22 Burst results for "Eugenia"
"eugenia" Discussed on The Essential Oil Revolution
"Yeah i'm so fascinated by the whole patterning process especially when it comes to anything related to natural substances or essential oils. Because i know it's not. It's not easy to patent the patent things that come from natural sources. Because you can't really say like oh. Yeah i invented this eugenia invented this cloverdale rate so. Yeah i would love to talk maybe later about just that process. It sounds so fascinating. But i don't know if there's anything you want to share about that now you're you're welcome to to share anything relevant. Yeah no it'd be. It'd be fun to talk more about that. It is hard because like you said these are natural compound you can say oh you know i. I discovered this. It's mine But when you combine composition with motive action and clinical studies layer those three things on than than the likelihood of being able to get patent. It's difficult But it's but it's possible and So wound healing. We're doing a lot of really cool research there and so essential oils quorum sensing and wound healing scenario. That i don't think really anybody knows about in the general public. And so that's something. that's that's fun. Another really interesting avenue when it comes to a corm sensing is the oral microbial as well. So using quorum sensing inhibitors to Promote health of oral cavity is a big deal. Okay and i always give the advice for you know. Take some coconut oil. Add one or two drops. A clove swish it around. You know anything that's going on dental wise preventatively or if you've like sawtooth or something i always go there Dacha based on traditional health practices. And what we know about essential oil so that makes total sense to me. Yeah yeah exactly so the application that you just mentioned there. Perfect what you're doing. Is it scouring inside the oral cavity and any sort of bad bacteria. that You know that can cause damage to to the body. Growth will be stunted using using that combination and the oral microbiome is just incredibly new frontier. There's bacteria in the oral cavity. That are responsible for all aspects of health. There's good bacteria that produce nitric oxide. Which is a vasil die later which is which regulates gene expression. So when we're growing good back during the oral cavity. They produce nitric oxide. We swallow the saliva continue. Nitric oxide gets down in the body. It turns on genes. There's all sorts of really fascinating things going on with Oral microbiome and so corm sensing in relation to the oral microbiome is another Frontier that's ripe for innovation and discovering. We're doing some things they're Not patented or anything. So i can't talk too much more about what's going on there but that's another really cool avenue that We should expect to see some great discoveries. Come out here in the next few years. Support for our show comes from bollandbranch in twenty nineteen. We bought a new home and we also opened up an airbnb. That's attached to that home and when we were setting that.
"eugenia" Discussed on The Poetry Magazine Podcast
"The angry part the sad part the all come out at different times depending on what is being triggered in your environment and i you know we all have various parts that are protecting us the part that that shuts down. If somebody's yelling at you or the part that yells back in just starts throwing things or creating a scene these are all parts of us and internal family systems also believes that everybody has a true self. A self that is healed that is capable of processing everything. Marash lee more lovingly amer compassionately and the point of this therapy isn't to get rid of the parts but rather to have compassion on the parts and to understand them to give them a chance to speak and when these parts are given that chance to express themselves and to tell their story than they don't feel the need to get big any more so than i don't need the part that would cause these drunken scenes with my ex-boyfriends in curse at them and hit them or whatever it was like they don't need to come up to the surface anymore if i'm angry or in a fight with my husband or whatnot because i've given these parts of chance to tell their story i've given these parts of chance to feel heard and they know now that they don't have a job anymore. They don't need to protect there. Isn't anybody here. Who is abusing me or harming me in the same ways as when i was a child and so having that conversation with these parts. Let's them know okay. My job is done against to chill like they are sort of in this big sack like you said. I like to imagine them in a room where they're all partying together and sometimes been apart. Feels like oh no. I feel eugenia being threatened. I better come out and like defender again. You know that happens and it is very nerve wracking to bear all of that in a poem right. This work i've done with my therapist in private. Haven't even really shared this fully with my husband. But i think to see somebody doing that. Work is is important like you said in the korean christian community. We don't talk enough about mental honest. We don't talk enough about healing about growth in this way and not just in our community but in community at large i think the pandemic really brought mental illness and mental health to the surface. I think people are finally starting to become more comfortable with talking about depression with pain with what self-care means not in just the cultural popular. But what it really means to make sure that we are okay that we are healthy that we are in positive relationships that are healing and i think when myself starts to see my poem in that context. I feel more secure. I feel like. I am doing the work that i meant to be doing. I am Hopefully encouraging more people to take this brave step to bearing the insides of themselves. I think there are definitely parts of me. Who are like what the hell are you doing. Why are you sharing this. What if your father reza with your mother reads it. I mean god knows what they'll say right you know and those parts exists and i've had to have a conversation with them about this phone. Say you know what i understand. You're worried for me. But i'm thirty seven years old. It's okay for people to hear this story. i'm going to survive it. I've survived worse. And if this story is being told not just for myself but for others to reflect on their own parts and reflect on who their true selves are than than. It's worth it to me. Well thank you. I feel very inspired. Because i feel like i'm always holding back so i'm so scared but maybe it will come later down the road but i think that's why i i love. Your work is because i feel like it's modeling. The bravery and fearlessness. That everyone could use a little love. Thank you thank you so much that means so much to me. Oh my gosh. I feel tional. Is this supposed to happen. A big thank you to junior. Lee lee is a korean american poet and the author of bianca forthcoming from four way. Books and twenty twenty three and blood sparrows and sparrows. You can read the two poems by lee in the september.
"eugenia" Discussed on The Poetry Magazine Podcast
"A bearer of of my rage. And it's strange because come to terms with my own personal faith. Now as i've gotten older especially as i have a child and don't have an explanation for a lot of things and while i'm still not okay with a lot of what korean christian culture is like. I have found ways to make peace with my own relationship with what i believe. God or the universe is and it's strange though because this next book beyond god doesn't mention god nearly as much as i even though i have a more personal relationship with what i believe is god i think because i am in a place of peace with myself and so i'm not having to process that relationship necessarily as much as i am processing now the relationship with the attachment figures and so that's sort of the way that mike christian experience has affected my writing but you know it does really break my heart when i see it still happening right. My in laws are very much involved in their korean christian community. And every time i talk to them. It's another story of some kind of drama with some some kind of corruption within the church. And it's just it's sad you know that this could have been a safe space for people especially for immigrants and yet it's just like a hot pot of toxicity. Somebody's thank you for sharing that. My secret dream is that someone or we should or. I don't know anybody should start a podcast just talking about the exact phenomena and i was really interested to hear you talk about how god figures dozen figure new work and so could you read the second part of the poem sure. Once i followed a man into a hurricane minutes before it stripped half of manhattan from power. I trailed behind him when the transformer line exploded and the night sky flashed a gas leak..
"eugenia" Discussed on The Poetry Magazine Podcast
"I could barely read poems for several years. I think because. I was just in the thick mud of my own healing and my own mental illness. It really wasn't until. I stabilized on medication that i was able to find that voice again. people often say you know. I'm really afraid to see a psychiatrist. At least writers. I know are often afraid to get on medication or find healing or get rid of you know the quirks that they think make them a great writer but actually my mental illness was hindering that process. I wasn't able to see my life clearly. I was able to see my writing clearly. I'm it was either the worst or it was going to make me a star raise like the two sides of bi-polarity and when night stabilize on medication and started understanding what trauma is and that trauma is just unprocessed negative emotion negative experience and started to process. All the things that were happening. That had happened to me. And we're sort of replaying themselves as i became a mother. I found myself just wanting to tell that narrative some of these poems on his sleigh came from some exercises that might they're piss would even have me do she would say you know. Write a letter to your mother. Write a letter to your father and you know the title would start f. You just like go down and then realizing okay. There's there's some excuse for poetic here right. There's some sort of a mining process will go into this cave of blathering and then pick out the parts right thought. Oh this actually is worth something. It's worth speaking not just to myself for healing but maybe to share with others to encourage healing on communal level in your poem it just spans such a wide time in your life from childhood right to your adult present moment. You know as someone who's married as a mother and so i was really curious when and how poetry entered your life. I remember in seventh grade..
"eugenia" Discussed on The Poetry Magazine Podcast
"Do i carry them. One by one like bride after bride across the threshold and removed their boots Welcome to the poetry magazine podcast. I'm guest editor soochow. When i first read genial work i felt changed transformed in a sense that something inside me awakened. I'm always struck by the honesty and her poems. And because i was a shy poet than reading her work emboldened me to say what i needed to say this week. I have the honour of talking to lee about her research into attachment theory the authentic self healing hindsight and ultimately how we can accept our pastels. So i grew up with a father who is actually a christian minister but he was also very abusive and now in hindsight icy that he was also very mentally ill and undiagnosed and now i believe that mental illness runs in my family. I was also recently diagnosed with bipolar. Disorder and complex. p. T. s. t. And so gives me a new light with which i can see my childhood We were the ministers daughter's going to church but then you know on sunday morning before church. The house would be a wreck. Because my dad was throwing things abusive toward my mother and toward me. We were very poor. We grew up on welfare and my father was in and out of prison for domestic violence and so there were periods of time where my mother was raising on her own with multiple jobs. She had dropped out of college to raise me and my two younger sisters and a lot of my first book. Chronicles the experience of that. But you know in hindsight. I actually realized that a lot of that book was told in the voice of the child who still had an attachment these attachment figures. That were a toxic and dr gabor. Mateo is a hungarian canadian physician who talks a lot about attachment and authenticity and how in an unhealthy traumatic relationship. A child is forced to choose between authenticity and attachment and the child off chooses attachment. Because if they don't then they would literally die right..
