher frequency in the I knew and they do correlate with probably an earlier expansion into Japan. So perhaps these were the aboriginal inhabitants. Now, it's likely that these people came out of Asia from ultimately, the central Asian stocks. So it is consistent again with this origin ultimately in central Asia. The same one that gave rise to the European. So the the retaining perhaps European features. Maybe that is part of the reason they do look different from the rest of the Japanese. Okay. So to sum up, we have the first migration out of Africa that followed the coastline. Into India and into Australia. We had the second migration that carried the eighty nine marker that went into central Asia that then split into many directions, including Europe and China, and then the Americas were there other than other migrations out of Africa. Yeah. I mean, there has been a certain amount of genetic exchange across the Sahara, but the Sahara is a pretty formidable barrier. There have been back migration into Africa from the Middle East within the last ten to twenty thousand years. And of course, there's exchange going on today. And and as people began to sail ships are thinking about the Polynesian expansion. There was actually a a migration of Polynesians westward across the Indian Ocean settling in Madagascar a couple of thousand years ago, and they speak a language, which is related to Polynesian languages Malagasy. Totally unrelated to the African languages spoken nearby. So, you know, there has been some exchange with sub Saharan Africa, but not much because again that permissible barrier the Sahara, which is kept populations apart. And also, what was the mechanism that drove early humans out of Africa? Was it the changing climate? I mean after other wasn't ice age going on especially in the northern and southern latitudes. What was the reason? Why they were all these migrations out of Africa starting around fifty sixty thousand years ago. Well, we we do think it comes down to to climate change as you say we were headed into the worst part of the last ice age which began roughly a hundred and ten hundred and twenty thousand years ago, but it really started to get bad after around seventy thousand years ago. And in fact, we know from looking at other parts of the genome, not y chromosome, not my DNA, but looking at the oddest Somo markers as we call them that the population size probably crashed around that time as we were going into the worst part of the last ice age. In fact, some of the most recent results coming out of Mark Feldman's group at Stanford suggest that the population dropped down to a couple of thousand individuals. So we're nearly extinct at that time. We're holding on by our fingernails what we think happened was the ones who survived survived because they were very clever they'd gone through. What we call the great leap forward and in behavior when we became behaviorally modern. And that adaptation if you will that ability to. Survive in these harsh conditions also gave them what they needed to be able to go out and take over the world. And so once they survived once they develop these skills once they go through what is potentially a genetically caused changes in brain structure once they become smart enough. They can then go out and live in places like Siberia, where you know, the the temperatures dropped to minus seventy in the winter and they were living there during the last ice age. They had to have been living there in order to make it into the Americas. Absolutely amazing..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on The News & Why It Matters
"Alone in a public space for seven hundred fifty thousand years. It's not as scary as you think. And what's interesting about this? So the her case was she was believe it was target. It was a cool day. It was not a hot day or anything. No. She's rich. And she left her kid in the car to run in. She was out. She had left for five minutes in that five minute period. Someone called the police they came back got her license number. She drove away. She was it was she was hours away from where she lived in. It was a year later she found out. She was actually for child was completely fine. And this kind of goes into this idea of of parenting, and sort of what we should be doing with our kids is it, okay? To leave your kid in the car for five minutes when you run into target. Now, the idea that something's going to happen to them, obviously, very low percentage chance that anything would happen to them. But I mean, you know, you you don't wanna leave them alone. So I kind of understand that. I remember when we first had our kid. My my wife wanted to wanted to go into a WalMart and run in and run out. But you know, you when you have kids it's like taking frigging seed out and figuring all it's a twenty minute process. And I I was I told her you can't do that. The reason you can't do it is. Not because I have any fear for my child. It's because a police officer someone's going to see it, and you're gonna get in trouble for that make them in the trunk. Yeah. Yeah. When you come back out. This is what's fascinating about the car. What is really interesting because I think everyone agrees at least I think my reflex action is of course, leisure kid in the car with three or four years old. That's that's insane. However, we drive them around in the same vehicle at seventy eighty miles an hour. It's much more dangerous than leaving them stopped in a car. They're a giant protective box like where else would you leave them that they were safer than a car reality to let me sit in the front seat. Only arm wrestle the middle dashboard. No airbags or anything else. And to be clear we're not talking about locked in a carseat. Well, it's one hundred degrees outside and people go in and they forget