17 Burst results for "Fifteen Million Degrees"
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Do we have an estimate of sort of the composition of the universe You know what. Percentage of the universe might be those types of particles. These particles have short lifetimes so that happens to be the case for almost all of the particles that you could think of so so when you were asking early on not are we have to about address other than protons and neutrons in every day life. Those are the ones that were either stable or or have very long lifetimes you get to point where you have lifetimes for some of these particles that can be on the order of say ten to the minus twenty three seconds which is ridiculously small. But it is still possible to study these things and you don't really understand how strong interactions work until you say. Wait a second this is. This is a prominent attribute of what's going on in strong interaction physics. Even though they have a very short life. I better figure out what's going on here. And so the exotic ones don't stay around and so if that produced in some phenomenon light supernova or something like that if introduced stable diorite. They'll die way very quickly and inspect the supernova probably doesn't have enough ambient energy to produce particles like this so Basically so let's let's look at something like the sun the temperature the cetera son is fifteen million degrees kelvin. You think that's incredibly high. That was a lot of energy but it turns out to be not even enough energy to produce some fairly light particles like like that appearing Craze and things like that so so These kinds of reactions produce these kinds of particles are actually at higher energies than having Anywhere in the universe accepted the very very very early parts of the big bang but those energy levels and then we certainly can in fact get too much higher energy levels than the ones on talking about so again. So let's let's talk about. This is three hundred seventy two talked about you know so that was four times. The mask approach tonners. So the higgs boson is let's see it would be something around a hundred wordy times the mass of a proton or neutron so it takes a lot more energy to make something like that so the cool thing about it is that even though the large hadron collider was put together in very big part to find the hicks bows on the place where it has been the most successful in finding you. Particles is at a much lower energy scale and the and the large hadron collider is only one of several facilities. That are finding these new exotic particles there. Also there's also a very active program going on at a collider in beijing and there's another one that is going on at a collider. That's outside of tokyo in there are american programs. That are stirring to study these articles as well in different energy range as so so it's kinda cool in a way that you know everyone immediately says okay. Let's let's go. Higgs bows ons but there's a lot of undiscovered physics happening at lower energy skills that by factor of on.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Scientific Sense
"Between superconductors that were first described and won the nobel prize per brian. Josephson a physicist and end so these Joseph are used. Because one of the things that you need to make accu- bet Just like a transistor or a regular bid is you need. You need to have non year behavior so you need to have some non linear already. And and that's what allows you to go sort of zero or one. St and in the case of a quantum a cubit than this non linear also able to be used and and put into state as well of your zero in one state but but these junctions are have some issues there sometimes tricky to make tricky to to to make reliably and one of the key things today is is trying to make more and more cubans so bigger and bigger arrays of of these cubits that are connected together just like you know is important to make more and more transistors in regular computers and so until google surveys and demonstration by something like fifty three cubits or something like that right. Yeah yeah they have on order. Fifty and ninety m has about the same number. Which isn't that. Many of the computing goes up exponentially with the number. So you don't have to get that many before you're able to compete or do better than a regular computer but but so the there's two things about our design That are that are different so the first thing is that we're not using any junctions instead. What we're using is a superconducting nanna wires so very thin thin wires up superconductor and these have our non linear because because of not not an effect called non linear connecticut which which we Which we've been using or or noticed When we were making our astronomy detectors and because there's no there's no junction. The thought is that they would be less sensitive to a certain type of noise that you have in this In the gap in between the superconductors in this tunnel junction and also the hope would be that they would be easier again. Just like the connecticut detectors easier to fabricate and easier to make large numbers of the other thing. that's different is. it's w band. So w manned is a wave guide. Bandit is centered around ninety gigahertz or one hundred gigahertz The cubans that. Ibm or or google or using They tend to operate in less than ten gigabytes. And so that's that's an important difference because at at ten gigahertz. One of the things that you have to do. If you want your quantum computer to work is you have to make sure that it's not upset by thermal noise so you need to cool everything really cold and you have to cool it for ten gigahertz the temperature you have to cool it to is proportional to the frequency. That you're cuban operates attend gigahertz. they're cooling their these cubans down to sort of fifteen degrees. Fifteen million degrees above absolute zero. Fifteen million kelvin. But if we can make ours work at ninety gigahertz hundred gigahertz then we only would have to cool to maybe. Two hundred million kelvin. Which still sounds pretty cold yet but it turns out that it's a lot easier to cool stuff down and in fact we..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Smash Boom Best
"Stars me. Stars like our sun get energy by fusing hydrogen into helium in their cores in a process called nucleus synthesis. It's an incredibly hot process. Temperatures in the core of the sun are about fifteen million degrees celsius moving outwards the sun. Surface is a relatively chilly. Fifty six hundred degrees but then things get weird because once you move out a little ways into the sun's atmosphere temperatures ramp back up to about a million degrees. And why does that happen. That is one of the big mysteries of solar physics and astronomy. in general. Sarah gibson is a son scientist at the national center for atmospheric research. The sun is full of mysteries. We've barely even scratched the hot surface of. Sarah says there are some ideas about temperature. Change happens and they have to do with magnetic fields. Something that boring old moon doesn't have which is just one of the many reasons why the sun is so much cooler than the moon and by cooler more awesome cool because super duper tuesday and not cool like cold cool. Sarah hotmail if you want to have one slam dunk reason. The sun's cooler than the moon magnetic fields sue because magnetism is what makes the sun's atmosphere. Hot it's what drives all the space weather space whether sarah says the magnetic fields can twist up the sun's plasma and these beautiful loops and blobs and raining structures and showering structures and things constantly moving and pulsating it's dynamic and it's beautiful. Frankly the moon by comparison is pretty much just an inert unchanging rock. The sun changes there are sunspots solar flares coronal mass ejections shoot plasma outwards from earth. We see the resulting space weather as beautiful auroras you may have heard.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on The Science Show
"Next on this forward-looking sideshow meet someone not yet. Even University Max is just eighteen and belongs to the National Youth Science Forum he's taking a gap year before going to the University of New South Wales and his vision is already inspiring. What do animals, silicon, magnetic fields, and stars all have in. Common. They. All create energy in one way or another for a system. Animals create energy by breaking down foods. Silicon creates energy by harnessing the Sun's light as part of Cervo take cells, otherwise a soul panels. Magnetic fields produce most of our electric city through generations such as coal and hydropower plants. But what about stars? Well, as it turns out all those things I just mentioned stemmed from a single energy source out some. Light, is used to grow food as well as create power in solar panels. The water cycle is made possible through the sun heating the oceans to allow hydro electricity. Even the ancient life has turned into fossil fuels over millennia itself used light degar. All out sources of energy on the earth come from the Sun. All stars like it take nuclear fusion, the current form of nuclear power. These power source requires US very heavy atoms such as uranium to release the energy stored within the atoms themselves. This uranium comes from stars as well. But not in the way, all the phones of energy do. Uranium. Has All the elements below I n on the periodic table such as gold silver lead full in an event called a Supernova. A SUPERNOVA is when a stall reaches the end of its life and collapses inwards before exploding in spectacular fashion. This collapsed allows the immense pressure and temperatures at its coal to fuse elements together into much heavier ones. These fusion of atoms however is not restricted to Supernova. In fact, it's the very thing that keeps how son alive and produces the light that creates almost allow energy here on earth. So if fully energy on earth comes from fusion of some sort. Why do we not skip the middle step and do it ourselves? This is a question that scientists and engineers have been asking since the nineteen thirties where the German American physicist hands be discovered that fusion was possible and that it powered the sun. Out Son is made up about to octavian tons of gas and plasma. To put that in perspective that's about three hundred and thirty thousand times the massive earth. Plasma is the stage of matter above gas with the electrons in the atoms of ripped away from the nucleus, creating a soup of electrons and Nuclei. The temperature at the surface of the sun is a comfortable five, thousand seven hundred degrees Celsius. However, its core is an estimated fifteen million degree Celsius. These immense temperatures combined with the density of the core of the sun, which is about one hundred and fifty grams per cubic centimeter. One later of some would white one, hundred, fifty kilograms main the nuclei of the hydrogen in the Sun smashed together to produce helium releasing a large amount of energy in the process. This is the energy that we feel as light here on earth. I'm sure that many people have heard the phrase fusion is always thirty years away. But. What did these endless thirty years again? In the early nineteen forties researches begun to work on what would come to be known as fusion power with the first design proposed by. American. astrophysicist lyman pizza called stellarator. This was an odd shaped ring with a bunch of twists and turns in it. Research continued for twenty years before a Russian designed to talk AMAC. Took precedence. A. Talk Amac is a massive doughnut. Plain and simple in shape anything but in the complexity of its technology. A AMAC uses massive magnets to produce magnetic fields that contain shape. The plasma in the reactor into a circular does not this is where our process differs from that of the Sun. Where is it has the help of both temperature and density on its side diffuse atoms wheel lacking density. As such the temperature in Talk Amac Hester reach hundred.