"eugenia" Discussed on Accessible Astrology with Psychotherapist + Astrologer Eugenia Krok, MA
"Us into spring and the energy of completion is a sacred energy. it's an energy that allows us to tap into the bigger picture. it allows us to tap into the parts of life. We can't really control from the perspective of we have to let go. You know i'm not saying all of the mutable. Signs are easy or have an easy time with letting go specifically virgo But that is what the mutable signs are asking for. They're asking for us to let go to change in two shifts and that energy can bring a lot of sacred and spiritual experiences especially with jupiter jupiter. Having been pisces. This summer you know. Pisces is not only the last sign of the winter but it's the last sign of the zodiac. It is the last phase of life it is at the very completion where we let go of everything to transmit and transform into something brand new and from that fees or from that place. There's a lot of magic you know we could call it. God consciousness pisces. You know this is the phase of life where we're really going letting go and going with god right. We are returning To source we are meeting our maker however you wanna say. That's what pisces is about. Is that unconscious on dipping into our dreamland as we are asleep at night. It's that space where things are magical. Things are sacred their spiritual now. Jupiter being this giant planet who brings a lot of attention to the zodiac or the local sign where he transit's he has given a lot of attention to pisces the summer and so i hope that you have experienced thought that sacredness of the gods and the goddesses above synchronous cities spirituality a connection to source of in a huge amount of faith in what is going on in your life and in the collective that is what jupiter in pisces has asked for he has asked for us to let going like god and and have some faith and all of the work of the astrology leading up to this point has been about integrity and truth and honesty as we moved into the astrology of the year of twenty twenty-one if if if any astrologer had two sons about them they would look at this year's astrology and the first word they would think of as experimentation right. We've got a lot of stuff going on in the sign of aquarius this year. With your arana's screen saturn saturn bean inequalities. You're on speen. The modern ruler saddam being the traditional this strong aquarian energy of twenty twenty one is changeable unpredictable and experimental..
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"His house to decide if things are right not to be able to give the onset but to be able to construct an argument and a framework for justifying an ensemble. And that's a much more congress if thing than just being able to spew out fats that someone has transplanted into your brain so but in being able to construct an argument to support the answer. Does that not leave open. Still the possibility that people are going to disagree over. What is right and i always thought this is a simplistic thought but i always thought that one of the great things about mathematics is that it's pretty it ought to. It gives us a set of tools to really be able to say right wrong guests the quesion balances or it doesn't well in father in high left metrics. It's more about context so rather than saying this is right misses wrong. We say here's a sense in which this is right because maybe in a different context this other things right and so it's a very basic example but also caused a huge storm on the internet. Recently you might think two plus two you just does equal four but then a whole load of mathematicians popped up and say. Oh well actually. Here's the context in which two plus two equals something else and a two plus two equals five to plus two equals zero in other context. Plus you can equal three and many people see. I think the same kinds of people who told gracie. She's done got really upset about this because they so wanted to believe that. My is the thing that they're good at but has clear right. Onces that delineates them as clever person than other people and so to see people actually say things that maybe they found difficult to understand was a threat to the self esteem and so they really upset about it but actually higher level math is about finding different contexts. In which different things true because the world around us has many different contexts and different things can be true depending on how you look at them and so for me. Math is really about having a flexible way of thinking so that you can see different points of view and this is completely opposite to how it's usually presented in education and how most mathematicians view it as a subject. I will fully admit that my mathematics education ended with calculus applications engineering problems. So not the higher level at that. You're talking about but now eugenia we have just a couple of minutes left. And i wanted to just explore a little bit more about Examples of congress's of behaviors in the world around us and specifically perhaps let's say in in in leadership through this pandemic right. Because i think some people pointed out that there are several countries out there who have done better than others And they like to point out. That many of those countries have female leaders. Do you think that's significant. I think it could. Well be significant. And we need to be careful because it's not the it's not the the share factor biology of being female. That is the issue. I think that. I'm not saying we should ignore gender definition agenda blind a narrows possibly something in the fact that a country where is even able to elect a female leader on like this country a country that is able to maybe just a different kind of country already the fact that they can even do that. But aside from that it's more about the style of leadership rather than the bid the specific gender of the person. And so maybe it's to do with the fact that they they would not overconfident. They did not simply bluster about the fact that we could. We could deal with this. That they did seek the help of experts and listen to experts in cases where they want. Experts themselves in some of the country's release turned out to be experts. But but taking on board those opinions rather than assuming that you'll write yourself is important and also not taking enormous risks with human life. Maybe that's also a congress aspect. And i think that risk taking is another one of those behaviors that often associated with men. But women are told. They need to do in order to be more accessible. You have to take risks to be successful. And i disagree with that because i don't take risks from absolutely not risk-taker and i do believe unsuccessful. Instead of taking risks i built safety nets to mitigate those risks which i think is much more is much more sensible with 'having and i think that that risking taking a risk with human life is a more ingrid behavior you. You think that we're going to be able to. We're going to be able to deal with this because we're a great country. That's the point of ingress of approach whereas being safer and protecting people are more coercive approach and maybe that is what helped some countries do better of course further further research is needed but having this terminology at all helps me to think mccleary about it robin and getting stuck in san well. It's because they were winning. We've just got one minute left eugenia. And i'm and i'm thinking about All the people listening there particularly the girls listening right now. Who hopefully are feeling quite inspired by you and your your path and and the work that you're doing i was just wondering we've got thirty seconds. Do what advice would you have for them. If they're in that moment in life where maybe they're getting pushback for their fundamental questions about math. I will say leave that the people who think that brilliant necessarily more brilliant than you and actually the greatest mathematicians i know we all think live really stupid will. Eugenia chain is author of x..
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"Art students often satan who wished that must have been presented in this school and might not have been so put off because laugh in kindergarten and first grade is much more congress. It's about play and exploration. We give children objects to mess around with them exploring to to find out the relationships between numbers for themselves. They take some little blocks or something and then they take longer than they see how many they are and then maybe we start getting into arrange them in patterns and grids to understand how numbers interact with each other. And then at some point it becomes right engrossing and it turns into. Aren't this question though you got it wrong. How many points did you score on this test. You have this time-limited test. How many questions can you do. This person get better than you. Oh well these people who are good at math visas people who bad at math and then some kids will want to ask questions like why. Why is one add one to you. Why does two times three equal three times to where some other kids will be going. Oh that's really obvious. I'm really good at math. And then the students who have these more expensive questions will be more drawn to the more. Obviously congress subjects like ought and like writing where there aren't so much right and wrong answers but but that way you can create things feel self in create worlds and characters and relationships and that makes me sad because in research math we create worlds and characters and relationships. And somehow you have to wait from the age of six through years and years and years of tests and exams before you start doing a phd and get to do that kind of math again. I think exactly right. I mean the thing that that school kids are forget they forget because they're not taught is that there's a spectacular creativity in mathematics. So you're exactly right. There's a point in time where it becomes Sort of tests measurements and rules. So give me give me an example of what say Geometry education would be that. That wasn't just your memory. Memorize how we get pie of the niger with my students is that i talk about the platonic solids but i don't tell them. What are we just sit down and talk about. Symmetry symmetry is about relationships really between objects on themselves. So if you flip an object over and it still looks the same then. It's got some kind of symmetry if you around and it looks the same. It's got some kind of symmetry and so we just explore what shapes we can fit together so we take two dimensional shapes and caught them out and that just is just let them explore sticking together and see what kind of three dimensional shapes they make. And i say that the platonic solids about really really maximally symmetrical ones and then everyone sits down and build things and some people. Bill puts on accelerates and some people built things to almost platonic solids. But don't quite have all the symmetry and some people will build a dinosaur because this is all at school you know if they build a dinosaur. They've still love something because what they discover is that pentagon's that shapes with five soit A terrible shape to us to try and build a dinosaur doesn't work at all whereas triangles are a great shape to us. You can build practically anything with triangles and that's actually a profound mathematical concept that gets used in all levels of research mathematics where we use triangulation as they're called breakdown really complicated shapes into triangles to understand them via these. Doling book can't resist eugenia. I just can't resist. Why are triangles so cool. So powerful that. That's a really great question and so one of the reasons that they are cool. Is that that bad. The only it's the only number sides where the the three the length of the sides fully determines what shape you're going to get because once you have four or more sites you can fix the length of sides but the shape might still be able to take different forms so for example. If you take four pieces of wooden stick together you could make a squib. You could make a diamond shape like a rumba. And this is something that people know if they do woodwork and build things but if you want to make a rigid structure you put the animals into things too like on a table when you attach a table to a table to you. Might put a diagonal thing in to stabilize it because that triangle is going to make rigid and that is one of the reasons this one of the many reasons that triangle sort of different from other shapes You know actually funnily enough. I hadn't hadn't thought about that that any any number of sides beyond three You suddenly get a multiplicity of possible shapes like all all sorts of polygons but three is always going to be a triangle. Wow i mean it's funny like my background is in my educational background in engineering. So i was like viewed triangle is just like the strong shape right but why is it why it strug is not something. They probably thought about enough now. So you're so what you're really getting at. Here is an entirely different mode. Model of education writ large not just mathematical education but education writ large and this is a giant field of debate and the inquiry and and questioning here. But but i. I am curious about how do you look to see other places maybe other countries where they are using more aggressive models of education as you would call it. What more congress. If congress if congress one of the examples i talk about is the example of finland which is which is quite famous among education circles. But it's also being people have been kind of trying to debunk it but what happened. Was that finland surprised the world by doing really world for some that was an international evaluation of of Teenagers achievements in various aspects of education and finland has have turned out to have a really congress's kind of education and they will never aiming to have high standards what they were aiming for was equity and inclusion and so they have an amazing system where they they do not have any private schools so everyone has supposedly very equal access to the same kinds of education and the emphasis is on community and collaboration. It's not on achievement. And i think more broadly. This is really important for the current era because in previous eras it was important to just get information doing education because we didn't have good access to inflammation so just knowing stuff was important but now we have access to too much information. The has gone entirely the other way. We have too much information. What's way more important than getting knowledge is learning how to son. What council good information. And what doesn't count good information. And that is what is sorely lacking in the world at the moment because people things go viral regardless of whether or not they actually people believe conspiracy theories without having a framework to back them up and every academic discipline comes with a way of deciding what counts as good information. And that's why gracie's question was so in the one about. How do we know it's right because for me. What's much more important in education..