their child there's been tragedy. But I think these days we hear about so many things that happened that we think that tragedies constantly on our doorstep. Yeah, it's not nears close as we think and even tend to want it to be it's true. And this is part of the story itself. It was on PBS. There was actually a fair treatment on PBS for this. Which is this will Farrell was working for PBS news. Of this free range kids movement and Lenore Skains. He's been one of the ones who kind of started that. And it's been very conflicted about it. Because in my mind, in my mind a hundred percent know that it's safer than it's ever been. You know, it was four times more likely to be shot in a school shooting. When I went to high school kids are today times as likely that's insane stat blows your game. I wasn't true. But that's, but you know with with this. It's like, I know my kids are safer than even when I was in the nineties was not a good era for for crime was when I went to high school and yet to to let my kid walk down the street by himself for three minutes is all I'm doing is picturing cars pulling up him driving away on never seeing him. Again. We do have a clip of Lenore skinny as well talking about this fantasizing and insane level of danger. That doesn't almost doesn't exist an action movie, it's hysteria. She says the world is safer today than it has ever been even as the push to bubble wrap..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on Triangulation
"One hundred fifty thousand year headstart like that is phenomenal. And all you need to do is chat up some kids until they learn to talk back to you see, easiest thing in the world. It's the most. Fundamental. Of course you could have in history. You might end up, you know if we were one hundred fifty thousand years more advanced right now, maybe we will have destroy the earth. You always roll the dice with time travel, but maybe not. Maybe we don't have jet packs. It was one way to find out. That's awesome. It and I, by the way, I also want to mention one thing that struck me about the direction that you took your book is and you say this in the very beginning that your vision of time travel is not that if you go back in time and you make a change than it messes everything up in your time line if you return to present time, but rather you're actually creating a new time line that branches off. If you are to return, you'd still return to your normal time line. So the things that you do in the past aren't necessarily going to affect your current time line. I feel like so much science fiction related to time travel is that is the back to the future, and I feel like, yeah, kind of took a different direction. Yeah, I did it for a couple of reasons. One is I wanted to premise to be this was a rental time machine from the future. And so if you have one time that gets chains, that's a wildly irresponsible thing to be doing to, oh time machines or members of the general public willy nilly. So this solve that problem, but also introduced this kind of like Dr. Humor aspect to it because if every trip back in time creates a parallel universe, that's exactly like ours is up. You're in it. You're creating, you know, millions billions of human lives for the purposes of tourism or entertainment also wildly unethical or at the very least fraud and so it. It gives her this fun, dark humor to the whole thing. But also I think there's a lot of fun story potential there of being doing time travel, though worrying about messing up the present. Let's you worry about all sorts of other possibly more interesting things. Absolutely. Do you do you believe that will ever actually achieve time travel actual time travel, maybe not even in our lifetime. I think that's a, that's a huge debt. But do you think as possible. I'm, there's this great quote from Stephen hawking before he died saying that the greatest proof that time travel isn't possible that we're not being visited by tourists in the future. And I read that as a kid, and I was like, this is devastating because I want time travel to be real. I'm I'm totally devastated, but I comforted myself by thinking, you know what? If you got the widest range of history, what makes this time period the most interesting, like maybe they're not coming here. Maybe we're boring. Problem is like the path twenty team has been very interesting in terms of stuff happening, and I haven't noticed any time probably yet. So they might just be good at blending in. Yeah, but I feel like time travel exists, you'd probably people checking up like what was it like? You know on September twenty eighth twenty eighteen. Maybe in the truth, if if time travel is some sort of thing that someone can pay to, you know, it's a tourist sort of thing. They probably have like a an on boarding session that you had to go through on how to how to really blend in. Yeah, yeah, exactly. You probably have to get educated. Maybe that's just uploading some information to your brain so that you know you're perfectly convincing..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KNST AM 790
