11 Burst results for "Eleanor Riley"

"eleanor riley" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

08:12 min | 2 months ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"Crediting straighten. Get your thoughts on how you sort of deal with the public behavior when you come out of the summer some people i. I'm sure had a feeling okay. We probably got a bit of breathing space until the winter proper. Challenge there in having to get messages together to get people to think. Catchy know you need to start taking this seriously. You need to start getting your mind around restrictions again after this. Nice summer break. You've had well. Yes but that was because they messaging over the summer. The most important one was around thirty july. If you remember it was the fourth of july that restrictions were relaxed if you remember the week leading up to that dodge they tabloid to a full of exclamations of end of lockdown freedom Freedom saturday or would what happened. There was that the government had property briefed them because by the end of that week leading up to the fourth the government. Starting back peddling unsigned. Well now it's going to be found to the end of everything in that week leading up to that The the actual diets certainly a mood celebration was promoted and messaging that you can relax. Nothing we've got the same thing around about now. We're talking now just coming up to christmas. I'm you've got the issue of the meta message backtrack. This weekend's i o keefe schultz and don't go on the visit if you have to but previously just announced it's going to be an amnesty from covid in effect. You can relax christmas and we'll vaccine and looked just finished so the message again was you can relax inside. It's difficult to persuade people to adhere to some of these things. If the message is starting to things are safe. And that's why we're relaxing everything It's interesting the idea of the meta message. Because i do remember all the papers talking about superstar today on their fourth july when baas pups were reopening and we will all being in to go out and boost the economy by visiting restaurants pubs and cafes in what was your here on the government's move to get us supporting the hospitality sector again. We have this this policy from rishi sunak for each out to help. How lovely idea to redo the economy by having lots of people cram inter restaurants cafes over the summer over august and have money off their meals. So what you're doing is obviously. You're taking people out the lockdown which you've done to hide from the virus have them come out into the summer when they're all really excited and they're all a little bit more happy because they've been in such great confinement and then say actually we're going to give you of money so you can go and eat with lots of other people in enclosed restaurants in case somebody will beat outside. I'm being a little unfair but that policy brought together an awful lot of people under the same roof and obviously that would have helped spread infections and so we didn't have to wait long for the next wave to come along. People were talking about the second wave coming in the winter and came in. The autumn became very fast. And it's not like there weren't scientists warning about this. What happened was completely on mysterious. It's exactly what you'd expect to happen. With the virus and people seeing the data at the time it did feel so frustrating. Watching cases clawing as we approached september. Not only because it seemed as if with may star opportunity to actually get control of the virus and properly implemented trace nice late but also because at that point we were being encouraged to go back to work in offices and school thames. Where just about to start again. An any parent would know that. Schools are a viral and bacterial hub. And in you asked christina pago about this this other key point in mid september although we didn't find out about it until first week walk tober and that was the advice that came out from sage new the circuit breaker on the twenty first of september. I think the news came out about three weeks later. We didn't do it and then we left it to the point that we ended up having a month long lockdown later on what did in this age make of that i mean we. We called for second break in the middle of october and tougher restrictions earlier than that and and consistently cool front pre contact tracing which just wasn't improving basically the performance metrics saying and then started getting really bad and september because there was that massive domon testing which again didn't seem to participate. That people about school would wanna get tests so it was just. I vividly remember giving ninety these kind of five briefings on what the numbers are on a friday. When we'd got about seventeen hundred cases. I'm saying keeps going up. Just gonna get complacent what if what if in. Tv's time we're at two thousand and we just got used to it and then that we can jump to three thousand and i remember thinking shit. Basically this isn't this isn't good news and watching it up and up in the melissa. Hembo we eight day doubling which is really quick for me as someone who works with numbers. When i see that i can just think in three four weeks time wearing massive trouble in nba half now. Otherwise we just to wait to get into. Trouble is competing the page with a with an infectious disease spreads exponentially and i just always assumed. Even in the summer. I just seemed at the government had letna. I'd assume that we all now understood that the It is and it hadn't initially had not catch me. If sage would sound the alarm bells did admit september that they will be ignored and said we got this curfew in the mood. Sex was just felt like restriction. Window-dressing you me. I was never gonna really have an impact so it felt just incredibly frustrating and sad because i i wrote an article People are gonna die in the next week's ready have peyton. That will be six thousand thousand and and just waiting to act is thousands more tests. And that's that's what happened. And i felt i could not do anything about it and so we the only control i presume not but we were we the only country to have the sort of sense families here after the first wave did other countries go through this as we did well. What's interesting is that there's been a pandemic curve that's just about being identical it really. In many european countries so what was very noticeable. Was that italy and spain were just ahead of us. They were on the first pandemic wave and they were on second one so we could have learned from them. Really is hard to imagine why we didn't as country's headed into the second waves and winter approached thankfully. Finally there was some good news. The pfizer bio intech vaccine has been tested on over forty thousand volunteers and interim results suggest is proving ninety percent effective at protecting people against the virus their development of effective and safe vaccines in less than a year has been an astonishing feat of sawyer's a now the fis. Biotech vaccine is being administered in several countries around the world i asked eleanor riley professor of immunology and infectious diseases at the university of that breath about what she.

