11 Burst results for "Fifteen Million Kelvin"

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

05:44 min | 5 months ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"That we tend to operate are superconducting detector. Arrays the ones that we use on the balloon we operate those and around two hundred to three hundred million kelvin. And that and that's a lot cheaper and it requires. You can have one of these in your home. You can actually now plug into the wall and get down to two hundred fifty million kelvin in your home but if fifteen million kelvin is probably a little bit too much power too big for you to have in their in their home so so there's two ways that it could be better. It's early dates for this technology. We just we just admitted. This paper was published in applied superconductivity. But but who knows. Maybe this is the right way to go yet. it's exciting. I don't know much about this. So these q. Beds in operation at this on an entangled state the issue is that you can't really keep them in A stable states is that right. Yes so what you wanna do to to do your calculations you wanna you wanna keep your your your cubans as for as long as possible in a in a state that is is is not Say collapsed or or inter interfered with by the environment and usually the environment means Any kind of Thermal disturbance so You can you. Can you can think of a quantum system as as being this like a pure kind of System that could be entangled and you could. Have you know multiple states existing simultaneously. I guess like in. Show dinger's cat. You know your cat being alive at time. Although that's i think a bit of a stretch but that at some point the the rest of the environment the rest of the universe surrounding it destroys that Coherence is called. So what you want is you. Don't want to have coherence. And so the higher the frequency that you're cuban operates less sensitive. It is to deco from the environment. Which is why atomic cubits so there are certain types of cubans that work with with optical light and these can work at room temperature because Because the the thermal radiation you know from the room is is is much lower energy say than the the energy of the the cuban but superconducting cubits obviously have to work cold enough that your material superconducting but But they don't have to work at the frequencies in the energies that that they're using You know right now and so This is a design and a proposal to To make you bits that work at at these higher frequencies yeah. Yeah it's exciting so in conclusion. Fill it it. Seems like you have a foundational technology. superconducting kinetic intact And using it instrumentation possible uses in quantum computing subpoenaed forward fifa news. You see other applications for this platform.

fifteen million two ways two hundred fifty million kelv three hundred million kelvin one around two hundred fifa cubans kelvin
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on Scientific Sense

Scientific Sense

03:48 min | 5 months ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on Scientific Sense

"Between superconductors that were first described and won the nobel prize per brian. Josephson a physicist and end so these Joseph are used. Because one of the things that you need to make accu- bet Just like a transistor or a regular bid is you need. You need to have non year behavior so you need to have some non linear already. And and that's what allows you to go sort of zero or one. St and in the case of a quantum a cubit than this non linear also able to be used and and put into state as well of your zero in one state but but these junctions are have some issues there sometimes tricky to make tricky to to to make reliably and one of the key things today is is trying to make more and more cubans so bigger and bigger arrays of of these cubits that are connected together just like you know is important to make more and more transistors in regular computers and so until google surveys and demonstration by something like fifty three cubits or something like that right. Yeah yeah they have on order. Fifty and ninety m has about the same number. Which isn't that. Many of the computing goes up exponentially with the number. So you don't have to get that many before you're able to compete or do better than a regular computer but but so the there's two things about our design That are that are different so the first thing is that we're not using any junctions instead. What we're using is a superconducting nanna wires so very thin thin wires up superconductor and these have our non linear because because of not not an effect called non linear connecticut which which we Which we've been using or or noticed When we were making our astronomy detectors and because there's no there's no junction. The thought is that they would be less sensitive to a certain type of noise that you have in this In the gap in between the superconductors in this tunnel junction and also the hope would be that they would be easier again. Just like the connecticut detectors easier to fabricate and easier to make large numbers of the other thing. that's different is. it's w band. So w manned is a wave guide. Bandit is centered around ninety gigahertz or one hundred gigahertz The cubans that. Ibm or or google or using They tend to operate in less than ten gigabytes. And so that's that's an important difference because at at ten gigahertz. One of the things that you have to do. If you want your quantum computer to work is you have to make sure that it's not upset by thermal noise so you need to cool everything really cold and you have to cool it for ten gigahertz the temperature you have to cool it to is proportional to the frequency. That you're cuban operates attend gigahertz. they're cooling their these cubans down to sort of fifteen degrees. Fifteen million degrees above absolute zero. Fifteen million kelvin. But if we can make ours work at ninety gigahertz hundred gigahertz then we only would have to cool to maybe. Two hundred million kelvin. Which still sounds pretty cold yet but it turns out that it's a lot easier to cool stuff down and in fact we..

fifteen degrees Fifteen million degrees one hundred gigahertz Joseph ninety gigahertz less than ten gigabytes two things google fifty three cubits first Two hundred million kelvin one first thing gigahertz ten gigahertz Fifteen million kelvin today Josephson nobel prize ninety gigahertz hundred gigah
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