"Problem with humanity at this time Linda do they do they bounce around these? Souls, where they're earthbound then they become interplanetary than they. Become earthbound again or do, they evolve to a certain place in level in stay that way Yeah that's a good question and and a little. Complicated to explain the book of the interplanetary souls that I've, regressed in my practice come here. Infrequently they come here with purpose we can talk about that. But they come here infrequently they don't generally become an, earth, we'll be calling? Earth-based or an earthbound so so so the, definition for me in when I say someone is, Earth-based a soul is Earth-based or client is earth versus interplanetary being Earth-based means Your incarnations over the last oh probably thirty to fifty thousand years have all been on. Earth okay yeah And then interplanetary would be what. Interplanetary would mean you come. Here infrequently the the clients that I've regressed, that that are I p souls they've been, here five times they've been here even fifty to seventy. Times but they've had the bulk of their lives hundreds if. Not a thousand or more? Not, on our what makes you assume. That the interplanetary souls are. More. Advanced Because that's what we learn in their regression. Material so when I. You know as listeners are hearing me say well I think I know, and you know where do I get this information the information that I'm sharing with you comes from client after client after client I'm not planting ideas in the. Client's mind in other words my my only cardinal rule when I guide regression is. I don't give the client? Information they give me information so what I'm telling you about IP? Souls versus earth Basil's comes from it's almost like research in a way. I listened to what the..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on WLAC
"Problem with humanity yeah at this time do they do they bounce around these? Souls, where they're earthbound then they become interplanetary than they. Become earthbound again or do, they evolve to a certain place in level in stay that way Yeah that's a good question and and a little complicated to explain the bulk of the, interplanetary, souls that I've regressed in my. Practice come here infrequently they. Come. Here. With purpose we can talk about that but they come here infrequently they don't? Generally become an earth we'll be calling Earth-based or an earthbound so so so the, definition for me in when I. Say someone is Earth-based a soul as Earth-based, or client base, versus interplanetary being Earth-based means you're incarnations. Over. The last oh, probably thirty to? Fifty thousand years have all been on earth, okay yeah and then in a planetary would be, what interplanetary would mean you come here infrequently the the clients that I regret Rest that that our IP souls they've been here five times they've been, here, even fifty to seventy times but. They've had the bulk of. Their. Lives. Hundreds if not a thousand or more not on earth what makes you assume? That, the interplanetary souls are more advanced Because that's what we learn in their regression. Material so when, I you know as listeners are hearing me say well I think I know and you. Know where do I..
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KARN 102.9
"America but nevertheless you're going to hear a lot about it because unfortunately people in the media are very poorly paid compared to most others people in newspapers in particular don't make much money they're they're very poorly paid at newspaper socalled journalists and so they resent most everybody else they're paid worse than college teachers if you can believe that college teachers have never had it so good you got midgets over at berkeley who make two hundred and fifty thousand year they don't even teach all they do is go on msnbc once every few months and a spouse the wonders of karl marx and they pay two hundred fifty grand a year and they think that they're heroes to the poor students but they don't understand the real world the real world is much different than that being a spouse by the by the left wing in this country now if you're bored of this i don't blame you because maybe it's too esoteric i was thinking about this but you know maybe you're not really interested in it i've covered arrests today the inequality of the working class the progressive movement in america and their dream of a perfectly planned society and how it will lead to fascism as it always does true fascism as opposed to imagine fascism under donald trump i'd rather talk about health for a minute i could even talk about should you eat roy exit raw meat to is interesting is talking about elizabeth warren and bernie sanders roy and raw meat to meet in fact i would say that elizabeth warren's like raw eggs when she speaks and bernie sanders is like raw meat when he speaks fairness is a code word for socialism socialism is communism without a gun that's what i'm talking about today and i want to remind.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM
"More seeing organisms moving vertically and horizontally in ships half ships and with just individual organisms with no obvious craft which brings about what is the nature of that energy what is the disposition in nature of a force of an energy that allows movement was out potential and philosophy with inter thread communication and infrared communication so there's so many vast questions that need to be even asked to bracket the possibility of an examination and so if you go to the library and say if you went to the surviving library fifty thousand years from now and you don't speak the language and you have all these books how are you going to figure out first of all what they are what they need and how do we interpret them individually and then in relationship to each other so what you're beginning to realize and your listeners are beginning to realize is the monumental task we're looking at one stolen alone has hundreds of thousands of images and the amount of data contained is i would say vastly superior to a data chip so if you think about the value in that the the technology to carve stone intricate reverse trying those that will cut your fingers as opposed to an extended triangle.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on Inside of You with Michael Rosenbaum
