20 Episode results for "FDR"

FDR

Citation Needed

47:29 min | 1 year ago

FDR

"Between shows we'll talk about it later let's just see what he lied to the Studio Way Looks Normal Okay I'm just saying bring a little more energy in the second show that's my energy is fine you bring more energy okay now you're being defensive heath why not Brooklyn when you have sex twice different scoreboard also joining us tonight a man who says he's but to be fair I was married to that soldier well right now you were you we did have sex once thank you I'm going to ignore it what trust me it's going to be fine the audience won't notice either I guess where did you get. Polio live from the Peoples Improv theater in New York no to get into character for today's show I injected myself with eighteen tiny bit of polio but like our great president on Wikipedia and pretend we're experts because this is the Internet and that's how it works now I'm no allusions I'll be presiding over this episode but I have to fill out my cabinet of course I the stage because we've never had polio joke before and we're going for all the horrible shit before careers not not not really just say to get started nothing okay oh well why why do you have a blanket on you can you tell you you gotTa stop asking them if you want or not when you're done I I did win though one no the news right display what Tom might have told you when he sold you the ticket this is not Hamilton we sold a lot of tickets those at home we have shifted signs so yeah yes if you want I've got a man who says he's qualified to be secretary of Veterans Affairs because he fucked married soldier once hand a man brought to everything I for everything take that Bill Gates his mum I love some of you were so positive that you actually for those listening in at Home Eli crawled on you guys I want to thank you for showing up to see us live like you people a lot better than the ones all right now before we get started I want to thank all the fine folks here at the Peoples Improv theater who worked so hard tonight to make our audience drunk who says he's qualified to be the secretary of the interior because his mom wouldn't let him play outside he and he listening at home except the Patriots we also like to patrons a lot we liked patrons who are here more of the patrons who I to be secretary of state because he lives in one of those and a man I tapped to be secretary of agriculture based on all the shit growing in his facial hair Tom and say-so cut it you're like oh no I'm not non-approved Polian hello and welcome citation needed it isn't as secretary the one that you pat on the way to get you coffee how would you live in talking about today today no we're GONNA be talking about FDR and Eli Eli one is FDR stand for secretary that doesn't even make doesn't oh I'm going to share it apple at all I'm GONNA tear it up we'll tell all adorable my beard is like a small farm and even has a goatee it is a that's actually in the F. So far so good chur now you don't scream shit out fred drill yeah no no he's he's doing good work now all right so tom you looked at the pictures on this article are you ready to tell us about FDR I am lettuce nothing jumps cold just called me see Eli Dan rate is Yup what did what did you do your legs okay fine if you must tom who is FDR Ri well Franklin Delano Roosevelt is best known as the four term President of the United Several mansions were only marginally nicer than my own when I think we celebrate a place like New York we're not talking about the garbage strike within Franklin Delano Roosevelt Abe Lincoln Barack Obama all right gratitude ends taller what figure rises up above the fray outcome what figures steps more boldly forward as a visionary leader whose triumphs and it's true once in the marriage that's right I've had sex with a woman crossed eve I've been so for the sake of those on stays that literally did not know what those letters stood for when we record skit of nine hundred eleven or the garbage strike of nineteen sixty eight or the garbage strike of one thousand nine hundred eighty one or the garbage strike the what sorry too loud too loud way too loud too loud and incredibly close complements will go down in history as having non only saved America itself from existential peril but whose lessons have since been fully and profoundly ignored more six or what from the present smell the city I can only assume must be the presence and ongoing garbage strike yeah no I don't get up he wouldn't have it's fine oh there's GonNa be a lot of those yeah because he's okay all right you wild rich his family came from money just generations of it on both his mother's side and his father's side the Roosevelt's were wealthy merchants and land hat I think it behooves us to squint through our watering eyes and look at some of New York's most iconic figure this man owners the domino's were rich merchants and ship builders and Franklin grew up the kind of kid who played polo you know like the kind of kid who know aides who led America through the horror of the Second World War and made a couple of very find deals I'll personally I think is a man who's bring it on I love this song Kinda weakens the NYC Berg. He's I feel like he wants you to say him Franklin was richer than those obnoxious fuckers his sixteenth birthday present was a sailboat oh Jesus who after the are James Roosevelt Sarah and Delo Franklin was fucking rich like let's just go ahead and get that one out of the way early like he was spectacularly crazily walked onto the boat you mom fuck you hope you get polio yeah nope no tell them you looked at the Douglas rose by a host of private tutors except when he was nine and he spent a year in public school in Germany was no problem since he was converted French and German from his frequent trips abroad when he was fourteen he went off to boarding school before he of course went to Harvard where received as in history ah more already so tell us what person place thing concept phenomenon orbit will on us you know like you know when you're driving past the nice high school and it's about three thirty and all those rich kids clogged the streets and their BMW's that their parents bought them that'd be the best the best sequel fast and furious like a raccoon skull on the front of it everyone is equal and Gosh we all have the same opportunities I want you guys to raise your hands if this sounds familiar if this sounds like your life so FDR was primarily schooled in verse cast like US Doing Frederick Douglas Lane can love getting credibility he's do now sign don't be like the Duggar family in any way yeah eighteen for entering Columbia law where he didn't bother finishing because instead he just passed the bar three years later in one thousand nine hundred seven didn't bother to graduate so zero hands go ahead zero hands on zero hands no no Harvard one thousand nine hundred four alums here it's been okay all right that's weird and thoughts right now about your search history eleanor was FDR's fifth cousin once removed so genetically like pretty much not much more related than Ken see the Shit Hits signs you have to come to the live shows one of them as a picture of poop and tits on Arwel Tom you sound a bit bitter so if it's any consolation you whip is asking a raise not on his rascal though uh-huh and why C. and why seeing Oh so while he was in school FDR Cousin Theodore Roosevelt became president which FDR found terribly inspiring after all if one roosevelt could do it well by God break their engagement that never worked so it didn't here either and the two were wed and live together with Sarah FDR's mom who opposed their marriage they lived in this she was able to get her uncle who was then president Teddy Roosevelt to stand in for him. So Upgrade Franklin's mother Sarah was not a fan of Franklin getting married he tried to break she tried there's in counting a few interesting notes Franklin's father was at the time of their marriage dead so as Eleanor's father though Cam and that guerrilla that new sign language that's pretty fucking relate it all right that's too close since they were unlikely to have they say polio at is not how you get polio you guys that you can polio that one zero percent chance case you still laboring under the delusion that maybe any old roosevelt could have you changed the last name that was Jeb Bush's campaign slogan and George W's fucking saying that's a bad thing bad thing well eleanor in fact had a rather long list of things that she didn't like such as raising children AP's with Aquaman toes they decided to get hitched in one thousand nine hundred five still naw great though when your relationship is short for Poly Dactyl of which Eleanor's said she knew quote absolutely nothing about handling or feeding a baby and so rather than learn it she outsourced it to the hired help and addict opulent Spring would state and that's kind of weird on its own but when a couple had a townhouse built in the city Sarah built a twin of it to live close Oh low guys hello later jump ahead he was the kind of quality like learn things like to raw and row and shoot pool alone hi and strangely eleanor feel terribly at home in either of those homeless and this perfectly clear to allies mom Tom aw man a whole new world thank you thank you yeah eleanor never came out as lesbian butter super-duper close companion lorraina will very much out very much her close companion then he throws they're spoiled kid Tantrum Malm wanted to steamboat it makes hard I contact with mom just like throws a Molotov forever you like positive so FDR and what is almost certainly not an unrelated note began an affair nineteen fourteen with his wife's social secretary four or kidnapped one of Tom's children the little one super cute I'm just got a nickname psych aren't how much ransom for you to keep him CR get divorced so they stayed unhappily sort of kind of together so that's only technically accurate or as we would call it today poly-amorous right I slogan all right in one thousand nine hundred he met me began to pursue Eleanor Roosevelt and you may have noticed that she was already a roosevelt so you might be having isn't about Mary a divorce say with a bunch of kids so I guess that was a tougher sell in nineteen fourteen whatever anyway FDR's mom wasn't about to let eleanor and all right so in case rubbing on you so case any of you guys are still labor delusion it's easy to do unpleasant things like take children if you could just pay someone else to do it so they had six kids please become a patron that's the uh-huh despite having six kids eleanor describes sex as an ordeal to be endured so it was a woman named Lucy Mercer in one thousand nine hundred and eleanor discovered love letters and FDR's luggage and she was spectacularly kissed her part Lucy was thank you know that was a Pete Davidson Joe Basing I ask you what figures turn right instead now spent it it's the broadcast where we just subject single article you would say not a fan at least now with Franklin much more likely was rather more fond of an openly lesbian woman named Lorena Hickok Ah I came and saw your last show I don't know why you're being so affair with his private secretary Margaret Missy la- hand and his son referred to the Crown Princess Martha of Norway as his father's girlfriends remove your own separate home and she devoted herself to social causes political causes and her totally platonic lesbian best friend Lorraina and to not seeing Franklin as you do I don't like cheers I like the people who still and quiet for that joke look to their left or we in my fucking third leg still works eleanor. I guess you're more into third is that's fine aw FDR did however visit Lucy again who was with him the day that he died and with whom he had a lifelong affair he's also rumored to have had a very brief twenty year so probably made some inroads among Scandinavians as all right I have to admit I was not expecting this essay to include a list of all the mad pussy then the ordeal an ordeal to be endured you know you gotTa work on your sex game when it's described like crossing the Atlantic and the mayflower when eleanor commits to not being committed she doesn't commit to that superbug and hard in one thousand nine hundred forty one when after yards health began to fail he asked Lorraine the Greek pottery a quick break for a little apropos of nothing favorites we compare notes doing snap on no I thought okay how about Thursday beauty clem diving Friday okay but like I feel like thirty years is pretty progressive as timeframe for one thousand nine forty four to go visit his wife's Lesbian Love Nest back live with him and she was like hard past no for his part FDR didn't visit Eleanor's apartment until nineteen forty four FDR who knew what can New Yorkers my right so well I readjust my notes refund campaign by driving around in a car which people had or could afford any other quiet support of his cousin teddy despite being on opposite sides of the aisle so his career in politics is first real bid for power came in one thousand nine ten when you decided to seek election for the state Senate which since he was super fucking rich he was able to entirely he's soups that thing you can have nitrous a whole like it ought to be old coming president of the United States can you make it I'm afraid of having lesbian sex with a woman that night all righty then enjoy shoe go night Saturday charity dinner the why that only leaves Sunday Eleanor some do yes Sunday I'm doc is coming up and I wanted to see if you weren't busy maybe we could go together ooh tolls how's that the dreadful but if I have to actually now they call it Krav Maga oh he shockingly FDR one matt bid for the State Assembly Oh that's weird it's almost like being wealthy as some kind of advantage you should have seen the size of who else did he faulk Tom I think that pretty much covered it for now all right so despite his education law had no interest in pursuing a law practice and decided to begin batching pantsuits how about Wednesday then sorry that's Strip on club with what is it it's brand of hosts writing gear husband we'll we'll talk about it arms such as a promotion system based on merit rather than whatever other criteria they had been using in the navy aunt level obsessed with the navy in he had a collection of ten thousand naval books and I love this part he claims of right at all but one of them but skit ever all right we're back when we last left off Frankie was elbow deep in a Princess Book Liar just that book an infinite jest the two we couldn't ask them so roosevelt sets off an instituting crazy naval what were you thinking house Tuesday dare do it I'll be scissor you what now code patterns with my sewing clubs were making which sounds a lot like war seems hard let's do stuff to be prepared for it like build up our military so there wasn't administration recognize that the military would come in handy for war and together they worked on establishing the Council of National Defense and the naval reserve and in April of Seventeen Congress declared war on he he does Krog people hate who's that Colin Capito era aw I'm just keeping this up this is just stay head they used they used to award ranks through mutual combat Tom in the navy they used to call it doc fighting doc fighting up just going to be here all week folks are when World War One broke out in nineteen fourteen FDR was on the side of something they called the preparedness movement he stuff about how to get the boats the things they need and how to get the fighting people on the boats and other navy words deployment logistics which he probably learned studes bootstraps they were as because his legs didn't work that's why in one thousand nine hundred fifty I was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy in exchange for support of Woodrow Wilson this was rather fortuitous since FDR was kind of Savoy Germany after Germany attacked some US ships and totally promise there was more where that came from flick sorry false flag it was a fault the guys are you ready to record so anything before we get started is there anything you want to show us for the for the FDR episode the war with all of our banks realized they were fucked if the British couldn't pay back those loans let's also and a boat sank that's okay so when war broke out love because you read ten thousand Navy books so nine thousand nine hundred ninety almost rounded up like unsurprisingly having in this are we laughing there's money are we laughing at this honey or we last really good at this job when the war is over help take apart what wasn't needed and he refused to dismantle the aviation division probably thinking that if both fights were cool air we are wanted to enlist but it turns out if you're rich or useful they don't let you join the military and instead on as assistant secretary of the Navy where he did a lot of the things it to you guys nine eleven chant you have to do every fucking channels are aboard an eight thousand eighty two at Hyde Park New York right I have to point this out because I get so sick fucking here and it was two years between the time that the Lusitania went down and time we joined the PUCK and more so America Alabama are you in Kobe. Eleanor my inaugural balls. Leanne both fights were right yeah we like literally just invented airplanes so it's just a bunch of guys wooden squirrels slingshot Guy machine-gun taped to their battle exciting to watch I would one hundred like everything hurts and then descending recovery since that illness lasted more than twenty four hours not a hangover doctors diagnosed him with can job good day to you sir warm springs Georgia and then he founded the National Foundation for infantile paralysis which eventually led to the development of the polio vaccine. Wow Oh wow vice president was a job that people wanted rather than a weird consolation prize offered to tools whose primary function appears to be ribbon cutting at the Super Walmart grand opening about the same as the poor fucker came down with fever symmetric ascending paralysis facial paralysis Brian so at some point Jonas salk was like Dude Frankie check it out I invented the polio vaccine the great work that's awesome I'm really happy for the people who don't have polio they haven't really hard the second tier farm towns when we lost and since losing is boring unless you're Germany he returned to New York and approach Roosevelt advocated for unemployment insurance and established a State Employment Commission or as your uncle calls it socialism it was like Oh cool pretty sure I said cure I making issues and positions public and thereby control the narrative fireside chats to fire off tweets so far guys yeah we lots of money to do it and no interest in self indulgent pity party bullshit so he used his inheritance to hire a team of physical therapists he purchased Mary weather in and establish a rehabilitation center on all right so this is the time her story when FDR get sick like really really sick way more than actually a little more than Eli polio since after all the cool kids were getting and some now believe is symptoms for more closely matched gain Barr Syndrome but since Dr House wouldn't take the case we can't be really awkward in one thousand nine hundred eighty eight FDR won a landslide victory to become governor of New York securing the CPI a one percent margin as still are- side chats brought it all down everybody was he was left paralyzed from the waist down side no this was in one thousand nine hundred thousand one hit Matt Affairs for twenty years paralyzed from the waist down well several percent more than trump got burned off still you guys should have seen the crowd at the inauguration fucking here cert- it wasn't Lupus that's true it wasn't isn't what it is it's never lupus regardless of what his by wearing iron braces swindling his torso around and just since he was interested in the potential benefits of hydrotherapy he did what anyone would do we ping and peeing everywhere a lot like a numbness and then somehow the opposite of numbness which is hyper dijon remember he was a lawyer so we started doing that for Oh yeah you're fall Bekker's lawyer what was your safe school the SAR bone I'm sorry Rudy Julia Alternative facts were anyway fired up the radio and FDR began his fireside chats to not only reach its constituents but to pressure the legislature uh-huh and when Roosevelt ran again for governor his platform had become much more fully progressive. He was supportive infrastructure ah you know what else he was not he was not a whiner or coward guys paralyzed but he wanted to show everybody who is still strong so he taught himself to walk short distance he's not fucking lazy that's right we're lazy was about the only thing he wasn't fucking addicts like hydroelectric dams aid for farmers pensions for the elderly these crazy ideas one is second term by fourteen percent margin but let's not taking any of FDR's inauguration the Great Depression was at its worst two million people were homeless thirty two of the forty eight states had closed down their banks immediately FDR declared a four-day bank how didn't again on a platform of harebrained news which is securities regulation and tariff reductions in farm relief and government funded public works projects and he won all straighten up to strangle that motherfucker early presidential and why he doesn't wear it fucking lazy by nineteen thirty two hoover had failed to fix anything at all actually and FDR ran for prohibition so pretty good I eighteen days on yeah I gotta say the Gauntlet thrown though the next president has to beat that with Johny is a point point is cannot be hard to their remember when he was America's Mary for that in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine the Wall Street crash ripped through the American economy while Hoover Administration adopt today if you put your head under the blankets the monsters can't foreclose on your mortgage nextstep would obviously be to play golf at this point right but this was the nineteen thirties and I think being president used to be a full time job also we'll be I and pot legalization in the first seventeen Andrew Yang all day and passed the Emergency Banking Act which gave the president the power to open and close banks and gave to the Federal Reserve the authority to issue banknotes when the banks reopened the next Monday stock prices was fifteen percent bank deposits exceeded withdrawals and the bank panic was ended the nation needed to celebrate so the next week FDR signed the Cullen Harrison Act and ended federal fuck Mexicans would have done the trick probably wouldn't have bothered with all that other shit right you just know the secret yet there were there were no Mexicans in the list of people he was fucking earlier six and expanded the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to increase funding for railroad industry establish a Federal Trade Commission to provide mortgage relief to millions of farmers and homeowners thank you can take it back out even if Jimmy Stewart tries to give it away any created the security and Exchange Commission because he probably thought America didn't enjoy the first crash and and the public works administration to build big shit like roads and dams and all that stuff and civil conservation corps which hundred and fifty thousand young men to work on rural projects wanted to happen again so basically he created the Department of GOP wrangling yeah that's awesome and then we spent the next eighty five years what the fuck are you guys doing what did I just say trump's gonna get impeached and resigned suck it it might not have been an exhaustive list Canadians yeah I gotcha by the end of his second term but the end of hoover's turnaround of the banking system was in full collapse and by the time Ah yeah a speech on the Senate floor about like gutting dodd-frank some more FDR's going to drift into that shit and a Delorean bill literally to wonder what the experimentation it is common sense to take a method to try it if it fails admitted frankly and try a number but above all try something yeah at six states and this is a weird concept but also the popular vote though too that's cool now but to be fair though I'm surely it'd be realized it was a Tennessee Valley Authority which is a single largest federal infrastructure project in American history and then created social security because people can't work and young people don't want to visit them lessons from this clearly the American people want us to not solve their problems with the fuck sent me this jerk detained the skids people can't see at home so instead FDR establish the federal emergency relief administration and test the Agricultural Adjustment Administration to subsidize high commodities prices by paying farmers to restrict supply agricultural subsidies folks because via trust fucking conservative economists acting like they're free market iota is like do not there is no no and no doing dismantling it by we mean your shitty uncle who thinks that we're not so seriously any day now Mitch McConnell who's GonNa be giving and yet he's like crowd work economy I'm a right commonalities of the people bats the timeline I wanna live in so there's delorean's delorean yeah there's a stunning spectacular crazy amount more good either I've never worn black face it's basically qualified he wants sixty percent of the popular vote and he won every state except Maine and Vermont and it's reasonable to assert that those aren't even real estate's anyway well well and also I'm pretty sure Bernie already but if there's one thing we did learn from FDR we need to pack the court with a couple dozen cybernetic androids just no no nothing job you're any kind of do your job it's not nothing I'm so glad one person this and of his many policies Roosevelt said this quote the country needs and unless I mistake its temper the country demands bold persistent then and the American people were like now we're cool the cycle of trickle down economics and massive deregulation foul by an economic downturn every eight years more I will since government has no role ineffective governance FDR then sense true FDR then set about creating the FDIC which is why when you put money in the it doesn't disqualify us the problem I will Americans like the whole let's try to fix it approach and so they elected the shit out of mcgann in nineteen thirty six for example so that's not fair I have a sentence that has supreme court in the end that I smile about no skins would've been boring due to fine all right wars system and during this terrible rain of socialist terror park attendance went from three million a year to fifteen and a half million a year and then the parable of not a lot of golf burnout hips swing it to him it is true then he established a work progress administration and under his administration workers won the right to collective bargaining through unions the country was in Christ aw don't trust economy about nothing no fuck you Seinfeld School of economics no being rich urge mcduck was just sadly sitting on his diving board it's time for clapping ladies Socialists working for the CCC planted two billion stupid trees that no one wants and three thousand miles of trails and thousands of miles of roads audie lionel their ears no I can't boys now all right I'm not a disappointment to my dad we had Vermont locked down by the mid thirty stuff about the supreme court happened but I thought everyone here was have a good time so many in the national debt doubled from what it was under hoover nightmare scenario only buoy by an economy that grew fifty eight percent she's from I I am no you're not FDR expanded the national park and national they know the score playing right now I literally got to use this live show to watch discover crowd work eighteen thirty two to nineteen forty unemployment when FDR took office was twenty three and a half percent and is crazy policies only dropped that number ten percent by nineteen forty they can they hurry up in there my one man Improv shows

FDR polio Cousin Theodore Roosevelt Delo Franklin president New York James Roosevelt Sarah Germany Sarah FDR Brooklyn polio vaccine eleanor facial paralysis vice president Wikipedia Lucy Jonas salk BMW US Douglas rose
1932: Hoover vs. Roosevelt vs. Smith: Two Governors

American Elections: Wicked Game

45:06 min | 1 year ago

1932: Hoover vs. Roosevelt vs. Smith: Two Governors

"It's January nineteen eleven in Albany. New York. New York State Assemblyman Al Smith Strolls down the sidewalk and flashes his famous grin at the many passersby. AL's features are hard to miss. Here's a winning smile, a famously large nose and a big personality to match. As, he rounds the corner onto a busy street. L. Sees a familiar face. Wow, look at is. How do you? How do you do robber? Al Smith and Robert Wagner or long time friends, former roommates and fellow Democrats Al's the head of the New York state assembly's powerful ways and means committee, Roberts the president of the New York State Senate the Tammany twins as they're sometimes called, are deeply connected to Tammany Hall Democratic Party machine in New York out can tell from the look on his good friend Roberts face, though at all is not well. What's matter robbery? I'm on my way to call on a certain junior senator from New York USA. Causing problems ever since he arrived in Albany. aloes exactly who Robert is talking about. He's never met the man personally, but the freshman senators reputation precedes him. He's developed an annoying reputation for having scruples. What's he done now? He won't budge on Blue I billy. He's done in his heels. Blue Billy Sheehan is the former lieutenant governor of New York and Tammany Hall's choice to run for the US Senate in the upcoming election, but this annoying freshman senator standing in blue eyed billy's way Robert. You're one of the most powerful men in the state. Tell them the fall in line. He has a legion of supporters standing behind him out enough to block Sheen's path to the Senate on my way now to his house. Try and strike a deal. And since when do you make deals with freshmen senators? It's humiliating. But I don't think I have a choice. Al Things from on then. He offers up his services I believe. I'd like to join you Robert I. Ching for a fight, are we? Always. Not long after Robert and Al Arrive at the front steps of a nearby palatial townhouse on the corner of south, Swan and State Street, as they make their way up the front steps, I'll take in the opulent facade of the building. A state senator afford a place like this. His last name you know. After a few moments, the door creeks open, but it's not the freshman senators standing on the other side. It's a Butler and formal attire. May I help you? Gentlemen before Robert has a chance to answer. How cuts them off, senator? Wagner and Assemblyman Smith to see, Senator Roosevelt please. The butlers face falls into a confused expression. I know Mr. Roosevelt is expecting Senator Wagner, but Sir perplexed. The Butler trails off now flashes his famous mile. All that's alright. I'll brushes right past the Butler and barges inside I'll just come along, too. Throughout his career, Al Smith Love to tell the story of the night. He met Franklin Delano Roosevelt though I'll never divulge what transpired in their meeting. The facts point to a Roosevelt victory in January of nineteen eleven FDR he would come to be known, began his first term as a New York state senator. He'd been elected on a promise to go to bat for the American worker and Fight Against Tammany Hall the notoriously corrupt Democratic Party machine in New, York. FDR's mind, blue eyed billy she han, was the embodiment of that corruption and thanks to FDR Resistance Tammany Hall eventually drop. She had went in a different direction. But Al Smith, did not appreciate yards crusade. He wants said of him Franklin just isn't the sort of man you can take into the piss room and talk intimately with. But though they began as enemies, Al an FDR would eventually form an alliance. Our would learn to accept FDR scruples. FDR would learn to accept AL's pension for power together. The two New Yorkers would redefine New York. Politics changed the face of the Democratic Party and defined the nineteen thirty two election. I'm Lindsey Graham, and this is American elections wicked game. Al Smith. The son of Irish immigrants had truly come from nothing Babe Ruth, the famous baseball player admired AL's humble beginnings and wished him well. I wasn't fed with gold spoon when I was a kid. No poor boy can go any too high in this world to suit me. On the strength of his personality and hard work AL became powerful. New York State Assemblyman an effective New York County sheriff a beloved four term new? York governor and finally the nineteen twenty eight Democratic nominee for president after he lost that contest to Herbert Hoover, how took a lucrative job as president of the Empire State Building, but he never gave up on his dream of winning the White House. FDR On the other hand had been born into privilege and prestige, both his parents had come from wealthy. New York families after receiving a world class education at Harvard and Columbia Law School FDR had entered a career in politics. He served in the new. York state Senate and went on to become Woodrow Wilson's Assistant Secretary of the Navy and eventually governor of New York Right After Hal Smith but the two governors AL and FDR were not politically aligned on every issue though Al was a champion of labor. He was slightly more conservative and he was a Tammany Hall Man. FDR was progressive in the tradition of Woodrow Wilson. He was frequently a and Tammany Hall side. But over the years the two men formed deep bond and a lasting friendship, perhaps because both men were ambitious, both men cared about the plight of the Little Guy and both men knew what it meant to struggle. AL had risen to power in New York. Even in the face of widespread anti-catholic sentiment, he was a relentless politician who loved the limelight. His genuine affection for politics earned him the nickname, the happy warrior FDR was a warrior to he had fought through multiple illnesses. He contracted the Spanish flu and live to tell the tale only to be diagnosed with a severe muscular disease. Though at the time, doctors believed it was polio FDR symptoms were more consistent with Yamba Ray Syndrome FDR didn't lose his entire ability to walk, but he was extremely difficult, painful, and so FDR chose to use a wheelchair. After this polio diagnosis and retiring to a chair, many believed FDR's political career was over. But not how Smith after all won the Democratic presidential nomination in Nineteen, twenty eight, he announced his intention not to stand for re-election as governor of New York. Instead AL handpicked FDR to be his successor Al's endorsement and his ferocious campaigning on. FDR's behalf helped his friend win the governorship, what as the nineteen thirty two presidential election drew near the very ambition that I brought Al Smith and FDR together with threaten to render their friendship apart. Both men wanted the White House. To secure their party's nomination, the two titans of New York politics would sever their bonds of friendship and go to war at the Democratic National Convention. This is episode thirty, seven, nineteen, thirty, two hoover versus Roosevelt versus Smith to governors. On May first, nineteen, thirty, one, the Empire State building officially opened for business, the one hundred, two storey architectural marvel was a leftover symbol of the prosperity of the roaring twenties. It's very existence belied the harsh realities of the Great Depression, arguably the most devastating financial crisis in US history, the stock market crash of Nineteen, twenty nine, and the ensuing depression crippled the American economy on almost every level, and even as the empire. State building opened in May of nineteen thirty one. The tragedy of the depression was on. On full display, New York bred lines were long. Jobs were gone droves of homeless. Americans lived in central. Park Shacks and tents the depression had not stopped construction of the Empire State Building, but had severely reduced the need for office space, well over half of the offices sat empty, but former New York governor Al Smith. The president of the Empire State Building was a master of public relations, so on May first nineteen thirty one stage, a PR stunt. He invited his longtime friend current governor. Franklin Delano Roosevelt. As the two men stood on the observation deck of the eighty sixth floor, looking out over the city reporters fired off questions and photographer snapped away on the surface. It seemed to be a Happy Affair Al. Joyfully pointed out landmarks to FDR who walked with the help of leg braces as the two men studied themselves against the powerful gusting wind FDR told the press all I'm going to ask him to do is reserved for me office in this building so that when I leave all the I, we'll have someplace to go. Our replied about that office the next day. You're in town I, will have you down in the rental department. But underneath the smiles, tension was brewing when a reporter started to ask a question by saying governor Al Smith chimed in which one. Governor Roosevelt was housemates chosen heir. Al Had fully expected FDR to carry forward the torch. The legacy hid built over four terms in the governor's office. During his tenure in Albany, he accomplished a great deal pushed for social welfare programs, civil service reforms, and the creation of public parks and FDR had campaigned on a promise to finish what Al had started. He'd to modernize the government to expand its role as a bulwark to the private sector and beef up regulations, but FDR's first term started in January of Nineteen, twenty nine in just a few months, the stock market crash had brought FDR's plans to a screeching halt as Governor, Roosevelt worked to help new. York survived the depression. He now became increasingly estranged. The first big fight had been over alcohol throughout nineteen thirty one democratic party leaders across the country already had an eye on the upcoming nineteen thirty two election. One big question was whether or not the party platform shoot include the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, the constitutional prohibition, of Alcohol Ow and FDR had found themselves on opposite sides of the argument. Al Was a wet politician meaning. He was in favor of repealing the eighteenth. Amendment FDR was not dry politician. He was not a staunch supporter of the eighteenth amendment at all, but he was worried. The pushing for repeal was politically risky. FDR's mine. Talking about booze in the middle of a depression might alienate the Democrats base in the south. Mission still enjoyed strong support not to mention President Hoover and the Republicans were politically vulnerable as a result of the depression better to keep the conversation focused on the failure of Republican. Economic policy rather than to bring booze to the forefront and hand hoover a talking point. AL sought a different way. He believed the Republicans were vulnerable on prohibition as well in Alice Mind men like President Hoover were trying to have it both ways with booze. Republicans were wet in the north, and they were dry in the south. This house mine was hypocrisy and the Democrats needed to attack. It additionally could sense that the American people were growing tired of prohibition and tired of the Depression, making booze legal again and taxing. It might be a winning strategy. In early nineteen, thirty one, AL had worked through back channels to help push for an anti prohibition plank to be included in the nineteen thirty two democratic platform FDR, had worked through back channels to quietly kill it. Their fight had been about the politics of booze, but it had also been about something else. Who would occupy the White House? Both men wanted to be president. The summer of nineteen thirty FDR had told a friend I believe I can be nominated for the presidency in nineteen, thirty two on the Democratic ticket. Al Smith had already received his party's nomination in nineteen, twenty eight, and on the campaign trail he had suffered brutal attacks. Al Was Irish Catholic the son of immigrants throughout his career. This made him the frequent target of the K. k. k. and many in the southern press, and though at had lost to Herbert Hoover in nineteen, twenty eight by nineteen thirty one, he was ready to make another run. Though, neither man had publicly declared their intentions. Their scuffle over booze had drawn figurative line in the sand right down the middle of New York politics on one side stood FDR on the other. Al Smith in the end FDR had won the first battle over booze, but Al Smith would try to win the next battle over an entirely different issue trees. During his first term Governor Roosevelt had approved nearly twenty million dollars for reforestation in New York New Yorkers had to approve FDR's plan, but it looks poised to pass. The plan was beloved by many, and it enjoyed broad bipartisan support. During his four terms as governor, Al Smith had never taken a position on replanting trees, one way or the other, but in the fall of nineteen thirty one with the Democratic National Convention nine months away. He suddenly took an interest in a radio address from Carnegie Hall Al went on the attack. If FDR wanted to replant trees out charged, he shouldn't put it before the people for a vote, he should follow. The state. Constitution included it on the floor of the new. York state legislature. AL's public attack against FDR People's attention. A few days later, the Democratic Mayor of Chicago told The New York Times that the Democrats. Next presidential nominee should be a man of the Al Smith type in early November, nineteen, thirty one. The Times reported that als-. Tirade against the reforestation plan had been resented by Governor Roosevelt's friends who believe that it has shown definitely that Mr. Smith intends to do everything. He can't prevent Governor Roosevelt from obtaining presidential nomination. In the end Al's efforts to kill the reforestation plant fell flat. New Yorkers voted four yards plan, but he didn't take a victory lap though. FDR An olive branch on November? Eighteenth Nineteen thirty one FDR invited Al Smith to his town house in Manhattan on his way inside Al, told reporters I'm here to eat. Their launched lasted two hours, and afterwards both men told the press that they had discussed matters of state after the meeting. Al told a mutual friend by God. He did not mention to me the subject of his candidacy, but apparently out didn't mentioned the subject of his eyes. and. FDR was starting to get worried that. How might run against him? Ed Flynn New York Secretary of state was decided FDR man, but he was also Irish Catholic and Al was his good friend so when FDR asked Ed to pay Allah visit. Get some answers and Flynn was happy to oblige. And Al's office at the Empire State Building and asked him the million dollar question or you going to run? In response, how spread a stack financial documents across his desk and said Ed. These are all the debts. I must clear up financially. I am in an extremely bad position. It was definitely not yes, but it wasn't no either. I'll the master. Pr Knew that being cagey would fuel speculation in the Roosevelt camp and in the press. Not long after a false story, began to circulate in the papers that FDR had called Al Batin Governor in January of Nineteen, thirty to FDR told The New York Times. Any man who circulates a story of that kind is not only a liar, but as a contemptible liar that same month after are sent a letter to the Democratic, state committee in North Dakota accepting their endorsement for the presidential nomination. But after our was worried that AL believed the rumor in the papers, so he invited to meet with him in Albany. As a matter of protocol, he announced the imitation. The press AL's office released a statement politely declining. Then on February seventh AL, some reporters to his office at the Empire. State building, he said well here. It is boys. Me handed out copies of a brief statement. It read if the Democratic National. Convention should decide it wants me to lead I will make the fight. So the two governors were officially in the race FDR was perhaps the front runner, but to win the Democratic nomination. You would have to get the best of the Happy Warrior and in February of Nineteen. Thirty two L. Smith set out to do what he did. Best play the press like a fiddle. It's February eighth nineteen, thirty, two in New York City at the newly erected empire state building. Former New York governor Al Smith Rides the elevator up to his office. He's dressed in funeral, tired of black suit and a black top hat earlier today Al attended the funeral of Tammy. Hall figurehead John Voorhees there. He ran into governor. Roosevelt, the two men exchange a few private words, even though he's dressed for a funeral alice, still all smiles cigar hangs from his smirking. That's because Al knows his running with Roosevelt at the funeral is already the talk of the town. Mr Smith Mrs Smith. Follow me boys. Alleanza a large crowd reporters to his office. Once inside he removes his top hat. Gar and he flashes the reporters his famous smile all right all right now. Who has questions for me? This myth one at a time. Boys y'all. Get your chance. You Mr Smith. Have you received any telegrams? Offering congratulations, yes, as a matter of fact I have. Would you be willing to share? Yes, as a matter of fact, I would. Our reach for a stack of telegrams on his desk. This one here's from fellow from Scranton Pennsylvania by the name of John Durkin. It says Atta, boy, how? All smiles I'll take solarge stacking his hands and shows it to the reporters. There's plenty more where that came from. Is there one from Governor Roosevelt? For just a moment, the smile falls from Alice face. Then he replies with a twinkle in his mouth. There's so many in here. Haven't read them all yet. What Mr Roosevelt say you at the funeral. He asked me to come up to the house. Did you I did? Right after the funeral out did accompany Roosevelt to his home on east sixty fifth street. The man talked for nearly an hour. And what did you discuss? Alice enjoying this. He loves being the center of tension toying with press. It was all social mono. Do you expect us believe politics didn't come up at all. If you won't take my word for house, Mr Roosevelt. was there anything that happened or anything that might happen. That would cause you to withdraw your name from the race. I can only speak for today. A reporter for the New York Times took al up on his suggestion after the Q. and A. and als- office. The reporter contacted Roosevelt's office and ask for the governor's version of their meeting. When the reporter told a staffer that Al Smith had called the meeting Social Roosevelt staffer replied then it was social. Whatever Smith says on the subject goes. Al Smith Soiree with a gaggle of reporters was big news, and in the lead up to the Democratic national. Convention how do his damnedest to stay in the spotlight behind closed doors? You do everything in his power to deny FDR, the nomination and keep the top spot for himself. For Democrats across the country, the choice between Al Smith and FDR was not a simple one, and it was a choice. The party desperately needed to get right in the seventy years since the Civil War Democrats had produced only to successful candidates. Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson. Republican prosperity had trump the democratic agenda time and time again. But in the election of nineteen, thirty, two Republican prosperity was over and President Herbert Hoover was vulnerable. The American banking system had collapsed. Businesses were failing. Wages were down and jobs non. As unemployment skyrocketed to twenty five percent to a large extent Americans blamed Herbert Hoover the shantytowns, cropping up across the country from New York to California were nicknamed Hoover Villes, but the anti hoover sentiment didn't stop the Republicans from standing by their man at the Republican National. Convention in June of Nineteen. Thirty to the party renominated Herbert Hoover and his Vice President Charles Curtis. Leaders did their best to quite descent and focused on hoover's core message solving the economic crisis by balancing budgets. Prior to the depression hoover had been a popular president and he had beaten Smith in the nineteen twenty eight contests by a landslide hoover had fared well in the south in large part because Al represented many things, the southern people largely didn't like he was Irish. Who Was Catholic? He was anti prohibition in Nineteen thirty too many Democrats. especially FDR supporters were worried about history repeating itself so in the run up to the Democratic convention FDR supporters were working behind the scenes to make sure Al Smith's nomination was dead on arrival, but to get the best of AL FDR had to Win New York and they're FDR had a serious problem. New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker. Going into the convention, FDR was in a tight spot. For many democratic reformers at Dr had turned into a shell of his former self. He wants been a champion of the Little Guy Unafraid to stand up to the corruption of Tammany Hall by Nineteen, thirty to FDR had changed. He was aware of certain political realities. If he fought too hard against Hammy Hall he risked losing. New, York and handing the nomination to Al Smith. Corruption in the empire. State was a tale as oldest time and if New York. City was the epicenter of that corruption New York. City mayor Jimmy Walker was the dirtiest of the bunch prior to the Convention Governor. Roosevelt had been reluctant to go after mayor. Walker fearful of angering Tammany Hall, but under pressure from reformers, FDR eventually buckled and opened an investigation into New, York. City, corruption from any Tammany Hall politicians, FDR had gone too far and for many reformers had not gone far enough. In February nineteen, Thirty Two New York, prosecutor Samuel Seabury told The New York Times Tammy's power drives public men whose instincts would lead them to speak out and protest against corruption that has been revealed to a sullen silence. They know the conditions are evil, but they fear to antagonize the power of Tammany Hall. Any contemporary reader would have known to whom Seabury was referring FDR, certainly new, but FDR seabury statement wasn't just a thesis against corruption. It looked to Roosevelt as Seabury was trying to make a play for the nineteen thirty two democratic nomination. In June of nineteen thirty two seabreeze sent Governor, Roosevelt the letter, laying out the case for removing Mayor Walker on grounds of corruption. The timing was suspicious. The Democratic National Convention was set to take place in Chicago in a matter of weeks, and not long after seabreeze sent the letter, Democratic delegates began receiving what was in effect campaign literature about Seabury the great champion of reform. CBS's Leonard backed FDR into a corn. Would he go after Walker and risk alienating? Tammany Hall, or would he give Walker a pass and inflame the reformers? FDR struggled with the decision. He told the press never has the governor been asked to remove elective officer on such evidence, so FDR chose a third option. He put the ball in walkers court just before the convention FDR sent Mayor Walker series letter and told the mayor he awaited his reply while FDR awaited mayor walkers next move behind the scenes at the convention out. Smith was making moves of his own. GOING INTO CHICAGO FDR had a large block of delegates pledged to his side more than Al and the rest of the potential nominees combined, but al was determined to win or at the very least to prevent FDR from winning. To steal the nomination from Roosevelt I'll needed to win the state of California, the California delegation was largely under the control of William Gibbs mcadoo A prominent California lawyer to win California Al Needed mcadoo in his corner, but mcadoo despise. Dow in the nineteen, twenty four election mcadoo had wanted the Democratic nomination himself, but how had blocked his path? So I'll had to try and make nice a few days before the first gavel of the convention, how mcadoo met in private in the closed-door meeting, AL failed to secure Macanese support, but he had extended a peace offering. He had done his best to ensure the. California would not support Governor Roosevelt. L. Smith's biggest boost. Oh, had come from prosecutors Samuel Seabury. Delegates worry that seabreeze letter would make Governor Roosevelt vulnerable in the general election in order to beat president. Hoover Democrats needed to Win New York. Mayor Walker was extremely popular all across the state, but then again the evidence against him was so significant. The Governor Roosevelt could not ignore it forever. You would have to do something and when he did, delegates worried the Democrats in new. York would stay home on election day. Hand the contest to hoover. The Democratic National Convention began in late June one thousand, nine, hundred, eighty two balloting started on June thirtieth and lasted late into the night when the New York delegation was called, they began a voice vote, mayor and delegate Jimmy. Walker's name was called, but there was no answer. Jimmy Walker was MIA. Many wondered if Walker had fled the country to escape prosecution. What in the wee hours of the morning Jimmy? Walker would make his presence known. It's before dawn on July first nineteen thirty two. The weary and exhausted. Democratic delegates are packed inside. Chicago Stadium Balloting state by state has a long arduous process one that's lasted all through the night new. York's delegates have just finished a dreadfully boring voice vote. Most of the delegates in the stadium are doing everything they can not not off. Convention Chairman Thomas J Walsh stands at the podium onstage just as he opens his mouth to deliver the result of New York's ballot. A voice calls out from the hall. Chairman Stadium stirs slightly. The delegates are awakened from their boredom walsh. squint the man standing at the microphone. The crowd is too far away to be seen. Who is the gentleman who addresses the chair Walker delegate from New York? Stadium Robson gasps and murmurs at the Convention Walker hadn't been seen. He even missed his chance to vote, but walkers, the kind of man who likes to make an entrance when the roll call was underway, he slip in unnoticed, noticed to spring this surprise. For what purpose does he address the chair? The delegate was not here when his name was called, his alternate voted in his stead. The delegates now here in request permission to cast his own vote request is granted. Walker's fate is in the hands of Governor Roseville FDR has been breathing down Walker snack about the charges of corruption levelled against him, so walker has a choice peace with FDR or war. Walker Leans in close to the MIC and speaks clearly and decisively this delegate cast his vote for Alfred p Smith. Mayor Jimmy. Walker's dramatic appearance brought the tired delegates back to life as the New York Times reported a thunder of applause that followed was spontaneous. Genuine hearty delegates shouted at each other dance, cheered, declaring and less than refined terms that Walker had intestinal fortitude. All were aware that the mayor's fate was resting in the hands of Governor Roosevelt. With his vote Walker had publicly flouted the investigation and dared FDR to come after him. Governor Roosevelt's back against the wall, creating an opening for AL to exploit. The first day of balloting at the Democratic National Convention officially ended around seven Am Jill I, I nine, hundred, thirty two. After the delegates, votes were counted FDR, was clearly in the lead, but he was short of the two-thirds majority required to win Al Smith was in a distant second place, but thanks in part to Mayor Walker. I'LL HAD NEW YORK in his corner. FDR supporters assumed that after the first ballot, the delegates behind the minor candidates would switch their votes to the front runner, but they didn't leaving the FDR camp deeply concerned and Al. Smith feeling confident that he had FDR right where he wanted him. From a strategic standpoint AB leave that if California got behind him, the rest of the up for grabs, states would follow suit through back channel intermediaries. He sent an offer to William Gibbs. mcadoo, if California pledged her votes to Al Makhudu, and his friends would be mightily rewarded, but mcadoo did not trust out. He had been burned by him one too many times. mcadoo did trust speaker of the House John, Garner of Texas. An Al Smith believed that if Garner told mcadoo to fall in line. To do it in the name of Party unity, additionally Garner would bring Texas delegates with him, so al sought to give Garner something. He desperately wanted more power. To broker, a deal I'll lean on one of his closest political advisers, someone the New York Times once called the most powerful woman in politics. Belle Moskowitz at AL's behest Moskowitz picked up. The phone dialed Garner's hotel in Chicago, and asked to speak to the Texas representative after placing her on a brief hold. The hotel employee told Moskowitz. You may tell Governor Smith at Speaker Garner is here the reason you can't get him is that he refuses to answer the phone. FDR was having better luck while Al set his sights on William Gibbs. mcadoo after our was focused on another. California powerbroker William Resolve. The powerful media mogul from San Francisco like mcadoo hearst had been burned by Smith before two in the nineteen twenties. Hurston made a run for US Senate in New York. ow had torpedoed his chances in retaliation hearst, and has many newspapers had shunned Allen the nineteen twenty eight election and supported Herbert Hoover instead. FDR supporters sought to use hearst's animus and his influence to FDR's vantage. But hearst was not an FDR fan in his mind FDR was to progressive too much of an internationalist and the tradition of Woodrow Wilson, but I was a supporter of Speaker of the House John Garner, and in the end, his hatred for AL, Smith would prove greater than his reservations of FDR. Hearst met in private with one of FDR surrogates to entertain often, if the California delegation backed FDR Garner would be named vice president, and so the outcome of the nineteen thirty, two Democratic convention would be decided by one of Al Smith's greatest political enemies. In the home. Stretch of the Convention William Randolph hearst would have his revenge on the happy, Warrior. It's July second nineteen, thirty, two at a hotel room in Chicago Illinois at the nearby Shot Stadium Democratic delegates are desperate to break the gridlock and choose a nominee. Former New York governor Al Smith hasn't left this room has Chicago headquarters all day just this morning. The room was bustling with well-wishers. Does fans now it's all but empty safer, a handful of loyal staffers. Alice pacing, chomping on his cigar. Paul that radio in here. Yes sir! About an hour ago, AL's campaign received word that speaker of the House John. Garner switched his vote to Governor Roosevelt Word at the Convention is Roosevelt is flying into Chicago from New York to receive his party's nomination in person. No presidential nominee in history has ever been so bold Garner switch orchestrated by William Randolph. Hearst is a crushing blow, but it is not defeat not yet. They're still shred of HOPE AL has lost. Taxes would have California remains oil. He might be able to block FDR's to victory. Turn it up we'll you. Staffer turns up the volume on the radio as former Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAfee, hand of the California delegation takes the podium. They. Both thank you for the privilege of according to me. To say just a word and explaining the both. Of State of California. Don't worry about that. California came here nominated president of. The United. States he did not from here that this convention. Convention Real seven hundred. Blood Center favor. I take as indicative of the. Of the country for that candidates these. Nomination. He shakes his head in disgust. Pack it up, everyone. We're going home. One of our staffers nervously approaches the former governor. He's about to bring up a topic. He knows our won't like conceding. If you throw your support behind. Governor. Roosevelt the nomination would be unanimous so in the interest of Party unity, but al faults is arms defiantly. I won't do it. I won't do it. I won't do it. The staffers get the message and they get to work packing the campaign, literature banners and important papers. Just as they finish boxing up the office official word comes down over the radio votes, Chad. Hundred and forty eight and one half. Necessary to a choice seven hundred and sixty six. Zero Zero. Having received more than two thirds of all the delegates voting. For played them the. Convention for. The, United States. At about that time, as daughter enters the room immediately, she can tell her father is inconsolable, so she quietly escorts amount of the Barron headquarters down the hall toward the Elevator. As, they step inside. She asks what now father. Going to bed. William Randolph hearst came through for FDR. He brokered the deal and delivered the California delegation with enough delegates for FDR to secure the required two-thirds majority in exchange speaker John Garner was named FDR's vice presidential running mate not long after mcadoo speech al-f Chicago and returned to new. York to lick his wounds once back home. He told the press. I am tired, just WANNA get arrest. The rumors. Smith heard that day in Chicago were True Roosevelt. Did fly from New York to Chicago to accept the nomination in person, the first nominee in history to ever do so. In the Stadium Roosevelt made his case I have thought it out on task. Ahead. By breaking the absurd prediction. That the candidate. George remain in professed ignorance of what has happened for week. I'd Ilias formally notified of that event many weeks later. You have nominated me. And I know it. And I am here to thank you for the OUGHTA. Let, it also be symbolic. Knowing? Pro, predict. Let. It be from now on the task of our Party. Break. Related today. I went five so. Way New deal while the American people. The win-. Profane. America. People. After Roosevelt's speech, the band played FDR campaign song. Happy days are here again, Al Smith was most assuredly not happy with the outcome of the convention but President Herbert Hoover was hoover believed that the Democrats had made a fatal mistake by nominating FDR in Hoover's mind FDR was far too progressive for the average American, if hoover could turn the economy around before November, he believe he stood a fighting chance, though his official headquarters were in Chicago, hoover conducted his campaign from the White House often making radio addresses and holding press events in the Rose Garden, but in the summer of nineteen thirty two hoover's campaign plans were interrupted by a political invasion. In June, a group of over forty thousand unemployed World War One veterans had marched on Washington. The bonus army as they were called, demanded the early release of bonus pay. They were promised for their service to the country. Congress had passed a bonus bill a year earlier authorizing the early release of the bonus funds, but hoover had vetoed it at their camp near downtown Washington bonus. Army protesters were demanding their money. Their slogan was in hoover. We trusted now. We're busted. Worried about Communist influence hoover ordered the secret service to create the ranks of the bonus army. The agents found that while some communists had joined the protesters, they were not a substantial threat, but the secret service did recommend hoover minimize his appearances always bad news for a president in a campaign year. Had largely avoided conflict with bonus, army protesters until July twenty, eighth, nineteen, thirty two, when a fight broke out between the veterans and local police shots were fired. One protester was killed. The army was deployed to support the Washington police and with tear-gas plumbing downtown. The bonus army camp suddenly went up in flames. Government officials claim the protesters started the fire many in the press blame the government troops hoover many in his administration blamed the communist infiltrators. The skirmish made front page news. All across the country public was outraged. One reporter, who had been injured in the scuffle wrote the had nothing but bitter feelings towards Herbert. Hoover. Hoover FDR had also opposed the early release of the Bonus Army Funds. It was an astronomical sum of money equal to the federal budget for entire year, but FDR like most Americans could not understand why. Hoover had deployed the military against military veterans FDR had always held hoover in high esteem, but after the bonus army debacle, FDR recanted saying there was nothing left inside the man but jelly. Maybe there never had been anything. The bonus army incident all, but tanked Herbert hoovers, reelection prospects, but it also gave FDR political cover to deal with problem that he'd been neglecting. Mayor Walker President Hoover was now vulnerable, but in order to ensure victory after you are needed to Win New York and going to war with new. York City's Popular Irish Catholic mayor, a man who was well entrenched in Tammany Hall was a risky move if New, York's Irish population sat out the election. Who Could Win New York? Still the evidence of corruption against Walker was to damning to ignore so in August of nineteen, thirty to FDR, summoned Walker to Albany and confronted him. The meeting and FDR's office was contentious Walker left in a huff. On, September, first nineteen, thirty, two one of FDR. Supporters begged the nominee not to confront Walker. When FDR refused to back down, his supporters angrily asked so you'd rather be right than president, but in the end FDR wouldn't have to make a decision in just a few days Walker resigned. It wasn't out of the blue, though there was a man behind his decision Al Smith. In late August Al had put the screws to walk in a private meeting at the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan. Allen told him Jim. You're through by convincing Walker to resign hours tacitly helping FDR win the general election, and in the end for the Happy Warrior party loyalty trumped any ill will. He felt for Roosevelt. ALLL SMITH AND FDR officially buried the hatchet in October of nineteen, thirty, two at the Democratic State Convention Albany on stage in front of a massive crowd of delegates, photographers and reporters Allah approached. FDR extended his hand and said Hello Frank I'm glad to see you. FDR replied Hello Al. I'm glad to see you too. And that's from the heart. One reporter in the audience wrote that Al called FDR and old potato term of endearment from an Irish Catholic and a clear signal to Irish voters where the reporter got. That story is unclear. Al Had not called him an old potato, but the story caught on like wildfire. FDR's victory was all but assured, but in late October two weeks before election day FDR went in for the kill in front of a crowd of over ten thousand FDR, abandoned his previous caution, and came out strong against prohibition he called for the restoring of the legal production of beer and taxing to help pull America out of the depression. The crowd went wild chanting. We want beer and pour it on. And if Al Smith had been there, he might have smiled. It might be argued that in the nineteen thirty two election Americans didn't vote for FIAR. As much as they voted against Herbert, hoover the minds of many hoover was responsible for the great, depression and the bonus army debacle, an only added fuel to the fire. Hoover's lackluster noncommittal position on prohibition didn't do him. Any favors either. In the previous election in one, thousand, nine, hundred, twenty, eight hoover had one forty one states in one, thousand, nine, hundred, thirty, two, one, only six, an all in the northeast. Athey are won in a landslide that cut across all regions of the country. He won over twenty, two million popular votes and four hundred seventy two electoral votes. FDR The candidate had promised the American people a new deal. During his first term, democratic majorities in both houses after yard, the president were largely deliver in his first one hundred days, he expanded government agencies and programs throughout his first term. He used the government, not big business as a tool to pull America out of the Great Depression FDR's new deal earned him the love. The American people the era of Republican dominance in American politics was over and the era of Franklin. Delano Roosevelt and arrived. On the next episode of wicked game, the election of nineteen, thirty six, as FDR pushes his progressive agenda, Republicans turn to a progressive candidate of their own. Kansas Governor Al Landon as land and the Republicans push to make the election a referendum on fiscal responsibility FDR defense, his new deal against a slew of opponents, including his longtime rival and sometimes friend former governor Al Smith. Smith don't miss a single week of our march from seventeen, eighty nine to twenty twenty hit the subscribe button and your podcast APP now. This show is supported by you. Our listeners please give us a rating lever review, but the single best way to help. This show is to tell others share with your friends and family. Find US on social media at wicked Game Pot. Pot and I'm at Lindsey Graham another way to support this show is to go to wicked game podcast DOT COM members there get early access to the episodes as well as bonus content, only available to members find out more at wicked game podcast, dot com, and about our reenactments. In most cases we can't know exactly what was said, but everything in our show is heavily. Heavily researched based on surviving historical documents, wicked game is an airship production created hosted an executive produced by me Lindsey Graham sound design by Derek Barons, who executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions, this episode written and researched by Stephen Walters fact checking by Greg Jackson. Let's Yell Salazar from the PODCAST history. That doesn't suck music by Lindsey Graham stripped by wondering.

FDR Al Smith Franklin Delano Roosevelt New York City AL Al Assemblyman Smith President Herbert Hoover New York president York hoover FDR Resistance Tammany Hall FDR The New York Times California Tammany Hall als- office Chicago
Fala: FDRs Scottie

Dog Tales

33:06 min | 1 year ago

Fala: FDRs Scottie

"September nineteen forty four President Franklin Delano Roosevelt sat behind a bevy. Bevy of microphones during the campaign dinner with the International Brotherhood of Teamsters Union. He had been sick for much of the year but tonight the president and was sharp and witty normally a speech about absentee ballots and campaign. Finance reform would be dry and dull but with FDR Firing on all cylinders. It was electric however he needed a surefire closing to bring it home so the president relied on his most trusted ally his four year old Scottish terrier Falah. FDR Dryly retold would've vicious rumor that he had accidentally left fallow on the Aleutian islands and send a US Navy destroyer back to retrieve the dog at a cost of up to twenty nineteen million taxpayer dollars. He told the rapt audience. I don't resent attacks. And my family doesn't present attacks but fowler does resent them laughter broke out as usual. He'd nailed the speeches closer in a presidency marked by historic speeches. The so-called Falah speech went on to become one of his most well-known Roosevelt won that historic fourth term in office and Falla helped him do it. Welcome to dog tales. Apar- cast original every week. We tell the stories of historic heroic canines. We'll profile dogs to save. People from earthquakes went to outer space. Ace and even spurred the invention of Velcro if you're looking for fun stories in a warm heart you're barking up the right tree. I'm your host Alistair. You can find episodes of dog tales and all other podcast originals for free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream dovetails for free on spotify. Just open the APP and type dog tales in the search Bar Apple podcast with grateful for you our listeners. You hours to do what we love. Let us know how we're doing wing reach out on facebook and Instagram at podcast and twitter at podcast network. And if you enjoyed today's episode the best way to help old deliver five star review wherever. You're listening this week. We're telling the story of fallow the Scottish terrier and a special special bond he built with his own. Ah President Franklin Delano. Roosevelt follows journey took him from humble farm dog to hubbing with world probably does and even to the most important and I'd leadership summits of World War Two. On April seventh nineteen forty a litter of Scottish terriers was born on a new New York farm. Their owner Mrs Augustus G Kellogg gifted one of the puppies named big boy to her friend Margaret suk-lee with his stout body thick coats and long face. Big Boy was the perfect image of the Scottish terrier breed. Even if he didn't act like the typical Scotty the breed is known for their independent and confident attitudes but not necessarily for their ease with strangers but big speak boy was an exception he was an attention seeking good natured. Puppy Margaret's quickly took too big boy. She began training him him. He learns new tricks easily. The terrier was a social butterfly. A constant ham who loved the limelight. Not Unlike her beloved cousin President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during. FDR's Rehab following his one thousand nine hundred ninety one polio. Diagnosis Margaret was one of his most constant companions. That bond had only grown over the years and Margaret wanted to give if the president a gift to celebrate his victory in the nineteen forty election where he won his third term as president of the United States Margaret thoughts big boy was the perfect choice but FDR wife. Eleanor wasn't so sure or about the appropriateness of having a dog in the White House. More of the business part net than a romantic one ELLENA was worried about keeping up appearances and showing strength think especially as World War. Two raged and America was on the verge of entering the fray. She was afraid that the adorable Scotty might like give off the wrong image but the president insisted and eleanor relented. Big Boy became part of the first family. FDR loved everything about big boy except the name big boy was not. Don't a presidential Monica given his own. Scottish Heritage Roosevelt decided to name the dog after distant relative. Big Boys New name name would be married. The outlaw of follow hill which was quite a mouthful to say every time he needed cool for the dog so they shortened it to fallow the newly christened puppy and the newly re christened president quickly became Powell's every morning and the White House. FDR would ring his service bell three times for his breakfast. His order was consistent eggs and toast with ham or Bacon delivered to his room. But it wasn't only for him. It was breakfast for two whatever. FDR didn't eat Falah. Faleh would gladly finish follow. Didn't have to rely on scraps from FDR's plate though the kitchen stuff was so smitten with the terrier that they sent him a bone on a silver platter. Every morning and it wasn't just the kitchen stuff that fell for Fowler. All of the White House did. FDR's cousin Margaret Taught Fowler plenty of tricks and everyone loves to see the dog perform. There were the standard ones. Sit Rollover stand but there was one unusual trick that would delight. Everyone who met fallow Margaret taught Falah how to smile with his pearly whites flashing and pink tongue lolling Falah could melt anyone's heart and whether he was wondering the walls of the White House or Interrupting Meeting Meeting in the Oval Office Falah and his big smile loved being the center of attention a Time magazine. Zien photographer noted that whenever the president sat for a photograph Falah would Russian and join his master. Striking oppose by the president's side Fowler. Got More face time with the president than any of his friends advises all Cabinet members anytime there was an official meeting Fallah Saleh was there as well. FDR practiced what historian. Warren Kimball called creative procrastination. He was always trying to downplay dramatic events. If the problem was met with confrontational panic. It only made things worse instead of getting mad. The President Favored de escalation tactics to keep a room. COM Fallah's constant presence made that positive governing easy. He was a welcome distraction anytime. FDR needed to lighten the mood with Falla in his corner. The president no longer had to rely on his quick wit all Aquarius nurse to refocus a conversation. He had weaponized cuteness at his disposal. That's not to say that. FDR Only light having fowler around because he was a useful political tool the president took great joy in making others happy and loved how much -Joy Fowler brought people and with tragedy about to strike. The American people would need all the joy fowler could give coming up foul goes international as America Enters World War Two. I'm Doug Tales disappointed by better help online counseling whether it's a loose soft wiggly body a wagging ragging tail or rolling on its back belly. rubs dogs have an amazing ability to signal to us. When they're happy they don't fake it? People are another story story sometimes. We present a happiest self to others even though deep down when not okay. There's no shame in asking for help and better help. nope makes it easier for you to get the help you need. They have licensed counselors who specialize in issues ranging from depression anxiety and stress trauma grief anger and family relationships. You can talk to your counselor privately by video session or phone session. If you're not ready lever that you can just chat or taxed and everything you share is confidential better. Help is all about letting you get help on your own time time at your own pace. And at an affordable rate. It's a safe way to reach out and you can do it from the comfort of your own home. Doke doc tells. Listeners will get ten percent of their first month with Discount Code Dog Tales. That's better help dot com slash dog tales or one word. Why not get help? Better help dot com slash dog tales. Now back to the story after. FDR's cousin Margaret Gave Falah to him as a congratulatory present in the fall. One thousand nine hundred forty. It didn't take little Scottish terrier long to win over the entire White House. Fowler was well aware of his favorites status and exploited it every chance he got he constantly roamed the halls of the west wing looking for a mock an unsuspecting secretary or a garden in an empty hallway. It didn't matter who as long as they had food Falah would prance up. PLOP himself down right in front of his new friend friend at begin his routine I the park just to draw the eye often that was enough to earn a treat. But if that didn't work he had all those tricks. Margaret taught him back. In New York sit roll over stand and of course the closer smiling Fowler became so adept at winning troops from the White House staff that he puts on a few pounds. The Little Scotty was getting well not not so little anymore. In one thousand nine hundred forty one fowler began to eat so much so often that he got sick while FDR understood stood the irresistibility of Falah. He couldn't have his little buddy falling ill so made the tough coal and lay down new ground rules for stuff off no more feeding Falah and a new rule for no more wandering around alone. The president decided to keep deep follow with him no matter way he went if follow was as popular outside. The White House is in it. FDR would never have to be without his best friend. The president was keen on sneaking out afternoon drives around Washington. DC In his Ford convertible Falah became a feature on his circuits. The first dog would get smiles and waves from everyone. The spotted them. FDR Auto delighted in the attention. That Little Scotty received Saleh's travels soon expanded beyond the simple writes in the Ford. He started accompanying the president on fishing trips to Florida and his retreats to the Little White House in Warm Springs Georgia that the president found relief from his polio. By swimming. And the results pool and lounging in the hot springs from which the town drew its name and while the pools healed FDR buddy fowler healed the president's so that tight bond quickly became closer than any of FDR human connections the nation took I notice as beloved as FDR was the pup as FDR would often refer to him was even more popular as fallow spent more time in public by FDR side lettuce specifically addressed to the pup poured in from all across the country at one point Fowler received more mail than the president. The demand for Fallon's attention became so great that the pub- even had his own secretary to sort through it all for him fowler. The humble femme dog had become an American sensation and the president would would need that fame to help calm an incredibly tense nation by early nineteen forty one world war two was consuming consuming much of Europe. While some Americans wanted to join the fight many others wanted to avoid the conflict justice fowler had calm tensions in the Oval Office he was bringing a calming presence to the American people. One day while Margaret suk-lee was dog sitting sitting for the president. She took ballet for a long walk while he explored a patch of grass. A group of soldiers passed by upon seeing the Scotty. Not One of them lit up in a huge Grin Falla Falla. He called out before going on his way. Margaret couldn't help but smile. The soldier didn't know he was calling out to the actual Falah. The president was in another country and there was no security detail for Margaret Fowler had just becomes so popular that that soldier every Scotty was just like lassie. became shorthand for any rough collie eight and Rin Tin. Tin was called out to any passing. German shepherd. Fowler was now the nickname of any Scottish terrier the demand on Fowler was huge even Hollywood noticed. MGM created a short film about the Scotty called follow the president's dog they showed Fowler doing all of his best tricks and even had a quick little story of the pup looking for a canine companion. The movie was a hit America. America could not get enough of Fallah but as nineteen forty one came to a close president. Didn't Roosevelt could no longer shift the public focused to his dog on December seventh nineteen forty one the Japanese bombed and Paul Harbor with America officially at War President Roosevelt had a lot or traveling to do international leaders is he had to see smoky. Backroom deals to make and intercontinental strategies to develop but anyone who thought the president might change his governing style. Once he was at all was sorely mistaken Fallah was still present in cabinet meetings. Still running around the White House behind the president's wheelchair and whenever possible. The dog was right by the president's side on international trips fallow fallow accompanied. FDR Two meetings for the president of Mexico and had his photo taken with Winston Churchill and as usual fallow was always weights. Hamming it up looking to insert himself into a state photo or jump into a dignitaries lap throughout nineteen forty two and nineteen forty-three world. War Two took its toll on the nation and the world as is the United States fourteen Europe and the Pacific Roosevelt was constantly pulled in a dozen directions and Falla loyally followed followed in the fall of nineteen forty three British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Soviet Union Marshall Joseph Stalin and US president. Franklin Roosevelt met at the Tehran conference. This was no myth photo op. The three allied leaders were here to approve the invasion vision of Normandy. What we now know as d day fallow was there for the whole conference? There were of course times when Falah couldn't accompany the president during his travels on those rare occasions. President Roosevelt entrusted fallow with the one person he knew loved and cared for the dog as much as he did. His cousin Margaret Sickly. But even for someone he knew and trusted trusted as much as Margaret. FDR Left explicit instructions. Under no circumstances. Could she leave. The dog locked up in a pen. She had to take fallow Allah with her wherever she went even to her job as an archivist at Roosevelt Library through through the next year. The ravages of war took their toll on FDR by the spring of nineteen forty four. The president was noticeably weaker weeker. He was constantly tired and the never ending travel and heavy workload were wearing him down. His health troubles began with a bounce. Ounce of the flu which then spread to a case of bronchitis which never fully seemed to go away. Even worse he soon learned he was suffering from from heart disease and arteriosclerosis. Something had to be done. Dr Howard. Bruin who handled the day to day business of the president's residents health setup daily checkups but he noticed that FDR never had questions regarding his heart in fact he really had any questions at all instead. He liked to talk about fallow with. FDR moved focused on Fowler than his health. The president's doctors and the first lady began to whittle down his schedule. Eleanor took to handling the presidency social aspects. She would wined and dined nine. Those that didn't require the attention of the man trying to save the world but hiding his illness was becoming coming increasingly difficult on the world stage. He was bedridden for large parts of the day and even though he established a new routine he wasn't happy with it. FDR was notorious for keeping his thoughts and plans close to the vest and that included his own wellbeing but the deception option still weighed heavily on him more than ever FDR needed the feeling of normalcy in dealing with the physical ravages of illness and the psychological ones have leading country at war. The president needed a confidant. Someone who could find comfort and trust in but FDR didn't have many personal connections. What he had though was Falla in the face of his weakened state eight and international uncertainty fallow was always a constant companion and the president would need the pop now more than ever uh as hectic has his life was it was about to get even harder for FDR the fight for his fourth term in office? It was about to begin coming up sparks a national controversy and changes the course course of a historic presidential election now back to the story. During the summer of of nineteen forty four President Franklin Delano Roosevelt was fighting for his life but with the fates of the free world steak his illness. This was a closely guarded secret. As the president helped plan the Allied invasion of Normandy. His Dog Fallah remained by his side. He was the only companion. FDR could fully trust on Tuesday. June six nine thousand nine hundred forty four. The allied forces invaded the beaches of Normandy. The tide of World War to turned in the allies favor. The success of the invasion had president Roosevelt in good spirits but his health remained poor for someone in his condition. Doing one job would be difficult enough. But with his next presidential campaign ramping up he had had to the problems for the president weren't just overseas. Nineteen forty four was also an election year but FDR fifty on soldiered on. He was the commander in chief he had to. And even though the fighting was starting to calm down in Europe he had yet another other front to worry about the Pacific. It was late. July nineteen eighteen forty four the sailors aboard the USS Baltimore weren't sure why they were called into port in San Francisco all why they were having to do renovations against the destroyer in such quick order but when they were instructed to build a wooden ramp for boarding they suspected that they might have have a very special guest joining them soon. Their suspicions were confirmed when the world's most famous Scotty trotted up the ramp moments later. President Roosevelt himself arrived. The crew was thrilled to have the president and the pop on board as the Baltimore Approached Hawaii. President Roosevelt noticed that his cabin had been quiet. In fact he couldn't recall EXAC- the last time he saw Falah the pup had free run of the ship but he usually didn't stay away from his master so long along at once. FDR put out to search for follow with all hands on deck. It didn't take long to locate his beloved Scotty near the gear lockers. However he was noticeably different Fallah was missing some Heh Eh? Actually follow was missing a lot of hair. His thick black coat was sean thin and patchy after a bit of digging President Roosevelt discovered that a sailor had a little brother back home. Who is a huge Fan Fallah's so after spotting Falla in the Galley? The sailor lured the pup close team with a treat and harmlessly snipped off a lock of hair to mail back to his little brother. It turned out there were a lot of little brothers back home. who were big fans of Falla falla happily obliged each and every one of them as long as they gave him treats? The president couldn't help help but laugh. He knew the joy that followed brought to everyone but he did issue an order via the captain no feeding or trimming naming fowler. After a few days in Hawaii. The Baltimore set sail again. This time for for the Aleutian islands off the coast of Alaska the Aleutians had been the site of the only land battle on. US soil during World War Two when the American army army regained control of the islands from Japan in May nineteen forty three one year later the president was visiting to check in on the troops. After the brief stopover up over the Baltimore made its way to Seattle but that quick detour in the Aleutians led to one of the biggest controversies of FDR's career career in September nineteen forty four just two months before the presidential election. A rumor began to spread that President Roosevelt had accidentally left fallow in Alaska and forced the ship to turn around. Get Him at the cost of twenty million dollars of taxpayers money. No one was sure where the rumors started. But it blew up and representative Harold. KNUTSON OF MINNESOTA SOTA shouted it from the floor of Congress. He hoped the room or wood frame. The president as out of touch and out of control with his spending despite despite its silliness the rumor grabbed national attention suddenly. FDR was in danger of losing his lead in the election. The scandal around around Fowler allowed his Republican opponent Thomas Dewey to gain momentum suddenly. FDR was in danger losing his lead in the election. The outrage around Falah allowed his Republican opponent Thomas Dewey to gain momentum President Roosevelt new. He had to do something and fast. Despite his poor health he had to get this silly rumor under control before it cost him the election. Uh and of course he had to clear follows good name. He put his plan in motion on September. Twenty third nineteen forty four during campaign dinner with the International Brotherhood of teamsters union off to pumping up the crowd with news of legislation. That would help. The teamsters and their families. FDR FDR confronted the foul rumor head on. He ended the speech with the famous line. Well of course I don't resent attacks and my family doesn't resent anti-tax but Fowler does resent them. The falla speech rallied. A nation and the rumor had completely backfired a few weeks later Franklin Delano Roosevelt road. The nation's love of Fowler to to a historic fourth term in office in January nineteen forty five President Roosevelt was inaugurated once again France and Belgium had been liberated from Germany and the end of the war in Europe was imminent in February. The leaders of the allied nations all met at the Yalta Conference to discuss the fate of postwar Europe once again fowler had a front front row seat to history smiling world leaders as World War Two finally ended but after he returned from Yalta President Roosevelt again fell ill in March nineteen forty five. He left Washington. DC for a long stay at warm springs brings Georgia hoping that stay at the resort would lift his spirits on April twelfth. Nineteen forty-five FDR's cousin Margaret and Fowler kept FDR company while he had his portrait painted suddenly FDR complained of a terrific headache in the back of his neck and dropped his head a few hours later. President Roosevelt passed away in his bedroom. After his doctor declared Roosevelt Dead Falah who had been sleeping peacefully early in the corner sprang to his feet and began barking in all the commotion of the President. Dying no one had paid attention to the dog dog in ours Yiping away. Fowler ran headfirst into the screen door busting through it. He ran to the top of a nearby hill where he continued to wail and cry. It seems like he was grieving for his master in in his will President Roosevelt bequeath. Falah back to his cousin Margaret suk-lee she gladly took the pop however after just a a few months. Eleanor Roosevelt who never warmed up to fallow. While he was in the White House requested that Falun join her at her new home in Hyde Park. Margaret happily obliged eleanor and Fowler. Grew very close over the next several years. She often wrote about him in her regular newspaper. Column America was still in love with the pop on Nice days. Fallow ran around the property not chasing squirrels and birds but mostly eleanor said. He patiently waited around for the old man to return home on April Fifth Nineteen fifty two just a few days before his twelfth birthday fallow uh passed away. He was buried next to President Roosevelt when it came time to build a presidential memorial for FDR Dr it only seemed fitting to include Falah when it was complete. A bronze statue of the Little Scotty was placed right right next to FDR likeness to this day. It's the only presidential memorial featuring the first dog a man and his dog together forever. Thanks for listening to talk tales. Every dog has his day and our day is Mondays. We'll be back then with a new episode. You can find more episodes of dog tales and all other parkas originals for free on spotify. Not only just spotify already. Have all of your favorite music but now spotify just making it easy for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcasts originals. Like Dog Tales for free from your phone desktop smart speaker to string dog tails on spotify. If I just open the APP and type dog tales in the search bar. Several of you have asked how to help us if you enjoy the show. The best way to help is to leave a five lifestyle review and don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram at podcast and twitter at Parkas network. Join US next week for another a good story about a good dog dog tales was created by Max Cutler. And as a park studios original it is executive produced by Max Cutler sound designed by Trent Williamson with Production Assistance Byron Shapiro Carly Madden Travis Clark and Joel Stein. This episode of dovetails was written by Jesse Harris with writing assistance by Maggie Admire. I'm Alice Gordon.

