2 Episode results for "Felipe Munoz"
A Fiat Chrysler Merger With Renault Would Create 3rd Biggest Car Maker
"Support for this podcast and the following message come from American pest as the leading provider of safe, sustainable pest control solutions across the DMV. Let American past help you to take back your home or business from menacing pests visit them today at American pest dot net. Fiat Chrysler is proposing a merger with the French automaker Renault, Reynaud says it's considering it, this merger would be a big deal. It would create the world's third biggest car company after Toyota and Volkswagen. Here's NPR's Camilo domino, sqi, a merger this big would be striking, but not totally surprising. Fiat Chrysler has been looking for a partner for a while. And there, there are limited partners available. Michelle crabs is an analyst with auto trader and Cox automotive. She says, meanwhile, the French Renault had a long standing alliance with the Japanese automaker Nissan that was working. Well, and then things went awry, when former CEO Carlos gone was arrest. Sted in Japan for alleged financial misdeeds and things have just been unraveling now both fiancee's and Reynaud are eyeing their options when it comes to who though partner with as they prepare for big changes in the industry. Many major, automakers have already been partnering up over the last couple of years. There are two reasons first after years of record growth. The auto industry is starting to slow down and that decline is expected to continue. Meaning fewer car sales less revenue at the same time, automakers need to be making big investments in the future things like electric vehicles and self driving cars, and it's a tough one, because you're investing in something that isn't profitable today isn't going to be full tomorrow, but might be profitable might be essential in ten years time. Mark Wakefield is an automotive consultant at Alex, partner's upstart companies like tesla and even ride hailing services like Uber and lift. They're bringing new competition. In response established carmakers are closing ranks towards each other to be able to share costs and to be able to invest through this like on. That's really what's driving a lot of these merger discussions in partnership discussions to Reynaud has been making electric vehicles for years, while Fiat Chrysler, has been lagging behind its decided to focus on money-making brands like Jeep, and ram, big pickups, and SUV's. Plus, it has premium brands like Maserati Reynaud is pushing smaller low cost vehicles Fiat Chrysler thrives in the Americas. Particularly in the United States. Reynaud doesn't sell cars in North America at all. But it's a major player in Europe and Russia that also like a pretty good fit. One has small cars in the other big trucks, one offers luxury vehicles. The other goes down market, but they feel have problem which is trying to Felipe Munoz is an analyst at auto researcher Jada. Dynamics. He says, neither company has a foothold in the crucial Chinese market. Then there are the practical problems of merging and not in another culture. I know the more factories that's more people to teach to work together, which Fiat Chrysler, has to do already since the merger that made it back in two thousand fourteen Blyleven cries which are Italians on American that way only but he's not an easy thing. And it would be even harder if you try to preserve the French Renos alliance with Nissan of Japan, another complication Reynaud is part owned by the French government and has strong unions. The want to preserve local jobs, Fiat Chrysler says the deal if it happens would not result in any plant closures. Camilo dominancy, NPR news.
Interview with Colombias top official for the Venezuelan refugee crisis
"Welcome to the Brookings Cafeteria the podcast about ideas the experts who have them. I'm Fred Do's and I'm joined today the Brookings podcast network studio by Danny Bahar a fellow in the global economy and Development Program at Brooklyn's Danny's here to share his interview with the Colombian government official official in charge of managing his government's response to the humanitarian crisis of Venezuelan refugees. Danny welcome back. Thank you fred. I'm glad to be here. I went back and I counted at only six times. That you've been on Brookings podcasts in the last three and a half years to talk about this issue so it's a continuing crisis can you remind listeners. How the crisis began in Venezuela well the crises are assault of twenty years of mismanagement in Venezuela from economic point of view and political crisis? That has really become much stronger. In the past four five years Venezuela now is going through so one of the worst humanitarian crisis hemisphere has seen. It's comparable really two countries on their going world. Conflict People Wade entirely. People are dying from preventable diseases that has resulted in a huge refugee crisis. Day largest refugee. Go ahead Murphy has seen in in a few months. It's going to be the largest ever in the past decades. Tell listeners who they're going to hear from your interview today I'll be talking to Mr Filippi. We also as a special advisor to the president of Colombia Uganda to the border between Venezuela Colombia meaning he really oversees and manages every aspect aspect of the government. And all the coordination between agencies in their response to the Venezuelan refugee crisis as of today Colombia's largest recipient of Venezuelan refugees and they we have at least one point five million Venezuelans that have arrived mostly in the past three or four years. Now I know your conversation with Mr Munoz covers a lot of ground about the crisis. Isis how it affects both his country of Colombia. How it affects Venezuela and all the various issues and ideas for solving the problem? But what's the most important thing that you want listeners to take takeaway from this interview that they're about to hear I think that when we look at Columbia and also other countries in the region but mostly Colombia. What is really interesting and fascinating is how in spite of being a developing country? That is struggling on its own in terms of the provision of public services their own society