05:14 min | 1 year ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

"Do that clearly pulling them from a parallel dimension or something like that. Yeah, so there's just A. Parallel Dimension! There's a really huge room of requirement somewhere. That's okay. Yeah, all right now. Now you're talking my language, so yeah it. A little bit of mass creates a low energy, so even though we're talking tiny atomic measurements here where we have the helium atom, which has got a lower mass than the two combined hydrogen atoms that still puts off quite a bit of energy, and and the sun is doing this all the time with tons of hydrogen converting into helium every day right all right so. Massive amount of energy. That's being that's being omitted. I mean if it weren't being omitted, then there'd be no life on this planet. Right and we know it works. You know so. We can serve this this is this is as far as we can. Tell real science, yes, so. We know it works? We can do it in fact, we have done it. We've reproducing here on Earth we'll get into that in a little bit, but the question was. If the DON does this if that's how the sun does, could we create energy here on Earth using a similar message knowing that on earth, the conditions are very different the core of the sun. We don't have that gravity or that heat that is allowing the sun to overcome the right. Force yeah, the in the in the gravity is the really important part because that gravity is what's allowing the this nuclear fusion process to happen at a temperature that would actually be lower than we would need here on earth, because we don't have that gravity, we don't have the ability to compress the atoms as tightly together as we would, if it if we had the sun's gravity. To. We have to overcome that with even more heat. The Sun only needs about fifteen million degrees. Kelvin only measly fifty million Kelvin fifteen stories are yeah. Yeah, my my bad I always do that I did it once. One of our great listeners corrected me, and that's the only reason that our listeners are awesome, and they know when I've done something silly like that completely ridiculous only reason. So, thank you listeners. So yeah. The Sun only needs about fifteen million. Kelvin in order to do this here on earth that would be something like one hundred million, so we're talking massive amounts of energy that we would need here on earth to compensate for the fact that we don't have that gravity there to help us with this reaction. Now in the sun, you're talking about the pure hydrogen encountering other pure hydrogen, so one Proton, one electron electrons get stripped away. The Protons get fuse together, but on earth. We've discovered that there's a better. Combination to go with requires less energy than it would. If we were to use pure hydrogen, it's relatively difficult to run into pure hydrogen. Here we you'd have to. You'd have to essentially split the hydrogen off of something else on. There's lots of hydrogen on earth. We have no shortage of it. Yeah, it's just connected to lots of other stuff. Yeah, so the two types of the two isotopes of hydrogen isotope by the way means that you have more or fewer neutrons than whatever the the atom typically has, but it's or it's a different number of neutrons than the base version of that atom rate, but it's same number of protons. Same number electrons so an isotope. One Isotope of hydrogen is do? which is also known as heavy hydrogen, and it has one proton and one neutron so typically you would not have a neutron with hydrogen deteriorate does have a neutron, and then you have tritium which is called also called heavy heavy hydrogen. So, it's extra heavy. He's not heavy. He's my tritium and this is a proton. The has two neutrons. So same still the same element is just a different isotope. Now duty. We've got a lot of that here on earth, yeah can be extracted from seawater. It's not radioactive or anything Yeah, it's not dangerous the, but yeah you can. You can find deteriorate in in ocean water. You cannot find tritium very easily mostly because it's not. Completely stable, it does tend to decay and It's just it has a half life of about ten years can you can get it from lithium? Yeah, you if you take lithium. The metal lithium medication, the metal lithium and you bombarded with neutrons. Then one of the things you get out of that is tritium, so that is one way to get the thirty minute we found out that tritium and deteriorate. If you try to fuse those two together, then you get helium and a neutron out of that reaction and it requires less energy than it than other combinations do. These are the current forms of fusion that are possible on our planet are are deteriorating tritium. Hey, guys hope you're enjoying this classic episode of Text We're GONNA. Take a quick break to thank our sponsors. This episode is brought to you by Sonos. Move. It's a battery powered smart speaker. It has a charging station, so you can have. It just plugged into the charging station as a as a stationary speaker..

Kelvin Proton
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

07:18 min | 1 year ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

"Really really close together now at that point when you have fused to hydrogen protons together, you've created a different element. Hydrogen has now become helium. At temperature, millions of degrees. So We can't. We might both be that they might be giants seeing them in a week. To Atlanta by the time he goes here this. I've already seen it in. The show is awesome. I guess. So anyway, the the the protons have fused together to form helium, but here's the interesting thing in that process, the mass of that helium atom is slightly less than the combined masses of the two hydrogen atoms that fused together to make the helium. Why is that Jonathan? Some of that mass gets converted into energy. There's a little equation you may have heard of called E. equals. MC squared I think I think some some guy named Einstein was talking about. Here Einstein. Einstein came up with this idea He came up with a theory and and turns out that it. It looks like it's true. energy equals mass. Times Square or the speed of light squared rather not the square speed of light, but the speed of light squared. Speed of light is a big big big big number, and you square it, and it's even bigger much bigger, and you multiply even bigger and multiply that times whatever the mass is you get your energy output, and so essentially what this equation tells us is that a tiny little bit of mass once converted into energy will be an enormous amount of energy. Right same thing. That mass and energy never really go away. Art simply converted. CanNot create or destroy energy, but what we can do is convert energy to mass and mass energy at least in theory now. If we were to convert energy to mass, we take an awful lot of energy to make just a little bit of mass, which is why I always go crazy when i read the Harry, Potter books and people conjure stuff out of thin air because I think you just destroyed like three solar systems in order to do that clearly pulling them from a parallel dimension or something like that. Yeah, so there's just A. Parallel Dimension! There's a really huge room of requirement somewhere. That's okay. Yeah, all right now. Now you're talking my language, so yeah it. A little bit of mass creates a low energy, so even though we're talking tiny atomic measurements here where we have the helium atom, which has got a lower mass than the two combined hydrogen atoms that still puts off quite a bit of energy, and and the sun is doing this all the time with tons of hydrogen converting into helium every day right all right so. Massive amount of energy. That's being that's being omitted. I mean if it weren't being omitted, then there'd be no life on this planet. Right and we know it works. You know so. We can serve this this is this is as far as we can. Tell real science, yes, so. We know it works? We can do it in fact, we have done it. We've reproducing here on Earth we'll get into that in a little bit, but the question was. If the DON does this if that's how the sun does, could we create energy here on Earth using a similar message knowing that on earth, the conditions are very different the core of the sun. We don't have that gravity or that heat that is allowing the sun to overcome the right. Force yeah, the in the in the gravity is the really important part because that gravity is what's allowing the this nuclear fusion process to happen at a temperature that would actually be lower than we would need here on earth, because we don't have that gravity, we don't have the ability to compress the atoms as tightly together as we would, if it if we had the sun's gravity. To. We have to overcome that with even more heat. The Sun only needs about fifteen million degrees. Kelvin only measly fifty million Kelvin fifteen stories are yeah. Yeah, my my bad I always do that I did it once. One of our great listeners corrected me, and that's the only reason that our listeners are awesome, and they know when I've done something silly like that completely ridiculous only reason. So, thank you listeners. So yeah. The Sun only needs about fifteen million. Kelvin in order to do this here on earth that would be something like one hundred million, so we're talking massive amounts of energy that we would need here on earth to compensate for the fact that we don't have that gravity there to help us with this reaction. Now in the sun, you're talking about the pure hydrogen encountering other pure hydrogen, so one Proton, one electron electrons get stripped away. The Protons get fuse together, but on earth. We've discovered that there's a better. Combination to go with requires less energy than it would. If we were to use pure hydrogen, it's relatively difficult to run into pure hydrogen. Here we you'd have to. You'd have to essentially split the hydrogen off of something else on. There's lots of hydrogen on earth. We have no shortage of it. Yeah, it's just connected to lots of other stuff. Yeah, so the two types of the two isotopes of hydrogen isotope by the way means that you have more or fewer neutrons than whatever the the atom typically has, but it's or it's a different number of neutrons than the base version of that atom rate, but it's same number of protons. Same number electrons so an isotope. One Isotope of hydrogen is do? which is also known as heavy hydrogen, and it has one proton and one neutron so typically you would not have a neutron with hydrogen deteriorate does have a neutron, and then you have tritium which is called also called heavy heavy hydrogen. So, it's extra heavy. He's not heavy. He's my tritium and this is a proton. The has two neutrons. So same still the same element is just a different isotope. Now duty. We've got a lot of that here on earth, yeah can be extracted from seawater. It's not radioactive or anything Yeah, it's not dangerous the, but yeah you can. You can find deteriorate in in ocean water. You cannot find tritium very easily mostly because it's not. Completely stable, it does tend to decay and It's just it has a half life of about ten years can you can get it from lithium? Yeah, you if you take lithium. The metal lithium medication, the metal lithium and you bombarded with neutrons. Then one of the things you get out of that is tritium, so that is one way to get the thirty minute we found out that tritium and deteriorate. If you try to fuse those two together, then you get helium and a neutron out of that reaction and it requires less energy than it than other combinations do. These are the current forms of fusion that are possible on our planet are are deteriorating tritium. Hey, guys hope you're enjoying this classic episode of Text We're GONNA. Take a quick break to thank our sponsors. This.