keefe schultz rishi sunak christina pago tober domon dodge Hembo government melissa nba peyton spain italy pfizer fis eleanor riley sawyer university of that
"eleanor riley" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

The Guardian's Science Weekly

12:51 min | 3 months ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on The Guardian's Science Weekly

"With a number vaccine candidates against the corona virus sharing promising results in clinical trials and a growing number of studies elving into our mean response to infection. The spotlight has turned once again. On the body's defense mechanisms. I think two questions that really relate to the ability of the vaccine to protect us and our ability to fight off a second infection and so that is the quality of the immune response and the duration of the immune response this week. I'm joined by professor. Eleanor riley from the university of edinburgh to dove into these questions and more. I'm nichole davis. Welcome to science. Weekly ellena you came onto the podcast in july and talk to us about immunity and covid nineteen specifically the relationship between antibodies and immunity. So let's start with a recap on the major players in the immune system that are of interest when it comes to an immune response and potentially immunity so antibodies are protein molecules that are produced by immune cells kobe cells and these cells live in our spleen and narrow and they secrete antibodies off. They've been exposed to a foreign organism such as virus. There are two types of cells that produce. Antibodies on short-lived cells that produce. Antibodies for a few weeks national to the first line response and then some of those cells transition into lonely cells that goto a bone marrow and can produce antibodies for months years. Possibly even to case and then on top of antibodies. have that can kill virus. Infected host cells t cells the two types of t cells one of which we think of such of the conductor of the orchestra of the immune system and these kotei health cells and they very much help the b. cells to make antibodies produce. Growth factors may direct the direction in which the be cells developed and they will still give them signals to turn into cells and then there are the cdte cells and they actively kill virus infected cells and then <hes>. Antibodies can also bind to these specific cells and help them to kill cells so they recognize little bits of virus on the infected cell bind to the infected so and kill it and then there are cells which are less specific cells that we call macrophages are neutral fills and they just recognized that. Something's not quite right with the cell. They don't necessarily recognize the infected with the virus and they kill it actually or bits of the immune system work together a little bit like you need a whole orchestra to make a good tune when you need all of these cells working together to make a good news arms. And i know you said in july that at that point it was too early to tell how quickly people were losing their antibodies. And we've got to remember here that it's a relatively new virus. What's the latest research saying that seems to have been some movement on that now. What we're seeing is if you all the data together. There's an early peek in the antibodies wants. Lots and lots of antibodies are produced to mop up all virus. That's in your body and then as that virus goes away the antibodies start to decline a little bit. Because you don't need them any antibodies anymore and they settle into a of steady class. O of antibody production. And that's very typical. This kind of two phase response the only peak lots of antibodies followed by sort of standing level of antibodies. That nick for a long time. That's very typical of an antibody response and it sort of relates to the short lived long lived cells. You have lots of short-lived cells making lots of antibody that off and then the long lived cells who that fewer in numba keep on producing. Antibodies for much longer so yes. Let's talk about these long-lived b. cells in the no said the t. cells. What is research telling us about what happens to them and how. How long do they hang around for. So we don't have much data on those are actually quite difficult to look at in humans. They tend to live in the bone marrow for example not very accessible and so we tend to rely on mathematical modeling of the change in the dynamics of the antibody concentration to predict what's going to happen even though we haven't actually been able to see it because it hasn't gone on long enough so the moment the infants is that we have suggests that things are probably okay these cells behaving as we expect them to the was one pay published early on suggesting may be a little bit of a fault with the production of these long midsouth. But i'm not sure that that's been replicated in other studies. I think i saw a preprinted study. That hasn't been peer reviewed yet. Which jested that these visas and t so's lost for at least six months is that. What are the problems here in terms of measuring this so we only have six months data at the moment and the virus really hasn't been around that long so what we can say the moment. Is that the cells assisting for as long as we are able to measure them at the moment obviously in six months or another twelve months time. We'll be able to go back to those people and say have they still got those cells. Yes or no. But in the meantime just looking at the change in the dynamics of the response and mapping it onto what we know the other viruses. My prediction is that these that there will be some long lift immunity to this virus. He said there might be some long term protection. How long term are we talking here. I mean i've seen a lot of people saying well current viruses such as that of course common code some codes