FDR president President Franklin Delano Roos Margaret Fowler Falla Falla Margaret Falah White House FDR FDR United States President Roosevelt President Franklin Delano Falah America Europe Margaret suk-lee FDR Auto Scotty Fallah Saleh
Bret Baier on 3 Days That Changed WW II

Kickass News

33:00 min | 1 year ago

Bret Baier on 3 Days That Changed WW II

"This is kick ASS news. I'm Ben Mathis. November nineteen forty-three the Nazis and their access allies controlled. Nearly the entire European continent. Japan dominated the Pacific allied successes at Sicily in Guadalcanal had gained the modest ground but at an extraordinary cost and on the eastern front. The Soviet Red Army army had been bled white. The path of history walked knife's edge that same month. A daring gambit was hatched that would alter everything the big three Franklin d Roosevelt Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin secretly met for the first time to chart a strategy for defeating Hitler over three days in Tehran Iran. This trio strange bedfellows. United by their mutual responsibility as heads of the allied powers made essential decisions that would direct the final years of the war and its aftermath. Those three men and those three days are the subject of a new book. By Fox. News Bret Bret Baier titled Three Days at the Brink. FDR's daring gamble to win World War Two and today Bret Baier joins me on the podcast to share how his latest book fits into his three days in history trilogy why the Tehran Conference of the three allied leaders was so crucial to victory in World War Two and how it also set the stage for the division of postwar Europe and the Cold War he reveals why stolen held all the cards going into Tehran. How FDR fifty are managed to manipulate an eavesdropping stolen? And why Roosevelt had to risk hurting Winston Churchill's feelings in order to make it all work. He also recalls how lots and lots of alcohol grease the wheels of diplomacy among the three leaders and the crippling told that all that booze and travel took on Franklin d roosevelt belt then Brett talks about writing the book while he was covering the trump Kim summits in Singapore in Hanoi some similarities he noticed between trump and FDR's personal all style of diplomacy and some key leadership lessons from those three days in Tehran. Plus this beltway insider weighs in on the mood in Washington as is Congress moves forward with impeachment coming up with Fox News Bret Baier in just a moment. Great Bear is the chief political anchor for Fox News Channel and the host of special report with Bret Brett Baer which airs five days a week on Fox News. He's the author of the New York Times bestsellers three days in Moscow Ronald Reagan in the fall of the Soviet Empire three days in January Dwight. Eisenhower's final mission and special heart. A Journey of faith hope courage and love now. He's rounding out his three days Trilogy Elegy with his latest book three days at the Brink. FDR's daring gamble to win world. War Two Bret Baier. Welcome thank you man. Well I'm a big history nut so I really enjoyed the book. This is I think the third in your three days series which covers similar moments in the Cold War. What do you like about the three days format that saw? This all started with the the Eisenhower Book. Three days in January and I wasn't thinking that I was writing three books actually at the beginning I I've really got involved in finding finding Eisenhower Long Story Short. I got the golf invite of of the century. You by going to play Augusta National and they put me up at night. The Eisenhower Cabin and I was very excited to play and Poured myself a glass of wine the night before four and walked around and realized that I didn't know Dwight Eisenhower. The President I knew as the general In history and I figured secretive I didn't then my generation younger clearly didn't really know and I set out to write this book when I got to the Eisenhower Library in Abilene Kansas. which by the away if you haven't been it's worth the trip it's in the middle of nowhere but it's really cool to go and I said to them. What could I focus on? And they said the last part part of his Leaving Office and the farewell address that largely went overlooked in history because three days later was the Kennedy inauguration address So with that. I kind of got this older Straw. Look looking at just those three days of his presidency and then jumping back and showing. How Eisenhower gets to that moment and to that speech? And it's that formula that I I really felt worked because because you could dig in on a narrative really get into it in a narrative kind of way. That's very readable and not a history book That was a success and I went out looking for the next three days and I came out here to the Reagan Library and And it was the Moscow summit right with eight the final summit and the speech to Moscow State University students that again largely was overlooked. And once I I had those two I it was kind of like the star. Wars movies went back to the beginning. Okay and So the PREQUEL turn turns out that that's the beginning of the Cold War. Eisenhower's Eisenhower's the middle of the cold. War and Reagan is at the end of the Cold War. Now you say that you always begin your research at one of the presidential libraries as you mentioned today. Were a meeting at the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library Museum and in the case of this book you went to the Franklin Roosevelt Library in Hyde Park New York which I've never been there but I believe that's also also was his home. Yes what's it like to be able to kind of get a sense of the man and walk in his footsteps like that. Yeah it's really interesting and like Abilene Kansas. which which was the Eisenhower home The FDR library is is essentially the estate itself of The the Roosevelt's it's really fascinating to walk down that driveway towards The the family home and imagine you know. FDR trying into to walk after being stricken by polio Pulling himself down that driveway Obviously never did walk again but he never stopped trying and and you really get a sense of the man. He clearly didn't need for anything. He was very wealthy. Both sides of the family But because of that incident when when he was thirty nine years old and he loses the ability to walk It changed him as a person and as a leader. And you see that in how he deals deals with the rest of his life and the Tehran conference was the first big meeting of the three allied leaders Churchill. FDR and Stalin. And I guess the big big fear for Churchill and FDR was that Stalin might sign a nonaggression pact with Hitler or even form an alliance with Germany. I'm curious historians have always debated this. How valid was that fair? I mean after the bloody battle of Stalingrad. Do you really think that Stalin would have considered joining with Hitler at that point while you know. That's a great question. Then I think he can be debated one of the biggest mistakes Hitler made was to go into the Soviet Union and fight that battle Stalingrad is one of the bloodiest these battles we've ever seen in world history And more than a million killed and it shores up That Stalin is then in the fight but he was losing A lot a lot of men in the Red Army and that is why he's pushing for the US US and Great Britain to start this other front In Europe to pull the Nazis out. Is it possible if he kept on taking losses that Stalin Stalin changes course he had already saw one nonaggression pact with Iraq before Hitler goes into Soviet Union You know it's it's possible I think it's debatable. I do know that. FDR and Churchill writes extensively of how much they need Stalin to sign onto their war effort art. So it's fair to say that going into the meeting. Stalin probably held most of the cards he did. I mean we've really held all the cards. He demanded that the meeting was in Tehran on forcing FDR traveled six thousand miles And you know the travel itself in those days you know he has to get on a ship go over. He winds his way there. You know that travel makes him sick Tehran makes him sick. Yalta later ends up killing FDR A. Yeah because I I kind of feel for the guy because of all these three. He's the one who was the sickest who had to travel the farthest at one point. You talk about kind of the Harrowing Journey Ernie to Tehran and how he almost got torpedoed along the way it was a friendly fire incident and You know they were worried about German u boats and at a big contingent of ships battleships and He's on the USS Iowa. And they've configured it's especially for his wheelchair and they are doing doing a maneuver as they're going over on this eight day journey and the US has William Porter a destroyer next to it In an an drill real accidentally fires a real torpedo at the US Iowa and the Iowa captain turns towards the torpedo and it goes by the bowel the ship by about a thousand yards and explodes and FDR is applauding. Because he thinks it's part of the drill but the captain is sweating Because they almost killed able to present the United States and his entire joints chief of staff. And y'all to wasn't even farther trip by thank wasn't it was and he has to travel over hours hours and hours in an open jeep over the mountains to get to Yalta and at that travel. Actually that makes them ill. Yeah now one of the most interesting getting parts of this book is the accounts of the meals that they shared over those three days and all the drinking that went on. I mean you go into the alcohol preferences of each of the three leaders. How Stalin like to drink people under the table and watch everyone get an abbreviated and I think at one dinner? There was something like three hundred sixty five toasts hosts. It sounds more like a three bender than a three day conference. That's over and actually no I don't think so. There were a lot of drinking drinking episodes and each each meeting actually in the afternoon starts with. FDR classic drank the stiff Martini Pretty Dry and He makes them he in. Fact gets the room ahead of time and Positions himself so no one sees him wheeling into the room and he is making the Martinez So yeah they did drink quite a bit And the more the Churchill drank the more his emotions kind of came out and each one one of these these moments and because of the dynamic FDR was trying to convince Stalin that Churchill FDR were not ganging up on him or taking advantage vantage of him and in part of that strategy was to make fun of Churchill at At that expense so he sided with Stalin and Churchill at some of these efforts Storms out of the room Mad It yeah. I was really interested in that part. Because one point I guess during one of these bucknell's acknowledge at the end of the day Stalin. FDR I almost cruel in the way they start ganging up on Churchill and just making fun of him. I can't imagine Churchill took that very well but I guess there was some kind of strategy behind that for Roosevelt and he he talked about it openly in fact one one of the meetings towards the end of the conference He says Winston. Please forgive me for what I'm about to do. And essentially throws him under the bus laughing with Stalin Churchill Herschel understands it but he is very emotionally worse his emotions on his sleeve one of his aides said that he cried every day for one reason or another why because he was just an emotional guy and you can hear it in his speeches as he delivers them But he didn't take some of those meetings very well Yeah it's pretty poignant to see okay. This towering Lion Winston Churchill who had been the lone resistance to Hitler in Europe being sidelined mocked like that. I mean. I don't know about you but I really kind of felt for for the guy. Yeah Yeah you do and It's it's kind of amazing. The extent to which FDR takes it. You know to prove to Stalin that that he's He's with him essentially And in the end he does and they signed a pact at the end and the end result of this conference is the approval approval and an end planning for operation overlord which we now know as d day Yeah that was the biggest disagreement among the three or at least between Churchill and FDR FDR and Stalin because Stalin FDR believed in opening a second front thought that would be the quickest and best way to end the war. Churchill aggressively resisted. Why was see against it? A couple of reasons one was His own experiences. The Lord of the Admiralty He had a a cross channel Effort that failed miserably and cost him his job so he had that ended the back of his mind secondly he was not sure. Churchill wasn't that the allies were ready for this kind of logistical feat. And if you look at all that went into D- Day all that possibly could have gone wrong You could hear that concern turning around and Churchill's mind And he thought that they needed more practice And thereby go the Mediterranean way as opposed to cross channel into France. We're GONNA take a quick break and then I'll be back with more when we come back in just a minute a Dui covers more than just alcohol drugs that make you feel feel different will make you drive different and you could get a dui in two thousand seventeen forty five percent of the drivers killed in fatal crashes who were tested for drugs tested positive if you think driving while high won't affect you. You're wrong T. C. H.. Can Slow Reaction Times impair cognitive negative performance and it makes it more difficult for drivers to keep a steady position in their lane. Something as simple as cold medication or an over the counter sleep aid could impair here. You're driving and if it does you will be arrested for Dui on average a DUI could set you back ten thousand dollars in attorney's fees fines court. It costs lost time at work. Higher Insurance rates car towing in more. Remember to plan ahead. If you'll be celebrating. If you plan to indulge in an impairing substance since arrange for a sober driver to take you home always remember if you feel different you drive different never drive. Hi Dr High Giladi You I. I was Kinda surprised to read that I guess the. US delegation ended up staying on the Soviet. Get diplomatic compound in Tehran. Why was that well? There was a A an assassination plot that the Russians the Soviets said that they picked up that the Nazis were going to drop in a dozen assassins dressed as Red Army soldiers to take out the big three that that is what Stalin and his people told them The US believe that they believe that there were assassination plots that were happening Churchill and the British thought it was all made up as an effort to get everybody to stay at the Soviet compound. They ended up staying there FDR goes from the US compound and and Churchill is right next door but he ends up staying at the Soviet embassy as well and They are all warned that each one of the rooms is I bugged And it's essentially a home-court advantage not only to sell and not have to travel. But he has its on his home turf and and he can listen to every room and it sounds like FDR actually Kinda used that to his advantage. Though I did he kind of put on a little bit of a show for Stalin's ears he did he deep often talked About things that they wanted the the Soviets to here ahead of meetings that would come. Churchill took another attacked and he would go into the rooms Yelling the Soviets Service are so horrible Stalin's awful and he would say at very loudly into into the into the lamp. That's pretty good impression working on it when I when I listened to type out his speeches I would hear that voice voice in my head. Gary Almond from Darkest hour was great. I love that. Now you've been to all of the presidential libraries of the president's. It's that you've written about. Have you ever been to chart. Well yes I love that place mazing and like you you you could just expect him to burst into the room when you go. That's right and also underground around for the Of course y'all rooms in the war room yeah That's really fascinating and you can see When you go there even to this day the chair that he sat in with the the markings on it where his hands were you know he was looking at the map hearing the radio broadcasts and and he was taking out pieces of wood on the on the different chairs that he's sitting? Yeah Yeah so fascinating to go to the war rooms and see the little record player where he would have the secretaries play martial music as they call it in Britain or March music as we would call it as he was writing his speeches and that kind of thing. Yeah Yeah I mean you can really get a sense of the man and he had a flair for Delivering speeches especially but writing them as well and and And and coming up with just the right phrase To really fire up his population and you mentioned it before but Great Britain was the sole fighter of of the Nazis before obviously Pearl Harbor in the. US gets in. Yeah now aside from the agreement on the D Day invasion. What else came out of the Tehran meeting well? It was a some agreements about Providing more materials for the Soviets the biggest winner out of Tehran is Stalin and He gets a lot of concessions. They don't make a decision about post war And that in of itself is also a benefit to Stalin because 'cause he essentially talking about Poland while by the time they get to Yalta and the World War is ended and Ding They concede concede that he can essentially go into Poland and when FDR gets back to the US He's shortly thereafter DIS Churchill ritual loses in election in Great Britain and Stalin is emboldened he goes into Poland. He essentially takes over eastern Europe. And that is legitimately intimately the big beginning of the Cold War. Yeah and it was interesting that I guess. FDR DIDN'T WANNA make any pronouncements one way or another on Poland because he had an election coming and I guess gets American polls were a big vote that's right in Illinois especially Chicago area and And it came down to politics and and You know. In retrospect I think each leader was we look at them is human and they all have flaws and one of his flaws I mean remember. He was elected elected four times was that at the end especially had a bit of godlike complex that he alone could solve the problems of the US west that he alone could Corral and contain Stalin's ambitions for Communism and he thought that he could But obviously usually he died and we don't know what would have happened if FDR had lived and whether that would change the dynamic and even though they didn't solve anything at Tehran the the postwar discussions sort of began they sort of touched upon them a talk a little bit about the three men's different postwar visions of the world. Well they're all coming from. I'm different places. You Know Stalin. Even though it doesn't talk about it he writes about it And his aides right about that you know. He had really big ambitions for communism communism and the spread of communism. I mean they wasn't really hidden. They just don't talk about it at the conference Churchill is still holding onto colonialism awesome. He's still holding onto the old empire of of Great Britain and the US and FDR has a big broad vision about the world's policeman Eastman and he believes that China Russia Great Britain and the US will be the world's policeman essentially usually To keep peace and he has a vision for this giant Organization of nations to prevent the spread of fascism con communism and that what is the United Nations It's a very funny story about before the Tehran conference Churchill goes to the White House and they are drinking as they often did and smoking. FDR had the cigarette on the end of the The holder if you will and Churchill with a big cigar on there on the back porch of the residence overlooking the South Lawn towards the Washington Monument and they're talking late late into the night and they finally finally break up and And go to their bedrooms in Franklin Roosevelt. FDR comes rolling down and bursts into Churchill's room and says it's Winston Winston. I've got it. I know what we'll call it. We'll call it. The United Nations and Churchill is just taking a shower. He comes out of the bathroom stark naked into the room. Dripping and FDR is apologizing profusely. I'm so sorry I'm so sorry. and Churchill says do not worry about it there is nothing they. Prime Minister of Great Britain has to hide from the president of the United States. And that is where we get the United Nations. Believe it or not I love that story. it's just such a classic relationship and I think you say in the book somewhere along the ways that the two of them were the biggest celebrity couple in the world that they they really were and they had that kind of relationship to and And then it gets tested in Tehran. you know with the jokes at Winston Churchill's expense now now. It's hard to talk about the Tehran conference without also bring up the Alta conference which is where a lot of these postwar decisions got. Hashed out as you mentioned. It's often said that. Tehran won the war but Yalta failed to secure the peace. Do you think that's apt. I think it's fair. I think you know. FDR could largely say that he won the war with Churchill But they lost the peace. Because it didn't finish finish the the deal and again what what would've happened if if he was still around at that point we don't know FDR made those decisions and concessions to Stalin and and he writes about it because he was thinking in the moment. Remember the three days at the brink part at the brank who's that the allies could have lost World War Two. We were not winning. We are losing her. Hitler was on the March There were some big battles in the Pacific with Japanese and It was definitely in doubt before D Day One thing that I thought about oftentimes when I was reading. This book is the current president when I was reading about how. FDR had this unflagging belief in the sheer force of his personality to win over Stalin. In this idea that if these two men can just sit down unmanned man things will sort of sort themselves out. It sounds very much like trump's approach to foreign policy but what degree I wonder did that strategy succeed for FDR Tehran and then at Yalta. Well I read about the connection you know. Obviously I was. I was on at the end of the the book The epilogue I I write about the trip to Hanoi Vietnam and Singapore to for President Trump to meet with Kim Jong UN and similarly Knowing that this is a dictator who has killed his own family members FDR sits with Stalin Who is killed millions of his own people but the force of personality only takes you so far You know it's the best I at. It was Reagan which was trust but verify who holds. The line knows that he's dealing with the Soviet Union which has communist meanest ambitions but he is dealing with a partner in Mikhail Gorbachev that he knows he can deal with and he eventually comes to trust FDR believed believed that once he had Stalin face to face that he could through proving that he's on his side a get him to come along long and he believed as he left Tehran. That that had in fact happened We know now that you know Stahl never got rid of his own embiid for where he wanted to take the world and where he wanted to take communism in the Soviet Union. And you mentioned that as you're writing this book You visited Vietnam at Phnom and also Singapore for the Kim trump summit or the trump. Kim Summit do you see parallels between what happened between Roosevelt and Stalin. And what's happening as as we speak between trump and Kim I think they're not direct parallels they they're talking to dictators talking to bad people You Know Eisenhower. Did it. Too With Chris Chef sure but all of them. The only one who really got it across the finish line was Ronald Reagan It's arguably you know. It's better all of these leaders believed to be talking rather than fighting And I think that that's a lesson that that we can learn from history I think it's yet to be seen. How fruitful the meetings with Kim Jong UN have been? It's already starting again again. The threats and the the saber rattling from the North Koreans and So so we'll see but talking rather than fighting it seems to be a common theme. What are some of the other lessons? We can take away from the Tehran conference. Well that it takes allies working together for big things and we just saw a NATO summit that kind of broke up a little differently than than we've seen in the past But it takes allies working together to to do big things this if you look at the war at the point I think that it was Had they not come together Could have gone the other way and We might be doing this podcast in German. Yeah Yeah all three of your three days books highlight. How a single moment can dramatically change the course of history and I want to close by bringing it to the present here You've witnessed a lot of seminal events including the war in Iraq and Afghanistan The twenty twelve election and I think you were at the Pentagon on nine eleven in the aftermath You're in Washington every day. What does it feel like in? DC does what you're seeing now with the impeachment of Donald Trump feel like one of those history altering moments. It feels big. It feels every day like history is being made in This presidency this administration is unlike any we've seen. The News. Cycle is about six or seven new cycles. In a day I tell my staff. I'm one tweet away from changing our rundown every every night at our show and we are that said it's also very divided nation And and there's it's really amazing to see two sides that cease it see things so differently and look at the same thing and ceased things so oh differently and also become very emotional about it and I don't know what that says about us as a nation or as a Humanity whether social media has fired everyone up a little bit more. That's possible People are stirring the pot a lot more day to day But I I think it behooves us to take the lessons of the past To listen I two opponents and to you know people that that you're up against and And then make your case. It is historic every day. And I'm I'm blessed to be able to sit and kind of report out and and let people decide what they think about it I think we need more of that and less telling people how to think about something beyond impeachment. What's the big question in your mind looming over the next election? Well I think how this all falls out and if the president actually actually turns this around somehow to a positive and it's very possible. Democrats are dealing with fire on a two edged sword here on impeachment richemont and just going around the country talking to people. I know it's it's not the issue that everybody's talking about you don't hear it on the campaign trail a ton about the specifics of impeachment. You hear what is my healthcare. What is my wallet? Look like what's the future of you know the situation choice that the US is in around the world It's so we often get in horse blinders in Washington and We have to get out of the beltway to see what else is going on or once again. The book is called three days at the brink. FDR's daring gamble to win World War Two and of course you can catch special report report with Bret Baier every weekday on Fox News Bret. Thanks for talking with me. Thank you very much and thanks again. Bret Baier for sitting down with me and I also want to give a special thanks to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and museum and Seamy Valley and the Ronald Ronald Reagan National Defense Forum for hosting our Interview Order Brett's book three days at the bring. FDR's daring gamble to win. World War Two on Amazon Amazon audible or wherever books are sold. Also check out the other books in his three days trilogy re days in January White Eisenhower's final mission and and three days in Moscow Ronald Reagan and the fall of the Soviet Empire special report with Bret Baier five days a week on Fox News and follow follow him on twitter at at Bret Baier a Dui covers more than just alcohol drugs that make you feel different will make you drive different and you could get a Dui. I always remember if you feel different. You drive different never drive. Hi Dr High Get a Dui. If you enjoyed today's podcast be sure to subscribe to us on Apple podcasts and rate and review us while you're there five star ratings in detailed reviews is or one of the best ways for new listeners to discover the show you can also follow us on facebook or on twitter at at kick ASS news pod in recommend us to your friends on your social media for more funds stuff visit kick ASS News Dot Com and I welcome your comments questions and suggestions at comments at Kick Gas News Dot Com for now. I'm Ben Mathis and thanks for listening to kick ASS news.

FDR Roosevelt Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Tehran Stalin FDR US Tehran Dwight Eisenhower Bret Baier Stalin Churchill Herschel Churchill Ronald Reagan President Yalta Hitler Europe Moscow FDR FDR
1944, Dewey vs. Roosevelt: The Last Stand

American Elections: Wicked Game

45:30 min | 1 year ago

1944, Dewey vs. Roosevelt: The Last Stand

"It's March nine, hundred, zero, five outside the home of Mrs Henry. Perish Junior at eighty seventy sixth street in Manhattan. The parishes have offered their home for a very special winning. Both the bride and groom come from powerful New York families technically one powerful family. The bride is the groom's fifth cousin. Inside the parish home, the gasps mostly relatives and intimate friends are gathered in the drawing room, waiting for the ceremony to begin outside. The streets are packed with adoring. But they aren't here for the young couple. The fans are here to lay eyes on the bride's uncle. The most famous man in America many in the crowd have been waiting all day among them are too young men, both beyond excited. When's HE GONNA? Be here any moment say he's standing in for the bride's father, brother died. When he died about ten years ago. What happened well now? That's a story, so the bride's father had a drinking problem. They say he was confined to a sanitarium, and then he jumped out of a window. Good God. Tragedy Really, but what a man her uncle is to come all the way from Washington to walk his niece down the aisle. What a man indeed! Just a small car peers down the street. As it comes to a stop in front of the parish home. Secret Service agents in dark suits quickly hop out open the door, revealing the famous man. Everyone has been waiting to see. He looked dapper sporting dashing suit. The black top hat as a man steps out of the car crowd shows appreciation, and the too eager men trying to get closer come on. Where are you going I? WanNa see if I can shake his hand. Desperate to meet him, the two men barreled through the crowd as agents in dark suits to their best escort, the fellow to the front door he bounds up the stairs, shaking hands and loving every minute of the attention. When he reaches the top, he turns around flashes. A Grin gives a big wave beautiful day for a wedding, isn't it? With that he turns and disappears inside the parish home. The two young men are disappointed. Did you shake his hand? Now walked right past me same here. Should we go or should we stay? He's GonNa come out eventually. Let's wait for him. Walk Teddy just then alone. Voice starts a chance. The two men join in the chant along with the rest of the crowd. We want Teddy. We? Want Teddy. President Teddy Roosevelt's Donald Alice once observed. My father wanted to be the corpse at every funeral, the bride at every wedding and the baby at every Christening and at this particular wedding, the wedding of Franklin, Delano an Eleanor Roosevelt Teddy stole the show standing in for his late brother, he walked his niece eleanor down the aisle and gave her away. A ceremony was underscored by the sound of the crowd, chanting his name outside when the reverend finish the ceremony teddy called out from the congregation well Franklin. There's nothing like keeping the name and the family. Teddy then kissed the bride and led the guests into the next room for refreshments Franklin and eleanor tried to form a reception line, but the crowd followed teddy, and within a few minutes the newlyweds were standing alone. Wouldn't be the last time Franklin. Roosevelt would play second fiddle to his famous cousin. As a political. FDR would spend the next forty years trying to escape Teddy Shadow and build a name for himself. I'm Lindsey Graham and this is American elections wicked game. The Roosevelt family were immigrants to new Amsterdam a seventeenth century Dutch settlement on the southern tip of Manhattan. The Oyster Bay Roosevelt's Teddy and Eleanor's line settled in Long Island the Hyde. Park Roosevelt's Franklin's line settled in Dutch county. Teddy made a huge impact on Franklin. As a young man, Franklin watched his cousins meteoric rise with great interest as a student after Franklin her teddy speak. He vowed to become active in politics like his cousin Franklin attended. Harvard Undergrad before studying law at Columbia also like Teddy Franklin left law school early to get into politics, both men served in the New York legislature by the time they were thirty both were appointed assistant secretary of the navy by the time they were forty, and both went on to serve as popular governors of New, York the. The to Roosevelt's were both progressives, but whereas Teddy gravitated toward the Republican. Party Franklin made his home with the Democrats Franklin worshiped his cousin, and did his best to follow in his footsteps. Teddy's were big shoes to fill. Teddy was a gifted athlete, a renowned historian, a war hero crippled by polio diagnosis Franklin spent the majority of his adult life in a wheelchair, never served in the military teddy won the vice presidency under President Mckinley before taking the White House Franklin, lost his vice presidential bid in the election of one, thousand, nine, hundred ninety. But Franklin was determined to make his own mark after serving two terms in the white, house's America's thirty second President FDR made history by becoming the first and only president to win a third term in office in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety four presidential election with a country at war with the axis powers FDR would try to make history again. This is episode forty, nineteen forty four dewey versus Roosevelt the last stand. It's early afternoon, December seventh, nineteen, forty one President Franklin D Roosevelt has just finished lunch. He sits in his oval study on the second floor of the White House with his aide Harry Hopkins the work of president stops, but it's a quiet Sunday afternoon, and that's a good thing because it gives FDR chance to work on his favorite hobby, his massive stamp collection. But after yours leisurely afternoon is interrupted by the phone. Yes Mr! President I'm sorry to bother you on a Sunday, but I have a caller for you on the line. Who is it Secretary Knox put him through yesterday right away. When Navy Secretary Frank Knox comes on the line. There's panicking his voice Mr President. What can I do for you frank sir. It looks if the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. FDR Doesn't flinch and he doesn't panic as he wraps up his conversation with secretary knocks. You remains deadly calm. FDR hangs up the phone and calmly relays the information of the attack to his nearby aide Harry Hopkins. Hopkins is incredulous. I just don't believe it Mr President I certainly do as just the kind of unexpected thing. Javanese would do at the very time. They were discussing peace in the Pacific. They were plotting to overthrow it. Within moments, the oval study is flooded with cabinet officers. There's a flurry of phone calls AIDS, and White House Secretary Stream in and out with top secret cables and hand the information that rolls in throughout the day is devastating in two waves of attack. The Japanese air force sank five battleships, three more severely damaged over twenty four hundred Americans are dead, most ever killed in a single attack to date. By the early evening, a crowd of concerned citizens gather outside the White House's iron fence. They solemnly sing a familiar tune. Just after nine pm after our sits alone in the Blue Room when there's a knock on the door, Mr President, you wanted to see me. Down Grace Grace Tully as Private, secretary one of his most trusted staff members. What can I do for you sir? I'm going to go before Congress. And I'd like to dictate my message to you. Of course. Should we begin now? Now please. It will be short. As Grace readies herself at the typewriter FDR begins. Yesterday December seventh, nineteen, forty, one a day, which will live in world history. FDR speech was brief when it was lasting. It was arguably the most famous political speech of the Twentieth Century Grace. tully typed up Roosevelt's dictation and the president immediately went to work making revisions. He crossed out a date which will live in world history and replace it with words that now comprise one of the most famous phrases in all of American politics. The day after Japan's attack on Pearl, harbor in joint session of the US Congress FDR addressed the nation wide spread. Mr Speak of. Members of the Senate. Representative. Yesterday the some bus. Nine thousand, nine, hundred, forty one. A date which will live? In Infamy? United States of America. was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. In his speech FDR emphasize that the attacks were premeditated and were a repudiation of Japan's prior overtures to peace, it will be recorded. That the distance. I'm Hawaii Brom Japan. Makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately plan. Many days or even weeks ago. During the demeaning time. The Japanese government as deliberately sought to the see the united. States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued. FDR laid out the case for taking action. We attack yesterday. On the Hawaiian, islands. Caused severe damage. To American naval and Causes. I regret to tell you that Berry. Many American lives have been lost. Yesterday? The, Japanese government also launched an attack. Against Malaria. Last night Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong. Last night Japanese forces attacked wom. Last night, Japanese pulses attacked the Philippine islands. Last night the trap unease attack wake island. And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island. That's commander in chief of the Army and navy. Acted that all measures be taken for our defense. But always? Will whole nation. Remember the character of the onslaught against us. I asked. The Congress to plan. But, since the unprovoked and dastardly attack, by Japan on Sunday December seventh, nineteen, forty, one as state of war. Has Existed? Between the United, states, and the Japanese Empire. For the first time since the end of World War One, America was again at war. The Nation roused by the attack on Pearl Harbor largely rally behind President. Roosevelt, but World War Two would be long costly, and for many Americans the price in blood be far too steep fear and anxiety over FDR's expanded wartime powers was widespread. After FDR ask Congress to reduce the draft age to eighteen voters registered their displeasure at the ballot box. In the nineteen forty two midterm elections, Democrats suffered significant losses while Republicans gained ten seats in the Senate and forty seven seats in the house. During his third term. Shifted his focus to the war, often at the expense of his progressive agenda, so in the run up to the nineteen forty four presidential contest, this shift laugh, Republicans with an opening, the question was who was best suited to unseat FDR, while not all Republicans agreed on the answer, most agreed on who was not the preferred candidate Wendell willkie. Business, tycoon and political outsider Wendell Willkie had won the Republican nomination as a dark horse candidate in nineteen forty, and in the general election that year FDR had trounced him. Many republicans were worried about history repeating a four years later in nineteen, forty four. Indeed Wilkie, supporters have been hard at work drumming up support for willkie since early nineteen, forty, three as one party leader put it will keys. Managers were putting undue pressure upon party leaders in every section of the country to pledge themselves to his cause before anyone else had a chance to be heard. Too many Conservatives Wilkie. Republican former Democrat was an existential threat to Republican ideals, and when will he kicked off his campaign in February of Nineteen forty-three, he doubled down on his liberalism, telling a crowd of Republican women in Indiana. There must never again be any question of the right of workers to bargain collectively or of the fundamental right of all our citizens to be free of racial discriminations Wilkie. Ask the crown. Why should we be on the defensive? Always against a party that is a combination of northern political machines, the worst time and southern darkies that don't even allow Negros to vote too many mainstream Republicans. These were dangerous. Questions and Wilkie had to be stopped. Fearful of another Wilkie nomination conservative Republicans launched a smear campaign during the primaries, circulating rumors that Willkie was working in cahoots with FDR to guarantee him a fourth term. Another rumor claimed while he was drunk. WHO ABUSED HIS WIFE? To overcome these accusations will launched an aggressive primary campaign in the spring of nineteen forty, four, traveling to twelve states in the West and getting in facetime with delegates. The tour was well received. Life magazine wrote although political poll showed that Wilkie still had a long uphill fight to win the nomination. His Western trip apparently put him back in the running. Wilkie was hoping that instead of playing to the middle and wooing conservatives, he could Garner enough support from progressives, but for Wendell Willkie, the real test of the viability of the strategy would be the state of Wisconsin. Wisconsin did not have any party requirements, which meant that all voters Republicans and Democrats could vote for whomever they liked, and the primary will hope that Enough Progressive Democrats would cross party lines to put him in the top spot. So on March, Eighteenth Wilkie launched a two week tour of Wisconsin on the trail he spoke passionately about his liberal values, and defended himself against the brazen attack from his fellow Republicans while speaking to a crowd at Lawrence College in Appleton. Wilkie, said here in Wisconsin I have no doubt that you have heard many things about me. Colluding story that I beat my wife. You also undoubtedly have heard that I have some kind of a deal with the administration to keep Mr Roosevelt in office. My main objective in life is to make the Republican Party worthy of Removing Mr Roosevelt from office. He also wrote off the accusation that he was a drunk. Saying I'll take a glass of beer if that's any news to you I had one the other day. But in the nineteen, forty, four primary central issue for most voters was not wilkie relationship with alcohol. It was World War Two. Tour of Wisconsin Wilkie attacked the isolationist stance of conservative Republicans, according to Wilkie these were the same men who had opposed him in nineteen forty, because they were against form of international cooperation to maintain peace throughout the world. Today in this campaign in Wisconsin for delegates I'm expecting opposition from the same forces. Will he's principled. Wartime stand against the Republican establishment earned him the endorsement of the capital times and Madison. And Wilkie made countless speeches and covered hundreds of miles, speaking himself horse to tens of thousands of Wisconsinite, but as well he's campaign picked up steam so to the attacks against him, but we'll keep embraced his outsider status, telling a large crowd and Lacrosse that they should love him for the enemies he has made we'll. He claimed to have the most valuable list of enemies of any public figure in America and his biggest enemy was Republican Front runner Thomas Dewey Dewey, a former prosecutor who took on organized crime in New York was no stranger to front runner status, going into the nineteen forty Republican convention do we had been the clear favourite, but the dark horse Wilkie had spoiled Dewey's chances and stolen the Republican nomination from him so in nineteen forty four do he was hoping for revenge? As Wilkie wrapped up his Wisconsin tour the new. York. Times wrote win. Lose or draw wilkie. Will have made a campaign that reflects the sincerity of his convictions and the high quality of his leadership, but with Wilkie gone from the state, the Dewey campaign launched an all out press blitz, using signs, billboards campaign pamphlets, countless radio ADS to attack Wilkie for his lack of leadership. Do we have been happy to let Wilkie spend two weeks dominating Wisconsin primary his strategy, according to American author Alan. Dreary was to let Wilkie talk himself to death in a vacuum. An after the Wisconsin votes were counted on April fourth. Do we won seventeen of the state's twenty? Four delegates of the remaining seven Wilkie didn't win a single one. The next day at a speech in Omaha Nebraska willkie accepted his fate, telling the crowd. It is obvious now that I cannot be nominated. I'm therefore asking my friends not to present my name at the convention I, earnestly hope that the Republican. Convention will nominate a candidate and write a platform which really represents views which I have advocated. And Wilkie would get his wish. At least in part in the nineteen forty Republican Primary Thomas Dewey had not taken a strong stance on the European war for fear of angering conservative isolationist Republicans. His reluctance to do so in impart led to Wilkie darkhorse nomination in nineteen forty, so leading up to the nineteen forty four convention do we would not make the same mistake again? The young governor will be far more vocal with his brand of internationalism, and his position on the war would help him secure the Republican nomination, but do his age and inexperience was still concerned too many across the country including in Washington. After his nomination after Interior Secretary job that do we had thrown his diaper into the ring so to balance the ticket with age and conservatism Ohio Governor. John bricker was selected to be his running mate. Their campaigns love and caught on win the war quicker with Dewey and bricker. As Republicans prepare to sell the American people on the Dewey Bridge or ticket. FDR was struggling to unite the Democratic Party. It was not an unprecedented fourth term that gave most Democrats pause. It was FDR scandal-prone vice president. The liberal Republican turned Democrat Henry Wallace. FDR and Wallace were close friends in the nineteen forty contest Wallace's controversial, liberal, past 'cause many Democrats to turn on him and demand that FDR choose a different running. At the time FDR had refused to cut ties, but in the nineteen forty four contests Wallace's pass would again become an issue this time with his nomination on the line FDR would be forced to show his good friend back door. By the summer of Nineteen, forty four, after was constantly battling illness, and he was losing the fight, FDR's personal secretary grace, tully wrote I observed the signs of cumulative wariness, the dark circles that never quite faded from under his is the more pronounced shake in his hand, as he lit his cigarette, the easy slump, the developed in his shoulders. The White House did their best to hide. FDR's worsening condition, but many Democratic leader could see the writing on the wall. In the face of FDR's declining health, it might have been a good idea for Democratic leaders to opt to go in a different direction, but their campaign slogan showed where they stood. Don't change horses in the middle of the Stream FDR was a wartime president and the country was at war. The Democrats would stand behind him. Still Health did lift up the importance of choosing a suitable vice president, and for most Democrats Henry. Wallace was no longer the man for the job. If Wendell Willkie was too liberal for most Republicans for most Democrats. Vice President Henry Wallace was on another planet. Wallace was stridently anti racist and pro civil rights at a time when those views were far from the mainstream, but his extreme progressivism wasn't the only strike against him. There was also the deer. Guru scandal. Decades before the nineteen forty four campaign Henry Wallace had developed an interest in an eccentric Russian. A Nicholas Roerich a mystic whose teachings were not at all. Christian Wallis had admired mortgage so much that he traded letters with him wherein he seemed to discuss US foreign policy. Roerich is loyalty to the US was questionable at best as was the severity of his influence over Wallace during the nineteen forty presidential campaign, these previously undisclosed letters had fallen into Republican hands. Hands and if released, the letter would have damaged Wallace's credibility and FDR's judgment, but the letters were never released mainly because the Democrats had dirt on Republican candidate, Wendell willkie and they threaten to expose. We'll keys illicit affair with powerful magazine editor named Rita Van Doren, but in Washington's inner circles, the Guru letters were common knowledge, and with Wilkie out of the race and any chance of reciprocal extortion gone. There is always a chance. Wallace letters might be released. In nineteen forty, FDR had refused to cut ties with walls. You was a close friend and progressive ally, but by the summer of nineteen, forty four, nearly the entire democratic establishment had turned on walls, including several members of Roosevelt's inner circle and Bob Hannigan, the chairman of the Democratic National Committee these party leaders made it clear that if FDR stock with Wallace. He might not win a fourth term. In the summer of nineteen, forty, four after Yar began to accept the inevitable wallace would have to go. Is July tenth nineteen forty four at the White House Vice President Henry? Wallace has just come from meeting in the executive offices as he makes his way through the lobby Wallace's hounded by some forty reporters. I. What did you and the president discussing? You're meeting? Well we had a very lengthy conference about China. We discussed nothing else. The situation is very great vice president. Are we to take it that the one thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, four political situation was not even mentioned. No, it was not mentioned Mr Wallace. Are you a candidate for nomination again for vice, president? Recently FDR's advisers privately told Wallace that he was a political liability and suggested he cost the president boats. The asked him to resign, but today when Wallace confronted the President about this FDR was cagey so now Wallace's frustrated. He doesn't WANNA. Make it public spectacle. He flashes. A smile gives them measured answer. We'll have to talk about the nomination at some future time. Are you going to the Convention in Chicago next week I'm the chairman of the Iowa delegation. Of course I'm going. Are you their favorite son? Wallace pauses for a moment considered his response to this very loaded question. If he says no, he'll be publicly conceding the contest for the vice presidency. If he says yes, they'll be throwing down the gauntlet by defying Democratic Party leaders as he hesitates. Reporter presses the question. What do you say? Mr, vice-president are you Iowa's favorite son, or aren't you? I I am. Wallace's conversation with reporters in the White House lobby was added in the New York Times too many Wallace's intentions were crystal clear as the Times explained. Wallace responses were taken to mean that the vice president intended to go to Chicago next week as an avowed candidate for the renomination. For FDR. Bad News because Wallace wasn't going anywhere. While Henry Wallace was making waves in the press. Democratic leaders grappled with a question of his replacement, going into the nineteen forty four convention the democratic. Party was deeply divided in the north. Labor leaders were at war with Pro Business Party bosses in the south many were fed up with government intervention, especially on the issues of voting rights for black. Americans Roosevelt had held the loose democratic coalition Together for twelve years, but FDR's popularity was waning. The vice presidential candidate might make or break party unity and sway the outcome of the election so for FDR, the choice was a monumental one. As one DNC official would later write the decision to shell vice. President Wallace and nominate senator. Harry Truman in his place is one of the episodes in American history that will baffled scholars of the future, because not accounts of at agree completely and some very widely. Harry Truman had made a big impression leading one party leader to call Truman a cinch for the vice presidency but Truman didn't want the job in June. He had written a prominent democratic business leader. Please don't run me for Vice President I like my job as a united, states senator and that is where I want to stay. But party leaders wouldn't take no for an answer. On July, eleventh, nineteen forty four, Roosevelt and his advisors gathered at the White House to pick a candidate. As the names of potential VP's were bandied about. FDR was unusually client after listening for some time, the long list of candidates FDR finally broke his silence, and said all right bob start talking. Bob Hannigan chairman of the Democratic National Committee was a longtime friend of Harry Truman. Hannigan like Truman hailed from Missouri and Truman owed Hannigan as he helped electric to the US Senate, a Truman presidency was easy for Bob Hennigan to imagine. Truman lived in Missouri, a border state to the southern region which would calm the fears of many southern voters who are souring on FDR. Truman also had name recognition, his leadership in the Senate Truman Committee at Save the government billions of dollars and made him extremely popular. Hannigan made his case and afterwards, FDR. Said Bob. I think you and everyone else here want true. It wasn't exactly a resounding endorsement for Hannigan. It was more than enough. When, Hannigan gave Henry Wallace the bad news, it didn't sit well offended. Wallace went straight to the president's office and offered his resignation in response FDR on quite the show, saying I could not think of accepting FDR trying to console walls, saying while I, cannot put it just that way in public I hope it will be the same team. After Yar, acknowledged that another Wallace Roosevelt ticket was an unlikely scenario, but not to worry. He told Wallace. You would find a job for him regardless. Wallace wasn't fooled by FDR doublespeak. He would later write in his diary that are wanted to ditch me as noiselessly as possible. But Wallace was fully prepared to make some noise and put up a fight going into the Democratic convention, but he wasn't the only one James F, Byrnes FDR's director of the war mobilization office did not want wallace to be vice-president either Burns wanted the number two job for himself. On July Twelfth James. Burns telephone FDR and asked him point blank. I would like to know your opinion about my being a candidate. FDR's response was unequivocal. You are the best qualified man and the whole outfit, and you must not get out of the race if you stay in your sure to win. The next day on July Thirteenth Burns and FDR sat down again face to face at the White House to continue the conversation, but then after you are explained that he felt conflicted wall could not win, but he would likely not resign which put FDR in a difficult position. Burns suggested that in the interest of Party Unity FDR should not publicly name a preference for vice president. FDR agreed and promised Burns, he would not name one burns also tried to put FDR's mind at ease about an issue of growing importance in the nineteen forty four contest the black vote. Burns was a south, Carolina man and FDR had not been shy about his belief that a white southern VP might cost him the black vote, and perhaps the election burns assured the president that his southern roots would not be a problem. FDR had done right by black America Burns explained. They would still vote for FDR. Even with a South Carolinian like himself on the ticket. Burns left his meeting with the president supremely confident, but there was one looming threat. The gave Burns Pause Harry Truman Truman had the full throated support of DNC Chairman Bob Hannigan to mention his powerful allies inside the Roosevelt administration if Sherman changed his mind about wanting the vice presidency, he had the political muscle to edge burns out so with democratic. Convention just around the Corner Burns did his best to use political means to eliminate the threat. On Friday morning July fourteenth the day after meeting FDR at the white. House Burns called Truman at his home. In Independence Missouri Truman wrote. Burns told me that President Roosevelt had decided on him as the new nominee for vice president and he asked me if I would nominate him at the convention. If Truman suspected that Burns was trying to neutralize his candidacy. He didn't put up a fight. According to Truman I told him I would be glad to do it if the president wanted him for a running mate, and by all accounts, true was not playing a game. He meant what he said. Later that day burns met for lunch with Hannigan to tell him the good news that he had FDR support for VP Burns was befuddled when chairman Hannigan told him that FDR preferred Harry Truman and Burns explained his previous conversation with FDR. Hannigan was equally follow. Burns promptly call. The president told him what Hannigan had said, and asked him to clarify FDR responded. That is not what I told them just what they told me they all agreed Truman with cost fewer votes I had nothing to do with it. FDR with Hanta say after all Jimmy reclose to me personally. I hardly know true. If FDR was playing political tricks James Burns couldn't figure out what they were. Burns called Hannigan and read a transcript of his conversation with FDR. Hannigan was even more befuddled than before chairman responded I. Don't understand it. It's hard to say exactly why FDR was being evasive. Perhaps he didn't WanNa fend his friends. Perhaps, he was genuinely trying to stay out of it. Perhaps illness was taking its toll on his mind. It's impossible to know. The DNC's PR director would later write the party leaders had tried to get a straight answer out of FDR, but the old man just wasn't going to play it that way. He had his own reasons whatever they were for being cagey. He wasn't going to give them the satisfaction they were after. What's clear said FDR was muddying the waters. pretending he did not have a preference on in truth. He had already made up his mind. Days before at his meeting with FDR on July Eleventh Bomb Hannigan had secured a written commitment from the president. Truman would later write that FDR's. was a piece of scratch paper about two inches by eight, and had only one name mentioned in it. That was mine. FDR had decided. But Truman still didn't want the vice presidency, and he had already promised to nominate James Burns at the Democratic convention. In the midst of the muddled affair, FDR would send Bob Hannigan to Chicago. Convinced Truman to go back on his word. It's late July. Nineteen forty four on a Tuesday afternoon in Chicago the. Convention in Chicago. Stadium is in full swing. But in a quiet room at Stevens Hotel Senator Harry Truman is all alone. Exhausted from the convention he lays down on the bed and puts up his feet. Just as he starts to drift off, there's a knock at the door. How do you do Harry? How do you do Bob Come? In of course sure? As Bob Hannigan makes his way into Truman's hotel room. He doesn't beat around the Bush look Harry. Roosevelt wants you for a running me? Truman is annoyed. He's already made his feelings known to everyone. Including the President Truman is not the sort of man who likes to repeat himself. Tell him to go to hell. Bob. I'm for Jimmy Burns. But Truman's old friend Bob Hannigan is a relentless man Bob Gates Truman the Hartselle on the vice presidency and the duty of a public servant, but Truman is as stubborn as Bob is getting Bob look here. I don't want to be vice. President. I, Bet I can go down on the street and stop the I ten I see, and that they can't tell me the names of two of the last ten vice presidents. I bet you can't even tell me who was McKinley vice president. Bob Stares at him blankly. You see he had to. The second one became the president, and you still can't remember Harry. I want you to do me a favor. Go Away, Bob no now listen to me. On Thursday afternoon. Come to my hotel room. They'll be some men there. I'd like you to talk to you. All right. Two days later Truman knocks on the door of Bob's room at the Blackstone Hotel. As Truman steps inside. He sees a Bevy of Democratic Party bosses, then from Chicago, New York and New Jersey. Immediately the men's start pressing Truman on the VP John Sherman sits on the bed makes himself comfortable as one by one. The bosses take a crack. It's weighing him. A Truman's mind is made off. The Room quiets as Bob picks up the phone. Hello. Mr President. Truman agreed no sir. He hasn't agreed yet. Furious president's voice booms through the telephone. Him If, he wants to break up the democratic. Party in the middle of a war. That's his responsibility. Truman size. He heard the president loud and clear, so did everyone else in the room? Hannigan turns to Truman with a devilish grin hairy. Now. What do you say? The president's comment about the war caused Truman to reverse course chairman told one of the party bosses that he had been a soldier, and that a soldier's duty was to follow orders Truman had enlisted in the Missouri National Guard had gone on to fight in world, war one, he saw first hand the horrors of combat, and learned what it meant to come together and fight for a good cause. FDR's comment reminded Truman that in the middle of a war personal desires were of little importance. Truman acquiesced FDR's wishes. At the Democratic convention in July of Nineteen, forty, four, the delegates nominated and rallied behind the Roosevelt Truman ticket. But as FDR prepared to formally accept his party's nomination. Personal, tragedy would strike. On July twentieth, nineteen, forty, four FDR was set to make a formal acceptance speech of the radio. It was a massive press event. National Radio Networks, reporters and photographers had all been invited to attend. But on the morning of July twentieth, FDR's health took a turn for the worse throughout the nineteen forty four campaign rumors of the president's declining health had been rampant, but FC. Our staff had done its best keep his worsening condition under wraps the morning of the twentieth, FDR was wracked with stomach pain so much so that he asked his son James to help them onto the floor, so they might stretch out. James wrote that for ten minutes father lay on the floor of the railroad car. His eyes closed his face drawn as powerful torso convulsed. Has the waves of pain stamped him? FDR's aides were fully prepared to cancel the speech and send the press home, but after your was determined not to show weakness on the campaign trail, FDR's opponent governor Thomas Dewey and tried to make the president's age and frailty a campaign issue do he cast himself as the young fresh, faced up and comer, saying it was time to get rid of the tired old men of the Roosevelt. Administration so on July twentieth FDR fought through the stabbing pain and some of the strength to put young dewey in his place. The people of the United States will decide this fall. Whether, they wish to town about this nineteen forty four job. This worldwide job. Do inexperienced or immature Han. After taking a shot at his youth and inexperience FDR reminded the listener that Dewey had not taken a strong stance on aiding the allies back in nineteen, forty drew lows Paul lend lease and international cooperation against the forces of aggression and tyranny until they could read the polls of popular sentiment. All whether they wish to leave it to those who saw the danger from abroad will met it head on, and who now have seized the offensive and carry the wall to its presence stages of success, lastly FDR took on the Republican Party. As a whole, they will also decide these people around. Whether they will entrust the task to post war reconversion to those who offer the veterans in the last war, bread lines and apple selling. And who finally let the American people down to the abyss of Nineteen seventy-two. Whether they will leave it to those who rescued American business and agriculture. And Industry, and Finance and Labor. In nineteen thirty three. In his acceptance speech FDR had drawn clear battle lines. He cast a wartime election as a contest between age and experience versus youth and folly, and the nineteen forty four campaign seem to invigorate the ailing president while do we took a tour of the American West Coast. The president remained in Washington focusing on the job of winning the war. Dewey's attacks on the campaign trail range from the predictable to the bizarre. Do we call FDR corrupt and incompetent? In outlandish fashion do we claim that FDR had sent a US Navy vessel to rescue his dog. Falah, do we claim the dog have been left behind on Alaskan island during a Japanese invasion dewey's youth with perhaps showing. On September twenty, third, nineteen, forty, four at the statler hotel in Washington FDR responded. Republican leaders of not been content. With a pack on me. On my wife. Or my son? Now not incentives that. They now include my little dog. Well I. Don't resent a sack. And my family. Don't resent it. But how does? I? Stock. Being a study? As soon as he learned that the Republican fiction writers. In Congress and though. That concocted a story. That I'd left him behind a lonesome island. And send the sprout back to find. At across to the taxpayers of four, free or Eight or twenty million dollars. Fury. In the same dogs. In the late fall as do we continue to attack him on the trail, FDR launched a vigorous campaign tour of his own. If anyone had doubts as to FDR's health, he put them to rest October when he rode for five hours in an open car in the middle of a torrential downpour in New York. But in the fall of nineteen, forty four most Americans were not focused on the fight for the presidency in October, life magazine published an article, saying the most striking thing about the nineteen forty four election was seeming apathy of the voters American. Voters were focused on the war overseas. And ultimately the nineteen forty four election was a referendum on FDR's wartime leadership by November of nineteen forty, four allied forces were making significant progress against the axis powers. The Soviet Army was pushing into eastern Europe and their Western allies had finally pierced the veil of Germany on election, day nineteen, forty four, the American people chose age and experience, giving Fdr a fourth term and a mandate to bring the war to an end and establish a new global peace Roosevelt won the election with over twenty five million popular votes and four hundred thirty two electoral votes to do his ninety nine. FDR's vigorous campaign in nineteen, forty, four, certainly impressed voters, and helped to quiet rumors that his health was an issue of campaign had also taken its toll. After winning the nineteen forty four election, the president's condition continued to worsen. FDR, would never see the war's end in April of Nineteen forty-five just months before the end of World War, two President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died of a cerebral hemorrhage. The job of winning the war and establishing would fall to his reluctant Vice President Harry Truman. As America's thirty third President Truman would soon learn that FDR's declining health was not the only secret. The president was keeping back in October of Nineteen Forty one roosevelt had approved the creation of top secret atomic bomb and unprecedented weapon of War Truman did not want the vice presidency, and he had not asked for the responsibilities that came with the highest office in the United States, but in August of nineteen forty five with no end in sight to the bloody war in the Pacific, Truman would be faced with a fateful decision, which changed the world American politics forever. On the next episode of wicked game, the election of nineteen, forty eight in the wake of World War Two as President Truman fights to establish a new peace Republican governor Thomas Dewey gears up for a second run at the White House, as Truman strives to Fulfil Franklin Roosevelt's progressive legacy with his fair deal for America. Do we try to capitalize on growing antitrade sentiment during all across the nation? Don't miss a single week of our march from seventeen eighty nine to twenty twenty hit the subscribe button in your podcast APP. Now this show is supported by. By you our listeners, please give us a rating. Leave a review with the single best way to help. The show grow is to tell others share with your friends and family and find us on social. Media Wicky game. Pot and I'm at Lindsey. Graham another way to support. This show is to go to wicked game podcast, DOT COM members there get early access to add free episodes as well as well as content. Only available to patrons find out more wicked game podcast dot com about our reenactments in most cases. We can't know exactly what was said. Our show is heavily researched and based on surviving historical documents. Wicked game is an airship production created hosted and executive produced by me. Lindsey Graham on you editing by molly pock sound design Derek Barrett's co executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions, this episode written and researched by Stephen Walters fact checking by Greg Jackson Seattle Salazar from the podcast history that doesn't suck music by Lindsey Graham distributed by wondering born.