Kelvin Einstein Proton Atlanta Times Square Jonathan Potter
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

07:18 min | 1 year ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

"Really really close together now at that point when you have fused to hydrogen protons together, you've created a different element. Hydrogen has now become helium. At temperature, millions of degrees. So We can't. We might both be that they might be giants seeing them in a week. To Atlanta by the time he goes here this. I've already seen it in. The show is awesome. I guess. So anyway, the the the protons have fused together to form helium, but here's the interesting thing in that process, the mass of that helium atom is slightly less than the combined masses of the two hydrogen atoms that fused together to make the helium. Why is that Jonathan? Some of that mass gets converted into energy. There's a little equation you may have heard of called E. equals. MC squared I think I think some some guy named Einstein was talking about. Here Einstein. Einstein came up with this idea He came up with a theory and and turns out that it. It looks like it's true. energy equals mass. Times Square or the speed of light squared rather not the square speed of light, but the speed of light squared. Speed of light is a big big big big number, and you square it, and it's even bigger much bigger, and you multiply even bigger and multiply that times whatever the mass is you get your energy output, and so essentially what this equation tells us is that a tiny little bit of mass once converted into energy will be an enormous amount of energy. Right same thing. That mass and energy never really go away. Art simply converted. CanNot create or destroy energy, but what we can do is convert energy to mass and mass energy at least in theory now. If we were to convert energy to mass, we take an awful lot of energy to make just a little bit of mass, which is why I always go crazy when i read the Harry, Potter books and people conjure stuff out of thin air because I think you just destroyed like three solar systems in order to do that clearly pulling them from a parallel dimension or something like that. Yeah, so there's just A. Parallel Dimension! There's a really huge room of requirement somewhere. That's okay. Yeah, all right now. Now you're talking my language, so yeah it. A little bit of mass creates a low energy, so even though we're talking tiny atomic measurements here where we have the helium atom, which has got a lower mass than the two combined hydrogen atoms that still puts off quite a bit of energy, and and the sun is doing this all the time with tons of hydrogen converting into helium every day right all right so. Massive amount of energy. That's being that's being omitted. I mean if it weren't being omitted, then there'd be no life on this planet. Right and we know it works. You know so. We can serve this this is this is as far as we can. Tell real science, yes, so. We know it works? We can do it in fact, we have done it. We've reproducing here on Earth we'll get into that in a little bit, but the question was. If the DON does this if that's how the sun does, could we create energy here on Earth using a similar message knowing that on earth, the conditions are very different the core of the sun. We don't have that gravity or that heat that is allowing the sun to overcome the right. Force yeah, the in the in the gravity is the really important part because that gravity is what's allowing the this nuclear fusion process to happen at a temperature that would actually be lower than we would need here on earth, because we don't have that gravity, we don't have the ability to compress the atoms as tightly together as we would, if it if we had the sun's gravity. To. We have to overcome that with even more heat. The Sun only needs about fifteen million degrees. Kelvin only measly fifty million Kelvin fifteen stories are yeah. Yeah, my my bad I always do that I did it once. One of our great listeners corrected me, and that's the only reason that our listeners are awesome, and they know when I've done something silly like that completely ridiculous only reason. So, thank you listeners. So yeah. The Sun only needs about fifteen million. Kelvin in order to do this here on earth that would be something like one hundred million, so we're talking massive amounts of energy that we would need here on earth to compensate for the fact that we don't have that gravity there to help us with this reaction. Now in the sun, you're talking about the pure hydrogen encountering other pure hydrogen, so one Proton, one electron electrons get stripped away. The Protons get fuse together, but on earth. We've discovered that there's a better. Combination to go with requires less energy than it would. If we were to use pure hydrogen, it's relatively difficult to run into pure hydrogen. Here we you'd have to. You'd have to essentially split the hydrogen off of something else on. There's lots of hydrogen on earth. We have no shortage of it. Yeah, it's just connected to lots of other stuff. Yeah, so the two types of the two isotopes of hydrogen isotope by the way means that you have more or fewer neutrons than whatever the the atom typically has, but it's or it's a different number of neutrons than the base version of that atom rate, but it's same number of protons. Same number electrons so an isotope. One Isotope of hydrogen is do? which is also known as heavy hydrogen, and it has one proton and one neutron so typically you would not have a neutron with hydrogen deteriorate does have a neutron, and then you have tritium which is called also called heavy heavy hydrogen. So, it's extra heavy. He's not heavy. He's my tritium and this is a proton. The has two neutrons. So same still the same element is just a different isotope. Now duty. We've got a lot of that here on earth, yeah can be extracted from seawater. It's not radioactive or anything Yeah, it's not dangerous the, but yeah you can. You can find deteriorate in in ocean water. You cannot find tritium very easily mostly because it's not. Completely stable, it does tend to decay and It's just it has a half life of about ten years can you can get it from lithium? Yeah, you if you take lithium. The metal lithium medication, the metal lithium and you bombarded with neutrons. Then one of the things you get out of that is tritium, so that is one way to get the thirty minute we found out that tritium and deteriorate. If you try to fuse those two together, then you get helium and a neutron out of that reaction and it requires less energy than it than other combinations do. These are the current forms of fusion that are possible on our planet are are deteriorating tritium. Hey, guys hope you're enjoying this classic episode of Text We're GONNA. Take a quick break to thank our sponsors. This.