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"This can be applied to people people's behavior and i'm really glad you said versus isn't the right word because they're not in opposition to each other it's ways of describing things and it can be applied to all level so it can be applied to people it can be applied to society structures family interactions and even apply to mathematics itself and the way we present mathematics and i think that typical math education presents math in an ingress if way because it presents it as facts that we have to learn. It's very much about authority. An authority figure a teacher tells you what you're supposed to do. And then you're supposed to obey those rules and then we have tests and exams which are also very aggressive. It's not a collaborative of about speed. It's about running people. And it's fundamentally about filtering people out saying who good enough and who isn't good enough. And i consider those to be ingress if contra sticks that therefore cutoff congress if people congress if people who are more interested in connections relationships exploration and something that's that's less black and white than than right answers a eugenia about me correcting myself in the middle of a sentence of frequent listeners. To this show. We'll we'll be familiar with that behavior. Because i'm just a i'm a relentless self editor In real here but the part of that is is that i think i in fact. Perhaps let's apply. Let's apply this to to this conversation that we should always be testing our own theories. Whether it's a question that i'm asking or an answer that i'm receiving so part i i would think that if i can just stretch. This analogy a little bit. Use it you know constructing new mathematical proof. Part of what you have to show is is what it is not so. I'm curious about this approach that you're using applying category theory to how we think about gender. I'm i'm wondering if what is it. Do you think that it's reviewing that other. Theories or ways of thinking about gender haven't already revealed what it has revealed to me. Is that the assumptions. The underlying assumptions. We've made about. Who will be good at math on bright and i think many research nothing dishes notice deep down because we basically all know. That exams are terrible. Way of predicting future research success because they test something else entirely in fact exams. Don't test anything at all except your ability to do that to cure exam on that particular day and not ready transferable skill in any way whereas research is about many things about curiosity. It's about thinking it's about as you say testing incorrect in your own theory and it's really importantly about self doubt and that's why i do that. Competence is good. Well it's not a very good idea because confidence means that people think things are obvious and that comes back to the the responses to pull grace's questions where people said. Oh you're so these things so obvious. If he thinks things are obviously easy in math means. You're missing something because nothing is really obvious. And the reason that math grows all the time is because conditions are never quite satisfied with any answers to anything and so we probe further and further to get deeper and deeper on says. Because we're not ever quite satisfied with what we've done and so in a way. I think that self-doubt is a is possibly more important attribute for doing mathematics. Van self confidence and you might say yes. A balance is important so it's important not to be consumed by yourself donald but that is where the environment can come in to help us and that the car environment is not very supportive so many people have discovered that if they ask those searching questions they get told this stupid was if we supported people more and encouraged them then they wouldn't have to have self confidence because we would give them confidence and in a supportive environment. I think that self confidence is really much less important and then we can support the people who have good self doubt who have the potential to be better mathematicians and so house has this way of looking at the world. Has it changed like your your day to day practice. Yes it has. And there's all this all started. Because i was trying to understand my own expensive math and also help more people because it makes me so sad that so many people traumatized by math and a half mafia which often then results in people saying they hate math. And i love math so it makes me sad to see it misunderstood and hated by people and i think that it really is misunderstood and so i think really hard about why people are put off and i think it's because they have not been sufficiently supported to two on sir to to ask the questions they wanna ask exploring the ways they want to explore and see the creativity and the point of mathematics rather than just being told that wrong because they didn't get this particular answer right. Well somebody else did it foster and someone is competing against them to show how clever they are and so with my art students. I've been thinking so hot about how to create a congress's educational environments eugenia hold on just a second. We just have to take a quick break. Here and people are hearing a little bit of piano in the background. That's you playing schubert. We'll be right back. This is on point dan. This is on point meghna chakrabarti. Today we are speaking with eugenia chang. She is author of x. Plus y. a mathematicians manifesto for thinking. We have a excerpt of at on point. Radio dot org. Eugenie is a mathematician and educator. Concert pianist you heard her play a little bit of schubert at the end of the last segment. She's also scientist in residence at the school of the art institute of chicago and eugenia before the break. I'm sorry that. I had to interrupt you there but you were talking about how your rethinking of gender or applying mathematical concepts to how we think about gender how that's changed. How you work with your students at the at the art institute. Yes it gives me a way to frame how i think about what i'm going to teach how i teach it because one my stuck thinking about gender then we get stuck saying silly things like oh i need a cross activity that will appeal to goals and that sounds really stupid and it is stupid because who knows what's going to appeal to girls and what's going to appeal to boys and that's where in life when we say things like. Oh well usually women do this and mendi that someone gets offended and then we have to qualify it by saying oh but not all women and not all men and so. I had a previous experience while it find that at the beginning of a semester. I would have in my office crying because they felt like they were just not good enough that they should drop out and it was typically female students and then i have to say but not all women or men whereas male students and then i have to say but not all men male students often thought they were doing fantastically when actually they were doing terribly and so now i can say well in aggressive. Students overestimate their own abilities and congress. Students underestimate their abilities. And so i knew classroom activities. That help congress have students believe that they can do something and understand. Find what their abilities are. Make use of those abilities in the exploration of mathematics and this approach. Ideally would be something that would help every student regardless of who they are what gender. They are exactly. It helps male students female students and non binary students as well were so arranged by this gender binary that we go on about. And i think it would help a lot at earlier. Stages of education and.
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"So you're i guess. Maybe i'm having a little hard time following and forgive me but is it that you the reframing that you're doing here is considering gender. As a characteristic that's relational to to others versus intrinsic to have that wrong. Well we need to be a little bit. Powerful hab gender is a social construct and so in a way agenda is just about how society how we interact with society. But what i'm saying is that gender is separate from the actual characters but we the characteristics that we have when we behave and this is about how we interact with other people so for example if we if we associate behavior with gender them we're claiming that behavior is determined by gender somehow and then we're not allowing for people to behave in different ways regardless of what gender they have them. We're making assumptions. That gender is tied to behavioral which it needn't be because men and women from behave and all sorts of ways and so the the point is that we have used was like masculine and feminine to describe behavior. And that doesn't make any sense. Because i am a female person so everything i do is feminine really because i'm a female person and so i don't think we should use the word feminine to describe behavior. I think we should just describe behavior separately from gender. Okay so then. So you're talking about the importance of contextualising right. And do i have that right. Yeah yeah and. I think that one of the things that that really helped me focus on this was when i switched from teaching i used to be a normal math professor teaching math majors in normal results universities and it was very male dominated and then i switched on mala teach students of the school of the art institute of chicago. It's a very different environment. And it's very female-dominated and i started thinking about how affects the relationships between us in the classroom because a previous experience i had was the i was a research fellow in a female college in cambridge. And it was. It was an all women's college but it didn't seem to make any difference to the feeling of the environment. It was just as kind of competitive and aggressive as i found the rest of academia and so i realized that it's not just about being surrounded by women. It's about the character types of people and that men can have different character types as well. I think the society has been encouraging people to have particular kinds of two types and rewarding that kind of individualistic competitive aggressive ambitious oversaw probably over self-confident behavior and that that's the kind of behavior that we reward so everyone tries to be as much as possible in order seed and however i think that's counterproductive because i didn't think that those types of behaviors are actually helpful for society and we tend to reward those types of behavior exhibited by men and i would say women still take considerable risk in exhibiting. Yes i do. I think that we are hypocritical because we often tell women they need to be more like that in order to be successful and then we promptly criticize them when they are like that saying that they are allowed or hungry or aggressive or if we say that a woman is behaving in a masculine way. That sounds like there's inherently something contradictory going on. And that's why. I wanted to introduce some new terminology to help us escape that one-dimensional gender thinking where either women are supposed to become like men to be successful or we say actually winning a better than men so mentioned become women or then some people say that there's a war on men and that kind of gives rise to toxic masculinity where men play up to traditional stereotypical male behavior. Because they think they're being attacked and all of this is unhelpful obstructive and contribute further to the divisiveness of contemporary so about that new language. Renew terminology there. A couple of other Terms in your book and the that standout ingress versus maybe versus isn't the right word but ingress and congress behaviors now first of all do. How do those. Those terms apply within mathematics. To begin with aggressive is to signify going into things on being more individualistic and congress is signified bringing things together. I'm taking into account of context and making connections between things and.