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Report in the monthly notices. The royal has nominal society and on the pre press physics website archives dot org has come up with a new picture based on how these dead stars might change over the aons. postulating the darkness could be silent fireworks, explosions of the remnants of stars that were never supposed to explode it. All comes about because of new theoretical work suggesting that many white dwarf may exploding Supernova in the distant future long after everything in the universe has died and gone quiet. The study's author Assistant Professor Matt Kaplan from State University says that as white dwarfs cool down over the next few trillion years, they'll grow gradually dimmer and dimmer eventually freezing solid and becoming blacked wolves stars that no longer. Shine but like white dwarf today, black doors will be made mostly of light elements like carbon and oxygen, and they'll still content as much mass as the sun and it will still be compacted down into objects. The size of the Earth, which is also the fate of before the Sun. But this is where it gets interesting. Kaplan says that just because they called doesn't mean nuclear reaction Stop Hey postulates that fusion reactions can still happen in these dead stars because of something none as quantum tunneling. In its simplest terms quantum tunneling is the idea that in the quantum mode of probabilities is always a possibility. However slide that you could walk through a solid wall. Now, those chances are very low, but theoretically in the quantum, would it could happen and while that may all seem really fast fetched on the Human Scale Quantum tumbling in fact, does happen the atomic and Subatomic scale after all? That's semiconductors, transistors and diodes work and on the largest scale happens in the sun as well. The Sun wouldn't shine without it because it. Allows A my neatly small number of protons just one in ten to the pair of twenty eight to overcome their mutual electrostatic repulsion and provide fusion, and this isn't just happening because the fifteen million degree temperatures at the Sun's core Kaplan says Fusion Judah. Quantum tunneling even happens at zero degrees just that it would really take a long time, but ultimately would turn black towards into iron triggering a SUPERNOVA. Kaplan says that if he's right, it would mean black to a Supernova would be the last interesting thing to happen in the universe. But it won't be soon it calculates it would take ten in the power of eleven hundred years for these nuclear reactions to produce enough I the trigger a one point, four solar mass black twelve to go Supernova one point four solar masses important because that's the Chandrasekhar limit, and in case you're wondering tend to the power of eleven. Hundred is equivalent to saying the word trillion about one hundred times. Of course, the most massive black dwarfs would explode I followed by progressively less massive ones and so there are no more. Blackpool's lodge enough left to go off which Kaplan calculates would be in about ten of the pair of thirty, two thousand years. Of course, that wouldn't be the end of the universe Dark energy is causing the expansion of space time to accelerate and penny on the strength of DOC energy. The universe will ultimately the end in the big freeze or a big rip. A big freeze would see space time expand until all the galaxies or at least the local groups of galaxies would be so far away from each other they'd be beyond the cosmic event horizon meaning light from one galaxy o one local group of galaxies would never be have rich another. Would a very cold? BLACKENED EMPTY UNIVERSE A more extreme of dark energy notice Fatima Energy would see the forces involved increased by so much that it would eventually lead to a big rip which would see the expansion of space jam occurred not just in the cosmic scale that also the Subatomic scale ripping Pat Adams into the constituent protons, neutrons, and electrons, and even overcoming glance the rip of quacks ultimately that would leave. The universe with vast extremely thinly dispersed save of Kwok's, of course, that's assuming quacks can't be ripped apart and the constituent super strings this space time still to come the Pentagon looking at using Sierra Nevada shooting star coggin module as the basis for a new military space station and NASA to begin operational commercial crew flights next month all that and more coming up on space time. The Pentagon he's looking at using Sierra. Nevada's shooting stock Kaga module as the basis for military space station. The cone shaped shooting stars a pressurized cargo module designed to be attached behind Sierra Nevada's dream chaser space plane. It'll provide additional cargo capacity for resupply missions to the International Space Station that the five made along module isn't just an add on is designed to be at a move autonomously using six thrusters it's equipped to. Lead Sorour as developing six kilowatts of onboard Palo at it can carry up the four and a half tons of supplies. Current plans call for dream chaser and shooting star to begin supply missions to the International Space Station next year on the NASA commercial resupply services program. The dream chaser shooting star will fly aboard the United Launch Alliance as New Vulcan Center or rocket, which will be replacing the existing five family of launch. Vehicles. The Pentagon's initial plans would use the shooting star design as the basis of an autonomous unmanned space station for research and Development Training and operational missions in low-earth orbit. Sierra. Nevada. Design the module to include guidance navigation and control systems for sustained free flight operations. It would host specialize payloads, undetake experimental testing manufacturing assembly in microgravity and carry a ranch logistics. Long term plans include higher elliptical geosynchronous earth orbits well as more. Distant Luna Halo orbits and even the possibility of including life support systems to allow the space stations to become manned this space time. Still to come neces- begin operational commercial crew program flights, next month and September Sky Watch looking at the spring equinox south of the equator in a tunnel equinox in the northern hemisphere, as well as the annual original and Epsilon perseus media showers, Oh that more still a come on space time..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Sprain because you're absolutely exhausted so switching save with GYCO. It's almost better than sports. All right. We'RE BACK. What's her next destination? Joe We gotta be turning in and turning down this I WANNA get on a hobby horse for a second. Okay okay you know that old expression that in space there is no upper down. It's very it's like in the wrath of Khan right you know it's like Khan is thinking is the not thinking three D. enough. He's not thinking about space the right way and so it's tactically advantageous to recognize when you're flying around in space. There's no real top bottom. You can orient in a new direction and innocence. That is true if we go into orbit around the Antique Ethan. Say there's no reason to assume that the North Pole of Gore is up in the South Pole of Gore is down or vice versa. Right and then as we've discussed before in the show you have more of an up and down feel and star trek because it's basically a world of ships. Yeah how world of seagoing vessels translated into a space scenario and then you have more recent models of especially visual science fiction such as the television series the expanse which which demonstrates more three dimensional realm of of a cosmic military engagement. Exactly Yeah So it is true that out here in space. There's no ground down beneath our feet but in another sense I think that's really under selling how far down down goes because down means toward a center of gravity. That's how we use it to mean down on earth and the solar system actually does have a bottom and it's about fifteen million degrees Celsius. It's the core of the sun the star eye whose gaze you cannot hold without going blind. That's all the way down in the solar system. So you're talking about just being if you were pulled down the gravity well as it's called. Yes that's the bottom. Yeah straight down into the pit straight into the open mouth of autumn and so I like thinking about it that way of thinking about that as you get closer to the sun. You're actually going down into the pit. You're almost in a way going into the underworld And so I literally thousands of years. We mentioned this earlier in the episode. But since no later than the Babylonian astronomers of the second millennium BC humans have known about the first six planets. You can see them with the naked eye. Mercury Venus Mars Jupiter and Saturn. They're bright points of light passing and regressing across the night sky. You don't need a telescope. Sometimes we've watched them. We've charted their movement. And when Newton came along there was a revolution because we discovered the laws that govern the way they move and crucially. Newton came up with laws of motion that allows us to see that the same physical laws that control the movements of the planets also control the movement of regular objects here on earth whose things like gravity and momentum. But now that we're out of the realm of say the ancient Greeks who are reasoning on the basis of. Maybe something like pythagorean symmetry something like that. Well now. We've got real scientific tools under our bell that actually help us learn what things are out there and they are good at producing accurate results. Could we use those tools to see if there's something else out there that we weren't seeing and specifically could we peer deep down into the well all the way down into the well of the sun to see if there's something in that direction we're not seeing so I want to turn to my man Or Bain United Spelled Urbane. That is not the French way. I think they're bomb or or Bon John. Joseph leverrier okay French astronomer who lived eighteen eleven to eighteen seventy seven and in eighteen. Thirty seven Leverrier was appointed to a position at the polytechnic school in Paris where he began along study of the planet. Mercury which is of course the innermost planet in the solar system. That we know about now. It's the closest to the sun and he was doing things like creating tables of observation of the planets orbit and if that sounds like boring work. You should know that there. There's a wrinkle here. There's actually a mystery involved. In Mercury's orbit c Mercury's orbit is not what it should have been given the planet's momentum and the gravitational influences on it that we knew about there's this phenomenon known as the precession of the perihelion of Mercury Roku Point. A pair of helium is the point of lease distance from the Sun during an object's orbit right. Yes it's the point. When it comes closest so essentially the precession of the perihelion of Mercury means that every year on mercury every time mercury goes around the sun its orbit sort of shift forward so if you imagine getting on the North Pole of the sun and Mercury and looking down at the solar plane. you're looking down at mercury paths with the time lapse tracing its movement across the years. It would not repeat the same path every year but instead it would sort of shift forward a bit with every trip around the sun drawing more kind of daisy pedal or spiral graph type pattern and. The question is what caused this. So fortunately the astronomers of the nineteenth century were armed with that great investigative tool in the history of size the physics of Isaac Newton and the physics of Isaac. Newton was extremely good at predicting the P- The movements of a planet by knowing it's inertia the uniform motion of the planet through space and by knowing gravity the mutual attraction to other centers of mass. That were out there. And Generally Newton's laws