Kelvin Einstein Proton Atlanta Times Square Jonathan Potter
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

14:14 min | 1 year ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

"Text up. I'm your host. Jonathan Strickland an executive producer with iheartradio and love things tech. And it's Friday. That means it's time for a classic episode of Tech Stuff and this one originally published on April fifteenth. Two thousand thirteen. It's called tech stuff experiments with fusion. So let's listen in we're talking nuclear fusion and to kind of give you an idea of what nuclear fusion is how we are trying to harness nuclear fusion as a source of energy production really electric production. And it's being touted as one of the technologies of the future that is going to give us unlimited energy. How Far Away is it? Twenty to thirty to fifty years and every year. It seems like we're still fifty years. Yeah Yeah it's I. That's one of those things that scientists will often Riley kind of joke about that. The technology's always twenty years away and And you know it's because the challenges that we need to overcome are quite impressive doesn't mean we won't do it. Because human beings are amazing you know we innovate event but But let's let's first of all talk about the difference between fusion and vision. Vision is kind of a nuclear process that is used in nuclear power plants today right so if you are familiar with a nuclear power plants things like you know. They're of course the famous ones that have suffered catastrophic failures like three mile island or noble But these are the the reactors where they split up larger atoms into smaller atoms and as a result a great deal of energy is given off really in the form of heat which is then harnessed to convert water into steam which turns steam turbines which are connected to electrical generators generating electricity. So really. It's just a a very very efficient way of heating up a lot of water really quickly and making it do work very efficient very radioactive steam generator. Yeah Yeah and that's one of the big issues with With the vision power plants obviously is that it uses nuclear radioactive material. Not just nuclear material radioactive material and that it doesn't the reactivity is still very much a factor once that reaction is finished for thousands and thousands of years right. Yeah you generally speaking only about three percent of the uranium in a uranium rod is used up in a vision reactor before the waste has to be disposed of because it will continue to heat up until it reaches a point. That's too hot and the reactor itself suffer failure. Yeah that's what you have down yeah There are some Some approaches that are suggesting that we take another pass at that nuclear waste and use that in a second round by immersing it in a molten salt the waste annihilating molten salt reactor still. I just can't I can't get over the the annihilated wasted NYLANDER Yeah so This this reactor would it still efficient reactor but it would immerse the the radioactive material the uranium in a molten salt and use that to control the heat in a in a way that would allow you to use that material for longer. So you'd be able to get more use out of the same radioactive material and reduce the life of the actual radioactive elements at the at the final output. I think it would only be radioactive. I it would only be reactive for another three hundred years so still well beyond our lifetimes right now but not something that you would say. Are Generations Generations? Generations are going to have You know programming things that people you know languages that don't exist yet. How do I how do I create a pictographs? That shows exactly. Do not go in here. Touch this female. We stood up really heart ten thousand years. English may not even be thing anymore so So yeah I mean. That's that's one of those possible solutions but fusion is very different vision all about splitting atoms apart fusion. About being buddy buddy bringing together this is. This is the kind of process that we see happening. In stars including the Sun The Sun being star this well just making sure people know that And despite what? My one of my favorite bands has said in a cover of a song actually. The Sun is not really a massive incandescent gas gigantic nuclear but did correct it in a later song say it was asthma of incandescent plasma so they did go back and correct it but they were actually quoting an old song from a science album for kids which was to explain the process of fusion and how the Sun Generates Energy and light and And the way it happens is it takes these hydrogen atoms and because the sun is so massive and dense. There's a huge amount of gravity there and it's creating enormous amount of pressure and heat so the heat is stripping those hydrogen atoms of their electrons. Creating ions that creates ions and in a pure hydrogen atom is just a Proton and an electron so that electron goes away. I've just got a proton. They're sharing and so You have these protons now that are zipping around and and being pressed together really tightly by the amazing force of gravity and at the Sun's core where this is the strongest. These atoms are banging up against each other so fast and so close that one of the other fundamental forces in the universe over acts the electromagnetic force now. The four forces in the universe include gravity. Which is the weakest but is the it is the most effective over huge distances. Right you have electromagnetic force you. And then you have these strong and weak nuclear forces now. The strong force is what holds nucleic particles together. It's like the glue that keeps nucleus together right so if you were able to get to protons close enough to each other The strong nuclear force would be strong enough to counteract the electromagnetic force naturally driving them apart because protons both have a positive charge. And if you've ever taken two magnets and tried to stick the two positive ends together it it resists he doesn't want to do that thing but when you get them to within one trillion of a millimeter of each other then that will that will go away or it will be overcome by the strong force? Exactly yes you have to get them really really close together now at that point when you have fused to hydrogen protons together. You've created a different element. Hydrogen has now become helium at