FDR President Franklin D Roosevelt President Senator Harry Truman President FDR Vice President Henry Wallace president vice president Roosevelt Truman Bob Hannigan America New York Thomas Dewey Dewey White House Teddy Roosevelt Eleanor Roosevelt Teddy US Congress Wilkie Democratic Party
1928: Hoover vs. Smith: Master of Emergencies

American Elections: Wicked Game

45:06 min | 1 year ago

1928: Hoover vs. Smith: Master of Emergencies

"It's January. Nineteen eleven in Albany New York. New York State Assemblyman Al Smith Strolls down the sidewalk and flashes his famous grin at the many passersby. AL's features are hard to miss. Here's a winning smile, a famously large nose and a big personality to match. As he rounds the corner onto a busy street, l. sees a familiar face. Wow, look at is. How do you? How do you do robber? Al Smith and Robert Wagner or long time, friends, former roommates and fellow Democrats Al's the head of the New York state assembly's powerful ways and means. Committee Roberts the president of the new. York State Senate the Tammany. Twins as they're sometimes called, are deeply connected to Tammany Hall. Democratic Party, machine in new. York out can tell from the look on his good friend Roberts face, though at all is not well. What's matter robbery? I'm on my way to call on a certain junior senator from New York USA. Causing problems ever since he arrived in Albany. aloes exactly who Robert is talking about. He's never met the man personally, but the freshman senators reputation precedes him. He's developed an annoying reputation for having scruples. What's he done now? He won't budge on Blue I billy. He's done in his heels. Blue Billy. Sheehan is the former Lieutenant Governor of New York and Tammany Hall's choice to run for the US Senate in the upcoming election, but this annoying freshman senator standing in blue eyed billy's way Robert. You're one of the most powerful men in the state. Tell them the fall in line. He has a legion of supporters standing behind him out enough to block Sheen's path to the Senate on my way now to his house. Try and strike a deal. And since when do you make deals with freshmen senators? It's humiliating. But I don't think I have a choice. Al Things from on then. He offers up his services I believe I'd like to join you Robert I. Ching for a fight, are we? Always. Not long after Robert and Al Arrive at the front steps of a nearby palatial townhouse on the corner of South Swan and State Street, as they make their way up the front steps, outtakes in the opulent facade of the building. A state senator afford a place like this. His last name, you know. After a few moments, the door creeks open, but it's not the freshman senators standing on the other side. It's a Butler and formal attire. May I help you. Gentlemen before Robert has a chance to answer. How cuts them off Senator Wagner and Assemblyman Smith to see Senator Roosevelt please. The butlers face falls into a confused expression. I know Mr Roosevelt is expecting Senator Wagner but sir perplexed. The Butler trails off now flashes his famous mile. All. That's alright, right? Brushes right past the Butler and barges inside. Just come along, too. Throughout his career Al Smith Love to tell the story of the night he met Franklin Delano. Roosevelt though I'll never divulge what transpired in their meeting. The facts point to a Roosevelt victory in January of Nineteen Eleven FDR. He would come to be known began his first term as a New York state senator. He'd been elected on a promise to go to bat for the American worker and Fight Against Tammany Hall the notoriously corrupt Democratic Party machine in New York. FDR's mind blue eyed billy she han was the embodiment of that corruption and thanks to FDR Resistance Tammany Hall. Eventually drop. She had went in a different direction. But. Al Smith did not appreciate after yards crusade. He wants said of him. Franklin just isn't the sort of man you can take into the piss room and talk intimately with. But though they began as enemies, AL, an FDR would eventually form an alliance, our learn to accept FDR scruples FDR would learn to accept AL's pension for power together. The two New Yorkers would redefine New York politics changed the face of the Democratic Party and defined the nineteen thirty two election. I'm Lindsey Graham and this is American elections wicked game. Al Smith the son of Irish immigrants had truly come from nothing. Babe Ruth the famous baseball player admired AL's humble beginnings and wished him well. I wasn't fed with gold spoon when I was a kid. No poor boy can go any too high in this world to suit me on the strength of his personality and hard work. AL became powerful new. York State Assemblyman, an effective New York County sheriff a beloved four term. New York governor and finally the nineteen, twenty Democratic nominee for president after he lost that contest to Herbert Hoover. How took a lucrative job as president of the Empire State Building, but he never gave up on his dream of winning the white. House. FDR On the other hand had been born into privilege and prestige, both his parents had come from wealthy new. York families after receiving a world class education at Harvard and Columbia Law. School FDR had entered a career in politics. He served in the New York State. Senate and went on to become Woodrow Wilson's Assistant Secretary of the Navy and eventually governor of New, York Right After Hal Smith, but the two governors AL and FDR were not politically aligned on every issue, though Al was a champion of labor, he was slightly more conservative, and he was a Tammany Hall Man FDR was a progressive in the tradition of Woodrow Wilson. He was frequently thorn and Tammany Hall side. But over the years, the two men formed deep bond and a lasting friendship, perhaps because both men were ambitious, both men cared about the plight of the Little Guy and both men knew what it meant to struggle. AL had risen to power in New York, even in the face of widespread anti-catholic sentiment. He was a relentless politician who loved the limelight. His genuine affection for politics earned him the nickname. The Happy Warrior FDR was a warrior to he had fought through multiple illnesses. He contracted the Spanish flu and lived to tell the tale only to be diagnosed with a severe muscular disease. Though at the time, doctors believed it was polio FDR symptoms were more consistent with Yamba Ray Syndrome FDR didn't lose his entire ability to walk, but he was extremely difficult, painful, and so FDR chose to use a wheelchair. After this polio diagnosis and retiring to a chair, many believed FDR's political career was over. But not how Smith after all won the Democratic presidential nomination in Nineteen, twenty, eight, he announced his intention not to stand for re-election as governor of new. York instead AL handpicked FDR to be his successor. AL's endorsement and his ferocious camping on FDR's behalf helped his friend win the governorship, but as the nineteen thirty two presidential election drew near the very ambition that I brought Al Smith and FDR together with threaten to render their friendship apart. Both. Men wanted the White House. To secure their party's nomination. The two titans of New York politics would sever their bonds of friendship and go to war at the Democratic National Convention. This is episode thirty, seven, nineteen, thirty, two hoover versus Roosevelt versus Smith to governors. On May first, nineteen, thirty one the Empire State building officially opened for business. The one hundred two storey architectural marvel was a leftover symbol of the prosperity of the roaring twenties. It's very existence belied the harsh realities of the Great Depression, arguably the most. Financial Crisis in US history, the stock market crash of Nineteen, twenty nine, and the ensuing depression crippled the American economy on almost every level, and even as the Empire State building opened in May of nineteen, thirty one, the tragedy of the depression was on full Display York bread lines were long jobs were gone droves of homeless Americans lived in Central Park Shacks and tents. The depression had. Had not stopped construction of the Empire State Building, but it had severely reduced the need for office space, well over half of the offices, sat empty, but former New York governor Al, Smith, the president of the Empire State Building was a master of public relations so on May First Nineteen thirty one AL, stage a PR stunt. He invited his longtime friend current Governor Franklin Delano Roosevelt. As. The two men stood on the observation deck of the eighty sixth floor, looking out over the city reporters fired off questions and photographer snapped away on the surface. It seemed to be a Happy Affair Al. Joyfully pointed out landmarks to FDR. Who walked with the help of leg braces as the two men sturdy themselves against the powerful gusting wind. FDR told the press all I'm going to ask him to do is reserved for me in office in this building so that when I leave Albany I, we'll have someplace to go. Our replied about that office the next day you're in town I will have you down in the rental department. But underneath the smiles tension was brewing. Reporter started to ask a question by saying governor how Smith chimed in which one? Governor Roosevelt was housemates chosen heir Al had fully expected FDR to carry forward the torch. The legacy hit built over four terms in the governor's office. During his tenure in Albany, he accomplished a great deal pushed for social welfare programs, civil service reforms, and the creation of public parks and FDR had campaigned on a promise to finish what Al had started. It promised to modernize the government to expand its role as a bulwark to the private sector and beef up regulations, but FDR's first term started in January of Nineteen, twenty nine in just a few months, the stock market crash had. Had brought FDR's plans to a screeching halt as governor Roosevelt worked to help. New York survived the depression, he now became increasingly estranged. The first big fight had been over alcohol throughout nineteen thirty one democratic party leaders across the country already had an eye on the upcoming nineteen thirty two election. One big question was whether or not the party platform shoot include the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment the constitutional. Prohibition of Alcohol Al FDR had found themselves on opposite sides of the argument Al was a wet politician meaning. He was in favor of repealing the eighteenth. Amendment FDR was not dry. He was not a staunch supporter of the eighteenth amendment at all, but he was worried. The pushing for repeal was politically risky FDR's mine, talking about booze in the middle of a depression might alienate the Democrats base in the south. Mission still enjoyed strong support not to mention President Hoover and the Republicans were politically vulnerable as a result of the depression better to keep the conversation focused on the failure of Republican economic policy, rather than to bring booze to the forefront and hand hoover a winning talking point. AL sought different way. He believed the Republicans were vulnerable on prohibition as well in Alice, mind men like President Hoover were trying to have it. Both ways with Booze Republicans were wet in the north, and they were dry in the south. This house mine was hypocrisy and the Democrats needed to attack. It additionally could sense that the American people were growing tired of prohibition and tired of the Depression, making booze legal again and taxing. It might be a winning strategy. In early nineteen, thirty one, AL had worked through back channels to help push for an anti prohibition plank to be included in the nineteen thirty two democratic platform FDR had worked through back channels to quietly kill it. Their fight had been about the politics of booze, but it had also been about something else who would occupy the White House. Both men wanted to be president in the. The summer of nineteen thirty, FDR had told a friend I believe I can be nominated for the presidency in nineteen, thirty two on the Democratic ticket Al. Smith had already received his party's nomination in nineteen, twenty eight, and on the campaign trail, he had suffered brutal attacks Al was Irish Catholic, the son of immigrants throughout his career. This made him the frequent target of the K.. And many in the southern press, and though Al had lost to Herbert, hoover in nineteen, twenty, eight I, nineteen thirty one, he was ready to make another run. Though neither man had publicly declared their intentions. Their scuffle over booze had drawn figurative line in the sand right down the middle of New York politics on one side, stood FDR on the other Al Smith in the end, FDR had won the first battle over booze but Al Smith would try to win the next battle over an entirely different issue. Trees. During his first term Governor, Roosevelt had approved nearly twenty million dollars for reforestation in New York new. Yorkers had to approve FDR's plan, but it looks poised to pass. The plan was beloved by many, and it enjoyed broad bipartisan support. During. His four terms as governor Al Smith had never taken a position on replanting trees, one way or the other, but in the fall of nineteen, thirty one with the Democratic National Convention nine months away. He suddenly took an interest in a radio address from Carnegie Hall. Al Went on the attack. If FDR wanted to replant trees, AL charged, he shouldn't put it before the people for a vote, he should follow the state constitution. Put It on the floor of the New York state legislature. AL's public attack against FDR People's attention a few days later, the Democratic Mayor of Chicago told the. New York Times that the Democrats next presidential nominee should be a man of the Al Smith type in early. November, nineteen, thirty, one, The Times reported that als- Tirade against the reforestation plan had been resented by Governor Roosevelt's friends who believe that it has shown definitely that Mr. Smith intends to do everything he can't prevent Governor Roosevelt from obtaining presidential nomination. In the end Al's efforts to kill the reforestation plant fell flat. New Yorkers voted for Dr, plan but he didn't take a victory lap though. FDR extended an olive branch on November Eighteenth Nineteen thirty one FDR invited Al Smith to his town house in Manhattan on his way inside Al, told reporters I'm here to eat. Their launched lasted two hours, and afterwards both men told the press that they had discussed matters of state after the meeting Al told a mutual friend by God. He did not mention to me the subject of his candidacy, but apparently out didn't mentioned the subject of his either and FDR were starting to get worried that how might run against him? Ed Flynn. New, York Secretary of state was decided FDR man, but he was also Irish Catholic and Al was his good friend so when FDR asked Ed to pay Allah. Visit get some answers. Ed Flynn was happy to oblige. And Al's office at the Empire State Building and asked him the million dollar question or you going to run? In response how spread a stack financial documents across his desk and said Ed, these are all the debts I must clear up financially. I am in an extremely bad position. was definitely not yes, it wasn't no either. Our the master PR knew that being Cagey would fuel speculation in the Roosevelt camp and in the press. Not long after a false story began to circulate in the papers that FDR had called Al.. Governor, in January of Nineteen, thirty to FDR told the new. York Times, any man who circulates story of kind is not only a liar, but as a contemptible liar that same month after are sent a letter to the democratic state. Committee in North Dakota accepting their endorsement for the presidential nomination. But after was worried, that AL believed the rumor in the papers, so he invited to meet with him in Albany as a matter of protocol, he announced the imitation the. AL's office released a statement politely declining. Then on February seventh AL summoned reporters to his office at the Empire. State building. He said well here. It is boys and he handed out copies of a brief statement. It read if the Democratic National Convention should decide, it wants me to lead I will make the fight. So the two governors were officially in the race. FDR was perhaps the front runner, but to win the Democratic nomination. You'd have to get the best of the happy. Warrior and in February of Nineteen. Thirty two L Smith set out to do what he did. Best play the press like a fiddle. It's February eighth nineteen, thirty two in New York City at the newly erected empire, state building. Former, New York governor Al Smith Rides the elevator up to his office. He's dressed in funeral, tired a black suit and a black top hat. Earlier today Al, attended the funeral of Tammy Hall figurehead John Voorhees there. He ran into Governor Roosevelt. The two men exchange a few private words, even though he's dressed for a funeral alice, still all smiles cigar hangs from his smirking. That's because Al knows his run in with Roosevelt at the funeral is already the talk of the town. Smith Mrs Smith Follow Me Boys. Leads a large crowd reporters to his office. Once inside, he removes his top hat. Garni flashes the reporters his famous smile all right all right now. Who has questions for me? This myth one at a time. Boys y'all. Get your chance. You Mr Smith. Have you received any telegrams offering congratulations? Yes, in fact I have. Would you be willing to share? Yes, as a matter of fact I would. Our reaches for a stack of telegrams on his desk. This one here's from fellow from Scranton Pennsylvania by the name of John Durkin. It says Atta Boy Al.. All smiles. I'll take solarge stacking his hands and shows it to the reporters. There's plenty more where that came from. Is there one from Governor Roosevelt? For just a moment, the smile falls from Alice face. Then he replies with a twinkle Insein. Now there's so many in here. Haven't read them all yet. What Mr Roosevelt say you at the funeral. He asked me to come up to the house. Did you I did? Right after the funeral, AL did accompany Roosevelt to his home on east sixty fifth street. The man talked for nearly an hour. And what did you discuss? AL's enjoying this. He loves being the center of tension toying with the press. It was all social mono. Do you expect us to believe politics didn't come up at all. If you won't take my word for asked Mr, Roosevelt was there anything that happened or anything that might happen. That would cause you to withdraw your name from the race. I can only speak for today. A reporter for the New, York Times took al up on his suggestion after the Q. and A. and als- office, the reporter contacted Roosevelt's office and ask for the governor's version of their meeting. When the reporter told a staffer that Al Smith had called the meeting Social Roosevelt. Staffer replied then it was social. Whatever Smith says on the subject goes. Out Smith Soiree with a gaggle of reporters was big news, and in the lead up to the Democratic National Convention how do his damnedest to stay in the spotlight behind closed doors. You do everything in his power to deny FDR the nomination. Keep the top spot for himself. For Democrats across the country, the choice between Al Smith and FDR was not a simple one, and it was a choice. The party desperately needed to get right in the seventy years since the Civil War Democrats had produced only to successful candidates, grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson Republican prosperity had trump the democratic agenda time and time again. But in the election of nineteen, thirty, two Republican prosperity was over and president. Herbert Hoover was vulnerable. The American banking system had collapsed. Businesses were failing wages were down and jobs existent as unemployment skyrocketed to twenty five percent to a large extent Americans blamed Herbert Hoover. The shantytowns, cropping up across the country from New York to California were nicknamed Hoover Villes, but the anti hoover sentiment didn't stop the Republicans from standing by their man at the Republican, National Convention in June, of Nineteen, thirty to the party, renominated Herbert Hoover and his Vice President Charles. Curtis Republican leaders did their best to quiet descent and focused on hoover's core message solving the economic crisis by balancing budgets. Prior to the depression, hoover had been a popular president and he had beaten Smith in the nineteen twenty eight contests by landslide hoover had fared well in the south in large part because Al represented many things. The southern people largely didn't like he was Irish. Who Was Catholic? He was anti prohibition in Nineteen thirty, too many Democrats especially FDR supporters were worried about history repeating itself so in the run up to the Democratic convention, FDR supporters were working behind the scenes to make sure Al. Smith's nomination was dead on arrival, but to get the best of Al. FDR had to win new. York and they're FDR had a serious problem. New York City mayor. Jimmy Walker. Going into the convention FDR was in a tight spot. For many democratic reformers at Dr had turned into a shell of his former self. He wants been a champion of the little. Guy Unafraid to stand up to the corruption of Tammany Hall by Nineteen. Thirty to FDR had changed. He was aware of certain political realities. If he fought too hard against Hamdi Hall he risked losing New York and handing the nomination to Al. Smith. Corruption in the empire state was a tale as old as time, and if New York City was the epicenter of that corruption New York City Mayor Jimmy Walker was the dirtiest of the bunch prior to the Convention Governor Roosevelt had been reluctant to go after Mayor Walker fearful of angering Tammany Hall but under pressure from reformers FDR eventually buckled, and opened an investigation into New York City corruption from any Tammany Hall politicians, FDR had gone too far, and for many reformers had not gone far enough. In February nineteen, Thirty Two New York prosecutor Samuel Seabury told The New York Times Tammy's power drives public men whose instincts would lead them to speak out and protest against corruption that has been revealed to a sullen silence. They know the conditions are evil, but they fear to antagonize the power of Tammany Hall. Any contemporary reader would have known to whom Seabury was referring FDR certainly new, but FDR. SEABURY statement wasn't just a thesis against corruption. It looked to Roosevelt as Seabury was trying to make a play for the nineteen thirty two democratic nomination. In June of nineteen, thirty two seabreeze sent Governor, Roosevelt, the letter, laying out the case for removing Mayor Walker on grounds of corruption. The timing was suspicious. The Democratic National Convention was set to take place in Chicago in a matter of weeks, and not long after seabreeze sent the letter, Democratic delegates began receiving what was in effect campaign literature about Seabury a great champion of reform. seabreeze Leonard backed FDR into a corn. Would he go after Walker and risk alienating? Tammany Hall or would he give Walker? Pass and inflame the reformers. FDR struggled with the decision. He told the press never has the governor been asked to remove an elected officer on such evidence, so FDR chose a third option. He put the ball in walkers court just before the convention, FDR sent Mayor Walker seabreeze letter, and told the mayor he awaited his reply. While FDR awaited mayor walkers next move behind the scenes at the convention out. Smith was making moves of his own. GOING INTO CHICAGO FDR had a large block of delegates pledged to his side more than Al and the rest of the potential nominees combined, but Al was determined to win, or at the very least to prevent FDR from winning. To steal the nomination from Roosevelt Al needed to win the state of California. The California delegation was largely under the control of William Gibbs mcadoo. A prominent California lawyer to win. California L. Needed mcadoo in his corner, but mcadoo despise Dow in the nineteen twenty four election mcadoo had wanted the Democratic nomination himself, but how had blocked his path? So I'll had to try and make nice a few days before the first gavel of the convention, how mcadoo met in private in the closed-door meeting, AL failed to secure Macanese support, but he had extended a peace offering. He had done his best to ensure the. California would not support Governor Roosevelt. Smith's biggest boost though had come from prosecutor Samuel Seabury. Many delegates worried that seabreeze letter would make Governor Roosevelt vulnerable in the general election in order to beat president. Hoover Democrats need to Win New York Mayor Walker was extremely popular all across the state, but then again the evidence against him was so significant, the Governor Roosevelt could not ignore it forever. He would have to do something and when he did. Delegates worried the Democrats in New York would stay home on election day. Hand the contest to hoover. The Democratic National Convention began in late June, one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, two balloting, started on June thirtieth and lasted late into the night. When the New York delegation was called, they began a voice vote, mayor and delegate Jimmy. Walker's name was called, but there was no answer. Jimmy Walker was mia many wondered if Walker had fled the country to escape prosecution. What in the wee hours of the morning Jimmy Walker would make his presence known. It's before dawn on July, first nineteen, thirty two. Weary and exhausted. Democratic delegates are packed inside Chicago Stadium Balloting state by state has a long arduous process one. That's lasted all through the night new. York's delegates have just finished a dreadfully boring voice vote. Most of the delegates in the stadium are doing everything they can not not off. Convention, Chairman Thomas J Walsh stands at the podium onstage just as he opens his mouth to deliver the result of new. York's ballot alone voice calls out from the Hall Mister Chairman Stadium Stirs Slightly. The delegates are awakened from their boredom wall. squint, the man standing at the microphone in the crowd is too far away to be seen. Who is the gentleman who addresses the chair Walker a delegate from New York? Stadium Robson gasps and murmurs at the Convention Walker hadn't been seen. He even missed his chance to vote, but walkers, the kind of man who likes to make an entrance when the roll call was underway, he slipped in unnoticed, noticed to spring this surprise. For what purpose does he address the chair? The delegate was not here when his name was called, his alternate voted in his stead. The delegates now here request permission to cast his own vote. Request is granted. Walker's fate is in the hands of governor. Roseville FDR has been breathing down walkers snack about the charges of corruption levelled against him, so walker has a choice peace with FDR or war. Walker Leans in close to the MIC and speaks clearly and decisively. This delegate cast his vote for. Peace Smith. Mayor Jimmy. Walker's dramatic appearance brought the tired delegates back to life as the New York, Times reported a thunder of applause that followed was spontaneous. Genuine hearty delegates shouted at each other dance, cheered, declaring and less than refined terms that Walker had intestinal fortitude. All were aware that the mayor's fate was resting in the hands of Governor Roosevelt. With his vote Walker had publicly flouted the investigation and dared FDR to come after him putting governor. Roosevelt's against the wall and creating an opening for AL to exploit. The first day of balloting at the Democratic National. Convention officially ended around seven. AM on July first nineteen thirty two. After the delegates, votes were counted, FDR was clearly in the lead, but he was short of the two-thirds majority required to win Al Smith was in a distant second place. Thanks in part to mayor, Walker I'll, had New York in his corner. FDR supporters assumed that after the first ballot, the delegates behind the minor candidates would switch their votes to the front runner, but they didn't leaving the FDR camp deeply concerned and Al Smith feeling confident that he had FDR right where he wanted him. From a strategic standpoint AB leave that if California got behind him, the rest of the up for grabs, states would follow suit through back channel intermediaries. He sent an offer to William Gibbs mcadoo if California pledged her votes to Al Macadear and his friends would be mightily rewarded, but mcadoo did not trust out. He had been burned by him one too many times. mcadoo did trust speaker of the House John Garner of Texas and Al Smith believed that if Garner told mcadoo to fall in line Makati to do it in the name of Party unity, additionally Garner would bring Texas delegates with him, so al sought to give Garner something. He desperately wanted more power. To broker a deal, I'll lean on one of his closest political advisers, someone the New York Times once called the most powerful woman in Politics Belle Moskowitz at Al's behest Moskowitz picked up. The phone dialed Garner's hotel in Chicago and asked to speak to the Texas representative after placing her on a brief hold. The hotel employee told Moskowitz. You may tell Governor Smith at speaker. Garner is here the reason you can't get him is that he refuses to answer the phone. FDR was having better luck while Al set his sights on William, Gibbs mcadoo after our was focused on another California powerbroker William Resolve. The powerful media mogul from San Francisco like mcadoo. I had been burned by Smith before two in the nineteen twenties. Hurston had made a run for us. Senate in New York. ow had torpedoed his chances in retaliation hearst, and has many newspapers had shunned Allen, the nineteen twenty eight election and supported Herbert Hoover instead. FDR. Supporters sought to use hearst's Animus and his influence to FDR's vantage. But. Hearst was not an FDR fan in his mind. FDR was to progressive too much of an internationalist in the tradition of Woodrow Wilson. I was a supporter of Speaker of the House. John Garner and in the end, his hatred for Al Smith would prove greater than his reservations of FDR. Hearst met in private with one of FDR surrogates to entertain often. If the California delegation backed FDR Garner would be named vice president, and so the outcome of the nineteen thirty two democratic convention would be decided by one of Al Smith's greatest political enemies. In the home stretch of the Convention William Randolph hearst would have his revenge on the happy warrior. It's July second nineteen, thirty, two at a hotel room in Chicago Illinois at the nearby. Stadium Democratic delegates are desperate to break the gridlock and choose a nominee former New York governor Al Smith hasn't left. This room has Chicago headquarters all day just this morning. The room was bustling with well-wishers adoring fans. Now it's all but empty save for a handful of loyal staffers. Alice Pacing chomping on his Cigar Paul that radio in here yes sir. Ben An hour ago, AL's campaign received word that speaker of the House John Garner switched his vote to governor. Roosevelt word at the Convention is Roosevelt flying into Chicago from New York to receive his party's nomination in person. No presidential nominee in history has ever been so bold Garner switch orchestrated by William Randolph. Hearst is a crushing blow, but it is not defeat not yet. They're still a shred of hope. Al Has lost. Taxes would have California remains oil. He might be able to block FDR's path to victory. Turn it up. I'll staffer turns up the volume on the radio. As former Treasury Secretary William Gibbs McAfee head of the California delegation takes the podium. Off Thank you for the privilege accorded to me. To say just a wedding explaining the both. Of State of California. Don't worry about that. California came here nominated president of the United. States key did not from here at this convention. Comes into the convention. Seven hundred. Citizens Favor. I've taken indicative of the. Different candidates he's. On the nomination. He shakes his head in disgust. Pack it up, everyone. We're going home. One of our staffers nervously approaches the former governor. He's about to bring up a topic. He knows our won't like conceding now. If you throw your support behind Governor, Roosevelt the nomination would be unanimous, so in the interest of Party unity, but AL faults is arms. Defiantly I won't do it. I won't do it I won't do it. The staffers get the message. They get to work packing the campaign. Literature banners important papers. Just as they finish boxing up the office official word comes down over the radio votes Chad. Lebanon hundred and forty eight. And one half. Necessarily to a choice seven hundred sixty six. Glen Rose Route. Having received more than two thirds of all the delegates voting. For played them the of this convention for. The United States. At about that time, AL's daughter enters the room immediately. She can tell her father is inconsolable, so she quietly escorts him out of the Barron headquarters down the hall toward the Elevator. As they step inside. She asks what now father. Going to bed. William Randolph hearst came through for FDR. He brokered the deal and delivered the California delegation with enough delegates for FDR to secure the required two-thirds majority in exchange speaker John Garner was named FDR's vice presidential, running mate, not long after mcadoo speech al-f Chicago and returned to new. York to lick his wounds once back home. He told the press I. AM tired I just WANNA get arrest. The rumors Smith heard that day in Chicago were true. Roosevelt did fly from New York to Chicago to accept the nomination in person, the first nominee in history to ever do so. In the Stadium Roosevelt made his case I. Have Thought it out on the tasks little I ahead. By breaking the absurd prediction that the candidate. George remain in professed ignorance of what has happened for a week. I'd Ilias formally notified of that event many weeks later. You have nominated me. And I know it. And I am here to thank you, Oughta. Let it also be symbolic. Knowing Pro Predict. It be from now on the task of our Party. Related today? I. Five so. New while the American people. Profane. Pro. America, People. After Roosevelt's speech, the band played FDR campaign song. Happy days are here again. Al Smith was most assuredly not happy with the outcome of the convention, but President Herbert Hoover was hoover believed that the Democrats had made a fatal mistake by nominating FDR in Hoover's mind FDR was far too progressive for the average American. If Hoover could turn the economy around before November, he believe he stood a fighting chance, though his official headquarters were in Chicago who were conducted his campaign from the White House, often making radio addresses and holding events in the Rose Garden, but in the summer of nineteen, thirty two hoover's campaign plans were interrupted by a political invasion. In June a group of over forty thousand unemployed World War One veterans had marched on Washington, the bonus army, as they were called, demanded the early release of bonus pay. They were promised for their service to the country Congress had passed a bonus bill a year earlier, authorizing the early release of the bonus funds, but hoover had vetoed it at their camp near downtown. Washington bonus army protesters were demanding their money. Their slogan was in hoover. We trusted now. We're busted. Worried about Communist, influence hoover ordered the secret service to infiltrate the ranks of the bonus army. The agents found that while some communists had joined the protesters, they were not a substantial threat, but the secret service did recommend hoover minimize his public appearances always bad news for a president in a campaign year, hoover had largely avoided conflict with bonus, army protesters until July twenty, eighth, nineteen, thirty two, when a fight broke out between the veterans and local police shots were fired. Fired, one protester was killed, the army was deployed to support the Washington police and with tear-gas plumbing downtown. The bonus army camp suddenly went up in flames. Government officials claim the protesters started the fire. Many in the press blamed the government troops hoover, many in his administration blamed the communist infiltrators. The skirmish made front page news all across the country. The public was outraged. One reporter, who had been injured in the scuffle, wrote the nothing, but bitter feelings towards Herbert Hoover. But like hoover FDR had also opposed the early release of opponents army funds. It was an astronomical sum of money equal to the federal budget for entire year, but after FDR like most Americans could not understand why hoover had deployed the military against military veterans, FDR had always held hoover in high esteem, but after the bonus army, Bockel, FDR recanted saying there was nothing left inside the man but jelly. Maybe there never had been anything. The bonus army incident all, but tanked Herbert hoovers, reelection prospects, but it also gave FDR political cover to deal with problem that he'd been neglecting mayor Jimmy Walker President. Hoover was now vulnerable, but in order to ensure victory after you are needed to win, New York and going to war with New York. City's popular, Irish Catholic mayor, a man who was well entrenched in Tammany hall was a risky move. If New York's Irish population sat out the election. Who Could Win New York Still, the evidence of corruption against Walker was to damning to ignore so in August of nineteen, thirty two, FDR summoned Walker to Albany and confronted him. The meeting and FDR's office was contentious. Walker left in a huff. On September first nineteen, thirty, two one of FDR supporters, begged the nominee not to confront Walker when FDR refused to back down, his supporters angrily asked so you rather be right than president, but in the end FDR wouldn't have to make a decision in just a few days Walker resigned. It wasn't out of the blue, though there was a man behind his decision, Al Smith. In late August Al had put the screws to walk in a private meeting at the Plaza Hotel in Manhattan Al had told him Jim you're through by convincing Walker to resign hours tacitly helping FDR win the general election, and in the end for the Happy Warrior party loyalty trumped any ill will. He felt for Roosevelt. L Smith and FDR officially buried the hatchet in October of nineteen, thirty, two at the Democratic State Convention. In Albany on stage in front of a massive crowd of delegates, photographers and reporters Allah approached FDR extended his hand and said Hello Frank I'm glassy. FDR replied hello. Al I'm glad to see you too, and that's from the heart. One reporter in the audience wrote that Al called FDR An old potato term of endearment from an Irish Catholic and a clear signal to Irish voters where the reporter got. That story is unclear. Al Had not called him an old potato, but the story caught on like wildfire. FDR's victory was all but assured, but in late October two weeks before election day FDR went in for the kill in front of a crowd of over ten thousand. FDR abandoned his previous caution and came out strong against prohibition he called for the restoring of the legal production of beer and taxing to help pull America out of the depression. The crowd went wild chanting. We want beer and pour it on and if Al Smith had been there, he might have smiled. It might be argued that in the nineteen thirty two election Americans didn't vote for FDR as much as they voted. Against Herbert Hoover in the minds of many hoover was responsible for the Great Depression, and the bonus army debacle, an only added fuel to the fire. Hoover's lackluster noncommittal position on prohibition didn't do him. Any favors either. In the previous election in one thousand, nine, hundred, twenty, eight hoover had one forty one states in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, two, one, only six, an all in the northeast. After are won in a landslide that cut across all regions of the country. Over twenty two million popular votes and four hundred seventy two electoral votes. FDR The candidate had promised the American people a new deal during his first term, democratic majorities in both houses after yard, the president were largely deliver in his first one hundred days, he expanded government agencies and programs throughout his first term. He used the government not big business as a tool to pull America out of the Great Depression. FDR's new deal earned him the love, the American people, the era of Republican dominance in American politics was over and the era of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. And arrived. On the next episode of wicked game election of nineteen, thirty, six, as FDR pushes his progressive agenda Republicans turned to a progressive candidate of their own Kansas Governor Al Landon has land, and the Republicans push to make the election a referendum on fiscal responsibility. FDR defends his new deal against a slew of opponents, including his longtime rival and sometimes friend former governor. Al Smith don't miss a single week of our mark from Seventeen, thousand nine to twenty twenty hit the subscribe button and your podcast APP now. This show is supported by you. Our listeners who is give us a rating, leave a review, but. But the single best way to help this show grow is to tell others share with your friends and family find us on social media at wicked game, Pot and I'm at Lindsey Graham another way to support. This show is to go to wicked game podcast dot com. Members there get early access to add free episodes as well as bonus content, only available to members find out more at wicked game podcast dot com about our reenactments in most cases. We can't know exactly what was said. Everything in our show is heavily researched based on surviving historical documents. Wicked game is an airship production created. And executive produced by me Lindsey Graham sound design by Derek. Barons who executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions, this episode written and researched by Stephen Walters fact checking by Greg Jackson Seattle Salazar from the podcast history. That doesn't suck music by Lindsey Graham stripped by wondering.

FDR Governor Franklin Delano Roose AL New York City Roosevelt Al Governor Smith FDR Assemblyman Al Smith President Herbert Hoover president York Albany New York hoover FDR Resistance Tammany Hall California Tammany Hall Chicago Assemblyman Smith Jimmy Walker
18: Nigel Hamilton on FDR

This American President

1:10:41 hr | 1 year ago

18: Nigel Hamilton on FDR

"The. Uh! So on today's episode we have Nigel Hamilton. The author of the new book. War and peace FDR's final. Odyssey DDAT alternate, one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty, three to nineteen forty-five, and this book finishes Your Trilogy President Roosevelt and I'm seventy to hear that this electorally. Be Your final book. Is that right? Not necessarily my final book, but probably my last big biography, okay. Well. It last of my FDR because he dies the in that is true. Yes, I, I can't keep him alive. In fact I I had a strange episode. Where just before I finished writing it I got writer's block and. At my writers, group Mike civil. What's the matter? I said what I just I? I can't seem put pen to paper anymore. They what comes next in the story and I said well. He dies and they said well. Isn't it obvious? Problem with that right. You can't help that. So that that's good. Even the best writers out there get get writer's block. Dead encourages all the rest of us. Now I I remember the first time I ever heard about you. I was ten years old, and it was the thirtieth anniversary of the Kennedy assassination, and you had a book come out on President Kennedy. JFK RECKLESS YOUTH AND I remember there was also a mini series about it starring. Patrick Dempsey and says the first time I heard about you. It's pretty cool to be sitting here interviewing you. What was that like to have a book of yours become a feature film? I was a television mini series. It. It was any time in Lila like when I other than than sort of. Fairly considerable amount of money at least two to get. DOLLAH, because you have to take the money on the first day of of cinematography, because otherwise is. A up. But. yeah, it was a total SURPRI as them. The the book could been turned down by the first publisher in Boston. was afraid of how the Kennedy family would receive it not because it was You know what not because it was negative about JFK on the country was You know he was rather. The hero of the story is just that it was it less than positive about Ajay. Case Filed A. pecan candy the ambassador at London at the time of Hitler. And and he's mother as well. had too many children on, too many cares and. You know to a great extent as as a biographer I am having interviewed hundreds of his. Friends right boy through from school to from the navy and move to. An injuries occur. became more of is that. Many of his programs with women. DID HAVE A. Women You know went back to Israel, the cold relationship with his mother and As for fell, that must tell that story of Mary. It's a fascinating human story, but of course. you know if you remember the Kennedy, family and Irish amerks chicken. Keen to respect and. Support, in mind, the parents and so they took exception to it, and in fact they. The published. An opinion. You Times and and the book was called JFK reckless. They intact, the op-ed reckless biography. Wow. What a response! Surprising I was just the Cork Latte little English historian and writer A. Who felt that it was time to do? Take! A fresh milk is To who'd become almost mythical through the whole camelot sure. Right and So Yeah I. It wasn't an entirely I love writing the book I can't say that I like what happened afterwards. In terms of the family, response or not just the family I mean the. You know the. JFK Presidential Library is is a federal institution that my mail broken open. Only be! Quite nasty, and. And that was really what put me off continuing. seat. was meant right right yeah. Well. The must be a fascinating story on its own. Now shifting to the subject of this book, a about President Roosevelt, there's also a personal connection there, and I know that your father had participated in the invasion of Normandy and he seemed like he knew a lot of the a lot of the major players during that time. I believe he knew Prime Minister Churchill and his wife and field. Marshal Montgomery so if you could kind of talk about that personal connection, and how you wrote this book with that in mind. Well, it wasn't just my father. My father as you say had had. Been A. An officer, a combat officer in World War Two and he was evacuated from dunkirk in nineteen forty, and then allow part in the landings. And served through. All the way through. The Battle of Normandy and into Holland and ended the war. At, age twenty six as a temporary. Brigadier, in in Germany, so he had an extraordinary war came from a very. Humble background working class background. he was decorated in the field by Field Marshal Montgomery. Who was the commander in chief of the American Canadian British AMIES AT D Day? There! So they maintained a relationship a close relationship. When my father went back into journalism, he just been a junior reporter on our local newspaper. And it was my father that I came in no fear Mushroom Montgomery. Back well, I was a school kid when I first met him. And inviting me to. This converted water mill. He he lived in in retirement. He had been deputy. Supreme Commander of NATO. And so monty took a kind of liking to this young. Somewhat ignorance it. And, and in fact, Monte took me to stay at chop well with Winston, Churchill Unlikely Church for weekend with two daughters President and Said I was nineteen years old. I was at Cambridge investi undergraduate I I. I was You know strange to say I thought I behaved very well there and. It's been. Nine hundred sixty four. Because, it was an extraordinary we can. I can imagine. It will very vivid in my memory, but I recently came across a letter that Monte as his cold. If you're Masha, wrote to my father, saying that I'd been very badly behaved. I was sort of chocolate. student very opinionated wouldn't listen to let. My Gosh. So, but I did. Talk a great deal with Montgomery about chat show who Churchill had been Montes boss. Okay, have from. From the battle of Alamein in nineteen, forty two all the way through to the end And MONTY MONTY had huge admiration for Churchill as a statesman as a figurehead as as an Oreta right. But. He had really very serious criticisms of Churchill as a military strategist and. At Sense Church was really very much locked into his Victorian upbringing. Okay, And didn't really understand Morton Wolf Eh. The stand how to defeat them the German. In World War Two. So that is what gave me a kind of curiosity about and I started this. Project I never thought it was. A life of FDR as commander in chief As United, states commander in chief and That was the sort of background of of my curiosity about that. How how FDR GET ON WITH CHURCH whom he gets to know, even before pell hob. How did the relationship develop through the wall so? it's certainly being fascinating to me as an author and biographer and I I think it's fair to say that. Most of my stories is pretty revelatory. Not. I'm particularly specialists and writers story, but I think because JETRO. Himself was so brilliant and such an extraordinary can cover up. Six volumes fantastically, well written. 'emOi about how he won, will to basically a muzzle right Sir sir. But it was so well written that he was actually given the Nobel Prize for literature largely on the strengths of the six volumes. You know historian with American home. British has ever really been able to make much of a dent in that. Barbara free so I. It was perhaps a little ambitious me to think that I could but us. I had spent ten years as a military story in writing the official authorized biography of Montgomery as military commander. I I didn't feel inhibited I. Just thought well. You know it's seventy years since the war it's. Tightened to. Investigate this. Honestly and. Let the console as they as they will The the three volumes. Collectively, it's cold. War. They ought to some extent an answer to. Churchill's famous. Six series German Co Second World War. Oh. Yes, well so. One of the biggest parts of your stories. The invasion of Normandy and there's a quote. That's that really stuck out to me. You said that more than any individual alive President Roosevelt had in truth responsible for ensuring that overlord would be mounted successfully in the spring of Nineteen, forty, four and achievement. Sadly, that would not be recognized in the President's lifetime or indeed afterwards others claimed the glory. What did Roosevelt do bring about? And why has it been kind of overlooked? For two reasons ready. Possibly free. Festival he didn't live to tell the story or as Churchill did. That's the first thing secondly I think. He didn't live, but the generals for the most part lived even patent for afterwards will, too, so each of them either wrote their own life stories or got very competent. To do so. and. And You know they didn't necessarily. If you're a serving officer in the United, states navy or on meal ripples. You knew answer to your. Superior this is Sara Lee. See that much of the president. Then you don't know how involved he in major decisions at strategy, you are carrying out in like if you like the president's strategy and the president dies just a few weeks before the end of the wall. So what I wanted to show. People was. Should read it was the FDR have not only. Believed in a second front, overload or D Day. Or an invasion of northern France as the quickest way to get to linen defeat it. And this right from one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty, one, his victory clan of November, nineteen, forty one. He believed that he was a great strategist in t realized. The more he saw. How well Germans have professional leave. They were fighting. A good thing where battle. And as obedient to the furet. The more. He realized that he would have to. And particularly because the British were not finding very well in the early part of. Hindu numerous surrenders, not just at Singapore, but in to Brooke. So. He realized that he would have to do this. Step by step, and I think that is his great Mrs Strategies is that he realized the rather than he overruled his cheek. His military chiefs of Staff General Marshall. King. He He. Overrule them, and Said No. We cannot launch a cross channel invasion of France in one, thousand, nine, hundred, ninety, two, we smelted. And in fact did launch many version of D day that summer in over. Ninety. Four two and almost a thousand Canadians were met the, beaches distant. You know said the president was absolutely right and General Marcham Fragrance Axel be wrong. And he felt that the. Then from that point onwards that really the best way would be to put American forces into battle. In a place. That would allow them if you like to make mistakes, which is what happened at the battle of. in. Africa! When Rome already ran riot and certain American forces much them. But he was quite. Determined the wants those American forces loaned, and not we're not just talking about troops. We're talking about the commanders themselves. The integration. Between enforces Dominic postseason once they actually learn how to defeat them. In the Mediterranean from North Africa on woods. As far away as possible from Linton so. In other words they would long lines of communication. The Germans once they achieved that sir. That success against the Germans from that point on what he was determined to to you don't. And Summer of one, thousand, four, hundred forty. he insisted to Churchill Churchill sign up. His Canadian. Forces to join its state's in mountain. D. Day in the spring of Nineteen. Forty four. And as early as possible in the summer, because they will need enough months some months in northern France to. The Germans in open battle. And so his priority. From nineteen summer, Ninety three onwards was to make sure d day took place, and that becomes if you like the the drama of of this final volume. Food because Churchill doesn't want to do it. right now, I'm sorry I. I think that. You know. Churchill gave a a number of reasons in his memoirs when I didn't think. At a true military story really take them seriously. Sure only it is amazing how? Since Churchill died in nineteen, sixty five. How many? Quite, reputable historians imbiber have gone on. Peddling. You yes. Ways believed in the day says he didn't Times nine, hundred, forty, three, he took. To the United States. To. To argue against ego. And then finally at. The end of the year. He insisted before the president meet with stunning. They fresh is out and he hoped to get. The United States basically to back down over the day and. If possible for another year. So, you talk about FDR making the fateful decision to choose the commander of. Of D Day and you say that he used that as a chess piece or as a raid against Churchill. What do you mean by that? Well It's. It's complicated because. You, know Churchill just as the lines. The United States president is Automatically by of the Constitution, the commander in chief Normally that is not so in Britain, but in will to the moment, Churchill was appointed prime minister by the king he made himself minister of Defense, and so he became the equivalent of FDR. He was responsible for the forces, not only of the United Kingdom, but Because of the British Empire, a full series of the British Commonwealth and Empires well, that included Australians New Zealanders. South, Africans but still Canadians so the president couldn't simply say to his ally. This is how it's going to be we. We're going to carry out these landings no-one deal. Percy McDonnell channel he had to get Churchill to to agree to it, and Churchill did agree to it in writing in the summer of nineteen three, but then went back on his word. So. The book that the new book begins with the two of them FDR on his battleship church on his battleship, converging on their battleships to as they go towards November earn Cairo to. Fracture out and the president. Has To work. How a sort of subtle plan more help us! He can get his. Commander in chief of British forces. To to get him lined back loan way he does it is. Basic thing by using. A Marshall as and generalized as warms in a kind of chess game. Eat He keeps pressing for. One of them presumably. General Marshall to be made commander in chief of the Horde of Europe. Or the allied forces in West Noor. Because in that way he thinks. Churchill. Unable to launch these rather madcap Assaults and invasions on the Greek islands for instance will go try to get through the canals as he tried to remove. A. So he pretends. He wants Marshall to be made the commander in chief of all Europe and does church or white degree to that. is to keep each commanding the made it train, but he keeps saying he wants it. Because in that way, he can put off a decision until they actually meet car then he can work. Cairo and then together they'll go to to tear on where they will meet. Stalin and then it will be. Two against one I see. It's a it's a very clever. Strategy and I'm sure he he would. Want to be to being Wiley but dealing with church. It was an incredibly difficult job. I'm sure, so I I had the greatest admiration for. How he did it, and this is the first time I think any historian or writer has been able to to put together that whole story how he managed. To me, it is for ably given how Vital d day was because Hitler gathered his his generals and say you know this. If the allies do choose to cross the English Channel in a second. Second from that apple will decide the wool. Right. Or Americans doing. The Mediterranean in. Or whatever he's never gonNA decide war. Crossing the English Channel. Will M therefore you know? The allied invasion would have to be defeated and you in many ways stop. I mean Churchill had. Interesting intelligence, but he said to his general. I don't think the British have the haunted he must have. Intelligence agents. Church was backing off and. So to me, it's it's an extraordinary. Accomplishment of the president of the United States that He. Not, having the A sense overrode Churchill, but did so in a way would get a British nevertheless to participate in the day, and I'm very proud of my father. Who was pretty. was able to to. Return to the continent after Dunkirk. No more and more information has come out about just how sick President Roosevelt was in that last year of his life. It's really amazing and out of everything I've read. You're really the first this story and that is clearly described him as terminally ill. And you wrote of his doctor Ross. mcintire seldom in the history of medical treatment at that higher level can such willful incompetence be displayed. So what do you mean by that? And what were the effects of FDR's condition? Well, we're talking about the White House. Right. He was a navy doctor but he was just. He specialized in e in knows them frozen snow. In couldn't say. An extremely accomplished, don't president of the United. States to have especially in wartime. Is great value to the president. Was that he? This. McIntyre was he. As commander in chief made him an admiral That meant. Under US, Netflix, rules! He had to abandon the commander in chief. Himself for and therefore. Phil could totally trust. And rely on his. Secrecy if. It were any problems many mid of. Insignia didn't even want. A politician is especially austell politicians Even newspakeb rumors. To to know too much about his his his. I mean the side is part of the stories that. although McIntyre McIntyre did do his. Very best to conceal? The president's condition His concealing of it only made the condition was What happened was I mean it's it's on. This final volume is almost like truth. In terms of themes going from triumph to tragedy because. I'm the president comes back from. A ten on in Cairo and he is. Absolutely full of beans. Points as you say General Eisenhower General Marshall. Once. He's won the fight so to speak he he appoints generalized in the hat. Be The supreme commander. For overload and but he doesn't just tell him. You're going to be commander in chief or Supreme Commander Regular. He insists on spending several days with him on the way back from Tehran and they fly together to Malta maybe a bad accident and in the plane, and and then they go onto Sicily together, and he knew all the time. He's telling him to be camp with Churchill nine how to go about being a supreme commander. You can see from the photographs some of which I put in the book. He's happy as a sandbar. He's her. Beans and let nothing can stop him in his normal self. Yes, when he gets back, he's. Fated. Everybody in Congress. Oh, right section of the White House, and said Wolf, and then he gives it a broadcast from Hyde, Concha Christmas and it looks like mom can stop him. you know he's? He's gotten where he wants to be. He is truly supreme commander only ally over certainly in the Western allies, and he's not only agreement. The British will help with D Day, but he's Ego Stalin to agree the once. Hitler's defeats. The Russians will help the United States to defeat. Japan I. Mean these are monumental achievements really and that very moment. He falls. Ill with seems to be flu. Took it over the Christmas of nineteen, forty, three, five or six months before details and. It's too sad because. McIntyre. Covered they saw Didn't do anything about it because month a month. The his president's health deteriorated until finally. largely because if Georgia came from the West Coast took one look at data and. Dancing. Get Your Act together and get a specialist. Breeze, so finally saving his life, yes. Yeah. Wasn't. was very reluctant. Right any bring in a game A. US Navy officer. Who is an electric cardioversion so? He was at the forefront of diagnosing all heart disease this Bruin. Bruin Bruin, Bruin young still in his thirties, and when he saw the president. At his hospital, the Navy hospital. Outside Washington working? Basically simply days to live shirl. An impact you? The cat among the pigeons and You know they began to bring in these really. Hi, PAL doctors. Frankly? He and and they all said. Oh, you count. Brune had an idea of using this. Medication would. That was rather talks to. Try and help him and the digital S. I believe feature tyler. and. These famous doctors soon. talked to do that with the president, he's listen. He's GonNa Die Right. Right right finally days later they gave in with a senior his, who went in the navy actually and served to Brune. Was Allowed to give him the digitize, and basically that's actually saved his life. and then. With enough help. He was able to continue. Of this president, and as commander in chief in the months. Thereafter, but He the question then arose in the summer of forty four, especially after de well. Should he stand for full term as president of the United States. And, the one of the is frankly use a very distinguished from both and. He said. He told the president through McIntyre. You want survive. Right you thought do this or at least you got to know Officially sure. Yeah. Live that long, and so he knows what he's doing, and he doesn't act in some people, said Oh well it. WAS HUBRIS or arrogance. Innocent so whenever, but he knew exactly what the prognosis was. And that he would only basically. Able to kind of his couch. Presidents There wasn't anybody else he could see at that time, will he'd thought would be. Would have the stature experience to be able to deal with people like Winston Churchill on like Marshall. Stone And so. He decided. I think Mary reluctantly from the whole Eaten People Barry's. To to stand for full term And then was the comedy of how Jesus size spreads railing, right? It's just. Unbelievable in retrospect. It all turned out. For the best I think drew you know He. Unlike Winston Churchill had had, he was a lucky man in many ways and had a wonderful talent for choosing. Terrific subordinates. Most of the wall he's. Secretary in the Armenian and secretary, which included the efforts and the navy. We'll both republic and. Respect. and. I. I think. I think probably. it was the right decision. And as we did win the election Talk but. It was It was a very sad moment in American history where you have such A. Commander in chief done so well to that point. Being felled by. A. Vision. Medicine, I'm simply wasn't able. To counter. So. There's a couple of very fascinating figures in your story, and you talk about obviously his wife Eleanor Roosevelt, and you talk about the other woman in his life, Lucy Mercer Rutherford and you paint a very vivid picture of her, and it almost seemed that everyone admired her or was infatuated by her whether it was president. Roosevelt or even daisy suk-lee. Can you talk about her background and how she got to know? President Roosevelt and how they reconnected. Yes. I. The honest when I began the the trilogy. which was any good to be one I I didn't know a lot about Lucy Lucy Master. She was thing. and by fulltime would be writing very much a military biography. Focusing on the president as commander in chief. BECCA couldn't believe that nobody ever. Bothered to write a life of. Mandarin chief in what must either. Unless violent war in human history, but anyway I wasn't expecting to I. You know I could see. It would be some interesting relationships. We've people like Churchill and the chiefs of Staff and said. Man in other words. knew that he had this sort of. Lady Companion Distant cousin, she was a naval really from Hyde Park area. And And, he liked women's company. I think it was. You know when. When when you're president, you are. Inevitably removed from the honey bully Gem. Harry Truman for his love to play. Poe current drink. Right way would he's dowels his way of detoxing after very stressful day. If Diab lesson, you know enjoyed the company of women, not necessarily terribly small women, but women who were nets and. Oil Him a bit. If you like your presented, didn't. So I didn't expect to be writing much about Louis C.. Massive, but When I came to this final working. I realized. that. In a very weak. But don't to broome the ten commendatore. Is the president Thankful caught. In that very weak. Lucy Mercer. had a relationship with fronting rose during will one. But it has to be. Ended when it saying? Rela Narain. His chooses stay. She had married very rich, much older man And in that very weak, the doctor Brune. Diagnose the presence. Talk conditioned. Lucy's has. His? Dummies and it comes a widow and therefore in a sense. I mean he's paralyzed from his polio. But she is free to become. At least a companion and they've checked to soldier. going. Connection they they. They corresponded MDM. She's attended his inauguration. She still hasn't been rather was diehard Republican. A Democrat and basically what she's very pretty she. She was a LMS secretary In, in nine at the time of the first post war and She's she's very. Charming and and He he just a Dole's and. She is suddenly. Available. In his our mean. Either want to. Over Romanticizing, you might be the story but I. DO think that. It is a miracle Diaz mind for a foot of the year after the sentence of death but I do ascribe some back. survive. Linseed She comes. She can now come not exactly openly, but everybody knows over his personal staff of the secret service and everybody knows about. She sits the White House. She visits him at High Pau cheap visits him at Shangri. LA, which is now him David this amp in the hills, she He comes to see her in New Jersey It's of great mentioned that she's inherited. She comes to see him when he's in South Carolina. Recuperating or trying to recuperate Nafta coast if the diagnosis and she sneezed. At Warm Springs Little White House in Georgia. I mean they have a very tender loving. A! Late life love relationship which I find given. His courage in. Being willing to go on. Give an old, the pain and suffering. He's going through. Because of his medical condition and the stress of that Joe. I find that. Very touching and. Of course. You know it goes right up literally to the end she is. Sweet feet away from him. As he's sitting at his table. things and paperwork and preparing to. For the inauguration of the United Nations. in the Cisco on she's freaky to. Moby. When he finally collapses them. Says he has this terrible headache. And she knows. That see and she just want A. Bows Out His life and dances. Very modest, wonderful woman, and to be honest. People say well no element when she heard the. been prism when the president diving of she was upset and. I think that's rubbish. I mean first of all. It's quite obvious element. About the relationship have. Resuscitate! Greatly to Atlas Credit? But she she said nothing that she saw. This woman was helping her husband. To live. and. And finish the war. That was the main thing in Elena's mind. Elena hated ward. She knew that. War had to be finished more. Jews as possible be saved. What is this so? I think it's greatly to his credit that she didn't. Object. Don't make any fuss about. AMD. Nine harrowingly. If you like herring, the irritation was that. Had, daughter was present was new. To Anna. Knew about relationship and new. Franken was. At Boone Springs. We. Lucy. The time of his death and had told her that. So it was just that she hadn't been told I've been. Took it against. Anna. She took it gains. She even sent us. My troms opted. After. In What would you say to those who? Would Criticize Roosevelt for that relationship. Oh come on. Oh. I would say grow up really I think. especially. In the world we live in today and It certainly was. Unpleasant, for ELA When they had their original affair I will want. and Yes, it's perfectly true. and was devastated when she learned about the fan. At we're talking about nineteen, nineteen, fifteen, nineteen, sixteen, nineteen seventeen So in that sense Yes, we could be moralistic because sent me that was. A time in in all society and culture when? It was very much frowned upon. A bubble you know eleanor was a was a In Cuba had grown up more than an inch. Have great compassion for because she was very isolated, even didn't have a great unit so. You know. The two of them have theon element. They grew as a result of that Shum. Adulterous affair and the way it came to an they grew. They throw necessary together as a as romantic couple, but they certainly agreed to give it as deeply committed. Husband and They achieved especially politically. I don't think we'll ever happen again. In American history, and FDR was. You know the man mainly responsible for law. He's always encouraging. However, Much rebounding on him as president of the United, states And encourage me politically, but enough private life. Had A number of friends of May, but mostly female and very tender relationships. said that they lesbian related. I know I. I just think they were very close very loving relationships. To. People like. Friend. And FDR Did his best to make that possible I. I think in many ways they. Are An ideal. So we get to the altar conference. Kind of the last major seen in the book and at the time, the atomic bomb is months away from being operational. How did President Roosevelt the bomb? And how did he view it as he was? In negotiations with Churchill and Stalin at Yalta. Well the story of if you need to make bombers little bit. Complicated because he obviously, he need not any new about it. He'd financed Scher Right. He was the man behind the palm Right the very beginning, and he put under the charge of the secretary of war. Henry stints. But you know. He walked over very kathleen as it was developed. And was worried about the implications because he invited to the White House many of the. Main participants scientists involved in. Neil's bowl Who who was quite open about what an old for weapon this would be. Very much hoped that it will be necessary to use it. And that was one of the reasons. Why attended Iran? He was so concerned. To get a stolen to. Agreed to enter the war against Japan. Were neutral towards Japan. And couldn't afford a war on two fronts, themselves and They were manning, but starting did agree that the moment hit levels defeated the Russians moved into the world s Japan and in truth. They Russians flavor million men. Into Manchuria so. He wasn't. In deceitful or anything stood by his little I. Think if the. Against hope that would be possible to get the Japanese to surrender. For Having! Either, to launch. An amphibious invasion of Japanese Islands Ole. In the end, use the atomic. I. I, think myself. Jury's out as to whether it's Tokyo speculative as to whether. You would counterfactual history, but Mike He wouldn't have hesitated to use it. If. Except me, once sold The the casualties from the invasion volcano. It was clear that. Japanese were not any defending to the last. Man Last soldier that they were actually forcing Japanese civilians to permits side. At Kapp idea Americans of an array could. Give me. And So I. I! Think had he had. He not died I'm pretty show ultimately. He probably would've used the at mom reveling. And but. In that sense, he was by dying in April of ninety five four has proved that would actually He was. Terrible decision which Credit Icing Harry Truman? Nobly to right now. One of the things you you wrote about also is the creation of the United Nations FDR's plan to prevent another world war. What was he trying to accomplish out Yalta with regards to the United Nations. Well they had already had. The United Nations is very much. FBI isn't. Notion. You know he'd Beaten Assistant. Secretary of the Navy in World War, one and the one who'd been the invest signed the time first sight treat. The. Failure of the United States to join the League of Nations. have. doomed. Prospects for peace after terrible will go. One was snuggie. Determine that. That shouldn't be repeated. At four there should be some he wanNA use. Woods League of Nations because I've been liquidated. So. He invented festival. The. United! Nations, for those countries who of fighting. The Japanese. But, then he decided that. He should be once the end of war. Cain it. That should be an organization. would be cool. The United Nations would have. is where we country would. Be Able to participate in have a representative. So. At! Yalta he was so desperately sick. I mean manage a few hours a day. He was just determined. Russians agreed to participate in them. The United Nations porject. Even if it meant giving them more seat for representatives Than than they were in the united, states began just. George always Ben Wool. Right at so. I think it's one of his again. wannabees great achievements who did get actions to sign up to it and. And the Russians are still. Part of the United Nations overnight station. The other thing was he felt that the United Nations and such would be a great token for the and we'll do great things. Perhaps in education will help us to. You know in the end, somebody would have to be the guardians of. will securities especially if it was going to be atom bombs? Man So he felt they should be some kind of wool old. A and so he felt united. Nations should be willing to. Operate at military level through the kind of senior. Countries of the world The United States great. Present by. China. and. Then France as well and. It's they had committee of those nations. Who would be able to defuse? Critical or crisis? You know real crisis. Countries invading each other would. Piece. not necessarily in the most locals saints piece in the largest sense who be maintained. He hoped for about. He hoped for fifty years half a century We I think we could say I would argue that historian that has survived Molin. Possible The seventy years now. We now have with. The president in a political situation in which that is being called into question. How motion of this kind of coalition listen? Core per. Lyrical. Agreements in. Major countries to preserve world peace. So I don't know whether it will continue I. Think we can just look back and being credibly great folder gem. He had the vision to see that and. Olo He's criticized by given even too much away to actions is. especially. Which is satisfied the cases. I think. You have to look at the positive side and. And what he did manage to get the Soviets to agree to. had a completely different major. Society and. Older I think it was a tremendous achievement. He probably more or less killed him because. ACT FROM, yellow? Symbol. Yeah my my theory, which Is is debatable like any theory is that? Roosevelt, saw the UN as. One of its many purposes away to permanently get America engaged in the in the world, so they wouldn't turn back to the isolationist policies because many Americans felt that that had allowed. The. United States was kind of asleep at the wheel and. Couldn't play a role balancing the aggressive nations, you know the Japanese and the Germans, and so it seems like the UN was kind of an ends to a mean in that sense to prevent another war through America's presence and engagements. Right, and I quote a number of people who who? like employ who? Discussed with the president, and of course it's a theme that runs right through the book right from the very first from the mental of command nineteen one where the president you. The. Draft Selected Linford Service in America. A continuation of the draft which? Impasse by Congress is the repast is just before puddle Haba by one vote Right Power Vice Elation is. In this country! was tremendous a lot of inertia in the store owner Sha. Falling back into that. You touched upon. FDR's decisions regarding Poland at Yalta, and obviously you know that's a source of controversy as well as his the way he handled marshal, Stalin what are your views on that on how people historians have viewed that and whether they've looked at it fairly or unfairly. Well I think there are no secrets, Dan. Lay. There were perch. protocols attached the ultra coach Trim but I nowadays there is. Secret about them both. Winston Churchill and President vote. Knew that. Stalling had the boots on the ground. and. That if Stalin insisted own. Moving, the Polish order. Westwood's There wasn't much he could do to stop him. I mean I've. Done the same with Finland. Sent in each territory and nobody ever talks about that today. By Poland has a special places. Himself said because Britain had declared war on. He closed because of the. Mazzi invasion of Poland and And so the. Again I just don't think there's any secret about it I think. It was just An impossible. Task for the United States or Great Britain. To stop term styling from. Japan and then pretty much deciding what would happen that? you know that's terribly sad to have to say. They were people who felt at the time the. President was just being was sort of making nice with start. I I I don't really see that as doing that. I think he is very what aware and I quoted a number of. It's worth. Kee Aware. How awful the Soviet system as water in. Prison camp it is. He feels over time. It will gradually improve mood. In the meantime. Regularly can do to try and kind of Joliet along at least. Not. It into fight Basically. giving. Cowell eventuated that he's actually won't happen Going to fights in different places like me, Nan? You! Can give them the largest since. Peace was maintained. Especially nuclear told me. It's sad that Herlin became A. Corn in that, but now I I really don't see with was any. Real alternative will set off no tentative anybody that anybody else. Could have enacted. Now obviously so much has been written about President Roosevelt, but yours is. A look an indepth look into his. Time as commander in chief during the war after writing your trilogy. What is the main thing you want people to take away about President Roosevelt that they didn't know before? I think. I can say very simply. We knew he was a great statesman. Domestic president in terms of declaring the Great Depression on the new deal. I don't think we knew that he was the. Greatest Strategist World War Two and possibly the greatest strategists military strategists that the United States the most affected. Military stuff starting demanded states has produced in its his. Very strong thesis. Now before. It's up to read his to decide whether they agree sure sure now before I let you go, I think you earlier. You mentioned that when you met Field Marshal Montgomery. You also had a chance to meet. Winston Churchill as well. Right yes, I told you. Earlier now. That I I was invited with Monty to chop well, we Home in Kent, countryside and I spent several. Days there we can't. Churchill I have to ask you. How what was that like I mean especially in light of what you've written about him and. His strengths and his and his failures during the in the in this book. So, what? What was that like? That must have been an incredible experience. It. was I mean? But one thing he was tiny. Think! He's he's sort of nominal. Height was five foot six, but you know by now. This is like one, thousand, nine, hundred sixty, or by that time in his life, he was the five foot three. Wow shrunk a lot turnover had the most beautiful schemes. People speculated what what special medications he was take. The blood of young lambs also. Because, but I don't think that's true. I think he was born with. Incredible. Soft skin please life to West so. Under underwear because he's so. Sensitive and I. That was just one you know here. Is this man you know the nine of England? Who clearly was? Incredibly brave himself. Reserve Young Officer assault on the northwest tear the end of the nineteenth century, India and Afghanistan. Credibly brave and not just physically brady, but morally brave. To. You know they're all these contradictions. and Just a man of so many talents. Monkey took me for instance. Out Out of the House and he he went to Misses the Churchill when he bought the The key getting. Keeping Martin The. Key, to the paging, hot Wind outside. We went to this building outside. And turn the key in inside while hundreds and hundreds, I thought absolutely beautiful paintings so. Many of them. But. Some unframed. Just just the stretch canvas is. Very. can light late impressionist paintings. They're all landscapes. than any portraits, but they're absolutely beautiful and your show. Plus the fact that he was born into dinner, I was sitting on his right hand. Side Montgomery lift him. This eighteen year, eighteen-year-old undergraduate, sitting beside the most famous Englishmen, of the twentieth century. And to be honest, I was more spellbound to begin with by these beautiful Scandinavian noces Says He. took me a while to clear stunning I think for any nineteen year old. That's understandable. So I think you know I'm not ashamed to be critical. I'm sure would be critical of me and. Eat the good argument. Internet I I. I think he would have. I I think reasonably good writer. Can tell a story and I think he appreciated that term for he wouldn't agreed with my judgment. He would. Agree, but it's right in front of it Ryan just as he could see across the aisle in the House of Commons Gray. Yeah. Well thank you so much for coming on our show. We really appreciate it, and this has been a great conversation and your book, So it's called Warren piece FDR's final Odyssey. Nineteen forty to nineteen, forty-five and Checked on Amazon. It's available on May seventh, two thousand nineteen, so. Thank you for the opportunity to. Beforehand to read it i. really enjoyed it and. It's so well researched, and we really appreciate your time being on on our show. Enjoyed talking with you. Thank you and I wanNA. Say They for the first time in my life. A publisher has issued a boxed set. Works over in this case the trilogy, so that's Great. Congratulations. That's UH terribly touched. Yeah! Yeah, that's wonderful, so I know that your work. Contributes a great deal to a a man that we'll continue to. fascinate Americans and people around the world for. As long as histories being written. Nigel's book is titled War and Peace FDR's final Odyssey d day T- alter nine, hundred, forty, four to nineteen forty-five. It's the final volume in his epic three part series on Franklin, Roosevelt, it's currently available in bookstores, so make sure checkout. This American! President is produced by myself. Richard Lamb and Michael Neale. Thanks to my dad virtue. The music in this episode is by Blue Dots Session. We also want to thank our Patriot supporters, Youtube. By going to, Patriarch, dot com slash this American president and giving any amount. You choose episode that we release. If you like what you've been hearing. You can also help us by sharing episode on twitter or facebook. I'm Richard Lim? We're back next time with more this American president.