proved really accurate. Astonishingly good actually at predicting planetary motion. And if you took into all the relevant influences the physical influences we knew about. You could just predict where the planets would go except Mercury and so Newton's laws accounted for almost all of the observed procession of the orbit of Mercury. But not quite all. There's still just a bit of steady change. In the planet's orbit that stubbornly remained unexplained making the orbit of Mercury. This stubborn in mysterious problem in Leverrier as time but in eighteen forty five leverrier. He's working on a different problem. He changes his focus briefly to focus on the curious case of another planet in the solar system. See I mentioned earlier that we've known about the first six plan. That's the solar system since ancient times but in the nineteenth century astronomers were still dealing with a relatively recent addition and think about how weird this is like two at a time for the first time in thousands of years that we knew about another planet and that planet was. How do we say this planet? Same on the podcast Robert. Do we just say Uranus. Uranus is is more fun. It's more humorous. I often I often say you're at US though then. Almost sounds like a urine EST urine Est. It's a professional urinate in many respects. It's an unfortunately named planet. Yeah it may be could have been worse. I don't know if this would be worse or not. So it was discovered in Seventeen. Eighty one uranus. Sorry that was the first time it was seen by human and it was by the German born British Astronomer William Herschel who found the planet during a survey of the stars and he wanted to call it not uranus or urine us but George CDs or the Star of George after King. George the third of England and I'm glad that named got scrapped in favor of a much more dignified mythological anus reference. Yeah even even with the anus right in there it It has more of a ring to it than than this Georgia Dome Sits Business. Why we know how horrible that would be to name a planet after just like a human king kings suck. Yes absolutely I mean kings. They have all these other things. Let's at least leave their names off of the planet. Yeah sticks him ethical references please but anyway like Mercury Uranus? Was this kind of fear mysterious right. Uranus also wobbled in its orbit. It's pather on. The Sun was different from what we would predict given the gravitational influences that we knew about so leverrier took this mystery and he turned it into one of the great success stories in the history of any scientific theory. He conjured a planet out of the void and his assumptions were really simple so he took the known laws of physics. He took Newton's laws and he asked you know given these laws what could make Uranus as orbit as irregular as we observe and the answer he came up with was well. Another planet could do it. He calculated how big that other planet would have to be and where exactly it would have to be in relation to Uranus. And then he put that prediction to the test. He groped down his predictions in a letter to a German astronomer named Johann gala and asked him to look for this eighth planet with his instruments and using leverrier as predictions gala found the planet Neptune after only about an hour of looking for it within one degree of exactly where Lavera had predicted and I should also note that in English astronomer named John C Adams also calculated the position of the planet. That would come to be known as Neptune independently around the same time but in both cases they're essentially using the math to determine where this this unknown planet would be in an confirmed that there is a course planet there and yeah and this is like the classic case of like Win Win. A scientific theory works best writing. When scientific theory tells you how things work in a way that allows you to extrapolate from what you know to what you predict you should find in the future and then you go out and look and find exactly. Yeah you find exactly what you predicted. So this is like a great win for Newton's theories right. The prediction is a huge success. Led to leverrier being given all kinds of medals and honorary appointments and he was eventually made the head of the Astronomical Observatory in Paris. He plucked Neptune out of space armed with nothing but the power of Newton's laws and so then after this leverrier decides to go back to his old subject. He turns his attention back to mercury. In the problem of Mercury's a I think everybody can see where we go here right. Yeah so you can guess what the temptation might be. Leverrier had just achieved awesome fame by predicting a previously undiscovered planet. What if there was another So he came up with the prediction for something with mass. Very close to the sun inside the orbit of Mercury maybe another asteroid belt or another planet. It would be something with mass That could cause Mercury's orbit to wobble in the way he had measured so precisely when making his tables. And then here's the real kicker just like Neptune. This inner planet was also discovered. Oh so here. I want to rely on the work of a of an author named Thomas Levenson from a book called the hunt for Volkan From Random House in two thousand sixteen and in an interview with Nat. Go levinson describes the first sighting of the planet at the bottom of the pit which was by an amateur French astronomer named Edmond Modesto Less Carbo on March twenty six eighteen fifty nine. So you've got the he's this country doctor He was a country doctor by trade and he's got an observatory in a stone barn in his backyard. Yeah this is often the case. When we're talking about astronomy from this area we're getting into the realm of the gentlemen scientists. Yes yeah he's sort of like he dabbles. Maybe so one day in eighteen fifty nine less carbo took a break. In between seeing patients he went out to his telescope to observe the Sun and And Levinson says quote as he trains his telescope on the Sun. He sees a round object on the face of the Sun. He Times it as it moves steadily across the sun records. The that another patient arrives so he checks out. That patient then comes back to the barn. This round dot is still crossing the Son. He tracks it. Continuously taking notes on its path until it finally goes over the other edge of the sun and so after making this observation less Carbo he reads about Lavar prediction and he gets all excited and he writes a letter leverrier describing what he saw. Crossing the disc of the sons Oliveiria had predicted. This planet would be in there and then let's go Bo saw it and apparently leverrier was at a New Year's Eve party when he got the letter and he just left and he's like Oh boy any. He went out to less carbos house which was a trip. That Levinson said involved a train ride in a twelve mile walk so he was obviously excited. I mean you find one planet you kind of get hooked on it right gotta find another so leverrier confirmed the observation and this inner planet gotTa name came to be known as Volkan. That's a good name. Because Volkan in the mythological senses is close to the Fort Yes. He's the forgot exactly. He's the hypothesis type figure. He's down there with the fires beating the steel and this triggered a period of what Levinson called a Volkan mania suddenly astronomers all over the world or trying to find Vulcan in quite a few reported finding it like during an eclipse in eighteen. Seventy eight Levinson tells the story that Thomas Edison happened to be in the path of totality for for a solar eclipse in Wyoming. And he was there to try out an infrared radiation sensor he had created which actually did not work in the end But he so he's out there for the eclipse and he ends up coming across a pair of Vulcan hunters who were using the eclipse to try to spot the planet. Because obviously if you think about this it's hard to see a planet that's close to the sun under normal circumstances but if you wait for a solar eclipse in the moon blocks out the light of the sun suddenly you can look up there and see okay. Is there anything there? The two Vulcan hunters here in the story where Simon Newcomb and James Craig Watson And there were does that. Newcombe could not find the planet he looks for Vulcan during the eclipse. It didn't see anything but Watson said he saw it he said a star was near the sun which had never been documented before it was not on any of his charts and it had to be the planet Vulcan. An article for Nautilus Levinson writes about Watson citing quote Watson saw very close to the limb of the Sun a Ruddy Star. Just where Vulcan ought to have been so the Discovery Vulcan was reported in the New York Times in papers around the world was huge and exciting news. And they're even cases where like.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on The Economist: Babbage
"But first despite two millennia of research there is still a lot scientists. Don't know about the sun. Now beginning pitch over maneuver everybody responsible good this week. A rocket blasted off from Cape Canaveral in Florida carrying solar orbiter the European space probe designed to solve a few of the mysteries of our nearest star and eagles. Now Passing Mach One atlas five is now the probe is now on a two year journey towards the Sun. Its mission is to capture imagery from the sun's Poles something that no spacecraft has managed before and to do it from close up. Tim Crosses The Economist Technology Editor. Hello Tim Hi Ken Tim. What exactly is the aim of the mission? Well it's to look at the sun which is probably the most studied astronomical object in the sky. I hot topic a hot topic exactly. But it's one that's quite hard to examine just partly because it is so bright and what solar orbiter is going to do is take a sort of new view of the Sun. So it's going to be put into quite an unusual orbit where all of the planets in the solar system basically in the same planes if you imagine if you see the solar system from side on all the planets orbit the sun in sort of the same disk and what this space craft is going to do is go to orbit that will be at an angle to that disk and that will allow it to fly over the sun's Poles because the sunlight the earth has north and South Pole. And that's something that no one's ever done before we've had spacecraft that have been in similar orbits but they haven't had imaging equipment on them so which is going to be in an orbit like that and it will have a whole suite imaging equipment to look at the sodden different wavelengths and examined in different things about it. Okay so that sounds incredibly close and it's very hot. So how is it doing it. Well this is one of the big engineering challenges. Is You have to deal with this very unfriendly environment. Armin so even in Earth orbit you need to design spacecraft Catholic because when you're out of the protection of the atmosphere sunlight is pretty roasting hot stuff. But here the light will be. I think it's about thirteen times. More intense than is in Earth orbit so the spacecraft is basically built around a massive heat shield which is sort of a sandwich of always involved composite composite materials and then. Interestingly it's layered on the outer edge with bone charcoal which is exactly what it sounds like. It's charcoal you made by heating up bone so it's not vegan friendly then probably not no but this is the same stuff that for instance is used as black pigment in thousand year. Caveat from the bills and stuff it turns out it's excellent Thermal Properties so that coaching the Heat Shield in it. You have to build eletronic survive. Huge amounts of radiation and the Heat Shield has water effectively little windows inside it that will allow these specially redesigned cameras to sort of peak directly at the sun without being burned out. And there's an interesting contrast because there's another solar probe that launched in twenty eight hundred and there's a NASA one who parker solar probe and that's even closer again so that's something like