temperature. Millions of degrees so We can't we might be. They might be giants seeing them in a week to Atlanta. By the time he goes here this. I've already seen it in. The show is awesome. I guess so anyway. The the the protons have fused together to form helium. But here's the interesting thing in that process. The mass of that helium atom is slightly less than the combined masses of the two hydrogen atoms. That fused together to make the helium. Why is that Jonathan? Some of that mass gets converted into energy. There's a little equation. You may have heard of called E. EQUALS MC squared. I think I think some some guy named Einstein was talking about here Einstein. Einstein came up with this idea He came up with a theory and and turns out that it. It looks like it's true. energy equals mass times square or the speed of light squared. Rather not the square speed of light but the speed of light squared. So speed of light is a big big big big number and you square it and it's even bigger much bigger and you multiply even bigger and multiply that times. Whatever the mass is you get your energy output and so essentially what this equation tells us? Is that a tiny little. Bit of mass. Once converted into energy will be an enormous amount of energy right same thing that mass and energy never really go away simply converted cannot create or destroy energy but what we can do is convert energy to mass and mass energy. At least in theory now if we were to convert energy to mass we take an awful lot of energy to make just a little bit of mass. Which is why I always go crazy when I read the Harry Potter Books and people conjure stuff of a thin air because I think you just destroyed like three solar systems in order to do that from a parallel dimension or something like that. Yeah so there's just a parallel dimension. There's a really huge room of requirement. Somewhere that's okay. Yeah all right now now. You're talking my language so yeah it it. A little bit of mass creates a low energy so even though we're talking tiny atomic measurements here where we have the helium atom which has got a lower mass than the two combined hydrogen atoms. That's still puts off quite a bit of energy and and the sun is doing this all the time with tons of hydrogen converting into helium. Every day right all right so massive amount of energy that's being that's being omitted. I mean if it weren't being omitted then there'd be no life on this planet right and we know it works. You know so we can serve this. This is this is as far as we can tell real science. Yes so we know it works. We can do it in fact we have done it. We've reproducing here on earth. We'll get into that in a little bit but the question was if don does this. If that's how the sun does could we create energy here on earth using a similar method knowing that on earth the conditions are very different the core of the sun? We don't have that gravity or that heat that is allowing the Sun to overcome the right force. Yeah THE IN. The in the gravity is the really important part because that gravity is what's allowing the this nuclear fusion process to happen at a temperature that would actually be lower than we would need here on earth because we don't have that gravity. We don't have the ability to compress the atoms as tightly together as we would if it if we had the sun's gravity we have to. We have to overcome that with even more heat. The Sun only needs about fifteen million degrees Kelvin. Only measly fifty million Kelvin. Fifteen stories are yeah. Yeah my my bad. I always do that. I did it once. One of our great listeners corrected me and that's the only reason that our listeners are awesome and they know when I've done something silly like that completely ridiculous only reason so thank you listeners. So yeah the sun only needs about fifteen million Kelvin. In order to do this here on earth that would be something like one hundred million so we're talking massive amounts of energy that we would need here on earth to compensate for the fact that we don't have that gravity there to help us with this reaction now in the sun you're talking about the pure hydrogen encountering other pure hydrogen so one Proton one electron the electrons get stripped away. The Protons get fuse together but on earth we've discovered that there's a better combination to go with requires less energy than it would if we were to use pure hydrogen. It's relatively difficult to run into pure hydrogen. Here you'd have to. You'd have to essentially split the hydrogen off of something else on. There's lots of hydrogen on earth. We have no shortage of it. Yeah it was just connected to lots of other stuff. Yeah so the two types of the two isotopes of hydrogen isotope by the way means that you have more or fewer neutrons than whatever the the atom typically has but it's or it's a different number of neutrons than The base version of that atom rate. But it's Same number of protons same number electrons so an isotope is one. Isotope of hydrogen is Do which is also known as heavy hydrogen and it has one proton and one neutron so typically you would not have a neutron with hydrogen deteriorate does have a neutron and then you have tritium which is called also called heavy heavy hydrogen. So it's extra heavy. He's not heavy. He's my tritium And this is a proton the has to neutrons so same still. The same element is just a different isotope now. Duty we've got a lot of that. Here on earth can be extracted from seawater. It's not radioactive or anything Yeah it's not dangerous The but yeah you. Can you can find deteriorate in in Ocean water? You cannot find tritium very easily mostly because it's not completely stable it does tend to decay and It's just it has a half-life of about ten years can you can get it from lithium. Yeah you if you take. Lithium the metal lithium medication the metal lithium and you bombarded with neutrons. Then one of the things you get out of that is tritium so that is one way to get the thirty minute. We found out that tritium and deteriorate if you try to fuse those two together then you get helium and a neutron Out of that reaction and It requires less energy than it than other combinations do. These are the current forms of fusion. That are possible on. Our planet are are deteriorating tritium. Hey guys hope you're enjoying this classic episode of Tech Stuff. We're going to take a quick break to thank our sponsors..