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"Were happening and also to to back her up and try and explain what view on why people are mean especially to women younger women and especially in subjects that are perceived as being male. The name. yeah you know. I had to say she was sixteen when she start. Put those questions out on the internet and she was right at the age where girls especially get derailed from their love of 'em of mathematics. I'll say you know like Preteen and teenage the teenage years are really hard for for girls who love science and math. So can you just talk about your book in a second. But i'd love to actually just learn from you and your your history. I mean did. Did you go through that troubling period. Obviously it didn't drill you because you are a renowned mathematician. I was very lucky. Because i actually went to an all girls school and i had a scholarship there and it was. I was very fortunate because it meant. I was completely protected from those kinds of stereotypes in those crucial teenage years. I also had amazing support from my parents. Who have somewhat gender roles relative to stereotypes. Because it's my mother who's really mathematical. And so i never saw. I never thought there was any reason. Couldn't do it in fact my parents and my education brought me up to truly believe i could do anything that men could do and that was really no question about it but i understand that many possibly even most go don't grow up with that kind of baseline of support and in fact they have people belittling them all through that teenager years. Possibly in school and many people in fact have written inundated with messages from adults. Read my responses to gracie. And they tell me that they ask sitting in tears. Because it's the first time that they have felt that anyone understood that data desire to have those questions on certain that they too when they were teenagers wanted to author questions and people made them feel dumb for wanting to know and this is the first time that they have felt like they want them for wanting to know and so i think it's a unfortunately very widespread experienced that that people curious once also has questions and it's often not ways and we'll come to that but often it's female students and then someone else offer not but not always a male student who feel very confident about his math abilities. Tell them that those are really dumb questions because of course these formula really obvious and then they go away the goals and feel like that not good at math and that they should go do something else. Yeah you know. I mean they made those formulas may be obvious now but they were not two thousand years ago and that's the fundamental thing right that mathematical discovery mathematical discoveries happen and eugenia when we come back from the break. That's what i want to pick up on why you decided to use the very tenets of mathematics to question concepts of gender so stand by here just a moment. We'll be right back this point. This is on point. I meghna chakrabarti. Today we are talking with eugenia chang. She's a mathematician and educator concert pianist and an author. She's scientist in residence at the school of the art institute of chicago author of many books including how to bake a pie. Pi an edible exploration of the mathematics of mathematics the art of logic in an illogical world and her latest book is x plus y a mathematicians manifesto for rethinking gender. Okay so eugenia. Let me start with the basic question. What is it that mathematics allows us to do in rethinking gender that other sciences or social sciences cannot do. I might not data say that mathematics can inherently do something that other scientists can't do but there's something that i found that it helped me do that i haven't seen done and if possible but many people could come at this conclusion from other directions so far be it from me to say the other subjects would not have been able to do it but what i did was. I used the way of thinking of my research. Field which is category theory. That's very abstract parts of mathematics and it might seem highly implausible. The that could that some abstract qualities mathematics could help us with something as embedded in life as gender and gender assumptions in the world around us but mathematics is about thinking clearly through situations and understanding. What's at their core making them really work and it's about spotting similarities between different situations and then making a theory that can help us understand all of those situations at the same time and all of that is highly relevant to really anything anything that we think about including gender so category theory. Then i i. I'll be perfectly honest not familiar with it at all. What is it. What is it well. It's it's a relatively new branch of mathematics. And i like to call it. Mathematics of mathematics so where mathematics find similarities between different aspects of say science to make a theory of how science looks category theory finds similarities between different aspects of mathematics. To find theories about how much much ex works but because mathematics is about five which is about life. I realized that the way of thinking of category theory is really only applicable. And this is something. That's often missed about mathematics. People talk about how useful it is and the applications and how we can calculate answers and produce onset of things but for me. it's about a way of thinking. And so even if the theory itself doesn't provide an answer the discipline of how to think clearly is a highly highly applicable on transferable skills and though the parts of category theory that is really fundamental to me. Is that says that. Instead of thinking about intrinsic controversy of things we can gain a lot of insight by thinking about relationships how things relate to each other rather than what their intrinsic characteristics are and that is the starting point for how. I started. Rethinking agenda okay. So we'll get to the how you apply that to to gender in just a second. But i mean this is radio but let's do it anyway can you. Can you give me sort of a mathematical example of category theory at work. Yes so for example if we just think about numbers which which are fundamental objects in mathematics. they're not all of my. There's a myth that math is all about numbers. And that's not right. Melissa is starting point but let's take it as an example we could think of trying to define the number two. What is the number two and we can try. And think of it as as something intrinsic about tunis. But what if we think of it as a relationship instead when it just is what you get when you add one and one and so the some people say wide does one. I'd want equal to well in a way if we characterize to as the thing that we get from one on one then we're thinking about its relationship to the number one and then we think about its relationship to them the three and then that's what really matters is how they relate to each other so it doesn't matter that we call them one two and three. It doesn't matter if we paint them red and blue and indeed. It doesn't matter if we speak different languages and say them in in different languages with different words what matters is how they those things relate to each other rather than what they're actually like in themselves so this that's fascinating because the relationships though the fundamental ness of the relationship between the concept of two to three or two to one regardless of language regardless of culture regardless of who who the mathematician or person is that looking at what tunis means the fundamental should be the same yes and the thing that's important is the relationships not not how it is we we defined to itself right but but i guess what i'm saying. Is that whoever. Whoever is looking what those relationships are. Those relationships should be the same. We just might call them different things. Okay good so then apply that. Then we're then then take us through the beginning of how that applies to how you began to rethink gender. Well i realized that the same applies to people and but we can often understand a lot about people by watching how they relate to other people and that it doesn't really matter what they look like. Or what kind. Plus may our identity. You have. What matters in human interaction is fundamentally how we treat each other whether someone is kind to someone else will not or whether they Patronizing derogatory like some people on twitter and that is a separate is new to people's identity. Now i'm not saying that people's identities unimportant because identity is important in how we are how we experience the world and so women and people of kulla and trans people and lgbt to people experience bad things from people around them specifically because of the identity but one way of thinking about say whether someone is good at mathematics then do better just to think about how they.
"eugenia" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"From wb are boston. I'm meghna chakrabarti. And this is on point sixteen year old gracie cunningham had questions about math. Her questions about homework. They were actually far more fundamental than that greasy. Wanted to know what math really is so. She took to talk for answers. I was just doing my makeup for work. And i just wanted to tell you guys about how i don't think math is real and i know that like it's real because we all like school or whatever but who came up with this concept and your various but how. How did you come up with this. He was living in the. I don't know whenever he was living. But it was not now where you can like have technology and stuff you know like he didn't even have plumbing q. The internet trolls in their customary spasm of immaturity branded gracie math girl and a mockery piled on so gracie made a follow up in which she says she tried to outsmart. My first question is how did people know what they were looking for when they started theorizing about formulas. because i wouldn't know what to look for if i'm making up math question number two once. They did find these formulas. How did they know that they were right. Because cow number three. Why is everyone being really into me on twitter greasy. My answer to that is because twitter is a terrible place now. Here's the thing there are people out there who have real answers to greece's questions because they're real mathematicians one of them joins us now eugenia chang. She's a mathematician. A concert pianist an author in her latest book is x. plus y. a. mathematicians manifesto for rethinking gender and. We have an excerpt of it at on point. Radio dot org eugenia. Welcome to point. Thank you so much for having me now. You know. I'm looking at your website eugenia. And there's a beautiful multi page document. Where you list all of gracie's questions and you give her thoughtful. Mathematically based answers. And i'm actually i. I'm curious to hear what what one of your answers already gracie had asked how people know what they were looking for when they started about formulas and this is actually one of the. I think the fundamental questions of how do mathematical proofs get developed. So how did you answer. Answer gracie's question well. The first thing was to empathize with gracie. Because whenever we're teaching math or talking to anyone it's so important to understand where that person is coming from by fully sympathize with Curiosity questions and her belly rail frustration honestly especially in the first video because these are really important questions and they're rarely addressed in standard math education. And so i think it's very understandable. But she would feel frustrated. Wants to know those answers. Well i have been here. Because you mentioned rec- mentioned patheticness for example right. And i visited the greek island. Ripa live once and there's a there's actually a statue to him and it's a statue protagoras standing with his hand straight up in the air and there's an angle coming down from his finger. I mean it's a. It's a rendering of a squared plus. B squared equals c squared. Right and i actually. At that moment. I thought what a remarkable discovery i'm i had the same question gracie did where do where do mathematicians even begin with kind of inquiry and the thing is that when marcus presented as a finished fact something. That is a bunch of rules that you're supposed to learn. It can appear that it has just descended out of nowhere like maybe an alien spaceship dropped is on top of your head and that is very baffling whereas for me. Math comes from wanting to understand things more efficiently. And i often say this that it comes from being lazy but if you see the same thing happening over and over again you don't want to keep redoing it. You want some way to do it. One time and then never have to think about it again and i i liken it to something like inventing the dishwasher where i like to imagine and i don't know quite how the dishwasher was invented. I like to imagine that someone just got really fed up with washing dishes. And for okay. I'm gonna make a machine that will do this for me so that i can use my human brain to do something more interesting. And that's for me. The starting point of mathematics and of over formula. It's to say something keeps happening over and over again. I don't want to have to keep doing it over and over again. That's interesting so i'm going to invest the time to make some theory. That will do many things for me. So that i can move onto something else and that's where it comes from you can't we're not in the same place eugenia so you can't see me smile right now because the thought that he's great discoveries of mathematics these these these which help us fully fundamentally understand world or acts of The intellectual laziness. Like i just. It's a different way of thinking about matheny that i ever had. But but what you're saying here though and we'll get to. How gender works. Its way into all of this is. Is that fundamentally. What is it that mathematics hopes us do because i think that's one of the things that gracie was trying to get to in her line of inquiry right and one of the reasons it such a thorny question is because i think that deep down it does the opposite of what many people feel that. It does in math classes because unfortunately so many people's experiences math close is that it's very pointless and painful and that the question is that to do nothing but inflict pain on poor young people and i just like to say right up front that i'm not blaming the teachers for this at all but because the teachers are constrained by the ridiculous standards imposed on them by completely pointless in my opinion standardized tests. And when they're judged. By how. Well darren students do in the standardized tests. Then of course they have to try and just get people to do veteran standardized tests. So just like to say. I'm not. I'm definitely not blaming teachers however math is really to help us. It's to help us understand things and to to help us use our brains more efficiently and powerfully because of the wall around us is a very complicated place and poor. Little brains are finite and so there are basically two ways we can understand the world better we can just willfully ignore some aspects of it and unfortunately that's what many people do. But i understand why they do it. Because we're trying to simplify the world to understand it but i think that a better way to do it is to make connections between different parts of the world so we can sport similarities between different situations. Say oh actually this situation and this album situation have something in common and therefore we can take that thing. That's in common and studied that quite self that understanding both of those situations at the same time masters. Yeah i mean i. I've seen in my own families. Math loving folks when they you know. There's almost that smile. That that that the grace's their face when they when they see sort of a new pattern right because that's the thing that that math helps us understand these these patterns as they move through through the world and it's almost like revelations the word i keep coming up with so that's the beauty. That's the beauty mathematics. But there's something not so beautiful here. In what in terms of how. The internet responded to gracie's questions. Okay right because she asked there she asked. Why are people being so mean to me and this is what we really wanna talk with you about because you are a woman. You are a woman in mathematics so when she asked when she greasy asked that question first of all how did that strike you it really resonated with me and i was very touched by the fact that she asked it with such good humour and she was still smiling and i hope she's all right because the amount of attention she received as far beyond what she was expecting and she didn't offer that attention now when some of us some of us put ourselves in the public eye deliberately When i first decided to put myself in public it was a very big decision. Because i knew that people were going to be horrible to me unfortunately and i decided to take on because i decided that i could do something helpful for the world by putting myself that i just decided to accept the negative things were going to happen and so when when gracie said that i wanted to try and say something positive to help outweigh the negative things that.