"Nece theorists about this situation is not global warming although it can be global meantime it's climate change climate change global warming fucking donald trump's a perfect example of of how stupid people can be he was in new york a couple years ago now and it was snowing what do you mean global warming it's phrasing like shut the fuck up now you've got it wrong it's the fact that the climate is changing it's supposed to be this is now this and yes the climate does naturally go through different germs but it doesn't happen over the course of you know eight thousand years happens of the cost of fifty thousand years thousands doesn't happen over the course of two hundred years the industrial revolution is a great little peak on a graph to show we were doing okay suddenly we stopped earning call and fossil fuels and oil and now ago problem so the whole global warming thing needs to get stopped talking about we need to talk about climate change but what i do it's people and i do it and like i said i make mistakes is if you think a little a bit more responsibly about two things what you buy and what you do with that thing that you buy then you making a big difference if you go into a shop and i know you might not have the same amount of money but you know that there are situations where you have choice let's say about an electric blower electric blower flow leaves and shit outside every day one of the best gifts i got myself seventy nine dollars and you can just reach charge it it's right there you take a look at it afterwards it's it's remarkable thing and it's electric and i feel like i'm doing something so there's three let's say you walk into a shot in this three options that there's an electric blow with rechargeable batteries lens it as a a gas is gas riley and then there's one that you plug into the wool and you can stand and do a little orme just blowing the leaves with my lips that'd be the best east and you go okay they're all about the same price which what.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on Pat Gray Unleashed
"Akg pushing it back by about fifty thousand years that the time of the homo sapiens first ventured out or we could just ask you how things were happy birthday by the way all think is right because you're between 100 and seventy seven thousand in one hundred ninety i'll give that takes you were there i was a migration back that far the bearing straight down all the way the first couple of thousand years are just like yeah a friday rated naito sh by now as the water alice arrival i mean are we going to just keep pile of on we're gonna find out this is just another piltdown man i tell ya parter rang tang per home in its reply put together on purpose and shahdab uttered night this is a very old shot up jeffrey schott jeffey think back to your earliest birthday cakes how was it without having like fire invented for the campus law birthday cakes were invented okay sorry this was version years after much i thought it was a good advantage and who was a good it took it to heart did you that i did the better affect birthday suck they do i agree completely untold has a despair what am i also remind you and it's nice and i appreciate and happy birthday and the people are being friendly in there be nice and i appreciate very much and social media has been very kind thank you so much everyone whose tweeted facebook instagram to me i appreciate it.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on WHYR 96.9 FM
"That we get the the real onslaught of modern humans with this modern human behavior okay so let's start now at fifty thousand years where humans that behaves like as began to migrate and then a great the espera begins to take place so start to trace for us some of the markers as we trace the lineage of humans well so around fifty to sixty thousand years ago there was very likely in early migration along the southern coast of asia we can trace lineage to find on a marker we call him when thirty year rpf spor white t you can call it the coastal marker though if you will and this is a very rapid migration we believe that that made it to australia virtually overnight within a few thousand years promptly of leaving africa and we can trace the migration of these genetic lineages by looking at the dna of people living on that route today's of people living in southern india for instance retain traces of these migrants who went through 50000 years ago an extraordinary thing that these people in essence have been living in the same place for two thousand years and haven't disperse their genes all over the place you can still see that the pallets that's a glimpse of this migratory route which is a good thing because archaeologically there is no evidence for it not until around thirty thirty five thousand years ago do we see modern human remains in modern human tools in southern india and yet we we see modern human remains in australia at around 50000 years ago so clearly there's the disconnect there they must have made it through india nor did to reach australia unless they simply lapped from africa to australia which of course possible so.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on AP News