Jonathan Strickland Einstein Proton Riley executive producer Atlanta Harry Potter don
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on BrainStuff

BrainStuff

06:06 min | 2 years ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on BrainStuff

"Hi, I'm Ariel Casten Jonathan Strickland and together, we're going to tell you the stories behind some of the biggest triumphs in failures and business. That's right. We're going to explore situations that tested the medal of entrepreneurs pivotal moments required. Making tough decisions. We'll be talking about some big companies that everybody knows like Disney LEGO and Harley Davidson and together we try to answer the question. What do you do when you find yourself at the brink? Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb. Here are some may look like an internal Meazza of incandescent plasma. But one day it will die. This may sound like a bummer especially for anything that's living on earth and a few billion years. But there is a bright side to the solar doom. According to research published in the journal nature. This very month are dead star will leave behind a shimmering legacy. It'll turn into a massive crystal before we start talking about supersized stellar crystals. We first need to understand how stars like our sun live and die. The sun is fueled by nuclear fusion. It's massive gravity. Crushes hydrogen atoms together in its core to create helium and the vast quantities of energy released by these few impresses push outward. Maintaining a happy Librium so long as there's plenty of hydrogen fuel feeding this process. The core remains about the same size and temperature around fifteen million Kelvin producing energy that radiates throughout the. Solar system, ultimately nurturing, the evolution of life on a certain habitual planet. This hydrogen burning phase of a is life will last for ninety percent of the lifetime of our sun. The period of stellar life is known as the main sequence or currently about four point five billion years into our son's main sequence days or approximately halfway through its life. So what happens when that hydrogen is all used up things start to get a little wild to put it mildly without the outward pressure of the energy created by fusing hydrogen. The sun's gravity overwhelms. The core crushing it into a smaller space and boosting its temperature tenfold. That's okay, though, the heavier helium nuclei will begin to fuse together creating the outward pressure once again to maintain equilibrium. It's predicted that this will start happening in about five billion years marked with a sudden out rush of energy known as a helium flash as the helium fuses carbon and oxygen are formed and the temperature of the core rises yet again. Soon after even heavier elements also begin to fuse and the sun on the whole will start looking a bit worse for the wear. It will begin to swell blasting interplanetary space with savage. Solar. Winds will begin to strip away. It's upper layers, though, our son is at massive enough to explode as a supernova it will turn into a red giant star possibly expanding beyond the orbit of earth. Our planet will be toast. After the death of our star. It will leave behind wispy remains of solar plasma creating a beautiful planetary nebula enriched with newly formed heavy elements that will go on to create the next generation of stars and planets and in its core will be a hot stellar remnant known as a white dwarf a tiny, dense star shimmering brightly a testament to the sun that used to be in its place, white dwarfs can sustain themselves for billions of years before filling out and dimming forever. But this isn't the end of the story using observations by the European guy emission, which is currently making precision measurements of stars throughout our galaxy. Researchers at the university of Warwick in the UK have stumbled on a white dwarf secret that has remained hidden until now. Soon after forming white dwarfs are extremely hot radiating, the intense energy that was once held in the core of the main sequence star that came before them over billions of years after forming white dwarf slowly cool end at a certain point the oxygen in carbon they contain. We'll go through a phase transition akin to liquid water freezing and turning into solid ice only at much more extreme temperatures and pressures and they'll solidify to form a huge crystal Pierre, Emmanuel Tremblay from the university of Warwick's department of physics and leader of the study said in a press release all white dwarf will crystallize at some point in their evolution. Although more massive white dwarfs, go through the process sooner. This means that billions of white dwarfs in our galaxy have already completed the process and are essentially crystal spheres in the sky. The some itself will become a crystal white dwarf in about ten billion years. Tremblay's team, analyzed the guy survey shins to measure, the luminosity and colors of fifteen thousand white dwarfs within three hundred light years of earth. What they found was an excess in the population of stars of specific colors and brightness. They realized that this group of stars represented a similar phase in stellar evolution or the conditions are right for this phase transition to occur causing a delay in cooling, thus slowing down the aging process. The research found that some of these stars had extended their lifespan by up to two billion years Tremblay's said in the statement, this is the first direct evidence that white dwarfs crystallize or transition from liquid to solid. It was predicted fifty years ago that we should observe a pile up in the number of white dwarf said certain luminosity and colors due to crystallization. And only now has this been observed crystallized white dwarfs aren't just a stellar curiosity. Their quantum makeup is unlike anything we can recreate in the laboratory as the white star material crystallizes. It's material becomes ordered on a quantum level. Nuclei aligning themselves in a complex lattice with a metallic oxygen core and an outer layer enriched with carbon. So it turns out that after stars like our sun die their stories aren't over all white dwarfs will go through this crystallization process. Littering the galaxy with massive diamond like stellar remnants.

Emmanuel Tremblay university of Warwick Disney Ariel Casten Harley Davidson Lauren Vogel iheartradio Jonathan Strickland apple UK Pierre five billion years three hundred light years fifteen million Kelvin ten billion years two billion years ninety percent
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on BrainStuff

BrainStuff

06:06 min | 2 years ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on BrainStuff