"eugenia" Discussed on Accessible Astrology with Psychotherapist + Astrologer Eugenia Krok, MA
"How you can use this modality to move their twenty twenty one with greece. Enjoy this episode. Okay so I'm privileged today of a taken. The podcast and i'm gonna be interviewing paul cliff from somalia float tank center right and i'm really pleased that we're this conversation today because Obviously we've been really influencing you all people who listen to podcast when talking about how how important float tanks are We put it in the magic books and we even recommended samana. So it's brilliant at pulse. Come today. I'm gonna to a really good deep dive into the nature of flowing and white. You know paul came to this and how it can benefit you really hope people have been taken action on the magic box and going into the flow tanks because we know how good is for ourselves for me and eugenia so paul. Welcome to the podcast. Successful astrology podcast. Thank you for having me. This is going to be great. Yeah it's real pleasure. To have you here is obviously. We've all been separating covert. We spoke line. One time briefly. Didn't we are now. Finally we see each other face to face in the studio right. It's totally different. I love it that just that physical connection exactly exactly so need. It isn't it. Yeah absolutely. And i think as we've been separating covert and people have been on their own dealing with the process you know very heavy experiences emotionally and stuff like going to float tank can be very healing. I think in that regard for sure. Oh yeah absolutely. I mean it does. It does so many things. But that's that's an opportunity to disconnect from the chaos that's happening out in the world the being in that that mindset of that and just going in You know with yourself ninety minutes by yourself. Yeah absolutely so. Let's let's let's start from you. Know from the star. And let's get to know you now. Paul like so. Tell us a little bit about yourself. you from colorado right..
"eugenia" Discussed on Dressed: The History of Fashion
"In fact very intimately intertwined. Today we go back in time to a period of history to look at fashion interest during the first two decades of the twentieth centuries of the period between world war one and world war two in italy and we are so pleased that dr eugenia polish halley joins us today to discuss her book fashion under fascism beyond the black shirt doctor pal. Kelly is a professor of italian comparative literature and women's studies at both queen's college and the graduate center of the city of new york where she also is the founder and coordinator of the concentration in fashion studies for the kuni graduate program. Dr paul so much joining us today. Dr pal thank you so much for joining us today on dressed discuss your really amazing book. Fashion under fascism beyond the black shirt so before we delve into some of these fashioned aspects of our discussion today. I'm hoping that you might give some context for our listeners. About broadly speaking. what exactly is fascism. Thank you a bill for guy inviting me to this conversation. Delighted to be here with you So to responsive question. Fascism rules than ideology authoritarian ideology in movement. I started in italy in nineteen fifteen sold. The war was an important component. That had a great impact on the formation of this fast. She's at of combat. This was the beginning get Ninety nine teen. Mussolini was of course the head of fascism became the dude shape so he founded the national fascist party so started initially but then spread all over europe the end in the united states. Actually we need to remember that so it was a became. A talented now regime are despotic. Nationalism racism in realism These were kind of key words of back weekend. Del the enjoy the while we discuss the new multifaceted in complexity of fascism in order to contextualize this we need to understand. Also the situation in italy at the time because in the beginning of the twentieth century italy a went through great sons formations in terms of modernisation industrial puddles at the same time. A huge immigration The great period from second half of nineteen send in the beginning. Many talents came to the united states. Actually one of the countries of the immigration There was a lot of poverty in the south too big divide between north and south so the north was leading industrialized. Italy was a concentrated who's unified as a nation state only in eighteen sixty started the process of unification they went unrest from mma workers in union sir movement in the feminists the feminist movement. Also italy had a lot of this sub rallies political address strikes especially in the north industrialized a north. So then we also had the same time we think of nineteen o nine of the first manifesto of future is a full. We had that at the beginning of the twentieth century was quite amazing. In terms of contrast political undress The beginning of Self awareness From the the more workers have a faculty councils. We have the factory milan. You know the fear that The only the this factor in very important the textile industry in the komo area and so forth lockdown act isn't so but they was all this political. You know i'm dressed so mussolini and fascist there were violent okay against the last against communism. Think nineteen seventy in the soviet. You know we had the first communist revolution so it was really a timer. Betty conflicts an important. I think that's only really world history of course and still mussalini grew that uses violence and violence was always pasta. Fascism in the right. They burn workers unions place books. You know there was a lot of of all these very violent and also the idea of war. Permanent war was an important principle of fascism. That stayed for the regime. The regime stopped it. So we'll cellini was then elected after the macho roma dating twenty to end started in nineteen fifty Cellini was first voted in the parliament. In the beginning of the partner mentally we had different parties today. Even the communists in the socialist to the public through many different parties but in one thousand nine hundred ninety four there was a drastic change in net Became a despotic regime. Totalitarian because one socialist representative giacomo del. The In the parliament denounced the mussolini and the fascist the national fascist party to have rigged the election so he was then kidnapped mussalini older. These kidnapping was killed. Found a few months later killed And then all the anti-fascist fascist in both anti-fascists were either killed or putting prisons and from then on old political parties. Where are not legal anymore. So only one pasta. And that's what fascism is about. Is one party to the asian. Yeah oh my gosh. Thank you if that was an amazing description for any of our listeners. Who might not be familiar with. Fascism in general or just like that very precise couple decades of time in italy so we are of course here today to talk about fashion in the intersection of fascism. And and you know in your book that you say. I'm quoting you. My focus here is to show how fashion the renaissance became. I sancha hottest as well as a political and state affair the via the cemetery laws and literature on appearance clothes and fashion in a way that was entirely similar to how the fact was named dedicated. Great energy to regulating the way. Italians express themselves in dress in both private and.
Fashion Under Fascism, an interview with Dr. Eugenia Paulicelli
"Pal thank you so much for joining us today on dressed discuss your really amazing book. Fashion under fascism beyond the black shirt so before we delve into some of these fashioned aspects of our discussion today. I'm hoping that you might give some context for our listeners. About broadly speaking. what exactly is fascism. Thank you a bill for guy inviting me to this conversation. Delighted to be here with you So to responsive question. Fascism rules than ideology authoritarian ideology in movement. I started in italy in nineteen fifteen sold. The war was an important component. That had a great impact on the formation of this fast. She's at of combat. This was the beginning get Ninety nine teen. Mussolini was of course the head of fascism became the dude shape so he founded the national fascist party so started initially but then spread all over europe the end in the united states. Actually we need to remember that so it was a became. A talented now regime are despotic. Nationalism racism in realism These were kind of key words of back weekend. Del the enjoy the while we discuss the new multifaceted in complexity of fascism in order to contextualize this we need to understand. Also the situation in italy at the time because in the beginning of the twentieth century italy a went through great sons formations in terms of modernisation industrial puddles at the same time. A huge immigration The great period from second half of nineteen send in the beginning. Many talents came to the united states. Actually one of the countries of the immigration There was a lot of poverty in the south too big divide between north and south so the north was leading industrialized. Italy was a concentrated who's unified as a nation state only in eighteen sixty started the process of unification they went unrest from mma workers in union sir movement in the feminists the feminist movement. Also italy had a lot of this sub rallies political address strikes especially in the north industrialized a north. So then we also had the same time we think of nineteen o nine of the first manifesto of future is a full. We had that at the beginning of the twentieth century was quite amazing. In terms of contrast political undress
A Mathematician's Manifesto For Rethinking Gender