etc.. They're facing a refugee. Would you crisis. That is as I said before. One of the largest that a hemisphere has seen earned that the world has seen they still look at this in a positive way. There is an opportunity here for them. I'm to grow economically but also I'm moral responsibility given the guys that are between the two countries Venezuela Colombia the historic ties. So he's very different. We've seen in other parts of the world where usually countries are closing the doors to migrants and refugees the United States itself. It's the lowest level of admissions chance of refugees in its history yet. We see Columbia. That is if anything or opening their doors more and more when I want to thank you for bringing this interview to us and also also for your continued attention to an analysis of this very important issue. Thank you thank you fred. And now here's Dani Bihar with Felipe Munoz the adviser to the President President of Colombia for the Colombian Venezuelan Border High Philippi and welcome to the Brookings Cafeteria. Hainanese my pleasure to be here with you so Philippi. You are managing on behalf of the Colombian government one of the biggest crisis that the hemisphere has seen in the recent years and eastern Eastern on migration and refugee crisis. And as of now we know that there are at least four point five million Venezuelans that have fled in the past last four or five years. How many of them are in Columbia? Danny more than thirty three percent of the migrants that had fled Venezuela in the last three years are coming into Columbia and stay impair money way but until about one point five million yes. That's about one point. Five one point six million according to latest data provided by Columbia which is entity in charge of control of migration process in Colombia. But on top of that you have also the Colombian Colombian returnees. You have to remember that. So many years ago that a lot of Colombia's dad had fled to Venezuela you Internet conflict and now that are returning in the last tree years we calculate that we have received more than half a million Colombian returnees and Daddy. You have migrants in transit. Columbia Columbia is the main exit point for swell. And then the people that want to go to equip or to pay do unto other countries in South America Cross Columbia the last year we penalize the year with near one million Minnesota and that have grossed through Colombia to the other countries and to complete the picture are you have the pendulum or Sikwan migration around the border Jolson Columbia that audio. which are the two main CDs of the border? You have around their retail. Some people that cross-border every day just to get out remittances and to buy the most basic things that they can happen in Minnesota so they come to Columbia in the border they go back the end of the day or they stay there for a week day for today's they come to receive the vaccines means for decades to receive food. Even we have our Komo enough kitchens where they provide more than ten thousand meals per day to the people that just grows the bar. Their heels was to get a meal per day and also to buy food to buy medicines. This is a very complicated situation at the border. Well Columbia's Contra fifty million people almost fifty million people so these ver one point five to two million people that have joined the country in the past few years. That's more than two percent of the three eight percent now here to three percent. Those have been about these people. I mean I visited the border. Sometimes we've met there. We've talked about it here and the Brooklyn Cafeteria tells obeyed about the needs of these people have do. They come in need for health services used to they really have important. How many area needs we have recieving kilom- in the last ten years I think three waves of migration from an as well as the first way with Salmon or eight years ago when some people with so mony come to Columbus After dot some people from the oil industry arrived to Colombia about now the last two year that people are calling the most vulnerable people in the population. Initially the conditions. They held on these shows. Malnutrition of the Keats. The critical condition as the pregnant woman arrived in Colombia have created a very complicated system of the border to give you a recent statistics hospitals in Kuta at the border for for every Columbia born. You have treatments now then is one to three and of course you can imagine the complication in the capacity and the ability elitist just to cope with these kinds of migration by yes in the last two year. The conditioner more critical day by day as the processing business world is getting worse just in the health system location system of course we are receiving Maher born Noel population and just for our listeners. To know a little bit the geography of Colombo CDs like Kuta who are really in the border with Venezuela that have the largest crossing between the two countries or Mike Cowen Department. Apparently like what he'd had those are the places that have the biggest affluence of migrants and refugees. I think that in Goku or department which is northwestern their their share chair of Venezuelans in the population is huge. She's more than twenty percent at least in Google right now in Cairo dot you have to consider we have more than two thousand kilometers turn border but of course between seventy five eighty percent of the population cross for one point which is in Belarus idea. Then they had seen me L. E. Y.. Reach which is like a symbol for this process. And you can see in the pictures in the news is where the people cross the most Bat yes today. We have thirty three percent of the migrants on the border CDs. We have the sixty seven percent all over the country. This is not anymore like Board their issue is a national nationally shoe but of course in relative terms you still have a municipality border where the population had grown between twelve to thirty seven percent and then of course you can imagine that we have at least ten money's politics that are in really really complicated problems in terms of their probation of their social services and you're talking about hospitals and schools in