of course by coronavirus is of course the protection only lasts for say a year or so. Do we think that our protection against the corona virus that causes covid nineteen mike baxter timeframe or or could it be longer. I think it's very difficult to say at the moment. Say all of the data. We have suggests that these antibody responses are going to be at least as long lived as response of corona viruses. And possibly i might think even probably going to last longer your immune response tends to be proportional to the level of threat that you face so the common cold corona viruses really only colonize our upper respiratory tract so on nose throat and so the virus doesn't go very deep into apology and we make rather grief that effective noon response nose and throat that controls it this coq nineteen causing virus goes much deeper into our bodies it goes down into our lungs into bronchial and therefore the immune response tends to be stronger and they struggle we call systemic immune responses do tend to last longer because they are recognizing that there is a more serious threat that has to be dealt with. Do we know if factors like ethnicity gender age factor in the scale of the immune response. She said stronger. Immune response to your first. Infection is is more likely to me. You have great protection against the second infection. Those factors correlated at all. There's very little day to so far on ethnic differences in the immune response the data. That's coming after the vaccine trials suggests that there aren't any major differences in at between ethnic groups in terms of whether the vaccine protects them will not but we haven't yet seen lab data on their antibody responses with at t cell responses. There is a lot of genetic variation in the immune response. People be aware that some people unfortunately have very severe genetically determined immunodeficiencies. That's just the tip of the iceberg of genetic variation in the immune response and some of those differences do have geographical and ethnic components to that certain genes that either make good or bad immune response on more common or less common in groups <unk> countries. But we don't yet know if any of that is going to influence really the totality of their immune responses. We just don't have any evidence much by age. It feels like ages is. It's very important given that the older you are the more risque from caveat nineteen so there are two components to that one is whether you are able to make an immune response again's a virus. You've never seen before and there is. I think really quite good evidence that you ability to make a completely new immune response does decline as you get older. The other component is that a lot of the disease we say in coke nineteen excessive inflammation. And there's also evidence that we get older with less good controlling inflammation so it's a little bit of a double whammy as we get older way are less able to make an immune response to a new virus such as the covid nineteen virus and if we then get the viral infection where less good at controlling the inflammation that it causes a so we know there are several different vaccines. Which looking very promising. You have the rene vaccines at you have vaccines which used a chimp. Virus to bring genetic material from the corona virus into cells. The question is is the immune response that generated the same as it would have been to a natural infection and do the t. cells and so on hang around in the same way. The vaccine is just a tiny component of viruses this spike protein which is on the surface of the virus and so if you vaccinated with spike protein. You make antibodies in tesol responses just to that protein. If you get the virus itself then you get many many more pro teams that you're exposed to a new may make antibodies to some of those. So you responded more limited but you might also say that your response is more focused because it's actually antibodies to spike coaching a really important for neutralizing the virus so the vaccine in juices a narrow immune response but one would hope it would also be focused on therefore stronger on the base the matter and would it be expected that this will provoke a stronger. Immune response natural infection. I've heard some people say that actually vaccine can producer a strong response it coun- if they initial infection is quite mild say with virus like sauce covy to which induces very mild infections in some people i would expect the vaccine to tobacco to jason mewes which is much stronger than you would get after nascent dramatic or mild infection. People get serious dose of coca to make a very strong immune response. And i doubt if the vaccine it doesn't need to be any strong national adopt if it is when it comes to and viruses the coups common code. It's been some concern that these viruses somehow elude the memory b cells. and so. that's why even though we have thousand cells to to the common cold viruses. We will often get reinfected with them. I wonder if they're those same concerns about the coronavirus behind covid nineteen so there is a little basic data. There's one paper that suggests that the sauce kofi to virus that causes covid nineteen disables particular pathway in the b. cell response leading to a poor long term memory response but these experiments done in the lab in a in a in a petrie dish. And i think it's too early to know if that's really what happens in humans so i think we do need to be a little bit cautious and we need to be aware that it might happen. Good news is that the proteins that are believed to cause that problem are not present in the vaccine so even if it's a problem in natural infection it shouldn't be a problem with a vaccine

nichole davis Eleanor riley university of edinburgh professor
What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