President Winston Churchill President Roosevelt FDR president United States officer United secretary writer Marshal Montgomery commander navy Mike He Japan White House Lucy Lucy Master Yalta
The History of WWII Podcast | 316-FDR: The Man with No Fear (Preview)

This American President

11:10 min | 3 months ago

The History of WWII Podcast | 316-FDR: The Man with No Fear (Preview)

"In nineteen sixty four. Barry goldwater campaign. Ran the slogan in your heart. You know he's right. It was a plan. Gold waters conservative. Positions response is opponent lyndon johnson used counter slogan in your guts. You know. he's not the american people like lbj's response and for him in a landslide. Catchy lines like these can help make or break an entire campaign you can find out about these slogans and more in words to win by a new book from apollo publishers. This book is brimming with five hundred color images from american presidential campaigns covering every election from nineteen hundred to twenty twenty. And it showcases. The visuals and slogans that defined america's leaders for millions of voters and change the course of history. We are giving away five copies of words to win by five lucky listeners. To sign up for the book inbetween click on the link in the description to subscribe at the end of march every subscriber will be entered into the drawing for the giveaway again to sign up for the book giveaway of words to win by on the lincoln the description or go to our website. This american president dot com to subscribe on this american president. We focus on. Us history as seen through the lives of the nation's chief executives but there are many great podcasts. Another historical subjects today. We want to share with you. One of those podcasts. We recently got in touch with ray harris junior who produces and hosts the excellent podcast. The history of world war two raya spent years studying the second world war and when he first heard about podcasts several years ago he searched the internet hoping to find one on the war but he couldn't find any this went on for years and he finally decided why not start himself. And that's what he did. He puts a lot of passion into his work and as a fellow. History podcast nerd. I appreciate the amazing content. he's produced. I recently had the opportunity of appearing on his podcast to discuss america's world war two president. Franklin d roosevelt. Our listeners will remember several years ago. We did two episodes on fdr in a series titled the inscrutable man. While since then i've learned a little bit more about fdr. And i was able to talk about that. On episode three hundred sixteen of race. Podcast the episode is titled fdr the man with no fear in the episode. I talk about who. Fdr was and how he envisioned the world after the war today. We're gonna show you a preview of that episode here on this american president to listen to the full episode. Click on the link in the show notes or go to the history of world war. Two podcast on your preferred podcast app and look for episode. Three hundred sixteen titled fdr. The man with no fear. Enjoy the show. Hello and thank you for listening to the history of world war. Two podcast episode three sixteen. Fdr the man with no fear because we have reached the point where the us is officially in the war. I thought it would be best to give an overview of the man who would be leading the united states during the war. Fdr as we know. General george marshall with others led the actual war effort but the american people not to mention the millions outside the us also looked to franklin roosevelt as a savior that would one day hopefully restore freedom and to do this. I wanted to bring on board. Richard lim the host of this american president which delves into the lives and legacies of the us presidents who along with michael neal. The producer has covered several presidents already including fdr richard. Thanks very much for being with us today. Thanks for having me ray. So i was checking out your podcast. A lot of good stuff there. I stole from you. I'm going to be honest with you. I still remember when it comes to fdr. So i appreciate that but so tell us. More about your podcast. How it came about but one of the questions. I really like to ask people who go down this road. A podcasting is what have you learned about a man in the oval office or maybe the office itself sure. well basically. When i was a kid my mom would take me to the library. And i would you know ran out all sorts of books and i was basically just having fun being a nerd. And one of those visits i started reading about presidents. I started reading those kids. Biographies about presidents and i found them as exciting or even more exciting than most of the books. I was reading at school. And so ever since then. I was hooked and over the years. I amassed substantial library of presidential books and read as much as i could just devour them and that that's that was my passion and eventually i had a job where i wasn't really doing anything engaged with my passion and i kind of thought to myself. Well what's the point of learning all of this. If you can't really share it right and michael neale you mentioned is my producer. We've been friends for years. And basically he. And i just started talking about starting a podcast and at that point it just became a matter of wealth. We want to do it. we should do it. you know let's. Let's get a mike and start recording. And so that's what we did and it's been four years and it's been Quite a journey. We've we've done. I think pretty. Well you know considering two guys. That really just kind of nerds. That just want to do something like this. Oh i can relate. Yeah you like. What's the worst that could possibly happen to jump in and do it and you kind of figure things out along the way exactly. Yeah yes. I've listened to a lot of your shows over the last week. And there's a lot of good interviews and they're the people you're brought on. I really enjoyed that a lot. So i'm glad you could be with us today. So so let's jump into this so the first thing When you talk about. Fdr let's talk about his ideology The system of ideas that formed the basis of his political theories. So we all know. The war's coming with hindsight. But let's go back before the war of. What kind of politician do you think he's going to be based on your research right well so you mentioned ideology and the first thing about. Fdr is that he came of age during the progressive era. His cousin theodore roosevelt was probably the most popular american at that time and he was the first progressive president and the idea behind that was that america had shifted from what it was during its founding to a new modern industrial state it had essentially evolved and the premise behind progressivism was that since the country and the world in the the country's economy had evolved policy had to evolve with it and in many ways. This was really a huge departure from the founding because the founding posited that there were universal values the values of equality the idea that your rights are ordained are there endowed by your creator and progressivism essentially said. Well those are nice ideas but we've moved beyond that and so they believe that a new modern nation state an industrial state needed a government and institutions. That could address the problems that those created and so essentially. That's fdr believed. And i think at the same time when it came to foreign policy. He believed that america which had been isolationist now had global responsibilities because it was a modern world power. Gosh oh yeah. because you're right. I mean The the country's more sophisticated. It's more more populous. It's more industrialized but at the same time like you said that does bring about problems in the people themselves with all due. Respect probably can't solve those problems. You need a larger more powerful entity and who else except for the government. But you're right. It is a different worldview to go. You know maybe the government can step in and actually do something not so much laze fare. You know buyer. Beware or whatever actually tried to help. The people Because i went looking through. Fdr's record before he became president and he was at the time he was a government new york when the great depression along and he was the only state leader to organize extensive relief efforts he said modern society acting through its government owes the definite to prevent the starvation or the dire want of any of its fellow men and women who tried to maintain themselves but cannot so. I think it's fair to say that we take stuff like this for granted today. Oh them the government should be helping us but it was people like Teddy was people like roosevelt franklin who literally stepped in and said we should actively be doing something and not. Just let the people suffer. The government can do something and so it should do something again. We take that for granted but this is kind of where it gets. Start right and i think that president roosevelt was basically someone that was in that big transition. Where in the founding of the country people saw the government as empowering government as reducing the power of the people but in roosevelt's mine. He felt that the bigger the government could get the more could ensure the rights of the american people so the kind of the formulas switched on. What the effect of government is and obviously that provokes a lot of opposition from people. That don't have that. Same progressive worldview. And so that that really. That shift happened under roosevelt and he in many ways many many people call him along with his cousin. Theodore roosevelt the first modern presidents because they were the ones that brought that modern view and institutionalized. This is the end of the preview. If you'd like to hear the rest of the episode click on the link in the show notes or go to the history of world war two podcast on your preferred podcast and look for episode. Three hundred sixteen titled fdr the man with no fear. This american president is produced by myself. Richard lim and michael neale with help from joey brown special. Thanks to ray hairs junior. If you like what you've been hearing you can help us by sharing your favorite episode with a friend or leaving a five star review on apple podcasts. I'm richard lamm. Were back next time with more this american president.

us apollo publishers Franklin d roosevelt ray harris Richard lim General george marshall Fdr michael neal fdr richard Barry goldwater michael neale lyndon johnson lbj raya lincoln Theodore roosevelt roosevelt franklin roosevelt president roosevelt depression
ENCORE: FDR on Democracy with Professor Harvey Kaye - Part 1

Words Matter

1:12:30 hr | Last month

ENCORE: FDR on Democracy with Professor Harvey Kaye - Part 1

"Welcome to words matter with katie barlow. Welcome to words matter. i'm katie. Barlow our goal is to promote objective reality as a wise man once said everyone is entitled to their own opinion. Not their own facts. Words have power and words have consequences. Our guest today is an award. Winning author and renowned historian professor harvey k. A celebrated expert on both thomas paine and franklin delano roosevelt has written ten books including thomas paine the promise of america the fight for the four freedoms what made fdr and the greatest generation truly great. Why do ruling classes fear history and other questions take hold of our history make america radical again and his latest fdr on democracy the greatest writings and speeches of president franklin. Eleanor roosevelt. if it isn't obvious by now it will be by the end of our discussion. Our guest is a man who truly believes that words have power and words have consequences. Professor k welcome back towards matter. Thank you looking forward to this a lot. Well we have to answer to your point. We vigili scheduled this interview for march. Eighteenth i believe before your book came out. And of course history. Got in the way you didn't come to new york and nobody traveled anywhere and still isn't traveling and away. I'm glad that we did. Because as i mentioned to you before we started. I believe that the book has more residents. And fdr's words have more relevance at this particular moment and that is know mid december of two thousand and twenty with the election of joe biden and the beginning of his new administration than they probably did even when you were a little early not that that's bad at all but are attempted early and before we begin. I do want to say one other thing. I owe you a debt of gratitude because we talked about in our last interview. I've been reading studying listening to history. Since about the age of five and from five to my early thirties. I learned a great deal after that. Lockney say i didn't learn anything. I learned still continued to learn. But i never came across any idea or concept that radically changed and altered the way that i looked at everything else i learned and i got that from your last book and our last interview. Here's what you said what we need to realize. When americans confront mortal crises they make america more radical they make america freer more equal and more democratic. And if we're going to live up to being americans that's exactly what we have to do. Now i have to say that idea that in those times of moral crisis that americans do that. Because i've always considered us a sort of culturally conservative country. That is by and large often true. But it's in those moments and so thank you for that well. I think you'll see that one of the speeches are included in this collection of. Fdr is a speech that he gave teenagers at milton academy up in boston. In nineteen twenty six and the question or the title that frame the speech was wither america. And in the speech he actually says to surprised by the fact that conservatives. I'm paraphrasing govern longer than liberals and progressives too but what we should worry about is that they might govern so long that they might literally undo the best of america. He doesn't deny the tendency to conservatism. Which i don't think is only characteristic of america by any means but his point is that there are those moments when you realize that if this keeps up we're in trouble and this is one thousand nine hundred ninety six and he's already clearly worried about america because of the gross inequalities that were emerging at this late moment in the gilded age in the roaring twenties. It's one of the things that i think when we have our discussion i hope our listeners come away with. Fdr was surprisingly prescient in his view. The myth is sort of st are read the country very well and steered people where they want to go but he saw things long before with a clarity that is almost clairvoyance. And we'll get to that when we talk about his nineteen thirty six convention speech at the democratic convention in philadelphia. If i can just add to that. I want to say before. We get into the words themselves as one of the reasons that i moved into. Fdr is the fact that he actually looked back at a critical moment. Which maybe we'll have a chance to get you to thomas paine and when i saw that having been pain is my lifelong hero and pains words. I think are the most important in american history. When i saw him do that. I thought wow. I should look more deeply into franklin roosevelt. I grew up in a roosevelt democratic household. But it's one thing to grow up in that milieu and it's another thing to say. Well i'm going to look into this. Further and one of beauties about doing research is that you end up surprising yourself. If you're doing your work properly your preconceptions get seriously challenged and a lot of them for me got seriously challenged and we could talk about that as we go through the speeches. Because i think it's important for people to realize my earlier book on the fife of the four freedoms what made fdr the greatest generation truly great that. This book stands on the shoulders of that book. When i came to realize the very unique excuse the smart and term this or gaily if you like this dialectic between a president and a people which is really in many ways the most unique part of the roosevelt years. The two greatest presidents are lincoln and roosevelt. A third great leader of america was clearly washington for all of his sins and the fact is however that in the case of fdr more so than washington and more so than lincoln. There was this dialectic. That comes through in the words and indeed in the making of the greatest generation absolutely. I'm glad you brought up challenging preconceived notions as i mentioned before your previous book. One of the things that you taught me there was although jefferson is more quoted by american politicians. Today as the forefather of american intellectual fought with the declaration. It's really common sense which is to me and again through you thank you. Yeah and i'm going to start off with another preconception and it's one. We actually talked about off mic last time. And you were in the middle of finishing this book so you obviously were focused on it. But i had made a comment to you about what i viewed as fdr's politics political philosophy. And i had said to you that polio had made him more compassionate more socialistic. And you said actually no it didn't and that's the first place we're going to start. We're going to start with that speech that you started the book with from nineteen twelve and again. This was a conversation. You and i had off mike before but i got to read it in this book and it was astounding to me. How an fdr who. I think describes himself later in life if they is a pretty arrogant costs. I think say that progressive in his thinking. Nine years before. Paulie so anyway with that. Let's set the stage for that first featured in the book which is we have acquired a set of conditions which we must seek to solve. It was a speech to the peoples forum in troy. New york for my family might have been the only group of immigrants who came off botella silent and then moved up to troy new york. I have no idea why neither today for my grandfather was a farmer. Outside of detroit and towns it falls but be that as it may tell us about that speech. Tell us about why it's important. Wia started their well one of the things that makes it important. And by the way i want to make clear that the call. Fdr socialist is to exaggerate. And i prefer the term social democratic. Although i think that they can slide it they can slide into each other very easily. But i prefer the term social democratic because otherwise it raises the question of oh. He's a socialist archer exaggerating but the beauty of that speech. And the reason i included. What really is fascinating. As it shows the degree to which first of all that fdr will never really give a speech that doesn't resonate or specifically refer to the past and its implications for the present either by way of an example by way of force that we need to remember prevails in our life and he opens up with a real sense of psalms western history itself and then more especially american history. But the reasons i included. The is the fact that he's on his way to eventually become a history teacher and chief as president is that people always said that if the are was a man who had no ideas that you know in many ways he was perhaps pragmatic or he latched onto other people's ideas famous homes critique of him i rate temperament second rate intellect added to that and again reading your book. I've come to see the homes at ninety six. I think was wrong. And by the way i always thought that who the hell has original ideas to begin with right. I mean there's i can't imagine any original ideas especially when it comes to social and political thought so in this speech it's evidence that he is urgently almost and i don't want use the word desperately but his own way. He's determined to find a way between the divide that prevails especially in the gilded age and once again prevails today of choice between say the socialist route on the one hand and the individualist or the classical eighteenth century liberal route that is the free market versus some kind of collectivism. He's really looking for a way through that. And there's that term that we've always valued in american history liberty and of course the more progressive version of that were liberty is freedom. Fdr in that speech is saying okay. Well we need to consider. We've come to a point in history especially in the united states where we need to be thinking about an it's a very awkward term but it reveals registers are affords us a look into his mind and he says liberty of the community. Yeah i mean. I'm gonna i'm gonna read it because unlike some of the other speeches there is no record. Happy to read it. But you go ahead. I i can see relishing to during the past century. We've acquired a new set of conditions which we must seek to solve to put in the simplest and fewest words. I have called this new theory. The struggle for liberty of the community rather than liberty of the individual. Yeah this is the proof that is what we would call a capital p. Progressive you his. Here's among the progressive. Democrats is definitely moving in that direction. Maybe the only thing would have kept them from moving immediately in that direction over and over again is the fact he has a real rural sensibility at this point in his political career and more progressive more often are actually based and also what i found interesting which i want to inject here. This was actually the one speech in the book. You include. that happened to have been given when his cousin his hero. Teddy roosevelt was still alive. And i think is important because knowing teddy roosevelt's and knowing fdr i'm sure teddy red and he knew the teddy would read it even if he didn't read it. Fdr gave thinking or hoping the teddy would read it. I'm sure that he sent it to him as well. I mean i know that for a fact but somebody else will have to look it up. But well yeah. That's pretty much the case that his cousin teddy his wife's uncle terry. I mean he's going to model himself in many ways after his two presidential heroes. Teddy being the more obvious example. And of course the other one being wardrobe wilson but he does transcend both of them as we will see he definitely transcends both of them. I just wanted to start with that speech because again one of the beauties reading your work and talking to you and getting to know you is you do give us those things. The challenge and that narrative that fdr changed radically as a thinker as a person as a politician after the onset of polio. There's probably some truth to that. But it didn't change his fundamental core beliefs and. I think that that's really important. I knew i read another line to that. Really matters to me in the speech because it's also it also is evident the degree to which fdr's also aware of the fact that he will be accused by either the right or the left for what he says and this comes up again and he says towards the end of that speech or later in the speech if we call the method regulation because he's trying to figure out how to turn this liberty of the community people will hold up their hands in horror and say un-american or dangerous but if we call the same identical process cooperation the same old fogies will cry out. Well done so. He's he's always aware of what others will say. Not because he's afraid of them but because he's trying to figure out how to articulate these things so that it will appeal to the broadest possible if you like element of the citizenry and he's ambitious. Okay doesn't want to be tarred and feathered for being too far left or for that matter not going far enough. I just found the speech. Absolutely wonderful and i have to say i'm very proud. It's hasn't been in any kind of collection of fdr speeches probably since the nineteen forty. Something like that. So i grabbed hold of it. No and it's great. If you're going to pick and choose speeches you should start with the one that you start with. Because i think it sets the tone for the rest of the book and thank you. I wanted to go next and again with your forty three examples. We're not gonna be able to go through every one of them today. But i highlight a few the next one i wanna go to is the famous forgotten man and i picked that for obvious reasons but i think that it is at the beginning as it were of the one thousand nine hundred eighty two campaign. It's a radio address. That he gives his as governor of new york from albany and set the scene a little bit and where we were in the great depression. At that point would hoover had done or hadn't done more importantly and how fdr frames it. Because i think it is not only important historically not only important understanding. Fdr it might even be important understanding where today's democrats today's heirs of fdr. Forget his greatness. Yeah yeah it should be an objective a government though the provided least as much of system so the little fellow as is now giving banks and cooperation that is another example of building from the bottom up it is time to get back to undermine both times mifflin curry but we are in the midst of an emergency at least equal who vast of wall mobilized to meet it. Yeah i mean the first day everyone does when they think about the great depression as they go to the crash in the fall of nineteen twenty nine. And i remember growing up schoolboy. Maybe you do to adam that you learn as as if the crash caused everything else that followed it without paying attention to the fact that in the course of the nineteen twenties. There's a great exaggeration about economic growth. And how many people are benefiting from. And i'll just give you one example. Everybody says that people are making more money and they were buying more things. But they often don't consider is the difference between what a wage earner made and what a household made and during the course of the nineteen twenties farmers had yet to recover from the recession that followed world war one and working people themselves only sustained the standard of living that they had or improved it to any degree because more and more often at least two members of a household went out to work which made household income grow. But it didn't necessarily mean that wages for working people were rising at all at the rate at which profits were rising for the for the owners of businesses and finance so the crash crash occurs unemployment was somewhere officially like fifteen or twenty twenty five but was really more likely thirty. African american unemployment was probably fifty percent. People truly were not just out of work. They were losing their homes farms. Were being foreclosed and auctioned off. Hundreds of thousands of teenagers were joining adult men and women who hitting the road because their own families said. We can't afford you. You've got to go out and find a way to survive. People were constructing. Hoover villes beating the shack towns. Outside of the largest towns and cities america witnessed the worst economic and social catastrophe in history. It was devastating and so roosevelt is governor of new york during these years from one thousand nine hundred eighty eight to nineteen thirty. Two and new york was not immune to the depression. I mean people suffer the same scale. They did out here in the mid west or further out in the west but fdr did have a capital p. progressive set of instincts any did pursue a series of experiments as governor which will later become such things as the ccc will also become the tennessee valley authority and things going on in new york where he trying his damnedest to afford worked to young people or the unemployed he was trying to create new public works projects to provide energy to farms that had yet to have electric. It was an active governor who along the way gave speeches which basically assured new yorkers that he would do what he could sure they could have done more but he has determined as he had been for some years. I believe although it may have seemed to at certain times. It was impossible because he was stricken with polio in early in the nineteen twenties but he is going to run for president and he's going to run for president carrying with him that idea that began to emerge of liberty of the community which later become what we would call social democracy. You might say he's also going to run having been influenced in the one thousand nine hundred ninety s by the labor activists that eleanor roosevelt has brought home to hyde park because of her own activities with the women's trade union league during the twenties when roosevelt himself was more often at home trying to recover in some way from the polio. And then later as the governor of new york so this is a man who's determined to do for the american people what the american people might not be able to do for themselves harnesses. Lincoln's idea of the purpose of government government is our means the means by which we do together what we cannot do for ourselves as individuals and that's the philosophy so in this speech of course he's already beginning and this is the thing that always annoys me when i read what i hear so many historians talk about. Fdr's having no ideas. There were no plans for the new deal. It was all like on the run that these things emerged. But even here in his very first speech ensuing speeches he begins to lay out the essentials of what will be the new deal. Sure he doesn't out full-scale plans but he lays out the agenda pretty much the degree to which you'll see in this speech and the ones that follow the idea. He calls it old age pensions. But it's social security okay. He talks about addressing the environment in those days it was called not environmentalism but conservation. He talks about restoring farmers abilities. It's all there. It's in the making and this speech. The forgotten man is to say i haven't forgotten you and the government that hope to establish the administration. I hope to lead will not leave you out. This is not in favor of rescuing the rich this in favor of enabling americans to if you like redeem not the sole of america though that did matter to him but redeemed the life of america. Well into your point. What's really amazing about that. Speech is that empathy and compassion and the detail of which he goes into his understanding of the suffering of people at that moment struck me. The other thing that struck me was the first speech. Obviously because it's really the first true depression speech that you include. But at that point he is equating. What is going on and that we must mobilize as if we're mobilizing for war. Which is something. Obviously that the hoover administration didn't see in the same terms and it was a contrast but it was to me. It was early theme and like you said he hits it from the tariff issues to conservation to the pensions to the farmers. You can see the roots of all those programs and if you're listening to that radio address and you are somebody who suffering you can understand. Why people would invoke that cliche at the end of his life. Why didn't know him but he knew me. Yes and in those terms. I have to say he speaks of doing this. From the bottom up hoover. He tried to avoid acting on the depression. I first three years of his presidency. He eventually creates the reconstruction finance corporation which roosevelt himself will make good use of. But it's the case that when hoover begins to act eliminated degree. Does it's a top down kind of thing what. Fdr is indicating from the very beginning of this campaign is that this is going to be from the bottom up and look these are the moments in which folks like john lewis the head of the united mine workers and sidney hillman. The head. the amalgamated clothing workers of america and other labor leaders in the case of he was a republican in the case of sydney helmet. He was a socialist but both republican in the socialist. Heard these words and this idea of from the bottom up and by the end of the campaign they've essentially even if it's on a quiet you might say have come to endorse the roosevelt candidacy and presidency. The next speech i wanted to talk about is his acceptance speech that summer in chicago he becomes the first nominee of a major party accept the nomination in person and on the radio i hate flies flies to chicago. You can imagine his concerns. Let's listen to franklin delano roosevelt as he accepts the nineteen thirty two democratic nomination for president but for a national convention august nominee for president to be formally notified of his selection is unprecedented and unusual. But these are unprecedented and unusual time. Let it be from now on the task of our party. Go break foolish. We will break foolish today and leave it to the republican leadership more skilled in that all. You'll break promise. This is no time for fear for reaction committee and here and now i invite those nominal republicans will find the back conscience cannot be swear. Where the groping and the failure of the party lena's join hands with us here. In iran and equal measure must be opponent liberal the plan action of enlightened international outlook. And the good to the greatest number of citizens going new deal for the american people ma. Nfl linegar campaign. Enter the meals to win. But the when america people get to the substance in a minute but why did. Fdr compelled to get on a plane. No small task in nineteen thirty two and accept the nomination in person. Who knows. I didn't have a conversation with them. You can imagine it's concern. That people might wonder about this man who had suffered polio and what he is going to show them as first of all that he will not be deterred and if and if indeed the democratic party wants him he will be there is. Polio will not stand in the way too. He's gonna stand before that convention. Which would probably then of course leads to the continuing effort to if you deny any kind of image of him as in some ways bound but it is the case he is absolutely determined to be there to stand there and to rally the democratic party and by way of radio and other means he's going to rally americans to what he believes to be ultimately. Reagan had the audacity to allow people to refer to the reagan revolution. Clearly if you wanted to use the term revolution in terms of transformation of america. There was the beginnings here and in the course of the next year's the follow through on a roosevelt revolution. By find that you probably didn't want to refer to it as that because when you're actually doing it you're afraid people are going to notice that you're doing revolutionaries reagan when you're not really doing it you want people to think it's more than it is but i do hope that vein you will go to the nineteen thirty six acceptance speech. We're absolutely going to do that. Okay but before we move on you so eloquently spoke of those future. Historians claiming than fdr was sort of making up the new deal on the fly and didn't have a plan and almost as if he was looking ahead to answer them. Let's listen to what fdr said. I have a definite program for providing employment by that means. I have done it. And i am doing today. In the state of new york. I know that the democratic party can successfully do it in the nation that will put men to work and that is an example of the action that we're going to have and then he goes on to lay out in a little bit more detail but he was answering those people who who charged the he didn't have a plan and he clearly did. Yeah i mean. I'm not an fdr biographer. I'm a historian and people say are you biography. I say no. I'm a historian of fdr. Which is a little different. Because what i'm interested in is fdr his times and how fdr made history transformed the united states in the course of his presidency and did so in that i said before that dialectical relationship with the american people who will go on to become the greatest generation. And i think what sometimes happens. Is that when people become biographers. They start at a certain place and maybe they limit themselves. And i think the governorship of new york which is his formative leadership moment that governorship of new york. That's the moment where he sort of laying out those experiments by i also would point out the during world war one. He was the assistant secretary of the navy. And the man who was the superior daniels daniels is. He delegated all of the all of the work of getting the navy constructed and reconstructed to fdr so as a consequence he learn how to deal with labor unions. He learned how to deal with corporate bosses. He learned how to deal with these things and make things happen quickly so i think that he also brings that to bear he also did something else in that convention speech which i think was a real break with the past and you and i both familiar with that nineteenth century and the seeped into the first quarter of the twentieth century the first third of the twentieth century of laser faire capitalism. And he said we must lay hold of the fact that economic laws are not made by nature they are made by human beings. Thank you if we hadn't gone that. I was gonna say let's go back to that. Look i'm professor of history. I've also taught social theory. I think there are three. Revolutionary lines in history. One of them is by thomas paine we have it in our power to begin the world over again. Okay the second. One is undeniably that of karl marx history of all his to existing society but he also is basically going on to make the case that we have in our power to begin the world over again as pain had said but roosevelt then puts it in decidedly american terms any speaks to the american people very directly and think about what he's doing over and over again. There was this argument. As you said laissez faire. You can't mess with the economy right. Even government often did mess with the economy to the advantage of the powerful. You can't mess with the economy because it's as if you'd be missing with god him or herself. What roosevelt is telling. His fellow citizens is look. History is first and foremost a matter of change and there is not some universal law of economics either in space or in time. He did it more eloquently but he's saying basically economic laws are made by us and thus he doesn't say the next line and they're made to be broken but everyone would have understood him as saying that. I just love that line in fact that actually to my mind is the proof that they should have said. There's a revolution coming in this country. When he said that. I think you're right to your point. About how immutable those laws were our entire system of jurisprudence and it was ironically homes who who lived to to meet. Fdr's we mentioned before and offer his. What i believe is one of the few incorrect things that holmes said publicly in terms of assessment of fdr but up until homes we had that laze fare formalism. That there was one right way to decide a case and it was based on these immutable economic laws. And if it didn't benefit the powerful economically then that was the wrong way to decide the case and homes came in and blew all that up as lawyers will remember. That was the lochner era of labor relations. You know let's go to one of fdr's greatest speeches his nineteen thirty three inaugural address. And we'll talk about it on the other side pre-eminently the time to speak the whole crow. Frankly and boldly need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country today. This great nation will endure as it has in your of by and we'll prosper first of all. Let me a certain. My firm belief. That'd be only thing we have to fear is fear nameless unreasoning on justified. Tara which paralyzes needed up a convert retreat into advance. Happiness lies not in the possession of money. It lies in the joy of achievement. In the real creative epa but joy the marles stimulation of work. No longer must be forgotten in the mad chase. Greatest primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem. If we painted wisely in courageously it can be accomplished in part by recruiting by the government itself creating the past because we would creek the emergency of a war but at the same time rule. This imply one accomplishing great. Great blend needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the us natural resources. I am pad under my constitutional duty. The recommend the measures that are stricken nation in the midst of a stricken world may require these measures or such a measure. The congress may bills also the experience and wisdom. I shall seek within my constitutional authority. Go bring so speeding it up. But in the event that the congress show fails take one of these two parties in the event that the national emergency is critical. I shall not baby clear of duty that will then confront me. I shall ask congress for the one remaining instrument to meet the price broad executive power away jay war against the emergency as great as the power that would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by phone. All the people of the united states have not failed in their need. They have registered a mandate that they want direct. Bigger us act. They have asked for discipline and wrexham on the leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes in the spirit of the gift. I take dedication in the dedication of a nation. We humbly the blessing of god. May he protect each. And every one of maybe guide me in the days to come up the line that everybody remembers but fear itself and we were talking before we hit record here. I mentioned that. I was struck by at one point. I remember listening to jonathan alter who was giving assessment of that line and said well in a lot of ways. It's inspired nonsense. If you were somebody who was out of work if you are somebody who couldn't feed your family. There was actually something real to fear. But i want to get your thoughts on that use of rhetoric and what he set up and then talk a little bit about the speech itself and those lines that we don't quote but that are equally or perhaps more important to his views on democracy. Well i understand what jonathan alter is getting it. I mean nothing to fear but fear itself. Everybody knew that the banks were closing. At an accelerating rate people were starving. People were getting the chicago area's. I've read in the writings of edmund. Wilson people are going to the garbage dumped to secure food. There was reason to fear but what he was trying to say. And this is important. Fdr and this may not be what you're looking for but fdr actually did have tremendous faith in god in the story of america and in the american people and what he was saying basically was that i have faith in the u. I have confidence in you. I mean that's just it. We live in a very cynical age. Which is what enabled the likes of donald trump to be elected. But in fact there are other times where people might have had. Good reason to be cynical and i'm not gonna say that. Fdr was ever a saint about all of this stuff. But i'm gonna say that that confidence that faith that he had again in god the american story and the american people really does empower him in these moments really. I don't think he could have even said those words if he didn't truly believe them and one of the things about rosa this when he said things people actually took them seriously. I'll give you an example. You'll laugh when i refer to this. Because you and i both know. It's not in this book. The banking crisis speech. He gives that speech and the most interesting thing about that. Speech is not even what he says to my mind. It's what happens people. do they win. They better money back in banks that they stood on line the week. Before the month before to withdraw. They listened to it right and then they went back and still in line to put their money back in the bank. And i'm told because i'm not i'm not a business. This story and i should have known this on my own. I was told the other day that fact more money went back into the banks then headed correct so of course. It's a remarkable talent. He had it was the master of the radio but it was also the fact in spite of his patrician gentry background. He comes hudson river valley. Gentry there was the republican side of the family teddy roosevelt. And he's out of long island for much of his life you know when he's not traveling. The north american continent of the world but fdr is the hudson valley aristocrat and the democratic wing of the family and one could have imagined that he would have come off. Just sounding like you could imagine outcome on. You know it's okay for you to talk like that. You've got all that money to stay up on the hudson river by poughkeepsie. But the fact was that he had incredible. Confidence has aids and other people would say when he does the fireside chat. He imagined himself as one of them. One of the people who are listening and of course as we know from the first to the last people imagined that he was in their living room talking to them which by the way mattered to african americans absolutely because they imagine themselves in the white house with him or that he had come to sit with them to explain things of course white working people equally so but african american working people that was a unique experience historically and to that point. I think it's a good time to bring up because we're gonna talk about another fireside chat later but john kennedy is often given a great deal some of it earned that he mastered the new medium of television better than anybody had before him. And i think that there's some truth to that. I will say being up against richard nixon. That fight is not really wanted to show the strikes. Donald trump has been given credit for mastering social media. But i don't think there's ever been a politician Merican leader or even a world leader who has mastered churchill. Might give him a little bit of run for his money but he did it later. Who mastered the new medium radio as you said so effectively and one of the reasons. I love playing fdr speeches and clips of speeches because they were made for radio. Yes very much so made for radio. People actually couldn't see him they can only hear that voice of his and i wanted to the fact that when he basically spoke to them and what at times say that he was interested in hearing from them that hundreds of thousands of letters arriving in the white house and they actually had to create a vast staff of women. I say women because that's all they would have hired to do this particular labor to open those letters and then they would select which letters would might well be sent forward. And by the way i later met someone whose mother had been a part of that staff and also on the staff i believe the truman white house doing the same kinds of things and it really was the case that people there were a lot of people reporting from the field. Academics out across america doing the in sociology anthropology. They were reporters. Who would go out and there were those photographers with the farm security administration. I mean there were lots of reports from the field of what was going on in the great depression and the new deal and one of the things that's repeated over and over again is that they would walk into the home. Save a sharecropper or even a wider black worker in the cities and they would see two pictures hanging on the wall. Jesus and fdr okay and you know a lot of people say well you know the rosen administration failed african americans while you couldn't have told african americans in the nineteen thirties that especially when they were naming their children franklin or roosevelt. Or eleanor. what. I'm getting his. Yes undeniably there. Was this tremendous obstruction of so much of the new deal because southern white supremacist democratic senators and congressmen and we know that chairing committees is done by seniority. They were more than willing to have. Money comes south but they immediately could tell when the money might mean. They'd have to integrate something or that. African americans would get to share in it so he always had to confront that kind of obstruction but it is the case that there were any number of of engagements and programs are african. Americans were deeply involved in the in the civil works administration and elsewhere and there were blue songs written down in the mississippi delta to honor. fdr's presidency for white. It was accomplishing for them. So from there. I'd like to go to a speech that you and i both considered to be of all. Fdr speeches one of his greatest. And i think we discussed last time possibly one of the greatest and most radical as you put it in the context of your previous book speeches ever given by a sitting american president and that is roosevelt's nineteen thirty six convention speech in philadelphia not only lead of a party only as a candidate for high office but as one home many critical allah have imposed and still impose a grave responsibility. I think they. Millions of america have one disaster bravely and have bad post mile road. The philadelphia philadelphia is a good city in which the right american history. This is. this is putting ground on which follows. Your plan sells the response of the people. A white up freedom to go. Nineteen thirty six as the pound us gave to seventeen seventy six. And american way of nine in seventeen seventy six. We saw freedom from the tyranny of a political or pucker safe from eighteenth century royalists held special privileges from the crowd. It was to petro the prevalent that they got on without the consent of the governed. The tonight the right of free accepts his renomination democratic standard bearer. And there's so much to talk about with this speech. Let's start with you setting the scene of him being in philadelphia if you wanna talk about his his fall before he gets onto the stage but just set the scene where we were in roosevelt's administration. We've skipped a lot. Like i said we could do six parts instead of just to on this on your book but let's talk about that that speech and start from the beginning okay. Well let's first set the world historical seen the world distort. Let's not forget. Hitler's come to power in germany. Mussolini's already been in power in italy for quite some time. The japanese militarists emperor hirohito's officers. Undertow joe have invaded china and are threatening east. Asia generally and roosevelt himself is very much concerned about obviously the state of the world but he knows damn well that americans do not want to become engaged in another war but he has literally created a new energy in america conservatives. Like to tell you that the new deal didn't work. believe me the new deal worked. Yes there were still significant unemployment but the conservatives don't count as how many americans working in some kind of capacity by way of new deal programs. That's i i mean. Americans gave their labors to the recovery effort. They transform the landscape by way of the ccc and the later development of the wpa nineteen thirty five. The twa was building dams alongside the wpa. There were schools. Bill being built libraries post offices artists were being gauged. In the labor's. I mean there was an incredible energy coming out of that first term however it is also the case of. The supreme court had declared unconstitutional to major acts. The national industrial recovery act in the agricultural adjustment act. Both of which roosevelt himself had gotten tired of he. He wanted new directions for the new deal. But the other thing to remember. Is that the richest people in. America had organized to bring down the roosevelt presidency. They called it the liberty league. These were the absolutely wealthiest americans and they'd spent millions trying to literally subvert and destroy the roosevelt presidency. The problem is that the vast majority of americans didn't trust those men and they never could create a grass roots effort in fact the only kind of way in which they realized they could create any grassroots initiative against fdr as they began to fund efforts in the south to possibly create a third party movement that would pull votes from fdr even if they wouldn't go to the republicans but it would reduce the democratic turnout. Because that's where the democrats had had one party rule in the south and the republicans might then be able to win. Well going into thirty six roosevelt new from polling. That was not necessarily public that he had a good chance of being reelected likely. It was going to be reelected. Americans had already given him even a stronger democratic congress in one thousand nine hundred eighty four but roselle wanted to move into yet a new phase of the new deal he was going to make all the more social democratic. So they're going to hold the convention in philadelphia now. of course. philadelphia is the place where american independence was declared. Seventeen seventy six. This is nineteen thirty. Six and fdr basically gives the order to the democratic party. We're going to make this convention. If a celebration of the idea of the of american independence and the american revolution and we will go from there now in a state of the union address in january. Thirty six he had already begun to point a finger overseas and to warn americans about how. The rich and powerful had already empowered fascists abroad. So he's setting the stage for what will be an extraordinary moment. Any gives the speech in baseball stadium. The franklin stadium in philadelphia when he arrives as he's ascending to the platform he falls. This was one of those moments where where all would be revealed. You might say. The man is not a strong his not as capable his standing. Fourth always requires assistance but he is unable to stand. He cannot do it on his own. He goes up there and he delivers obama. Leaving anything out. you're looking for. He delivers arguably. I don't think there is a more radical speech in american history. I know there's a more radical speech delivered by president then the acceptance speech that year. Because what he does is he makes the most of the american revolution and this is. This is really that moment where he's putting himself into that. Same position of now is our time to declare our independence from those. He calls the economic royalists as he says. In seventeen seventy six we had to fight the political royalists nineteen thirty six. We have to fight the economic royalists. And i wanna go through this somewhat sequentially. 'cause i wanna hit all these points. You pointed out so he begins his speech and he talks about the fact that we have conquered the fear that he talked about in one thousand nine hundred thirty three but all is not well in the world and he leads up to that and then he goes to where you just went and we will play clips of this throughout so talks about philadelphia being the city and he says philadelphia is a good city in which to write american history. And i think i love that line. Love it because it's so it's so audacious and shows where he intends to do with the rest of his remarks and by the way let's not forget. I mentioned his his heroes. Presidential heroes were indeed teddy. Roosevelt and woodrow wilson and he had intended in the early nineteen twenty s to model himself so much after them that he wanted to write the history of the united states to write a hit literally history capital age of the united states and he began the project but he found. He wasn't quite the writing man that they were that he could. He was good with words but writing a history. It probably was daunting to him. I mean you think about the whole history of the united states. But as i said in the prior book on fdr in the greatest generation in his own way he began to write the history of the united states through his speeches. And here he goes beyond the writing and he says we're gonna make history. It's just it's absolutely wonderful again. I'm not going to portray him as a saint. But this was a moment of mortal crisis to crises the economic crisis of the great depression and the social catastrophes that ensued and of course fascism east and japanese imperialism to the west if you think about it from the vantage point of the united states and he is now. I mean many ways. As as you'll see i won't. I won't kill the punch line for the whole speech. This is the speech in which he is. Rallying americans not only not only to vote for him for a second term which he knows. He's likely to win. Any he wants a massive mandate and he wants people understand that by voting for him they are going to pursue the revolution that was launched in the new deal and also they're going to create an ever more democratic america because he really does believe the best way the best way to bolster america's capacity to fight. Fascism is to make america more democratic absolutely. And i think the you set it up well. He talks about the original revolution. Seventeen seventy six talks about those royalists. And as he says go. Current wiped out at philadelphia on july fourth. Seventeen seventy six. Since that's prog old man comes in a genius. Released new forces in our lab reordered the lions of our people the age of machinery of railroad steam and black president the telegraph on the radio mass production mass this promotion all of these combined bring forward and and whenever a problem for old boost sought to remain free out of this modern civilization royalists The new diners new kingdoms built upon concentration of control over material things through new uses of corporations and banks and securities machinery of industry and agriculture of labor and capital. All undreamed of by the father holes structure of modern light was impressed into this royal summit. No place among this royalty we're Many thousands of small businessmen and merchants who sought to make a worthy use of the american system of initiative and profit. They want law-free than the with around the farmer. The royalist i have spoken on the royalist. Some economic oughta have conceded that political freedom was but business of the government but they have maintained that economic slavery was an. Nobody's embezzlement these economic royal complain that way up for all the institutions of america. What they really complain off is we seek to take away that foul religion and allegiance to american institutions requires the overthrow of this kind of In vain they seek to hide behind the flag and constitution but then Blindness they fought. Get what the flag on the constitution. Stan fox no now as always century and a half but flag constitution stand against a dictatorship by bob role and the ova privileged the light and the plug on the constant stan democracy. Not territory for freedom not objective. He ran for the vice presidency in nineteen twenty on the democratic ticket and of course the republicans were charging the democrats with wanting to somehow weaken america that they were somehow going to give away american sovereignty because the democrats were endorsing postwar league of nations whereas the republicans opposed it and roosevelt. At that moment learned what it meant to wrap yourself in the flag. because that's how he viewed what the republicans were doing to them and this is his moment of saying they like to wrap themselves in the flag and they missed the real point of what american democracy is about is amazing you both have spoken before the texture of the speech. I someday would love to one of us. Should write an entire book just on this particular speech. One of the things that i thought was amazing. He goes from the biblical. We do not see faith hope and charity as unattainable ideas. The next part that i wanted to discuss with you is where he comes to. His government's can error presidents. do make mistakes can Presidents do make mistakes but the model dante it tells us that divine justice ways the sins of the cold blooded and the sins of the warm hearted in different scales. The okay juvenile. Follow gunman that lives in ice spirit up charities then they consistent on mecham a government frozen in the ice at ponant different if we place it in the context again of nine hundred thirty six and remember that he's living he knows in one sense. His confident is going to be reelected but he knows damn well the forces arrayed against him he knows for example. The supreme court is more than capable of taking down whatever he tries to pursue. He knows by the way. And this is. This is significant in those terms. The major industrialised in the united states had asked their lawyers was the national labor relations act of nineteen. Thirty five the act that would empower labor union organizing and collective bargaining that would assure a workers workers in the plural right to organize. That was the law that literally would weaken the powers of capital in favor of what they called at that time industrial democracy. So there's lots of reasons that fdr really does need to build upon this but it's also the case. He gave a speech back in nineteen thirty two just before. He actually won that election in which he talked about social justice through social action much as he was a history teacher in chief he does have a very strong moral sensibility and is very much aware of american sense of right and wrong and their sense of justice and injustice and what he's speaking there may seem like high literature to refer to dante. How many americans would actually know of donte. maybe. I'm underestimating it. In fact but i don until i got to college those who went to groton and andover man maybe well you know what i haven't thought about it this way. This speech wasn't only to rally americans. This speech was a warning a warning to those who held the power and wealth. This is a warning. And i say that because people on the left they actually tend to denigrate denigrated or deride the fdr presidency as not being radical enough. But they haven't read the speeches. You can read his speeches and realize he's not just looking to to go after poverty. He's determined to redistribute wealth. He's already pursuing taxes that are going to basically if pursued effectively makeup. I like to think of. As the democracy deficit that is democracy has been the powers of the democratic political system in flowing into the hands of the wealthy as quickly as the dollars of the american economy. Any says very clearly that it is untenable to have a democracy that operates no way so in his own fashion when he when he's he's threatening them he saying we're watching you and you better watch how you come after us this next time. Yeah i mean. I hadn't thought of that exactly as you know the message. He was sending the next paragraph. Is the one where Speech gets its most memorable line. There is a mysterious cycle and human event generation. Much is given rations much. Expected this generation of americans as a roundtable with destiny in this world of ours. In other lands. There are some people or in times. have lived and fought for freedom and seem to have grown weary. Carry on the fight. They have so fast heritage of freedom for the illusion of a living. They have yielded that democracy. I believe in my heart that only our success and the Ancient vote they begin. Denial that here in america. We are waging a break and successful war it is not alone ore against one and destitute and economic the molestation. It is more than that. It is a wall for the bible democracy. We are fighting fighting to say. Hey great and precious form of on and for the world and so i act because they tend at me. I joined around now. This is the summer of nineteen thirty six two and a half years away from kristallnacht where we go through all the events that are far in the future but fdr senses that moment. I think before many even on the continent to of what is about to happen in the next decade. Talk a little bit about his precedents there. Yeah in fact. I'll go further than that. When you said presi into the beginning of our conversation. I was going interruption. And now's a good time to to add. The point have interrupted you with in nineteen thirty two or thirty three. He had a well. He definitely had thirty two and thirty three a brains trust. That was a brain. Trust that whose task was to generate ideas to look at his gubernatorial time and see how they could translate those experiences into a presidential agenda. It's also the case that they would occasionally contribute to the writing of his speeches. Fdr was really smart and having speechwriting team he gave speeches. There was no way he could've turned out all those speeches by himself though. It's often knowing that the best lines speechwriters have always said the best lines perations as they are no were. Fdr's well one of his three brains. Trust members was amid rex. Tugwell who was of all things an agricultural economist at columbia university and tokyo later road after. Fdr's passing two books about roosevelt and his presidency. One of which. I think is just extraordinary. It's titled the democratic roosevelt fact. There's a line that. I'm hoping to write a speech of my own. Based on that one line so funniest tugwell said not funny. No actually tragic in a fashion tugwell says that. Fdr told him in light of what he was witnessing in east asia that we will be at war with japan in the course of my presidency. Something to that effect he actually. He saw the militarism emergent in japan. And what he believed to be the inevitable confrontation between japan. The united states. There's no evidence that he imagined especially that early that that might have happened in germany but his very much aware nineteen thirty six of the threat that hitler poses to the world. He knows it and when he does that. I mean people say what do you think he knew. I think he knew what was likely to happen. And fear might well have been to. What extent americans would have been not only unprepared in in any kind of material and armaments style fashion but to what extent they would have been emotionally and psychologically unprepared to confront that so but he says a rendezvous with destiny. He means it both. In terms of the crisis underway still in the united states and the crisis that prevailed on the global scale and was definitely building up. I mean it was. it was already evident. What hitler's ambitions were by nineteen thirty six. What's amazing to me. Also about that that line. Or the antecedent to the rendezvous with destiny is where he talks about to some generations much is given of other generations. Much as expected is clearly the basis of where john kennedy a member of that of that generation. Who heard that speech comes up with the ask not line or the idea for it. It's clearly a forerunner of it. Yes it is right basis since he was a part of that generation that had to confront that rendezvous with destiny. Probably hoping they would never have to deal with a further confrontation on the lines of the cold war. One could only have wished that kennedy had adopted more. Fdr sensibility regarding questions of political economy. Absolutely he was. Let's put it this way. There's a reason why republicans still liked. The rnc likes to churn out kennedy quotes on economics. These days oh. Thank you for say that i've been that's exactly. What if we telling people. Yes ken melman. Who served the bush white house with me. It was a huge fan of coding president kennedy but for the wrong reasons Does the other thing is where he ends. That speech and this is along the same lines that we've been talking about stunning to me. I accept the commission. You have tendered me. I join with you. I'm enlisted for the duration of the war. Now this is five years before pearl harbor. This is at a place where anybody who as fdr did new. The american presidency knew he would serve another nine years as president after having served almost three. The the point is it's amazing to me. Those who say that fdr ran for third and fourth term released. A third term out of eeo arrogance. I really do believe he was committed to serving for the duration of the war. Yeah i mean the thing about. It is more than that. A war for the survival of democracy. It's so clear that he he knows that the struggle at home look i believe. He feared the possibility that the rich and powerful those dozen men who controlled general motors the depan corporation industries. Like that i believe. He feared the possibility that they might try to resort to fascist alternative. The reason i say that is where we get to the speech of january forty four the economic bill of rights speech. It's probably important to look at lines afterward. Which very few people do because of the warning that he gives americans at that moment in nineteen thirty eight for the midterm elections. He will go south to georgia and he will give a speech. In which basically says you know anyone who is willing to support the feudal regime in the south bay basically supporting fascism. I mean he has on his mind that this is a war about democracy. And i can tell you that. Everyone's you know. They scorn him because there wasn't enough of civil rights initiative during his his presidency. But you can see the degree to which there were efforts to begin that civil rights battle. If you think about his appointment of the former governor of michigan frank murphy to the attorney general ship and his creation of basically what was called originally a civil liberties division which then meant civil rights. And i can point out other places along the way in the speeches. The point is that. Fdr did not see the battle of the nineteen thirties as simply as so many historians and pundits like to say an outrages me when they do that he wanted to save capitalism he wanted to save democracy and the united states was a liberal democracy. Which of course implied you're going to save not only capitalism but democracy. But if you had to put on the scale. I have little little hesitation. Saying democracy was the primary aspiration. That's a good place to end for this week. We're not finished with fdr on democracy because next week professor kate will be back to talk about the greatest speeches and writings of president. Franklin delano roosevelt. We hope you join us. Thank you for listening towards matter please. Rate and review words matter apple. Podcast support wherever you get your shows.

america fdr Fdr roosevelt polio thomas paine new york franklin delano roosevelt depression teddy roosevelt katie barlow harvey k president franklin vigili Lockney milton academy eleanor roosevelt philadelphia hoover botella
FDR on Democracy with Professor Harvey Kaye - Part 1

Words Matter

1:12:43 hr | 6 months ago

FDR on Democracy with Professor Harvey Kaye - Part 1

"Love this podcast. Support this show through the cast supporter feature. It's up to you how much you give. And there's no regular commitment. Just click the link in the show description to support now. Welcome to words matter with katie barlow. Welcome to words matter. i'm katie. Barlow our goal is to promote objective reality as a wise man once said everyone is entitled to their own opinion. Not their own facts. Words have power and words have consequences. Our guest today is an award. Winning author and renowned historian professor harvey k. A celebrated expert on both thomas paine and franklin delano roosevelt has written ten books including thomas paine and the promise of america the fight for the four freedoms. What made fdr and the greatest generation truly. Great why do ruling classes fear history and other questions take hold of our history make america radical again and his latest fdr on democracy the greatest writings and speeches of president. Franklin delano roosevelt. If it isn't obvious by now it will be by the end of our discussion. Our guest is a man who truly believes that words have power and words have consequences. Professor k welcome back towards matter. Thank you looking forward to this a lot. Well we have two to your point. We visually scheduled this interview for march. Eighteenth i believe before your book came out. And of course history. Got in the way you didn't come to new york and nobody traveled anywhere and still isn't traveling in a way. I'm glad that we did. Because as i mentioned to you before we started. I believe that the book has more residents. And fdr's words have more relevance at this particular moment and that is you know mid december of two thousand twenty with the election of joe biden and the beginning of his new administration. Then they probably did even when you were a little early. Not that that's bad at all but you are attempt early and before we begin. I do want to say one other thing. I owe you a debt of gratitude because as we talked about in our last interview i've been reading studying listening to history since about the age of five and from five to my early thirties. I learned a great deal after that. Unlock new. i didn't learn anything. I learned still continued to learn. But i never came across any idea or concept that radically changed and altered the way that i looked at everything else i learned and i got that from your last book our last interview. Here's what you said what we need to realize when americans confront mortal crises. They make america more. They make america freer more equal and more democratic. And if we're going to live up to being americans that's exactly what we have to do now. I have to say that idea that in those times of moral crisis that americans do that. Because i've always considered us a sort of culturally conservative country and that is by and large often true. But it's in those moments and so thank you for that well. I think you'll see that. One of the speeches i included in this collection of. Fdr's is a speech that he gave to teenagers at milton academy up in boston. In nineteen twenty six and the question or the title that frame the speech was wither america. And in the speech he actually says. We shouldn't be too surprised by the fact that conservatives. I'm paraphrasing govern longer than liberals and progressives too but we should worry about is that they might govern so long that they might literally undo the best of america. He doesn't deny the tendency to conservatism. Which i don't think is only characteristic of america by any means but his point is that there are those moments when you realize that if this keeps up. We're in trouble. And this is one thousand nine hundred ninety six. And he's already clearly worried about america because of the gross inequalities that were emerging at this late moment in the gilded age in the roaring twenties. It's one of the things that i think when we have discussion david i hope our listeners. Come away with was. Fdr was surprisingly prescient in his view. The myth assertive. Sdr read the country very well and steered people where they want to go. He saw things long before with a clarity. That is almost clairvoyance. And we'll get to that when we talk about his thousand thirty six convention speech at the democratic convention philadelphia. Though if i can just add to that. I wanna say before. We get into the words themselves as that one of the reasons that i moved into. Fdr is the fact that he actually looked back at a critical moment. Which maybe we'll have a chance to get to to thomas paine and when i saw that having been pain is my lifelong hero and pains words. I think are the most important in american history. When i saw him do that. I thought wow. I should look more deeply into franklin resolve. I mean. I grew up in a roosevelt democratic household. But it's one thing to grow up in that kind of milieu and it's another thing to say. Well i'm going to look into this. Further and one of the beauties about doing research is that you end up surprising yourself. If you're doing your work properly your preconceptions get seriously challenged and a lot of them for me got seriously challenged and we talk about that as we go through the speeches. Because i think it's important for people to realize my earlier book on the fife of the four freedoms while made fdr that greatest generation truly great that this book stands on the shoulders of that book. When i came to realize the very unique excuse this moxie and term this or galleon if you like this dialectic between a president and a people which is mielie in many ways the most unique parts of the roosevelt years. The two greatest presidents are lincoln and roosevelt. A third great leader of america was clearly washington for all of his sins and the fact is however that in the case of fdr more so than washington and more so than lincoln. There was this dialectic. That comes through in the words and indeed in the making of the greatest generation absolutely. I'm glad you brought up challenging preconceived notions as i mentioned before your previous book. One of the things that you taught me there was although jefferson is more quoted by american politicians today as the forefather of american intellectual fought with the decoration. It's really common sense which is to me and again through you thank you. Yeah and i'm going to start off with another preconception and it's one. We actually talked about off mic last time. And you were in the middle of finishing this book so you obviously were focused on it. But i had made a comment to you about what i viewed as fdr's politics political philosophy. And i had said to you that polio had made him more compassionate more socialistic. And you said actually no it didn't and that's the first place we're gonna start. We're going to start with that speech that you started the book with with from one thousand nine hundred twelve and again. This was a conversation. You and i had off mike before but i got to read it in this book and it was astounding to me. How an fdr who described himself later in life at the age is a pretty arrogant costs. I say that progressive in his thinking. Nine years before paulie so anyway with that. Let's set the stage for that first featured in the book which is we have acquired a set of conditions which we must seek to solve. It was a speech to the peoples forum in troy new york where my family might have been the only group of immigrants who came off botella silent and then moved up to new york. I have no idea why today for my grandfather louis. Living was a farmer outside of troy town whose falls but be that as it may tell us about that speech. Tell us about why it's important and why it started their well. One of the things that makes it important and by the way i do make clear that the call. Fdr socialist is to exaggerate. And i prefer the term social democratic. Although i think that they can slide it they can slide into each other very easily. But i prefer the term social democratic because otherwise it raises the question of. Oh he's a socialist archer exaggerating but the beauty of that speech. And the reason i included. What really is fascinating. As shows the degree to which first of all that fdr will never really give a speech that doesn't resonate or specifically refer to the past and its implications for the present either by way of an example or by way of a force that we need to remember prevails in our life and he opens up with a real sense of psalms western history itself and then a more especially in american history but the reason i included besides the fact that he's on his way to eventually become a history teacher and chief as president is that people always said that fdr was a man who had no ideas that you know in many ways he was perhaps pragmatic or he latched onto other people's famous homes critique of him i rate temperament second rate intellect. I think added to that and again reading your book. I've come to see homes at ninety six. I think was wrong. And by the way i always thought that who the hell has original ideas to begin with. I can't imagine any original ideas especially when it comes to social and political thought so in this speech it's evidence that he is urgently and i don't wanna use the word desperately but his own way he's determined to find a way between the divide that prevails especially in gilded age and once again prevails today of a choice between say the socialist route on the one hand and the individualist or the classical eighteenth century liberal route. That is the free-market verses some kind of collectivist. He's really looking for a way through that. And there's that term that we've have always valued in american history liberty and of course the more progressive version of that word. Liberty is freedom. Fdr in that speech is saying okay. Well we need to consider. We've come to a point in history especially in the united states where we need to be thinking about an it's a very awkward term but you it reveals registers are affords us a look into his mind and he says liberty of the community. Yeah i mean. I'm gonna i'm gonna read it. Because unlike some of the other speeches there is no of require. Been happy to read it but you go ahead. I can see a relishing during the past century. We've acquired a new set of conditions which we must seek to solve to put it in the simplest and fewest words. I have called this new theory. The struggle for liberty of the community rather than liberty of the individual. Yeah now this is the proof that is in what we would call a capital p. progressive milieu is. He is among the progressive democrat. He's definitely moving in that direction. Maybe the only thing that would have kept him for moving immediately in that direction over and over again he he has a real rural sensibility at this point in his political career and more the progresses more often are actually urban based and also what i found interesting which inject here is. This was actually the one speech in the book. You include. that happened to have been given when his cousin his hero. Teddy roosevelt was still alive. And i think important because knowing teddy roosevelt's knowing fdr i'm sure teddy. Read it and he knew that teddy would read it even if he didn't read it after. Fdr gave it knowing thinking or hoping the teddy would read it. I sure that he sent it to him as well. I mean i know that for a fact but somebody else will have to look it up. But well yeah. That's pretty much the case that his cousin teddy his wife's uncle teddy. I mean he's going to model himself in many ways after his two presidential heroes. Teddy being the more obvious example. And of course. The other. One being joe wilson but he does transcend both of them as we will see he definitely transcends both of them. I just want to start with that speech. Because again one of the beauties are reading your work and talking to you and getting to know you is you do give us those things that challenge and that narrative that fdr changed radically as a thinker as a person as a politician after the onset of polio. There's probably some truth to that. But it didn't change his fundamental core beliefs and. I think that that's really important. I wanna read an another line. That really matters to me in the speech because it's also it also is evident the degree to which fdr also aware of the fact that he will be accused by either the right or the left for what he says and this comes up again and he says toys into that speech or later in the speech if we call the method regulation because he's trying to figure out how to what to turn this liberty of the community people will hold up their hands in horror and say un-american or dangerous but if we call the same identical process cooperation the same old fogies will cry out. Well done. so he's he's always aware of what others will say not because he's afraid of them but because he's trying to figure out how to articulate these things so that it will appeal to the broadest possible if you like element of the citizenry and his ambitious. Okay doesn't want to be tarred and feathered for being too far left or for that matter not going far enough. I just found the speech. Absolutely wonderful and i have to say i'm very proud. It's hasn't been in any kind of collection of fdr speeches probably since the nineteen forty. Something like that. So i grabbed hold of it now. And it's great. If you're gonna pick and choose speeches you should start with the one that you start with. Because i think it sets the tone for the rest of the book and thank you. I wanted to go next again with your forty-three examples. We're not going to be able to go through every one of them today. But i highlighted a few. The next one. I want to go to is the famous forgotten man and pick that for obvious reasons but i think that it is at the beginning as it were of the nineteen thirty two campaign. It's a radio address. That he gives his as governor of new york from albany and set the scene a little bit and where we were in the great depression. At that point would hoover had done or hadn't done more importantly and how fdr frames it. Because i think it is not only important historically not only important understanding. Fdr might be important to understanding where today's democrats in today's heirs of fdr forget. His greatness should be objective of government itself the provide at least as much assistance to the little fellow as it is now giving to the large banking corporation that is another example of building from the bottom up. It's time to get back fundamental. It is high time off met with curry. We are in the midst of an emergent base at least equal to our war. Lot of mobilized to meet it. Yeah i mean the first thing everyone does when they think about the great depressions they go to the crash in the fall of nineteen twenty nine and went and i remember growing up as a schoolboy. Maybe you do to adam that you learn as as if the crash caused everything else that followed it without paying attention to the fact in the course of the nineteen twenties. There's a great exaggeration about economic growth. And how many people are benefiting from. And i'll just give you one example. Everybody says that people were making more money and they were buying more things but what they often don't consider is the difference between what a wage earner made and what a household made and during the course of the nineteen twenties farmers had yet to recover from the recession that followed world war one and working people themselves only sustained the standard of living that they had or improved it tended degree because more and more often at least two members of a household went out to work which made household income grow. But it didn't necessarily mean that wages for working people were rising at all at the rate at which prophets were rising for the for the owners of businesses and finance so the crash crash occurs unemployment was somewhere officially like fifteen or twenty twenty five percent but is really more likely thirty. African american unemployment was probably fifty percent. People truly we're not just out of work. They were losing their homes farms. Were being foreclosed and auctioned off. Hundreds of thousands of teenagers were joining adult men and women who hitting the road because their own families that we can't afford you. You've got to go out and find a way to survive. People were constructing. Hoover villes meaning the shack towns outside of the larger towns and cities. America witnessed the worst economic and social catastrophe in history. It was devastating and so roosevelt is governor of new york during these years from nineteen twenty eight to nineteen thirty. Two and new york was not immune to the depression. I mean people suffer the same scale. They did out here in the mid west further out in the west but fdr did have a capital p. progressive set of instincts and he did pursue a series of experiments as governor which will later become such things as the ccc will also become the tennessee valley authority and things are going on in new york where he is trying his damnedest to afford worked to young people or the unemployed he was trying to create new public works projects to provide energy to farms that had yet to have electricity. It was an active governor who along the way gave speeches which basically assured new yorkers that he would do what he could shore. They could have done more but he has determined as he had been for some years. I believe although it may have seemed as certain times. It was impossible because he was stricken with polio in early in the nineteen hundred eighty but he is going to run for president and he's going to run for president carrying with him that idea that began to emerge of liberty of the community which will later become what we would call social democracy. You might say he's also going to run having been influenced in the nineteen twenties by the labor activists that eleanor roosevelt has brought home to hyde park because of her own activities with the women's trade union league during the twenty s when roosevelt himself was more often at home. Trying to recover in some way from the polio. And then later as the governor of new york so this is a man who's determined to do for the american people. What the american people might not be able to do for themselves. He harnesses lincoln's idea of the purpose of government. Government is our mean the means by which we do together what we cannot do for ourselves as individuals and that's the philosophy so in this speech of course he's already beginning and this is the thing that always annoys me when i read what i hear so many historians talk about. Fdr's having no ideas. There were no plans for the new deal. It was like on the run that these things emerged. But even here in this very speech ensuing speeches. He begins to lay out the essentials of what will be the new deal sure. He doesn't layout full-scale plans but he lays out the agenda of pretty much the degree to which you'll see in this speech and the ones that follow the idea. He calls it old age pensions. But it's social security okay. He talks about addressing the environment in those days it was called not environmentalism but conservation. He talks about restoring farmers abilities. It's all there. It's in the making and this speech. The forgotten man is to say i haven't forgotten you and the government that i hope to establish the administration. I hope to lead will not leave you out. This is not in favor of rescuing the rich. This is in favor of enabling americans to bre- if you like redeem not the sole of america that did matter to him but redeemed the life of america. Well to your point. What's really amazing about that. Speech is that empathy and compassion and the detail of which he goes into his understanding of the suffering of people at that moment struck me. The other thing that struck me was the first speech. Obviously because it's really the first true depression speech that you include. But at that point he is equating. What is going on and that we must mobilize as if we were mobilizing for war. Which is something. Obviously that the hoover administration didn't see it in the same terms and it was a contrast but it was to me it was early theme and like you said he hits it from the tariff issues to conservation to the pensions to the farmers. You can see the roots of all those programs. And if you're listening to that radio address and you are somebody who suffering. You can understand why people invoke that cliche at the end of his life. Why didn't know him but he knew me. Yes and in those terms. I have to say he speaks of doing this. From the bottom up hoover. He tried to avoid acting on the depression. I first three years of his presidency. He eventually creates the reconstruction finance corporation which roosevelt himself will make good use of. But it's the case that when hoover begins to act even to the limited degree he does. It's a top down kind of thing what. Fdr is indicating from the very beginning of this campaign is that this is going to be from the bottom up and look. These are the moments in which folks like john. Lewis the head of the united mine. Workers and sidney. Hillman had the amalgamated clothing. Workers of america and other labor leaders in the case of lewis. He was a republican. In the case of sidney hillman. He was a socialist but both the republican and the socialist heard these words. This idea from the bottom up and by the end of the campaign they've essentially even if it's on the quiet you might say have come to endorse the roosevelt candidacy and presidency the next speech. I wanted to talk about is his acceptance speech that summer in chicago he becomes the first nominee of a major party to accept the nomination in person and on the radio at a fly flies to chicago. You can imagine his concern. Let's listen to franklin delano roosevelt. As he accepts the nineteen thirty two democratic nomination for president they apparent but for a national convention of its nominee for president to be formally notified of his selection is unprecedented and unusual but these are unprecedented and unusual. Time that it'd be from now on the task of our party break foolish rotation we will break foolish and leave it to the republican leadership more skilled in that art you'll break prometheus time for fear for reaction automated here and no i invite though nominal republicans will find that back conscience cannot be square. Where the groping and the failure of their party leaders join hands with us here and an equal measure must be a party of liberal planned action of enlightened international outlook and of the greatest good to the greatest number of a citizen. I black new deal. Arrogant people is ma political campaign. Moms help not to win. But when crew tourist america people ought to the substance in a minute. But why did fdr feel compelled to get on a plane. No small task in nineteen thirty two and accept the nomination in person. Who knows i didn't have a conversation with but you can imagine is concerned that people might wonder about this man who had suffered polio. And what he is going to show them his first of all that he will not be deterred and if and if indeed the democratic party wants him he will be there is. Polio will not stand in the way too. He's going to stand before that convention which were probably then of course leads to the continuing effort to deny any kind of image of him as in some ways wheelchair-bound but it is the case. He is absolutely determined to be there to stand there and to rally the democratic party and by way of radio another means his to rally americans to what he believes to be ultimately. Reagan your daddy to allow people to refer to the reagan revolution. Clearly if you want to use the term revolution in terms of transformation of america there was the beginnings here and in the course of the next eight years the follow through on a roosevelt revolution. By find that you probably didn't wanna refer to it as that because when you're actually doing it you're afraid people are going to notice that you're doing revolution whereas reagan. When you're not really doing it you want people to think it's more than it is. But i do hope in that vein you will go to the nineteen thirty six acceptance speech. Where absolutely going to do that. Okay but before we move on you. So eloquently spoke of those future historians claiming that after yard was sort of making up the new deal on the fly and didn't have a plan and almost as if he was looking ahead to answer them. Let's listen to what fdr said. I have a definite program for providing employment by that means. I have done it and i am doing it today. In the state of new york. I know that the democratic party can successfully do it in the nation that will put men to work and that is an example of the action that we're going to have and then he goes on to lay out in a little bit more detail but he was answering those people whose who charged that. He didn't have a plan and he clearly did. Yeah i mean. I'm not an fdr biographer. I'm a historian and people. Say are you biographer of fdic. No i'm a historian of fdr which is a little different because what i'm interested in is fdr his time and how fdr made history transformed the united states in the course of his presidency and did so in that i said before that dialectical relationship with the american people who will go on to become the greatest generation. And i think what sometimes happen is that when people become biographers. They started a certain place and maybe they limit themselves. I think the governorship of new york which is his formative sort of leadership moment governorship of new york. That's the moment where he sort of laying out those experiments by i also would point out that during world war one was the assistant secretary of the navy and the man who was the superior daniels or dang is he delegated all of the all of the work of getting the navy constructed and reconstructed to fdr so as a consequence he learned how to deal with labor unions. He learned how to deal with corporate bosses. He learned how to deal with these things and make things happen quickly so i think that he also brings that to bear yet he also did something else in that convention speech which i think was a real break with the past and you and i both familiar with that nineteenth century and the seeped into the first quarter of the twentieth century the first third of the twentieth century of lazy faire capitalism and he said we must lay hold of the fact that economic laws are not made by nature. They're made by human beings. Thank you thank. You hadn't gotten that. I was gonna say. Let's go back to that professor of history. I've also told social theory. I think there are three revolutionary lines in modern history. One of them is by thomas paine we have it in our power to begin the world over again. Okay the second. One is undeniably that of karl marx. The history of all his to existing society but he also is basically going on to make the case that we have it in our power to begin the world over again as pain had said but roosevelt then in decidedly american terms any speaks to the american people very directly and think about what he's doing over and over again. There was this argument. As you said lazy-faire you can't mess with the economy right. Even though government often did mess with the economy to the advantage of the powerful you can't mess with the economy. Because it's as if you'd be messing with god him or herself but what roosevelt is telling. His fellow citizens is look. History is first and foremost a matter of change and there is not some universal law of economics either in space or in time. He did it more eloquently but he's saying basically economic laws are made by us and thus he doesn't say the next night and they're made to be broken but everyone would have understood him as saying that. I just love that line in fact that actually to my mind is the proof that they should have said. There's a revolution coming in this country. When he said that. I think you're right. It's your point about how immutable those laws were our entire of jurisprudence and it was ironically homes who who lived to to meet fdr as we mentioned before and offer his. What i believe is one of the few incorrect things that holmes said publicly in terms of his assessment of fdr but up until homes we had that laze fare formalism. That there was one right way to decide case and it was based on these immutable economic laws. And if it didn't benefit the the powerful economically then that was the wrong way to decide the case came in and blew all that up as lawyers will remember. That was the lochner era of labor relations. You know let's go to what is one of fdr's greatest speeches. His nineteen thirty-three inaugural address. And we'll talk about it on the other side preeminently the time to speak crow the whole truth frank laid and boldly no need we shrink from honestly facing conditions in our country. Today this great nation will endure as it has in your wardrobe by and we'll prosper so first of all. Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear nameless unreasoning unjustified tara which paralyzes needed up doe convert rid creek into advance. Happiness lies not in the mayor possession of money. It lies in the joy of achievement in the thrill of creative effort but joy. The moral stimulation of work. No longer must be forgotten in the mad chase of evanescent greatest. Primary task is to put people to work. This is no unsolvable problem if we it wisely and courageously it can be accomplished in part by the recruiting by the government itself treating the past because we would creep the emergency of a war but at the same time. Rule this employment accomplishing great. Great blend needed projects to stimulate and reorganize the use of our great natural resources. I am prepared under my constitutional duty to recommend the measures that are stricken nation in the midst of a second world may require these measures or such other measure as the congress may bells also the experience and wisdom. I shall speak. Within my constitutional authority go brings speedy it up. But in the event that the congress show failed to pick one of these two in the events that the national emergency is critical. I e bay clear of that will then confront me. I shall ask congress. Father one remaining instrument to meet the crisis rod executive power away jay warren james the emergency as great as the power. That would be given to me if we were in fact invaded by foreign folk. The people of the united states have not failed in need. They're registered a mandate that may want the direct bigger us. Act they have asked for discipline and direction and leadership. They have made me the present instrument of their wishes in the spirit of the gift i take in the dedication in the dedication of a nation we humbly the blessing of god may he protect each and every one of maybe guide me in the days. How the line that. Everybody remembers nothing to fear but fear itself and we were talking before we hit record here. I mentioned that. I was struck by at one point. I remember listening to jonathan alter who was giving assessment of that line and said well in a lot of ways. It's inspired nonsense. If you're somebody who was out of work if you're somebody who couldn't feed your family there was actually something real to fear. But i want to get your thoughts on that use of rhetoric and what he set up and then talk a little bit about the speech itself and those lines that we don't quote but that are equally or perhaps more important to his views on democracy. Well i understand what jonathan alter is getting at. I mean nothing to fear but fear itself. Everybody knew that the banks were closing. At an accelerating rate people were starving. People were getting the chicago area's. I've read in the writings of edmund. Wilson people were going to the garbage dumped to secure food. There was reason to fear but what he was trying to say. And this is important. Fdr and this may not be what you're looking for but fdr actually did have tremendous faith in god in the story of america and in the american people and what he was saying basically was that i have faith in you. I have confidence in you. I mean that's just it. We live in a very cynical age. Which is what enabled the likes of donald trump to be elected. But in fact there are other times where people might have had reason to be cynical. And i'm not gonna say that. Fdr was ever a saint about all of this stuff. But i am going to say that that confidence that faith that he had again in god the american story and the american people really does empower him in these moments really. I don't think he could have even said those words if you didn't truly believe them and one of the things about roosevelt is when he said things he actually took them seriously. I'll give you an example. You'll laugh when i refer to this speech. Because you and i both know it's not in this book. The banking crisis speech. He gives that speech and the most interesting thing about that. Speech is not even what he says to my mind. It's what happens people really do. They win. They better money back in banks. They'd stood on line the week. Before the month before to withdraw. They listened to it right and then they went back and still aligned to their money back in the bank. And i'm told live not a business story and i should have known this on my own. I was told the other day that in fact more money went back into the banks than correct so of course. It's a remarkable talent. He had it was the master of the radio but it was also the fact in spite of his patrician. His gentry background he comes from hudson river valley gentry. There was the republican side of the family. Teddy roosevelt and he's out on long island for much of his life when he's not traveling. The north american continent of the world but fdr is hudson valley aristocrat and the democratic wing of the family and one could have imagined that he would have come off just sounding like you could imagine he was like oh come on. you know. it's okay for you to talk like that. You've got all that money in an estate up. The hudson river by poughkeepsie. But the fact was that he had incredible. Confidence has aids and other people would say when he does the fireside chat he imagined self as one of them one of the people who are listening and of course as we know from the first to the last people imagined that he was in their living room. Talking which by the way mattered especially to african-americans absolutely because they imagine themselves in the white house with him or that he had come to sit with them to explain things of course white working people equally so but african american working people that was a unique experience historically to that point. I think it's a good time to bring up because we're going to talk about another fireside chat later but john kennedy is often given a great deal some of it earned that he mastered the new medium of television better than anybody had before him. I think there's some truth to that. I will say being up against richard nixon. that fight is not really wanted to show the strikes. Donald trump has been given credit for mastering social media. But i don't think there's ever been a politician american leader or even a world leader who mastered churchill. Might give him a little bit. We run for his money but he did it later. Mastered the new medium radio as you said so effectively. One of the reasons i love playing fdr speeches and clips of speeches because they were made for radio. Yes very much so made for radio so people actually couldn't see him they can only hear that voice of his and i want to add to the fact that when he basically spoke to them and what at times say that he was interested in hearing from them then hundreds of thousands of letters arriving in the white house and they actually had to create a vast staff of women. I say women because that's all they would hire to do this particular labor to open those letters and then they would select which letters might well be sent forward. And by the way i later met someone whose mother had been a part of that staff and also on the staff. I believe of the true in white house doing the same kinds of things and really was the case that people there were a lot of people reporting from the field. Their academics out across america doing a phd in sociology anthropology. There were reporters who would go out and there were those photographers with the farm security administration. I mean there were lots of reports from the field of what was going on in the great depression and the new deal and one of the things that's repeated over and over again is that they would walk into the home. Save a sharecropper aren't even a a white or black worker in the cities and they would see two pictures hanging on the wall. Jesus and fdr okay and you know people say well you know. The roosevelt administration failed african-americans. Well you couldn't have told african americans in the nineteen thirties that especially when they when naming their children franklin or roosevelt or eleanor. What i'm getting at is yes undeniably. There was this tremendous obstruction of so much of the new deal because southern white supremacist democratic senators and congressmen and we know that chairing committees is done by seniority. They were more than willing to have. Money comes south but they immediately could tell when the money might mean. They'd have to integrate something or that. African americans would get to share in it so he always had to confront that kind of obstruction but it is the case that there were any number of of engagements and programs. African americans were deeply involved in in the civil works administration and elsewhere and there were blue songs written down in the mississippi delta to honor. fdr's presidency for white. It was accomplishing for them. So from there. I'd like to go to a speech that you and i both consider to be of. All of fdr speeches is one of his greatest. And i think we discussed last time possibly one of the greatest most radical as you put it in the context of your previous book speeches ever given by sitting american president. And that is roosevelt's nineteen thirty six convention speech in philadelphia. Not only as they leader of a party not only as a candidate for high office but as one of fun home. Many critical hours have imposed and spell impose a grave responsibility. I think the millions of american all have pond disaster bravely and have bad smile was formed. Philadelphia philadelphia is a good city in which the right american history. This is this is fitting ground on which the reaffirm look. The draw sells the response of the people. A wider freedom again told nineteen thirty six as the pound us. Game to seventeen seventy six and american way night in seventeen seventy six. We saw freedom from tyranny of a political puccara safe from me eighteenth century royalists who held special privileges from the crowd. It was to wait there. Rebel-laid that gun without the consent of the governed. The tonight the right of he accepts his renomination as the democratic standard bearer. And there's so much to talk about with this speech. Let's start with you setting the scene of him being in philadelphia if you wanna talk about his his fall before he gets onto the stage but just set the scene where we were in roosevelt's administration. We've skipped a like. I said we could do six parts Instead of just to on this on your book but let's talk about that that speech and start from the beginning okay. Well let's first set the world historical. Seen the world has store. let's not forget. Hitler's come to power in germany. Mussolini is already been in power in italy for quite some time. The japanese militarists emperor hirohito's officers onto joe have invaded china and are threatening east. Asia generally and roosevelt himself is very much concerned about obviously the state of the world. But he knows damn well that americans do not want to become engaged in another war but he has literally created a new energy in america and conservatives like to tell you that the new deal didn't work believe me. The new deal worked. Yes there were still significant employment but what conservatives. Don't count as how many americans were working in some kind of capacity by way of new deal programs. That's i i mean. Americans gave their labors to the recovery effort. They transform the landscape by way of the ccc and the later development of the wpa eighteen. Thirty five the twa was building dams alongside the wpa. There were schools bill. Being built libraries post offices artists were being engaged. The labor's i mean there was an incredible energy coming out of that first term however it is also the case of the supreme court had declared unconstitutional to major acts. The national industrial recovery act in the agricultural adjustment. Both of which roosevelt himself had gotten tired of. He wanted new directions for the new deal. But the other thing to remember. Is that the richest people in. America had organized to bring down the roosevelt presidency. They called it. The liberty league absolutely wealthiest americans and they spent millions trying to literally subvert and destroy the roosevelt presidency. The problem is that the vast majority of americans didn't trust those men and they never could create a grass roots effort in fact the only kind of way in which they realized they could create any grassroots initiative against fdr is they began to fund efforts in the south are to possibly create a third party movement. That would pull votes from fdr even if they wouldn't go to the republicans but it would reduce the democratic turnout because that's where the democrats had one party rule in the south and the republicans might then be able to win. Well going into thirty six roosevelt new from polling. That was not necessarily public that he had a good chance of being reelected. It was likely it was going to be reluctant. Americans had already given him even a stronger democratic congress in one thousand nine hundred eighty four but roselle wanted to move into yet a new phase of the new deal he was going to make it all the more social democratic. So they're gonna hold the convention in philadelphia now. of course. philadelphia is the place where american independence was declared. Seventeen seventy six. This is nine thousand nine hundred thirty. Six and fdr basically gives the order to the democratic party. We're going to make this convention if you like a celebration of the idea of the american independence and the american revolution and we will go from there now. In a state of the union address in january of thirty six had already begun to point a finger overseas and to warn americans about how the rich and the powerful had already empowered fascists abroad. So he's setting the stage for what will be an extraordinary moment. Any gives the speech in a baseball stadium. The franklin stadium in philadelphia when he arrives as he is ascending to the platform he falls. This was one of those moments where where all would be revealed. You might say the man is not a strong is not as capable. They're standing fourth always requires assistance but he is unable to stand. He cannot do it on his own. He goes up there and he delivers obama leaving anything out you were looking for. He delivers arguably. I don't think there is a more radical speech in american history. I know there's a more radical speech delivered by a president than the acceptance speech that year. Because what he does is he makes the most of the american revolution and this is. This is really that moment where he's putting himself into that. Same position of now is our time to declare our independence from what he calls. The economic royalist says he says in seventeen seventy six we had to fight the political royalists nine hundred thirty six. We have to fight the economic royalists. And i wanna go through this somewhat sequentially. Because i wanna hit all these points you pointed out so he begins his speech and he talks about the fact that we have conquered the fear the he talked about in one thousand nine hundred thirty three but all is not well in the world and he leads up to that and then he goes to where you just went and we will play clips of this throughout so talks about philadelphia being the city and he says philadelphia is a good city in which to write american history. And i think i love ally absolutely love it. because it's so it's so audacious and shows where he intends to do with the rest of his remarks and by the way let's not forget i mentioned his his heroes presidential heroes were indeed teddy roosevelt and woodrow wilson and he had intended in the early nineteen twenties to model himself so much after them that he wanted to write the history of the united states. You wanted to write a hit literally all history capital age of the united states and he began the project but he found he wasn't quite the writing man that they were that he he was good with words but writing a history. It probably was daunting tomb. I mean you think about writing a whole history of the united states. But as i said in the prior book on fdr in the greatest generation in his own way he began to write the history of the united states through his speeches. And here he goes beyond the writing and he says we're gonna make history and it's just it's absolutely wonderful again i'm not going to portray him as a saint. But this was a moment of mortal crisis to crises the economic crisis of the great depression and the social catastrophes that ensued and of course fascism east and japanese imperialism to the west if you think about from the vantage point of the united states and he is now in many ways. As as you'll see i won't. I won't kill the punchline. For the whole speech this is the speech in which is rallying americans not only not only to vote for him for a second term which he knows. He's likely to win any he wants. A massive mandate any wants people understand that by voting for him they are going to pursue the revolution that was launched in the new deal and also they're going to create an ever more democratic america. Because he really does believe the best way. The best way to bolster america's capacity to fight. Fascism is to make america more democratic. Absolutely and i think that you set it up. Well he talks about the original revolution. Seventeen seventy six talks about those royalists. And as he says oh let go currently was wiped out at philadelphia on july fourth. Seventeen seventy six but since that struggle man's inventive genius. Released new forces is real awed. The lions of our people the age of machinery of railroad steam and be like president pellagra on the radio mass production. My this from all of these combined bring wallet anew seville's agent and whenever a problem for those who sought to remain free out of this modern civilization economic royalists called the new dynasty new kingdoms built upon concentration of control over material things thrown you uses of corporations and banks and securities meanwhile machinery industry and agriculture of labor and capital all undreamed of by the father the whole structure of modern on light wise impressed into the royal senate but was no place among this royal many thousands of small businessmen and merchants since who sought to make a worthy use of the american system of initiate. Even profit they want omaha free than the with or the farmer. The royalist ever spoken up. The royalist economic oughta have conceded that politico freedom was the business of the government but they have maintained that economic slavery was nobody is abysmal. These economic royal complain that way. Think for all the institutions of america. What they really complain off is that we seek to take away that And our allegiance to american institutions requires the overthrow of this kind of in vain. They seek hide behind the flag and the constitution but then that blindness they bought get what the plug on. The constitution stanford no no as always all century and a half lagged the constitution stand against a dictatorship by bob role and the privileges the like and the flag on the constitution stand fall democracy and not tyranny for freedom not decker. He ran for the vice presidency in one thousand nine hundred twenty on the democratic ticket and of course the republicans were charging the democrats with wanting to somehow week in america that they were going to give away american sovereignty because the democrats were endorsing the postwar league of nations whereas the republicans opposed it and roosevelt. At that moment. Learned what it meant to wrap yourself in the flag. because that's how he viewed what the republicans were doing to them and this is his moment of saying they liked to wrap themselves in the flag and they missed the real point of what american democracy is about is amazing and you and i both have spoken before the texture of the speech. I someday would love to one of us. Should write an entire book just on this particular speech. One of the things that i thought it was amazing. He goes from the biblical. We do not see faith hope and charity as unattainable ideas. The next part that i wanted to discuss with you is where he sort of comes to his government's can error presidents. Do make mistakes government. Can president dole make mistakes but the model dante at tells us that divine justice ways the sims of the cold blooded and the sins of the warm hearted in different scales the occasional false ave donman that lives nice spirit up charities then they consistent on missions got on month frozen in the ice ponant different place it in the context again in one thousand nine hundred eighty six and remember that he's living he knows in one sense is confident he's going to be reelected but he knows damn well the forces arrayed against him and knows for example. The supreme court is more than capable of taking down whatever he tries to pursue. He knows by the way. And this is. This is significant in those terms the major industrialists in the united states had asked their lawyers was the national labor relations act of nineteen thirty five the act that would empower labor union organizing and collective bargaining that would assure a workers workers in the plural right to organize that was the law that literally would weaken the powers of capital in favor of what they called at that time industrial democracy. So there's lots of reasons that fdr really does need to build on this but it's also the case. He gave a speech back in nineteen thirty two just before. He actually won that election in which he talked about social justice through social action. Where as much as he was a teacher in chief he does have if you like a very strong moral sensibility and is very much aware of american sense of right and wrong. And their sense of justice an injustice and what he's speaking there may seem like high literature to refer to dante. How many americans would actually know of daunting. Maybe i'm underestimating it. In fact. I didn't really read dante till i got to college. Those who went to groton andover man. Maybe well as you know. What have i haven't thought about it this way. This speech wasn't only to rally americans. This speech was a warning a warning to those who held the power and wealth. This is a warning. And i say that because people on the left they actually tend to denigrate denigrate or deride the fdr presidency as not being radical enough. But they haven't read the speeches. You can read his speeches and realize he's not just looking to to go after poverty. He's determined to redistribute wealth. He's already pursuing taxes that are going to basically if pursued effectively makeup. I like to think of. As the democracy deficit that is democracy has been the powers of the democratic political system but in flowing into the hands of the wealthy as quickly as have the dollars of the american economy and he says very clearly that it is untenable to have a democracy that operates no way so in his own fashion when he when he's he's threatening them he saying we're watching you and you better watch how you come after us this next time. Yeah i mean. I hadn't thought of that exactly as you know the message. He was sending the next paragraph. Is the one where the speech gets memorable line. There is a mysterious cycle human event. Some generation much is given all generations. Much expected this generation of americans has a rendezvous with destiny in this world of ours in other lands. There are some people in times past have lived than fought for freedom and seem to have grown wary. Carry on the fight. They have so vast heritage freedom for the illusion of a living. They have yielded democracy. I believe in my heart that only our success the ancient folk. They begin to know that here in america. We are waging great and successful walk. It is not alone against want and destitution and economic the molestation. It is more than that. It is a war for the bible of democracy. We are fighting fighting to say a great and fresh us form of government ourselves and the world. And so i accept at me. I join with you Now this is the summer of nineteen thirty six two and a half years away from crystal knock where we could go through all the events that are far in the future but fdr senses. That moment. i think before many even on the continent to of what is about to happen in the next decade. Talk a little bit about his prescience there. in fact i'll go further than that. When you said presi into the very beginning of our conversation i was going interruption. And now's a good time to add the point. I would have interrupted you with in nineteen thirty two or thirty three. He had a well he definitely had in thirty two and thirty three a brain trust that basically was a brains trust that whose task it was to generate ideas to look at his gubernatorial time and see how they could translate those experiences into a presidential agenda. It's also the case that they would occasionally contribute to the writing of his speeches. Fdr was really smart and having speechwriting he gave speeches. There was no way he could've turned out although speeches by himself though. It's often knowing that the best lines all the speech writers have always said the best lines perations as are no were. Fdr's well one of his three brains. Trust members record tugwell who was all things. An agricultural economist at columbia university and tokyo later wrote after. Fdr's passing two books about roosevelt and his presidency. One of which. I think is just extraordinary. It's title the roosevelt fact. There's a line in that book. I'm hoping to write a a speech of my own based on that one line. So what's funny is tugwell said. It's actually tragic in a fashion tugwell says that. Fdr told him in light of what he was witnessing in east asia that we will be at war with japan in the course of my presidency. Something to that effect he actually. He saw the militarism emergent in japan. And what he believed to be the inevitable confrontation between japan. The united states. There's no evidence that he imagined especially that early that that might have happened in germany but his very much aware nineteen thirty six of the threat that hitler poses to the world. He knows it and when he does that. I mean people say what do you think he knew. I think he what was what was likely to happen. And as fear might well have been to what extent americans would have been not only unprepared in in any kind of material and armaments style fashion but to what extent they would have been emotionally and psychologically unprepared to confront that so when he says rendezvous with destiny he means it both in terms of the crisis underway still in the united states and the crisis that prevailed on the global scale and was definitely building up. I mean it was. it was already evident. What hitler's ambitions were by one thousand nine hundred thirty six. What's amazing to me. Also about that. That line or the seed into the rendezvous with destiny where he talks about to some generations much given of other generations much as expected is clearly the basis of where john kennedy a member of that of that generation. Who heard that speech comes up with the ask not line or the idea for it. It's clearly forerunner of it. Yes it is especially since he was a part of that generation that had to confront that rendezvous with destiny probably hoping they would never have to deal with further confrontation on the lines of the cold war. One could only have wished that kennedy had adopted more. Fdr sensibility regarding questions of political economy. Absolutely he was Let's put it this way. There's a reason why. Republicans still like to the. Rnc likes to churn out kennedy quotes on economics these days. Thank you for saying that i've been. That's exactly what we've been telling people. Yes kelman who served. The bush. White house with me was a huge fan of coding president kennedy but for the wrong reasons does the other thing is where he ends that speech and this is along the same lines that we've been talking about this stunning to me. I accepted the commission. You have tendered me. I joined with you. I'm enlisted for the duration of the war. Now this is five years before pearl harbor. This is at a place where anybody who as fdr did new. The american presidency knew he would serve another nine years as president after having served almost three. The the point is it's amazing to me those who who want to say that. Fdr ran for third and fourth term. Or at least a third term out of ego and arrogance. I really do believe he was committed to serving for the duration of the war. Yeah i thinking that line. It is more than that is a war for the survival of democracy. It's so clear that he he knows that the struggle at home look i believe. He feared the possibility that the rich and powerful those dozen men who control general motors the depan corporation industries. Like that. i believe he feared the possibility that they might try to resort to a fascist alternative. The reason i say that is where we get to the speech of january forty four the economic bill of rights speech. It's probably important to look at lines afterward. Which very few people do because of the warning that he gives americans at that moment in nineteen thirty eight for the midterm elections will go south to georgia and he will give a speech in which basically he says. You know anyone who is willing to support the feudal regime in the south with is basically supporting fascism. I mean he has on his mind that this is a war about democracy. And i can tell you that. Everyone's scoring him because it wasn't enough of a civil rights initiative during his his presidency. But you can see the degree to which they were efforts to begin that civil rights battle. If you think about his appointment of the former governor of michigan frank murphy to head the attorney general ship and his creation of basically what was called i think originally a civil liberties division which then men civil rights and i could point out other places along the way in the speeches. The point is that. Fdr did not see the battle of the nineteen thirties as simply as so many stories and pundits like to say an outrage me. When they do that he wanted to save capitalism he wanted to save democracy and the united states was a liberal democracy. Which of course implies you're going to save not only capitalism but democracy but if you had to put on the scale i have little little hesitation. Saying democracy was the primary aspiration. That's a good place to end for this week. We're not finished with fdr on democracy because next week professor cave. We'll be back to talk about the greatest speeches and writings of president. Franklin delano roosevelt. We hope you join us. Thank you for listening towards matter please. Rate and review words matter apple podcasts. Or wherever you get your shows.