those areas. And we're GONNA get to that because I want to talk about the funding that you receive cope with this crisis but One question that I have that I think that you phases. Everyday's that Colombia is different than all the other countries that are also receiving a lot of these migrants not only because it's the largest recipient but also because because Minnesota has the largest trading partner of Columbia historically. We've reading a lot about him. People already know how Venezuela was actually the richest country in the region in the nineteen seventies and eighties and a little bit development of Columbia Wes things to its trade and relations with Venezuela. So you have a situation now where not only you have a huge inflow love microns. That might be putting some pressure on labor markets in the short term. But you also have another huge challenge. People don't talk about that much. Which is that they've been? Islamic collapsed collapsed and the moment that Economy collapsed all the particularly the bordering towns. That leave that of Trade Venezuela they just don't have any more economic activity so that also significantly effects that they do you see that in your dachshund your day today. Yes is really interesting because you have to remember that. Between Colombia Edits Walea. We have reached points of core Marissa bilateral commerce around seven billion dollars eight ten years ago. And now he's Soltero Masahiro then of course you have conc- There all day CDs along the border especially Cou could be are on these CDs in Northampton Sunday which is the state where to locate it. Of course have sulphur these economic collapse because they maintain a lot of commercial connections and and of course the crisis of the border began before their migration crisis but of course when you receive on top of this economic condition or new situation. These ample in men's amount of people. Of course you're crisis going deeper. But of course the crisis begun well before when Chavez decided just goes to cut off all the commerce between two nations which is so sad right and of course it has play a big tall milissa say to Venezuela yes. Yes no of of course because it's the same. The state of the Border Suli Untouchable Montaigne a very intense commerce relation. How long this history so Phillipi born in racing Venezuelan? That's also one of the reasons that I hear Brookings Right so much about it. And I also work on migration economically and when you were born born and raised Venezuela you always are surrounded by the thought that Colombia's our sister country right then it's one on Colombia Venezuela Colombia's best friend Columbus space friend. And I think that now we're seeing that and I want to get your thoughts on these important because what Columbia is definitely as we said the largest recipient of these migration and refugee crisis but migrants are going to other places to better one other larger recipients. Brazil means becoming an important Morton won some people leaving Goto cheerier Tina but Columbia by far stays the largest recipient and not only that a lot of the people that go to a quadrupedal they actually traveled through Columbia. Yet we've seen something that I think is a sad development that some countries in the region Bedroo- Ecuador Chile. They have imposed some visa restrictions in an effort to regulate flows the his birthday clarity difficult situation because a lot of these migrants. Don't have passports because it's hard to get aspirin minutes. It's very expensive luxury to have because there's no material and it involves a lot of corruption and so on yet Columbia has stayed open Columbia continues. The policy of open borders of course regulated with the rule of law. But he has never thought that at some point these too much for us. We're GONNA impose visas. We're GONNA close order other wise that I think there are three main reasons. The first one is dead. We have any story responsibility here. Remember that more then three million Colombians leaving Venezuela for so many years and they have their economic opportunities. They form their families. So is there and now we have like this story responsibility just to to have the embarrassed situation that the renaissance coming. But secondly and I think the most important Cortana this is an ethical imperative. We have seen like the collapse of the ones the most richest nation and we have to hold them and and third. This is political decision. This decision leading by the president do can the government of Colombia dot along the government. Montaigne Bury A high-level pressure in diplomatic terms. Just for that chain Jim minutes on the same time we have to be. We open arms just to receive the people. They're not outgoing to Columbia. Just for two years they are going because there are capping for the more incredible conditions that you have seen in the reunion decades but also I have to say that because we need to see in these in Columbia Center paternity that's an economic opportunity medium-term we need to obtain to get advantage anti-bush about the demographic bottles because the people that are coming from is for a large Jon Benet Columbine people some of them have a lot of skills that we need to get advantage of this and at the same time that we continue to work titled The in the Humanitarian Process in tried to help the people in the most basic exit needs parallel to that we are working in an economic inclusion for migrants policy that we recently launch it. And maybe we can talk about that because I think that what people from the outside is that these huge amount of migrants and refugees they are in need of humanitarian assistance. Which is true? But there's another another part of the coin here. which is that you guys in? The government of Colombia have been putting forward a lot of programs to integrate them into the labor force to take advantage that Chen. I always say that what could make these huge migration and refugee wave an opportunity. Burden is a choice of public policy. So now that you guys have been working very strongly on that so Dell's alleviate about the biggest programs that you have and maybe the challenges that you're facing now now. We decided up till two luke. What