The Guardian's Science Weekly

12:52 min | 3 months ago

What the immune response to the coronavirus says about the prospects for a vaccine

"With a number vaccine candidates against the corona virus sharing promising results in clinical trials and a growing number of studies elving into our mean response to infection. The spotlight has turned once again. On the body's defense mechanisms. I think two questions that really relate to the ability of the vaccine to protect us and our ability to fight off a second infection and so that is the quality of the immune response and the duration of the immune response this week. I'm joined by professor. Eleanor riley from the university of edinburgh to dove into these questions and more. I'm nichole davis. Welcome to science. Weekly ellena you came onto the podcast in july and talk to us about immunity and covid nineteen specifically the relationship between antibodies and immunity. So let's start with a recap on the major players in the immune system that are of interest when it comes to an immune response and potentially immunity so antibodies are protein molecules that are produced by immune cells kobe cells and these cells live in our spleen and narrow and they secrete antibodies off. They've been exposed to a foreign organism such as virus. There are two types of cells that produce. Antibodies on short-lived cells that produce. Antibodies for a few weeks national to the first line response and then some of those cells transition into lonely cells that goto a bone marrow and can produce antibodies for months years. Possibly even to case and then on top of antibodies. have that can kill virus. Infected host cells t cells the two types of t cells one of which we think of such of the conductor of the orchestra of the immune system and these kotei health cells and they very much help the b. cells to make antibodies produce. Growth factors may direct the direction in which the be cells developed and they will still give them signals to turn into cells and then there are the cdte cells and they actively kill virus infected cells and then Antibodies can also bind to these specific cells and help them to kill cells so they recognize little bits of virus on the infected cell bind to the infected so and kill it and then there are cells which are less specific cells that we call macrophages are neutral fills and they just recognized that. Something's not quite right with the cell. They don't necessarily recognize the infected with the virus and they kill it actually or bits of the immune system work together a little bit like you need a whole orchestra to make a good tune when you need all of these cells working together to make a good news arms. And i know you said in july that at that point it was too early to tell how quickly people were losing their antibodies. And we've got to remember here that it's a relatively new virus. What's the latest research saying that seems to have been some movement on that now. What we're seeing is if you all the data together. There's an early peek in the antibodies wants. Lots and lots of antibodies are produced to mop up all virus. That's in your body and then as that virus goes away the antibodies start to decline a little bit. Because you don't need them any antibodies anymore and they settle into a of steady class. O of antibody production. And that's very typical. This kind of two phase response the only peak lots of antibodies followed by sort of standing level of antibodies. That nick for a long time. That's very typical of an antibody response and it sort of relates to the short lived long lived cells. You have lots of short-lived cells making lots of antibody that off and then the long lived cells who that fewer in numba keep on producing. Antibodies for much longer so yes. Let's talk about these long-lived b. cells in the no said the t. cells. What is research telling us about what happens to them and how. How long do they hang around for. So we don't have much data on those are actually quite difficult to look at in humans. They tend to live in the bone marrow for example not very accessible and so we tend to rely on mathematical modeling of the change in the dynamics of the antibody concentration to predict what's going to happen even though we haven't actually been able to see it because it hasn't gone on long enough so the moment the infants is that we have suggests that things are probably okay these cells behaving as we expect them to the was one pay published early on suggesting may be a little bit of a fault with the production of these long midsouth. But i'm not sure that that's been replicated in other studies. I think i saw a preprinted study. That hasn't been peer reviewed yet. Which jested that these visas and t so's lost for at least six months is that. What are the problems here in terms of measuring this so we only have six months data at the moment and the virus really hasn't been around that long so what we can say the moment. Is that the cells assisting for as long as we are able to measure them at the moment obviously in six months or another twelve months time. We'll be able to go back to those people and say have they still got those cells. Yes or no. But in the meantime just looking at the change in the dynamics of the response and mapping it onto what we know the other viruses. My prediction is that these that there will be some long lift immunity to this virus. He said there might be some long term protection. How long term are we talking here. I mean i've seen a lot of people saying well current viruses such as that of course common code some codes of course by coronavirus is of course the protection