seven billion kilometers away that's actually inside the Corona and the to Michika complimentary because Parker's even closer still but it's so close that all of his instruments just have to cow apparently behind his heat shield and not actually possible for anything to look at the Sun. Even a camera will just be fried so all the public can do is sort of measure the local environment around itself economy directly at the sun where solar water. It's further away but it can look directly at the sun on and the missions are kind of designed to work to work in tandem and what we hope to learn. We'll so the science goals are quite broad but what really gets is the solar physicists. Excited is the ability to look in detail at the Sun's magnetic field so the has a magnetic field with north and South Pole. And it's the valley sort of neat thing. The sons is roiling. Massive of Churning Spaghetti. We know this you can see it to some extent from us if you do observations in certain wavelengths of light you can see certainly the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma that makes up the sun but you know fundamentally limited because you start that clears your nine hundred million kilometers away but this thing will open at about forty two million kilometers which is much closer. In fact. It's close to the mercury. which is the innermost planet? So it's going to give you much more sort of detailed observations and the then a whole series of questions to do with the sun that we sort of understand but not in a greater detail so for one thing the core of the sun unsurprisingly apprising lease the hottest bit fifteen million degrees at the surface. The photos fear is maybe more like five and a half six thousand degrees. But then there's this thing called the corona when the solar solar eclipse the corona is sort of glowing spectrum of the Sun. You can see around ran the number around it. Yeah and the Corona weirdly is much much hotter than the surface. So that's backup million billion degrees again and we have some theories as to why that might be but no one's really sure Which one is correct? Okay and so. Are there any practical applications of this. We'll partly Ali. You know. Solar physicist just want to know more about the sun but I guess the most direct impact it might have is a better understanding of what we call Soda Weather. So is I think the solar wind which bits stream of charged particles that comes off the sun all the time about one point five million tons of matter a second just zooms out into the solar system and in fact it defines the sort of great big bubble in which the solar system exists separate from the sort of medium in interstellar space and their variations nations in that so you know when things solar flares which is sort of sudden transient increases in brightness. And we can't predict them either we can't predict them but they have effects particularly in Earth orbit so so They can pose health risks to after North because they get an extra dose of radiation. They can fry Saturday eletronics. If you don't design them carefully they can puff up the atmosphere. Which means if your running satellites satellites in low ish orbits the amount of drag on your satellite increases your starting to decay and then even more dramatic you get these things coronal mass ejections which are a huge food plasma that the sun kind of fis out every now and then and if one of them hits the that interact with our own magnetic field and it can cause all kinds of problems even on the ground so there was a famous one a massive one eighteen fifty nine which Fried Telegraph networks across America in Europe because the juice these huge currents in the telegraph wires? There was another the one in nine hundred eighty nine which ended up causing blackouts in parts of Canada for the same reason and the more we rely on this kind of high technology in a way the more vulnerable and so lots of countries would like some warnings of advance. Warning that these things are coming. This is holes nascent scientific field of Solo weather which is trying to watch out for these things predict them learn more about how they work. This is so interesting. So when will we get some data back while so the probe is just launched. Its going to spend about two years getting itself into this special little bit. And then it'll I'll start transmitting useful science data from the end of twenty twenty one on at the moment. The plan is for it to run. For seven years all these probes sort of over engineered. So you can just extend in nineteen ninety seven I love. I'm going to be a solar weatherman. It's GonNa be break today and hot. Pack you factor five thousand block. Thanks a lot thanks. Can you can read more on solar probes in the upcoming edition of The economist and you can also subscribe Goto economist Dot Com Slash Radio Offer for twelve issues for twelve dollars or twelve pounds. And Tell Them Ken censure. You're listening coming to Babich from the economist next. The Digital Revolution has transformed the threats that nations face. They're no longer just physical. Threats like other countries his armies and spies now it's also about virtual one social media disinformation deep fake videos and hacking election equipment remotely Motlley so countries have had to adapt how they can defend against these new dangers. We have never before been at the cusp of so many game. Changing technologies that are dramatically affecting global economics political culture and global politics. Dr Amy's Eggert is a fellow at the Hoover Institution and a professor professor of political economy at the Stanford Graduate School of business. She advises American officials on Intelligence Homeland Security and cyber security just to name a few of them artificial intelligence or AI. Transforming that type of work that people do we think about nanotechnology biotechnology quantum computing which could if it proceeds actually undermine encryption so the security of our communications on the Internet for example is not one particular technology. It's the fact doc that we are facing so many different technologies at the same time. It's really unprecedented in human history. No D. countries have the right tools to combat those threats. Unfortunately only I think the answer is no and if you take a I for example I often say that we have two kinds of problems in the United States with Ai. The first is not enough and the second is too much. Ai So we have this paradoxical situation. Let me give you an example. We now are facing just a deluge of information if you're thinking about intelligence agencies in their mission it's really to sort through information to generate insight. So policymakers can make better decisions estimates are now that the amount of data on earth is doubling every twenty four months so to put that into perspective two years from now. If we were going to have a conversation Shen there would be more information on the planet than there had been from the time of human history the dawn of human history to the present so intelligence agencies have to make sense of this information but they don't have enough. Ai Tools to help sort through this incredible volume of information. They're slow to adopt things from the private sector for example example. So what are we gonNA do about this. Well there several different things that we need to do. The first is and I'm talking from the. US Perspective that we need to do a much much better job at harnessing innovation from the private sector and bringing it into government whether that's using to help medical breakthroughs and funding the right kinds of technologies allergies or whether it's helping intelligence agencies better understand threats over the horizon we have to have a more seamless integration of private sector innovation into the public sector. The second second thing that needs to happen is we need to develop a much. More tech savvy workforce so technology is here and it's going to be here for forever and yet we don't don't have the stem education. We don't have the kind of training of the workforce to advance economic and geopolitical interests in the world. So it's a human capital problem and then the third thing that we need to do is we need to have a considered strategy for how to harness these tools and how to use them including the ethical considerations behind their use I use particularly with respect to autonomy artificial intelligence. We lack a strategic vision about how to use technology in this emerging era. Now now you've called for the creation of an entirely new intelligence agency around this theme. Tell me more yes I have and the reason. Why is that if you think cabal whereas information going these days more and more critical information is open source in other words it's available to the public? It's not classified. It's not secret it's there for everybody to see in us. Think about the information we can get from Google Earth. Think about the information we can get from twitter so in the raid to get Osama bin Laden in abroad for example that raid ended up being live tweeted by local Pakistani resident. Who heard weird noises in in the middle of the night that turned out to be the helicopters landing and abroad so the implications for operational security of military operations are pretty astounding astounding? We've also seen that some of the best intelligence that we can get has come from open source information so when the Russians invaded Ukraine. The best intelligence didn't income from stealing a document from our prime minister safe or intercepting a phone.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Science Rules! with Bill Nye
"And the the reason for Boron this actually one that when you look at the end application so theresa back to what we can do here until the sun basically takes heat yes so whether really ultimately causes that Canadian Energy in these particles the zipping around in there that's that's where the fifteen million degrees comes from oka- hot this is okay so hydrogen born will like to to fuse at about a billion degrees okay you said you've gotten to thirty five million but you need to get up to billion yes correct okay it's a factor of thirty we it's a factor so let's walk through what you want to happen there's there's talk about how we get there and what what do you think of a billion degrees okay but but basically once you get two billion degrees these things start to react and and the it was produced the healing will basically keep heating them continue to heat the material and ultimately what happens is you get very hot electrons in these electrons light guys they around more rapidly than everybody else and they start to radiate just like an antenna electrons sipping around they remitted radiation in the case here because temperatures to our operating you can soft x rays thinks that you would find in your tainted lakes Ray I just got one of those yesterday chipped a tooth did not hurt that's right so here come xrays what do I do I set up an antenna and catch some what do I know so what you have now is in the first instance you will just have a.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on WGN Radio