"So, one of the things I most remember from elementary school is all of the math word problems. You know what? I'm talking about the ones that say things like, okay. If Alex has seven cookies and Sam has read cookies, how many cookies do we need to give some to make sure they have the same number of cookies? I would get so excited every time I got the right answer to one of these problems. Anyway. One is actually pretty easy. Well, we could give four more cookies to Sam all we could take four cookies from Alex. We could make Alex give to cookies to Sam in any of these four Eugenia Chang, a mathematician. The better answer is actually to ask a different question. What if some doesn't even like cookies and would rob have pools? See Eugeniusz Studies. This kind of high level math never heard of to be honest called category theory. Category Theory is very abstract pods of math and so abstract that sometimes even all the pure mathematicians think it's too abstract. But for me, it's about the core of what makes math tick and because math for me is about the core of what makes the tick cats theories like the cool coal of what makes the wilted because category theory is about understanding why things work the way they do intrinsic characteristics don't really matter what matters is how things relate to one another it started in around the middle of the twentieth century and in A. Way It's only very small small new idea but like great ideas, a small shift in perspective opens up an absolutely vast array of possibilities because it's like turning on a light, which is why in her most recent book x Plus Y, Eugenia uses category to turn the light on something that I might seem surprising for a mathematician something deeply ingrained in many of us gender it suddenly eliminates everything and you can see all sorts of things you didn't see before and so in the same way that we stop focusing on cookies which not everyone wants. What happens if we also stop focusing on gender constructs which might not be relevant. Category theory invites us to stop asking if men women and non binary people are equal and to look beyond the single dimension, of gender. Today on the show in abstract. Mathematicians approach to rethinking gender. I'm Emily Quang and you're listening to shortwave from NPR. Okay. So back to Alex Sam and their cookie dilemma, the Metaphor serves a larger point that are thinking about gender is one dimensional and doesn't characterize how people really are. Even when we think about gender as a spectrum between masculine and feminine behavior that's already a problem because it makes it sound wrong. So it makes it sound like menace supposed masculine and if a woman is masculine, then she somehow going against her nature and then if men are seen as being feminine, that sounds like that's something wrong with them as well. Whereas in fact, there's no reason to associate. Gender with character and everyone can be all sorts of things if type of character and behavior is something we valley. Then why wouldn't we value it from everybody of all genders? So Eugenia started to think about character as a dimension separate from gender asking how much our society value certain character traits over others, and she came up with her own way of categorizing behavior. One that deals with two new traits. She invented ingress give and Congress have, and the idea is that ingress of traits are more about individualism and single track been king and. Congress is about bringing things together, bringing people together, bringing ideas together and thinking about broader communities and society as a whole rather than individuals, and it's not trying to be a new dichotomy. It's trying to be a wave thinking about behavior and having woods because if you don't have woods to think about things, then it's much harder to think about them reflecting on her own career Eugenia realized early on that, she forced herself to be engrossing. That is individualistic and single-minded and she did land prestigious jobs in academia I'm ashamed of it now. Because I don't like that kind of behavior but I definitely. Latched onto the idea that in academia, it's important to make kind of aggressive arguments and show how clever you are and be able to talk yourself up because ultimately she says, the academic environment was inconclusive and relentless. It was such a kind of ongoing treadmill in my tenure job because it was a very all year thing and I remember one August getting ready for the new academic year and feel like had been about one minute since the previous academic year and I thought Oh just going to be like this until I retire now and then. Honestly, what happened was I started looking around at the people around me who were close to retirement. and. I thought. Oh. No, I'm becoming like them. And I didn't want to. And I thought I have to get out of this before I become sort of fossilized into this kind of behavior that I don't like. So she left the traditional tenure track and became a professor at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago as their scientists in residence. That's right. Eugenia began to teach math to art students. She wanted to make math more relevant to them, and then came the two thousand sixteen election a moment that brought issues of gender and race into focus and it was like I flipped a switch in my mind and I thought you know silence is complicity if I don't talk about these things and. Am I complicit with these things it's too important not to talk about it and I thought actually every academic discipline is there to help us understand the world and what is the most important thing in the world that we need to understand right now it is this social and political situation that we're getting ourselves into, and so then I felt like I really had to talk about it all the time. So the question for her became, how do I get my students to unlearn all of the aggressive competitive answered driven math they've taught for so many years especially when there are so many concepts to learn and so little time. And Eugenia. kind of figured it out by making sure that everyone in the class learns together AK congressionally take for example, this hands on activities she does to teach them about platonic solids. Am I don't tell them what the platonic solids all, and so in case you can't remember or never knew the platonic solids are the three dimensional shapes that have maximally symmetric and some of. Them are built out two triangles, and so they sit down and they build things together and they talk to each other while they're doing it and it's therapeutic because it's cutting and sticking visa, and some of them build platonic solids and some of them build things that are almost platonic solids but have a lot of symmetry on quite Tony solids and then someone will build a dinosaur. Is that You build a down right field a dinosaur. then. What you discover is that Pentagon's are really terrible shape for building a dinosaur off whereas triangles are fantastic shape for building a dinosaur you can build practically anything with triangles and that's profound mathematical fat try and relations are really really important tool in high level research and so whatever they do they will learn something and when we pool everything we've built as close. We will get all of these things even if not every. Individual person built every individual platonic solid, and so that is one way that we can do congressional explorations than sitting down and sort of memorizing. These are the platonic solids visa, the properties they have. This one is called this and it has many faces many this many edges and her villainous classes. Yeah. In this way, like you're holding the dinosaur and you're discovering something together about platonic solids through this joint exercise right and. In her class, she uses concepts from math to probe the relationships between people and the thing about aggressive classroom that students are able to probe back ask how all of this applies to say different types of privilege in society, and that moment was something that my i would never have come up with that idea about privilege and factors of numbers and the geometry. If my student had asked me these questions push things further. And further because when you teach in Congress I think it's important to find what motivates the students and tap into that. When you're teaching Ingram you try and bend their will to yours to try and show them. This is the right way of thinking. This is the way instead of meeting them somewhere, which is Congress if way the Keever Eugenia is to make Matha process of mutual discovery one that's truly inclusive and not competitive. Her classroom is a place where in the same breath that students are learning math they can have frank conversations about the role of race and gender in society if you ask them to stop thinking about it when they come into the math classroom, then they won't be interested in anything I say, and the people who think that we should stop talking about in math for them. It's not part of their life all the time because they're part of a group that doesn't have to think about it all. The time and so that's the reaction I get mostly it's amazement from people who really really resonate with these issues but you might be wondering what about people who are more aggressive? Aren't they getting lost in the shuffle some people worry the I'm now making it known inclusive towards ingress if people and I've had this query sometimes it's an interesting one because the thing is I do think I do value Congress behavior more than ingress behavior but if you think of it as for example in aggressive people. obstructive towards others in the classroom. So then what we're saying is that I am not going to be inclusive towards obstructive behaviour in the classroom and I think that's okay. I don't feel any reason to include obstructive behaviour in my classroom and so inclusivity is subtle. I don't think it means that we need to include all things. I don't need to include violence in my classroom I don't need to include. Intellectual violence and I don't need to include behavior that obstructs squashes of either and I don't think that means I'm not being inclusive I think it means that I'm valuing things are helpful to our community and I am not valuing things are obstructive to our community Eugenia. We have talked about everything this conversation I'm just I'm just I showed up. We're GONNA talk about math and we're talking about. We're talking about relationships are talking about how we learn we teach. How communities work I mean it's just it kind of encompasses. So much of actually what's really going on right now in society around recent gender too so I guess the only other thing I want to ask you is. What is like the single? Most Powerful thing that listeners can take to become more aggressive in their lives and create congressional situations at home. In Yeah. I think. To notice when we're fabricating competition that doesn't have to be a competition. Competition comes from scarcity of resources and we do not live in a world of scarcity of resources. At the moment it has been fabricated to have guessed resources, and then we fabricate competitions like music competitions. Music of all things is a thing that doesn't need to be a competition education doesn't need to be a competition because what we're learning is understanding knowledge and wisdom, and there isn't a limit on that resource. We can all have it. We don't have to prevent somebody else from having to have ourselves and conversations end up being competitive where the idea seems to be to win an argument was why we trying to win an argument and if we try and iron out. Contrived Ingram of situations in individual personal interruptions. Then we can build up from that because the world is made of little interactions that build up into big ones and I really think that even if we start small, we can build up to change the whole wall to be a better place for everybody of all genders.
Which is cooler, zero or infinity?