only lasts for say a year or so. Do we think that our protection against the corona virus that causes covid nineteen mike baxter timeframe or or could it be longer. I think it's very difficult to say at the moment. Say all of the data. We have suggests that these antibody responses are going to be at least as long lived as response of corona viruses. And possibly i might think even probably going to last longer your immune response tends to be proportional to the level of threat that you face so the common cold corona viruses really only colonize our upper respiratory tract so on nose throat and so the virus doesn't go very deep into apology and we make rather grief that effective noon response nose and throat that controls it this coq nineteen causing virus goes much deeper into our bodies it goes down into our lungs into bronchial and therefore the immune response tends to be stronger and they struggle we call systemic immune responses do tend to last longer because they are recognizing that there is a more serious threat that has to be dealt with. Do we know if factors like ethnicity gender age factor in the scale of the immune response. She said stronger. Immune response to your first. Infection is is more likely to me. You have great protection against the second infection. Those factors correlated at all. There's very little day to so far on ethnic differences in the immune response the data. That's coming after the vaccine trials suggests that there aren't any major differences in at between ethnic groups in terms of whether the vaccine protects them will not but we haven't yet seen lab data on their antibody responses with at t cell responses. There is a lot of genetic variation in the immune response. People be aware that some people unfortunately have very severe genetically determined immunodeficiencies. That's just the tip of the iceberg of genetic variation in the immune response and some of those differences do have geographical and ethnic components to that certain genes that either make good or bad immune response on more common or less common in groups countries. But we don't yet know if any of that is going to influence really the totality of their immune responses. We just don't have any evidence much by age. It feels like ages is. It's very important given that the older you are the more risque from caveat nineteen so there are two components to that one is whether you are able to make an immune response again's a virus. You've never seen before and there is. I think really quite good evidence that you ability to make a completely new immune response does decline as you get older. The other component is that a lot of the disease we say in coke nineteen excessive inflammation. And there's also evidence that we get older with less good controlling inflammation so it's a little bit of a double whammy as we get older way are less able to make an immune response to a new virus such as the covid nineteen virus and if we then get the viral infection where less good at controlling the inflammation that it causes a so we know there are several different vaccines. Which looking very promising. You have the rene vaccines at you have vaccines which used a chimp. Virus to bring genetic material from the corona virus into cells. The question is is the immune response that generated the same as it would have been to a natural infection and do the t. cells and so on hang around in the same way. The vaccine is just a tiny component of viruses this spike protein which is on the surface of the virus and so if you vaccinated with spike protein. You make antibodies in tesol responses just to that protein. If you get the virus itself then you get many many more pro teams that you're exposed to a new may make antibodies to some of those. So you responded more limited but you might also say that your response is more focused because it's actually antibodies to spike coaching a really important for neutralizing the virus so the vaccine in juices a narrow immune response but one would hope it would also be focused on therefore stronger on the base the matter and would it be expected that this will provoke a stronger. Immune response natural infection. I've heard some people say that actually vaccine can producer a strong response it coun- if they initial infection is quite mild say with virus like sauce covy to which induces very mild infections in some people i would expect the vaccine to tobacco to jason mewes which is much stronger than you would get after nascent dramatic or mild infection. People get serious dose of coca to make a very strong immune response. And i doubt if the vaccine it doesn't need to be any strong national adopt if it is when it comes to and viruses the coups common code. It's been some concern that these viruses somehow elude the memory b cells. and so. that's why even though we have thousand cells to to the common cold viruses. We will often get reinfected with them. I wonder if they're those same concerns about the coronavirus behind covid nineteen so there is a little basic data. There's one paper that suggests that the sauce kofi to virus that causes covid nineteen disables particular pathway in the b. cell response leading to a poor long term memory response but these experiments done in the lab in a in a in a petrie dish. And i think it's too early to know if that's really what happens in humans so i think we do need to be a little bit cautious and we need to be aware that it might happen. Good news is that the proteins that are believed to cause that problem are not present in the vaccine so even if it's a problem in natural infection it shouldn't be a problem with a vaccine