"A good dolphin impression. Maybe we should dolphin all have one of those. No, can you give Brennan pression calls like that nailed it. The oldest living tree in California. Is the oldest living tree in the world. The estimate of how old it is is. Zoll? No, it's not a million years all four thousand eight hundred and four years old. Amazing billion. It's actually Christmas tree. Oh, really artificial artifice that would make sense. Yeah. The hottest planet in the solar system, and you could tell because of its egos, Venus, Venus the way Venus action Venus thinks it's hot not mercury. No Venus's hotter than mercury four hundred and fifty degrees celsius. On squirrel impression. Yeah. Court temperature the sun earth's closest star. I mean, you know, that's gonna thing where you go. It's a dry heat. But that doesn't make any difference fifteen million degrees celsius. Okay. What thermometer can measure that? Because it would melt get nine even though once you get Walgreens. Okay. They all work. Yeah. And finally, Einstein was a late bloomer. But a genius is brain was preserved for studies after his death because not only is it slightly larger than the normal, human brain. It is also much more active in their still to this day. Even though Einstein has been dead for very long time studying Einstein's brain, wasn't your brain confused with his point. Yes. And they decided my brain was below average parts of Stein brain are missing as well, sailors true on this. You thought they were but you can buy Amazon right now EBay, and they'll be delivered to prime by Thursday. It's a minute after nine. Hi, everybody on C LTV when we come back in the northwestern medicine newsroom. Steve will be there. Now..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"All right. We're back. What's our next destination? Joe we gotta be turning in and turning down this. I wanna get on a hobby horse for a second. Okay. Okay. You know, that old expression that in space. There is no upper down. It's very it's like in the wrath of Khan, right? You know, it's like Khan is thinking is not thinking three D enough. He's not thinking about space the right way. And so it's tactically advantageous to recognize when you're flying around in space. There's no real top or bottom, you can orient new direction and innocence. That is true. If we go into orbit around the anti-condensation, there's no reason to assume that the North Pole of gore is up in the south pole of gore is down or vice versa. Right. And then as we've discussed before in the show, you have more of a an in downfield feel Star Trek because it's basically a world of ships. Yeah. A world of seagoing vessels translated into a space scenario. And then you have more recent models of especially. Visual science fiction such as the television series the expanse, which which demonstrates more three dimensional realm of of cosmic military engagement. Exactly. Yeah. So so it is true. That out here in space. There's no ground down beneath our feet, but in another sense, I think that's really underselling. How far down down goes because down means toward a center of gravity. That's how we use it to mean, you know, down on earth and the solar system actually does have a bottom, and it's about fifteen million degrees celsius. It's the core of the sun the star, I whose gaze you cannot hold without going blind. That's all the way down in the solar system. So you're talking about just being if you were pulled down the gravity. Well, as it's called. Yes. That's the bottom. Yeah. Straight down into the pit straight into the open mouth of autumn. And so I like thinking about it that way thinking about that as you get closer to the sun. You're actually going down into the pit. You're almost. In a way going into the underworld. And so for literally thousands of years we mentioned this earlier in the episode, but since no later than the Babylonian astronomers of the second millennium BC humans have known about the first six planets. You can see them with the naked eye. Mercury. Venus Mars Jupiter and Saturn. They're bright points of light passing and regressing across the night sky. You don't need a telescope. Sometimes we've watched them we've charted their movement, and when Newton came along there was a revolution. Because we discovered the laws that govern the way they move and crucially Newton came up with laws of motion that allowed us to see that the same physical laws that control the movements of the planets. Also controlled the movement of regular objects here on earth whose things like gravity and momentum. But now that we're out of the realm of say, the ancient Greeks were reasoning on the basis of maybe something like Pythagorean symmetry something like that. Now, we've got real scientific tool. Under our bell. That actually help us. Learn what things are out there. And they are good at producing accurate results. Could we use those tools to see if there's something else out there that we weren't seeing? And specifically could we peer deep down into the well all the way down into the well of the sun to see if there's something in that direction. We're not seeing. So I want to turn to my man urbane. It's spelled urbane..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Powering the sun is the nuclear fusion that's going on in the core. And the weight of all the material above the core. Compresses the inside of the sun. So it gets very hot, very dense. To the point that you can start nuclear fusion going. So that energy down in the middle of the sun has to escape. And as it radiates out, it becomes deluded and the temperature drops. So in the middle. It's about fifteen million degrees, and it gets cooler and cooler as it comes out. But at a certain distance outward, something different happens when the temperature drops foreign enough, the radiation isn't the most efficient method of transporting energy anymore. It becomes convection in you, get material flowing up the cheerio actually carries. The now that turns out to be crucial for generating magnetic fields. Inside the sun about one third of the way in there's a boundary between this radiative transport and the convective transport and right there. There's a layer where the magnetic field is generated ten thousand times a strongest the earth's field. What happens to that? Magnetic field is it becomes unstable and pieces of it float upward and reach the surface. And where they break through you. See sunspots, that's the most visible manifestation. But there's a whole volume of magnetic field that has broken through above the sunspots. And that's where the actively is produced and all of that feeds energy up into the corona which is stored until it reaches the point that it can't hold it anymore, and it becomes unstable. And either rough. That's what we see as a coronal mass suggestion action that he rupture of the magnetic field and the coronal material altogether leaving the song. Visible solar activity has fascinated scientists for centuries. You find accounts from China? Mesopotamia for Mexico and more recently the seventeenth century sunspot drawings of Galileo Ritchie made by letting the sun's image fall through the telescope tube onto a piece of paper where he traced the design. But it was the brilliant solar astronomer George Ellery HALE who intuited the significance of sunspots. And what they reveal of the sun's electromagnetic energy. Top Kerr's is an astronomer at the Royal Observatory Greenwich in London. Hale.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York
"The Asia programming. Ten thirty AM in Hong Kong. I'm Stephen Engle. And I'm Doug krizner at Bloomberg interactive brokers studio in New York, the only market showing any weakness right now in the Asia Pac region is in Sydney where the ASX two hundred is down seven tenths of one percent. We've been talking about the pullback in the dollar that happened in the New York session Friday, maybe a different tone being struck by the fed. We'll have to pack that story. Suffice it to say that dollar weakness has inspired stocks in the Asia region higher closer, look when buying Curtis joins us in a moment. Right now, this hour's top business stories well for the first time the annual APEC summit has ended without an agreement instead U S China trade tension dominated weekend proceedings in Papua, New Guinea and the disarray at the APEC summit coming after dueling speeches from vice president Pence and China's president Xi Jinping. Let's take a listen to a bit of what they had to say. You, sir. Mankind has once again reached a crossroads which direction should we choose cooperation or confrontation openness or closing one store when progress or zero-some game the interest of all countries and the future of mankind. Hinges on the choices we make the United States, though, will not change course. Until China changes his ways, let me make this clear. Inroad initiative is an open platform for cooperation guided by the principles of the consultation and cooperation free share benefit know that the United States. Offers a better option. And those dueling speeches of president Xi and vice president Pence throwing cold water on hopes for a trade agreement between she and President Trump that in Buenos Aires when they meet later this month straight out of James Dean movie. I mean, we're they're playing chicken or something like that. That's the feeling you get right? Meantime, black rock is said to be considering seeking a mutual fund license in China Rishaad Salamat has more the world's largest asset managers said to be looking for new ways to expand control. It's operating in China. Sources say has been in discussions with regulators about applying for its own license. If approved it would then set up a majority controlled joint venture as part of the plan Blackwood would set at sixteen and a half percent stake in Bank of China investment management. China's mutual fund market has grown six-fold since twenty level and cracking. It is seen as the ultimate prize for money managers. In Hong Kong, I'm Rishaad Salamat. Bloomberg daybreak Asia. Xiaomi shares trading in Hong Kong, they're higher by one point eight five percent at this hour at thirty. Eighteen dollars. Eighteen Hong Kong since we're seeing that the Chinese smartphone maker reported quarterly results this afternoon after the markets closed in Hong Kong, we get more from Bloomberg's Yvonne man. The key thing to wash today, maybe how much Sammy's internet business grew versus how much came from hardware founder late June pitches, a company as an internet based innovation firm, but last two quarters an average of only nine point two percent of its revenue came from that business. Xiaomi shares have slipped twenty four percent since the July debut, even so the stock trades multiple similar to internet giants tencent and Alibaba in Hong Kong, Yvonne, man, Bloomberg daybreak Asia coming up on thirty four past the hour. Bryan Curtis is here. I think it's really a dollar weakness story that inspired us here because you were pointing out earlier terms of APEC. I mean, there was noth- anything really new that came out of this. That would have propelled markets one way or the other. Right. I mean, okay. Yeah. Pence was pretty. Sharpen his attacks on Beijing. But a lot of that had already been discounted. Well, I think I you had to think that it could be negative because you had President Trump last week suggesting that China really wants to do a deal, and it just sort of buoyed markets a little bit. So then they have Pence came out over the weekend and be pretty sharp edged and the criticism of China, you had to imagine that that would be taken badly in the markets. But we've seen this so much in the past. Maybe investors are just a bit new to it now. And maybe saying, well, what really is new, you know, this is not something that's going to be resolved anytime soon. And I think we'd already been discounting that even the two presidents in Buenos Aires, if they did anything they would just agree to perhaps some sort of framework a path some time stalling maybe the imposition of new tariffs, whatever, but it would take a while to get to the bottom of this. So maybe that's it. I think you're right. That investors are starting to think that if the fed goes a little softer. Dollars. A little softer rates are down a little bit. Got the yield on the tenure three zero six we three twenty three just a couple of weeks back. So that takes a little bit of pressure on anyway. You mentioned as well. I'm not sure if Steve did the Shami price, but it's trading up a little bit this morning. One point seven percent higher here at thirteen sixteen in the Hong Kong market waiting on that, and we just got some economic data and this little disappointing Thailand's third quarter GDP coming in at three point three percent up here on your yesterday was four point two percent. Now on the