are the main bottlenecks within public sector for people who obtain this bishop permit we regularize around six hundred thousand people in the last year and we will continue in the same path so these are people for research and it's Willens can't work in Colombia? Right they can come in a story in terms of the low but you have now a lot of people that are crossing the border weed out the proper documentation most likely because they don't have passports so you guys had I plan no into last year. We decided just to begin to regularise some of the people regardless their migratory status. I mean some people crossing team for the regular pathways are are in irregular condition. Nobody sending Dodd. We decided just to give them to cease hundred thousand of them special permit to stay a regular visa. Yes is similar to be as as an spatial temporary permit that allowed them just to stay in a regular way to access to all the social services but also most important access to job to a former job and they can work with no restrictions. There are only three in certain works that need special. Oh permits for example. Your doctor you need out proper by the nation or your diploma or Girardi Ninja near there are five or six uncle facial patient that need. I know the paperwork. And and other conditioned by journal terms you I- regular into county your then this is the thing and we will continue to do so we are planning for another there to wave so regularisation we can talk about it later and I went on their score. These you cannot say but I will say it. Which is these incredibly generals program because in many countries you see a lot of discussions about on the commended migrants? It's even very hard to see these caution whether they should be regularized or not multicolored these questions. Whether they can stay or they should be deported. And Columbia just went ahead and regularized more than half a million Venezuelan migrants and refugees who wearing a regular status where on the commended and Columbia is still there. It's still exist. Everything seems to be working fine right and he's very generous. I don't think there's any any other country that has done such a large regularisation process. Not In terms of this magnitude buy Yes for example payroll to clear have similar special temporary temporary permit for Damon in Argentina and Chile. They have created some sort of permits. Old Sowed America have been very creative trying to find the legal ways to regularise but of course in terms of magnitude. We had ahead of the group trying to integrate these people and we identify where are the main in Bordeaux Knicks that we have in the public sector jobs to when two people received special temporary permit. How they really can get a job? And of course you find a lot of bureaucratic critic bottlenecks and we are working just for name some of them. For example financial inclusion. We are working with the banks trying to to demand say allowed older Venezuelans with special permit to have a bank account of for example. We are working in their Baligian diplomas for the soil and people people. We are working with universities. We need agreement with universities universities concert. You present your diploma. Is this a Bali diploma. We have a set of tasks that we need to accomplish very quickly just to try to integrate his people into the labour market. They began just to pay taxes and most important. They began to be part of their Hild insurance. The police health insurance in that way. We can protect this population. And do you see that. It's working so far. Do you see that. Venezuelans Sir actually having jobs. Are they actually being integrated into labor markets. I know the Columbia similar to other American countries have very large former labor market. Yes yes there is solar nor faster that respect but of course we need to maintain the process because this is really recent browse bad for example. If you go to the enterpreneurship ship we have seen in the statistic from the Chamber of Commerce Mobile. Dan Other CDs that the creation of companies by Venezuelans are growing. We're all we moaned by Mont.. Then of course we created the legal and financial him. Vitamins to be friendly. I think we are not only have more works available but also maybe we are going to have to experience a creation. More companies. Run by Bennie. Saunas then we are working and daddy's not NEC- The task. We have a process of unemployment for our local people then we need to maintain just Seneca Liam into political arena. Joe's that we are not just working for the migrants. We are also working for the local people but we need to find some places for example the director of definition affiliation of Coffee Producers said in an interview yesterday that most of the reason brother action of coffee was taken in Buenos Wetlands in the maturity of the process. Then we need to find a place is not only did geographic replace. Wouldn't need people to work. Also we need the sectors and we are working trying to defy this and to put these labor available to these places. Let's talk about costs a little bit because I think that a a lot of the arguments that people make when they think of these huge refugee crises. That of all type of cost usually there's some perceptions that are negative towards migrants arm effigies because roughly speaking cost as I say so for instance people think that migrants or refugees will displays lays locals in their jobs. Some people would say that it's very costly for the state to pay for migrant refugees. So I guess I have two questions Wani's Wani's do you see these happening when you look at the economic evidence you find very little evidence of this on the contrary you find that migrants and refugees actually tend to create jobs as you said before we'd enterpreneurship and migrants and refugees are usually in the medium-term not a burden but actually they contribute to taxes. More than the what takes up. What Teddy Scotch and now in Colombian government about that? How do you see it? I think we have a mixed picture now. Of course we have some research provided by the war buying confidence which is local think tank and the International Monetary Fund and they calculate how much