"Hi, I'm Ariel Casten Jonathan Strickland and together, we're going to tell you the stories behind some of the biggest triumphs in failures and business. That's right. We're going to explore situations that tested the medal of entrepreneurs pivotal moments required. Making tough decisions. We'll be talking about some big companies that everybody knows like Disney LEGO and Harley Davidson and together we try to answer the question. What do you do when you find yourself at the brink? Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb. Here are some may look like an internal Meazza of incandescent plasma. But one day it will die. This may sound like a bummer especially for anything that's living on earth and a few billion years. But there is a bright side to the solar doom. According to research published in the journal nature. This very month are dead star will leave behind a shimmering legacy. It'll turn into a massive crystal before we start talking about supersized stellar crystals. We first need to understand how stars like our sun live and die. The sun is fueled by nuclear fusion. It's massive gravity. Crushes hydrogen atoms together in its core to create helium and the vast quantities of energy released by these few impresses push outward. Maintaining a happy Librium so long as there's plenty of hydrogen fuel feeding this process. The core remains about the same size and temperature around fifteen million Kelvin producing energy that radiates throughout the. Solar system, ultimately nurturing, the evolution of life on a certain habitual planet. This hydrogen burning phase of a is life will last for ninety percent of the lifetime of our sun. The period of stellar life is known as the main sequence or currently about four point five billion years into our son's main sequence days or approximately halfway through its life. So what happens when that hydrogen is all used up things start to get a little wild to put it mildly without the outward pressure of the energy created by fusing hydrogen. The sun's gravity overwhelms. The core crushing it into a smaller space and boosting its temperature tenfold. That's okay, though, the heavier helium nuclei will begin to fuse together creating the outward pressure once again to maintain equilibrium. It's predicted that this will start happening in about five billion years marked with a sudden out rush of energy known as a helium flash as the helium fuses carbon and oxygen are formed and the temperature of the core rises yet again. Soon after even heavier elements also begin to fuse and the sun on the whole will start looking a bit worse for the wear. It will begin to swell blasting interplanetary space with savage. Solar. Winds will begin to strip away. It's upper layers, though, our son is at massive enough to explode as a supernova it will turn into a red giant star possibly expanding beyond the orbit of earth. Our planet will be toast. After the death of our star. It will leave behind wispy remains of solar plasma creating a beautiful planetary nebula enriched with newly formed heavy elements that will go on to create the next generation of stars and planets and in its core will be a hot stellar remnant known as a white dwarf a tiny, dense star shimmering brightly a testament to the sun that used to be in its place, white dwarfs can sustain themselves for billions of years before filling out and dimming forever. But this isn't the end of the story using observations by the European guy emission, which is currently making precision measurements of stars throughout our galaxy. Researchers at the university of Warwick in the UK have stumbled on a white dwarf secret that has remained hidden until now. Soon after forming white dwarfs are extremely hot radiating, the intense energy that was once held in the core of the main sequence star that came before them over billions of years after forming white dwarf slowly cool end at a certain point the oxygen in carbon they contain. We'll go through a phase transition akin to liquid water freezing and turning into solid ice only at much more extreme temperatures and pressures and they'll solidify to form a huge crystal Pierre, Emmanuel Tremblay from the university of Warwick's department of physics and leader of the study said in a press release all white dwarf will crystallize at some point in their evolution. Although more massive white dwarfs, go through the process sooner. This means that billions of white dwarfs in our galaxy have already completed the process and are essentially crystal spheres in the sky. The some itself will become a crystal white dwarf in about ten billion years. Tremblay's team, analyzed the guy survey shins to measure, the luminosity and colors of fifteen thousand white dwarfs within three hundred light years of earth. What they found was an excess in the population of stars of specific colors and brightness. They realized that this group of stars represented a similar phase in stellar evolution or the conditions are right for this phase transition to occur causing a delay in cooling, thus slowing down the aging process. The research found that some of these stars had extended their lifespan by up to two billion years Tremblay's said in the statement, this is the first direct evidence that white dwarfs crystallize or transition from liquid to solid. It was predicted fifty years ago that we should observe a pile up in the number of white dwarf said certain luminosity and colors due to crystallization. And only now has this been observed crystallized white dwarfs aren't just a stellar curiosity. Their quantum makeup is unlike anything we can recreate in the laboratory as the white star material crystallizes. It's material becomes ordered on a quantum level. Nuclei aligning themselves in a complex lattice with a metallic oxygen core and an outer layer enriched with carbon. So it turns out that after stars like our sun die their stories aren't over all white dwarfs will go through this crystallization process. Littering the galaxy with massive diamond like stellar remnants.

Emmanuel Tremblay university of Warwick Disney Ariel Casten Harley Davidson Lauren Vogel iheartradio Jonathan Strickland apple UK Pierre five billion years three hundred light years fifteen million Kelvin ten billion years two billion years ninety percent
How Can a Star Become a Giant Crystal?

BrainStuff

05:25 min | 2 years ago

How Can a Star Become a Giant Crystal?

"Are some may look like an internal Meazza of incandescent plasma. But one day it will die. This may sound like a bummer especially for anything that's living on earth and a few billion years. But there is a bright side to the solar doom. According to research published in the journal nature. This very month are dead star will leave behind a shimmering legacy. It'll turn into a massive crystal before we start talking about supersized stellar crystals. We first need to understand how stars like our sun live and die. The sun is fueled by nuclear fusion. It's massive gravity. Crushes hydrogen atoms together in its core to create helium and the vast quantities of energy released by these few impresses push outward. Maintaining a happy Librium so long as there's plenty of hydrogen fuel feeding this process. The core remains about the same size and temperature around fifteen million Kelvin producing energy that radiates throughout the. Solar system, ultimately nurturing, the evolution of life on a certain habitual planet. This hydrogen burning phase of a is life will last for ninety percent of the lifetime of our sun. The period of stellar life is known as the main sequence or currently about four point five billion years into our son's main sequence days or approximately halfway through its life. So what happens when that hydrogen is all used up things start to get a little wild to put it mildly without the outward pressure of the energy created by fusing hydrogen. The sun's gravity overwhelms. The core crushing it into a smaller space and boosting its temperature tenfold. That's okay, though, the heavier helium nuclei will begin to fuse together creating the outward pressure once again to maintain equilibrium. It's predicted that this will start happening in about five billion years marked with a sudden out rush of energy known as a helium flash as the helium fuses carbon and oxygen are formed and the temperature of the core rises yet again. Soon after even heavier elements also begin to fuse and the sun on the whole will start looking a bit worse for the wear. It will begin to swell blasting interplanetary space with savage. Solar. Winds will begin to strip away. It's upper layers, though, our son is at massive enough to explode as a supernova it will turn into a red giant star possibly expanding beyond the orbit of earth. Our planet will be toast. After the death of our star. It will leave behind wispy remains of solar plasma creating a beautiful planetary nebula enriched with newly formed heavy elements that will go on to create the next generation of stars and planets and in its core will be a hot stellar remnant known as a white dwarf a tiny, dense star shimmering brightly a testament to the sun that used to be in its place, white dwarfs can sustain themselves for billions of years before filling out and dimming forever. But this isn't the end of the story using observations by the European guy emission, which is currently making precision measurements of stars throughout our galaxy. Researchers at the university of Warwick in the UK have stumbled on a white dwarf secret that has remained hidden until now. Soon after forming white dwarfs are extremely hot radiating, the intense energy that was once held in the core of the main sequence star that came before them over billions of years after forming white dwarf slowly cool end at a certain point the oxygen in carbon they contain. We'll go through a phase transition akin to liquid water freezing and turning into solid ice only at much more extreme temperatures and pressures and they'll solidify to form a huge crystal Pierre, Emmanuel Tremblay from the university of Warwick's department of physics and leader of the study said in a press release all white dwarf will crystallize at some point in their evolution. Although more massive white dwarfs, go through the process sooner. This means that billions of white dwarfs in our galaxy have already completed the process and are essentially crystal spheres in the sky. The some itself will become a crystal white dwarf in about ten billion years. Tremblay's team, analyzed the guy survey shins to measure, the luminosity and colors of fifteen thousand white dwarfs within three hundred light years of earth. What they found was an excess in the population of stars of specific colors and brightness. They realized that this group of stars represented a similar phase in stellar evolution or the conditions are right for this phase transition to occur causing a delay in cooling, thus slowing down the aging process. The research found that some of these stars had extended their lifespan by up to two billion years Tremblay's said in the statement, this is the first direct evidence that white dwarfs crystallize or transition from liquid to solid. It was predicted fifty years ago that we should observe a pile up in the number of white dwarf said certain luminosity and colors due to crystallization. And only now has this been observed crystallized white dwarfs aren't just a stellar curiosity. Their quantum makeup is unlike anything we can recreate in the laboratory as the white star material crystallizes. It's material becomes ordered on a quantum level. Nuclei aligning themselves in a complex lattice with a metallic oxygen core and an outer layer enriched with carbon. So it turns out that after stars like our sun die their stories aren't over all white dwarfs will go through this crystallization process. Littering the galaxy with massive diamond like stellar