Elving Eleanor Riley Nichole Davis University Of Edinburgh Mike Baxter Inflammation Nick Cold Infection Mild Infection Jason Mewes
"eleanor riley" Discussed on Nature Podcast

Nature Podcast

08:43 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on Nature Podcast

"Adam, you seem like the sole person who likes to stop to date with everything that's going on in the world. Yeah. I like to geek out on politics technology, the arts, finance and science naturally. It can be quite tricky to keep my fingers on all these various pulses. Well, you're in luck because the economists helped sift through the noise giving you the facts about the things that matter most what's more nature podcast listeners contri- the economist and claim a free Brin copy by visiting economists dot com. Slash nature. The economist is the smart guide to the forces impacting your world, head Turkana dot com for slash nature to give it to try. Sounds so simply no idea. Now the data's find these. Not only refreshing, but some level stone. Nature. Welcome back to the nature podcast. This week on the show, we'll be taking a look at some grimy mice who may have a role to play in drug development. Plus we'll be dissecting human influence on the Mississippi's flood-risk. This is the nature podcast for the fifth of April twenty eighteen. I'm Adam levy, Benjamin Thompson. Listeners. If you live in a big city, there's a fan. John's that you've shared your living space with a mouse at some point I'm now. No, I have in the past for many, these uninvited visitors of pests, but there are also some research groups interested in whether these wild rodents could be a welcome guest in research labs. Of course, Smicer an important model animal in all sorts of research, including testing U drugs or other therapies. Liberace mice bred to be genetically similar which reduces natural variation and allows researchers to more accurately compare the effects of a particular treatment. These mice Awo looks after as David Massar pushed from the university of Minnesota explains well, a lab mouse was very privileged existence. So lives in sanitize environment drinks perfectly clean water. It eats very clean food and it lose essentially like a boy in a bubble in a room that is designed to keep pathogens out. And so it is a clean privileged existence. This environ. Is important as it helps prevent unexpected variables like infections from affecting results. Now, though research is a wondering whether these squeaky-clean conditions are influencing a lab mouse's immune system. If so, these animals may not be representative of how a human immune system reacts to the same treatments. Humans don't live in sanitize environment even if we try to make it. So certainly we've evolved to live in a microbial world and our immune systems sort of behave differently when we have a sort normalized history of immune experience or infectious experience. And because we are trying to to model humans, typically, then it raises concerns that if we only look in sanitize animals that we may be missing something or or what we're discovering, even though maybe very true, they fail to translate to sort of human existence. David, once it's a change things up and try to introduce a little of the outdoors into the rotary mice. This required obtaining some wild mice which turned out to be a bit more tricky than expected about fifteen years ago. I was opposed to hock in Georgia and the idea struck me. Then I called a bunch of exterminators who said, sure, we'll give you my in that never called me back. This surprisingly difficult. I found a petting zoo that allowed me to take a look at some of their mice that were infesting the property. And so when I moved to Minnesota is actually one of the first projects I initiated and ultimately to turn this into a real experiment and into go from just observation to experimentation. We were fortunate that if a silly was built on campus, that was what we call a biosafety level three. Three labs are heightened facilities that typically used when working on serious diseases of humans. In this case, though, it allowed the researchers to contain any diseases to the outdoor mice happened to be carrying to prevent contamination of other my experiments. David, how's his outdoor mice, which he goes dirty mice with groups of laboratory rodents as well as sharing that living space. The dirty mice also shared their microbes, which of course included the pathogens we found that a number of infections moved over. You know, it's kind of like being raised on a desert island for all your, you know your whole life. And then I drop you off at age twenty into daycare. So there's a commotion in the blood. There are a lot of immune responses that transpire things kind of settled down after a couple of months, but importantly, the immune system, it never returns to how it was before and adopted. These characteristics that we were looking at that were more like humans, sixteen nature paper, David, and his colleagues showed that the immune system of not mice. Mole, develop in those of laboratory mice with high levels of certain immune cells that seem co house mice boats in pet show with laboratory mice. And while not all of them survived the exposure to outside diseases, the lab mice that did ended up themselves with a much more developed immune system. David described the change in the immune system is going from resembling a human babies to that of a human adult. Now, it's tough to imagine how you could standardize the microbes that co house lab mouse is exposed to all how MU system would be affected. But David thinks this variability could actually be benefit as it may be more representative of the variation seen in the human population. This could be useful when testing new drugs. The idea that if you can have a reproducible phenomenon in mice that have different micro real experiences just like humans, you know, you, you and I have very different histories. You might be able to filter out those those therapeutics that really have a lower probability of being broadly successful in. In a diversity of population. David wants to know whether the dirty mice could have been used to predict the failure of vaccines, what well in their traditional mouse model, but then not to work in humans. At a later stage, others can see the potential of the dirty mices well, his Manila, just Eleanor Riley who thinks the new system might office advantages a bridge between the purely lab approach and the real world. And I think that's an important bridge. I think doing the very highly controlled experiments that we used to doing is really important for unpicking basic biological principles. But then when we take information into a population of people, all of a sudden introducing a huge additional level of complexity, not just government population, but all of those environmental complexities and not jump if huge from very, very highly controlled lab mouth to essentially an uncontrolled human population. And I think the dirty minds off of. Bridge to step from within the same species, clean up to thirty miles and then saying dirty miles to to human with a mice and their immune systems will help give a better representation of humans remains to be seen. David is by no means the only researcher investigation that potential, but the loss of what needs to be done both in terms of research and infrastructure before these mice ready to be used for testing new drugs and therapies. However, while the dirty mouth system might not be there quite yet, David can see a place for it alongside Tisch, no mouse models. I think it could become a standard way of doing things, but certainly not the only standard way and it will never replace the is clean model, at least in the foreseeable future in it shouldn't. I think the things that need to be done are two sort of fully vet its value and to sort of provide examples where it would have better predictive value for an outcome in humans. Then maybe the. Gene mouse would've that was David masochist from the university of Minnesota in the US. You also heard from Eleanor Riley from the Roslin Institute in the UK you can read more about the research involving not mice in off each article, which you can find over at nature dot com. Slash news late in the show will hip to ten til ising signal that may come from dark matter up next though, which by Emily PanAm for this week's research highlights.