other hand, we had actually more positive news than maybe what some thought in Japan. Japan's exports rebounded in October after decline the first decline in two years that we saw back in September. It was a little less than the estimate. But still was considered a pretty good. Number exports up eight point two percent at the forecast was for a gain of eight point nine percent and imports up nineteen point nine percent. Who have to thing that was even better than the estimates. He have to think that maybe that bodes well for domestic consumption in Japan. Dalian one twelve sixty five we mentioned the the yield on the ten year. How about the oil price fifty seven twenty nine. Bouncing their little one and a half percent, Steve. All right time to skip across the pond to the city by the bay. And that is Ed Baxter has world news US, President Donald Trump. He's in the news again, he says he doesn't believe North Korea's building new missiles, Ed. Oh, boy a new day. This was reports Stephen including the CIA saying that at least thirteen sites that hadn't previously been reported and Kim Jong UN announcing a new ultramodern tactical weapon. The president on FOX says he doesn't believe it. What I think North Korea has been very tough because we were very close when I took that over President Obama right in those chairs we sat and talk. And he said that's by far the biggest problem that this country has now also in the interview with Chris Wallace. He also said he didn't know before he appointed Matt Whitaker acting attorney general that Whitaker had made public statements negative about the Mueller investigation. I don't think it had any effect. If you look at those statements that can they really can be viewed either way, but I don't think collusion. Can you can? What do you do when a person's right? He also said he doesn't know for sure of Saudi Arabia crown prince, Mohammad bin Salman, ordered the Jamaa kashogi murder repeating that he had denied it. Well, the Washington Post has reported over the weekend that the CIA will report that the crown prince did order the murder and response here from Republican Senator Lindsey Graham on NBC is in direct conflict with the president. They're an important ally. But when it comes to the crown prince, he's irrational, he's unhinged. And I think he's done a lot of damage to the relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and I have no intention of working with him ever. Again. China says it's using nuclear fusion, that's produced an artificial sun that burns much harder than the one that gives earth. Life says it burns at one hundred million degrees celsius while our sun burns at fifteen million degrees celsius death toll in the California. Fires now standing at seventy six nearly thirteen hundred names remain. Unaccounted. For search crews go through the rubble, and what was paradise. The president has visited the governor says he hopes he will follow through on his promises, and well, she's not ready for some football..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York
"Mark mills Bloomberg daybreak Asia coming up on thirty four past the hour. Let's get you caught up on markets. I e co data out of Japan, I'm talking about trade data for the month of October first the exports figure this is year over year a gain of eight point two percent. That was below forecast imports. However were up nineteen point nine percent. Well ahead of forecasts. And that's also a year over year reading right now, the Japanese currency. Against the dollar is trading. One twelve seventy four so a strengthening in the end by about one tenth of one percent in the equity market. The Nikkei two twenty five is higher by just about six tenths of one percent. Meantime in Hong Kong, hang sang ahead eight tenths of one percents. Shanghai composite is higher by more than three tenths of one percent. In Seoul, the kospi is better by three tenths of one percent. And in Sydney ASX two hundred down one half of one percent. Let's get a closer look at what's happening in Japan. Bloomberg's Jeff Sutherland is at our bureau there. Good morning. Jeff. Good morning. We've seen a bit of bouncing around this morning with stocks actually erasing again for the topic. But now it's up a little bit higher topics point three percent. The Nikkei is doing a little bit better point six percents. And we're seeing technology shares bouncing back after declines last week. Softbank is up four percent right now. But you mentioned Taty off more than one percent after that report on a possible ABC deal. Thank you, Doug. All right. Thanks to Bloomberg's Jeff Sutherland holiday-shortened week in the US with thanksgiving on Thursday, Friday assured to be a day of thin trading right now, the mini contracts for the Dow the s&p five hundred and the NASDAQ one hundred all weaker by more than two tenths of one percent. And the board at CBS is reportedly gearing up for talks with Viacom, this is a coding to the New York Post. They say that a merger could be announced in the next three to six months. I'm Doug krizner live from the Bloomberg interactive brokers studio Bryant, I got a question for you. All right. What's actually, more new? Okay. The US in China sort of at each other's throats, or perhaps the fed thinking about softening up a little I would say it's this in the central banks. Right. Yeah. Absolutely. So that's probably why we see a few more green numbers here today than what we thought would happen, which was red numbers. Anyway, lots more time to talk about that. Let's get a news update. President Trump is saying he doesn't believe North Korea's building new missiles at Baxter has all the stories from the Bloomberg nine sixty San Francisco newsroom. Ed. Yeah. Brian. Thank you. This was reports including the CIA saying there at least thirteen sites that hadn't been previously reported and Kim Jong UN announcing a new ultramodern tactical weapon last week. Now, president on Faulk says he doesn't believe it. I think North Korea's been very tough because we were very close when I took that over President Obama right in those two chairs we sat and talk. And he said that's by far the biggest problem that this country has he says the talks will go on in the interview with Chris Wallace. He also said that he didn't know before he appointed Matt Whitaker acting attorney general that Whitaker had made public statements negative about the Muller investigation. I don't think it had any effect. If you look at those statements that can they really can be viewed either way. But I don't think it will. Collusion. Can you can? What do you do when a person's right? I also said he doesn't know for sure if Saudi Arabia's crown prince Mohammad bin Salman order the Jamal kashogi murder repeating that he had denied it. Meanwhile, Republican Senator Lindsey Graham on NBC is in direct conflict with the president. They're an important ally. But when it comes to the crown prince, he's irrational, he's unhinged. And I think he's done a lot of damage to the relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and I have no intention of working with him ever. Again. China says it's using nuclear fusion producing an artificial sun that burns much harder than the one that gives earth life. It says a burns at one hundred million degree celsius while our sun burns fifteen million degrees. The death toll and California fires now standing at at least seventy six nearly thirteen hundred names remain on the unaccounted for list. Search crews go through the rubble of what was paradise California. The president has visited governor Jerry Brown. Tell CBS he hopes the president's promise of help definitely holds true. There have been some back and forth between California leaders and the president. But in this of tragedy people tend to rise above some of the lesser propensities. Now there had been a brief respite from the winds, but they have been coming back up searchers are rushing against the prospect of a substantial rain and mudslides the middle of the week. And are you?.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on Bloomberg Radio New York
"From our Bloomberg nine hundred sixty San Francisco newsroom. Yeah. Rish. And as you know, this is in conflict with reports, including the CIA saying there at least thirteen sites that had not been previously reported and Kim Jong UN announcing last week a new ultramodern tactical weapon out today. The president on FOX says he doesn't believe it. Well, I think North Korea has been very tough because we were very close when I took that over President Obama right in those two chairs we sat and talk. And he said that's by far the biggest problem that this country has so he says he doesn't believe it about the missiles, but quote. We'll see in the interview with Wallace Chris Wallace. He said he didn't know before you pointed Matt Whitaker acting attorney general that Whitaker had made public statements negative about the Muller investigation. I don't think it had any effect. If you look at those statements that can they really can be viewed either way. But I don't think. Collusion. He said can. What do you do when a person's right? He also said he doesn't know for sure if the crown prince of Saudi Arabia ordered the Jamaa kashogi murder repeating that he hid denied it. When asked to grade his presidency are we give myself an a plus. So can I go higher than that regarding the crown prince of Saudi Arabia? The Washington Post has reported over the weekend. The CIA will report that he did or the murder and response from Republican Senator Lindsey Graham today on NBC is in direct conflict with the president. They're an important ally. But when it comes to the crown prince, he's irrational, he's unhinged. And I think he's done a lot of damage to the relationship between the United States and Saudi Arabia, and I have no intention of working with him ever again and pivoting back to Asia, China says using nuclear fusion, it's produced artificial sun that burns much harder than the one that gives us Earthlife at says Ed burns at one hundred million degree celsius while our sun burns at fifteen million degrees celsius the death toll on the California fires now a standing at at least seventy six and nearly thirteen hundred names remain on an unaccounted for list. Search. Cruise go through the rubble of what was paradise the president has visited and governor Jerry Brown tells CBS he hopes the president's promise holds true there have been some back and forth between California leaders and the president. But in this face tragedy, people tend to to rise above some of their lesser propensities. There had been a brief respite from wins. But they're forecast to come back up today. Searchers rush against the prospect of substantial rain and mudslides, the middle of the week and UK Prime Minister Theresa may sang replacing her will not make the Brexit negotiations any easier in San Francisco, I'm Ed Baxter. This is Bloomberg. Bryan, sir. All right. Thanks very much. Thirty eight minutes past the.