america fdr roosevelt Fdr new york polio thomas paine Franklin delano roosevelt Teddy roosevelt depression teddy katie barlow harvey k milton academy hoover botella troy town philadelphia democratic party
1936, Landon vs. Roosevelt: New Deal on Trial

American Elections: Wicked Game

45:21 min | 1 year ago

1936, Landon vs. Roosevelt: New Deal on Trial

"It's November Fifteenth Nineteen, twenty four on a luxury yacht in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California. The two hundred five foot yacht called. The ONEIDA is owned by Media Mogul William Randolph Hurst. C. is smooth and the night bombing Hurston. His guests mingle on the deck of the sipping cocktails eating d'oeuvres. The guest list is made up of largely Hollywood celebrities, producers, directors, and actors among them is Charlie. Chaplin, the famous star of the silent film era. He silent tonight to watching from afar as William Randolph hearst converses with a group of actresses who hang on his every word. You know why they left. The church is opening Cleveland during this year's Republican convention dunk. You know why so the delegates could hear some excitement. Not, all the ladies pretend to laugh screen actress Marion Davies rolls her eyes chaplain is all struck by her beauty, and has hearst tells another joke Davies cuts. Her is a chaplain. Why don't believe the progressives are here to stay after all a progressive is just a conservative who hasn't been mugged yet? Davies silently gestures for chaplain. Follow her, but she's in a relationship with William. Randolph hearst an open secret common knowledge in Hollywood and hearst is a powerful film producer, so chaplain doesn't want to burn a bridge still Davies offers to enticing to turn down. Chaplain follows her below deck. It doesn't take too long for her. To Notice Davies absence, he searches every inch of the deck, but his lover is nowhere to be found. Have you seen Marian? yeah, sorry, go below deck with Charlie. Hearst's face flushes red with anger and jealousy. Makes a beeline for the stairs. Low deck in his private quarters, hearst finds chaplain and Davies in the throes of passion. Caught red-handed, there's little the actress can say. Chaplain tries his best to defuse the situation. Mr. I I'm sorry. But hearst isn't in the mood for forgiveness. He's in the mood for revenge. Furious. He opens up a nearby drawer and withdrawals. A diamond studded revolver. Davies cries out as hearst raises the revolver and squeezes the trigger. But the bullet didn't hit chaplain or Davies. It hit a famous film director named Thomas Ins-, instances, Davies cry and came running right into the path of hearst's revolver, or so the story goes. It's ironic. The William Randolph hearst pioneer of sensationalist yellow journalism became the victim of fake news. The Story of hearst catching Charlie Chaplin in bed with Marion Davies is to use the slang of hearst Sarah Poppycock. The director Thomas Ins did die, but not from a gunshot wound. He had a heart attack on board, the ONEIDA and was promptly taken to a doctor in San Diego where he passed away. Hurst, did try to suppress the story and hide it from the police, but not because he was covering up a murder, his boozy party was in direct violation of the eighteenth amendment. Constitutional Prohibition of Alcohol. Story of hearst shutting INS was patently untrue with that didn't stop many in the press from amplifying the room, and it didn't stop the legend from persisting throughout generations, though the scandalous rumor was a constant source of irritation in might be said that from the Bockel William Randolph hearst learned a valuable lesson. A good story is often more powerful than the truth. I'm Lindsey Graham and this is American elections we gain. William Randolph hearst, or the chief, as he was often called with perhaps the most influential media mogul, Zahra his sensationalist style of journalism helped catapult him to tremendous wealth, power and prestige. His Media Empire hearst communications was the country's largest newspaper chain in its day, but hearst was more than just a newspaper man. He was a business leader, a film, producer and politician, mostly a loyal Democrat hearst. A California native had served as a New York Congressman from nineteen, ninety three to nineteen seven. And in the nineteen twenties, hers tried for the US. Senate, his path was blocked by the charismatic and controversial governor of New York Democrat. Al Smith in retaliation hearst in his many newspapers, shunned Al Smith in the nineteen twenty eight presidential election and supported Republican Herbert Hoover instead then in the nineteen thirty two contest, his distaste for Al Smith was in part the reason why I chose to support Franklin Delano Roosevelt at the Democratic convention, but William Randolph. Hearst was never a fan of Franklin Delano Roosevelt in hearst's mind FDR was to progressive and too much of an internationalist in the tradition of one of his least favourite presidents Woodrow Wilson. Wilson had campaigned on a promise to keep America out of World War One, but once in the White House German aggression, had forced Wilson's hand. Hearst feared that as president. Roosevelt would be too eager to push America into international conflicts. Still of the available options at the nineteen thirty two democratic convention, her said ultimately decided that FDR was the lesser of. During FDR's first term in office as his new deal expanded the role of government and society, tenuous political alliance between hearst and FDR would break. Would mobilize his media empire against FDR's presidency and ignite a few that would shape the landscape of the upcoming presidential contest. This is episode thirty? Nineteen thirty six landon versus Roosevelt the commander and chief. William Randolph. Hearst was not the type of man to do anything half heartedly once he committed FDR candidacy I went all in after the Democratic convention lies his expansive. Media Empire to help FDR beat hoover in the general election late in the nineteen thirty two campaign hers personally contributed twenty five thousand dollars to the Democratic Party, the equivalent of nearly half a million dollars today, but I didn't donate the money out of the kindness of his heart. He expected something in return. He expected influence. In January of Nineteen, thirty, three, her sent his right hand, man, New York editor Ed Cobb coblence to meet with FDR at his town home, and discussed the future of the country at their. Sit down. FDR TOLD ED he would love to have her come to visit him in person, and told FDR he would pass along the message, but had left the meeting unimpressed. He wrote to hearst encouraging him to take FDR up on his offer. Unquestionably, you'd be able to crystallize many of his policies, which to me at present seem rather vague and nebulous state. You could give direction and forced many of his ideas I think he needs your advice and I think the country would benefit by your personal contact with him. And hearst had plenty of advice to give including specific cabinet recommendations and a multi point plan to pull America out of the Great Depression in the early part of nineteen, thirty two, though I was recovering from surgery in California so instead of accepting FDR's investigation and making the journey east hearse rotate FDR. I've been following your course very closely and think I have a good general idea of your plans and I can assure you that I am in hearty accord with those plans as I. Understand them to be I shall ask Mr Coblets to discuss with you the effect of course for the papers to pursue. Hearst's interest in F ers plans and his desire for access to the president was more than politics as usual. I had a financial motive. The Great Depression affected every American even media moguls like William Randolph hearst by the time FDR took the presidency. Harsh economic realities were forcing her to contemplate a difficult decision, reduced salaries or lay off staff, though hearst had initially said he'd rather go broke than cut his people pay. The alternative was bankruptcy, so hurst did what he had to do, and cut salaries across the board, but even after slashing seven million dollars from the payroll NPR was still teetering on the brink. Ed- combines an FDR did continue their discussions, but they struggle to get on the same page. Hearst had a clear vision of how to save. America is multi point plan was driven by the private sector with the government in a support role. The plan centered around infrastructure projects, lower tariffs, and by American spend American approach, but after you are had a vision to his new deal was driven by the federal government through public works, projects, federal programs, financial reforms and sweeping relations, though these plans aligned envision, they are often in conflict in execution. So in early, nineteen, thirty, four, her set out to convince the American people at his plan was the better one. Not long after the election. Mgm Pictures Approached Hearst's film company cosmopolitan productions with an opportunity though many of hearst's Hollywood. Endeavors have been vanity projects for a starlet lover Marion Davies. He had also made a powerful propaganda films called. Patria in the lead up to world. War, one M Jams, new project also peaked hearst's interest. The film Gabriel the White. House was based on a book by the same name. Anatole the fictitious story of a president who rescues America from the clutches of depression. Hearst find the project and took a hands on approach to the creative process, giving notes, and making sure the script was on message in the final draft of the screenplay, hearst's by American plan was nearly identical. The plan created by the lead character president. Hammond Hollywood Self Censorship Agency. The Hays Office caught this immediately and wrote to hearst expressing their concern, the motion picture, production, code or Hays Code, as it was often known stipulated several. Several. Don't and be careful. Number twelve on the list of be careful was attitude toward public characters and institutions. The New York Times summarized the problem saying that MGM. Executives and the Hays Office felt that because of economic and political conditions, it was unwise to show a film which might be regarded by the nation at large as subversive and by foreign countries as invidious. Roosevelt's house staff was concerned to when FDR's press secretary called will. Will Hays the namesake of the Censorship Office. Hayes assured the White House that he was handling. The Hays Office leaned on MGM. The studio ordered rewrites to address the White House's concerns hearst was furious in his mind. The MGM President, a committed Republican had been a little too eager to soften the film's liberal message in March of Nineteen, thirty, three her throat to the head of MGM. I want to recommend to you the words of Of the English prayer book with reference to the picture, Gabriel, we have left on Don does things which we ought to have done, and we have done those things which we ought not to have done I can realize the necessity of complying with the President's request. Still there were a lot of alterations in the picture which were not requested by the government, and which in my humble opinion, detract from the dramatic value of the picture. When the film was finally released in the spring of Nineteen, thirty, three, Gabriel was a modest box office success, but it certainly helped FDR the film paints a romantic picture of a progressive president, a hero who pulls the country out of a depression with a bold new plan, but the plan was not hearst's plan and the media mogul was not happy. I wanted to help after succeed, but at achieving hearst vision for recovery I had donated to the Democrats with the understanding that FDR would adopt hearst's plan and in return, hearst would support FDR through his vast media empire. But. This quid pro quo was not as well understood as hearst imagined. No risked. Enemy of hearst. He would set his own course. was unwilling to submit to fear. It's March fourth nineteen thirty three noggin ration- day in Washington DC President Franklin. Delano Roosevelt has just been sworn in as America's thirty second president, though this hardly feels like a celebration. The air is frigid, the sky, overcast and Gloomy Roosevelt Son James helped him to the rostrum on the East Portico of the Capitol building, where he recited the oath of office now President Roosevelt readies himself to deliver his inaugural speech to the crowd of over two hundred fifty thousand. Three. Five friends. National. pre-eminently the time. The. The whole three frankly and both. The new president addresses the nation crippled by the greatest economic depression in its history. Roosevelt offer the American people comfort and reassurance. Willing your. Passing. By and we'll. Let me, let. ME. That's the only thing we have to ban. Nameless unreasoning, on justified Tara. Paralyzing needed it. We've been. and. The fear of which FDR speaks not a mystery to the crowd, his supporters and detractors alike know exactly what he means. It's the fear of the government taking on an expanded role in the current crisis. This. Is asking Bar Act. Now. Off Greatest Primary task. What. This no unsolvable problem as we take wise, we just lay. It can be accomplished. By Rick booting by the government. Printing the. Premium Williams Wall. But at the same time rule this employment. Accomplishing greatly needed projects to stimulate reorganize, but US walk, great. FDR explains to the crowd, but he won't wait on Congress. If the legislative body drags its feet FDR we'll take matters into his own hands. The Congress failed fake one of them who? May Have that the national emergency medical. Ninety clear parts of. That will confront me. I? took the Congress while the one remaining in. Meet the price. Run. Executive power. The Way James Warrick. Much of As. As Paul would be given to me. Back in food it by far fall. FDR wraps up his speech by reminding all those listening that by his very election on the question of expanded federal government. The people had spoken. The United States. Have not paid. They have stood up. What. Wreck. Finger US back. Discipline. And Direction. On leadership. Then you may be the president in. Again With his inaugural speech FDR set the tone for his presidency. The tasks before him were monumental, he needed to pull the country out of the Great Depression and restore the people's faith in the American system of government FDR try to make good on his promise to be the instrument of the People's wishes. During his first one hundred days in office, FDR pushed through Congress, the most bold and sweeping legislation in the history of America. The Great Depression wasn't unprecedented economic disaster by the time FDR took office. Nearly ten thousand banks had closed their doors and more were closing every day. Millions of Americans had lost everything in an effort to stop the growing onslaught of bank runs. FDR declared a four day bank holiday to curb the problem Roosevelt needed a way to calm the people, and to clearly communicate his vision for the future in the nineteen thirties over ninety percent of American households owned a radio, so on March twelfth, Nineteen, thirty three, FDR gave the first of his fireside chats millions of Americans tuned in to hear his informal radio address from the White House the first of its kind in American history. I want to talk for a few minutes with the people of the United States about banking in this chat FDR laid out for the American people, a clear explanation of what was happening birth the ball. Let me state but simple fact. That when you deposit money in a bank. Bank does not put the money into a safe deposit twelve. It invest your money and many different forms of pretty. The cars are undermined confidence on the part of the public. was a general rush by a large portion of our population to term bank deposits into currency our goal. A rush so great that the soundest banks couldn't get enough currency to meet the demand. It was then that I issued the proclamation. providing. Bank Holiday. And this was the first step in the government's reconstruction of financial and economic fabric. FDR Then explained his actions. He had asked Congress to broaden his power, so he could rehabilitate the banking industry he had put forward. A series of banking regulations designed to help people make ends meet, and lastly FDR his plan to reopen the banks. I can assure you my friend that it is faith but to keep your money in a reopen bank. Than it is to keep it under the mattress. The success of our whole national program depends of course on the cooperation of the public on its intelligence apart and use of a reliable system. You must have faith. You'll must not be stampeded by rumors are guessing. Let us unite in banishing fear. We have provided the machinery through star off financial system, and it is up to you to support and make it worth. It is your problem. My friend your problem, no less than it is mind. Together we cannot faith. In the election of nineteen, thirty, six FDR's new deal would be on trial. The man who had prosecute or defend him was media mogul William Randolph hearst in spite of their disagreements over the film Gabriel. Hearst's newspapers continued to support FDR throughout much of his first term. Both men were in favor of public works projects, and both believed the budget deficits were necessary to economic recovery, but there was one major area where the two men did not see eye to eye, the intersection of the government and the press. In the run up to the nineteen thirty six contests FDR's new deal would collide with hearst's media empire, hitting hearst against the president and setting the stage for a vicious war of words the press. By the summer of Nineteen thirty. Three William Randolph. Hearst was deeply concerned by the actions of the Roosevelt Administration with every passing day. The government was expanding Roosevelt's powers expanding with it. In the summer of Nineteen thirty three hearse, right hand man Ed. Cobb lions telephone Louis how an advisor to president. Roosevelt hearst articulated his concerns to add in a message that read. Please tell the President I consider his proposal to license the press under the national. Recovery Administration in direct violation of the bill of rights I will fight his proposal even if it cost me every Nikolai possess. The National Recovery Administration was recently established by the national industry recovery. Act, the centerpiece of FDR's new deal intended to rescue America from the Great Depression as part of the National Industrial Recovery Act, after are committed over three billion dollars to saving the economy Hurston take issue with the Price Tag Tessa -sarily, but he did fear. FDR would use the national recovery administration to slap his media empire with undue regulation. After hearing her concerns, Louis, how sent for the president who got on the line with Ed Cobb NHS FDR short comments that he had no intention of stifling the freedom of the press or stepping on Mr Hearst's toes. FDR Did have one request though that hearst joined the rest of his colleagues in the newspaper industry in creating an industry wide code of regulations. After his conversation with the president, cobblers relayed the message to hearst comforted by Roosevelt's promise. Hurst did join with his colleagues and help create a code for the newspaper industry aimed at protecting free speech, establishing more equitable working conditions in August one, thousand, nine, thirty, three, her. Stephen began including the National Recovery Administration logo a Blue Eagle on the front page wall, his papers, her trusted knows about and talk the president at his word. You would soon come to believe that politicians word as the saying goes isn't worth a nickel. In the fall of nineteen, thirty, three as FDR expanded the role of the Federal Government, hearst vented his concerns in the press, calling the national recovery administration, a measure of absolute state socialism, but FDR didn't go on the defensive in an effort to keep the peace. The White House continued to invite hearst for regular visits and to seek his counsel and cooperation. Things turned poorly, though after hearst and other industry leaders submitted their code for FDR's review heard a rumor that FDR might reject the code and tried to restrict the freedom of the press so response in February of Nineteen thirty four hearst wrote an article, stating that FDR was behaving like the Mussalini he's the Hitler's the Lennon's and all of those who seek to establish a dictatorial form of government by repressing the press. FDR was outraged, but after letting it sit on his desk for five weeks, he eventually accepted the newspaper industry's code, which included a proviso that reiterated the First Amendment's guarantee to freedom of speech with FDR signature, though also came an executive order and a defiant one. Insofar as Article Seven is not required by the act, it is pure surplus edge while it has no meaning, it is permitted to stand because it has been requested, and because it could have no such legal effect as would bars inclusion, nobody waves any constitutional rights by sending to a code, the recitation of the freedom of press clause, and the code has no more place here than would the recitation of the whole constitution or of the Ten Commandments. FDR's testing US outrage many in the press newspaper. Men like hearst hope the president would apologize. He never did and with a nineteen thirty four midterms coming up, antagonizing the press might not have been wise in what would be FDR's first political tests. Since taking office, the new deal was on the ballot and for Roosevelt. It was critical that the Democrats maintain control of the House and Senate, but FDR's plan was constantly under siege from William Randolph hearst's media empire, but in the fall of nineteen, thirty four with a midterm election just weeks away FDR would fight back. It September eleventh, nineteen, thirty four and Franklin Roosevelt's private office at his home in Hyde Park Roosevelt sits at his desk across from him, is Henry Morgenthau the secretary of the Treasury? Two men are in the middle of a dreary budget meeting Jeff. Morgenthau Slides FDR DOCUMENT THE TAX BRIEFING REQUEST MR president. Yes of course. As FDR's is, can the document Morgan thousand senses that FDR has something else on his mind, besides the budget is everything all right Mr President. This looks fine to me. Mr Sectarian keeping posted yesser. MIDMORNING FAIRWAY, wave! And restocked with door I'm told when hearse returns from his European tour. He's going to attack the administration. Yes, Sir I'm afraid that might be the case. Hearst is overseas on his annual motor tour of Europe. He's been immersed in European affairs keeping a watchful eye on Adolf Hitler's recent rise to power in Germany. Hurst has also instructed his editors to use Hitler's ascendancy as a cautionary tale about the dangers of authoritarianism. Dangerous hearst sees in FDR's new deal. Mister Secretary if her is going to attack us in the press I'd like to be prepared. What exactly do you have in mind? Sir, his his income tax. If there's something there I'd like to know about. Yes Ms Raza Mine Way. After his meeting with President Roosevelt Henry Morgenthau wrote in his diary. I did subsequently look up his income tax and found that there was plenty there, but as he dug up dirt on William Randolph. Hearst Morgenthau found something else to dirt on the actress Marion Davies Hearst's longtime lover. Morgenthau Express some reservations in his diary writing that he didn't know which was worse, disclosing hearst financial impropriety or disclosing the name Mary Still. He took the information to Roosevelt Morgenthau's own words. It would be much better to proceed at once on hearst and Marion Davies before hirst attacked if we stated something. After he attacked, he would say that we were doing it to revenge, and spite, according to Morgenthau Roosevelt agreed told Morgenthau to start at once. It's unclear. What if anything FDR did to with a hearse? Davies information once he had it, nor is it clear what Morgenthau uncovered when he looked into their finances? What is clear? Is that in the lead up to the nineteen thirty four midterms? FDR didn't put the screws to hearst. He extended him an olive branch. In late, September, one of hearst's friends suggested to Roosevelt a cable could be sent to him by you expressing your interest in the fact that he had spent the summer studying conditions in Europe. An invitation to visit you at the White House on his return would probably adjust the present difficulty. FDR advice and invited her to dine at the White. House, if I knew FDR was looking into his tax returns, he didn't act like it. He accepted the invitation and the two men sat down not long after her returned home. At, their meeting FDR one back hearst's loyalty, if only momentarily in the final weeks of the midterm campaign, hearst's papers stopped attacking, but the d'attente would last long. In January of Nineteen thirty five Roosevelt went to the Senate with a big ask, he wanted America to join the world court illegal arm of the League of Nations, a post World War One global coalition that America had long refused to be a part of after the horror of world. War One. America had adopted the position that it had no business in the League of Nations. Europe was Europe's problem. For Isolationists like William Randolph, hearst FDR's request was the straw that broke the camel's back. I had long feared that FDR was at his core, an internationalist in a tradition of Woodrow Wilson, a president who staked his career on getting America into the League of Nations FDR's request. The US joined. The World Court was proved to hearst that his fears were well founded. In. April of Nineteen thirty, five Hurst ordered his media empire to settle down to a consistent policy in opposition to this administration hearst also officially cut ties with FDR declaring. We have to depend on the Republican Party to rescue the country from experimental socialism. And hearst had just the Republican in mind. The chief wrote his candidate. He is a fine war. Record is clean business record. He has balanced. His State's budget is reduced taxation I figure that the Republican Party will have to depend on Governor Landon of Kansas. The chief had done his homework on governor Alf Landon in the summer of Nineteen thirty, five Hurst ordered private investigators to look into the governor to make sure he didn't have any skeletons in his closet. Landon was clean, so in December of nineteen thirty five hearst took a train to Topeka Kansas to meet land and face to face. After a private luncheon, hearst told The New York Times I think he is marvelous to say I am favourably impressed. Puts it very mildly. By the early spring of Nineteen, thirty six chief was calling the shots for the land campaign, he informed the editors of his vast media empire, all recommendations to the governor or his managers, regarding general policies or particular acts shall be sent to me as a clearing house so that I can prevent confusing and contradictory advices, and also that I can make sure that I agree with the policies recommended. Hearst wanted his newspapers to speak in a unified voice. His voice hearst ordered his editors to mercilessly attack FDR's new deal as a communist enterprise, but Hurst's full voice, Supportive Landon made some in the Republican campaign nervous in May of nineteen, thirty six, an article in Newsweek claimed that Alf landon managers were secretly plotting away to throw hearst off. The Land and Bandwagon Lennon's managers understood that hearst's attacks were potentially a political liability because the new deal seemed to be working, landon in his managers knew better than to brazenly attacked the new deal when the economy was starting to turn around. Land and understood that while many conservatives might be nervous about FDR's big government approach. He also understood that many Americans were sick and tired of the old guard leadership of the Republican Party so in the run-up to the Republican National Convention. In nineteen thirty six, while hers tried to paint FDR Communist land and was far more careful with his words. He criticized the new deal on procedural, not ideological grounds Landon proclaimed that the Jeffersonian theory that the best government is the one that governs the least was an outdated idea. A civilization becomes more complex land and explained government power must increase. Landon was a bull. Moose Republican a progressive in the tradition of Teddy Roosevelt, when land and ran for reelection in the Kansas Governor's race of nineteen, thirty four, a reporter had called him a sort of new dealer. The reporter explained I. Read an account of one of his campaign speeches, the other night and I'll swear. I'd have thought it was the Democrat talking the Democratic candidate. They tell me is having a tough time of it because the Republican has grabbed all his campaign material. And in fact, landon was not against the principles of the new deal. Only the price tack under FDR the. National debt had grown from nineteen billion dollars in the summer of nineteen, thirty, two to almost thirty four billion dollars in just four years, so land, and mounted his opposition to FDR on the battleground of fiscal conservatism. He pledged to support federal programs aimed help. In the unemployed, but unlike FDR land in would respect business, he would hold the constitution and he would balance the budget. His message resonated with Republican Party. In June of nineteen thirty six at the Republican National Convention in Cleveland Republicans officially selected. Alf Landon as their presidential nominee, but landen's managers had failed to throw hearst off of the bandwagon as they had hoped to do. So for their vice presidential nominee Republican selected another booster newspaper editor frank knocks the former general manager of hearst's empire. As hearse prepared to launch a media offensive in support of the new land in Knox. Ticket. The Democrats kept faith with FDR. In late June of nineteen, thirty six at the Democratic National Convention. The Democrats again nominate President Roosevelt and his vice president. John Nance Garner of Texas. The party gave the new deal. It's full-throated support in the convention. Hall in Philadelphia Roosevelt reiterated a familiar theme. Calmly. At one mall. We have to fear is. Considering public duty. For qualification. Bad. I will not ten. That I find this? On. Many Democrats were confident in the Roosevelt garnered. Many in the press had their doubts in one, thousand, nine, hundred, eighty, six, a popular weekly magazine, the Literary Digest conducted a survey of over two million Americans and ask them to predict the winner of the nineteen thirty six election, forty three percent said Roosevelt fifty seven percent said Landon. Throughout the final months of the campaign poll after poll showed Alf Landon either gaining ground or holding a comfortable lead over FDR. William Randolph hearst was confident to what in the end the polls would be wrong. In the final stretch of the Campaign William Randolph hearst was becoming a political liability for Republicans in the summer of Nineteen thirty, six, three separate tell all biographies raked hearst over coals and aired his dirty laundry in August one of FDR supporters wrote that there was more widespread anti hurst feeling among the people, and there has been ever I am told that when his name appears on the screen and some movie theaters, he is hissed and there are anti her clubs being organized in some parts of the country. Landen's managers tried their best to distance their candidate from hearst, but hearst simply refuse to go away. He doubled down on his attacks on the new deal. And he frantically searched for ways to weaken Roosevelt campaign in September of Nineteen, thirty six, her thought. He found a chink in FDR's armor with a controversial Russian document according to Ed Cobb. The document outlined the official policy of the Communists of America in support of Mr Roosevelt. The document was damning and her seized upon the opportunity. He used his vast media empire to slack FDR with the label. Communist put a knife in the heart of the president's prospects for a second term. It's fall. Nineteen, thirty six at four Seventy Park Avenue in New York New York Ed coblence William Randolph. Hearst man in New York sits across his desk from one of the most powerful players in all of Washington politics, now as MRS coblets. She's swell. Thanks for asking Mr Hoover. That's J., Edgar Hoover. The director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and he's eyeing the cigarette between complexes fingers to mine. If I try one of those. No help yourself. I believe this is the mile a cigarette I've ever had. When you get back to Washington now. Be Sure to send you some well. Thank you Mr Collins. That's very thoughtful. And knows this visit isn't strictly pleasure with J. Edgar Hoover there's always business to discuss and it doesn't take hoover long to get down to it. Mr Collins! I thought you might like to know the president sent for me. At immediately perks up. Yes, regarding Mr Roosevelt was enquiring about the seriousness of the Communist movement. What did you tell him? I told him it was extremely serious under the president respond. He hedged. We're trying to. Luckily I was able to impress upon him the seriousness of the matter. I thought Mr Hurst my life to know that the president ordered me to start an investigation immediately. We'll thank you for passing this information along Mr who've and that's not all I was also sent four by Mister Cummings. That's attorney. General homer Cummings FDR's biggest defender coming sent for me just before you printed. That Russian document seems Communist support of Mr Roosevelt. Is unsettling unsettling. What did the Attorney General want? He claimed that the document was a forgery threatened to put out a statement saying as much, will he no. I prevailed upon his better judgment. How did you manage that? who are puts out his cigarette in an ashtray on its task? Properly explained that it was not a forgery. I told the Attorney General that if he put out a statement that effect, he'd have his fingers burnt. With thank you for this information to Mr Director. Be Sure to give my best wishes to Mr Hurst. Ed was clearly grateful for the information. He received from hoover. Conversation New York Ed sent him an entire carton of cigarettes not long after their conversation had passed Hoover's information along to William. Randolph hearst throughout the fall her had been attacking Roosevelt in the press and trying to paint him as the Communist candidate, Hoover's conversations with FDR and Attorney General Cummings. reprove that President Roosevelt the starting to sweat. In her mind. If FDR wasn't a communist, he was guilty by association on October, First Nineteen thirty six about a month before the election, her published a scathing front-page Editorial Mr Roosevelt declares that he is not a communist, but the communist say he is one communist sought. Every cow knows its own calf. Hearst was confident that Al Franken was going to be FDR and he was convinced that his attacks on the press were helping Landen's 'cause, but I was wrong for most Americans the suggestion that FDR was the candidate of the Soviet. Union was deeply offensive and the fall of nineteen thirty six. The PELHAM Parkway Democratic Club in new. York sent FDR telegram, stating that thousands of its members by unanimous accord refrain from purchasing any hearst publication. It's our thought that this attitude will be followed by democratic clubs and communities in the state and the entire country, and indeed thousands upon thousands of Americans all. All across the country united in a boycott of the hearst corporation for his part on the campaign trail in nineteen, thirty, six after yard took the high road. He never even mentioned his opponent Alf Landon by name. Instead he let his progress speak for itself by nineteen. Thirty six unemployment was down from twenty five to seventeen percent farm income increased nearly seventy percent. Many of America's corporations turned a healthy profit for the first time in years, and by the end of nineteen thirty six. The Dow Jones Industrial Average would be three times what it was on the final day of the Hoover Administration. Things were looking up and on Election Day Roosevelt won with sixty point eight percent of the popular vote, the largest victory in American history in its time FDR won the electoral vote five twenty three to eight, he won every state, but to Vermont and Maine Maine had voted for the winning candidate in every election since eighteen sixty, leading to the popular expression as mangoes, so goes the nation, but after the nineteen thirty six election, the chairman of the Democratic National Committee changed the slogan as Maine Goes, so goes Vermont Democrats. Not only maintained the White House. Of Congress, gaining ground in both houses. On election night, the phone rang Roosevelt's home in Hyde. Park after our son in law John was the one who took the call, a woman on the other end of the line. said this Marion Davies. I. Just wanted to tell you that I love you. We know that a steamroller has flattened us out, but there are no hard feelings at this end I just wanted you to know that. Few moments later William Randolph. Hearst came on the line and reiterated I. Just wanted to repeat when Marion said that we have been run over by a steamroller, but that there are no hard feelings in the end. The nineteen thirty six contest was a referendum on the new deal. The Great Depression was far from over, but FDR's presidency had given the people something they hadn't felt for many years hope the election signaled a massive shift in voters attitudes about the role in government in their lives, and it also illustrated massive ideological shift between the two major parties. For over a hundred years, the Democratic Party had largely stood for individual liberty states' rights and limited federal government by embracing the Democratic Party of FDR and his new deal. Americans were embracing an expanded role for the federal government by contrast. The Republican Party had for decades followed the principle of a strong central government whose primary function was to stimulate economic growth by standing against FDR's new deal. The Republican Party was turning away from one of its core values. America's party realignments have largely occurred in tandem with the election of transformational candidates. The first party system between the federalists and the Democratic Republicans had lasted from the country's inception until president. Andrew Jackson ushered in the second party system, pitting the Democrats against the whigs. The third party system, which saw the birth of the Republican Party was solidified with the election of Abraham Lincoln in nineteen sixty president McKinley assassination gave the country teddy. Roosevelt who helped bring about the fourth party system and the era of progressivism and President Franklin Roosevelt's ascendancy again. The Fifth Party system period of time largely dominated by the Democratic Party, but this new era of American politics would not solely defined by domestic affairs. William Randolph hearst had predicted that FDR like President Wilson before him would likely pull America into international conflicts and during FDR. second-term hearst's theory would be put to the test. War would break out in Europe and FDR stated position of neutrality would be threatened by foreign aggression. The conflict overseas would create a political battle in Washington. The dogs of war howling outside America's gates, FDR would break political tradition fight to become the first American president to serve a third tournament. On the next episode of wicked game, the election of one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty against the backdrop of a European, war FDR seeks to become the first president to serve three terms in office, but to win the White House. FDR must reach across the aisle and get the best of a political outsider with an ax to grind. Don't miss a single week of our. Our march from seventeen, thousand nine to twenty twenty hit the subscribe button in your podcast now. This show is supported by you. Our listeners please give us a rating. Leave a review, but the single best way to help the show grow is to tell others share with your friends and family, and find us on social media at wicked Game Pot and I'm at. At grant another way to support this show is to go to wicked game podcast. Dot Com members there get early access to add free episodes as well as bonus content, only available to members find out more at wicked game podcast, dot com, and about our reenactments. In most cases we can't know exactly what was said, but everything in our show is heavily researched and. And based on surviving historical documents, wicked game is an airship production created hosted and executive produced by me Lindsey Graham sounds sign by Derek Pairs how executive produced by Stephen Walters in association with ritual productions. This episode written and researched by Stephen Walters fact checking by Greg Jackson Seattle Salazar from the podcast history that doesn't suck music by Lindsey cramped distributed by wondering.

William Randolph Hurst FDR hearst corporation hearst FDR president Franklin Delano Roosevelt hearst William Randolph America hearst hearst FDR White House Marion Davies US Governor Landon hearst Federal Government President Roosevelt Henry Morg
Presidential Words Matter - FDR 1936 Democratic Convention

Words Matter

30:59 min | 1 year ago

Presidential Words Matter - FDR 1936 Democratic Convention

"Welcome to words matter with Katie. Barlow and Joe Lockhart. Walk into words matter. I'm Katie Barlow. Our goal is to promote objective reality as a wise man once said everyone is entitled to their own opinion. Not Their own facts. Words have power and words have consequences. I'm Adam Levine. Welcome towards matter. This week we begin a new series presidential words matter since we currently have a president. Who doesn't seem to know or even understand the importance of words especially when they're spoken by the president of the United States. We thought it might be helpful in time of national crisis. Remember that we have had presidents of both parties. Who did understand this? These presidents have led our country through difficult times with a power eloquence of their words. So this week. We wanted to highlight president. Franklin D Roosevelt who in nineteen thirty six during the Great Depression and as the clouds of war gathered over Europe delivered one of the most important political speeches ever given by a sitting president decay. Was the democratic. National Convention held that year in Philadelphia four years earlier in one thousand nine hundred eighty two. Fdr had made history by flying to Chicago and becoming the first presidential candidate to accept his party's nomination in person in an earlier episode of words matter we discussed this important speech with Professor Harvey Kaye. Who has just published a do book entitled FDR on Democracy In his nineteen thirty six acceptance speech Roosevelt used the language of the founders and decried the economic royalists who were trying to fight back against the progress of the new deal because it threatened their power as you listen to his words pay particular attention to the part where Roosevelt tells his audience. They have a rendezvous with destiny with that. Here's President Franklin. D Roosevelt delivering his acceptance speech to the nineteen thirty. Six Democratic convention filled up Democratic Party government. The president of the United States Robinson member predic- convention. I ran. Yeah and then every community throughout the lab we are eight time a great moment of Venetian an occasion to be dedicated. Go the simple. An expression of an attitude problem. They determination of Witt will profoundly affect America. I come not only as a leader of a party. Not only as a candidate for high office but one up on home many critical of have imposed. And he'll impose a gray responsibility the sympathy all the hope and confidence. Where with Americans have sustained me and my I am grateful loyalty. I some new members of our great party in and out the political light in every part of the union and I salute to those of other pardon especially those in the congress of the United States on so many occasions have put partisanship aside bank governors of the several fake the legislature state and local officials. We'll part unselfishly and regardless of party in our efforts toward recovery and croix build a Babo. I thank the millions of Americans have one disaster bravely and have bad to smile rule of thumb and America will not forget. The recent years will not get that. The rescue was not on me up party task. It was the concern of all of spring. We rolled together rally at all together. Apply the old rules of common sense and gather survive. It was in those days my friends that we was why we fought here and today my friends we have won against the most dangerous of a polls. We have hunkered fear but I cannot count with Canada. Tell you that all is well with the world clouds of suspicion ill will and intolerance of a doppler in many places in our own land win joy indeed a police of light that is greater than that of most major but the rush of modern civilization itself has raised for us. New New problem which must be solved. We are at to preserve to the United States political and the Economic Freedom Wall which Washington and plan and fought Philadelphia. Philadelphia is a good city. What's right American history? This is this is putting Brown on which reaffirmed look the PAS. Your plan draw cells respond to the people a whiter up freedom to give total nineteen. Thirty six as the phone does game. Who Seventeen Seventy and American way? That very word freedom in itself and up. Necessity suggests freedom from some restraining power. In seventeen seventy six. We thought freedom from the tyranny of a political off Puck mercy from the eighteenth century a royalist else special privileges from the crowd. It was to perpetuate their revelaed that they go on without the come stand up the govern the deny the right of free assembly free speech that they restricted the worship of God. But they put the average man's property and the average man's lay in palm mercenaries of diagnostic regiment in the people and so so it was to win freedom from the TIRRENIA political off. Paparazzi American Revolution was fought. That victory gave the business of governing into the hands. Offi average won the right with his neighbors. Go make an order. His own destiny through his own government political tyranny was wiped out at Philadelphia on July fourth. Seventeen seventy six. But since that's all moms inventive genius released New Forces and is real. Oughta the Lions of our people the age of machinery of railroad steam President Pellagra from the radio mass production. My fist all of these combined to bring several of ancient and when a problem for those who sought to remain free or out of this modern civilization civilization economic royalists new diners New Kingdoms were built upon concentration of control over material thing through new uses a corporation and bank and securities me will machinery of industry and Agriculture of Labor and capital. All on dreamed of by the father the whole structure of modern light. Wise impress into this royal. There was no place among the royalty. Many thousands of small business map at merchant who sought to make a worthy of the American system of profit they want Omar Free than the with the Pharma even honest and progressive minded men of well aware of application to that generation. Go to now buy no JOSS wherever they put it in this dynastic scheme of things and so it was natural and perfectly human the privilege princess of these new economic dynasty. First thing for power reached out for control over government itself they created a new despotism and wrapped it rip it in the roads. Legal Sanction Service new areas sought to recommend the people labor product and as a result. The average man wants more confronts. The problem that face bay minute mom Seventy six all the all the men and women work the wages they receive additional labor be had passed beyond the control of the people and we're imposed by this new industrial dictatorship the saving of the average family the capital of the small business mind the investment set aside for all eight of a people money. These were the tools which the new economic royal your code big itself Pam. Those who tell the soil no long reporter awards which were right. Measure of bear games were decreed by men in this cities throughout the nation opportunity was limited by monopoly individual initiated cry and the cogs of a great machine the field open for free business was more and more restrictive private enterprise in. Dade they came to private et became privileged prize month free and uprise an old English once upon a time necessitates men. I'm not free. Man Live out. There requires opportunity to make a living a living threesome. According to the standard of the time a living which not only enough to live by something to live fall up to a many of us. They pulled lyrical equality. We wanted one was meaningless in the face of economic inequality as small broke concentrated into their own hands. An almost complete control all other people's property other people's money people's layby people's lives too many too many of rope land life was no longer free liberty. No long real man quote no longer follow. They passed you up. Happen against economic tyranny. Hutches with the American citizen but only appeal to the organized. We will remember. Let the collapse of nineteen twenty nine showed up for despotism for what it was and the election nineteen thirty one the people's mandate to end it and under that mandate it is being ended the royalists. I have spoken on the royalists. Some Economic Oughta have conceded that political freedom was the business of the government but they have maintained that economic slavery was. Nobody's business they granted. That gunman could protect the citizen in his right to vote but they gave the government could do anything joe pro tech citizen in his right to work and is right to left today. Today we stand committed go the proposition that freedom is no half and If the average citizen is guaranteed equal opportunity in the polling place G. must have equal opportunity in the marketplace. His Economic Royalists. Complain of the way up all the institutions of America. What they really complain off that we seek to take away that Relief and lead to American institutions requires the overthrow of this kind of. Oh in vain they seek to hide behind the plaque and the constitution then Blindness they forget what the plag- under constitutions sandbox. Oh No as always over a century and a half the flag constitution then the gains a dictatorship by Bob role and the over privileges alike and the plug on the Constitution stand for the Mufulira saying not tyranny. Freedom not subjective the brave platform clear platform up Pitt by this convention that platform the with. Dr Hoddle is subscribed for that gone in a modern civilization Certain inescapable obligation to its citizens among which protection of the family and the home the establishment democracy donate and aid through those taken by disaster but they resolute enemy will you know is about ready to beat down own words unless in greater courage we will fight well them incre- free yes. We have fought for them. This convention this convention every would ended every deed. Pledge that that fight will go on. The victories of these years have given to us as a people in new wonder standing about government. Yes and a new understanding of ourselves. No since the early days of New England town meeting government been so widely discussed and so clearly appreciated it has been brought home to us. The only effective guideline for the safety of this most worldly of woes they. Greatest Guida ball is moral principle. We do not say way. Do not see faith hope and charity unattainable ideals we own them spoke support nation fighting the fight for freedom in a modern civilization in the phone. Miss up democracy in the mid stop dictatorship. Hope Hope Ranil because we know so well they progress. We have made and charity charity in the roles of that. Grand Ole charity literally translated from the original means love the love but on the spam that does not merely the wealth of give improved sympathetic. Wisdom helps man to help themselves way. Say Not Milly. Don't make a government a mechanical implement but to give it the vibrant personal character that is the very embodiment of human charity. We are warranty. If this nation cannot afford to live from every recess of American light the red pair of the unemployed that they are not needed in the world we cannot afford. We cannot apart to accumulate eight devastated in books. Show mom forty two policy and so in the place of the Palace of Privilege. We seek to build a temple. Oh fait and hope and charity. It is a sobering thing my friend. You'll be a servant of great 'cause we try in our daily work you'll remember. The calls belongs not to us but to the people the standard is not in the hands of your and me alone it is Kinda read by America. We all of us. I hope we see daily to profit from experience to learn to do Betta as fast proceed government can Presidents do make mistakes but the mortal Dante it tells us that divine justice way FIMS of cold blooded and the sins of the warm hearted in different scales the Ocassional Fall Ave government that lives in a spirit up charity consistent. Mitchum of a government frozen in the ice its own and separates. There is a mysterious cycle and human event do some generation much is given Abella generation's much expected this generation of Americans. They run day bull with decimate in this world of ours in other lands. There are some people in times past lip then fought for freedom Seem to have grown weary carry on the fight. They have so val parapet of Rhythm. While the illusion of a they have yielded democracy. I believe in my heart but only our success and the ancient hope. They begin all that here. In America we are waging a great and successful wall it is not alone against want and destitute and economic the MARLINS VACATION. It is more than that. It is a war for the Bible of democracy. We are fighting biting say. Hey great and precious form of government ourselves and for the world so I accept ten at me I join with you. Aw Thank you for listening. To words matter please. Rate and review words matter on apple podcasts and other podcast providers.

president United States America Philadelphia Katie Barlow Franklin D Roosevelt Adam Levine Democratic Party President Franklin Joe Lockhart FDR National Convention Canada Chicago Agriculture of Labor and capit Abella generation Fdr Venetian Omar Free Witt
How Joe Biden Is Positioning Himself as a Modern FDR

TIME's Top Stories

06:05 min | 8 months ago

How Joe Biden Is Positioning Himself as a Modern FDR

"Presented by Raytheon Technologies, our nearly two hundred thousand engineers, researchers and people with purpose are building the future today we're pushing the limits of known science to go deeper into space advance aviation and build smarter defense systems that protect all of us here at home. That's the future of aerospace and defense learn more at RT x dot com. How Joe Biden is positioning himself as a modern FDR BY CHARLOTTE ALTER. For President at a time of record unemployment and economic despair with democracy itself. In apparent retreat around the globe, he overcame tremendous personal hardship and promised to heal a battered nation. His friends thought of him as a unifier, his enemies call him a socialist. If this sounds to you like Joe Biden you'd be right. If this sounds like Franklin Delano Roosevelt, you'd also be right with just a week before the election Biden traveled to warm springs Georgia. Tuesday to deliver a speech on national healing and Economic Redemption and wrap himself in FDR's mantle. The venue was laden with significance not only because Biden is making a late push for victory in Georgia. But also because warm springs was where Roosevelt went to convalesce from the paralysis that followed a polio diagnosis in his thirty s roosevelt had a little White House there and the place became both a second home to him and a symbol of his. In the face of illness. This place warm springs is a reminder that though broken, each of us can be healed Biden said that as a people and a country, we can overcome a devastating virus that we can heal a suffering world that, yes, we can restore our soul and save our country. In the closing weeks of the race. Bein. has sought to link the two major themes of his campaign unity and healing to the great presidents of American history three weeks ago he delivered a speech in Gettysburg about the importance of repairing a house divided invoking Abraham Lincoln's famous words. But Roosevelt, more than Lincoln or even Barack. Obama may be Biden's closest presidential parallel. Both Biden and Roosevelt were underestimated early in their careers. Roosevelt was called a lightweight by critics. Biden was mocked for his frequent gaffes. Roosevelt was a mediocre student and an unremarkable lawyer. So was Biden Supreme Court justice. Oliver Wendell Holmes once famously said that Roosevelt had a second class intellect, but a first class temperament Biden has little of Obama's. But his famous for his easy way of building connections Roosevelt's new deal aimed at draw America out of the Great Depression through massive government programs. Biden's build back better plan promises to put Americans to work helping the country recover from covid nineteen Roosevelt's bout with polio. gave him empathy for American suffering Biden's loss of his wife and daughter in nineteen seventy, two car crash followed by his son Bows fatal cancer in two thousand fifteen has made him a political translator of American grief. Perhaps. Most importantly Biden seems to share Roosevelt's believed that the federal government should be relied upon to help ordinary Americans in times of Need Roosevelt created social security and the National Labor Relations Act to protect the elderly and workers his civilian Conservation Corps the Works Progress Administration put thousands of Americans to work his vision was a new type of social contract between the American people and the federal government the idea that if you're old and sick or out of work, the government would have your back. It's also true that these. Nineteen thirties programs perpetuated the racial inequality of the day while the improving economy benefited black. Americans, they were excluded from many new deal protections and opportunities. Something Biden has attempted to remedy in his plans. Biden's build back better program includes racial equity proposals to close the racial wealth gap new family leave protections a public health jobs core and investing in millions of jobs in manufacturing infrastructure and clean energy. It's in the same vein as Roosevelt's vision. When Americans fall down because of global pandemic, the government can help them get back up. There are other parallels Roosevelt tried unsuccessfully to pack the courts in nineteen, thirty seven partly in an attempt to ensure that his new deal would survive in the aftermath of justice. Amy Barrett's rushed confirmation by his under similar pressure from the left to consider adding justices to the Supreme Court. If he's elected, he's declined to take a definitive position on packing the court besides saying, he'd appoint a commission to issue recommendations. Detractors hurled similar insults at both men. President trump has wrongly accused Biden of being a socialist many times. Roosevelt was called a socialist not a Democrat by one critic while a GOP congressman called the new deal undisguised state socialism former New York governor Al Smith said his government had the stench of the foul breath of Communist. Russia Biden is well aware of the similarities in several reasons interviews. He has cited the Roosevelt presidency as an inspiration for what he hopes to achieve and how he wants to do it. There's no such thing as guaranteed democracy. He told Bruno Brown on her podcast explaining how writer Walter Lippmann had encouraged. FDR To impose a dictatorship in order to pull America out of the depression and FDR had resisted the call. There is nothing automatic about this. Biden said, we have to earn it every single generation. Both men are more practical than ideological. When asked about the philosophy behind the Tennessee Valley Authority Roosevelt said, it's neither fish nor fowl, but whatever it is, it will taste awfully good of the people of the Tennessee Valley Biden has embraced and elastic style of politics. I'm kind of in a position that FDR was told The New Yorker in an interview in July what in fact FDR did was not ideological it was completely practical. At his speech in Warm Springs Biden repeated an old legend about Roosevelt collapsing in grief when FDR's funeral procession passed. Did you know the president somebody asks the man? No the man says, but he knew me. Seventy, five years after Roosevelt's death representative. Jim Clyburn echoed those words in referring to Biden I know Joe, we know Joe Claburn. said in a speech endorsing Biden ahead of the South Carolina primary but most. Joe knows us.