"Zero and infinity. They're both kind of just like the. Ultimate mind boggling what happens if I pit their cruel nece against each other, which was more important more expensive. The mind blow up factor best and kind of only people that I would really talk about it would be none other than mathematician. Hi Do I have both of you you have me. Hi. Okay so on the phone right now, I was able to call up James Grind and Eugenie Chin. There are both super awesome math people who do a lot of thinking about the importance of these numbers I give lots of talks around the world and people might see me on Youtube Channel could number file. Now Eugenia is the scientist in residence. At the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, which is pretty cool and I've written several books and the second one was cooled beyond infinity. I have that book actually. Oh, I'm so glad to hear this is the crazy super debate about coolness of zero versus infinity. James. Can explain to me what zero even is as a mathematical concept. Okay so on one hand zero is a number. As, like the other numbers one, two, three, four, five, two, nine. Zero Times one is zero. Zero. Times two is zero but also that means that it just come. You come sit out Zeros. I'm have one goes to well no, we can't. So we do have to treat zero slightly differently from the other numbers. It's a number that represents nothing. Both of them of an abstract ideas in ways, but that's what matters about. Mathis about going to the abstract to solve problems. Because like even if we just have the drawing of the number one that doesn't mean, it's one that's our interpretation are symbol to represent the concept you could point out one sheep, one, cow, one coin but one of those things have in common is this idea of oneness that they have in common, which is not something you can point at, but is something they all share? When you try and teach small child how to count You keep showing them objects in going one, two, three, one, two three but they have to make a leap inside their head from the objects in front of them to this concept of as James says one nurse. And you can't do it for them. You can't point that's it. You can't see you can't touch it. You can't feel it. You can't eat it and so you just have to do it in your head. It's weird because it's it's there. But at the same time, it's not there. That's how I think of maths. It's kind of it's definitely there in my head, but it's also not fair because it's just in my head the shame applies to zero you can't really point at. Zero is the harder idea. It's harder than one, two, three, one sheep and one cow have something in common but zero sheep zero cows almost have more in common somehow at least to me, it's much easier to get zero sheep and zero cows. I've got them right in front of me. Now what about infinity? You can't go up to your kid like look this is one cow this is no cows. This is everything. Infinite. Yeah. Unfortunately, we don't even have infinite cows on the entire planet so we couldn't even try to assemble infinite cows and it's so it's really something that happens inside your brain but something that you can show to any child and they've probably understood it themselves is that if you eat half of your chocolate cake, then you have Hof left and then if you eat half of what's left, then still some left and if you eat half of what's left there, still some left. If you keep eating Hof of your remaining chocolate cake, you can take an infinite number of bites of chocolate cake and there will still be some left. I have the best producers in the world and they actually brought me a cake God this. Oh, awesome on the traffic cut infinitely and see if it goes to zero. Okay. Here we go. So I'm cutting the cake. Eaten at times? Dom. Yep. We'll just keep eating whenever you. Half again, make the third. Sky The sixteenth. Through I could keep calling it forever and ever and ever ever. Ever ever. Anyway. Back to the question at hand. Is a lot less flashier than infinity is something. That, you would use in everyday life actually came from merchants and traders and accountant rather then they sort of intellectuals studying Matt's but then again, infinity turns out to be practical as well, and it also turns out to be everywhere through the field of calculus, which is a piece of mathematics that really governs everything that changes continuously I'm that means practically. Everything in the modern world including things like well `electricity and that's how infinity can be thought of as very practical as well as having mind-bending and weird properties way you can play around and create strange pistes and strange universes in which peculiar and amazing things happen. Yeah. Infinity is the one that's the strangest I mean strange paradoxes the I can't understand. One. Example of those paradoxes that cake conundrum which explained in the cake break and another one is Hilbert's hotel. That was proposed by the mathematician Hilbert's where he said let's imagine we have a hotel with an infinite number of rooms. Now Hubert's hotels confusing for bear with me. matchy of a really big hotel. Now, this hotel infinite roofs. and. Let's say that one man walks in one night and says, Hey, on the book room, you know you can't send him. To the infant floor that doesn't really seem fair. You know because you still have to walk all that way. So. You sent him to room one and send the person on route one term deal. Then send the person on route to to room three and keep going. So instead of this one guy after travel. So incredibly infinitely far everyone just travels wants. which works out such a small number, but it eventually converges into infinity. And that's quite odd because in a normal finite hotel. If it's full, you can't just fit in other guests dune without asking them to share room which they probably wouldn't want to do. Yes my head hurts. We're all getting clever. Now, James, what do you think of what you genius saying and why do you think Zeros Cooler Think, we're going to find that these two ideas are going to be very connected because they are related ideas. One being nothing won't being everything, but without zero, you wouldn't have any of modern mathematics today the reason zero. So important is because without it you wouldn't have a place value system. So in the old times when you wanted to count thirteen sheep or something like that, you would have to make a mark for each sheep. So you have make thirteen marks you can count them what the Egyptians and the Babylonians did is they started using news to represent lodging numbers. So now if you want to count thirteen, you can just use. A one and a three. So now you need zero in here because what is the difference between thirty two and three hundred to? Well, you need that space in the middle in the old times that would be actually a space. It was any later that zero recognized as a number. But with place value system, you can do the whole of mathematics today. Oh Man. If it wasn't for the concept of the numbers zero, we would still have to use the talents just be no the one where it's like one, two, three, four, and then five is the horizontal line. That won't be pretty bad. It's like that boat will cost thirteen, thousand dollars one, two, three, four, I agree with James Zero is really important and possibly even more important than infinity because more maths depends on zero. Really. But just because something's important I personally don't necessarily think it's cool. There are plenty of things in life that are really important without being cool to me at all like, for example, sleep which I find pretty boring but I recognize that it's very, very important.
Alexander Pushkin in Opera, Pt. 1
"Hello everyone and welcome to the classical classroom. I'm dish plate and here with me today in the studio is Jonathan Dean. He's the he's the drama for the Seattle Opera and you may remember him from such episode of classical classroom as that one about the Steve Jobs Opera. The Seattle Opera is about to begin performances of Eugene Oregon which is based on a story by Alexander Pushkin and today John is here to talk to me about Pushkin and Russian upper John. Welcome thanks thanks for having me here. Sip before we get started. I have to ask for those listeners. Out there who don't know an me. It was a drama teacher. It's sort of a funny title. Not Every Opera Company has dramaturge but I would describe my job as being charged with making sure that everybody understands what's going on out of the CI- and actually sometimes the people on the other side of the stage to the I was hired at Seattle opera billion years ago to perform the super titles meaning to sit at the booth at every performance. Do make sure the right words over the right characters so when you go to the opera you can like actually read subtitles. But winter actually called Super Title Saban Super Titles. The same things have one is below and the other is up above Right if we did the bottom you wear the conductors head would be people like looking at those shiny bald heads words. Yes we've you know we've been doing super titles in opera in Seattle since the eighty s and pretty much everywhere in the world. That's very normal which gives opera audiences way more access to the drama than they used to have to do some cramming ahead of time and try to memorize what who everybody was going to say to. You know who and then Good Luck. Once the music started and super titles make them much much much. Easier to offer has turned his evolved since that new technology really into something much more theatrical you the listener can play along even if you don't speak Say Russian yeah and and the funny thing is I have that. I started doing that a long time ago as the musician. Getting the right line of if the right person's head by worked on my languages and took over writing the translations. Oh in the nineties. So if it's a talented French German you're usually reading and translation that I wrote. I have never actually learned Russian. We don't do too many Russian opera. So in this case for instance somebody else's has written the translation My job is just to make sure that it all happens. And and goes smoothly. Okay oh but still what a great story Eugenia again. And what a great honor Jerry working with this amazing artistic legacy of this this writer who he is he's one of Russia's greatest writers he belongs to the World Sorry Russia. You CAN'T kill this writers. Work Yeah. I was really excited. That we're going to talk about Pushkin today because back in the olden days when I was doing my Undergrad at Evergreen State College. I studied Russian literature for a while. I just fell in love with it. Because it's like I don't know it's got this really particular flavor this particular character to it that is just like you are curled up in a chair next to a fire with like a goblet of vodka on a winter's nights and having all of the emotions known to humanity all at once. I don't know I don't know how else to describe it. But but like I remember reading Pushkin and it just being this. There's something about his language just made me get what it was like to be Russian and it's very yeah involving it's the rest of the world goes away and it pulls you into so intimate. Yeah yeah so we should say like like who he was and like when he was writing which I think was like the early eighteen hundreds. Yeah remember the beginning part of the nineteenth century the operas you. I've been calling Pushkin. The wellspring of Russian opera every great Russian composer of made operas based on Pushkin Stories with him until much later took them a few more decades to get organized musically. It's funny because he became such a really just pivotal person in the Russian Arts night night even just literature but in the Russian arts but like he started out not so great like his home. Life wasn't great. He had kind of a bad time. He did a lot of Like gambling and drinking and he died young. Yeah that's right. Yeah he like. He was exiled south of Russian. Yeah yeah he kind of lived a lot of the stuff that he was talking about. One thing that I read about him was that he I think he got a lot of the fodder for his stories when So he had been had been exiled by the the Russian government for basically talking smack about them poet writing Commons writing for the stranger Seattle. Yes yes he was a Dan savage or Orlandi Western guy up your exile. So they sent him away like you. Do I guess at that time? And so he's like exile for like six years and then he finally a news. Art comes in like okay. I forgive you. We're still going to censor your work. You can come back. But right after the exile. He was like staying. His family was kind of well to do and they had the state and he went and he stayed on it after his period of exile. And there is. This nurse lived on the estate. Apparently Netanya Netanya. Jagna is the nanny. Oh yeah and so she like. It's just the two of them like everybody else's abandoned the state so he's just like on this estate with this old woman and she must have been a genius storyteller. Everything I don't understand is that he learned from her. How you tell traditional Russian story. Yeah she tells him all these folktales and then he kinda like I don't know yeah so I think she was. Maybe like the secret genius behind his. He he because he does a lot of those Russian folktales verse as these Long Narrative Poems so miserably the language in the poetry's his
Identity is Complex with Eugenio Pace CEO and Co-founder of Auth0
"Welcome to the show Eugenia. How're you bring your thank you for having me awesome so so I love to kind of just get right in Tell me a little bit about yourself. I know you move to America from Argentina started a couple of companies. Tell me a little bit about your backstory in how you kind of wound up where you are right now. I'm almost fifty so long time for me to describe everything that happened in my life. Auto notes version short version. So I I was born nineteen many years ago I moved to the. US In two thousand three late two thousand and three with my family was working for Microsoft to at the time Microsoft Argentina. Were there for a couple years and then in wash it took me here and they offer me to stay forward originally was going to be only three years and then three years became four and five and then mortgage and kids and houses schools. I'm I'm I feel more like a native Pacific northwest. You know than anything else but I mean he is his Hossam Awesome. Tell me a little bit about striking the balance of kind of moving to a different country having a family having you know job and making that balance where what was that it like for you in the initial years you know some people ask me this question and maybe reflect because I'm also our or family are all immigrants to my. My own family is originally from Italy and from Spain and so like Somebody made a comment to me. Go to America actually my grandfather came to the US first and then he went to Argentina so my immigration. I was very different from others. You know my family left Europe in a time of trouble. You know very poor very difficult times and my circumstances were very different very different and I feel very fortunate so these white choice was an experienced that I wanted to have the we want to have I was married in. I had two boys to beverly young boys and so we here was a was an opportunity to learn in two different to experience a different culture. We tried to adopt or yourselves to the environment that was around us and so by that. I like to think that we have experienced a much richer. You know overall environment because we haven't closed ourselves to just where we knew we open up ourselves to everything else and he's been great. I WANNA go back in time just a little bit so before you left. Argentina and before joining Microsoft. You had started your own company in Argentina right. So what was that like. Why why did you want to start your own company? Be like a founder. Get into business at all. Okay so to answer that question I I need to go a little bit back in time and so when when I was you know I still have it. I have like these notebook with old drawings and names of companies and I was pleased with like changing the letters of my name and putting other things anyway. I was like brainstorming of names were companies and A. I still have like the sketches of my campus. 'cause I what what did you have like a like a corporate campus talking about putting the horse behind the carpenter fantasy Edwin. I wanted to build a company I always wanted always wanted that. I wanted to create something from nothing I guess and so my very first adventure was you know we with a friend. We invented device. There was a device for measuring servings things and automated mation measurements and that was a fantasizing like these Massey workshop the involved manufacturing right so we thought of all this industrial age but a factory factory but it never go beyond beyond my bedroom earlier but then to your mind stone when just go a went to engineering in school and technical stuff was always you know what I was attracted to and And so when I finished college h a friend of mine and I he had idea but we were really good friends. We decided to. Hey maybe we should make these faint and so we created this solution for a company. There was like the first the first instance off the pro that we built and it was terrible when he was great and it was terrible we worked countless hours. You know he was great the really good partners but both of us were like really naive young and we were like solely will be speaking serious. We have these ideas of what building a company was about all of them wrong. Ideas play the way. The worst of all mistakes was to think that you know we could build the Bronx and then people come and it will just by because it probably was awesome. It was great it was great and he was awesome But he was to hit of. Its time and we'd have no clue of things like pricing or marketing or saves over your support like all the different components that make company and so we just we also unlucky in a way that the first customer that we got was really awesome. They paid us they treated as well they like you know they were. It was not really easy so now way it reinforced all the wrong assumptions. The second customer game and it wasn't easy toward wave and he was like really a pain and they didn't pay us and like all the wrong things will be complete and pieces of the first swamp and so that was really hard and then you know we were exhausted after a year and something you know we decided to was it and then you went and you worked for Microsoft but eventually you wanted to jump back in you wanted found another company your CEO. Now tell me about what you're doing now and why you wanted wanted to take another shot at building your own thing and and building something from nothing I did it because he was stealing me right so moncus was awesome was great the best experience I could have asked for. I was reading lucky and very grateful but he wasn't my company. I wasn't unhappy is not. I was like every day like complaining Muslim. My my style. But it wasn't. I didn't feel fulfilled. And so my wife in their infinite wisdom sadly hey maybe you should change do something else and we. We started brainstorming about what to do and she said something. That's stuck with me. which is like you know you? You never regrets your mistakes. You always always regret what you don't know what will happen. You don't know the outcome is like the is the uncertainty of what breath. I should have a nubby. I shouldn't have. And so. She said like she encouraged me to take one year. Time time boxy she put some help me put some constraints in the adventure and And so that's always thought so. Toya resigned like with Microsoft in December to two thousand twelve zero with another friend.