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"Exploring sodium, you probably know it's a key component of salt, but it's ability to make tiny biological factories. Means it also plays a crucial role in keeping us alive. I'll be finding out what eating the wrong part of a pufferfish can kill you within Alice. And whether it's incredible elements is paving the way for new generation of painkillers, but no risk of addiction and no side effects. BBC news with Jerry Smith. China has accused the Trump administration of using intimidation and extreme pressure to impose its own interests. In the midst of an escalating trade dispute between the world's two largest economies. China's comments come as the two countries have begun. Imposing billions of dollars worth of new tires on each of his goods. Democratic Party senators in the United States are calling for the postponement of the confirmation proceedings for President Trump supreme court nominee. Brad Kavanagh Mr. Cavanaugh has denied further accusations of sexual misconduct. The government in the mood leaves has acknowledged the victory of the opposition candidate Abraham Mohammed. Sully in Sunday's presidential election of a night, Mississippi supporters took to the streets of the capital Molly to celebrate after his victory became apparent. The prominent Russian opposition figure. Alexei navalny has been detained again allegedly for violating another law on public protest Justice. He walked out of jail out of finishing a prison term. It means having a thirty day sentence for having planned an unauthorized demonstration. Amnesty International has urged China to shed light on the fate of hundreds of thousands of its minority Muslim citizens mainly Weigo's and they'd mounting evidence of mass detentions in political reeducation camps. Beijing says it's combatting separatism and extremism. Of women who tried to challenge, polka gourmet and Rwanda's presidential elections last year. Deanne regar- is due to go and travel today. She faces charges of inciting insurrection, and is ready spent a year in prison mother is also on trial. They say the charges are politically motivated me. Ma's army chief has said the United Nations has no right to interfere in the sovereignty of his country, a military newspaper, quoted general men online telling troops. That's no country has the right to interfere in Burmese affairs. BBC news. Sodium. And its most familiar form table salt has a pretty bad name because of its role in increasing blood pressure and heart disease. The sodium is actually essential for life. You can listen to my voice and understand what I'm saying all because of sodium and the tiny biological patriots. It creates I'm professor Sophie, Scott, and in this addition of discovery on the BBC World Service, albeit exploring why this is behind some of the deadliest toxin on the planet, and how it could pave the way for new generation of powerful painkillers. But before that what most of us may remember about sodium is its response in the classic school chemistry experiments where sodium a surprisingly soft fleetingly beautiful silver metal meets water. So I really want to introduce you to this amazing element that was discovered by Humphry Davy at the beginning of the nineteenth century. And it turns out that aren't department has enormous amounts of this stuff. If you take a look in. Jar the big fat cylinders, and I'm getting grab a little pocket knife. He's that way, we can cut it. Why don't you take the knife and slice through the metal just so that you can feel the consistency on it. So here we go, and you will see the actual sodium revealed cutting into and surprisingly soft but astray says to the fridge. Oh, absolutely. Isn't it a fantastic brilliant, shiny? I would one hundred percent wear earrings that it's the silvery, but whitish pinkish, and is already already fading amazing. Right. It's got this party. Like, yes. And every time you cut it you see the beautiful, she means slowly slowly disappears. We've got a little fragment here. I'm holding it with tweezers. I'm going to drop it into this speaker. Now, you may need to step back sharply. If something goes horribly wrong. Look and see. That wasn't volunteer. The United States not hoping to cries of fear. Now from what was really interesting was it went in you can immediately here a fizzing sound. Yeah. And I don't know whether you saw the turned into a sphere turned into a real ball as it fits, and then suddenly bang yellow flush now, I really must apologize. I for making an alarm sound when the explosion happened and second to slipping straighten to jog, and after that now involuntary vocalisations are sounds that we make an emotional situations. And I was genuinely surprised by that explosion. What exactly was going on? So sodium, really quite interesting because it has a core of electrons, and then left on its lonesome on the outside is a single electron now that single electron is perfectly happy. There's nothing wrong with it. But it turns out that it actually doesn't cost very much energy to pull it away from the atom costs a little bit. And you have to get that back somewhere. This is the Sikh. Two why it reacts so spectacularly with water? Is that if you take that electron that's caused but the moment you surrounded with water and you make the hydrogen. Whoa. You get a hell of a lot back. And you've got this phenomenal reaction and exactly how communist sodium. These very reactive. Metal. My name's Andrew blood worth. I'm sized right for minerals and waste at the British Geological Survey in the earth's crust, which is the bit. We measure really, it's a the sixth most abundant element. So is quite abundant about two point. Three percent of the earth's crust is estimated to be sodium. And the sodium that we find is deposits in the UK where do we find these? And how did they get here? The largest area on land is in what we call the Cheshire basin. So it's a Cheshire area the area, south of Manchester. These salt deposits were formed in rocks, which are between two hundred and three hundred million years ago. If you want the geological Peres triassic. In the Permian periods, and they were formed when Britain had a very different climate to that has now so probably a bit more light with Persian Gulf than anywhere else. Very very hot and dry and with a very shallow sea which because he was hot and dry was very very saline. So there was salt crystals. Literally falling out of informing quite thick beds of rock salt, sodium, chloride and all this salt. The UK's is producing what are the industrial uses of the sodium, very very important industrial chemical, and it forms the basis of all sorts of things we use every day. So the soul is used to make two products. Really one is something called caustic soda, which is sodium hydroxide and that's used the things like bleach infant water treatment. And also it's really important in paper making process where she used to break down the fibers in the wood pulp. The other product that's made from salty something called soda ostriches, sodium, carbonate an almost all the glass, we use every day the glass windows, glossing, your car windows, the glass in containers for food all the glossy drink Alto. That's all what's called. So did last and has quite to sodium in it, the how was the sodium the Manx Cheshire salt deposits created in the first place. This is a question for space, scientists I'm Lisa Greene. Professor of physics at UCLA Melot space, science laboratory, we have stars to thank for the origin of sodium. And so temperature at the heart of the star has a big role in we'll element is made. So in stars like our sun weather, central temperature is fifteen million degrees. Fifty million Kelvin. That's right temperature to fuse hydrogen into helium. But then once you've caught helium you can then use that as the building block fill the next elements. So what we tend to think is the inside a star the first round. Diffusion of nuclei coming together who'll be using hydrogen. But then when that supply runs out the star has a battle to play against gravity. So was fuchsia is taking place. You have these energy release and allows the star to be puffed up and counteract gravity that's trying to pull it in on itself. But when the fuel runs out gravity takes over and the star starts to shrink now that heats up the center of the star. And so if the temperature goes up enough, you can start fusing helium say into carbon and oxygen. And then when that phase is over the star will shrink again, and the temperature will go off again. And then you get to the point where you're starting to make sodium so carbon is fused together, and you can get outputs like magnesium neon importantly, sodium is made during that process of fusing carbon together. But how does sodium get from one hundred million degree furnace in massive stars light years away and ended up here on? On earth in all its salty abundance. So what we know happens at the end of a very massive stars life is that fusion ultimately can't carry on anymore and without that process happening. The star has no way to counteract gravity, and so it starts to collapse in on itself. And as it does this is then a catastrophic explosion called, a supernova that blasts all of those materials out into the region around the star back out into the universe to be recycled into new stars and planets and rocks. And and people seasoning salt, sodium, chloride, call it what you like everyone has contact everyday with sodium in the food that they eat and most of us know that too much of it is bad for us increasing blood pressure and the risk of heart disease that why Graham McGregor is professor of cardiovascular medicine at the Wolfson institute at BART's hospital. I asked him how does eating too much salt increased blood pressure. The simplistic explanation, which I think. The truth is that when you eat more sold in retain some in the body now that soldiers in the extra cellular space us applaud volume of fluid Arousa tissues that expands space. So if you go, for instance, from low to high salt intake, you'll increase your extra solar fluid, but about unleashing. So we're all sloshing around with this extra fluid. Now, if you think this is sort of radiation systems central heating, if you put more fluid in it tests to put pressure up because the heart is beating more fluid house back hot has to beat harder pressure doing need salt. We need we need tiny amounts of all mammals evolved on the amount of salt or sodium in the food nationally in vegetables and meat. We had no access. So no mammal, eat salt. You could be trained to eat it horses guys if they're trained we will do. So we existed for millions of years with no soldiers. All you can probably live on point one gram of sold reaching Chen grams as one hundred times more than what we need. But obviously, we need some sold or sodium, otherwise, we wouldn't exist, and you were actually responsible for the experiment, which proved that even a modest reduction in salt intake could reduce blood pressure. How did you actually do this? Okay. Being a bit flattering. We were the first to probably control sunny a modest. So reduction was known that sort reduction LA blood pressure. But we wanted to do a study. It was double blind, which are neither patients, nor people measuring blood pressure news. So what we did take a group of patients who are off treatment behind blood pressure and put them on a low salt have the salt intake, we then after they've been on that for a while we then randomized double blind crossover study where for six weeks, they took snow, sodium, tablets, which are waxing cups tablets have said interested and make you vomit or they were randomized to take the placebo tablet. So this gave us a difference in salt intake, ten grams on the normal five grams on the and that caused a large fall in blood pressure in the in those patients, and it was important to give them the tablets rather than let them add salt by to their food because you can't control that they would know which they're doing. Then the whole idea was that the patients. Didn't know which entail nor the people measuring the blood pressure because otherwise if you feel good feel, you know, the person measuring the bio they're on the low sold we're getting a bit lower. That's the point of doing it in so called double blind. So nobody knows what's going on apart from the guy who doesn't pay to partake in the study it much more powerful. How was your research received at the time? Well, we got a lot of bad press from the food industry in the time. I must have quite naive, then I hadn't really realized how important salt is well, obviously to the salt industry about forty percent of their profits. Come from salt sold in let's put into processed foods. And then, of course, the food industry make money from in terms of flavoring, very, cheap food Mayhew, drink more and also in meat and fish products. Allowing you to add more water, so vitally important to them in increasing that prophets and to be clear, the problems associated with.