it will cost for Columbia just to attend these amount of people providing there with full services and this is around zero point five percent of the piano which is around one point point five billion dollars per year we have received in the last three years for hundred fifty million dollars in our national corporation only Columbia Jazz. Joe's only Columbia intrigued years which is around one hundred and fifty million dollars per year which is like ten percent of the money that according to this calculation we needed. Dan denied a percent is provided by the government of Colombia. Yes in the short term but at the same time these studies also show died in the medium-term mm-hmm is going to be useful for Columbia. Even for the growth of Columbia the thing is that we are in the first two years of the process but even for example we we have an independent committee that works with the Minister of finance trying to maintain their fiscal rule in place. Fiscal rule is a condition for Columbia. This is in the constitution that you have to maintain like kept path or the decrease your the data the two according to the radio and on the last year they said okay. You can spend a little more because you have this big influx of migrants back in the same paper. They say because we are expecting ACTON DR in two or three years this economic inclusion of these migrants to produce some revenues for the country. So we just have a few minutes left but you just go back to the big picture. You mentioned funding from outside and a recent article by Quality Meghan Duly. We were looking at the numbers. And and what did we see for instance that a lot of people dog that the Venezuelan crisis will surpass the Syrian one. What we already had it already had when you look at relative to the number of years that the crisis has been going on so for instance the Venezuelan crisis you could say has been going on for four years? The number of Venezuela refugees is four point five or four point six. It's pre- seeming to the number of Syrian refugees when he was four years in the crisis so in relative terms arms the Venezuelan refugee crisis is almost there but what it's very very different that we also show is the funding from international community and for four years seen the Syrian crisis or funding from the international community to help refugees. Resettle why's maybe around ten billion dollars from international community ten billion dollars or was C. Today from the Venezuelan refugee crisis. Is that even though there's an appeal and the UN agencies are asking for money in fact fact the money that actually has been received and the Spurs. He's less than six hundred million dollars if you just comparing per capita numbers comparison is crazy. We're talking talking about thousands of dollars for humor if g but for Venezuelan refugees maybe just about one hundred dollars no more than that and funding is really important. They're not only for humanitarian needs but also for the task of integrating people into the labor force because you need to maybe provide credits to firms to employ the migrants and all the other people too and so on of course. He's an obvious question. But do you feel this pressure that you really think that there should be more help outdoors. You're away from the international community. What are you doing about it? And what are they be programs that even though you don't have these help as much as you wanted. What are the things that you are doing totally agree and and you're not the only one talking about Filippo Grandi Director of UNHCR in the last conference in Brussels one Mon ago said in her opening remarks at the conference that this is the most underfunded migrants? I'm refugee crisis and the war and he as a leader of the UNHCR are. This is very important voice. Yes we are worried about it but we decided just to go on to raise awareness about what is happening in the region. Not only minute soil soil which is absolutely disaster but also for the receiving countries these could create a we own manage well and in the stability for older. The region is is not only Joe Sal laughing American problem. I think it could be considered a regional war problem and were crisis and we need to work in it and we are working tidally following the order. So the President Duquet we Former minister for sweeter. Now we do minister bloom loon going to all the international forums high in our voice and said we need more help. We want to maintain our border so penned this is the political decision the president but we need more health. Yes we have your figures and we use T. Noreen how international forums. Because I really useful on when you show people that this is the reality and people getting surprise ban. Yes we are here in Washington. We traveled to Europe on. We are going to old international national forum that we have to go just to raise awareness just to explain to the international community that yes we need more help awfully but we run out of time. But we're really thankful for you being here and for everything you are doing and the Colombian government is doing for the Venezuelan migrants and refugees. And we hope to help you guys Phoenicia of your calls and make a huge opportunity for growth and a success of Columbia. No it's my pleasure to hear broken. It's an honor and thank you very much for all European the Brookings Cafeteria. PODCAST is the product of an amazing team of college. Starting with audio audio engineer. Gaston Roberto Producer Chris Mckenna Bill Fining Director of the Brookings Institution Press. Does the book interviews and those at Baylor and Eric Coppola and provide design and web support. Finally my thanks to Camillo Ramirez. Emily Horne for their guidance and support. The Brookings Cafeteria is brought to you by The Brookings podcast network which also produces dollar incense the current and events podcasts. Email your questions and comments to me at BCP At Brookings Dot. Edu If you have a question for a scholar including audio file. And I'll play it in the answer on the air. Follow us on twitter at policy podcasts. You can listen to the Brookings Cafeteria and all the usual places visit US online at Brookings Dot e._d._U.. Until next time I'm fred.