David Massar university of Minnesota Adam Eleanor Riley representative Brin Adam levy Gene mouse Manila Mississippi John Roslin Institute Emily PanAm Minnesota Benjamin Thompson Georgia UK US
"eleanor riley" Discussed on KARN 102.9

KARN 102.9

02:35 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on KARN 102.9

"The devil has made them they knew where to go into unwind our society and our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs and all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor saw him he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king queer desires it gets even better he claims the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i i have no other words then to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing as a drag kingly bright and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and co lose interpretations unconventional are you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in two thousand thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shattered leaving them to question if the sun should transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the west it's the death of the west all right mr spangler miss the spangler you're right the death of the west spangler said that when the west collapsed that would be china and the asiatic peoples who would take over the world yeah no kidding out know all of that well who do you blame for this god television radio who do you blame you could blame putin i suppose you can bring it back to putin and say he did it because he's an atheist he must have done it you can blame it on the florida sheriff who hid behind.

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"eleanor riley" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM

WCBM 680 AM

02:35 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on WCBM 680 AM

"The devil has made them they knew where to go into unwind our society and our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs and all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor saw him he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king queer desires it gets even better he claims to the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man gender fluid now i i have no other words then to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing a drag kingly bride and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and call lose interpretations unconventional at you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in twenty thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shouted leaving them to question if the censure transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the west it's the death of the west all right mr spangler mr spangler you're right the death of the west spangler said that when the west collapsed that would be china and the asiatic peoples who would take over the world yeah no kidding already know all of that well who do you blame for all his god television radio who do you blame you could blame putin i suppose you can all bring it back to putin and say he did it because he's an atheist he must have done it you can blame it on the florida sheriff who hid behind.

benny lou jesus crack cocaine methamphetamine san francisco mr spangler china putin professor worcester eleanor riley florida
"eleanor riley" Discussed on WJR 760

WJR 760

02:39 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on WJR 760

"So there's a professor at a catholic university if you can believe how the deviance have penetrated our most religious colleges jesus was dragged king with queer desires claims theology professor and i knew this was happening many years ago when i saw what they did to the theological seminary up at uc berkeley i saw it in the seventies who was taking the jobs over there the deviance the perverts the antigod they're so smart they're smart as the devil has made them they knew where to go into one wind our society in our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs and all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor so he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king who had queer desires it gets even better he claims the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i have no other words to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing za drag kingly bright and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and call lose interpretations unconventional are you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in two thousand thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why don't you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shouted leaving them to question if the censure transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the.