"Phones are either smuggled in by visitors and employees thrown over fences or even delivered by drone thousands of phones are confiscated each year from state and federal facilities modern humans may have left africa as much as one hundred thousand years earlier than previously thought scientists say they found fossils of an upper jawbone and stone tools in israel if discovery might caused them rethinking about how we evolved in interacted with are now extinct cousin species like neanderthals the jawbone complete with several well preserved teeth was found to be somewhere between one hundred seventy seven thousand and one hundred ninety four thousand years old previously the oldest fossil of modern humans found outside of africa were somewhere between ninety two 120000 years old also in israel the science paper suggests modern humans could have left africa two hundred twenty thousand years ago with some of the author stain maybe it was even earlier that's in part because the cave also contains flint tools than years ago with some of the author stain maybe it was even earlier that's in part because the cave also contains flint tools mostly blades them sharp points some of which are two hundred fifty thousand years old the number of people out of work and spain dropped by nearly half a million last year a symbol of the country's researching economy the national statistics institute said fewer people unemployed at the end of 2017 making for around a total of three point seven six million unemployment in spain peaked at twenty seven percent in 2013 before it began to emerge from a severe 5year financial crisis the institute said the jobless number rose by thirty four thousand nine hundred in the final quarter the unemployment rate finished at sixteen point six percent it still the second highest rate in the eu eu behind greece about three and a half times of hippo truth will be auctioned in tanzania next week and conservation groups aren't happy about it they say the auction could encourage poachers to kill more of this species for its body parts only licensed dealers can bid on.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on KIRO Radio 97.3 FM
"And the of technology in our modern world today something different from acquired our common seattle i'm todd bishop and my guest in the geek where studios in seattle is dr name soon he's nath apologised and the author of affluence without abundance the disappearing world of the bush men and the world he documents gist might provide clues to our own future amid the rise of artificial intelligence and it's a pleasure to have him here in the studio dr seuss's men welcome to the show entitled thank you yeah absolutely so give us a brief thumbnail your history and the history of the bushmen how you came to study this culture and the society as an anthropologist took aim would had learned in need big thumbnails kibe fake again i'll give you the very simple quick fix on who the bushmanov bushmanov the indigenous people of southern africa and and we now know that they seriously old they beaten that a very very long time much longer than anybody had previously thought so we know for example that the bushmen people who call the course and announced politi have been living consistently in southern africa for at least a hundred and fifty thousand years more than that we know that for the last sixty 70000 years at least and that's just because the evidence we confine that'd be technologically quite sophisticated in a while europeans are still sort of casing off the mammoths with rocks and sticks and scratching their armpits actually in southern africa they'd been making fairy highlysophisticated poison bows and arrows with movable pizza in pieces and pits which would come often beautifully lightly made so what's interesting about them in particular is the group also up into about twenty thousand years ago were unquestionably the most successful society on planet earth somehow they've found a kind of balance between sustainability the environment hunting and gathering and living that made them unbelievably successful and enduring in a timescale that you know we think of in such short timescales note but they were there an extraordinarily long time what is their status today the status today is now that kind of messed up so this is the sort of great irony.
"fifty thousand years" Discussed on 1410 WDOV
"Thing is toxic for two hundred fifty thousand years and this is something that's on their burger and by the way that in pakistan uh terror suv off of blow blown up a a victory uh nuclear facilities suffer craning ruder for grinder studying at and it's going to happen uh ah but then also ahead and set off a new get the terrorist luke the widow of the smuggled bombgrade h e you win they put it into a piece of cannon barrel that they blow up fate of the union address which decapitates our entire government kills everybody our government and then they also uh also have the mud nuke the sandia nuclear weapons weather on the edge yourselfer cisco this is horrible uh it so it's it is the apocalypse season yeah through your own uh vote and the earliest straight out of the book of revelation uh the other thing i mentioned before were all michael flynn who had been co uh trump's national security advisory what's the cell forty forty nuclear power plants the middle eastern nations including a bunch of the saudi the thing the reason god destroy who world and revelation is it's in chapter thirteen then sends an angel bouncers you people are too greedy and he said that the power of the anticrisis of the power greet to make money you gotta go through the anti curse after the the clickclick because you're malignant rude uh honored destroyed world and he said that so you're either going to be he tried it once yeah they're going to give up your greed your gonna stop fallen eddie cry and um or you're going to spend all eternity in health and houghton hell hell fireandbrimstone that's where the phrase comes from offfarm how far america one third of humanity of hm hellfire and brimstone money hellfire and reform i think i'll take the money and proven god coast found destroys the world in a hurry humanity goes to help an we're looking at the fair what uh what possible you know the an an once you have a nuclear power reactor ninety eight percent of the way to having no nuclearbomb bomb program absolutely if you have the bitter mcveigh equipment from an all darian old winery off the shelf parks nitric acid uh picks sick uh fix technicians about six months to build a fizzled nuclearbomb phil reprocessor takes one month to reprocess enough spent fuel to.