"eugenia" Discussed on 850 WFTL
"After my apartment so maybe I'll just to spend the rest of time in in jail all I know is is because I feel good it's amazing it's surreal I'm just really really happy I bet you are are you ready for this one but on the jail a former guard at Brooklyn's federal jail was since the twenty five years behind bars yesterday after he was convicted of sexually abusing five female inmates thanks to what his huge distinctive **** that totally Aidid him yet man imagine that line up is their first name Eugenia that would be Eugenia Eugenia Peres forty nine we'll also have to register as a sex offender to be in charge of twenty three pounds including aggravated sexual assault sexual abuse of a ward and a couple of these two week trial a two week trial for women testify they were forced to perform oral on Perez when they were inmates at the moment the Tripolitan detention center prosecutors said he forced them to perform this act through physical force and intimidation using his authority to make sure they didn't report any was action there is a large club well that that comes later the attacks took place going prosecutors between two thousand thirteen two thousand sixteen the lieutenant's office we're press was able to monitor security cameras to avoid being caught I knew that he did want to be on the on camera Perez was caught because the woman gave all corroborating statements regarding his large and oddly shaped generals which he nicknamed coke bottle C. a B. A. L. L. O. which is horse in Spanish the could I lose a route that was one of the things he would say he woke up to an indigo the cabal is a.
"eugenia" Discussed on Talk Nerdy
"I keep talking for hours logger, but I do close every episode asking my guest, this same chew questions than I am really interested your your answers to these questions that are a bit big picture. So are you ready for that? Okay. I'll do my best. All right. So I want you to think about the future in whatever context is relevant to you right now could be a personal context. It could be global. It could be even more dick as it were, but I want you to tell me I, what is the thing that sort of keeps you up the most at night that you're most concerned about that maybe you have a bit of a pessimistic view of what is what is the thing that you're most concerned about? But on the flip side of that, what are you genuinely like? Honestly, not lip service a hopeful and optimistic and excited for? Well, I think there's no doubt that I most freaked out about antibiotic. Assistance. A huge problem. I mean, I can as a result of writing misspoke. I can imagine a future near future were a simple procedure like a a c. section could could kill women could cause women's death. I mean, more than it already does for complication reasonably. Oh, yeah. I mean, or our towns elected, you know, could all of a sudden be a matter of life and death, so so that is a, you know, I can help think, wow, you know, cuts new. My son is working with these big saws right now and he cut his thumb. What if he cut off his in in the future without antibiotics, what would happen? Gosh, it would be back to the pre antibiotic era. Like I remember sorry to interject but I tell the story lot are member. I had married McKenna on the podcast. In the first year it was really early. It was. You know recently, she wrote a book called big chicken, which is bad antibiotic resistance in farm animals. The book that we talked about then superbug was about Mersa, methicillin-resistant staff, and I asked her about this new grade of kind of resistant, gonorrhea and what what's going to happen when it's finally, you know this finally, a version of it that's completely resistant to all antibiotics on the market. And she said she asked a researcher about that and is that you know, what do you do? What do you do if you contract this infection and his answer, don't get gonorrhea. Yeah, like there is nothing you could do at that point. Exactly. It's it's on a, you know it would. It would be it potentially can usher in era of grief. Yeah. So on the other hands because of all the interesting work that's happening microbiology and the reason why everybody needs to like get behind it is there are new ways they're the researchers are considering new ways. To break up the biofilm formation to break up the very aspect of bacteria that allows them to present violence in the first place that is magnificent because that that means, you know, you would interrupt you wouldn't be killing the bacteria and whatever that would mean to the ecosystem at large, which just interrupt their ability. It's like giving them the sector, just interrupted at -bility to present VERA lens and that work is really viable. It's it's really happening. And to me, it's like a, it's the pure gracefulness of science with a combined with a world important application, so cool. Gosh, should we really like there are new vistas in front of us. This idea just like you said, preventing Vera Lynn society of universal vaccines, like all of these really neat like approaching the problem in a different way and potentially having massive global impact? Yeah, it's Hoke citing, but it only happens if he looked like by it's really by looking into the unseen world, our site can clear. That's how I see it anyway. What a perfect note and this fabulous conversation on guys. The book is microbial attorney into the unseen world around you. Check it out. It's it's just so informative. It's so well written and it's really compelling and Eugenia. Thank you so much for joining me on the show this blast. Thank you. I enjoyed it very much. I'm so glad and everyone listening. Thank you for coming back week after week. I'm really looking forward to the next time. We all get together to talk nerdy..
"eugenia" Discussed on Science Friday
"One of our mathematician guests stuck eugenia chang will also be playing a few pieces on the piano forests and for her first performance she's gonna tell us about the connection between math and music let's invite her up to the stage duct chenggong scientists in residence at the school of the art institute of chicago come on up hello it's so wonderful to be here on this amazing stage where i've seen so many great concerts in the post and i'm going to talk to you about one of my favorite things which is the connection between math and nfl really that's my favorite thing and music is another of my favorite thing so of course the connection between math and music is one of my favorite things there are so many things i could talk about i just had to pick one little one and it's going to be about things that amazing in ways we maybe don't notice until we think about a bit harder and that's one of the things i love about thinking hotter we see how amazing things i'm sometimes we jinx say the square root of two that's just a number but it's a really amazing number and it took mathematicians thousands of years to figure out what the square root of two is it's just a number such that when you multiply it by itself it too but you might know it's an irrational number so that means it's a decimal number that goes on forever and ever without repeating itself what has that got to do with music well i'm going to play one of my favorite pieces fall from the forty eight pearly fuchs that baulk road bought have tons of math in his music and one of the things that happened was he got so excited about being able to write in every key that he wrote a piece in every key so there are twelve notes on the piano keyboard and so he wrote twelve keys then there's major mind that makes twenty four and then he got really excited and did it all again so that makes full eight but why was he so excited it's because before his time it wasn't possible to write music in every key because when you choose a keyboard instruments it wasn't pno's in those days but when you tuned to a keyboard instrument some keys would sound great and the other keys would sound terrible and why is that when it's because they haven't figured out some math yet the reason is that when if you go up to what you've done is you've multiplied the frequency by two so in order to get intervals into you along to you have to divide that octave into twelve but you don't just divide the interval by twelve in numbers because when you multiply frequency that's when you get an interval so you multiply it by two to get the octave which means you need some multiply by number such that if you multiply twelve times you get to that means we're looking for the twelfth root of to a number such that when you multiply it by itself twelve times you get to that's really difficult problem on a mathematician spent thousands of years and it's an irrational number they spend ages they couldn't do it so they had to try and fudge it with fractions and things which meant typically see the gene with sound nice and then maybe would sound noise so you get lots of pieces that just use those courts maybe we'll say this one but ultimately that's a bit limited limiting then in box time they figured out a way of doing it no point with the square of the twelve to but so that it was more or less okay to writing every key and i feel like i can sense bucks excitement as he goes through the keys in these pieces but it's amazing he's never been able to write in this key before and so i'm going to play president f sharp exactly halfway between c and see that means it's actually the square root of two away so the ratio is the square of two which is why it's related to the square to this is needs to consonant into the most disciplined it used to be called the devil and music it is the one that sounds the hormone x interfere with each other the most and i feel like i'm just sensing box wonder that he can actually write a piece.