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"eleanor riley" Discussed on WZFG The Flag 1100AM

WZFG The Flag 1100AM

02:44 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on WZFG The Flag 1100AM

"But the companion of fools shall smart for it it's pretty good stuff in that old testament those ancient olive growers sure knew their stuff so there's a professor at a catholic university if you can believe how the deviance have penetrated our most religious colleges jesus was a drag king with queer desires claims theology professor and i knew this was happening many years ago when i saw what they did to the theological seminary up at uc berkeley i saw it in the seventies who was taking the jobs over there the deviance the perverts the antigod they're so smart they're smart as the devil has made them they knew where to go into unwind our society and our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs in all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor so he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king who at queer desires it gets even better he claims the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i i have no other words to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing a drag kingly bright and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and call lose interpretations unconventional are you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in two thousand thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shouted leaving them to question if the censure transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the west it's.

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"eleanor riley" Discussed on WBSM 1420

WBSM 1420

02:25 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on WBSM 1420

"The deviance have penetrated our most religious colleges jesus was a drag king with queer desires claims the professor and i knew this was happening many years ago when i saw what they did to the theological seminary up at uc berkeley i sort in the seventies who was taking the jobs over there the deviance the perverts the antigod they're so smart they're smart as the devil has made them they knew where to go into unwind our society and our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs and all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor saw him he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king who i quit desires it gets even better he claimed the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i i have no other words than to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing as a drag kingly bright and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you of not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and co lose interpretations unconventional at you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in twenty thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said the that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shouted leaving them to question if the sun should transfer schools.

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"eleanor riley" Discussed on KSFO-AM

KSFO-AM

02:25 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on KSFO-AM

"All of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat doctor soham he's a doctor dr tat song benny lou chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was a drag king who desires it gets even better he claims the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i have no other words then to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing as a drag kingly bride and his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and co lose interpretations unconventional are you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in two thousand thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shattered leaving them to question if the censure transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the west it's the death of the west all right mr spangler miss the spangler you're right the death of the west spangler said that when the west collapsed that would be china and the asiatic peoples who would take over the world yeah no kidding already know all of that well who do you blame for all his god television radio who do you blame you could blame putin i suppose you can old bring it back to putin and say he did it because he's an atheist he must have done it you can blame it on the florida sheriff who hid behind.

benny lou jesus crack cocaine methamphetamine san francisco mr spangler china putin professor worcester eleanor riley florida
"eleanor riley" Discussed on WDRC

WDRC

02:35 min | 3 years ago

"eleanor riley" Discussed on WDRC

"The devil has made them they knew where to go into unwind our society and our civilization and so the purves and the deviance went and got jobs and all of the seminaries now a holy cross professor doctor tat song benny lou claims jesus was a drag king who had queer desires tat dr soham he's a doctor dr tat song benny loop chair of new testament studies at the college of the holy cross in worcester mass said jesus was dragged king queer desires it gets even better he claims the last supper was a literary striptease and that jesus was not a man but gender fluid now i i have no other words than to say to you how can civilization survive this he goes on christ ends up appearing as a drag kingly bright his passion this is the kind of stuff you would hear at a crack cocaine or a methamphetamine fuelled orgy in san francisco during easter but this man is actually teaching at a religious university because you have not cut off your funding to these sick places of misunderstanding this controversial teaching came to light after holy cross student eleanor riley wrote an article and coal lose interpretations unconventional are you joking the student question why lou was given a distinguished professorship at the jesuit college in two thousand thirteen why you don't know the answer you have no idea why he was given such a professorship why did you ask yourself who gave him the job well what can you say about that one parent said that they sent their son to holy cross for their conservative christian values but now they're being shouted leaving them to question if the sun should transfer schools oh boy oh boy can you believe what's happened in the west it's the death of the west or right mr spangler mr spangler you're right the death of the west spangler said that when the west collapsed that would be china and the asiatic peoples who would take over the world yeah home no kidding already know all of that well who do you blame all his god television radio who do you blame you could blame putin i suppose you can bring it back to putin and say he did it because he's an atheist he must have done it you can blame it on the florida sheriff who hid behind.

benny lou crack cocaine methamphetamine san francisco mr spangler china putin professor worcester eleanor riley florida