Russia Biden Franklin Delano Roosevelt roosevelt FDR Tennessee Valley Authority Roo President Supreme Court Warm Springs Barack defense systems FDR Abraham Lincoln Raytheon Technologies America federal government White House Oliver Wendell Holmes The New Yorker CHARLOTTE Jim Clyburn
20190614 Nicole Sandler Show with Ari Berman & Harvey j Kaye

The Nicole Sandler Show

1:06:14 hr | 2 years ago

20190614 Nicole Sandler Show with Ari Berman & Harvey j Kaye

"The following program contains graphic material, including offensive language your this question is advised. No democratic form of government could exist. We switch you dollars in London. Sunday on the club, looking out overland good night, and good, like good evening from our CBS news room in New York NBC presents Chet Huntley and David Brinkley from ABC. This is world news tonight Jennings in London Robinson in Chicago, and from our desk in Washington. Frank level today, this historic legislation to Tele-Communications law, create. Dads. And bay. When the price is free, the people of a country free. When the press is free, the people of a country are endangered of flavor. EDU in four information. The views of people making the news, it's been a cold Sandler shawl on the coals handler dot com and the progressive voices network. Everyone. Yeah, we made it to the end almost of another week. And that's a good thing. We've got a busy busy big big show for you today, both or a Berman, and Harvey, j, k will be here. So let's get to it. You know, I like to start the show with a funny every day, and I was thinking, you know, it's time for a new Randy rainbow production. I start getting antsy about the three week Mark, but he's a busy guy. He's on tour and he produces writes produces does everything on those videos himself. So I'll cut him. Some slack today is Donald Trump's seventy third birthday and the internet is celebrating it, but proclaiming today. John, McCain day, by the way, it is the top trending item on Twitter right now. Hashtag, John McCain day, just saying in honor of the dumps birthday I thought we'd pull out an old. Well, it classic Randy rainbow song from the vault to help. Celebrate happy birthday. Mr President happy birthday to you. Take it away Randy rainbow. We are back and I'm joined now by a very special guest, the president of the United States. Are we still going with that title? Yes. They're telling me. Yes. Okay. Still good. Welcome. Mr President, thank you so much for taking the time. I know you must be very busy cleaning out your desk. It has been quite a dramatic Newsweek for you. They make up lies. I've seen it many. They make up thing. I mean two former employees convicted one implicating you as a co-conspirator in his crimes, a public feud with your attorney general, friends and allies even dormant flipping on you left and right. I know all about flipping for thirty forty years. I've been watching flippers such a good show. Look, I didn't know Manafort. Well, he wasn't with the campaign along. Well, then why don't we start with your former attorney and fixer? Michael cohen. I always found him. It'd be a nice guy where are you aware of the hush money payments? He is now saying we're financed by the campaign per your instruction. They didn't come out of the campaign. They came from me, and we did about it. You know, I I don't know if you know but I tweeted now. About the payments, but they didn't come out of campaign, the become out of the campaign. They didn't come out of the campaign, and that's big huge because that could be illegal a little dicey, we're illegal, but they weren't that's not a it's not even a campaign violation. If you look at President Obama, he had a massive Packer. David pecker your friend, and CEO of the National Enquirer has recently been granted immunity in the Cohen investigation, and is said to have a lot of dirt on you. I don't know. I've always had controversy in my life, and I've always succeeded. I've always one. Well, some say you're about to win most likely to get impeached. I'll tell you what if I ever got a peach, I think the market would crash, if you ever got an heat, I think everybody would be very poor. My if you ever got impeached, you, would you would probably start crying than rehash all the lying and rhetoric. You've free. Dem's would be smirking, Jim Acosta would starts working if you ever got in. If I ever got impeach, you could just give into Muller, then go and get some color by lying on A B. This is all natural, right. With the crimes, you've been fixed, and you could be another Nixon, if you only got in p the market would crash through. New. And our strive, you'd return to only burdening your and we'd resume on normal life. Find a lawyer because you'll need one. Write a book or learn to read one where it gets your eyebrows. Bleached. Just relax at this Doug yourself. Allow though when you if you get impeached, I don't, I don't know how you can impeach somebody who's done a great job. You'd be more than implicated for laws. You buy elated and protocols, you Bree. Because without this thinking, we could finally all stop drinking. If you ever got an P everybody would be very poor dancing thing and revel. No one else has hit the level of infamy. You've are- east Guiliani good retire Pence. Join a game in choir at U F forget. And the president did nothing wrong. When you. We take Huckabee and finally be I'd asked Michael ninety two. Bra and Kellyanne could move to qualms more than half the country's waiting. So think about the ratings because when you gave your speed. We would all tune into. Listen you could finally go to prison. I'm not involved. I wasn't charged with it. If you have forgotten paged. I think everybody would be very poor. What would you do with the brain? If you had one. Wait, wait, wait, wait, wait, wait. We're just about to go for more of Randy rainbow. What a what a what a great way to start a Friday, Randy rainbow that from his archives. The good news is it's been about a month to sense, his last video. So there's a new one coming anytime now. Yes. Okay. So much news to get to today. I guess we should start. I the biggest news of the day is that the Democratic Party, the DNC has announced the debate lineups. The first first debate will be split into two nights, because we know there are twenty who qualified actually all there were twenty four candidates. The corporate media for some reason is ignoring Mike rebel, I got micro L did not qualify for these first debates. But just got an Email from his campaign that said he's on track to be in the July debate. So if you can donate a dollar or two to Mike gravel because he should be on that stage basically. Everyone else met the threshold with the exception of Montana. Governor Steve Bullock and from reports I read it seems that he missed out by one respondent in Opole not one percent if I were generally thought, but one respondent Lee. Okay. Congressman Seth Moulton of Massachusetts who. Yeah. And Miramar Florida mayor Wayne mess him. Miramar Florida's a couple of towns over by the way, bigger town than south bend, Indiana. In case you were wondering, but nobody kids this shit about Wayne mess him. So that's it the nights, so they did a random drawing out of the top tier and the second tier candidates. And in order to get a good representation both nights, which seems to have kind of backfired on them because night, one, June twenty-sixth, which is a thrill, which is a Wednesday night, June twenty-sixth on the debate stage. We'll be Cory Booker better Rourke Amy klobuchar Delaney. John Delaney, Tulsi Gabbard Hooghly on Castro Ryan Tim Ryan. I'm doing the first names by memory. So stumbled, that's why Bill de Blasios, Jay Inslee, and Elizabeth Warren Elizabeth. Warren has the stage basically to herself. She is the only top to your candidate on that first night, so good for her. She drew the lucky straw in the second night. That's when you have Bernie Sanders, comma, Harris. Joe Biden p footage Bennett. What's his name Bennett, whoever Marianne Williamson, Eric swallow Kirsten gillibrand Andrew Yang and John. Franken. Leaper. Should be interesting. All right. Yeah. Yeah. Right, Ryan for pres- Ryan for pres- in the YouTube chat room. Gorell shouldn't have to gravel grovel to get into the debates anyway, so that's it. Yeah. Most of the heavy hitters are on night. Two I'm glad Bernie gets to go up against Joe Biden, because Bernie will be more. How do we say blunt than anybody else, I think Kamala Harris and probably Kirsten gillibrand, we'll go after Biden as well. We'll see. It'll be interesting. Yes. So that's the that's the lineup I do have more news for you. But that's the, the biggest breaking new story for the day, other than John, McCain date. Trending on Twitter as, as burn to dump who's Seventy-three today. All right. I told you we have a busy show, so we're going to get right into it. Harvey j k our friend professor from. University of Wisconsin at Green Bay, who's a professor of Justice and democracy. I think is, I mean, what a great job that is, we will join us again at the bottom of the hour to talk about democratic socialism, and Bernie's big speech the other night, because it frankly did not get the attention it deserved from the media. So we will focus in on it. But before we get to that, we're joined by Ari, Berman of mother Jones magazine. We've been talking about the attempts by this administration to add a citizenship question to the twenty twenty census Ari Berman. Well, you know what? Let's just I taped with him earlier. So rather than be redundant. Let's, let's go to the tape. Everyone shall we? Ari Berman is senior reporter at mother Jones magazine covering voting rights and the author of give us the ballot the modern struggle for voting rights in America. He's also one of the best voices out there. Covering voting rights and the Republicans efforts to suppress them. Then includes the disturbing story that surfaced. I, I want to say about a year ago about a new citizenship question this administration wants to add to the twenty twenty cents this now. The supreme court has already heard the case and is expected to hand down as fission by the end of the month when the court session ends, but there was a development in the case. Just I think a couple of weeks ago after the supreme court hearing that ori- Berman reported on for mother Jones in a piece, titled architect of GOP gerrymandering, with behind Trump's census citizenship question before we get to the newer news Ari. First of all, thank you so much for joining us again. And can you fill us in on this Tom Heffler story? What we learned about this architect of gerrymandering and what, what his role was here. Yes. What we learned a few weeks ago was at a guy name of Tom hoffler, who has basically been the leading gerrymander for the GOP. P the nineteen eighties. He is the guy that goes all around the country and helping Republicans trough maps to try to boost their presentation, it has it has drawn some of the most sophisticated gerrymanders of the past few decades. It turns out that he was one of the key people behind this sense of citizenship question and few different ways. First off he published this study finding that if you use the citizenship question to then, draw districts counting only citizens, because currently the way districts are drawn that everyone is counted. But if you just restricted only citizens to counting that would lead to something that he said, would be advantageous to Republicans and not Hispanic whites and clearly detrimental to the Democratic Party. So I mean that was very alarming because it said it we all knew that, that the purpose of this question was to benefit Republicans and whites. And then it turned out that what the Justice department did was that they wrote a letter to the Commerce Department, formerly requesting. The census citizenship question, and that's what commerce secretary Wilbur Ross used to justify this decision. And the argument made by the Justice department was that this was needed to enforce the voting rights. I thought that was a ludicrous argument because everyone knows Trump administration is now interested in for Voting Rights Act, but it turns out at Tom hoffler. The gerrymandering guy was the one who told the Trump administration say that this is needed to enforce the voting rights. When hoffler had already concluded it would hurt Latinos, and other minority groups that the Voting Rights Act was supposed to protect. And so, I mean, we had kind of to smoking gun pieces of evidence first off that he's he was especially saying, we need to do this to help Republicans Blakely, and Secondly, that he helped invent this fig-leaf argument. The Trump administration is using to sell this. Wow. And we learned this, it was his estranged, daughter after he died, who went through his computer and found notes. What how did this come to the why it's a it's a wild story? So hoffler drew all the maps in North Carolina after the two thousand ten election, both congressional maps. And the state legislative maps of both of those maps have destruct struck down in court, but there is still a new trial in state court in North Carolina over the state Lech about trying to get rid of all the state legislative districts before the twenty twenty election. And so- hoffler is the guy that drew the maps. And so what happened was his daughter. Who's who he's a strange from after Hoffer died last year went to his house and found all these hard drives, and she was initially just looking for pictures of his family, but she found all seventy five thousand files on the hard drives, she headed over to common cause North Carolina who is challenging these legislative maps, and they found this unrelated information about the census which they then made public, and that's how we know this now, as I mentioned in the intro when this new information came to light. The supreme court had already heard the case about the citizenship question being added to the census. Do we have any indications whether or not? Not this new information will have any effect on the supreme court's ruling, we don't I mean at the oral arguments. The supreme court justices the five conservatives seemed fairly sympathetic to the Trump administration's argument all of. Oh, so there was already a lot of evidence in the case that the Trump administration was lying. This is needed to enforce the Voting Rights Act, but the judges themselves didn't really ask me questions about that. And I it's kind of funny because you have, like chief Justice John Roberts saying, well, don't we need to enforce the voting right back? But remember Roberts is the guy who wrote the majority opinion gutting the voting rights in twenty thirteen's. I mean, suddenly, you have the Trump administration that can sort of supreme court carrying about enforcement of Voting Rights Act when the supreme court won't enforce the Voting Rights Act and the Trump administration won't enforce the Voting Rights Act. I mean so I if they were already sympathetic, the Trump administration, it's not clear that they're going to change their opinion. However, the ACLU has has filed a number of brief both in lower court, and now just before the supreme court saying at the very least remanded lower courts left them. Look at this new evidence and so I don't know. I could see that potentially being an escape product could see them potentially punching. But I think that. Court's going to do what they wanna do regardless of the facts in this case. Wow. So they're not obligated to consider this new evidence that came to light after they had already heard the case, they're not obligated to consider it, because it's not in the official record in the cake meeting that a lower court has not ruled on this evidence, and there's prophecies usually that things go through to get before the court now, the justices look at extra-legal evidence all the time so they certainly could look at it, and they certainly can cite the new evidence or they could cite the briefs that have just been fought and say, listen, we're just unsure about this. We're not ready to make our mind. The, the problem here is that the census bureau is under a time line to print in the twenty twenty forms because the giant operation, and this is the fifteen billion dollar operation. So that we're running out of time to decide this one way or the other. I mean as you just said, well, maybe we could wait till October. But it can't wait forever. And so one way or another. We're gonna need to know what's on the census for relatively soon. Oh boy. Ari Berman is with us. Of course. He's a senior reporter mother Jones magazine, who does just amazing. We're covering voting rights in the Republican efforts to, to suppress those rights on Wednesday. It seemed like a lot of action happened around this case beginning with Donald Trump issuing invoking executive privilege to block Congress's access to documents about how this question came to be added to the census was that expected. Not not in it wasn't not expect. I'll put it that way. I mean, the Trump administration's desperately been trying to hide key evidence in this case because every time a new piece of evidence comes out at contradicts both their time on their claims. And so remember, initially Wilbur Ross that this was needed to enforce the Voting Rights Act. Everyone knows. That's not true. There's tons and tons of memos showing the opposite. Then he claimed the Justice department requested it. What in fact, Ross was basically telling the Justice department you need to request this. So it in fact, the fix was in from the beginning, then we'll barrage that I didn't consult with anyone from the White House when he was talking to Steve, Bannon, and all these other anti immigrant people about it in the Steve Bannon put put rock in touch with Chris co Bach. The architect of voter suppression, Kansas. I mean so just everything we know about this case, contradicts, what Trump administration officials have said under oath, and also just in general about them so that they don't want anything new to come out, and so they, they've been stonewalling the congressional investigation and. Finally, a congress had enough in the house oversight committee voted to hold a Roth and, and torrential bar and contempt for congress. Right. Billy, the hand over these key documents. And then the administration Volkan is active privilege, if there's really crazy because executive privilege as I understand. It is really supposed to be about conversations between the president that needs to be confidential. This has nothing to do. It's supposedly nothing to do with the president. Remember, right. This was supposedly made by the judges department in coordination with the Commerce Department. So why are they why are they voting executive privilege over something that they, they claimed executive had no roll over? So I mean it's just it just further deepens the fact that this seems just like a giant cover up, and they they're hoping this agreement courts going to bail them out. But I think any thorough investigation would would just reveal that the Trump administration's been completely full of it from the beginning to the end of this process. Right. Of course. Meanwhile, here we are. We're sitting in the middle of June the supreme court's term ends at the end of the month. The end of June is typically when they hand down their major decisions, obviously gerrymandering is going to be a big one. And an a separate question is what to do about the citizenship question are those. The only two voting related cases. We're waiting on a resolution from the supreme court on. Yeah. We're rate it. We're waiting on that. We're also waiting on a case about racial gerrymandering in Virginia. What to do about eleven state legislative districts, which is important there because they have elections in Virginia this year and despite all the craziness going on, in that state Democrats could actually take back the Virginia legislature in two thousand nineteen which would end matter because they're going to draw districts in twenty twenty one since the twenty nineteen election in Virginia, that will determine the next district, just like the twenty twenty election. Other states is been determined rejigging. And of course redistricting is based on the census which is why the citizenship question is so important because if they can get this ship. On the census would will mean as there will be fewer responses from Latinos, and other immigrant groups, which means that both economic and political power will be shifted to wider areas, then if they can use that information to then draw districts only based on citizenship, they can further shift power could wider Republican areas. And then if the supreme court has, you can also keep doing this gerrymandering. Well, then gerrymandering efforts are only gonna get worse because they have this powerful new tool in terms of how they rigged the session. So that's why this is all related. And I mean I it's just if if they were to both uphold partisan gerrymandering and uphold the citizenship question on the census at the same time that would just be incredible power grab by the Republicans. I mean, Democrats have done their fair of gerrymandering, too, but overwhelmingly this has benefited the Republican party since the two thousand ten election. And if they get both a rig senses and a green light to. Demander. It's gonna be really scared to see what they can do in twenty twenty one and beyond no kidding. You know, this is so we, we always talk about how important it is, you know, state and local elections are every bit as important if not more in this respect, then the national elections, the federal elections now in twenty twenty so they'll do the census, and then it's based on those numbers each state government sets up their own district lines. That's where gerrymandering comes into play. So it's really it's, it's based on the results of this the census, but in each state, it depends on who controls the legislature because they're the ones who get to use the new data from the census to draw the new maps, exactly. I mean, there are few states that have independent redistricting commissions for example, where my disorders, don't draw the lines. But in the majority of states, that's what happened at a partisan process. And I think one of the things that I'm. Concerned about in twenty twenty that stay left aren't getting enough coverage that we're so focused on the presidential campaign that we're losing sight that all of these states, are going to be the ones that trod districts for the next decade. And you know, we're going to have the next president for four years. But we we're going to have maps in many states, they're gonna last for an entire decade. And so I, I would hope that this becomes something of an urgent priority for Democrats. Maybe the supreme court cases, we'll focus their attention on the need to, to, to sort of invest some resources into this. I haven't heard anything about the for example, the Virginia elections at twenty nineteen. And so I, I don't know it just seems like one of those things that there was twenty three Democrats running for president. I think that's the latest tally. Remember, twenty three twenty four at this point, and that's super important, but you know what? It's very hard for everyday person to affect the presidential election. It's a whole lot easier to affect the state legislative election. Where sometimes you're talking about ten twenty thousand votes. Deciding who could be the key vote drying them out. I mean we saw in twenty seventeen Virginia's election literally came onto drawing, straws I. I. Troll the Virginia legislature. I hope that. Yeah, exactly. I would just hope that Democrats and progressives don't forget about the important of the elections because ultimately the census in gerrymandering, a lot of this stuff is going to happen at the state level, not the federal of right? And the Democrats have an always have had at least in recent history. A messaging problem this should have been the message. They hammered over the past ten years, you mentioned it. The twenty ten census, we're, we're dealing with those maps, and the Republican control of so many state legislatures twenty ten people should remember was the wave that brought in the tea party, this huge massive takeover of a of a lot of government by Republicans in that twenty in that twenty ten wave. Well, now we're coming up on twenty twenty when the Democrats by all rights to thank you. Trump should have a big wave. But it but they don't seem to have been focusing on taking back those state. Legislatures. I think at twenty eighteen they did focus on them. You can Trump wasn't on the ballot and I think that was a big shift. They spent a lot more attention in two thousand eighteen focusing on state races. And they did in twenty ten and they, they made a lot of progress. They picked up three hundred state legislative seats which was fewer that Republicans picked up in twenty ten but you have to start somewhere. Right. And then he's by far their best election of the last decade on the state level. And so, I mean, if they can pick up another three hundred seats in twenty twenty there'll be in pretty good shape going into twenty twenty one. I mean they'll at least have divided government in a bunch of pieces and they're not that far off. I mean, even in places like Florida, which seemed pretty red, I think they're only like six states or less taking back, one of those chambers. And all you to do is take back, one of the chambers in the state legislative chamber to at least have a divided process. Any though I mean Florida is so weird because, you know, I live in Florida, we have more registered Democrats than Republicans, but I guess it's gerrymander the. Democr- the Republicans control every except for agriculture secretary that the Democrats won in two thousand eighteen the Republicans control. All of state government. Yeah. I mean, we could we could send a whole different episode talking about politics, your home state. But basically, I mean, the point is that Democrats aren't that far away a lot of states that even despite the gerrymandering and a lot of places they've made major inroads, and a lot of key swing states. And so I think that just going to be really important that, that you that they don't lose sight of all of these local elections. And I think that's one of the things that presidential candidate can do. Is there campaigning and all of these states, they can focus attention? On down ballot race. They can campaign with candidates in down ballot races. They could talk what importance of them when whoever's the nominee could make sure to vote in down ballot races. Another problem is that often people don't even vote down the ballot. And so hopefully, this primary process will help get a lot of Democrats motivated beyond the presidential election because I think you're going to see probably record turn in the primaries and all of these keys swing states because all the people running, and the desired if he Trump and that effort can be translated into downtown. Actions. It could also just as easily overlook them and so. We're kind of at this inflection point with that, now, people need to realize just how much is at stake. All right. All right Berman, one last question for you back to the supreme court again, they're going to rule before the end of the month on not only the citizenship, census question, but the partisan gerrymandering case that was heard earlier in the year. Two, let's pull a little bit of optimism out of there, if they find info or in favor of the groups challenging the partisan gerrymandering could would this affect the, the maps for the twenty twenty presidential elections with that kick in time. Yeah. I mean that's, that's the big thing is that not only in the cases in North Carolina and elsewhere. So there were two cases in North Carolina, and Maryland that are before the court both of those places, there, they could redraw maps before twenty twenty then there are other cases making their way to the court to cases in Ohio, and Michigan where they also said, you need to redraw them out, so we could see in four states, including three really important, swing states, controlled by Republicans, the maps redrawn before twenty twenty and then, of course, it would just make it a lot easier to challenge these things in the future. And it would it would have I think it, it would send a signal to Republicans, not to do this kind of thing in twenty twenty one, so I think it would be tremendously important. I don't think they're going to do that. But I think it would be tremendously important if they were to do that. Most definitely are Berman. I can't think of anyone I'd rather talk to about these issues than you. So thank you so much for spending a few minutes with us and explaining it all as you do, so, well, people can find you, of course at mother Jones. Magazine on Twitter at Ari Berman. And, and of course, it came out of why wanna say four close to five years ago already. But the book gives us, the ballot the modern struggle for voting rights in America is still, very relevant today, and it should be on the top of anyone's reading list, who's concerned about our election system. Ari berman. Thank you again. It's always great to talk with you. Thanks so much. Nicole to you, you take care. Thanks again. Bye bye. Okay. All right. There you go. Ari Berman it just in case you were wondering. Yes, we tape that yesterday. So it's still a brand new interview. Never been heard before. But just a taped yesterday, or a Berman wanted to one of the most hard-working guys who knows this issue, inside and out. Okay. We didn't get to what's news. Maybe we'll just play that at the end of the show because there's a lot of news there. But I do want to get to our friend Harvey, j k so I'll tell you about well, we, we have a new sponsor on the show kinda, sorta. It's a joke. Anyway. So stick around, it's Nicole Sandler at Nicole Sandler dot com and the progressive voices network back in just a moment with Harvey, j k I this word from a new sponsor. Adventure back in your case in with a Carnival Cruise denigrate. Visit. Pat youth the Iraq, we've got the gun. Killing but a convoy cruises killing you'll visit exciting. Like Saudi Arabia gourmet enemy mine. We've got the. Four seven months. They patient vailable. Call you. This is a huge huge issue. And we're talking about it, Kohls and Lou show on regressive, oysters and the coal Sadler dot com. Well, where where's who? Where is hopping? Oh, you mean Harvey j k. Yeah, well he's coming up right now. Ecoles handler show. Yeah he is. Hold on. I gotta get gotta get all my ducks in a row here, by the way, that carnivore cruise lines, commercial that was our pal Boca Britney summers. She will be here with us next Friday. Lot to talk about. So put that in your calendar Boca Brit here next Friday. Okay. Now Harvey Jake. Hey, hey there, Harvey. Hello stood. I still get a kick out of the, the introductory. Yes. And that also is our pal Boca Brit, summers who just does brilliant, work. So it's been awhile since Britain has been here. So she'll be here on again next Friday. So Harvey, j k and addition to being the professor of democracy and Justice, what, what is the actual title? That's the Benji Rosenberg professor of democracy and Justice studies loved that what I mean. What, what great job? That's what you do. That's who you are at the university of Wisconsin Green Bay. You're also the author of number of books, including the fight for the four freedoms, and Thomas Paine on the promise of America. But, but today we're going to really focus in on the fight for the four freedoms. But because this was FDR FDR I believe, and you're the professor here. I'm just I was just a bad student. I was you know, I skated through school without much studying, and God, Bs and CS, but I was not not quite the student, but, but. FDR at least in my book was, if not the best certainly one of our best American presidents. I said yesterday, I don't think this nation would have survived. The depression, had it not been for FDR in the new deal and sadly, we are so, so, so separated today, so divided today that those kind of policies would be hard to get through. Thank goodness, we have a candidate Bernie Sanders, who's trying his damnedest to do it. And to, to bring back, FDR's ideas and build on what he started all those years ago, was that the main message you got from Bernie Sanders, Harvard. Harvey changed microphones. Can you turn down your gain a little bit? 'cause you're you're, you're really hot. I mean your hot but not. Yeah, that's much better even bring it down. L'amour lor. I'm wondering if that's perfect perfect. Well out how they are time hearing you just keep. Okay. Okay. Why? That's happened. Okay. Well trillion choosing to what really struck me this week is, as the as his speech approached I kept sending as many tweets as I could to lots of people, including Bernie's own campaign saying, please when you're gonna do, this democratic socialism talk, do do your damndest to go back and lay claim to FDR now by that time probably Bernie already decided that, as you know, for all the years we've been talking, I have been frustrated as can be that Bernie, who is so well positioned to really lay claim to America's past, and especially to the new deal of the four freedoms, the second Bill of rights, that he did it once and he did well at one time back in the fall, two thousand fifteen but, but he basically dropped the ball in the course of the later primaries against against Hillary, and I didn't hear anything from him these last few years that would sort of be promising to his doing what I kept hope. It would do. But the other day on Wednesday. I think that was what I think that speech in its own way, especially Bernie should be elected was historic. I mean he reached back to the nineteen thirties, nineteen forty he really recalled FDR's finest arguments. Both nineteen thirty six and of nineteen forty four thirty six having to do with the degree to which the powers that be were doing their damndest to undermine the new deal and to keep working people from realizing that their desires as rations and anyone head to nineteen forty four as we'll go as we'll review and laid claim once again, to FDR coal for an economic Bill of rights, and then it goes on as, as we'll see in to actually remind everyone of the promise and not just repeat what Roosevelt, did not just recall, the troubles of, of those days past. But actually, then we states restates it in a twenty first century fashion. He called. For twenty first century economic Bill of rights. I can tell you I was just freshly blown away by it. I asked was I and I recommend even if you heard it when it happened live yesterday was it yesterday? Was it Wednesday Wednesday? I would recommend listening to it again and reading along with the prepared with, with the transcript of what he said, because they're so much there. The finally he's drawing on history and making the connection, you know, so many people freak out about the s word socialism, and I almost wish it was a different word entirely democratic socialism is not socialism. It's a different thing. And he's done his best to explain what the difference is and the great explanation was right there in the correlation with FDR. This is. Brought up the question of, of the name or the word, what is interesting is that if we take Bernie, and we put him alongside say, Elizabeth Warren and Lauren is a progressive. I believe you're Sanders is a democratic social but really what Warren is talking about over and over again, is social democracy. Yes. And what Bernie, as even though he calls himself a democratic socialist is talking about is social democracy, and you can see significant differences, between them, but not so significant that they couldn't both carry this name of social democracy, which I think is just the way to go. Right. So, so, so Bernie did the speech. I know I asked you, when we confirm that we were gonna talk about it today. I said, if there are any clips in the speech, you want me to pull just send me notes, and I'll pull them and you dug in. So I've got audience. I gotta tell you because cutting up this speech, I'm constantly on my own producer on my engineer. I'm my own everything. So I'm always pulling audio and I cut up speeches like that all the time it was really difficult to chop that one up into tiny little sound bites because it seemed like almost every line was really important. He said something substantial throughout that entire speech that lasted almost an hour. Yeah. Definitely did. If I, I mean, I don't know if we're going to be going specifically to them, but I can tell you that was really interesting at the outset. Well, the good clip from the outset maybe could launch into that. Okay. Well, how about this one, you, you mentioned FDR here, here's a one clip in, which Bernie referenced FDR will hear for yourself re rejected the ideology of cellini and Hitler. And we instead embrace the bold and visionary leadership of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Then the leader of the progressive wing of the democratic cloudy. Together with organize label leaders in the African American community and progressives inside and outside the Democratic Party Roosevelt led a transformation of the American government, and the American economy. Like today, the quest for transformative change was opposed by big business by wool Streep by the political establishment by the Republican party, and by the conservative wing of FDIC own Democratic Party. And he faced the same scare tactics. Then that we experienced today, red baiting, xenophobia, racism, anti-semitism. So that's just one clip. And yet, I mean that was great. Yeah. If I can just say what what he's doing what he does there. And there's so much within those, those few written paragraphs. So clearly, he's reaching back tonight in a way to nineteen thirty six Pacific -ly because this is what if DR is running for a second term as president. And he knows that the major corporate interests, the sorta will call them the billionaires of the day that they have mobilized against him. It created something called the American liberty leaks, and they spent millions on radio on what used to call. Phil strips on all of these various means pamphlets at central to try to point, a finger at FDR as if he was either Stalinist com. Minist- or even worse, a fascist, well, equally equal evil. And what he does what he does is he calls out burnt himself, Kohl's out the opposition, just as FDR did in nineteen thirty six when he accepted on nation the presence. I mean, you think about it FDR knew what he was up against. He was up against big business. It was up against the right wing of the day, and he knew he knew that he had to live with, but he knew the opposition that he faced in many ways, from the southern Democrats who would later become Dixiecrats, and of course later become Republicans. So here's birdie saying, okay, you know, we know what we're up against, but let me actually call them out. How many Democrats have you ever heard call out the opposition of big business of the Republicans? And of the conservatives are better yet. Maybe with their called moderates, call them, the conservatives of the Democratic Party. I mean even among the candidates run. Right now. There are those who call themselves moderates, but they might as well be Republican of the Eisenhower variety. Absolutely. Yeah. And the only one who consistently calls them out by name is Bernie Sanders, Elizabeth Warren to an extent, but she she stops herself. She's a little too, that she she is slow to cordial. I think but, you know, that's her. That's her thing. It's interesting that in the debates Warren is going to be on the first night, and burn, you'll be on the second night, and I kinda like it that way. Let them use a good progressive on each night. Gug biden. It was Bernie gut by Bernie got Biden, Elizabeth Warren is running is with all second tier candidates. She basically herself which she, she won. She won the the draw here the way they picked it, by the way, 'cause I saw people in the chat rooms asking they had. They separated the top tier candidates with the, the lower the other, and they did or drawing one from column one from column. B two. Supposedly to make it more evenly split. I don't know how that worked because it doesn't seem it doesn't seem to have with four of the top tier candidates on one night. And one on the other. I just doesn't seem to have worked as to which night came first after the two after the ten were separated into two groups, then I guess, NBC network executives, tried to decide strategically, which would be better for viewership. And so they put the Elizabeth Warren, one on first night, and all the heavy hitters except from her on the second night. Good. Yeah. It's even now I, I think it would have to talk myself into watching either. One of those groups again, I just hope Joe Biden gets enough time to speak to Anna quickly. Insert his foot fully in his mouth. I just want him to get a lot of time. Because the more he speaks the more people will go. Oh shit. That's Joe Biden. He's not Obama. He's biden. We were jetted him how many times already so anyway, that's that. In that vein though. I'll just tell you years ago when he when he first ran for president the very first time the year would be was at ninety two. I know I think it was eighty eight eight. Okay. Well, that very first time that was when he was caught out for having plagiarized. A speech of Neil Kinnock, right. Was the British labor labor party leader and the redeeming value of that is, is that at least he leaves he was quoting a democratic socialist Biden? Okay. Yeah. That was the redeeming value. Of course, the other fact is that it turned out? He wasn't only plagiarizing from Kennedy was plagiarizing from other folks wealth. Yeah. Yeah. I know. I mean as, as people say, if worse has to come to worse, you bet. I'll vote for Biden against Trump just voted for Trump. This is the primary season when we get to advocate for the best candidate possible. This is when we strive for perfection I get in the. General, we can't strive for perfection. Oftentimes, it comes down to the it has in my whole lifetime, the lesser of two evils and it really sucks in primary seasons. Why love primaries because you can go for your favorite, you can love and cheer them on and advocate for them and explain what makes them so great. And really pushed for the best we can do, which is what we should be doing. Yeah. Yeah. Definitely if we could go back to FDR and Bernie for a little bit. Whole series of things that struck me about about that speech. I'll just I'll just remind everyone case or maybe they don't they don't actually realize that Franklin Roosevelt when he ran originally in nineteen thirty two and won the presidency. Even then he had cold, what was what he termed an economic declaration of rights, basically, if he, he, he said, that the corporate titans of industry had basically concentrated, wealth, and power, and the time was for us to revisit the promise of the declaration of independence life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, and in many ways to create a new declaration, and he called it an economic declaration of rights, and, and a lot of people don't realize that when he later in nineteen forty one projects the promise or vision of the four freedoms freedom of speech, freedom of religion freedom, from want and freedom from fear. He's really just continuing this sort of what's already been eight years of. Of period in which he has really tried in the new deal to make the economic declaration of rights mean something in American's lives. Right. So you know what, let's listen to these clips, this first one is a little lengthy, what I did if you notice it sounds like it's moving a little faster than it did during the speech. I didn't speed Bernie up at all. But I did cut the applause down, and I cut some of the pregnant, pauses. So it moves faster. So just know he got a hell of a lot more applause than you're hearing in these clips, shorting them for time. And there were pregnant pauses between, you know, as he spoke, but I spent it up so we could hear more. So this is this is Bernie again, recalling the vision of FDR in nineteen forty four for a second Bill of rights. Right. That's what that's yes, the second Bill of rights or economic Bill of rights. There's two there's this FDR second Bill of rights, and then there's the Bernie's call for twenty first century economic. Right. So this is the first one. This is the first one over eighty years ago. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, help create a government that made transformative progress in protecting the needs of working families today in the second decade of the twenty first century, we must take up the unfinished business of the new deal and carry it to completion. This is the unfinished business of the Democratic Party and the vision we together must accomplish. In order to accomplish that goal. It means committing ourselves to protecting political rights to protecting civil rights and to protect economic rights for all of the people in our country. FDR stated in his nineteen forty four state of the union address. And I quote, we have come to a clear realization of the fact that true individual freedom cannot exist without economic security, and independence and quote. Today. Our Bill of rights guarantees, the American people, a number of important constitutionally protected political rights. And while we understand that these rights, have no not always been respected, and we have so much work to do in order to protect those rights. We are proud that our constitution guarantees freedom of religion, freedom of expression, freedom of a semblance of free press and other rights, because we understand that we can never have true American freedom less. We are free from authoritarian tyranny. But now we must take the next step vote and guaranteed every man woman and child in our country, basic economic rights, the right to quality healthcare. The right to as much education as one needs to succeed in our society, the right through a good job that pays a living wage. The right to affordable housing. The right to a secure retirement. And the right to live in a clean environment. We must recognize that in the twenty first century in the wealthiest country in the history of the world economic rights are Uman rights, and that is what I mean by democratic socialism. As one of the great leaders in American history. Dr Martin Luther King junior said and I, quote, call it democracy or call it democratic socialism, but must be a better distribution of wealth within this country for all of God's children and. And I'm in the applause, then here because it deserves more than you hear on the tape. Again. We're listening to a bit of Bernie Sanders from his brilliant, speech delivered Wednesday, something that the networks should have carried live, but virtually ignored because it was it was of great importance. I really think everybody. Harvey j is with us. Yeah. We do your full show just on this delegate. Deli afternoon. I actually thought about it. I thought about taking show one day and just replaying the speech because, you know, like with a mole report people, I think the majority of people didn't sit down and listen to it. I wanna do everything I can to put it out there because it deserves to be heard. Yeah, really does. Stay true to absolutely true to the spirit of FDR's twentieth. Century economic Bill of rights, whether does, however, is it takes it one step further as I look through his shortlist that he presented. I know how he took each of FDR's lines and turned it into a short crisp statement. But the one thing he added which is so crucial and really is for him to lay claim to this whole idea of green new deal is the right to a clean environment and that takes us into that twenty first century direction. But, you know it's interesting to as much as as as much as FDR will be known for trying to revive the industrial economy and for mass. Public works projects. We shouldn't forget. And in this sense, he's really also saying to the spirit of FDR, then FDR's new deal, decidedly included addressing the environment. Yeah. There was. I mean the CCC civilian conservation corps, in particular went out and planted millions and millions of trees. Okay. That's number one number two the, the dust bowl of the plain states that devastated not only their economies. But also sending piles of dust over the country to the east that also required addressing the environment, and they set up these extensive sort of calm wooded areas in order to reduce the, the wind's effects on the Great Plains, and they also did a whole series of things really to try to address the environment. I mean there was central to so much of what FDR was about is still the kinds of things we need to do today, which is why Bernie. Could say that this is the unfilled promise or it's the unfilled job of the Democratic Party. I mean, it doesn't wanna cues all of his fellow Democrats, but I'll speak on his behalf. I think the Democrats for the last forty five years, maybe longer, but especially the last forty five years really did turn their back on the FDR tradition. They turn their back on working people. And they emphasize, a whole array of sort of liberal educated elite in the Democratic Party instead of holding onto labor, empowering labor, or, especially in the seventies eighties to today, defending labor against the assault of big business and the Republican. Right. So I mean Bernie's Bernie spoke the truth, he didn't necessarily always point the fingers where they might well have gone. But I think the Democrats who might have listened knew he was talking about when he said the folks inside of the party might have reservations about what he wants. You know, in the perfect example, it's just look at Nancy Pelosi Schiffer years. She actually was considered progressive. I don't know if it's just a age, catching up with her. That's, that's warped her thinking, or the money that she's amassed all these years. I know she comes from a wealthy family anyway and her husband, has a lot of money too. But she's enriched herself during all these years, she spent in the house in leadership in ways that she probably shouldn't. And, you know, I went apoplexy earlier this week when I saw her speaking at the Peterson financial summit, I'm glad you about how she loved Peterson and he was in a national hero. Pe- Peterson was the guy who came up with the scam to cut social security and Medicare to quote fix the debt. That's where do. The guy basically who pushed Obama to create the, the grandmothers, call the grand bargain. Right. Grand bargain on the budget Commissioner. Right. He made sure that Obama state inside the ranks of neoliberalism and for Nancy Pelosi to proclaim I love Peter sees the national hero. We gotta get that debt under control, excuse me, a, how about calling Stephanie Kelton to Capitol Hill to testify about modern monetary theory, and screw your debt. Subject for another day, and more. Recently Nancy Pelosi stance on impeachment. Harvey, j k your professor of democracy and freedom. Donald Trump this week said he would welcome foreign governments even adversaries. Dirt on a political opponent in the next presidential election. And she doesn't think that's grounds for impeachment. Yeah. Well, and that's like the cherry on top to, to until the whole Trump experience. Now here's what I don't get. Look, one can one Conforti appreciate Pelosi's fear of the fact that Republicans may not be willing to, to, to remove the Senate Republican might not going to remove him from office. Right. But this, here's the thing to remember the fact is that Clinton was impeached was not convicted and sent in the site and the Democrats lost the presidency. Anyhow, right? So, so what is the Republicans for them to spin this as oh, it really hurt would hurt the Republicans to bring and peach mint? No, it didn't. Residential election, and it didn't hurt them big and congress, it didn't. And this should not even be a consideration. The fact that this president is pooh-poohing at the hatch act, which today he said he doesn't abide by. He will not fire Kellyanne Conway checked. We'll never be adhered to again. The fact that he's telling his both current White House staffers, and former employees to with nor congressional subpoenas this. He's just thumbing his nose at the rule of law. He's saying does not apply to me, and I don't know how we come back from something like that. I don't either and which makes this. There's one thing I would love our listeners, especially they didn't have a chance to hear the speech itself to here. Did you happen? This is what I didn't actually request you happen to have a tape recording of when Bernie starts asking the question, are you free? No. I a few. That's okay. It was it's just an amazing amazing what he does. He says, what I believe is that the American people deserve freedom. True freedom freedom is an often used word, but it's often but it's time we took a hard look at what that word actually means ask yourself, what does it actually mean to be free? And then he lays out these questions where he brings this seemingly academic question of freedom right down to earth. And he says, are you truly free? If you're unable to go to a doctor when you are sick or face financial, bankruptcy, when you leave the hospital, are you truly free? If you cannot afford the prescription drug, you need to stay alive, and he goes on. On and on his, another one, are you truly free? If you're a small business owner or family farmer, who's driven out by the monopolistic practices of big business are your truly free? If you're a veteran who put your life on the line to defend the country, and now sleep out on the streets, and he has about a dozen of these, and if that didn't bring home, the meaning of true freedom, and it took us back to FDR, who in the speech in nineteen forty four said the Sessa tips, men are not Freeman. Meaning needy men are not free men or needy. People are not free people. It was just a remarkable over and over again in the speech, Bernie impressed me one by the way in which he really did reach back sort of reclaimed the FDR tradition. And then if you like sort of projected, as something that we today realize has been under siege for all of these decades, and we really do need to redeem it. Absolutely Harvey, j k you're, you're students are lucky. I believe. Love to like you. Follow me on Twitter at Harvey. J K, A, Y E and read his books, the fight for the four freedoms, and Thomas Paine, and the promise of America and footer and the Twitter at Harvey j. That's what I said, one thing, the call, I promise you this things unfold. We'll talk again. I hope great, I look forward to it. Always, thank you so much. Take care Bye-bye, and with that we're done for the day and the week. Keep the faith baby talk to Tuesday. And for those of you still here since we didn't get to it during the meat of the show will end with today's what's news take it away in a coal. It's time for new, Colson lers. What's news from Nicole Sandler dot com and the progressive voices network explosions crippled to oil tankers in the Gulf of Amman on Thursday, and what the United States called attacks by Iran secretary of state, Mike Pompeo said that American intelligence agencies had concluded that Tehran was behind the disabling of both ships, then they released what they say is compelling evidence video footage of an Islamic revolutionary guard patrol boat, pulling up alongside the kukupa courageous, one of the stricken ship's of you hours after the initial explosion, and removing what American analysts believe was Olympic mine. Iran responded via Reuters quote. We are responsible for ensuring the security of the straight, and have rescued the crew of those attacked tankers in the shortest possible time foreign ministry spokesman Abbass Moussavi is quoted. Saying, obviously accusing ran for such a suspicious and unfortunate incident is the simplest and most convenient way for Mike Pompeo and other US officials these accusations are alarming. Meanwhile, the owner of the tanker shown in that video, you Kaka, Qatada speaking at a press conference in Tokyo on Friday. Contradicted Mike Pompeo in the US navy when he said his ship was attacked on the starboard side by flying object, not by a mine, quote. It seems that something flew towards them that created the whole is the report, I've received it seems there was a high chance they were attacked by a flying object. The impact was well above the water. I don't think it was a torpedo, the Japanese shipowner did not say who might be responsible for the attack. I say the wear of an administration looking to change the news narrative, and I'll remind you of a tweet Donald Trump sent back in two thousand eleven that warrant quote in order to get elected. Barack Obama will start a. War with a run just saying, I'm to go. I cannot tell them. It's Thursday brought with it. The announcement of the imminent departure of White House press secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders Thursday, also, Mark the ninety four th day since Sanders last appeared behind the podium in the White House press briefing room. Meanwhile, the US office of special counsel, no relation to Robert Muller says that White House adviser Kellyanne Conway should not work for the government anymore because she violated the hatch act by using her platform to attack Democrats running for office and advocating for Republicans during TV appearances the hatch act is nineteen thirty nine law that bars federal employees from engaging in partisan politics, while serving and their official roles the White House, of course, pushed back saying, Conway's actions are in violations and the final decision on her job, rests with the president's anyway, who is unlikely to remove her the reverberations of Donald Trump's interview with ABC's George Stephanopoulos. Continue democr-. That's attempted to pass a Bill in the Senate Thursday, making it illegal for campaigns not to report offers of foreign assistance to the FBI using unanimous consent, but Marsha Blackburn objected days. Reporting requirements are over overbroad any person who shares their views with a cannon would be reportable campaigns could have to report social media responses, our interactions, you would report every non US citizen or dreamer who volunteers for their campaign or not so doors or even notebooks on the door of a foreign national Senate intelligence committee, ranking democrat, Mark Warner's, the one who introduced the legislation, and he pushed back on Blackburn's false claims would point out that her reading of my legislation is not accurate. The only thing that would have to be reported as if aid. Foreign governor four national offered something that was already prohibited and candidly, if, if and I will take my, my colleague at word if they're ways to improve on this legislation, I'm wide open for business and the chairwoman of the Federal Election Commission, Ellen Weintraub wait in she released a statement Thursday, making clear that candidates for public office may not receive help from a foreign government in what appeared to be a warning to the president tweeting. Her statement, Weintraub wrote, I would not have thought that I needed to say, this, let me make something one hundred percent clear to the American public, and anyone running for public office. It is illegal for any person to solicit accept or receive anything of value from foreign national in connection with a US election. This is not a novel concept and quote. Well, we've all heard the stories about, Donald Trump not paying his bills. I guess that applies to his presidential campaigns to. Last week officials in El Paso, Texas complained that they were still waiting for Trump's reelection campaign to pay up for expenses related to a rally months ago. It turns out nine more cities, haven't received a dime for similar charges. Prosecutors in Michigan dropped all criminal charges related to the ongoing water crisis in Flint on Thursday, more than three years into the investigation saying that they would start from scratch and wage, a quote vigorous pursuit of Justice. Stay tuned. And that's just a bit of what's news for now. I'm Nicole sampler? If you appreciate these reports, and the Nicole Sandler show, I hope you'll consider making a contribution by work as one hundred percent listener supported, and I can't do it without your help. Find out more at Nicole Sandler dot com slash donate.

FDR Bernie president Republicans Donald Trump Bernie Sanders supreme court Ari Berman Democratic Party Trump administration Franklin Delano Roosevelt Harvey j Twitter Republican party chief Justice John Roberts Harvey Elizabeth Warren Randy rainbow
Ep. 18: Perspectives: Nigel Hamilton on FDR

This American President

1:10:41 hr | 1 year ago

Ep. 18: Perspectives: Nigel Hamilton on FDR

"For so on today's episode we have Nigel Hamilton the author of the New Book War and peace. FDR's final Odyssey DDAT alternate alta nine thousand nine hundred forty three to nineteen forty-five and this book finishes. Your trilogy on President Roosevelt and I'm saddened to hear that this election be your final final book is that right not necessarily my final book but probably my last big biography okay well it lasts of my FDR because he dies the and that is true yes i. I can't keep him alive in fact I I. I had a strange episode where just before I finished writing it. I got writer's block and At my writers group Mike Mike Koenigs Civil. What's the matter I said what I just I. I can't seem put pen to paper anymore and they said well what comes next in the story and I said yeah well. He dies and they said well isn't it obvious. You'RE GONNA have a problem with that right. You can't help that so that that's good even the best writers out there. Get get writer's block. Dead encourages all the rest of us. Now I remember for the first time I ever heard about you. I was ten years old and it was the thirtieth anniversary of the Kennedy assassination and you had had a book come out on President Kennedy. JFK reckless youth and I remember there was also a mini series about it starring Patrick Dempsey Z. and so that's the first time I heard about you. It's pretty cool to be sitting here interviewing you. What was that like to have a book of yours. Become a feature chur film television mini series. It was any time in my life when I under fairly considerable amount of money at least to get dolla because you have to take the money on the first day of of cinematography because otherwise otherwise but yeah it was a total Surpri as them the the book could be turned on down by the first publisher in Boston who is afraid of how the Kennedy family would receive it not because it was what not because it was negative about. JFK on the country was you know he was rather the hero of the story. It was just that it was it was less than positive about a jam case filed a J. P. Candy the message of it London at the time of Hitler Tesla and and he's mother as well had too many children on too many kids and to a great extent stint as as a biographer. I am having interviewed hundreds of his friends right way through from school. Ooh To from the navy and move to an entry. His superior became more of is that in many of his problems Abrahams with women did have a lot of women you know went back to Israel the cold relationship attention with his mother and as for I feel that must tell let stories of Mary. It's a fascinating human story but of course you know if you remember the Kennedy family and Irish Amerks chicken keen to respect uh-huh and support in mind their parents and so they took exception to it and in fact they the the published a an paid in the U. Times and and the book was called JFK reckless may they intact the op-ed reckless biography. Wow what a response surprising. I was just the core flat. Let Little English historian and writer who felt that it was time to do to take a fresh look is who'd become almost mythical through the whole camelot sure right and so yeah I I I. It wasn't an entirely I love writing the book I can't say that I like what happened afterwards in terms of the Family Molly response or not just the family I mean the you know the JFK Presidential Library is is he's a federal institution at my males connote really be quite nasty and and that was really what put me off continuing to see it was meant to right right yeah well. That must be a fascinating story story on its own now. Shifting to the subject of this book a about President Roosevelt. There's also a personal connection there and AH father had participated in the invasion of Normandy and he seemed like he knew a lot of the a lot of the major players during that time I believe he knew Prime Minister Churchill and his wife and Field Marshal Montgomery so if you could kind of talk about that personal connection and how you wrote this book with that in mind well it wasn't just my father my father as you say had had a an officer combat officer in World War Two and it was evacuated from dunkirk in nineteen forty nine eleven part in the landings and served through all the way through the battle of Normandy and into Holland and ended the war at age twenty six as as a temporary free at brigadier in Germany so he had an extraordinary Worley came from a very humble background working class background he was decorated in the field by Field Marshal Montgomery. Who was the commander in chief of the American Canadian British armies at D Day. The so they maintain the relationship close relationship. When my father went back into journalism he just been a junior reporter on our local newspaper thank engine and it was through my father that I came in no Field Marshal Montgomery that well I was a school kid when I I met him and an inviting me to this converted water mill he he lived in retirement he had been deputy not supreme commander of NATO and so- Monte took a kind of liking to this young somewhat ignorance and in fact Monte took me to stay at chop well Winston in lady Churchill's for weekend with two daughters. President Karzai said I was nineteen years old. I was at Cambridge University undergraduate. I I was you know strange to say. I thought I behaved very well. There and it's been nine hundred sixty four because it was an extraordinary we can. I can imagine it will very vivid in my memory but I recently came across a letter. Monte is he is cold if Air Marshal to my father saying that I've been very badly behaved I was. It's sort of chuckled student. Very opinionated wouldn't listen to last I guess so but I did talk a a great deal with Montgomery about chat. Show who Churchill had been Montes boss okay from from the battle of Alamein in nineteen forty two all the way through to the end and Monty Monty had a huge admiration for Churchill as a statesman as a figurehead as as an orator as a right but he had really really very serious criticisms of Churchill as a military strategist and so at sense church true was really very much locked into his Victorian upbringing okay and didn't really understand Molten Wolf. Ah The stand how to defeat them. The German says in World War Two so that is what gave me a kind of curiosity about an started this project I never thought it was alive of FDR as as commander in chief as United States commander in chief and that was the sort of background of my curiosity realistically about that how how did FDA I'll get on with church whom he gets to know even before pell hob. How did the relationship develop through the wall so it's certainly being fascinating to me as an author and biographer. I hope prefer and I I think it's fed say that. Most of my stories is pretty revelatory. Not I'm MM particularly specialists and writers story but I think because JETRO himself was so brilliant and such an extraordinary ordinary can cover up six volumes of fantastically well written an Wa about how he won will to basically always ride sir for but it was so well written that he was actually given the Nobel Prize for literature largely on the strengths of the six volumes you know historian with our American can hold British has ever really been able to make much of a dent in that after Barbara free so I I it was perhaps a little ambitious me to think that I could but makes us. I had spent ten years as a military story writing reaching the official authorized biography of Montgomery as military commander I I didn't feel inhibited. I just thought well you know it's seventy years. Since the war it's rainy tightened to investigate. It's honestly and let the cards fall as they as they will be. The the three volumes collectively. It's Cold War. They ought to some extent an answer to the Chechens famous six series German Co Second World War. Oh yes well so one of the biggest parts of your stories the invasion of Normandy and there's a quote. That's that really stuck out to me. You said that more than any individual alive have President Roosevelt had in truth responsible for ensuring that overlord would be mounted successfully in the spring of nineteen forty four and achievement. Sadly that would not be recognized. Nice in the President's lifetime or indeed afterwards others claimed the glory what did Roosevelt do bring about and why has it been kind. One of overlooked for two reasons really possibly free festival. He didn't live to tell the story uh-huh or as Churchill did that's the first thing secondly I think he didn't live but the generals for the most part lived even patent for afterward will chew so each of them either wrote their own life stories or got very competent not supposed to do so as and and you know they didn't necessarily if you're a serving officer in the United States Navy or on meal ripples. You knew answer to your superior. this is Sara. Lee See that much of the president. You don't know how involved he is. In major decisions strategy you are carrying out in lack if you like the president's strategy and and the president dies just a few weeks before the end of the war so what I wanted to show people was should read it was the FDR had not only believed in a second front overload or d day or an invasion of northern France as the quickest way to get to linen defeat it and this right from one thousand nine hundred forty one his victory plan of November nineteen forty one. He believed that but he was a great strategist in he realized the more he saw how well Germans have professionally. They were fighting a good day where battle all obedient to the furet the more he realized that he would have to and particularly because the British these were not finding very well in the early part of will Hindu numerous surrenders not just at Singapore but in you too Brooke look so he realized that he would have to do this step by step but and I think that is his greatness as a strategist but he realized rather than he overruled his cheek his military chiefs of Staff General Marshall Marshall King he he overruled them and said No. We cannot launch a cross channel invasion a France in one thousand nine hundred ninety two we can sweltered and in fact did launch many version of d day that summer in nineteen forty two and almost a thousand Canadians were met with the beaches distant type of Islas you know so the president was absolutely right and General Marcham fragrance absolutely wrong and he felt that the then from that point onwards that really the best way would be to put American forces into battle in a place that would allow them if you like to make mistakes which is what happened at the battle of cast in Africa okay when Rummell ready ran riot and certain American pulses much them but he was is quite a determined the wants those American forces loaned and not we're not just talking about troops talking about the commanders themselves the integration between enforces Dominic postseason once they actually learn how to defeat them in the Mediterranean from North Africa onwards as far away as possible. Oh from in other words they would have long lines of communication the Germans once they eat achieved back Sir that success against the Germans from that point would he was determined to to watch summer of nineteen forty three he insisted to Churchill Churchill sign up his Canadian Forces to join its state's in Mountain d day in nineteen forty four and as early as possible in the summer because they will need enough months some months in northern in France to defeat the Germans in open battle and so his priority from one thousand nine hundred ninety four three onwards which to make sure that Da took place and that becomes if you like the the drummer of of this final volume food because Churchill doesn't want to do it right now I'm sorry I I think that you know Churchill gave a a number of reasons in his memoirs when I didn't think a true military story and really take them seriously sure hopefully it is amazing how since Churchill died in nineteen sixty five. How many quite reputable historians by over-focus have gone on peddling and you yes ways believed in the day instead? He didn't do you times in nine hundred forty three he took to the states to to argue against e. and then finally late at the end of the year he insisted before the president meet with stunning they fresh this out and he hoped to get the United States basically to back down over today and if possible for another year so you talk about FDR making the fateful decision to choose the commander of overlord of d day and you say that he used that as a chess apiece or as a charade against Churchill. What do you mean by that well. It's it's complicated because Churchill. We'll just as the United States president is automatically by what the Constitution the commander in chief MHM normally that is not so in Britain but in will to the moment churchill was appointed prime minister by the king he he made himself minister defense and so he became the equivalent of FDR he was responsible for the forces not only only of the United Kingdom but because of the British empire a full series of the British Commonwealth and Empires well that included needed Australians New Zealanders South Africans but still Canadians so the the president couldn't simply say to his ally basis how it's going to be we we're going to carry out these landings no-one no one day over crossing the channel he had to get Churchill to to agree to it and Churchill did agree to it in writing in the summer in nineteen eighty three but then went back on his word so the book that the new book begins with the two of them FDR He's Battleship Church on his battleship converging on their battleships to as they go towards Novak earn in Cairo to fracture this out and the president has to have a sort of subtle plan US he can get his commander in chief of British forces to to get him lined vacuum loan where he does it is basically by using Marshall as and generalized as poems warns in a kind of chess eat. He keeps pressing for one of them. Presumably General Marshall to be made commander in chief of the horde of your only allied forces in west near because in that way he thinks six churchill unable to launch these rather madcap assault Elson invasions on the Greek islands for instance of civil. Go try to get through the canals tried to remove a so he pretends he wants Marshall to be made the commander in chief of all Europe and those researcher would agree to that is to keep British commanding the mated trade but he keeps saying he wants it because in that way he can put off the decision until they actually meet car then he can work on him at Cairo and then together they'll go to to Tehran where they will meet Stalin and then it will be two against one I see yeah. It's IT'S A it's a very clever strategy and I'm sure he he would you want to be able to beam wiley but dealing with Churchill was an incredible job. I'm sure so I I have epoch greatest admiration for how he did it and this really is the first time I think any historian or writer has been able to to put together that whole story how he managed to me it it is for Publi given how vital we'll d day was because Hitler gathered his his generals and say this if the allies do choose to cross the English Channel in a second second from that apple will decide the wool right or Americans doing in the Mediterranean in Tokyo whatever he's never gonNA decide the war crossing the English Channel will m therefore the allied invasion. I would have to be defeated and unique in many ways stuff. I mean Churchill had interesting intelligence but he said to his General I. I don't think the British have the haunted. He must have intelligence agents. Church was backing off and so to me. It's it's an extraordinary accomplishment of the president of the United States that he not him the in a sense overrode Churchill but did so in a way would get a British nevertheless to participate in the day and I'm very proud of my father who was pretty was able to return to the continent after them. No more and more information has come out about just how sick President Roosevelt was in that last year of his life. It's really amazing and out of everything I've read. You're really the first this story and that is clearly described him as terminally terminally ill and you wrote of his doctor. Ross mcintire seldom in the history of medical treatment at that high level can such willful incompetence be displayed so what do you mean by that and what were the effects of FDR's condition well. We're talking about the White House Dot Right. He was a navy but he was just he specialized in e in knows them. Approach couldn't say an extremely accomplished don't act president of the United States to have especially in wartime talk is great value to the president was that he is Macintosh was he he as commander in chief maid in Manhattan. Oh that meant that under US US Navy rules he had to abandon the commander in chief himself and therefore wrestled spilt could totally trust and rely on his secrecy if it were any problems many mid inset need didn't want politician is especially austell politicians even newspapers to to know too much about he's it is it is I mean the sad is part of the stories that alone McIntyre McIntyre did do his very best to conceal the president's condition. His concealing of it only made the condition was what happened was. I mean it's this final. William is almost like truth in terms of themes going from triumph to tragedy because I'm the president comes back back from Tehran and Cairo and he's absolutely full of beams points as you say General Eisenhower General Marshall Once he's won the fight so to speak he he appoints generalized hat be be the supreme commander for overload and but he doesn't just tell them you're going to be commander in chief or Supreme Commander Regular. He insists on spending several days with him on the way back from Tehran and they fly together to Molter maybe a bad accident accident and in the plane and and then they go on to Sicily together and he knew all the time he's telling him to be canceled with Churchill. Well and you know how to go about being the supreme commander you can see from the photographs some of which I put in the book you know when he says boy you know he's her would have been nothing can stop him in his normal self yes when he gets back. He's fated Everybody in Congress. Oh right is a huge reception at the White House and said Wolf and then he gives a of broadcasts from high pocket Christmas and it looks like monthly can stop him He's he's gotten where he wants. Instability he is truly supreme. Commander only ally over certainly the western allies and he's not only agreement the British will help with d day but he's Ego Stalin to agree the once Hitler's defeat the Russians will help the United States to defeat Japan. I mean these are monumental achievements really very moment with seems to be flu took about the Christmas of nineteen forty three five or six months before detaille and it's too sad because MacIntyre meantime while Macintosh covered they saw didn't do anything of algae because month after month the his president's thousands health deteriorated until finally largely because if Georgia came from the West Coast to looking at Denton dancing get your act together and get a specialist Dr Ably Breathe so finally saving his life. Yes wasn't McIntyre very reluctant right any bring in in a gain a US navy officer who was an electric cardioversion soon he was at the forefront crunches diagnosing all heart disease this Bruin Bruin Bruin. Yes it can grow young still in his thirties uh-huh and when he saw the president at the hospital in the Navy hospital outside Washington working simply seven days to live shirl can impact you the cat among the pigeons and they began to bring in these really hi pal doctors frankly and they all said. Oh you you you don't Brune had an idea of using this medication would that was rather talks to try and help him and the digitalis. I believe Feature Tyler and these famous doctors soon now. It's hard to talk to do that with the president he's listen. He's GonNa die right right right. Finally days later they gave came in with a senior his went in the navy actually and served to Brune was allowed to give him a digitize and basically that's. Let's actually saved his life. and then with enough help he was able to breath continue this president and as commander in chief in the months thereafter but he the question then arose in the summer of forty four especially after d day will should he stand for a full term as president of the United States and the one of the doctors frankly. He was very distinguished from Boston He said he told the president through McIntyre. You want survive a book right. You thought do this or at least you got to know officially sure yeah live that long and so he knows what he's doing and he doesn't act in some people said. Oh well it was Hubris or arrogance innocent so whenever but he knew exactly okay what the prognosis was made and that he would only basically able to kind of his cowed presidents the wasn't anybody body else. He could see at that time who he'd thought would be. We have the stature experience to be able to deal with people light Winston Churchill and like emotional stalling and so he decided I think very Mary reluctantly from the whole eating people barry's to to stand for a fourth term and then was the comedy Eddie of how Jesus size breads raring right. It's just unbelievable in retrospect it all turn out for the best. I think drew you know he unlike Winston Churchill writes had had a he was a lucky man in many ways and had a wonderful talent for choosing terrific subordinates I mean most of the wall he's secretary in the army and and secretary which included the efforts and the Navy will both republic in that respect and I I think I think probably it was the right decision and as we didn't win the election Pau but it was it was a very sad moment in American history where you have such a commander in chief who has done so well to that point being felled by a vision medicine. I'm simply wasn't able to counter so there's a couple of very fascinating and figures in your story and you talk about obviously his wife. Eleanor Roosevelt and you talk about the other woman in his Life Life Lucy Mercer Rutherford and you paint a very vivid picture of her and it almost seemed that everyone admired her or was infatuated by her whether it was I president Roosevelt or even daisy suk-lee. Can you talk about her background and how she got to know President Roosevelt and how they reconnected yes I to be honest when I began the trilogy which we're going to be one I I didn't know a lot about Lucy Lucy master. She was saying and by photai would be writing very much. A military biography focusing on the president as commander in chief. BECA couldn't believe that nobody ever bothered to write a life of Mandarin chief in what must either the most violent war in human history but anyway. I wasn't expecting to you know I could see. It would be some interesting relationships. We've people like Churchill and the chiefs of Staff and said the man in other words new the T. had this sort of lady companion these separately distant cousin she was a navy really from Hyde Park area and and he liked women's company I think it was you know what when you're president you are inevitably edit to be removed from the honey bully gem presidents Harry Truman for his love to play you know Po- Oh current drink with these als his way of detoxing after very stressful day if ti lesson Oh you know enjoyed the company of Women not necessarily terribly small women but Women Who Were Affectionate and oiled him a bit if you live didn't and so I didn't expect to be writing much about Louis MM see lesson but when I came to this I'm working. I realized that in the very weak but don't approve the ten commendatore diagnose president thankful thankful caught in that very weak Lucy Massa who had a relationship with Franklin Roosevelt during World War One but it had to be ended ended when the thing Rela Narain chooses stay she had married very rich much older man MHM and in that very weak the doctor Brune diagnose the presence hot talk conditioned. Lucy's has his down and it comes a widow and therefore innocence I mean he's paralyzed from his poems but she is free to become at least a companion and they've checked to soldier aww going connection they they. They've corresponded endoume. She's attended his inauguration. She still her husband. Rather Fed was die hard Republican Democrat and basically what she's very pretty she suicide elements secretary in in a at the time of the Post World War and yes she's she's very charming and and he he just Dole's and she has suddenly available in his hour of mean either want to over romanticizing society. You might be the Yes story but I do think that it is a miracle would have Diaz mind for foot of the year. After after the sentence of death I do ascribe some survival to mincy but she she comes she can now come not exactly openly but everybody knows all his personal staff in the secret service and everybody knows about cement the White House. She visits him at high paw. She visits him at Shangri la which is now him. David this amp in the hills does she he comes to see her in New Jersey. it's the great mentioned that she's inherited she comes to see him when he's in. South Carolina recuperating or trying to recuperate NAFTA Coast Sir if the diagnosis and she's she's at Womb Springs Little White House in Georgia I mean they have a very tender loving a late life love relationship which I find given his courage in being willing to go on give an old luke pain and suffering he's going through because of his medical condition and the stress of that Joe I find that very touching traction and of course you know it goes right up literally to the end. She is sweet feet away from him as he's sitting at his table doing some paperwork and preparing to for the inauguration one of the United Nations in emphasis Cisco and she's three feet away from the when he finally collapsed resume says he has this terrible headache and she knows that see and she just want wii bows out of his life and dances very modest wonderful woman and to be honest people say well. Illinois no element when she heard the be prism when the president dieting of she was upset and I think that's rubbish. I mean first of all. It's quite obvious element about the relationship have resuscitate. Take is greatly to atlas credit that she. She said nothing that she sold. This woman was helping her husband to live and and finish the wall. That was the main thing in Elena's mind. ENEMA hated ward. She knew that war had to be finished and Jews as possible be safe. Hey listen so I think it's great to alumnus credit that she didn't object. Don't don't make any amd night heron night. Heron irritation was that had daughter was present was new to Anna knew about their Alexa enew Franken was at Boom Springs Lucy the time of his death and an Patton told her that so it was just that she hadn't been to- to gains and I didn't think she took it gains instance even center. Some items opted after What what would you say to those. Who would criticize Roosevelt for that relationship? Oh come on on oh I would say grow up really I think especially in the world we live in today and it certainly Pitney was unpleasant for Alabama when they had their original affair World War One and yes it's perfectly true that and was devastated when she learned about the fan at we're talking about nineteen nineteen fifteen nineteen sixteen nineteen seventeen so in that sense yes we could be more realistic because sent me that was a time in in aw society and culture when it was very much frowned upon in a bubble you you know eleanor was was You've grown up more from can have great compassion for because she was very isolated. Even didn't have a great so you know the two of them have theon element they grew as a result of that. Shum uh-huh adulterous affair and the way it came to an they grew they throw necessary together as a as romantic couple but they need green together as deeply committed husband y they achieved especially politically I don't think we'll ever happen again in American history and FDR was you know the man mainly responsible for law. He's always encouraging. I I would have a much rebounded on him as president of the United States and encourage me politically the private life. I had a number of friends of May but mostly female and very tender relationships. They said that they lesbian related no. I I just think they were very close very loving relationships to people like friend and FDR duties very best to make that possible ones. I I I think in many ways they are an ideal couple so we get to the Alta conference kind of the last major scene in the book and at at the time the atomic bomb is months away from being operational. How did President Roosevelt view the bomb and how did he view it as he he was in negotiations with Churchill and Stalin at Yalta. Well the story of if you are made bombers little bit complicated because he obviously he need not any new about it he'd financed Scher Right. He was the man behind the bomb right from the very beginning and he put under the charge of the secretary of war. Henry enrich stints but you know he walked over Very Kathleen as was developed and and was buried about the implications because he invited to the White House. Many of the main participants scientists involved in including Neal's boy who was quite open about what an old for weapon this would be very much hoped that it would be necessary to use it and that was one of the reasons why at Tehran around he was so concerned to get Stalin to agree to enter the war against Japan were neutral towards Japan and couldn't afford a war on two fronts themselves so they were manning but started did agree that the moment Hitler was defeated the Russians moved into the war in in Japan and in truth they Russians forever million men into Manchuria so he wasn't in the seat for anything anything stood by his oil I think if the against hope that would be possible to get the Japanese it to surrender affort having either to launch an amphibious invasion of the Japanese islands all aw in the end to use the atomic. I I think myself jury's out as to whether Tokyo speculative est of whether would counterfactual history but I think he would have hesitated to use it if except me once so the the casualties from the invasion volcano it was clear that Japanese were not any defending to the last man the last soldier that they were actually forcing Japanese civilians to permits side at Kapp idea the Americans gave me and so I I think had he had he not died. I'm pretty show ultimately he probably would've used the at Monroe uh-huh but in that sense it was by dying in April of nineteen forty five four it has proved that would actually he was that terrible decision which credit icing Harry Truman nobly tool right now one of the things you you wrote about also is the creation of the United Nations. FDR's the plan to prevent another world war what was he trying to accomplish out Yalta with regards to the United Nations well they had already had had the United Nations was very much. FBI ause notion he'd Beaten Assistant Secretary of the Navy in World War One and the world one who'd been invested by the time I signed treaty and the failure of the United States is to join the League of nations have doomed prospects for peace after terrible like were the one who who was snuggie determine that that shouldn't be repeated and therefore there should be some wanNA use the woods League of nations nations because by tainted fluids so he invented festival the United Nations for those countries who we're fighting the Japanese but then he decided that he should be once the the end of the war came. It should be an organization. would be cool. The United Nations would have where every country would be able to participate in have a representative so -at's Yalta Yalta although he was so desperately sick. I mean manager few hours a day. He was just determined. Russians uh-huh agreed to participate in them the United Nations for genetic even if it meant giving them more seat for representatives representatives than than they were in the United States began just George joys better than wool oh right right so it. I think it's one of his again wannabees great achievements who did get actions to sign up to it and and the Russians are still part of the United Nations overnight station but the other thing was he felt that the United Nations as such would be great token or the and will do great things. Perhaps in education will help us to you in the end. Somebody would have to be the guardians of will security especially if it was at the atom bombs. I'm so he felt they should be some kind of world old A. and so he felt the United Nations should be willing to you operate at military level through the kind of senior countries of the world. The United it states great British Empire China and than France as well and if they had a sub committee of those nations would be able to defuse views critical or crisis real crisis humphries invading each other would piece not necessarily in the most locals saints piece in the largest sense who be maintained he hoped for for about he hoped for fifty years half a century in. I think we could say I would argue that historian that has survive longer than possible. the seventy years now we now have with the president in a political situation in which that is being called into question how motion of those kind of coalitionism core reported elliptical agreements major countries mm tris to preserve world peace so. I don't know whether it will continue. I think we can just blew back and be incredibly great folded gem. He had the vision to see that and although he's criticized by giving too much away to actions uh-huh is which is sad is double cases I think you have to look at the positive side and and what he did manage to get the Soviets to agree to who had a completely different Beijing society sleep and and who needs old I think it was a tremendous achieve. He probably more or nice killed him. Because Act from yellow is semblance. Yeah my my theory which is debatable like any theory is that Roosevelt saw the UN as one of its many purposes away to permanently get America engaged in the in the world so they wouldn't turn back to the isolation EST policies because many Americans felt that that had allowed how'd you know the United States was kind of asleep at the wheel and couldn't play a role balancing the aggressive nations you know the Japanese and the Germans and so it seems like the UN was kind of an ends to a mean in that sense to prevent another war through America's presence and engagements intruments Europe's they write and I quote a number of people who who like employ who discuss its with with the president and of course six theme that runs right through the book right from the very first from the mental of command in nineteen hundred one where the president you know to the draft selected Linford service in America a continuation of the draft which in passed by Congress is I'm. The repast is just before puddle Haba by one vote right power elation is in this country was tremendous is a lot of inertia in the store owner. Sha Falling back into that. You touched upon. FDR's decisions regarding Poland at Yalta and obviously you know that's a source of controversy as well as his the way he handled Marshal Stalin. What are your views on that on. How people historians have viewed that and whether they've looked at at at fairly or unfairly well? I think there are no secrets Dan there were secrets protocols attached to the ultra coach. Trim but I- nowadays there is a secret about it and Winston Churchill and President Roosevelt knew that sterling had the boots on the ground and that if Stalin insisted own moving the Polish order Westwood's there wasn't much he could do to stop him up on the same with Finland into French territory tree and nobody ever talks about that today by Poland has a special places himself in because Britain had declared war on thankless because of the Nazi invasion of Poland and and so again i. I just don't think there's any secret about it. I think it was just an impossible task for the United States all oh Great Britain to stop turn style in from Japan and then pretty much deciding writing what would happen there. you know that's terribly sad to say. There were people who felt at the time. The president was just being was sort of making nice with star but I I I don't really see him as that I as doing that. I think he is very well aware and I quoted a number of go. It's worth kee aware how awful the Soviet system as the water in a prison camp it is he feels over time it will gradually improve mood in the meantime regularly can do other than to try and kind of Joliet along and at least not naught it into fight basically given the cold eventuated that he's he's actually more often than going to fights in different places like that concern given the largest since peace was maintained especially nuclear Tony Pins and and it's sad that became a corn in that but now I I really don't see it was any real alternative will set off molten anybody that anybody else could have enacted now obviously so much has been written about President Roosevelt but yours look in depth look into his his time as commander in chief during the war after writing your trilogy. What is the main thing you want people to take away about President Roosevelt that they didn't know before I think I consider it very simply. We knew he was a great statesman. We knew he was a great domestic president in terms of them tickling the Great Depression and the new deal I. I don't think we knew that he was the the greatest strategies World War Two and possibly the greatest strategist military strategists that the United States the most affected military stashed status demanded states has produced in its his very strong thesis now before four. It's up to read his decide whether they agree sure sure now before I let you go. I think you earlier you mentioned that. When you met Field Marshal Montgomery you also had a chance to meet Winston Churchill as well Yes yes. I told you earlier on compensation that I I was invited with Monty to chop well weeks home in Kent Countryside and I spent several days there. We can't church. I I have to ask you how what was that like. I mean especially in light of what you've written about him and his strengths and his and his failures during the in the in this book so what what was that like that must have been an incredible experience it was I mean for one thing. He was tiny think he's he's sort of. nominal. L. Height was five foot six but you know by now how many this is like nineteen sixty or by that time in his life. He probably five foot three. Wow shrunk a lot turnover. Had the most beautiful schemes people speculated eighteen what what special medications he would take the a lot of young lambs also because but I don't think that's true I think he was born with incredible soft skin uh-huh please life he had to wear under underwear because he's so sensitive and I you know that was just one. You know here. Is this man you know. The nine of England who clearly was incredibly brave himself admits he was a young officer assault on the northwest tear the end of the nineteenth century India and Afghanistan on credibly brave and not just physically brady but morally brave has announced you know they're all these contradictions and just a man of so many talents I mean monkey took me for instance. Sen's out of the house and he went to Mrs Churchill when he bought the the the key Oregon keeping Martin. He's a key to the paging hot MHM wind hats. I went to this building outside and turn the key in inside while hundreds and hundreds hundreds. I thought absolutely beautiful paintings so many of them but some unframed just just the extract canvas is very narrow light late impressionist paintings are landscapes you might than any pool cool tricks but they're absolutely beautiful and your show plus the fact that he was bowl team to dinner and I was sitting on his right hand side in Montgomery raise lift him eighteen-year-old undergraduate sitting beside this is the most famous Englishmen of the twentieth century and to be honest. I was more spellbound to begin with by hi. These beautiful Scandinavian nece says he took me a while to plan concerning. I think for any nineteen year old that's understandable so I think I'm not ashamed to be critical. I'm sure We'd be critical of me. The and you know he'd love to good argument Internet. I I I think he would have I. I think kind of reasonably good writer. I can tell a story and I think he appreciated that term for. He wouldn't agreed with my judgment. He would agree it right to it right just as he could see across the aisle in the House of Commons yeah well thank you so much for coming on our show. We really appreciate it and this has been a great conversation and now your book so it's called Warren Peace. FDR's final Odyssey Odyssey DDAT Alta nineteen forty three to nineteen forty five and I checked on Amazon. It's available on May seventh two thousand nineteen so thank you for for the opportunity to beforehand to read it. I really enjoyed it and it's so well researched and we really appreciate your time being on on our show. I have enjoyed talking with you. Thank you and I WANNA say they for the first time in my life. A publisher has the issued. A boxed set works over in this case the trilogy so that's great congratulations. That's uh-huh terribly touched yeah yeah. That's wonderful so I know that your work contributing a great deal to a a man that we'll continue to fascinate Americans and people around the world for as long as history's being written. Doc Nitrous Book is titled War and Peace. FDR Spinal Odyssey DDAT Alta nineteen forty four to nineteen forty-five. It's the final volume in his epoch three part series on Franklin Roosevelt. It's currently available in bookstores so make sure check now. This American President is produced by myself Richard Lamm and Michael Neale. Thanks to my dad virtue. The music in this episode is by Blues. ooh. Dot says we also want to thank our Patriot. Supporters Youtube can support us by going to Patriotdepot DOT com slash this American American president and giving any amount you choose episode that we release. If you like what you've been hearing you can also help us by sharing episode on twitter or facebook look. I'm Richard Lamm. We're back next time with more this American President