Emmanuel Tremblay University Of Warwick UK Pierre Five Billion Years Three Hundred Light Years Fifteen Million Kelvin Ten Billion Years Two Billion Years Ninety Percent Billion Years Fifty Years One Day
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on .NET Rocks!

.NET Rocks!

03:11 min | 3 years ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on .NET Rocks!

"The gothic piece in the same language and you distribute across and somehow there's some like that happens and the bit that's supposed to on the on the depew and the bid that on locally runs look, and you may have done this faster. The listener Khuda was programming spe specifically for GP. It's been around for a number years, but it was good at these tensor array type problems because you've got the cheapies a really small scaler processors, lots of lots of them, and you know the same way that you wanna create a shadow on an object in in three d. space. It's great for math problem. Same kind of probably went many values applied simultaneously, cross a large number numbers moso than that. When you have an adjunct co-processor like the quantum computer, it turns out that that computer conned actually live on your car inside deal on vox because one. The quarterback properties that you need to sort of exploited the fact that if you want to hold onto the state inside the Cuban, you have to salute as much as possible from the environment. And so you typically do that by killing everything down. Right. And so your typical quantum machine that we at least approaches that we've taken so far tend to work in the neighborhood of fifteen million Kelvin assault living in a bath of liquid helium. Well, no liquid helium is far too long. Think really miss four Kelvin. This we are talking about fifteen million Kelvin roaches about fifteen thousand of degree about absolutes awfully chilly, right? So in fact, the engineering title that'll get your tongue on it. No, the engineering Tange of sticking wire with one in full Kelvin. The other one in fifteen million Kelvin is actually significant. Yeah. So anyway, the the long and short is the quantum machine is likely to live in such an exotic programming environment or such an exotic environment that you're unlikely to keep one your basement. It's like a product you'll take from the public cloud Indy. Trying to imagine the syntax q. sharp, and I'm having a real hard time. So does it look like a traditional programing language in the sense that you're using numbers and values? And that's an interesting question this hold for a moment because I didn't come back and tell you why you need a language in the first place ragged, right? So then people who've actually built keyboards companies have. Cubits that allow you to actually interact with them over the club? This is already thing, right? Right. So there's I've EM and get, you know of these places where you can go and sign up for account and Cheddi la- job that says, when Myton comes around on this thing on the five, Cuban city garden is on this is actually a thing you can do today. Okay. But the way they do this by writing the program and then and calling library function, which then gets an implementation for doing something device. Okay, right there is a functioning call from python will run on the quantum computer and to some kind of inspection inside of that function. Well, no. I mean, the the function is literally the thing that you want to do. So you'll end up retaliating against a simulator running it on on the hardware, whatever it is, having just a plain old library plus host language very naive way of doing it. It turns out that we're myself quite good at building languages..

Kelvin depew assault Myton Cheddi fifteen million Kelvin four Kelvin
"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

TechStuff

02:02 min | 3 years ago

"fifteen million kelvin" Discussed on TechStuff

"This is necessary because in order to create a quantum computer you have to take a really special extreme precautions to not just create the quantum state but to preserve it so how special my talking about well the quantum computers that ibm uses are cooled to ten million kelp kelvin in other words or fifteen million kelvin depending upon which source i was looking at both of them came from ibm but once at fifty and one hundred ten milli kelvin is incredibly tiny you're talking about a fraction above absolute zero absolute zero is the point at which there is no molecular movement which is quote unquote colder than space itself to achieve this ibm has to use liquid nitrogen to get the computer down to a low temperature and then liquid helium to get it to an even more insanely low temperature and what did ibm used to create the cubits to the us electrons or photons nope they created what they called artificial atom gms they used a superconducting josephson junction what well it's a superconductor that's coupled to a second superconductor over a weak link and i really wish i could go into more detail and explain how this works but frankly it goes well beyond my understanding and i feel i would need to take a college course to get a handle on it in order to explain it properly so i'm not going to try because i'm afraid that if i did i would miss explain it to the point where i would just be giving completely wrong information feisty to say it's a man made component on a microchip that's paired with a microwave resonator the microwave resonator is what is used to communicate with the cubits and it's housed in this crazy looking metal contraption that reminds me of super fancy espresso machine that intern is encased in a cylinder that is a giant refrigerator to cool it down to these insane low temperatures now the.

ibm intern fifteen million kelvin