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"The world's biggest universal healthcare scheme. Mr. Modi handed out medical counts in the state of John calling it a historic day for India. The plan names to gone five hundred million people nearly half of India's population the entitlement to free health insurance. Critics say the government has no provided enough money or infrastructure to make it work. The Iranian president has has accused American Bank Gulf states of supporting the group's responsible for Saturday's deadly terror attack on a military parade. Mr. Ruhani did no name the states, but said Iran would respond to any attack lawfully. The Trump administration has given details of new plans to clamp down on legal immigration. The scheme would make it tougher for foreigners living in the United States to secure permanent residency if they're receiving food housing medical aid. A New Zealand supermarket chain countdown has withdrawn a brand of Australian strawberries from sale of the finding needles embedded in some of the X quoted fruit. It says they were found an opponent souls from Austria, where police are investigating more than one hundred such cases. A Roman Catholic nun from southern India who took part in a protest against Bishop accused of raping another. None says the church authorities have taken disciplinary action against her. Activists in church. Reformers have described it as a witch-hunt. Flash floods triggered by torrential. Rain in northeastern Tunisia have left at least three people dead video footage from one town. Chairs vehicle is being washed away. Long queues have been forming in the Maldives capital, Molly in a presidential election, which the opposition have criticised for lack of transparency and suppression of dissent. President Abdullah Yameen who seeking a second term has jailed many of his rivals. BBC news. Sodium. And its most familiar form table salt has a pretty bad name because of its role in increasing blood pressure and heart disease. The sodium is actually essential for life. You can listen to my voice and understand what I'm saying all because of sodium and the tiny biological batteries. It creates I'm professor Sophie, Scott. And in this edition of discovery on the BBC World Service all be exploring why this element is behind some of the deadliest toxins on the planet, and how it could pave the way for new generation of powerful painkillers. But before that what most of us may remember about sodium is its response in the classic school, chemistry experiment. Where sodium a surprisingly soft fleetingly beautiful silver metal meets water. So I really want to introduce you to this amazing element that was discovered by Humphry Davy at the beginning of the nineteenth century. And it turns out that our department has enormous amounts of this stuff. If you take a look in this jar, the big fat cylinders, and I'm getting grab a little pocket knife is that where we can cut it. Why are you take the knife and slice through the metal just so that you can feel the consistency on it. So here we go and you'll see the actual sodium revealed cutting into now, and it's surprisingly soft butter straight out to the fridge. Oh, absolutely. Isn't it a fantastic? Brilliant, shiny. I would one hundred percent were earrings that it's the silvery, but whitish pinkish, and it's already already fading amazing. Right. It's got this. Putty. Like, yes. And every time you cut it you see the beautiful sheen, slowly, slowly disappears. We've got a little fragment here. I'm holding it with tweezers. What are we going to drop it into the speaker? Now, you may need to step back sharply. If something goes horribly wrong. Let's see. That wasn't a voluntary viper legislation than other hoping to make fear. Use it for. What was really interesting was that it went in you could immediately here fizzing sound. And I don't know whether you saw that it turned into a sphere turned into a real ball as it fist. And then suddenly bang the yellow flush now, I really must apologize. I for making an alarm sound when the explosion happened and second for slipping straight to jog. And after that now involuntary vocalisations are sounds that we make an emotional situations. And I was genuinely surprised by that explosion. But what exactly was going on? So sodium, really quite interesting because it has a kind of core of electrons, and then sort of left on its lonesome on the outside is a single electron now that single electron is perfectly happy. There's nothing wrong with it. But it turns out that it actually doesn't cost very much energy to pull it away from the atom and costs a little bit. And you have to get that back somewhere. This is. The secret to why it reacts so spectacularly with water. Is that if you take that electron that's caused but the moment you surround it with water and you make the hydrogen. Whoa. You get a hell of a lot back. And you've got this phenomenal reaction and exactly how communist sodium. These very reactive. Metal my name's Andrew blood with an I'm sized director for minerals and waste at the British Geological Survey in the earth's crust, which is the bit we measure, really, it's a the six most abundant element. So is quite abundant about two point. Three percent of the earth's crust is estimated to be sodium. And the sodium that we find is depositing UK where do we find these? And how did they get here? The largest area on land is in what we call the Cheshire basin. So it's a Cheshire area the area, south of Manchester. These salt deposits were formed in rocks, which are between two hundred three hundred million years ago. If you want the geological periods. Triassic and the Permian periods, and they were formed when Britain had a very different climate to that it has now so probably a bit more light with Persian Gulf than anywhere else. Very very hot and dry and with a very shallow sea, which because it was hot and dry was very very saline. So there was salt crystals. Literally falling out of informing quite thick beds of rock salt, sodium, chloride and all this salt, the UK's producing what are the industrial uses of the sodium Severi, very important industrial chemical, and it forms the basis of all sorts of things we use every day. So the salt is used to make two products really one is something called caustic soda, which is sodium hydroxide, and that's used the things like bleach info water treatment. And also, it's really important in paper making process ways used to break down the fibers in the wood pulp. The other product that's made from is something called soda ash. Which is sodium carbonate an almost all the glass, we use every day the glass in windows, glossing, your car windows, the glass in containers for food all the glossy drink of. That's all what's call. So did and has quite a lot of sodium in it, the how was the sodium the makes up Cheshire salt deposits created in the first place. This is a question for space. Scientists I'm Lucy green. I'm professor of physics at UCLA mallards science laboratory, we have stars to thank for the origin of sodium. And so temperature at the heart of the star has a big role in what element is made. So in stars like our sun weather, central temperature is Papp's fifteen million degrees fifty million Kelvin. That's right temperature to fuse hydrogen into helium. But then once you've caught helium you can then use that as the building block for the next elements. So what we tend to think the inside a star the first round. Diffusion of nuclei coming together, we'll be using hydrogen. But then when that supply runs out the star has a battle to play against gravity. So wasp Uson is taking place you have this energy released and allows the star to be puffed up and counteract gravity that's trying to put it in on his self. But when the fuel runs out gravity takes over and the star starts to shrink now that heats up the center of the star. And so if the temperature goes up enough, you can start fusing helium say into carbon an oxygen, and then when that phase is over the star will shrink again, and the temperature will go up again. And then you get to the point where you're starting to make sodium so carbon is fused together, and you can get outputs like magnesium neon importantly, sodium is made during that process of fusing carbon together. But how does sodium get from one hundred million degree furnace in massive stars light years away and ended up here on? On earth in all its salty abundance. So what we know happens at the end of a very massive stars life is that fusion ultimately can't carry on anymore. And without that process happening star has no way to counteract gravity, and so it starts to collapse in on itself. And as it does this is then a catastrophic explosion called, a supernova that blasts all of those materials out into the region around the star back out into the universe to be recycled into new stars and planets and rocks. And and people seasoning salt, sodium, chloride, call it what you like everyone has contact everyday with sodium in the food that they eat most of us know that too much of it is bad for us, increasing blood pressure and the risk of heart disease. But why Graham McGregor is professor of cardiovascular medicine at the Wolfson institute BART's hospital. I asked him how does eating too much salt increased blood pressure simplistic explanation, which I think. Helps a lot of truth in it is when you eat more sold in retain some in the body. Now that source in the extra cellular space us the blood volume of fluid or throws tissues that expand space so Hugo's, for instance, from low to high salt intake, you'll increase your extra solar fluid, but at least four and a half. So we're all sloshing around with this extra fluid. Now, if you think this is sort of radiation system central heating, if you put more fluid in it tests to put pressure up because the heart is beating more fluid house bat hot s to beat harder pressure doing need sold. Three eighty it. We need tiny amounts of all mammals evolved on the amount of salt or sodium in the food naturally in fruits and vegetables and meat. We had no access. So no mammal, eat salt. You could be trained to eat it horses and cars, if they're trained read it will do we existed for millions of years with no soldiers. All can probably live on point one gram of sold where she Chen grabs as a hundred times more than what we need. But obviously, we need some sold or sodium, otherwise, we wouldn't exist, and you will actually responsible for the experiment, which proved that even a modest reduction in salt intake could reduce blood pressure. How did you actually do this? Okay. Being a bit flattering. We were the first to properly control sorry modest reduction. There was known salt reduction lowered blood pressure. But we wanted to do a study. It was double blind which are the patience. No appeal measuring blood pressure news, what we did take a group of patients who are off treatment with high blood pressure and put them on a low salt. So they would have their salt intake, we then after they've been on that for a while we then randomized some in Moscow, double blind crossover study where for six weeks, they took slow sodium, tablets, which a wax encapsulated tablets have certain choices that make you vomit or they were randomized to take the placebo tablet. So this gave us a difference in salt intake over ten grams almost normal saw five grams on the LA and that caused a large fall in blood pressure in in those patients, and it was important to give them the tablets rather than let them add salt by to their food because you can't control that they would know which they're doing. Then the whole idea was that the patients. Didn't know which entitled nor the people measuring the blood pressure because otherwise if you feel good feel, you know, the person measuring the bio they're on the low sold you're getting a bit lower. But that's the point of doing it in so called double blind. So nobody knows what's going on apart from the guy who doesn't play partake in the study yet, much more powerful. Yeah. How was your research received at the time? Well, we got a lot of bad press from the food industry and the Solden Todd. Must quite naive. I hadn't really realized how important sold. Here's what officer to the salt industry only about forty percent of their profits. Come from salt sold in. Let's put into processed foods. And then, of course, the food industry make a little money from so in terms of flavoring, very cheap food making you drink more and also in meat and fish products, lying to add more water. So it's vitally important to them in increasing that prophets and to be clear, the problems associated with high blood pressure are not trivial. Absolutely not. High blood pressure. The biggest killer in the world. Just one thing you can measure, it new is your blood pressure that will predict your life insurance county wanted show, you very high blood pressure that was nine for many years..
"fifteen million degrees" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM
"One promising design is the socalled statistical talk him at a bit more like a cold apple than the nuclear doughnuts who've been looking at sipho and whilst these amendments have to be cooled all my staff absolute zero to work multon high temperatures superconductors might be able to do the same thing with less hustle in recent years a number of small commercial startups have joined the fusion race i lost up his wannabes talking about kennedy said he'd been using high temperature superconductors and sparkle talk amounts to see if they can get that plasmas up to fusion temperatures on a much smaller scale welcome back as boston way waseige enemy winter it showed us that liked to smuggle the s t full say it like a big metal bowl bit bigger than the phone call in here we have sixty four see lots of the amac wow who is home from has she him homes i've seen i'm really shocked by that what cio timelines to this how quickly will the come online both took my kennedy is aiming to commercialise fusion energy by 2030 twenty that's eight and that's connected to the grace that will be a a demonstration of electricity a k cobb homolja and proudest andrew at home to turn on the light so boil the capital at higher what timeframe to get back while hopefully soon off the twins betsy of who made that demonstration it is numbers of hug and we'd be at that we need those kind of targets because we need fusion the world needs feed him we need a way of providing energy the doesn't produce greenhouse gases doesn't produce on the radioactive waste in these you can do that and we don't think he's an overly ambitious timeframe we've got we've got steps we've got things that we want to achieve by sutton times i see boise is going to investigate how the plasma behaves in this squashed up a compact configuration with high magnetic fields and we want to achieve fusion temperatures on this machine we want to get zoo while festival fifteen million degrees which is halted in the center of the sun and then a hundred million degrees and if we can achieve a hundred million degrees on a machine the size it really shows that there's a huge possibility for making smaller homes and out once and that's really.