President Roosevelt President FDR United States Winston Churchill Churchill Churchill president navy commander writer White House Marshal Stalin officer United Nations President Kennedy D Day Japan secretary
Ep. 420: From FDR to AOC (w/ My History Can Beat Up Your Politics)

Don't Worry About The Government

1:27:21 hr | 2 years ago

Ep. 420: From FDR to AOC (w/ My History Can Beat Up Your Politics)

"The. So very special episode of my history can beat up your politics premium. And also, don't worry about the government. I am talking to Chris Nova Brenno. And he's talking to me, Chris, how you doing today? I am doing well Bruce, how're you doing today any day my two feet around the ground, etc. Etc. I think the reason that we wanted to talk as you head spotted an interesting thing going on with the democratic primary. In twenty twenty got a lot of candidates, mashing it up. It's a lot to follow. You've been following it on your podcast. Don't worry about the government. And you notice the interchange between John Hickenlooper and Bernie Sanders that brought in the broad in the historical figure of Franklin Roosevelt. Yes. And that exchange between Sanders in Hickenlooper comes after in event earlier in the week where Sanders started talking about, what democratic socialism meant to him. And during that speech Sanders very much rooted his interational of democratic socialism as essentially, I am the successor to Franklin Delano Roosevelt rejected the ideology of. Cellini and hit look and we instead embrace the bold and visionary leadership of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Then the leader of the progressive wing of the Democratic Party. Sagata with all label leaders in the opera can American community and progressives inside and outside the democratic Claudy Roosevelt led a transformation of the American government, and the American economy. Liked today. The quest for transformative change was opposed by dig business by Wall Street by the political establishment by the Republican party, and by the conservative wing of FDR's own Democratic Party, and he faced the same scare tactics. Then that we experienced today, red baiting, xenophobia, racism. Anti-semitism. In a famous nineteen thirty six campaign speech, Roosevelt stated, and I quote. We had to struggle with the old enemies of peace. This, this and financial monopoly speculation reckless banking class in Tigers them, sectionalism war, profiteering. They had begun to consider the government of the United States, as a mere appendage to their own affairs. We know now that government by all buddy is just as dangerous as government by organized, Bob. And Roosevelt concluded. And I, quote never before in all our history, have these forces been so United against one candidate as they stand today. They are you not amiss in their hate for me. And I welcome their hatred. I know I'm a little bit of a dorky Malaga when it comes to the nineteen thirties in some of the Huey long in the father, Coughlin type figures, but I was interested. How Sanders is routing of his politics in new deal politics, washed for you? Well, when I look at the particular video, my sense of it, first of all, you see in that, and it's an almost wanna put one of these future editor, please. Insert video here on. And let me one the nation. Games the smooth aid. That says. Fos. We believe as thing we believe in social security, we believe in work for the employed, we believe in saving homes. Russula hot. Some hope today, we believe in all lanes thing. We'd like the way the president that ministry is doing them. Of. We will we will do mar of them. We will do that, and poor. Most important of all the doing of them will not cost anybody anything. Don't worry about the government. They just seem to magically appear you speak. They just seem to happen. We don't have that kind of, you know, we don't have that operation at, at my history can beat up your politics. But so when I looked at that particular video, first thing I think that's interesting. Is that here's Stoorikhel figure of Franklin Roosevelt, and he's really doing what is a little bit of kind of sarcastic comedy? It's got a funny. It's kind of a reverent that would now you might wonder like what's the audience for that because there's no television or there was a very crude TV at the very end of Franklin Roosevelt's presidency. Very much a novelty in the New York City area. Nothing else among very wealthy people. So what was he doing that speech for? And that would it would be for news real. So there is a visual medium that was just as at animated. And also very. Similar in a way in format to the internet video, or the quick, Twitter video, because you only had a limited amount of time in a newsreel speech because, you know, they're going to be showing a movie. Yeah. I mean, this is just getting the news and you're watching the news with all of your neighbors, at the same time, though. And that really is something very divergent from our highly atomised news culture right now. Well, you can't talk about FDR without talking about those things, and also without talking about FDR is kind of a phenol that changed. Everything I was watching that clip. And the thing that I took away from it in terms of contrast to Sanders is FDR is much, much more of a pugilist. I think it's easy to talk about FDR's guy. Trang triangulating, the forces of the Huey long to the left of him and the establishment Democrats and the Republicans to the right of him, but he. He in that clip is punching much harder than I've ever seen. Bernie Sanders punch. Well, I think centers can punch as well as anybody, you know, Bill Clinton was one of the things one of the reasons he jumped in, in ninety two is that he felt that Gary Hart. Michael Dukakis others had just sat there and taken it, and that he would continue to fight back. And so come back excetera, but as politics is politics, were exactly what you're talking about triangulating and centrist. And in many ways. Franklin Roosevelt was that he was trying to leading his party, though. Whereas like Bill Clinton was trying to triangulate both parties. FDR is a lot more bipartisan than people think, on the new deal is more bipartisan than people think it's a common misperception because several of the. Several progressive Republicans of fear, feel, rela LaGuardia. If for instance, George Norris the Senator from Nebraska, Hiram Johnson, Senator from California, these were very important figures in passing some of the at least the financial ends of the of the new deal. And LaGuardia was just a, a very strong supporter of Roosevelt. So he's actually more of a bipartisan operator than people understand looking back these days, the polish different though, to right? Like we hadn't had that big sort kind of post nineteen sixty eight nineteen seventy between the two parties where the lines released calcified at that point nineteen thirty you had conservative Democrats and liberal Republicans still. Yeah. And geography was different. In fact, the west was a more progressive. You were states. Yeah, you're conservatives were in the east. And so what you had in the east is, if you're like David Hill. Or Grover Cleveland going back a little bit on that. But these were conservative Democrats who could win the state of New York, because New York because of the had the financial interests. And it still had an elite class living in New York City, and it had a kind of conservatism and republicanism in the upper part of the state, which is still does, you know, it was necessary. It was kind of a conservative state, for instance, on the issue of a hard money issue. That's why you see things with Franklin Roosevelt traitor to his class, because he lived up in Hyde Park and probably every, every solitary neighbor, you know, other than Morgenthau what you made Treasury Secretary, but the other neighbors were probably wanting to vote against it. So that that's very common assertion because he was. Liberal on certain issues say spending in the treasury, and the gold standard and and, and things like this, but in pure politics, let's say a work relief program was not entirely radical, maybe the scale that it was done. And some of the people like Harry Hopkins that he chose and the brain trust that was surrounding FDR, very scary to a lot of people. It was certainly a lot of fear from a certain part of our politics from a certain edge of the politics, more conservative side when he came into office. And, you know, not unlike with the current president, the fear among in some quarters at least is around some of the people like, oh, that person's really radical. I mean, Harry Hopkins was taking office buildings over and starting huge work relief programs that hadn't been dreamed of, but the idea of a work relief program is not that crazy. And I think what he was dealing with. In that video was basically saying, like, hey, my opponents are saying, L do this, too just as well as us in a won't cost any money, and they say they care, they say they feel your pain. But then they don't ever actually do anything about it. And that, that is certainly a very salient attack in the moment of today. Oh, I think I think FDR does work in a sense, because, as we alluded to earlier Hughes, AFI dome is there was a media change. You had people going, we talked about people watching the news role before the movie. Sometimes they would go to the booby several times a week, and they would they would go to the movie on occasions, just to see the president. Okay. So you had a performer FDR among everything else that, man, is that man can perform is immensely popular, and he was connected to people in a way that you hadn't seen, and I do believe, for people that support Trump that. In their minds. That's the connection that he has with the American people. Now there are a lot of people who don't agree with that. But I just giving that it's a little more measurable with Franklin Roosevelt, giving overwhelming votes that he received in fact, Iran for elections. But yeah, he was he was a thing in politics. He was he created along with his wins a new type of politics as well that almost vanquish the other party. At least for a few years, there was a point when he first took over that he had ninety congressman that came in with him that didn't even have desks they were able to read the bills and a couple of people like, oh, I want to take more time to read this legislation. And basically, they were just told like you know, these new new deal congressman like the president's gonna look at the congressional register tomorrow and your name, better be in it, and they would vote for it now. After nineteen thirty six that starts to stall. But, you know, in his in his in his high political moment, he was the best thing that you've seen in American politics. The strongest force in Reagan had that, too, I would ask to mate, he had that for a good like six months of his first term, he had some of that still a lot of controversy though. And so I think like, again, I just go back to if it is true that the Trump election and Trump's way of doing things the social media Twitter, I attack my opponents, twenty four hours a day. I'm gonna outlast you. I'm gonna keep attacking whatever whatever it is that he's got. Right. They at least would like to think that that's where it is. And it's hard to find another president or another political power L, where the essence of politics, so radically changed. In addition to it. I mean, maybe you could go to the Kennedy era and the TV Eisenhower Kennedy in the advent of TV Kennedy doing twenty press conferences in a year. Maybe probably helped him it didn't totally and completely change politics. No. I think FDR doing the fireside chats. It's really interesting analogy to Donald Trump. It doesn't seem immediately apparent but then you actually start breaking down. You go won't FDR was really good at actually changing the way that the national media operated and they had to adjust and start operating around, what FDR was creating and to that affect what I think Trump has done very effectively, although I would also say, this is very much an indictment of modern media as well. Is he has been able to dictate and set the tone on how the media is going to cover him? And the media is constantly left to react to him. And so, you know, we're as we're taping this just off of the heels of a bit of a controversy involving Mexico where he was threatening to do very large, and very onerous tariffs on Mexico, unless they resolve some matters involving the border and he was able to kind of drum up this big much do about really nothing at the end of all of it over the course of a week and he's done several kind of narrative arcs like this drought as presidency and the media has fallen for it every time. I mean, I feel like I've heard this analogy too many times over the last few years here, but there is a lot of Lucian Charlie Brown with the football going on between Trump in the media. Well, I think an FDR makes a better payroll than people think. People think I'm crazy compared to FDR like you know, but, but this is just in the essence of things not in the political positions, which are extraordinarily different. Although although a very libertarian conservative might argue that in terms of spending dollars, you know, they're not there's some similarities to. But in terms of politics, are where they come from their different. But in terms of this, this change in the media sure, FDR had, you know, the roundabout ways, the, the reporters that would follow him around and the club and the giggle club. They were they were called the note seemed like a nicer way of manipulating, but it was no less manipulative. And yes, he would sort of intimidate reporters, not in the same way that, you, you see, listen to that video, you can hear how loquacious, charming FDR was not done. All of those said, did says, and if you steps to FDR you're going to get it's very, very clear, you might not be invited to the giggled cubs. It was it was even more impactful. I believe, and this could even be wear long-term. It may not work as well in the Trump example, because for Franklin Roosevelt. His intimidation and his manipulation of the median reporters, which was very clear and very much done was. Almost self enforcing, you haven't seen that, that I'm aware of yet where another words, the members of the giggle club would be like Bob really did you have to ask that question, I would make the argument that Donald Trump is getting some diminishing returns with his media strategy. I think there's always the effect of the president becomes the white noise of our lives and Trump with his media strategy has done a good job. Staving off becoming the white noise of our lives. But one thing I've noticed, I don't have a full numeric presentation ready for you right now. Is that his engagement numbers on Twitter have been trending downwards over the last couple of years? I mean it's not like they're going to drop off a cliff or anything like that until he was at a much higher peak for re tweets and comments and likes and all of that sort of thing in twenty seventeen than he is now because to a certain extent, especially if you follow the president's feed, he says a lot of the same things and I'm not. Just talking about which hunt. I mean he the themes are very, very, very similar, and you know the band plays the hits and a lot of people like that hit song, but, you know, eventually, you need to write a new album. And it it's not entirely clear that Trump has done that. Yeah. I mean all presidents I think now we were realizing in the social media, no different than any other. You have your strongest year, twenty seventeen you know, steamroller and then you, you get into your second year you have a bad, mid term, these following that pattern. Exactly. Now, you're into the reelection and that's an open question, but generally presidents are favorite for your election. So you got you got like this pattern hasn't changed a despite this, and it could be the number of tweets sent could be leading to lower engagement. It could be that while they're supporters and this is critical to watch. If we're trying to guess, at twenty twenty for instance, 'cause exactly what happened that George W Bush in two thousand four or a lot of people were predicting not very popular president, who's gonna come out and vote forms not as much through Seattle for them, you know, but you could have, you know. The real fans get tired of being fanatics to get tired of being a liking every tweet. Let you know, they set it and forget it. But that doesn't mean they won't be there on election day when everyone remembers yells, right? You don't wanna necessarily over read any data point at this point in the campaign, and I'm sure you being acutely aware of the history of campaigns are always thinking about this and probably cringing little bit as you're reading some of the commentary on Twitter. And I'm having that same reaction goes all over the place does. Right. Okay. So let me ask you this. When you're thinking about this twenty twenty democratic primary. What is the strongest historical primary comparison to you? We discussed this on a recent episode of don't worry about the government and is in terms of usefulness that twenty sixteen Republican primary is actually probably a fairly useful analogy, but even that has certain restrictions. But where do you come? Down on it. Well, the twenty sixteen Republican one helps because it's such a large group of candidates, but, you know you can go back farther, nineteen seventy six democratic primary nineteen eighty Republican primary nineteen eighty four democratic primary, these were races in which that was very open nineteen Eighty-eight Republican and democratic primary, these are races, which it was very opening a really legitimately did know who the nominee was going to be, and nineteen Eighty-eight has been the most unusual in that it really wasn't known on either side. Because George H W Bush did not have a lock did not have it locked up. And Bob Dole was coming on strong and ends up winning Iowa and on the democratic side. It was all over the place. You know, Gephardt wins, Iowa caucus New Hampshire, you know, you, you don't quite know, and no one has a lot of support and so eight good one to look at recently. So there's multiple elections is the best answer, and that's always the best way to do it. Because no one elections ever going to be like exactly like the other point nineteen Eighty-eight fun too, because you have Joe Biden floating around there in the democrat primaries as well. I like that the echo of history, he made a really strong run. He absolutely could have won in nineteen eighty eight. He was always in this will sound crazy to the already. Joe Biden was always the young. Rising star of the Democratic Party. He was a Senator in his thirties. I this is definitely going to sound crazy to someone might but at one point when he first arrived at congress, he had kind of an AO see sort of flavor to as the young hot new thing. Yes. And especially with like the personal tragedies and stuff like that this guy who actually really did have a rising star in the nineteen eighty eight campaign didn't get taken by plagiarism in one of his speeches. Yeah. What will to, to give you the whole arc Biden had run in nineteen seventy-two? When Reagan was when Nixon was winning in a landslide at no democrat was really winning anywhere outside of the south, where at that time, they always one and usually won by endorsing Nixon. Right. So here's a liberal, Biden, who takes on a Republican incumbent who people said, couldn't be beaten, and he's like, I know he can be beaten. I'm gonna work them and he and tragically his wife at the time. We're out there working, and they pulled off a tremendous upset now Delaware's small state, you know, a newcomer like that can come on. And he was very strong Wilmington, the major city there and all of that. But nonetheless, he did win that Senate seat. And when on election day he was not old enough to serve in the Senate. But he was old enough to serve in the Senate. By the time you got to the opening of congress. So he was wild. I mean just getting young. You're talking like as soon as possible. Absolutely. And then he became you know, he was a longtime Senator. But he also had a youthful quality to he was talked about in nineteen eighty four. I just did a podcast on nineteen Eighty-four. So I counted up to eighteen people in reality when you talk about the talk who was being talked about it was very difficult to run a campaign at that time. I mean candidates had to go into extrordinary debt. Unlike now they start a website and start raising money immediately that really wasn't available could send out mailers but then you're the cost of the mailers there weren't, as many grassroots donors at that time. So these you couldn't just launch a campaign. But if you look at people that the media was speculating about that indicated to reporters, they might run you had about eighteen people at everybody from Dale bumpers. Arkansas to Jimmy Carter who didn't rule himself out till eighty to two former VP, Walter Mondale to Gary Hart of unknown. Center. Colorado running to Jesse Jackson, the civil rights activists to John Glenn, the astronaut and Senator from Ohio, Ernest Hollings and South Carolina. Alan, Cranston in, in California to Thomas Eagleton, who had been the, the candidate to and had to step step off. But you know, as I always bring up the Eagleton question, you know, he never he Missouri voters kept electing him. So this long term he was. He's still remained in the Senate was very popular. There were a lot of people being talked about is the point on, I counted almost eighteen Ted Kennedy was in that mix for a very long time. And so by was one of those people that would just, you know, media speculation I wouldn't say you had a realistic chance eighty four. But it set him up for eighty eight. And once he decided to run he was in it. He's a really strong candidate, the opponents, Michael Dukakis, Al Gore. Richard Gephardt Jesse Jackson was running again. Each of them had strengths in each of them had weaknesses. It was a real battle, Royal Biden came out very sensible very good, except that he was making speeches by labour leader that were written by labour leader in the UK, Neil Kinnock talking about how his father had been a, a steel worker, and things like this and really in previous iterations of the speech Biden had given credit to Kinakh but in, in a couple of times he didn't. And that's into not giving credit to get that, that kid happened that, that is an archive chest. But so watch out for things like this, because when he got this many people running, unfortunately, and this is what happened to him in eighty eight. So many people were running that one mistake is enough says the lupus coming out for you, you make one mistake. And here come the lupus. I don't like the looks of it. Yeah. Exactly. And then, and then another thing that happened. There is. And this is very interesting for the for the current race. If you have this, like twenty five or whatever, whatever we're up to number of people running. Is that candidates cancel each other out candidates, destroy each other their only way to advance to take out somebody who's most competitive to them? And they're not always good at picking who that is, by the way. But they try. And so for the caucus campaign, it was Biden northeasterner sensible kind of guy like gonna bring things a little centrists and things like that. Senator, you know, very visible, you know, after some of the various committees big on arms control a big issue with that time you could see Biden with Gorbachev no problem that the caucus people were worried. Yes. There guys just a governor Massachusetts that nobody knows what the funny name. And so they are the ones that put out this plagiarism story and pushed it with the reporters, but they did something else. They also made it seem like it was the Gephardt campaign that did, so which made by annoyed with Gephardt Gephardt had to apologize for something I didn't even do, and then and there was all this internal friction in the Democratic Party. And it only came out later after Biden was pretty much reduced that it was the Dakotas people who had pushed it, these things would Twitter. Nowadays would probably be picked up on quicker. These kind of behind the scenes dynamics with reporters news cycle moves so much faster. Now, I imagine him striking at noon, and then having a new spin on it by eight PM, right? Yeah. I mean, look out for things like that candidates are going to try to attack each other take take their opponent out. I believe the Sanders and Hank. And Looper is some very to. That's not that Sanders seems. And the fact that we're talking about Hickenlooper and I. For Bernie Sanders to take Hickenlooper bait because Hickenlooper is a guy who doesn't need to be elevated into the conversation. If you're Bernie Sanders. Yeah. I think yes. Sanders elevating Hickenlooper on any level, and maybe drawing sympathy towards Hickenlooper that he wouldn't otherwise have because people don't even know who he is a mistake for Sanders. Yeah. I think that it's hard to tell you know, we are in a bit of a new era in the interest. So Hickenlooper says, and it's so funny because you have the two things all observers. We got. We got a race with a Hickenlooper and a and a. Buddha jug. And then you got like Michael Bennett. You know you got you got everything in this race. Right. Yeah. Right. Right. Right. Sure. Tim. Right. You know, look, I'm gonna tell you. And this is this is going back to eighty four a bit. But it also happened in eighty eight. Probably by it. Honestly started to happen by December of eighty seven really you're down to few candidates. I mean, this even in this great era, where people can raise money online. This cannot stand, you won't have this many for very long. You're even seeing pressure on certain candidates to even stay in the race before there's a single primary before there's a debate before the Iowa straw poll. I mean yeah, raising people like Beddoe Rourke, and Michael Bennett. Michael Bennett the other day actually set. No Hickenlooper said this is another curious quote from him where he said the Senate has no interest for him. And so you are starting to see those pressures to with these guys like Rourke Bennett Hickenlooper, Eric swallow. Hey, you know, maybe your time would be better spent doing anything else. Maybe John, you spent your money would be spent doing anything else, and then you have candidates who aren't in an elected, or serious federal elected position, who are in the next to, to, to raise their ideas to raise money. I mean it's just very it's a very different time. But I think the basic rules are the basic function of politics is going to be there. You know, you're gonna get even before I or some people are going to drop out, you're gonna get, I awoke, and it's gonna be a long paring, down by September after that second round of debates. If these candidates that are going to be on the bubble coming out of this first round, debates don't have strong, showing or aren't able to distinguish themselves. I think that is going to be the shuttering of the doors for someone like Bill, the Blasios. Tim Ryan, Michael Bennett. They'll go on and do other things. I, I also think, money's ultimately going to become a real problem. Right. I think does even with because even even us like you know, Joe average donors to various campaigns, we can only afford so much. We also were not that different as it turns out from the billion dollar ones. I mean, we might not be we might not have our little secret crazy project or something or are one our, our own tax cut or something. But after a while we want to win two right? So stay in for year. Backing I mean I don't know. I'm a New York Jets fan. Right. So, you know, the nineteen sixty-nine I mean, the, you know, the film footage of our Super Bowl wins getting pretty grainy, so I can survive a while. But, you know, I, I can't keep paying for candidate if they're not going to be moving up in the polls, I think a lot of people would feel that that way. So you're gonna I think you're going to see it filtered down. But how does that happen? Why are they staying in now? 'cause they got a lottery winners chance. Right. And. And I awoke can do crazy things. But it's not that crazy, when you look at it, first of all, Iowa favors favors, mid westerners. It favors neighboring states favors people to talk like islands, it favors, retail politics, favors having gone in the state early and talking to people it likes to upset front runners, that's definitely Iowa. The problem with Iowa is recently. It's been it's, it's definitely still important. But if you don't win right? The media can race you're win and see that happen with Ted Cruz as he didn't win enough. So it's still kind of a Trump win. There's a bit of a Neapolitan ice cream thing happening between New Hampshire and South Carolina. The three different flavors. But they're all equally important in that first round, and sometimes Iowa, because it comes first in the ice cream gets overweighted, but you gotta. Make sure you look at how the demographics shift when you're looking at the New Hampshire numbers and then similarly with South Carolina as well. Yeah. Now, just look for. So what I can do is I would say, four people, I say this four slots at best five, yet even that's a stretch. The five is only a rescue, for somebody not, not any kind of statement. It's a reprieve. Yeah. Yeah. The fifth slot is a reprieve. But you have to really really change the game when you get to New Hampshire. So I think that basically and, and the other thing to understand is it's truly retail politics, really in both places but very much in Iowa because you're physically moving your body in the caucus areas and you're being persuaded, and it's a very susceptible to somebody who's, like, a good kind of new ideas candidate I see Buddha jug, and I'm not personally very supportive of him. I see Buddha jug as a as a as a force in, in Iowa. And then I would worry I might worry about him in New Hampshire. So I'm looking at the numbers right now. And I'm looking at some CBS yougov polls from, like the recent week here, and I've got South Carolina, New Hampshire and Iowa. So in Iowa Buddha edge does eleven in New Hampshire, he does ten and then in South Carolina. He does six for comparison here, Biden in Iowa. Thirty in New Hampshire thirty three in South Carolina right now. Forty five Sanders in Iowa twenty two Sanders in New Hampshire. Twenty Sanders in South Carolina. Eighteen Warren's the biggest mover here, so more more in, in Iowa twelve Warren in New Hampshire seventeen Warren in South Carolina eight. So these are things to keep in mind when you're looking at these different primaries, but of course, also New Hampshire and South Carolina will flux based off of what happens in Iowa to yes, it does. Although lately, Iowa's, I was spin has been a little less. Let let but but Hampshire will FOX a little bit. It will cause you'll see the. Media attention and other candidates will drop out you'll get the support of those candidates in the when you get to the New Hampshire primer. There's no doubt about it. But you're seeing a little less of what, what used to happen is that? You know, you look at eighty four it was Gary Hart to Walter Mondale one, which was an extreme surprise. The reality is, though, Walter Mondale over forty percent. And he was very much the Biden in that race. He was the former VP. So we have the institutional support Gary Hart gets eighteen percent. And that gets all the press going to New Hampshire. Of course, he plays it right. I'm not gonna win. I had, nobody knows me here. I'm from Colorado Bah any wins the New Hampshire primary by nine points. So you know, but I do wonder if that necessarily happens the same way now. And there's a lot more people focused on the dynamics of politics. And what all these things mean and the interest story and social media Laos for that, and that might dull some of the hype it's not just about getting the time magazine cover anymore. You know, now there's a lot, a lot more you need to do, but it will be interesting. And don't be surprised if it's not a huge cer-. Prize. If those numbers remain despite all the up and down, and maybe it just becomes a race for number five who will be under Warren. Yeah, I'm interested. I think the big difference in the field right now is with Sanders and Biden. They have near one hundred percent name recognition, people know who these candidates are, which is, I mean, with the exception of Donald Trump in general, when it comes to political figures at a gubernatorial or Senate level or Representative level their name recognition is usually your own fifty percent. It's not great. And so with a lot of the rest of the field. So Warren, Harris, booted Aurore Andrew gang. The one thing I'm keeping an eye on is that they have some room to swing upwards with a strong debate performance because I think a lot of people still don't know who Pete digits. A lot of people still don't know who Andrew Yang is. I mean those of us who talk politics, all the time, those of us on Twitter, those of us who are commenting on Facebook. Group. We'd who all these candidates are, but people who are just living their lives and going to their jobs in working right now that the election is two years away, is, they don't know who these, and this is going to be for a lot of people, the first time they flick on the television. So that's one thing I'm keeping mentally calibrated that even though all these people have been fresh for me. I've been aware of Buddha ges, stump speech, since January. There are a lot of people who are going to be hearing it for the very, very first time this campaign on June twenty seven no. That's a smart way to, to think about to reserve a place. And maybe I will open up that kind of mental fifth spot. The other thing I'd open up is the reason that I mentioned Buddha, judge that it's because of Iowa that he's very strong as an Indiana mayor and just the type of campaign, he's running. He's very well suited for Iowa. And that's what I think, helps him not I'm not just simply looking at polls or media position because otherwise, I would be very worried about him having risen so. Early. But it's only Iowa. And, and I think that he becomes a court of sort of quasi fund rate of front runner. And you already see attacks, you know, they'll be attacks on yet it will be interesting to see. In one thousand nine hundred ninety four and the and the campaign podcasts that I just did about the nineteen Eighty-four election stop talking about momentum which was a kind of phrase that the camp Mondale campaign kept telling reporters about Gary Hart. Like Gary Hart was certainly the jug in that race the Warren in that race was like George McGovern who is entering again after having run in seventy two and at liberals really wanted him. But also there were some when you ask liberals like Kenny win. They're like, maybe we should go with Mondale and then I don't know, maybe Reagan's gonna win anyway, they're pessimistic about it, but they wanted you know him. And then in the middle was kind of Gary Hart, who had all these new ideas. It was an interesting new force. He he avoided attacks because John Glenn was running, Walter Mondale was attacking him. Mondale was attacking Walter, Glenn was attacking Walter Mondale back you say you're gonna cut the deficit. You don't have. Plan. I have a plan and there were going back and forth. Gary Hart avoided initial attacks and was able to rise up on the strength of these new ideas. That's not going to that sort of already happened for mayor Pete. So it'll be India, certainly be interesting. Would have you may want to mentally reserve a fifth spot. If you're going to keep their and also, I wouldn't don't be surprised if he slips in the polls a bit, but still keeping an eye on to rise because I think his talk about job automation and the influence of technology. Amazon, those things, I think those are salient talking points. And I do hear people when they hear Yang's talk about that they go. Well, that's really interesting there. Maybe not entirely sold on Yang, but they like some of the things that he talks about. And I think that could result in some positive momentum for him now back a bit to. No, that's a good point. Valid point. Very important. Issue us versus robots is going to be an issue for the future. No doubt. And, and Trump already has it's one of his strongest plays that he appeals to some of that, at least in a vague sense of talking about jobs in the midwest, or at least as establish that, as, you know, talking about I'm going to bring back the jobs. I mean he was talking about outsourcing. And I think what Yang's responses which is interesting in salient people who are concerned about outsourcing is it's not just outsourcing. The people who are taking jobs aren't necessarily overseas. The people who are taking jobs, aren't actually people at all the robots and outsourcers can't bring it back from the robots right? Yeah. You talking about certain industries, like medical products car car parts. There's a lot in the United States. Chemicals is a lot big chemical industry in the United States, but it doesn't mean jobs are going to continue just because the companies are here, but you know, as an issue he bring it up. It's so interesting. Because in the nineteen Eighty-four election when Mondale does win the primaries and is running. Reagan, you know, you just take some of these billboards, and, you know, let's keep American products made in America here, the Democratic Party platform that the Mondale people wanted was to require American cars to have American parts and Faren a foreign car sold here had to have at least certain amount of American parts that was going to be in the platform. Gary Hart, who had enough delegates to swing it actually influence the platform committee to get rid of that because he was a free trade democrat. So it was is an interesting thing, though, to go back and see how the parties have reversed their way. So all of that is it's interesting. And I do pick up a little bit of the Yang. I don't wanna say momentum, but just because the candidates think he has the potential to grow because he's got a signature issue in a way that I just don't think a guy like Beddel Rourke has that ability. I think Rourke he is someone who I think, is in real danger of flaming out. There's no signature issue defining this guy with. Did you have a supreme court proposal with Andrew Yang? You have his talk about robotic automation in the universal basic income to combat that Warren has a plan for that. Bernie Sanders has Medicare for all. Joe Biden has thing. But, you know, people like Hama Harris Cory Booker, when I'm looking at the senators who have been struggling to find a lane and identity. I think a lot of it comes down to failing to have a distinguishing bold policy proposal to bring to the table. So when you're Amy klobuchar just saying, I'm sensible in a field of twenty two people, it's never gonna be enough. I honestly forgot she was running, but they're gonna say too, but then I just reminded her. I do think, though, I go back to there's somebody who perhaps with some local in being a mid westerner, and in, in Iowa could have some advantage Kamala Harris, too. I just think she's stronger in New Hampshire than in Iowa, and that might be with so many people running that, that might be something she doesn't need might be an unhelpful series of, of caucuses and primaries for her. You know the problem for her is right now. I'm looking at Iowa New Hampshire South Carolina, Iowa five percent New Hampshire seven percent. So you're right. She stronger, but where you'd expect her to pick up some mental, South Carolina, right? Seven percent so she's gonna right now between New Hampshire and South Carolina. So what you've got is gonna be I will say that in the democratic primary, there's the one given you're going to have is that there will be strong pressure for there to be a woman candidate to remain in the race. So if Warren is knocked out a meal. Camila ours is not going to quit. No on that basis. No name would be who for like looking at the numbers further here in South Carolina, Biden's at forty five percent its strongest state by far. He's at thirty percent. He's actually been going the wrong way and other States, South Carolina's the one where he looks the best right now and it would be who've Harris to really start trying to take a dig at Biden, because that appears to be where her votes are going right now. Well, I wonder and you know, let's bring it back a bit to Hickenlooper which who very back around hick can loop, right? You know, by the way, a little quick fund. Factored Burke, Hickenlooper. I don't believe the relative, but he's the original Hickenlooper in politics, and he was a Republican Senator from Indiana, who was very opposed to civil rights legislation. And who because it was the Senator from Illinois the Republican majority leader, who worked with LBJ to pass the civil rights, Bill. Burke, Hickenlooper was the head of those Republicans who remained like Barry, Goldwater and others who remained against the civil rights, Bill. John Hickenlooper couldn't be more different in politics. But I guess, in the democratic party's consider the centrist. So I guess this is the way I see the question you were asking earlier. Why hit why had Hickenlooper right should be t-shirt? Why hit Hickenlooper? Camping. Actually, I want I want to reserve a bit of time to talk about the hit Hickenlooper thing because there was a, there was a factor on that in the eighty four election that could happen again and could cause a candidate to rise or fall. But, but real quickly, I think why does he do it because I don't know if Sanders particularly has like a strategy like that Sanders has always struck me as sort of he has his what he wants to talk about, and he talks about it. And that's one of the reasons there was such a peel for him. Right. That he's such a this is just his message. And he looks you can't deny his authenticity. I talk about the X Y axis of strong authentic. He's definitely strong on the authentic side strong on the authentic. So when he saw the video he responded to it right now. We're gonna put our campaign hats. I think very much after the fact because I don't I mean, maybe as tad Devine helping my maybe that's done already. I don't know if he has a strategist like that good him to not have tad Devine bad stuff that. Happened last couple of years. I think I think so, too. But if a political strategy after the fact, might look at it and say, well, it's pretty easy. You want to attack somebody who's in the moderate faction. But if you tack Biden, you've got a war, he doesn't need a war, yet, if you attack Hickenlooper you make your point. Oh, without let your tune up the band a little bit. Okay. I see affirmative argument for it a little bit here too, because he's going to have to start attacking. That's one thing I've noticed from all of his WMU are spots. He does a lot of local news appearances in New Hampshire Casey out in Iowa. He's been very reticent to go after Joe Biden, at this point, although I would say the time is nine but maybe perhaps Hickenlooper is a pre sage of him running around and going after buying a little bit more well to the white hit Hickenlooper, point, we definitely gotta get t shirts for sale. Nineteen ninety nine raise money for both show. Shows, you know, hurting podcasts are hurting out there. Never mind. Hey, we got merged trews in for a brew wide. Look. No. Why hit Hickenlooper is the question. And the reason I bring that up is that in the nineteen Eighty-four primary, while and things that I observed did not get a chance to talk about a lot in the cast is that. It reached a point where heart was going at Mondale and Mondale was going at heart heart at all the institutional support. He was kind of, like the, the Biden in this situation and. Heart, that was Mondale had the institutional support heart had the new upcoming rising barely outta there was like nine people running working on the campaign when he started a lot of the moves were made by himself. And he was very much like Sanders in ways very art benthic person. And he even looks at politics, so many years ago and, and sees that he really was a head of his time that he was just an authentic. He was saying what he wanted to say. And he thought there important new ideas that may or may not be popular with various groups and things like that. But as it whittle down to really heart and Mondale, and you still had Jesse Jackson in the race all the way to the convention. It really got to be a campaign negative campaign. They're hitting each other hard. He's hearts hitting Mondale about all the labor union support and Mondale's hitting heart that he's not really a person that cares about clean, air or civil rights that he's secret Republican and things like that. And you have this famous moment, where Jesse Jackson has to bang his water glass on the table. And he and he says, you know this writ, tat is not helping our party is not helping us grow or anything like that. And but the arguments that heart and Mondale were making before the he was before, Jesse Jackson had his water glass moment, was where that why are you attacking me? Why are you hitting me on this? In other words, using your opponents attack against them by saying, you're an attacker hurting the party. Exactly a primary. You have to be concerned about it. But more of the point in a primer of twenty five people have to be real concerned about it. Because negative people can go down really fast and lose their support. I mean just ask Donald Trump. Yeah. And that's why I think that absolutely. Right. Right. That's the exception to the rule. I yeah. I, I mean so why do you think that is, though, like why was down Trump able to break this rule that you just outlined? So effortlessly. First of all, I think I think it's a democratic primary rule. I guess I'd have to think about it more. It could work in the Republican primary. You know Ronald Reagan's. Famous rule was the eleventh commandment that, right? Don't attack Republicans that. Yeah. However, Reagan also use that because he was in California primary, for governor against a more liberal Republican, and there was a lot to attack. And in a way, I feel like Reagan use that as a four shield, and he slapped at eleventh commandment on the California debate, and then it made it harder for him to be attacked. He Reagan had a really difficult meeting. There is a meeting of black Republicans in California, when he first ran for his first race for governor and he had a, a really rough time in that meeting. But, you know, to his credit he did show up at the meeting, and he did listen to criticism. But he was trying to avoid criticism. And that's how that helped him. I'm not sure if it's a strong, particularly in a in a Republican primary, and particularly with the type of candidates that were running that year. It with other candidates. Let's say Trump, who has a certain skill and also what Trump has tolerance of high negatives Trump doesn't care, if you hit him, he's going to hit you back if he's going to make his point, if you he's not looking at I, well, I'm not to say he's not looking at anything but, you know, he's not concerned in doing that with these high negatives. All right. That's unusual. So normally in a primary probably would be true that you, you know, even in a Republican primary. Let's say if it was only Rubio running against cruise and twenty sixteen. Yeah, the more negative person could in a large field again when it gets narrowed to, to you gotta start firing your guns. But in a large field you have too many people who can who can sort of ricochet and start attacking you for being negative, look better by comparison rise up in the polls steal some of your week or support. And that's the. Kind of thing Sanders is thinking about an addition probably to his general approach in campaigns. I mean he he's going to attack you, because you fit into his issue set right now, if you're taking money from corporate interests, he's going to attack you because of that he's not one that just immediately frame his whole campaign as a personal attack against another person. So to kind of answer my question little bit, or at least take a stab at, when, when I think about why was Trump able to do all this? I think what happened with the Republican party, and this could very easily happen with the democrat party. I could very easily construct a narrative starting in two thousand eight onwards, for the Democratic Party, especially, you know, in twenty twenty four sometime where they're all these unspoken putting this in quotes truce inside of the party that start piling up and for years party leadership kind of avoids articulating. And speaking to these truce, this is what I'm very worried about with Nancy Pelosi. She strategy right now with impeachment, by the way like looking ahead. I know there's this argument that it's politically wise for her. You know try to stave the horses of impeachment. But what I look at is for Republicans. There were all these troops started stack up during the Bush administration Bush did spend too much. That's why it was part of what motivated the tea party. It wasn't just purely a reaction of Barack Obama. Although obviously that was no small part of it. There's also this taxing and spending thing that was happening during the Republican administration that made a lot of conservatives, very uneasy they felt like the Iraq war in the Afghantistan war in the war on terror. Even though they supported the concept of fighting against global jihad. And all of that. It's hard to argue eight ten years into the longest military campaign that the United States had ever been involved in their lifetime, that this was going exceedingly well, and the and they knew that. And they knew that, when the administration was saying, this is going great. We just eat one. More surge starting to resemble a little bit catch twenty two. They knew that the leadership was not particularly serious about repealing ObamaCare, and that they were doing a whole bunch of show boats, and all those things start to pile up. So Donald Trump when he arrives on the scene in twenty fifteen we're on the four year anniversary of now immediately is coming is talking about how George Bush, you know, kind of screwed things up and how Jeb Bush thinks brothers so great. But his brother wasn't so great, and was able to start speaking to all these unspoken to truce and what I worry about with Nancy Pelosi looking into my crystal ball. Little bit here is if she is able to do what she thinks is so wise, inverted, and she didn't want to impeach Bush, or go after any of the war crimes during the Iraq war, and she's now dithering on impeaching Trump. There's going to be this pile up of unspoken to truce truce inside the party truce that during the Iraq war, we committed war crimes truce that Donna. Trump committed obstruction of Justice and did impeachable acts. And if she lets stack up, you eventually get to the point where some bold Donald Trump in Huey long truth teller comes around is able to speak to all these cathartic truths and really disrupt things and not in a constructive way. Well, I think another form of saying what you're saying is that the Republican party has had more contours regionally in, it's gonna to'real congressional presidential fields than the Democratic Party has recently, so take, for example, the freedom caucus, you take, for example, Ted Cruz, let's take Trump out of the equation for second. I mean, just an election with Ted Cruz against Jeb Bush would have brought up a hornet's nets of, of issues that were kind of off the table for the mainstream establishment RNC say. And that might be the, the, you know, whether whether he would have went after him for having for his brother, having started the war or something like that, you know, maybe not, but in terms of the spending the spending during the Bush administration. Absolutely. That would have been part of the primary issue. But, but think about how much tamer this, so you have jet or you have Ted Cruz, not going after Jeb for his brother. And on the other end you also have Jeb, not going after Ted Cruz for his father, killing JFK. Well. Down the intensity a little bit. Right. It's a very different race. But I still think there's a strong issue divides, in that party. And they existed in the Democratic Party, I think you saw, like say with the Sanders campaign centers also like a strong independent group that were entering primaries, too. And, and we're both a potential for democratic votes played. Right. And it wasn't played right. But there was a potential there and also a danger in that they were sort of changing and rocking the establishment of the party also got mad when the establishment of the party was seen to be undermining them and their candidate. Right. So it's it was, there's a hornet's nuts there, too. But I think now you have the full contours within the party that you have fully have a block with very well known people. You know, of course, I'm thinking AFC. Others that are on the Democrats. I mean, you're talking about the freedom caucus and the tea party caucus and I certainly wouldn't want a one these, but when I'm looking at preconditions for aid frumpy in type figure, especially in our recent politics. One thing that's important is a strong partisan ideological caucus there is now that and so the Democratic Party generally generally, you know, it's, it's hard to say there's a lot of people say, oh, that's a positive thing. We need a robust discussion. Or, you know, my issues are being heard for the first time I have a voice for my issues. I was, you know, people will say things like that, just from a pure politics Jan point looking at kind of who would win. Couple of interest. It's not a clear, yes or no. Whether you wanted to party or not being an opposition. You know we brought up Franklin Roosevelt before the Democrats in one thousand nine hundred eighty two were not that United. I mean also Smith is a very even though FDR endorsed Ausman, then they had a falling out there was wet. I Ryan thirty six in thirty two. Whether each and he tried to run again in thirty two dads. Right and pizza mountain thirty two and not the end it was tough convention. It was, it was not an easy convention, and there. Also, John Nance garner of Texas. The speaker of the house who was had a whole nother wing and there are a lot of there's, there's a lot of battling and would have probably ran against FDR nineteen thirty six and that would have been very divisive. It would have been Huey long in thirty two, by the way, was one of these and I just can't help but have a little bit of an analog to Trump, there that in, in being such a presence and a. Figure, who's always commenting who is being sought out by reporters. And, you know, he got he supported FDR in nineteen thirty two but FDR was almost like g banks a lot. By the time it was all over because you along was taking credit for his win in thirty two. Yeah. In Huey long release. Start doing these big very well, done speeches other Senate floor. They're televising me. He brought in the cameras. He is Trumpian in a lot of ways. But I even think that, that, frankly, under cells, what Huey long brought to the table in terms of political skills. The table which we have a sample, it is our estimate that four percent of the American people own eighty five percent of the wealth of Meyer. And I over seven percent of the people of America. Don't only know to pay the pit to fail. I have a went Pepo to we'll let one man take off the table. What then tended benign pen to the people eat, don't way you'll have be able to beat the balance that people make that man come back and bring back some that growth being bitten? Going to feed the bounds of the people. Moving in Baru in Rockefeller Mellon, going to do with all that. They made it. The close live in the house. Sent them to read a new wife when? When they got ever thing on God's living earth, can eat lake and they live in. All at their children can live in and why all their children children can use. Got the call mister Mogo and most of the melon and miss. Throng Avella baggage. Come back here. On his table head that you don't need. Something else for the American people to consume and that's the pro kind of a dangerous guy. But boy was used skilled guy, I think obviously, it goes without saying that, you know, American democracy, the American Republic, every single comment at that constitutional convention. I often think that the people generalized too much about the constitutional convention at what the quote, founding fathers said seventeen eighty seven in Philadelphia. But I'll tell you this. When you're talking about a voiding demagogue corruption cabal, that's almost universal that's almost universal from the from the most elitist member of the constitutional convention to the lowest member of the ratifying convention in the smallest state. You know, it's just as so it always always is to be avoided like the Huey long of our of our politics. And I think he was a figure that was a could have been enormously dangerous for. With the economics of that time you have. People say that Trump is testing constitutional norms, and puts us into low level, constitutional crises, I think Huey long if you become president would have done that on overdrive, because the economics of the time would have given him a political base to really push the envelope on stuff. I think it would have been very bad for our system. And I also think he would have been terribly equipped to wage World War Two yet could've gotten real dangerous. It could have been gotten real dangerous. And I think that you have to try to do the all tests on, now you've got to trust the lion, political instrument instincts of and I mean lion. L I, O, N, A, political instincts of, of, of FDR there to deal with that. But it would have been a rough challenge from his left, and I believe it would afford Franklin Roosevelt farther to his right. And I would have been the likely outcome there. And so he would have had to appeal more. More to not just the progressive Republicans. But all the former Republicans just to, to maintain a center in politics, would have been afraid of you probably would've won the challenge would have been though. I there's on his right and Huey long to his left. This is like the two parts of Donald Trump. Not yet full United. Well, I mean you know, after you are made a hell of a MARTINI and a hell of a political cocktail as well. You know, I mean he, he would find a way to do it, but in terms of the current politics, I mean, I guess, one thing to say is a maybe to a degree that if, if that's going on the system worked. Right. We have a we have a house of one party and a Senate a really kinda close, but of the other party, and then a White House of the other party. So like the system's kinda work in their right? If it was a continued, like domination than I think, what many people said about FDR when he was president is, you know, the words like dictator he's trying to take over, particularly. When I noticed in the own the family episode with Maude and Archie when. Discussing FDR, because mod is an FDR democrat, but they start talking about your and we're our she goes is not into some sort of appeal about how social security is very bad or he doesn't like the works progress administration or how FDR expanded the administrative state what he says about FDR's that FDR was trying to become a king. And I had never I just never really heard that argument articulated like that. But it's so obvious. Right. I mean you're all very. Yeah. Very common argument, I would say after nineteen thirty seven sure within the Democratic Party as well. Particularly among southern conservatives, he FDR attempted to purge using the people that were responsible for new deal, money distribution, say South Carolina in Maryland. He was going. He wanted to get rid of senators. Democratic senators democrat on democrat in certain state. It's and he used the people that were the WPA administrators in those states to run against these people, hoping that they would have built something with all the work that they were doing. And of course, they did build some political support. But it wasn't enough N and all of FDR's primary challenges failed. And it just emboldened his opponents more. So he definitely had problems by the time you get to term to as a lot of presidents do. But that was an Oregon. But the reason you could more make that argument more with a straight face is that controlled every branch of the government. Except one. The supreme court now this is an interesting reversal of the situation and I think one of the things to be a bit afraid of is that if president controls congress, the White House and the supreme courts of not only of the same party, but favorable to you. I worry about, like we're just kicking all the decisions upstairs knowing how it's going to go and see you just just in terms of pure, you know, I'm not really talking about an individual issue here, or agreeing or disagreeing with it, and I'm just talking about pure political power and I don't know. I'm like, you know, I just always want somebody to lose a little power is good thing, right? Ways to change the meaning of the constitution without changing the words of the constitution, the documents days, the same but through all the jurisprudence and even additional laws bureau's that get created. And then presidents that uphold those bureaus validity and stuff. You actually change the context of the constitution. Yeah. You gotta be careful and I shouldn't be so hyperactive about it like it could very well. Be I'd look out for it that, that two nominees that Trump has appointed to the supreme court have some restraint, but no I share with you. That concern of there's a real danger of all the checks and balances are one way or affectively one way or very nearly one way that things really move in a direction. So, you know, for example, of conservatives were wringing their hands during the new deal because FDR was able to move so much stuff along, and even. His failed court packing approach, what did do very effectively was allow them to pass other legislation and the courts didn't really wanna step to him on it, because they were like I don't really want to do, this whole FDR court packing thing, second time around, but to be fair. It was it was also states. It was it was the whole country. There was a much larger effort to pass some of these types of legislation. Minnows also, one of the big ones child labor was another one, and it was the courts where responding to it and responding to some pressure, perhaps, but also if it's I think some of it was like, you know, Owen Roberts, who is the decider on the on the key case that kind of turn things was kind of like, well, they argued it. Well, the first time and different the other one was a federal case and the other was a state case, and, you know, it was also kind of if it's a fifty fifty maybe a little pressure goes, but it's not gonna completely change your ideology things. Like that. But I'm always, yeah. Always concerned about power and a Republic, you want, like a couple of blocks off the Jenga puzzle. You don't want to like you don't want to take. You don't wanna always like flip the Django puzzle over, but I maybe like taking a few blocks out. And if you look at today's bother you do have a house of one party and a Senate generally speaking supreme court and president of another there's a little bit of you know what happened last year you could look at from a pure Republic standpoint as well. Maybe we've got a little balance. Yeah, a little, I think the big issue right now is just an imbalance between the three branches. I mean, the real tension. We're seeing is that and this is not something that just started during the Trump presidency. But the executive branch, I are good. This started during FDR's presidency. All roads lead back. Gary wills, conservative historian wrote, awesome book, I can't recommend it enough. We've done a whole book club on it for don't worry about the government on a premium side. It's called bomb power, and wills essentially argues in the book that the expanded executive branch that we saw really get expanded post nine eleven with the Patriot Act and, and Bush's conduct of the war. The fact that we're still appealing to the nine eleven two thousand one AU as we were discussing right now, but ten military action in Iran. Gary, wills various occasions, when he wrote this book, I believe, in twenty ten but wills argues that the atomic bomb and the presence ability to uses. As our current president talks about his ability to use. The button is the thing that has led to a massive creep of executive branch power over the congressional because congress can't do oversight because the president can claim matters of national security in the nineteen forties. It was I can't tell you about or doing right now and Los Alamos, because it's a matter of state secrets, and they're working on the Manhattan project. Yeah. Well, I mean, I think that I think it starts, I think it begins in, you know, Lincoln Spurs is a bit of an aberration it certainly has a plateau there, you know, the largest US budget you've ever seen. And then you spending corpus. Yeah, sure. Sure absolutely. Yeah. But obviously, there's the reasons for that need not be repeated, but you get to World, War One and you get to Woodrow Wilson, and some of his both is legislation. But also World War One. Both of them really his domestic agenda, which. It's really, you know, if you look at it had had the effect of reducing the gilded age, and, but it also required money and, you know, you see in largely income tax during his time. See the Federal Reserve, there's a definitely more government controls, but it's really World War One that really enlarges the government, it does shrink. But it doesn't discontinue during those twenty Republicans as someone might think there's a little budget reduction like max vaber at this point had written all this work about the bureaus and that was very much just like comic commonly. Accepted wisdom at that point in both parties. It was just a way of thinking about bureaus and the president gets the ability to send a budget to congress in nineteen twenty. So that is the nineteen twenty one budget Bill gives the president, the now the president's putting together budgets, admitting it. That's one of the. First steps towards a very strong executive that you get. And, and that continues on. And certainly as you as you referenced during FDR's presidency, the and World War Two and then Truman and the, the nuclear bomb. And all of that you see the presidency enlarging and, you know, I think it's always fair to question. Like should we be reducing some of these powers? Congress has to look out when they're passing legislation how much power the reserving for themselves, they have to start thinking about branches, and I think it'll be a nice conversation to have whenever people feel like talking again. No in congress. I think should get back onto the public square more and be talking. So like a oh, see I think one of the things that she's doing. That's very effective on all though, not every step is always super effective. I'm not defending every tweet I by any means issues out there and talking on Twitter. And what does that matter? Because I would argue that one of the things that Donald Trump has done through his Twitter. Activity. And this is very subtle, but I think it's important is us created even more power into the decorative branch because he draws even more attention to the executive branch at the expense of the other two branches of government. So we think and start to think that pretty much all the action runs for the presidency and that is wrong. It's like not actually the way our system is designed nor should it be well, but it is, as you reference post post World War Two post nine eleven. It's certainly enlarged, yes, it certainly enlarge. But when it comes time to, let's say Bill, the wall, or pass a healthcare Bill or do whatever the thing is that you want to do is the president. There's only so many things you can do is the president as president has discovered Brock Obama discovered. I mean, you know, Bush was able to get that a U M F authorisation from congress, but he needed to have that he would have been pretty hamstrung, if he didn't have the math like he needed approval. Yeah. I, I don't think you would have been able. I mean I can't imagine a paradigm. Congress doesn't give it to them after nine eleven. But you know what I'm saying if he didn't have that consent? He wouldn't have been able to do the project in the Middle East that he engaged. We have now the historical example of it. And I and I, I know there's a lot of Republican criticism of, of the enlarged use of that as well. And there was a committee vote on a couple years ago where they, they did at least votes, take a look at it. I think you have the historical example now of using authorization way too long that hopefully people can go back to. And I just think they also have to look at when they authorized legislation and spending, how much power, they're ceding to it executive, and in terms of the media, I think, so, so let's flush that out of it because certainly Trump has command of the Twitter and, you know, has the sun revolving around the, the earth, so to speak. I will say that the power that Trump is a massing through social media can very easily be released back into the ether just by a inquiry. Normal president having a more normal media presence. You know, more subdued more standard tweets. We don't focus on the six AM outrage of the morning, every morning. So I think some of this can be released back into the Easter. But in the interim Trump is actually amassing, even more power more focus on the office of the president. Well, I think it's, it's, it's it makes appointed another in another area, and that's that. So what, what probably would be the argument to what you just said is. Oh, are you kidding me? I had to wake up every day, you know, this is if a person is a GOP supporter and see Obama on every network on, on Oprah on, on all of the major TV news with very favorable coverage, and they barely criticized him, you know, here and there, whatever. And I think that one has to enlarge their, their dimension of what media is now because I think it's, you know, our people really getting the news from that box any more. I mean what I know I don't think so I'll busy. I'm doing a podcast also work fulltime job. I'm you know where I go to my Email, and what do I see is probably whatever y'all who puts up there. And I know that's not regular media. I mean, that's there's some mixed in there is some business insider and, and blogs and things of a lot of different types of opinion, get a lot of my from Twitter, or from Facebook, that various friends who, you know, have a lot of different political persuasions will send. And if you look at that, if you look at the one media, I mean, you have okay I could see where someone might say, like, oh, a lot of the television media, the reporters seemed to be more on the. Left side of things. I mean, I think there's a variety of reasons why that might be the case. And then yet Fox News, maybe CNN, and that kind of thing. Oh like we're overwhelmed or or what have you? But that's TV, and that's one form of media that really isn't that problem when you look at the total media, I think it's very, very even and has been for quite a long time. We're just not looking at that. And I think 2016 showed you was it about TV ad Hillary Clinton outspent Donald Trump several times on TV ads, but I so I'm a bad comparison this, but I just can't imagine being twenty years old again, for any number of reasons but watching CNN and MSNBC and being like a young like left of center center, not, not Trump person as young twenty year old person and being excited to watch Nicole Wallis and Jake tapper and John Brennan and all these people in their forties. It does feel disconnected from the younger generation. And also, we are seeing just media consumption patterns change. Right. We have. More podcast, the amount of people who are downloading podcasts. I mean you and I can speak to this as we've been around or doing this for a long time that number has gone up a lot because that's starting to replace radio in your car people. Listen to them at home, people get on YouTube, and they watch, you know, long sprawling Joe Rogan podcast, Sam Harris waking up. I mean, you know, all of these different video sources and they want stuff on demand. So yeah, I'm with you. I, I don't think that, like let's say the Sunday news shows are going to move the needle, especially for anyone under the age of thirty five. I mean right, exactly if you found a secret way to, to tweak and influence the all these news programs. I think you have a, a really you know, you know, a really like I don't know what you get out of it. I mean, I think people are listening to more podcasts. It's not just a cat. Yeah. I'm not saying bring in younger people. I don't think that, that solves the problem. No. I think what I mean is the, the other aspect to look at is even on the internet? It's a lot about the comments. Right. It's like I looked too. I read an article first thing I want to do is look at the comments know, sometimes I, I get outraged by what I see. But anyway. Masochistic god. I think a lot of people do it, though. N B C, what people think that's why get on Red Eye. Let's it's the real issue heal. Yes. Yeah. Some. But look what's going on? You're not just reading the comments if that were the case you just be zombie reading comments. Right. But you're not a comment, readings ambi-, you're more than that. No, you are. Thank you. You're welcome. And what I what I think, is going on. Is that your brain is processing, the article, plus the comments is it's a it's a mixture. If you just see article with anything I worry a bit about like bias and did they miss points. Any wanna look at the competency if somebody costs that's just part of communication day podcasts, are very by their nature critical, the way that people talk on podcast. They're just kind of starting from a critical bent. It's not it's not like a news presentation. That's I ended analysis. Right. Yeah. When you do analysis e always going to argued necessarily shade critical but at the same time I think you can be critical without being negative. But that's something that you actually have to be mindful of, and most people don't even kind of make that thought of. Okay. Be critical. But don't be negative. So what you hear most of the time when it's news analysis shows it's negatively. Yeah. And I think the reason the authentic politicians are having a little bit of a run. I don't think it's the answer to everything. But I don't think say, what's on your mind is the answer to everything. But I think the reason are having a little bit of runs that they thrive. Well, in, in what the bulk of the real media is. And that real media that total pitcher some TV some radio driving in the car. What have you podcasts? On your Yahoo Email wherever you get Email, that news, that flashes up, the various, blogs, people go to all of those things, probably missing one YouTube, keep recommending to people if you really wanna have a better understanding this campaign. Go and watch the candidates appear on this radio program called the breakfast club. Are you familiar with the breakfast club? No. Okay. So I got homework. Now, I want you to go watch Andrea. He doesn't appearance on the breakfast club. I think the way that they do interviews on. There is very, very instructive for where media is going ready to a fan of imminent. Yeah. Interesting because you're gay man, and he's had homophobic glares that addiction kind of, and I think, you know, a lot of us, especially recently have been trying to figure out when there's artists that we respect there are there's, there's something in it or there's something in them that we cannot get on board with, how are we going to deal with that the thing about him an Amazon, that there was a sense of militant pride for place like Detroit. I mean the way people talked about Detroit, especially up until this deck. Also. And, you know, there's a sense. No, like it matters to be from city like this. We don't believe in a city like this, and I kind of sensed that in his work, but, but yeah, it's not like you can excuse. And I think he's been trying to deal with too. It's not like you can excuse the homophobia. What about you? Like I do not approve of their politics, but I kind of approve their chicken. You might guy. So maybe maybe nothing else. I can build that bridge. Maybe all become in a position to broker that peace deal air of extremes, like you can't see no onset anymore and these kids need to be able to do an appearance on a show like the breakfast club. Most of these candidates are, but the ones who can do it successful Buddha. They're able to thrive, I think, and the ones who are not able to kind of find their foothold against Charlemagne the God and the other members of the breakfast club. They're the ones who have trouble. Yeah. Spin as as it existed in the nineteen nineties is, is not dead. But it's on its way out because it leaves too much out the whole idea of spin. If you're a Tony Blair or Bill Clinton, George Stephanopoulos back when he was in politics. You're leaving information out. That's the whole game was spin. Right. You're, you're not talking about this. And that's really, really hard now in this new media environment. Yep. We're going to pick up on it. You know it's gonna be prison. Chris are gonna as the first thing we're gonna talk about right, right? Yeah. And we're able to. Get something faster. There's Dow, there's fewer gatekeepers. There's obviously pluses and minuses to the viewer gatekeepers thing. But one thing that is I believe a general plus is that the media can react much quicker. And if you sell flimflam, there's a real incentive to your point for all people in news analysis to go, something negative that I can be critical of flimflam is something we can definitely be critical and everyone jumps all over it, and Keith comment or with a lot of likes on any one of these services could be not as influential, but relatively influential is a minor host on the program. So there's definitely a new media pitcher that people aren't addressing and it's very and I think now that the argument about media being biased one way or the other. You know, getting even more tired than it was. Well, Mr. November? No, I realized my laundry do. I never got it. So I have to run up and get it. Okay. Yeah. Well, that is some real cinema verite we'll, Bruce Carlson. Thank you for having. Me on my history can beat up your politics and thank you for coming on. Don't worry about the government. Where can people find my history beat up your politics? Thank you. And you're welcome. And it's WWW dot my history can beat up your politics dot com and thank you, and your welcome at its don't worry TV and my other show is called the own the family podcast, you can find don't worry about the government on, I tunes Institure as well as the all in the family podcast on itunes and Stitcher. Thanks. Bye bye. Phone.

Bernie Sanders Rourke Bennett Hickenlooper Royal Biden Democratic Party Iowa Walter Mondale New Hampshire South Carolina Donald Trump FDR Franklin Delano Roosevelt Ronald Reagan Senator Gary Hart Twitter president Trump Senate Republican party Jesse Jackson
CBS3 News PM News Update 03092021

CBS3 Eyewitness News Philadelphia

01:07 min | 3 months ago

CBS3 News PM News Update 03092021

"I'm just talion here are today's cbs. Three i would assume headlines. Elijah solomon a villanova. Football player was picked up by police this morning and is now facing serious charges including one felony for allegations of sexual assault by a female student. The alleged incident happened in august of twenty nine thousand nine inside his dorm room. Solomon for now is in jail unable to post ten percent of his two hundred fifty thousand dollar bond jerry hill. School district has taken another step on the road to recovery. The district began a four-day hybrid learning model today in person. Learning now applies to all grade levels tuesday through friday. Monday will be virtual for all students. The money is pouring in to help the city of philadelphia revitalize fdr park today mayor kenney announced four and a half million dollars in new funding. The money will be used to create a welcome center and to design a world-class playground and picnic area at the park in south philadelphia. I'm just ca-car talia for the latest on these stories and more checkout cbs. In philly and we'll see you later tonight on eyewitness news.

Elijah solomon jerry hill villanova cbs fdr park mayor kenney Solomon Football philadelphia talia philly
1940, Willkie vs. Roosevelt: Storm on the Horizon

American Elections: Wicked Game

43:40 min | 1 year ago

1940, Willkie vs. Roosevelt: Storm on the Horizon

"Sunday September third, nineteen, thirty, nine outside the Office of the Foreign Ministry in Berlin. And just before nine, am and Paul Schmidt, a translator for the German foreign. Ministry sits impatiently in the back but taxi. He's late for a very important meeting. Only days ago, Hitler's Army invaded Poland the British demanded. Germany withdraw, but Hitler pressed on and last night. The British embassy called the meeting. Schmidt was ordered by his superiors receive the British. Ambassador at nine am sharp. Overworked and under immense pressure Schmidt overslept, and a lack of punctuality is not tolerated in Nazi Germany. As Schmidt's taxi tear through Villain Helm Plot Square. He sees the British ambassador. Enter the building. Stop Stop the car. Determined to be on time Schmidt leaves out of the taxi. He enters the building through a side door before sneaking into the meeting room through a back entrance. Inside the office, he barely has time to gather his breath before the clock strikes nine and the main office door opens. Ambassador Henderson Welcome Front. British ambassador Sir Neville, Henderson No Schmidt. The two men have cordial, professional friendship but today. All business. Would you like to sit Mr Henderson No. Anderson stand solemnly in the center of the room. I regret that on the instructions of my government, I have to hand. You know Henderson produces a document in reads it aloud. More than twenty four hours elapsed since an immediate reply was requested to the warning of September first. And since then the attacks on Poland have intensified if his Majesty's government has not received satisfactory assurances of the cessation of all aggressive action against Poland. And the withdrawal of German troops from that country by eleven o'clock British summertime from that time, a state of war exists between Great Britain and Germany. and Hans Schmidt the piece of paper, I am sincerely sorry. Then I must hand such a document to you in particular as you have always been most anxious to help. Schmidt size this is not the outcome he was hoping for. Yes I'm sorry to I, want you to know I have always held you in the highest regard ambassador. Have I Mr Schmidt. Schmidt immediately carries a message to the office of Adolf Hitler. The waiting room is packed to the brim with high ranking German officials men like Hermann Goering Hitler's second in command as the men argue, and debate, Schmidt pushes through the crowd Hitler sits at his desk, talking with the German ambassador to Great Britain when Schmidt enters the room, both men look expectantly. Schmidt translates the message word for Word Room. Falls Quiet Hitler reacts. He sits silent and unmoving his demeanor as calm. As is burn with rage. After delivering Ambassador Henderson's message Paul Schmidt back into the waiting room. As Schmidt wrote to those in the anteroom, pressing around me, I said the English just handed us an ultimatum in two hours. A state of war will exist between in Germany. Pouring Schmidt her mind getting replied. If we lose this war, then God have mercy on us. But in order to defeat Germany Britain. France and their allies would need America support, and in order to give that President Franklin Delano Roosevelt would have to convince the American people to take a moral stance on the international stage. Graham and this American elections wicked game. At the outset of World War Two FDR was reluctant to get involved throughout the Nineteen Thirties Roosevelt had kept his eye on the growing threat of what would eventually be called the Axis powers Germany Japan and Italy. FDR knew that dictators like Adolf, Hitler and Benito Mussolini Posts an existential threat to the American people. Also believe he did not have the political will to bring America into global conflicts in the nineteen. Thirties America was dealing with its own economic crisis. The Great Depression after yards, new deal for America had helped pull the country out of the depression, but not fast enough for many of FDR's critics, and during his second term, the economy was in part moving in the wrong direction. Roosevelt's decision to cut back on federal spending resulted in what his political enemies called the Roosevelt recession. Not to mention many Americans were still disillusioned over World War One. So FDR advocated for what he called methods short of war from nineteen, thirty, five to nineteen, thirty, nine, FDR signed a series of neutrality acts laws designed to keep America out of future wars, but after Hitler invaded Poland in September of nineteen, thirty nine FDR began to fear that the nightmare scenario of Hitler victory over Europe was a distinct possibility. On. April Ninth Nineteen Forty Hitler sacked Denmark and Norway on the same day within a matter of weeks the Germans would conquer France Belgium Luxembourg and the Netherlands on May. Fifteenth nineteen forty newly appointed British Prime Minister Winston. Churchill would write to FDR with a blunt message. If America did not intercede. Europe might very well become not certified with the presidential election just seven months away, FDR's position of neutrality would be pushed to the brink. This is episode thirty, nine, nineteen, forty. We'll keep versus Roosevelt storm on the horizon. It's June fourth nineteen forty at the White House President Roosevelt eats launch with Herald ICKIES. The head of the public works administration a key piece of FDR new deal, but today after yards, not asking his advice about public works programs today, the conversation is focused on international terminal, those destroyers, old and useless Mr. I do not see that they have any military value at all, but mister show believes they might send a message to Hitler well. That's precisely what I'm worried about. Hitler's forces have pushed deep into Western. Europe France looks poised to fall and Great Britain right behind her prime minister. Winston Churchill has been begging Roosevelt sent him American naval destroyers Churchill believes the destroyers will boost morale and sent Hitler a clear message that America's patience is growing thin but president. Roosevelt is conflicted. Churchill is right and I. Don't send the destroyers. I'll be weakening the allies. But if I do, send them I run the risk of provoking Hitler. Yes, not to mention the political consequences here at home. Yes, precisely. After Hitler pushed into Western Europe after you are went to Congress and ask them to repeal portions of neutrality act, specifically, the embargo on the sale of arms, munitions, airplanes, and other war materiel for belligerents in the European war under FDR. New Policy, the US military will stay out of the fight while US industry provide the allied forces military aid. FDR hopes this strategy will ensure Hitler's defeat. Keep American troops out of harm's way and at the same time bolster America's economy, but for FDR planters succeed. The allies have to win Mr President. If you do send help with bad consequences to ourselves, the people will blame you just as they will blame you if you don't send help the allies crushed. Mr Kasich. So, what will you do, sir? I need some time to think this over of course. Mr President. Ecus can tell Roosevelt has something else on his mind besides Hitler though it doesn't take long to switch topics. Tell Me Mr. Who Do you suppose will be the Democratic nominee this year. It gets knows what everyone in Washington knows. If FDR wants a third term, he has the political capital to win his party's nomination and likely take the general election. All he has to do is announced his intentions so with Grin. It offers his assessment I. Know The answer to that question Mr President. If you don't know someday I, will come in here and tell you the good news. It presses his point. It makes it clear that he's not joking Mr President. You have control of the Democratic convention, but I doubt whether you can control the for anyone but yourself. What about Mr Hall? Cornell Hall of Tennessee is FDR Secretary of state, but this isn't impressed I'll admit it's possible. He could win the nomination, but I don't have to tell you. Hall would make portended it and even poor president while I'm not so sure about that I am. You are the only man who can unite this party, Mister President, but you've left the question open. What will you do? FDR smiles well. There may be a surprise yet, Mister. May, surprise, even you. By the summer of Nineteen, forty primary season was well underway, and even though FDR had not announced his candidacy. You'd still picked up a large chunk of delegates and the California primary in May of nineteen forty. FDR had crushed the competition by June as many as six thousand letters, imploring FDR to stand for a third term at flooded the White House, but the real surprise of the nineteen forty campaign was not FDR's popularity or the inevitability of his candidacy. Instead the surprise was the outcome of the Republican National Convention in June out of a crowded field of potential nominees. A big business tycoon with zero political experience surprised everyone including FDR. FDR was an extremely popular president by nineteen forty. His approval ratings had risen as high as sixty percent, but even though after yards new deal had given. Americans hope the Great Depression was far from over over ten million Americans were still unemployed. The national debt was staggering all time high of thirty six billion dollars, which would be over six hundred billion today. These facts calls many conservative Democrats to abandon Roosevelt including Roosevelt's own vice president John Garner of Texas. On the other side of the aisle, the loudest voice of opposition came from the presumptive Republican nominee. The New York prosecutor Thomas e Dewey in the age of mobsters do had risen to fame by taking on organized crime in New, York and because of his popularity. Nearly everyone assumed dewey would be the Republican's man. Time magazine had called him the number, one glamour boy of the GOP, but like FDR and nearly everyone else Thomas Dewey didn't see Wendell willkie coming. Wendell Willkie of elwood Indiana was not a politician. In the nineteen thirties, he was running a successful utility business, but when FDR, trying to break up the utility companies Wilkie went on the attack. His anti new deal crusade had gotten a lot of attention in the press including from the editor of The New York Herald, Tribune, a woman named Rita Van Doren. We'll keep was in a loveless marriage. A Rita was intelligent, powerful and attractive. The two had an instant connection. Vandort was in a sense, we'll keys entrance into the world politics. She had introduced him to the WHO's who of the newspaper industry and it didn't take long for people to take. Note Russell Davenport. The editor of Fortune magazine had been the first to encourage wilkie to run for president and back in April. It was Fortune magazine that had announced his candidacy in an editorial in the April issue. Wilkie had agreed with the principles of. Of the new deal, but not FDR's methods. The new deal Wilkie felt was far too rigid to live up to its own ideals. We'll keys. Message was an appeal to liberal Republicans. A group that have been politically marginalized since the death of Teddy Roosevelt and it helped will. He grabbed national headlines prior to the Republican convention. Life magazine wrote Wendell Willkie is by far the man. The Republicans could nominate for President in Philadelphia next month. That endorsement was in no small part due to Wilkie stance on the war in Europe, most Republicans were isolationists, and they opposed FDR's attempts to roll back the arms embargo in the neutrality, Act Wilkie, though had taken a different position writing. We are opposed war, but we do not intend to relinquish our right to sell whatever we want those defending themselves from aggression. For a Republican in Nineteen forty, this was a radical position, but it caught on by June of nineteen. Forty Wilkie had risen to second place in the polls right behind Thomas Dewey. But still in June of nineteen forty, FDR wasn't worried about Wendell. Willkie not yet. He was worried about resistance to the notion of a third term. A Gallup poll conducted earlier in the year had shown that while FDR's approval ratings were up. Most Americans did not like the idea of a third term. Especially, Republican's presumptive nominee Thomas Dewey. So just before the Republican National Convention FDR. The opposition party. An olive branch I'm making a big change in his cabinet. FDR brought in two new members Henry Stimson as war, secretary and Frank Knox as Navy secretary, both men were well known and had relevant experience, and both were Republicans FDR helped this maneuver would safeguard his foreign policy from Republican attacks on the campaign trail. It put well qualified men in well-suited positions and took the Republicans completely by surprise. The nineteen forty Republican National Convention in Philadelphia was the First Televised Convention in American, History and Republicans intended to capitalize on the novelty, but with his decision to appoint stimson and knocks. FDR was stealing the headlines, and meanwhile inside the party, the divide between Republican isolationists and interventionists threatened unity. The question of how America should respond to. World War Two was front and center in no small part because just weeks earlier Germany had conquered France. According to the New York Times just before the convention. The Republican Convention Chairman Condemned FDR's Republican cabinet members, suggesting stimpson and knocks should be banished from the party forever for their betrayal, but other interventionists Republicans praised Timpson a Knox for putting country over party, and in the midst of this division Wendell, Willkie was creeping up in the polls and closing the gap on Thomas, Dewey. When Wilkie arrived in Philadelphia a few days before the convention, he went straight to a local tavern, followed by a small army of reporters, photographers and fans. We'll keep everyone in the bar two rounds, and prior to the start of the convention. He met with hundreds of delegates to make his case. There was plenty of pushback one former Republican senator said that willkie was not my kind of Republican response will. He joked that he was a former democratic. Senator responded Wendell back home in Indiana. It's all right if the town Hor joins the church, but they don't let her lead the choir the first night. The Convention began on June twenty eighth nineteen forty. The floor was packed and with no air conditioning to stave off the summer heat. It was over one hundred degrees inside the hall. One Attendee called the convention a hell of sealed in heat. Herald station, the governor of Minnesota delivered the keynote address. The people must have confidence. The fair leader. Place the nation's fair above their own political future. And the people must have fake. The pair leaders. While resolute in their basic policy. Nevertheless. Have the earnest. To keep this nation out of war. Stacey went on to call the new deal of the work of in confidence and compared FDR's policies to the methods of Hitler. Mussolini Stalin Stirred Passion. The crowd started a chant for front runner Thomas Dewey. It was a bad omen. The crowd called out. We want willkie and later that night governor stays. Engage Wilkie, his endorsement. On the second day of the Convention Adolf Hitler announced his intention to topple Great Britain just as he had done with France. Hitler's announcement was perhaps the end of Thomas Dewey's campaign. Do we had not taken a strong stance on the European war? And though he was more aligned with Wilkins way of thinking, do we had tried to avoid the issue of war for fear of angering conservative isolationist Republicans, we'll key on the other hand had gone out on a political limb in a full throated support of the allies, and after Hitler's aggressive announcement, the choice before the Republican delegates was hardly a choice at all Wendell willkie one on the sixth ballot. I on Vaber. Making the nomination of window will get unanimous. The Republicans adopted a party platform that was an echo of Wilkins position we favor the extension of aid to all people fighting for liberty, or whose liberty is threatened as long as such aid is not in violation of international law or inconsistent with the requirements of our national defence. In an attempt to unify the two factions of the Republican Party, we'll key made a wise choice for his running mate Senator Charles McNary of Oregon and isolationist. The willkie McNary combination was a strong ticket and we'll keys. Message was a call for unity. Just the beginning of the fight. A fight for the preservation of American, ideals a fight to bring about unity in America for the restoration of our domestic economy. And the building of a great defense, so not dictator may strike. I think the convention I thank all the American people. Not everyone bought into Wilkins plea especially the hard-line conservatives who left Philadelphia with a bad taste in their mouths, these old guard Republicans felt their party had been hijacked by liberal intruder from the democratic. Party and they feared that Wilkins domination had all, but guaranteed third term for FDR. But meanwhile FDR fear just the opposite. We'll keys position on world war, two combined with his liberal bone fees made FDR very nervous, but before FDR could face off against Wilkie he would I have to win. His party's primary and to do that. FDR would have to overcome onslaught of opposition from fellow Democrats to secure the nomination FDR would not rely solely on his political acumen in his hour of need with the outcome of the Democratic national. Convention hanging in the balance of FDR would rely on his wife. Own. Harold ICKIES the head of the public works. Administration had been right when he told President Roosevelt. You have control of the Democratic convention, but I doubt whether you can control it for anyone but yourself. In the lead up to the Chicago Convention, a slew of potential candidates had emerged and publicly announced their intention to seek the. Nomination. Chief among them was Jim. Farley a longtime friend and advisor FDR and the current chair of the Democratic National Committee. After your had been struggling with the idea of a third term, he felt the poll of two. Conflicting wants retirement an answering the call of duty. His wife Eleanor wrote although I never asked my husband what he himself really wanted to do. It became clearly evident to me that he would really like to be in Hyde Park, and that the role of elder statesman appealed him. It appeal to Mrs Roosevelt to, but she also realized that the world was imperil in the country in crisis by the summer of nineteen forty. The depression was still crippling the economy. Adolf Hitler was on the March FDR opted for duty. To win the Democratic nomination, FDR would have to I, get the best of his old friend Jim Farley, but after your was reluctant to appear too eager for a third term, eagerness might be perceived as tyrannical ambition. His enemies already frequently called him a dictator and compared him to Hitler and Mussolini he didn't. WanNa give them anymore. Munition so at the nineteen forty convention FDR pulled off elegant political stunt. He dictated A. A statement and instructed one of his managers to read it to. The delegates packed inside Chicago Stadium. The message read. The president has never had, and has not today any desire or purpose to continue in the office of President to be a candidate for that office or to be nominated by the Convention for that Office. He wishes in earnest and sincerity to make it clear that all of the delegates in this convention. To vote for any candidate. After hearing these words, the stadium fell silent, and then a voice thundered through the loudspeakers. We Want Roosevelt. The ensuing chant lasted for forty five minutes and was underscore by the band. Playing days are here again Roosevelt's campaign song from the nineteen thirty two election. The man, who started the raucous chanting was a plant. It had been given instructions to start the chant. At that precise moment it was a masterful piece of political theater and it worked after your made history. He won the Democratic nomination on the first ballot. But the ensuing fight over the party platform was heated isolationist Democrats Press FDR to pledge that he would not involve America in World War Two as conservative Democrats. Largely from the south sought to rain in the new deal, but after you are refused to back down in the end, he scored a victory with a platform codified his positions reading in part in this world crisis, the purpose of the Democratic Party is to defend against external attack and justify internal progress, the system of government and way of life from which the Democratic Party takes his name. Anti FDR Democrats were incensed. The arguments on the convention floor bordered on violence. One FDR supporter would later write those of us. WHO WERE FRIENDLY TAFT? You are doing our best. Be diplomatic, the feeling of Sour. So to sweeten the mood and Chicago, and unite the party behind his third term after your return to his wife Anna Eleanor Roosevelt. It's July. Nineteen forty and the Democratic National Convention in Chicago is in full swing. Back in Washington President, Roosevelt sits at his desk working when the phone rings. Practice purchase for you are through. Labor Secretary Francis Perkins is a powerful woman in a man's world. She has the president's Ear Roosevelt not. Trusts her implicitly. Mr President what can I do for you Madam Secretary. I'm calling about the convention. How are things going? Well Sir I believe you'll be renominated. That's certainly good news, but. There's always, but isn't there. But there's a great deal of bitterness and anger amongst the delegates, your enemies, disparaging your name at every opportunity and your friends are doing little to minimize the damage. At Francis her, some who fear might descend into a riot. You will secure the nomination, but the convention will end with your reputation tarnished and a terrific increase of Roosevelt haters the Democratic Party. And what do you suggest do? Come to Chicago, your courageous open hearted way will capture the delegates heart and heal the wounds a division. Oh Francis. It'll be worse if I go. People get promises out of me I ought not make if I make promises, there will be mistakes. I'll be pinned down on things. I don't want to be pinned down on now. You must do something Mr President. FDR thanks for a long moment, an inspiration strikes. How would it be if eleanor came? Well I I think it would make an excellent impression. I agree you know Eleanor always makes people feel right. She's A. She's a fine way with her. Would you like to come? Yes I think I would. It settled then telephone. I'll speech or two, but you tell her so that. No I'm not saying her on my own hunch, but that some of the rest of you want their. Talked to one or two others before you speak to her to. Yes Mr President. Eleanor Roosevelt did not want her husband to serve a third term. She wanted to go home to New York and leave Washington behind for good, no small part because she was worried about her husband's health, he had struggled with since being diagnosed with polio back in nineteen, twenty, one and a recent heart attack, and only made matters worse. Mrs Roosevelt also understood that personal needs and wants were not the priority in times of crisis, so when Francis Perkins asked her to rally the Convention behind her husband Eleanor Roosevelt put her own needs aside an answered the call. Eleanor Roosevelt was no stranger to public service or personal sacrifice back in nineteen, eighteen, FDR had contracted influenza on trip home from Europe while unpacking his luggage. Eleanor had found something she was not supposed to see a packet of letters from a woman named Lucy Mercer. Eleanor felt doubly betrayed to discover that Lucy a woman she had personally hired to be. Her secretary was having an affair with her husband upon finding the evidence of the Affair Eleanor had offered FDR his freedom, but he declined divorce likely would have been the end of his burgeoning political career, so the Roosevelt stayed married, but not truly together. It's rumored. Eleanor never slept with her husband again. Still she learned a valuable lesson from the affair. She would later right I. Think I learned Dan that practically no one in the world is entirely bad or entirely good that motos are often more important than actions. I became more tolerant person. Though the Lucy Mercer incident was perhaps the end of a loving marriage, it was the beginning of a lasting political partnership Eleanor Roosevelt was much more than FDR's wife. And the First Lady of the United States she would go on to serve as the first US representative and the first chair of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights her skill as an activist, humanitarian and diplomat would. Name from future President Harry Truman first. Lady of the world. And at the Nineteen Forty Democratic Convention Eleanor Roosevelt would live up to her reputation. The task before her was monumental because on his call with Francis. Perkins FDR made another big decision one that would throw the convention into further disarray. FDR's visiting John Garner had soured on the new deal, and he wanted out Roosevelt had been grappling with the question of who to replace him with ever since during his call with Francis Perkins. FDR made his choice. He wanted Henry a wallace his secretary back, Culture Wallace, though was a controversial choice for a host of reasons for one thing, his views on civil rights and unions were far too liberal for most southern Democrats, and for another wallace was a former Republican, a progressive in the tradition of Teddy Roosevelt, not long after his call with Francis Perkins and selecting Wallace as his running mate Eleanor Roosevelt gone on a plane, flew to Chicago and took center stage. Band plays Nassar Describes Mrs Roosevelt Standing on the roster. The chairman, applauding in her waving to the crowd. She's described as wearing a plain blue dress with short sleeves, Blue Straw hat pinned with minor blue flowers all over the hall. People are standing waving shouting. Eleanor began her brief speech by making a peace offering one of her husband's biggest critics. The! Roosevelt says she wants to say a word of thanks to the National Chairman James a Farley for many years. Mrs Roosevelt has worked under Jim Farley and Jim Farley and she thinks nobody could appreciate more what he has done for the party. What he is given in works and loyalty, and she wants to give him there at the convention her thanks and devotion. She then turned her attention to the matter at hand. Though she never mentioned Secretary Wallace by name. She spoke to the uniqueness of the moment. She called for the delegates to rise to the occasion. Mrs Roosevelt notes that this is no ordinary time. No time for weighing anything except what we can do best for the country as a whole that responsibility rests on each and every one of the delegates as individuals. She notes that no man who is a candidate or who was president to carry the situation alone. It's only carried by a unified people who love their country, and who will live for it to the fullest their ability with the highest ideals. It's a determination that their party shall be absolutely devoted to the good of the nation as a whole, and to during what this country can't bring the world to a safer and happier condition. The? Day After. Eleanor Roosevelt speech the New York. Daily News wrote she has done more to sue. The convention bruises than all the efforts of the Astute Senators. Indeed Eleanor Roosevelt words got the job done though they did so begrudgingly. The anti FDR crowd rallied behind the Roosevelt Wallace ticket. But after the convention as FDR, switched his focus to the general election, he had cause for concern. From the very beginning, Republican nominee Wendell willkie wasn't pulling any punches, but I was a liberal before many of those men hurt the word, and I brought for the reforms of the elder policy and Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson. Another Roosevelt adopted. amdi started the word deliver. FDR had expected to face off against Thomas Dewey and the isolationist wing of the Republican Party by nominating Wilkie. The Republicans were launching their attack on a different front on an FDR's quest for a third term Wendell willkie liberalism would not be as big as challenge. In the final stretch of the nineteen forty contest, the domestic battle for political power at home would be defined by the European war raging overseas. as the nineteen forty campaign got underway, the situation overseas grew increasingly more desperate throughout the summer of nineteen forty British. Prime Minister Winston Churchill had written to Roosevelt repeatedly begging him for military aid, specifically the naval destroyer he needed to fight the Germans. In Time FDR had come around to the idea of sending the destroyers, but with an election right around the corner he needed the public behind him, so he ordered American General John Blackjack pershing to make the case for sending Great Britain destroyers directly to the people general pershing's radio address amplified FDR's message to millions of Americans. A Gallup poll conducted shortly after showed that sixty two percent of Americans were in favor of sending the destroyers, but FDR was also aware of the potential blowback, so before making any moves or announcements, he tried to get the buy in of Republican nominee Wendell willkie. Through an intermediary FDR implored will he to not make the destroyer question a campaign issue. He asked the Republican nominee to support the transfer of the destroyers. Wilkie agreed extensively, but deep down, he was wrestling with the political ramifications. If Wilkie openly supported after transferring the destroyers he would essentially be conceding the war issue to the incumbent president, but if he openly opposed him, who be going against one of his core political positions, arming the allied forces, and many Republicans in Congress, wanted Wilkie to make a principled stand against FDR. In late August FDR told us. Secretary Congress is going to raise hell about this, but even another day's delay mean the end of civilization. FDR Didn't wait on congressional approval. He negotiated a deal directly with Churchill. Four swamp on September, fifth, The New York Times Headline Read Roosevelt. Trade Destroyers for C. Basis tells congress. He acted on his own authority. This gave Wilkie the opportunity for attack calling FDR's deal, the most dictatorial and Arbitrary Act of any president in the history of the United States. Many in the press disagreed. On the destroyer deal were largely favourable. We okay reviews were lukewarm and the polls show FDR with commanding lead in double digits in September nineteen, Forty Roosevelt looked poised to ride the tailwind of his destroyer deal all the way to a November victory, what the final stretch of the campaign, a scandal involving FDR's vice presidential running mate Henry Wallace with threatened to take the wind out of his sails. The deer guru scandal began decades before the nineteen forty campaign, when Henry a wallace developed an interest in the teachings of an eccentric Russian mystic they nicholas. Roerich Wallace admired Roerich. He tried to letters with him. Roerich has mystical teachings were far outside, mainstream American culture, and they were a direct repudiation of Christianity that fact alone was scandal were the nineteen forties America, but the letters painted an even more damning picture, a member of FDR's cabinet, discussing US foreign and domestic policy with a Russian mystic Roerich is loyalty was questionable, as was the severity of his influence over Henry Wallace. These letters made Wallace vulnerables, Republican attacks, and if unearthed, they might bring into question FDR's judgment. FDR was aware of Wallace's connection to Roerich at the Nineteen Forty Democratic National Convention Chairman Jim Farley had worn FDR. That Wallace was vulnerable, but after your had dismissed his concern, saying Jim Henry is a mystic. He's a philosopher, a liberal philosopher and I'm sure he'll be all right. Farley responded. This is your party Mister President and it's up to you to select menu. Want to ride along with you. Since the convention rumors have been swirling copies of the deer, Guru letters had fallen into Republican hands, and indeed they had the editor of the Republican friendly. Pittsburgh Post Gazette had been meeting privately. GOP operative since August, but they hadn't gone public yet. And when FDR insisted on Wallace's nomination, democratic officials told walls to draft a statement in preparation for the inevitable release of the deer guru ladders. to nineteenth just a few weeks away from the election and investigative reporter for the Pittsburgh, Post Gazette cornered Wallace on one of his many campaign trips. Wallace student engaged the reporter. He simply handed him a lengthy statement and walked away. It read. This material has been bandied about for so many years that it is clear that its use on the eve of an election spells nothing, but the desperation of supporters. Wendell willkie. Wallace's statement went on to say that. Even the most psychotic Roosevelt Hater would be disgusted by these types of campaign tactics. Shortly after the Pittsburgh Post Gazette killed the deer guru story. Though it's unclear exactly what motivated their decision? The answer is likely Wendell Willkie. Like FDR affair with Lucy Mercer Wendell willkie relationship with the editor, Arita van Doren was an open secret in Washington, and not long after Wallace released his statement to the press after yards Commerce Secretary Harry, Hopkins allegedly called Wilkie and threatened to expose his infidelity. If the letters were published in response, it is presumed wiki likely killed the story. In the nineteen forty contest we'll key had launched a relentless effort. He kicked off his campaign in his hometown of elwood Indiana. And from there he made over five hundred speeches across dozens of states. He attacked Roosevelt on a myriad of issues from the ineffectiveness of the new deal to the dangers of a third term president, but while Wilkie campaigned. FDR stayed out of the fray, remaining at the White House focusing on the job of the presidency. Late in the campaign will he attacked FDR's foreign policy warning the American people. If you re electing, you may expect war in April of nineteen forty one. Until this moment FDR had largely stayed out of the fray, remaining at the White House and focusing on the job at the presidency, but now FDR gone off the sidelines to the. PRESI lambasted Wilkie for playing politics with the war. He reminded voters that willkie himself supported the arming of the allies, and he promised the American people I have said this before, but I shall say it again and again and again. Your boys are not going to sent into any foreign wars. On Tuesday November, fifth fifty million Americans went to polling centres all across the country to cast their votes President Roosevelt was one of them on election day FDR made sure the press and the American people had a front row seat to history. It's Tuesday November fifth nineteen forty just before noon in new. York's third district, a large gatherings outside town hall to get a glimpse of FDR. Who sits inside his car in front of the building, crowd of supporters, reporters, camera crews, and still photographers. Wait with bated breath. Finally FDR's personal bodyguard Thomas Walters opened the car door helps FDR out the crowd of over five hundred. Welcome the president with a loud cheer. FDR looks staffer as he waves to the crowd, and makes his way through the throng supporters, the president dressed in a striking blue lounge suit steadies himself with an ivory, handled Kane and clings to his bodyguard who helps guide them towards the entrance. Inside! The polling places empty team. Paul workers stand at attention in Reverend, silence as reporters look on and photographers prepare to snap their photos. FDR flashes a smile and calls out to the poll workers. Good, morning. How is everyone? But if your can hardly take a step forward before one very serious face poll worker blocks his path. Good afternoon, good afternoon. What is your name this? Mrs Emma Crisper. Tell me Mrs Casper what you do here. I'm the chairwoman of the Election Board well. This is transfer I'm here to vote you, so find me on the rolls as number six eleven. Mrs Crisper is a Fist Idiots woman who always follows the rules. She's required to ask a series of questions. Record the answers, no matter what. What is your name, sir. Franklin D Roosevelt. Mrs, Christopher her mouth to ask the next question, but stops herself short. Question seems a bit silly. What is your occupation? So Mrs Crawford throws caution to the wind right this way Mr President. Thank you, thank you Mrs Chrysler. On Election Day and forty chairwoman Casper processed FDR's vote as the New York Times reported. Mrs Crisper approved the applicant without asking his business. When asked why she declined to ask FDR about his business crass retold the press. She considered the question unnecessary because everybody knows who he is. If, she had asked him though empty are likely would have given her the same answer. He gave four years earlier when he voted in Hyde Park former. FDR grew up on a farm, but he was not the average farmer, he income from privilege and been born into a wealthy family with a famous last name, but as he rose to political power, he never gave up on his fight for the American farmer Labor and the election of nineteen thirty six, the farmers of New York's third district voted FDR three, hundred, twenty, six to three, hundred six in one thousand nine hundred eighty, they stood by again four twenty six to three, oh nine. FDR won the nineteen forty contests with almost fifty five percent of the popular vote. He won four hundred forty nine electoral votes to Wilkie Eighty two. After the election willkie conceited and urged the American people to unite behind FDR and face the growing threat, overseas prime minister Winston, Churchill, and watch the nineteen forty contests with what he called profound anxiety the day after the election Churchill sent FDR cable. I do not feel it right for me as a foreigner to express my opinion upon American politics while the election was on. Now I feel you will not mind. My stating that I prayed for your success that I am truly thankful for. Shortly after the election, the British ambassador to the US stepped off a plane at Laguardia Airport in New York allegedly told a reporter well, boys where broke. It's your money we want. President. Roosevelt would give more than money. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor in December of Nineteen, forty, one America would officially enter world. War To conflict overseas would dominate FDR's third term, and it would define the landscape of the upcoming election. Nineteen, forty four FDR would again make history by becoming the first and last. American president to be elected to a fourth term. On the next episode of wicked game, the election of nineteen, forty four as World War Two rages on FDR is in the political fight of his life against a young political newcomer Republican Thomas Doing riding the wave of Republican gains, the nineteen forty two midterms, the youthful fresh-faced dewey attacks tired old man in the White House. To bring about a swift end to the war. Don't miss a single week of our March. From Seventeen, eighty nine to twenty twenty hit the subscribe button and your podcast APP now the show is supported by you. Our listeners please give us rating and leave a review, but the single best way to help the show grow is to tell others share with your friends and family and find us on social media at wicked Game Pot and I'm at Lindsey Graham another way to support this show is to go to Wicca game podcast DOT COM members there get early access to add free episodes as well as well as content only. Only available to members find out more at wicked game podcast dot com about our reenactments. In most cases, we can't know exactly what was said. But everything in our show is heavily researched based on surviving historical documents. We could is an airship production created hosted and executive produced by me. Lindsey Graham audio editing by Molly Bach. Sound design by Derek Parents Co executive produced by Stephen Walters and association with ritual productions. This episode was written and researched by Stephen Walters fact checking by Greg, Jackson and Seattle Salazar from podcast history. That doesn't suck music by Lindsey Graham distributed by wondering warned.

FDR Anna Eleanor Roosevelt president FDR President Franklin Delano Roos Act Wilkie America Wendell willkie Thomas e Dewey Mister President Roosevelt Wallace President Roosevelt Hermann Goering Hitler President Republican Party US Britain secretary
Coronavirus Contrarianism Is a Health Risk

Slate's The Gist

33:54 min | 1 year ago

Coronavirus Contrarianism Is a Health Risk

"The following content is explicit. Hello Slate podcast listeners. I'm here to remind you to take the slate survey. It will be open through April first and your answers. Help us make a slate. It'll only take a few minutes. You can find it at slate dot Com Slash Survey Friday March Twentieth Twenty. Twenty from slate. It's digest I Mike. Pesca A press conference today. President trump was asked about the promise of the Anti Malarial. Drug hydroxyl cleric win intriguing. Cova nineteen first second though ponder that sentence slightly more complex mechanisms at play. Then let's build a wall anyway. Trump described himself as more of a fan of the drug. Then maybe anybody and then called infectious disease expert. Anthony Fauci up onto the stage to back him up on the idea that hydroxy chloroquine was fairly effective against SARS. John you gotta be careful when you say it was never done into clinical trial that compared to anything but the president recap the remarks by emphasizing his optimism. I am a man that comes from a very positive school when it comes to in particular one of these drugs so having process that and perhaps experiencing some cognitive dissonance in the fact that the president expressed optimism but the actual expert expressed caution. Nbc's Pete Alexander asked the following question. Is it possible your impulse to put a positive spin on things may be giving Americans a false sense law? Don't think so right now. I don't think so. I think that I think it's got the drug look. It may work. It may not work and I agree with the doctor. What he said may work may not work. I feel good about it. It's all it is just a feeling smart guy. I feel good about him. Trump summed up his remarks with a bit more hope. We have nothing to lose. You know the expression what the Hell do you have to lose? Actually that does not seem to be the best way to comfort a frightened country but the president wasn't done zip. John Americans were scared. I guess nearly two hundred fourteen thousand yours sick millions as you witness who are scared right now you say to. Americans. We're watching you right now. You're scared you're a terrible reporter. That's what I say working. It's a very nasty question and I think it's a very bad signal that you're putting out to the American people. The American people are looking for answers. And they're looking for hope and you're doing sensationalism and the same with NBC and con cast. I don't quote COMCAST COMCAST. Let me just for whom you work. Let me just say think. That's really bad reported. And you want to get back to report a good set of sensationalism. Let's see it works. It might and it might not. I happen to feel good about it but who knows I've been right. A lot of the reporters followed up asking him if it was appropriate to lash out like that on a reporter who just channeling the concerns of many frightened people trump said this and I think Peter is Not a good journalist when it comes to fairness methods control. I think it's I think that the country has to understand that there is indeed whether we like it or not and some of the people in this remote like it There's a lot of really great news and great journalism and there's a lot of fake news out there. Things calmed down a little. Mike Pence was asked the exact same question. What would you say to frighten people by the exact same reporter? And his answer emphasized the word vigilance as opposed to consisting of a critique of the questioners professional abilities and eventually president trump left the briefing room with these words. And we're very proud of what we've done is incredible what we've done and this system will now serve for the future for future problems. Hopefully you don't have a problem like this but something will come up. We have now a great system and it's almost fully in gear but it's able to test millions of people but we inherited a broken old. Frankly a terrible system. We fixed it and we've done a great job and we haven't been given the credit that we deserve that I can tell you but yes because the only thing we have to fear is fear of not getting enough credit. This guy this guy at this time in this office I don't know maybe trump should have gone into the priesthood fodder. Forgive me for I've sinned. It has been a week since my last confession but fodder amount of work. I broke my back and now my babies have no food. I don't want to lose faith. What can the Lord say unto me he can say you're terrible dad terrible provider brick layer. I call you brick lamer or maybe trump could have been an animal expert like on a radio show. Hi We're here with Dr Don for all your needs gyms calling in from Muskegon. What's your problem? Jim Yeah Hi my cat. Commodore Perry has terrible separation anxiety and he pees on the hardwood floor. When every misses me. What would you tell me or commodore purry? I'd say he's at terrible cat. Dishonest fake cafe cat. High hopes for CATNIP. You say it doesn't work say try again terrible cat. It'd be funny if it wasn't so goddamn sad that this is the American president but also that this is the president that so many Americans wanted and still want. I've thought of that old expression goes like this. We have so much to lose on the show today. A check in with two medical experts who might have the biggest platforms in America? See if you can identify for instance this voice. Everything is an emergency people that are infectious disease specialist the CDC the need to take this very seriously the practice to shut up. That is Dr Drew Pinski speaking on March Sixth Owen. He's not the worst offender but first. Our current president is less inclined to fireside chats than flame wars. Jonathan Alter is here to discuss what trump's comportment says about his future and ours with home security. There are two ways you could go about protecting your home. There's the traditional. Were you wait for weeks for a technician to do a messy installation? The costs small fortune when there are some other ways large dog angry dog neighbor with you know little too much time in his hands who never leaves his porch. Those are all bad. Here's the best way simply safe. Simplisafe is everything you need in a home security system. I know I have simply safe in my home. You got that I got simplisafe. Don't even try it Bucko simplisafe is award-winning protection. Is the two time winner of sea? Nets editor's choice award simply safe blankets your whole home in safety they give you these little Apparat High Apparatus. Put Him on the doors. You put him on the window of glass break. Simplisafe goes off door open. Simplisafe goes off in your arm the alarm and it says very nicely simply safe home alarm because you get the version where your dog barks at you wrong but simplisafe is much better than that. It's comprehensive it has outdoor cameras and doorbell alerts. You get to know when anyone is approaching your home and like I said these glass break sensors and entry and motion sensors tell you when anyone's inside simplisafe winds up being fifty cents a day with no contracts. It's why the verge called simplisafe. The best home security system go to simplisafe dot com slash. Gist today. And you'll get free shipping and a sixty day risk-free trial you've got nothing to lose. Go now and be sure to go to simplisafe dot com slash gist. That's simplisafe dot com slash gist. True of the three. Most populous states in the country have been ordered by their governors to hunker down shelter in place self isolate and of course the governors have to take the lead because at the top the president is essentially saying. Oh that's more. The governor's job now. I have to tell you a couple of weeks ago. I said the primaries are going to be hitting. Maybe we'll come to a decision. Let's just book all the smartest political people we can talk about politics and so we did but politics have changed tremendously but Jonathan. Alter was still right there on the schedule and I said do. I need to get his opinion on this moment. The MSNBC Contributor and daily beast columnist is also the author of books about Obama and FDR HIS FDR book is called the defining moment. Fdr's hundred days and the triumph of hope. Hi thanks for joining me. Jonathan my pleasure. Glad to be here so I always thought that the leadership playbook this if there is a potential crisis take ownership. You shouldn't let it go to waste. This isn't even to help the populace. It's help yourself as the politician. Any politician thinks a disaster is impending what you should do is take it as seriously as you can always take it more seriously rather than less seriously will always reflect well upon you. Why isn't Donald Trump playing from that playbook well first of all the line a crisis is a terrible thing to waste? The first time I heard that was from rahm Emanuel right after the two thousand eight presidential election when we were in a lot of trouble in this country and we were in the middle of the worst quarter in American history even worse than the fourth quarter of nineteen thirty. Which was the bottom of the depression and this was even worse. And you know rahm Emanuel's point. Was this gives Barack Obama the incoming president a real opportunity so this came at a different time in the cycle than either the banking crisis of nineteen thirty three when Roosevelt became president or the financial crisis of two thousand eight. When Obama became president. This was three years into trump's presidency. He has given no thought to the elements of presidential leadership. His idea of a leader is Vladimir Putin he has a strong man view of leadership which is about pushing people around stigmatizing. The opposition finding scapegoats. So now he's calling it the Chinese virus and the idea of actually using it to enhance his own prestige and power as president in some ways. I think it didn't really even occur to him in January because his whole game plan for getting reelected was to have a strong stock market. And so when this corona virus comes along the first thing that he wants to do is just sweep it under the carpet. Because he doesn't want anything getting in the way and the most vivid illustration of that was when there was the cruise ship offshore and he said well isn't watering become onshore because it would hurt his numbers would make him look worse. First of all you never thinks beyond the next newt new cycle but his head was not really around how to be a crisis leader and he has none of the tools right that you need for effective crisis leadership. Well you know you talk about. He thinks he's a strong man or acts like a strongman if he were a truly strong man as in a competent autocrat or dictator. That might be helpful. I mean look at Singapore. That is not a free and open society but they dealt with this well to some extent probably because they are led by autocrat. I mean like I don't have to tell you when FDR was elected and the word dictator didn't have these negative connotations in those terrible times. That's the sort of actions that people were looking for even from FDR to be an actual strongman. Now that's not quite true. I mean this is what a lot of my book is about. You're quite right. The dictator had a positive connotation and studebaker had a car called the dictator. That was pretty popular and the New York. Daily News Ran. A big headline wanted to dictator and Mussalini was very popular in the United States but Roosevelt did not send a delegation to learn from him. Roosevelt knew what he needed to do and did it when he came in as as president. But you know you mentioned that word competence and Know trump is is a toxic combination of malevolence and incompetence. So he doesn't know what he is doing. He doesn't understand government he never served in government as the first president who never served in government at any level. He could've made up for that if he was a curious person who read and tried to learn the job of president but of course he did none of that so he was flying blind. He was demanding loyalty. I think eventually we're going to find out that the reason that these one reason that these tests never took place beyond the fact that the first. Cdc test failed. Was that the strong message coming from the top was. We don't want testing because that will make it. Seem like this is a bigger problem than we wanted to be when everybody knows. The president feels that way. It's really hard to get the bureaucracy moving and also everybody knows that he just wants yes men and kiss asses around him so if you say to him Mr President you know this is a really big problem and we need to prepare the American public for this you would have just brushed them off and I'm sure when memoirs are written. We'll find out that a lot of that happen. Because that's the way things have played out on on other stories with this administration but basically he has none of what you need to actually be an effective leader whether you're a strong man or the leader of a democratic nation. You know you need to be able to communicate effectively that you have a handle on what's going on but that you are also not engaged in happy talk not sugar coating so an effective leader and I think that Andrew Cuomo is showing how to do this right now in New York state. His language has a kind of perfect pitch for balancing preparing people for the worst and giving them confidence that if the situation is not yet under control there is at least a plan of action so language is the first thing the second element of leadership is some kind of human connection which Roosevelt established in the first fireside chat. When you know there've been all these terrible bank runs devastating. Everybody was pulling their money out of the bags and we were on a barter system in this country. The banks were all closed. And we had this. You know even more panic than we do today. and Roosevelt's reassuring perfectly pitched fireside chat. And we said the American people. Hoarding has become. A very unfashionable pastime. Go Out and deposit your redeposit your money ticket out from under the mattresses and put it into banks as we reopen them under our plan and people did this so that they they did exactly what he asked because he had established this human connection with them right after he became president this is within a week of his becoming president so and then he continued to do that throughout then. The third thing is you have to know how to use the levers of government to help people and when you've been running when you're the president and the candidate of a political party that has been running down government for forty years. You know singing to grover norquist's tune which is we want to reduce government. So far make it so small that it can be strangled in a bathtub. If that's your attitude toward government and you run down the deep state you run down all the people who work under you in the executive branch. Run down the civil service. Then you're when the shit hits the fan. You're not really going to have any idea of what to do about it because you don't understand the executive department that you head so we start off by noting that all he really cared about was the stock market because his theory such as it was of the of the election is the economy strong. He'd get credit and you know that is true in normal times with a normal person a normal encumbent with this economy would-be skating to reelection. So now that the economy is going south. Can we still say that in a totally different way? Perhaps the normal rules don't apply. He was underwater in terms of approval. And I don't know if he's going to be better if he wasn't incumbent during a good economy who was very endangered of not being elected now that he has this bad economy. People will credit to an outside force. The virus maybe. He has a better chance than an incumbent. Normally would give these economic conditions may be and. I think it's really hazardous to make predictions about a November election in March and so I'm not saying he will be defeated. He could you know. Bring up his game so much that people Don't want to change horses. In the middle of a stream you know wartime presidents usually get reelected and he's cleverly defining this as a war which in many ways it is so you know he has that going for him. But it's too early for Democrats to really go after him on this way. I am right now but they will have a lot of ammunition in the fall on this issue. They'll have a lot to work with now. I think two years scenario. What could work for him is if because the expectations have been set so low? You know that that that they're going to be these. You know. Tens of thousands of people dying maybe even hundreds of thousands and that you know. Mnuchin said the other day that unemployment could go to twenty percent which. I don't think it's going to happen. So if you know in the third quarter the economy seems to be like a rocket he said you know and pent up demand brings things roaring back. Then he could say look. You know what happened in March was not my fault and I've presided over a generally really good economy and could get reelected so yes that can happen. But it's it's very hard to predict and I don't think a lot of people are looking to him to get us through this emotionally. So that's something that he's already lost. I cannot help but concluding that so much of this will depend on as much as I hate to say it as crass it seems it will depend on the death toll because if things work out and our our recovery are handling this starts looking more like South Korea and less like Italy then the people who are want to excuse trump might say something like oh I guess. He wasn't that far off when was less dire than the media or at least they won't punish him so so much those ads where he downplays the toll. I mean if tens of thousands of people die they have one valance. If it's hundreds of people have different valence and of course rooting for as many people to have a good outcome as few deaths is possible but I do also think it's going to be highly correlated by what really happens with this disease. I think you're absolutely right. You know I hope that We do respond successfully to this and keep the death toll down I think because we have less density in this country than they do in Italy and we have a younger population. We might be able to do that. You're right that that would in some sense that that could help president trump. Because as I said you know the expectations now are so bad that he could clear a relatively low bar and you know might even be able to say well. This is killed a lot. Fewer people then. The flu does every year which is where he started the conversation. But I still don't think that you know means that He rides that all the way to reelection. Because I think the American people understand that that is a collective effort that there was a lot of leadership shown by governors and by the American public. And I'm not sure that everybody is going to credit that his account if we are fortunate enough to have a lower death toll unexpected Jonathan alter MSNBC analysts daily beast columnist the author of the defining moment FDR hundred days and the triumph of hope and also an Obama Book. The center holds Obama and his enemies. Thanks so much John. Thanks really enjoyed it and now the spiel two weekends ago. Sirius satellite radio dedicated an entire channel discussing the corona virus hosted by Dr Mark Siegel of the Nyu Langone Medical Center. The talk was about how viruses work how viruses spread and what we could do. No facts are misstated and the question in the air was clearly. How much should we worry? And the answer was maybe just a little bit. Here's Dr Paul. Offit offering his opinions on the virus and people are treating this like it's a viral apocalypse. And I don't see it. I don't understand. Dr Siegel agreed at one point. He asked another doctor about the concern over the virus. This way. Do you agree with that. A lot of the social disruption. That's going at this. Point is based on hysteria. An overreaction that rather than a necessary public health intervention now I was never blase about the virus upon listening to Dr Radio for a few hours as I drove to New Jersey and back I became reassured. I mean these were highly credentialed medical experts. I'm a bit of a credentials list but out of curiosity or in truth actually wondering if I could book Dr Siegel for the gist researched him. A little bit and found out about his background. He is a Fox News contributor. He frequently appears on Fox and friends and Tucker Carlson and then I began to monitor Dr. Segel's other media appearances. I was a little shocked by what I heard from this professor of medicine. And why you school of Medicine here. He was speaking to Lou Dobbs back on February twentieth impressed by that the number of Americans. We've got that much confidence in the trump administration absolutely lou. I think that the task force that the president put together and his leadership on this has been tremendous dobbs agreed. I think it's being managed. The results speak for themselves even as the virus spread out of Wuhan and we saw the outbreak on the diamond. Princess Dr Siegel was appearing on Fox. Downplaying the severity of cove nineteen and praising. The President says from March sixth test the flu autistic test. The Corona virus to calm fears and people are going to start to get the idea that it's not that widespread that was when there was three hundred nineteen cases in the. Us here was two days later. I feel like the more I learn about this. The less there is I was about to say the same thing I really by. Then there were five hundred forty one. Us Cases Inbetween. He made this claim on Fox News which turned out to be false. We're going to have millions of test kits available next week about the same time that Dr Siegel was characterizing. The concern over the virus has more concerning than the virus. Dr Drew Pinski was going even further. That means that far milder than we know it is and there are people walking around out there with the virus. That don't even know they have it. So that was him on February. Twenty seventh. This is an overblown press created hysteria. Five days later Dr drew as reality show and loveline fans know him went on his old radio partner. Adam Corollas podcast so So disturbed by the press. General angry with them Pinski. Who is an addiction specialist best known for his role in celebrity? Rehab is a licensed clinician. He sees patients his also testified before Congress on issues of diseases related to homelessness. And he's toyed with running for Congress actually in the seats currently filled by Adam Schiff on the Corolla show. He flat out told the media. Stay OUT OF CORONA COVERAGE IN. Penske's telling it was irresponsible to be frightened of the novel. Corona virus when the flu influenza is far deadlier a fact that is now pretty much seen as unremarkable. These reporting should be forty million people with flu like illnesses. Two hundred eighty thousand hospitalize. Sixteen thousand dead. Get your damn flu shot. So far three dead with KRONA VIRUS. Three versus sixteen thousand. Which we'd be worried about the flu and at once able to detect how widespread this virus actually is the fatality rate. Will start to drop the fatality rate. Will drop but as has happened. The fatality numbers will rise. There are of course. Examples of excessively scary specific reports with every news event. Local news is founded on hype. They do wanNA make the world seem more dangerous than it is but you know sometimes. The actual world is pretty dangerous. Meanwhile as Dr drew was laying into the media Dr Siegel was using that slice of it called Fox News. To continue to perpetuate an attitude that a call at least out of step with the vast majority of the Infectious Disease Community. This was from March fourteenth so less than a week ago the NBA had shut down three days prior to give you some idea about the time period. We're talking about and Fox host. Janine Pirro had Dr Siegel on to read some viewer questions. We have been told that the upcoming warm weather in the US will kill the virus as a can't take warm weather warm temperatures. So why is it spreading now tropical areas where it's hot every day and every night now? The standard answer to that is. We don't know some viruses act the way that he describes some viruses to act in that way. That's why President. Trump said it will be gone by April but some viruses. Don't let's see how Siegel answered first of all. It is not spreading in places like Africa right now South America. There's not a lot of cases. There isn't a lot of cases in Australia. Right now is about two hundred it. We're seeing it mostly in areas where it's not their summer right now but to answer question. High humidity and heat and a lot of ultraviolet light are conditions that most viruses respiratory viruses most including corona viruses. Do not do well in. So we're hoping for a seasonal change here when we get to the warm okay just as a counterpoint. As of this recording in Malaysia there are one thousand thirty cases that is up from six hundred seventy three day ago and five hundred fifty three the day before that now over the past ten days in Kuala Lumpur the capital of Malaysia. The average high temperature was ninety six degrees. Janine Pierrot Astra through second question. Is it okay to have family? Visit my seventy three year old healthy mom at her home. I would say so provided that. They're careful and that they're not sick. And that they do the kind of social distancing. We're talking about here well. Let's do an elbow boom with grandma. Sure I mean the point is. Let's not go completely overboard. You gotTa See Grandma. She's healthy to healthy. You're healthy you don't go. They're sick you don't cough on. This is not in alignment with the best practices expressed by most experts dangerously so let's contrast that with MSNBC's medical expert who answered a question about a person. Visiting their elderly relatives people are concerned that it's going to get worse than they wonder if now is a good time to visit their parents but the short answer is. I just wouldn't all back to Dr Siegel on Fox. This was we heard the first two questions he was asked he was here was the third question he was asked. Can you get the virus more than once which is kind of a follow up to what I said you know even if you test negative can you get it now? They want to know if you can get it again. I don't think so most of the time you're going to develop an immunity from this virus most of the time because the strains look like the very narrowly different. We don't have a bunch of different strains out there yet like we have a flu. So if you've had it you may have a cycle where you think you're over it and then you get sick again. That's what we're seeing a recurrence of symptoms. But then when you're cured you're cured. I did a little research. I didn't see any other experts. Who expressed that level of certainty? I mean there's simply not sure pure whoever was in a different camp not comprehending the concept at all. Okay so you're not gonna get that one almost definitely not if you get cured. There still isn't a cure. We went through this and the last having had the infection or having been exposed to it you will going to develop an immunity after you've had long you've had the disease because that will spread of community wonderful return that that because no insane that not so definitively Rachel Graham Assistant Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the School of Global Health at the University of UNC. Chapel Hill says quote. It's too early to tell what kind of immune response people are amounting to this virus. And if they're able to produce the proper kinds of antibodies that would neutralize a subsequent infection in other words. We hope that will happen. We don't know here's the final question. Janine Pirro put to Segal. Can you go to the gym? Can you go to spin class? I mean what's safe? I'm still going to the gym now again. That was March fourteenth. And I would like to note that I Mike pesca least paranoid guy you've ever met stop going to the gym on March Eleventh. Twelfth Dr Siegel. Dr Drew have more medical expertise. The Niger put another way. They have medical expertise and I did reach out to Dr Siegel for comment. I relate that to you if he gets back to me but in terms of communicating with the public. It's a lar- ming to hear opinions. That are so out of step. With what the vast majority of other experts say and unlike most cases where. Fox News propaganda infects just a specific population and can be more or less contained on election. Day this is another type of disinformation. It's less willful. It's less by design and it's more based on on -earned confidence. It's not that Mark. Siegel is an expert. It's just that he's a specific kind of expert. Perhaps that Fox News in picking. It's experts only allowed itself to draw from the Pool. Eager to cheerlead Donald Trump. But the weird thing is that's not Nyu langone medical centers. Play for whatever reason. A couple of the doctors with the country's biggest megaphones are at best being unhelpful. And at worst being incorrect on the one topic where a difference of opinion can be the difference between life and death and that's it for today show. Priscilla lobby is the just associate producer. She has a message for everyone out there who ever had a dream. You're hogging the covers terrible. Daniel trader is the gist producer. What he say to his ten year old self. He'd probably say what are you doing on the phone with a thirty year. Old Man from Brooklyn. That is not right the gist. I hope you liked the credits. Because they are tremendous and no one gives them credit. Give the credits. Credit Predappio do Peru and thanks for listening.

president Donald Trump Dr Mark Siegel President flu Fox News United States Nbc Barack Obama FDR Dr Drew Dr Drew Pinski John Americans reporter Roosevelt Jonathan Alter Nyu Langone Medical Center CDC Anthony Fauci New York
Doris Kearns Goodwin: President's ambition must be "for the country," not themselves

1947: The Meet the Press Podcast

24:00 min | 2 years ago

Doris Kearns Goodwin: President's ambition must be "for the country," not themselves

"Ladies and gentlemen, we invite you to meet the meet apprentice depress. Welcome to nineteen forty. Seven, then meet the press podcast. My guest today is Doris Kerns Goodwin presidential historian and a longtime friend of the show doors is that with the new book leadership in turbulent times but new, she's not talking about our current political climate. Okay. Maybe a little. The book actually follows four US presidents ABRAHAM LINCOLN teddy and Franklin Roosevelt and LBJ, and their leadership styles and lessons doors. Welcome back to team forty-seven express podcast. Let me start with why this book right now. This almost strikes me as if you were working on something. He said, we need something else, did it? No, I've been working on it for five years, but it was a turbulent time even in Washington broken before I began. But most importantly, I've been studying leadership for fifty years hard to believe but true. And I realized that in a time of exile ID and we're in right now that we need to remember times when leader. Got us through even worse turbulent times and we emerge stronger than before if we don't remember the past like that, we just going to assume that our current culture, the polarization, the uncivil behavior is the norm. And especially for young people, I think it's really important to have before them vision. We've gone through this before we've had great leaders. We can have them again, you know, one of the privileges that I feel like you've had for the last thirty years is presidents will invite you. To to chat you and others. And I know that George w. Bush would do it. Bill Clinton would do it. Barack Obama would do it on an all of them. I believe that they did read some of these presidential Bagger fees. All right. I'm not sure if they read them all of your library, but they probably did read a lot of them. I get the census president does not read about other presidents. I mean, I think the most important thing when I think about the president's that I've studied teddy Roosevelt spent an entire summer reading the eighth volume history of ABRAHAM LINCOLN that had come out that summer while he's in the middle of a coal strike because he figures if I can learn what Lincoln learned I can learn, I'll be a better leader. I can grow think of all of us learn from our parents and grandparents, right? So why cannot presidents learn from? It's a very small club of people, and Truman was great reader. Lincoln was reading about the revolution. In fact, Lincoln said at one point when they were doing time of anxiety, we have to go back and read the revolution. People should read about it every night like the bible to their kids. So we can remember the ideals from which we've come. And these guys are actually my guys, I shouldn't call them that way. You do them all. We know about them all life waking up with them going to bed with, no, we're not going to be thinking about, oh, no, don't worry about that. I stop it now I know what I mean go to thinking about this. And as a result, I feel like I know them and I know that there's a family tree from them Lincoln's. Lincoln Lincoln is the root of the tree. LBJ's hero was FDR FDR zero was teddy Roosevelt teddy Roosevelt's hero was Lincoln. Lincoln goes back to the founding fathers. So they form a family lineage and they all had certain similar leadership traits, certain strains, empathy, humility, reflection, resilience, and the ability to grow in office. And those are the critical things. Let's focus on humility here for a minute because some of its foe humility by them is it not? I say this with with with love and respect to all of those presidents in some ways. But. What person wants to be president. You know, it's tough to have the emission for the presidency and have humidity at the same time. So is it real humility or the ability to show that you, you can fake it. Look, they absolutely have ambition, ambition is the necessity for success. You can't get by. If you don't have that desire and that drive at some point, the great ones shift that emission from personal ambition to the emission for the larger good, and that's when they become great leaders. But humility doesn't mean humbleness what it means when I use it is an awareness of your limitations so that you can acknowledge mistakes you've made and you can grow through those mistakes. Lincoln did that time. And again, teddy Roosevelt, nobody cared about being in the center of attention more than teddy Roosevelt. You know, they said he wanted to be the baby at the baptism and the bride at the wedding and the corpse at the funeral, right. But when he's in the state legislature, he gets a swelled head and he realizes it. Suddenly he was all this blistering language. He was yelling and pounding his desk and after. While he couldn't get anything done because he thought he alone could do it, and he learned that he couldn't. So that's the kind of humility. I mean that you learn from your mistakes and then you become grow. You know, a growing person afterwards. When I think about your four and your your, your your president, your president here. And I think about the current occupant. I, if I, if you're going to see more LBJ and teddy than I do FDR napkin, if you were to say. You know whether and I say this LBJ and his frankly, sometimes outlandish behavior. I've heard a story for instance about a New York Times reporter and pulling down his pants and things like that. I mean, things that that I think might make Donald Trump, lush, oh, I don't know about that. But I do think there's a similarity with teddy Roosevelt in the teddy had a charismatic appeal when when Trump comes into room, you do feel that he's in the room because he makes his presence felt right. That was absolutely true. If the Roosevelt and Theodore Roosevelt used the bully pulpit the way that Mr. Trump has been able to use tweets. In fact, I think teddy would be great in the tweeting world. He had all those small things he could say, speak softly and carry a big stick. You know, when you hit hit hard, don't hit until you have to, but then hit hard, even give Maxwell house. The slogan go to the very last drop. But the difference is I think that he used the bully pulpit to try and unify the divisions in the country not to stoke those divisions. He took a train around the country, six weeks in the spring and the fall. He went to states that. He lost as well as states that he won and he was able to his word, mattered. People trusted his word. So that's the difference there. The other similarity with LBJ is that sometimes he didn't have the greatest impulse control moments when he would yell at his staff. You know, there's a moment when he saw one of the staff writers running a letter and he said, son, can't you do that and and take a crap on your own time, not on my time, but the difference again is his staff members stayed with them because he was giving them a sense of mission that was larger than him, and he was the first one to arrive in the morning, the last one to be there at night. So they saw how hard he was working and how he was able to organize people when he's the head of the NY. The national youth administration under FDR was the best program in the country. He was able to create a team that coalesced. So even with that outlandish behavior, he had other other elements that I think are missing. Could you write about somebody. That you didn't like, you know why couldn't? Because it takes me so long to write these books. I mean, took me longer to write about Franklin and Eleanor than World War Two stook me ten years to write about Lincoln. I would not want to have to think about the person. I didn't like all day long, so I would never choose Mussalini or a hitler-stalin. I, I so respect my fellow colleagues that can do that. I have to basically like the person that sense you have to. You have to fall in like at least with the per se. I'm not gonna say love, but you have to fall in like you have to believe that the that the. Well, I guess as you went through, what if you got through the point and your thought, you know what they never should have been president, would you not write about? Probably probably if I studied the person for a while and I didn't think that I was going to feel that basic respect. Mike say, I'll go to another guy this bunch of them out there I can choose from. Yeah. I mean, I've chosen the people who are the most interesting in some ways they lived in the most challenging times. That's why the book I think has a relevance right now because we do feel sometimes people come up to me and say, as an historian, we living in the worst of time. What is the moment? What do you say to that? I get this question myself. I've only got about a twenty five year a professional life span. How do you? What moment do you point to well, look, I can say, listen, what do you think it would be like if you were Lincoln coming into the presidency in the country has split into and six hundred thousand people are about to die. And he says, I wouldn't have thought after he'd gotten through the first eight months, I could have lived through it. What do you think if your teddy Roosevelt coming in the industrial revolution shook up the economy much more than the tech. Revolution and globalization of done today. Workers were out in the street. They were violent, there were bombs, there was a feeling that was revolution coming at that time the gap between the rich and the poor much more difficult than today than you think of Franklin Roosevelt. He comes in, he says, the whole house of cards might collapse before even become president. There are people wandering the streets homeless without food for the population doesn't have a job. The banks have collapsed and even LBJ. He comes in with the assassination of John F Kennedy right before he's there. We don't know whether it's a conspiracy, whether it's the mafia, those times are more difficult than ours. And that's what history does. It provides a perspective and if we know we got through those times, we can keep that vision in front of us in order to believe things are going to be better. We have to remember other times that we're better. That's what history does. I think history so important now I've, I've never thought it was more important. I'm curious. Do you feel like he would know how to talk to Donald Trump if he asked you for advice, historically, based advice? Do you know how to do you feel like you have a sense of how you present him with maybe corollaries with teddy and things like that? That's what what I would do. I mean, I think if I started with teddy Roosevelt that I've done a column for Vanity Fair about teddy and Trump actually and it'll be coming out later this week. And this idea is that they don't. They both had that desire to be in the center. They both were able to speak in in a very colorful way in the country responded. They both had a fighting spirit. They were on the su- believed they were always right, and we'll we'll teddy every now and then would acknowledge when something went wrong, but the differences are the teddy was able to control those impulses that he had to be though, yes, you spoke to party too. Yeah, subway he was. This is the part where I sit there and Trump I, that's the guy that's teddy in them. Okay. Let me tell you. That's a really important point. I hadn't thought about that when he was in the presidency before nineteen hundred eight. He was able to control his impulses. He's in the middle of this coal strike and the coal barons are are yelling at him, and he grabs the seat of the chair and he says, I want to throw them out the window, but I didn't do it. But then what happened is once he left the presidency in one thousand nine of his own accord because he made that stupid promise that he was not going to run again, which he said he would have cut off his wrist not to have done, and then he misses it so much and in nineteen twelve. He comes back and runs against his best friend Taft, and then I lose I, I was mad at him. You know, when I was writing about that part, I feel the same way about our thinking. Why did you do this study? If you'd only wait until nineteen sixteen, you could have one on your own and you wouldn't have split the party into why did he do it? Why did he do it? Because he couldn't bear being outside of politics. He missed it so much. That's number one. And number two, we truly felt that we rationalized anyway, the Taft was taking the country in a more conservative journey and he thought the progressives were losing ground. So we had a cover for why he was doing and people wanted him to do it, but basically just missed. Every fiber is being he wanted to be back. I don't know how you keep somebody patients because he said, what you're saying is you're vice President Trump would be. You need a little bit of patients here in need, some patience, you you, you, you have some opportunities, but you gotta pick your spots. You'd need to realize it's all it's all not in the now and you have to realize that you, you can't. You can't go over your own storyline. I mean, certainly on the whole Maria hurricane thing, he had a story that he should have been telling that we're preparing ourselves for Florence. And instead what he does start talking about how many people are dead, he couldn't help himself. He was angry when he saw the scenes on the television that went back to, maybe he hadn't done well enough with Maria and that people were upset with him. You have to control those impulses. I mean, Lincoln wrote hot letters when he was mad at people, FDR was able to write drafts of speeches where he'd yell at the person and says a treasonous person, and then not let that be the final draft. He has to figure out ways. I think to control those impulses because you can't be a president if you are not if you're not able to to be what you want to be at that moment in time, what do you make of? There's there's a, there's some conservatives who. Defend some of the criticism of President Trump by saying, you know what the same criticism was made of Ronald Reagan and over time people realize and with hindsight, Reagan was better president than he got credit for or Reagan was more on top of things than he got credit for or Reagan was not as you know, he would be criticized for not having enough empathy. No, he was more empathetic. What do you make of that revisionist comparisons? I think it's true that when you look back at time, you can find some more positive things in the people, you know, especially when they die. Suppose that's the moment. But with Rankin, I think I'm not sure his temperament was criticized. I think that's the difference. You might criticize his policies. You might have felt that he was not being careful about what he was doing and some people were being heard if you're if you're a liberal rather than a conservative, but he was stable on his temperament was optimistic. His temperament was confidence. He e moated that temperament and the guy was a kid. I always felt as if he cared about the country right. I think it was clear. He's felt like I always mute him as the country's grandfather because to me, he was the same age as my grandfather. And I think the most important thing president has to has to really project to the people is that his ambition, as I say is for the country for the team that he's building not for himself. I mean, one of the things FDR said is he goes to sleep at night and he doesn't worry about a decision he's made as long as he believes he's going to have the best batting average for his team and for his country. So he may not do well all the time. He may not hit five hundred, but he's going to believe that he's doing it for the country, and that's what you have to inject in your team. That sense of self has to be somehow muted. And here it seems to be right out front is, is there any other president? I mean, is the Andrew Jackson comparison. The the only other good fairlight. Suppose what works with Andrew Jackson is that he made the people the ordinary people feel he was on their side and that it had been an elitist group of presidents before he came in and you can't take away from President Trump that. During the campaign he made the people who voted for him feel I'm on your side. I'm fighting for you, but then the transposition is once you get into the presidency, it's not campaigning anymore. Lincoln never spoke extemporaneously. Can you believe that? I'm, here's this great debater who could outfox anybody. You know somebody else in one of he's in the debate you're two faced, and he can immediately say if I two faces do think I'd be wearing this face. I mean, he was able to use several separate Katori humor, but once he got in the presidency, he knew that words mattered. So he hardly ever spoke without that prepared text because he realized that a president has the dignity has the responsibility. That's something else that I think President Trump has to learn that the things he says, if they're not true or their alternative facts, we lose trust, we lose trust in government. If you lose trust in government, you've lost everything. Here's the thing that I struggle with, and I bet because I struggled with it when we were on the show on Sunday and you and Peggy Noonan in particular. You still have this optimistic idea that that this president is in learning mode, and there's not a lot of evidence that he is that this is some. This is the way he works that he's not receptive to, you know what I want to calibrate and how did that. I didn't do that this time. I wanna do it this time, and that's where I think a lot of us are sort of stuck. That's where we get stuck. We're looking for this optimism that you give, but that's not the person I know now. In fact, I think when I'm talking about growing, I was talking about other presidents, that's the importance that you're hoping the next round of candidates learn this. I think what we need to do in the next round of candidates, we need to look at the temperament of that next round of candidates and see instead of figuring out who does well in a debate who's raised the most money who says something that Zing somebody else. That's why our system has to really think about how we cover candidates. I talked about this before he died and we wanted to think about, can you look at the candidates and look. Back. They've been mayors governors senators, congressman, this would have been hard because Mr. Trump was from the outside, but can you discern the kind of temperament that they have? Do they share credit to they shoulder blame? Are they empathetic? Are they able to grow in office? Can they see their mistakes? Those are all things you could learn about a candidate and that's how we should be evaluating our candidates. Not the way we do it. Now we have to figure this out. Murray buying partner on on. I read the flick editor, NBC news. You know, he said something to me the other day that has hit me hard and it because he's, he says, you know, you and I grew up. Examining presidential candidates through the prism of who can be the consensus builder. Exactly and but the but we're the, he's he goes, we're the, we're the dinosaurs is what he was saying. He says, you and I are the dinosaurs here because the public is looking for passion. You know whether now and you see it on the left. I see, you know, with an Andrew gillum this is the gentleman who's the nominee for governor in Florida. Well, he's inspiring a lot of passion and he's not emphasizing that I'm going to be a consensus builder. Donald Trump obviously didn't do that. Now. Barack Obama did a little bit of both, but it is clear that consensus building isn't a top priority of the voters, even if it is at the press. And that is a, as he said, we're bit confused. Well, I I do think that the ability to somehow get people on all different sides of these issues, different sections, different classes, different races to feel their common citizens again is absolutely essential. It's not so much only building consensus teddy Roosevelt said the rock of democracy. Would founder if people in one section or class begins to see the others as the other, something different from them. And that's what's happened now. So I think what we need is somebody with passion that's neither far out far out on either side. That's the trouble if you're a moderate and in the middle, where a lot of the people are, then you're just a moderate person. You need passionate, moderate somehow to combine these sides. I, it seems that though our biggest challenges, we don't agree on the definition of what the American ideal is. If I say that phrase the American ideal, I don't think that people have you'd look at the different definitions and I could probably guess the race of the person against the gender of the person. I guess the party of the person which to me is problematic. You know, I think the simplest way to think about what we want is fairness. I mean, that's the thing about the square deal that teddy had. It's for the rich and the poor, the capitalist and the wage worker. The fair deal was Truman's thing to. It's going to set a fair playing deal that has to do with race to. That's what it'll be. Jay talked about, I want a fair playing field so that people who are black, where people who are white, have an equal chance to use their talents to the level of their ability to the level of the discipline and have a good shot at mobility in this country. I mean, I think mobility is the issue. It's not rich and poor. It's do people and we believe in that country, you come to this country and you have a chance to rise and that's not there. Now in a lot of parts of our country, it seems as if of the four, who do you feel like we're the two that we're actually dealing with the potential collapse of the American ideal up. Lincoln is obvious without a question, is it FDR that moment where maybe our entire economic system could have gel question when he came in and the banks had collapsed and people are out in the streets, pulling their money out of the banks. And then he had to call a Bank holiday and close all the banks Wall Street closes down indefinitely. There was a feeling that capitalism wasn't going to work. Other countries would have had coups and that MLB actually said we would be in the streets, but FDR that's where leadership matters. It's not. That always person is right for the time. He was. Is right for that time he had come through his polio. He had done experiments to get out of the polio. He just said, I'm going to experiment. I'm going to do everything I can, but I'm going to get us to work and he projected an optimism and the confidence of even after his inaugural people wrote to him and said, this one letter, I love. They said my roof fell off. My dog ran away. My wife is mad at me. I have no job, but you're there. And now I'm gonna be alright. I mean, that's incredible. When people can feel when a leaders there that he's taken charge of the country and what he did was to take charge by saying it's going to be action and he got the congress in that hundred days to pass laws, bipartisan laws that got people back to jobs that change the system and made it better. It was pretty close to collapsing and other countries had claps. That's where socialism and communism comes about, is this your mount Rushmore of of your four presidents or reserve fifth that you would like to get to know the way you've gotten to know these four and right about that president the way you've got to read about these, you know, I suppose if I were twenty years old, it might be George Washington because he's the beginning. Of all of this and that I feel like there is an underwhelming amount of academic and historical. Efforts about our first president. Well, somehow he always seems so distant, I, that's part of it and you wanna make him human and I'm and I'm sure some of the best biography of done that. But then that means another ten years. So I have a choice between that or I'm a friend of mine and I Beth Lasky who's actually here with me that we're going to form a movie company and do documentaries and, and I'd ITAR bell possibly may be a subject for a movie movie, and there's actually going to be a documentary on George Washington, and I'm going to be involved with learn about him that that sounds like a fun. I have to tell you, I think teddy Roosevelt would make the best TV show without a question. I mean, there's start with teddy in New York City. Yeah, just this, don't you love it? I think. Do a series right law and order with police Commissioner teddy Roosevelt. Now that's a great idea. In fact, he used to wander the streets at night in these midnight rambles he'd wear a disguise and go on the street to see if the policemen were doing their jobs. And after a while he'd find policeman who's standing there with some woman and you say, what are you doing? And he said, what's it to you? Man? And then the somebody's putting said, that's the police Commissioner when the number for Netflix. Okay. The green light. Okay. How does. Let me ask one final question. What's your favorite president to read about that you've never written about. Well. Probably Truman. I think Truman was an extraordinary character. I mean coming in after FDR not thinking that he had the temperament in the capacity to do it, and yet making those really tough decisions Lyndon Johnson used to say to me, I envy Truman because he makes these decisions and he doesn't sit up at night. Wondering whether he's done the right thing. Did did. Don't you think to men? I think less than LBJ did. No. I think he, I think I would say that FDR and Truman both had this capacity to say I've made the best decision I could given the time I had given the information I had and I go right to sleep. I mean, that's one of the things that interested me about all my guys is how do they go to sleep at night when they're so anxious. I mean, Lincoln would read some funny stories so that the humor would be in his head instead of that FDR had a cocktail party every night in the White House so that he could think about what he was drinking and relaxing instead of the war to teddy Roosevelt in two hours of exercise, it'd be exhausted by the nighttime. So those are the fun thing. That's the kind of stuff I like to do. We love to Roosevelt first gruden's. Good one. Thank you for the history lesson that America needs leadership. You so much for being with you. This is great. Thank you. Dors Kerns Goodwin. Thank you. You've been listening in nineteen forty seven, the meet the press podcast. If you enjoyed the show, you can subscribe and download more free episodes on apple podcasts tune in and Spotify. We would love to hear any feedback. You can Email us at nineteen forty seven podcast at gmail.com back next week with another episode till we upload. Again, thanks for listening. Thanks for listening to the nineteen forty seven podcasts from NBC's meet the press with Chuck Todd. You can listen to MSNBC twenty four hours a day, seven days a week on tune in.

Commissioner teddy Roosevelt president ABRAHAM LINCOLN President Trump FDR LBJ Franklin Roosevelt Truman Barack Obama Trump George w Bill Clinton Washington US Doris Kerns Goodwin New York Times Bush LBJ Maxwell house polio