Aired Last week 1:30
Electronics for Hostile Environments
From the news
Aired Last week 1:29
Electronics for Hostile Environments
With a surface temperature of eight hundred seventy degrees Fahrenheit, a heavy. Carbon dioxide atmosphere at divall canes and deadly clouds of sulfuric acid Venus's tough world to explore. This is innovation now bringing you stories behind the ideas that shave our future NASA is hoping to build on the success of the silicon based integrated circuits used on Mars Landers, but the target this time Venus once thought to be a likely place to find life the mariner and Russian venire probes in the nineteen sixties and seventies revealed, the harsh reality of Venus even spacecraft built today wouldn't survive much longer than the venero Landers with their massive cooling systems. None lasted more than one hundred twenty seven minutes on the blistering the news in surface. But a team at NASA Glenn research center is developing a new. Electronics technology that could survive more than five hundred twenty hours in the hostile environment. The electron IX made of silicon carbide circuits could not only make exploration Venus possible, but might be a hot prospect for aircraft engines and a range of other earth applications as well for innovation. Now, I'm Jennifer pulley innovation now is produced by the National Institute of aerospace through collaboration with NASA.
Aired 3 months ago 18:21
Mail Call - 4 Important Questions Answered
Louisville eaters and back to the finer points on this episode of the finer points. I am going to be answering more listener questions on this mail. Call episode questions that have come in through Instagram Facebook through my Email and the four questions we're going to get to this time are tips for wing drops during the stall thoughts on emergency landings on highways staying current or getting back into flying. And why relative humidity is left off aircraft performance charts? I'm Jason Miller. And you're listening to the final. Finer points is brought to you in part by four point the app pilots, depend on online and four flights dot com. And by boats makers of the twenty headset. The twenty is the choice of military pilots and professional pilots all over the world. And by the generous port of listeners like you patriot. Remember one out about direct, bro? Five or ten and maintain five thousand. And then. All right. The first question that I'm going to respond to hear came from Instagram. This is sometimes ask questions on Instagram stories, some of which are too long to respond to right there in the story. So I pick it up here in a podcast. And somebody asked me if I had any tips for when the wing drops during a stall. And I do have a bunch of thoughts on this. The first thought is it's never comfortable to get the wing to stop flying. So if you're somebody out there listening, and you think man, I just don't like practicing stalls. You're not alone. All right. So just know that second you should really think of practising practising. I'm making little finger quotes here practicing stalls in two ways, the first is the first to to practice, the recognition and recovery in which case you're going to initiate, the recovery at the very first indication of the stall this is often used in demonstrations, particularly beyond the private pilot level at the commercial pilot or ATP pilot level. Right. So you hear the stall warning horn, and they want you to immediately initiate the recovery. And it's important that you build the muscle memory. So that if you hear that warning you announce it always announce the stall warning horn verbally that's the stall warning worn and initiate, the recovery. That's a skill. That's not entirely related to the ability. Again, little finger quotes to stall the airplane. And that's what this question's about. When the wing drops this airplane has been fully stalled this is by the way, what they want to see on the private pilot test just to be sure that private pilot candidates can fly the airplane through the stall. So for this skill. You're gonna do skill building days. You're going to go out and practice the following two exercises and do this with your CFI. I until you're very comfortable with this. The first is what I would call a falling leaf exercise have your CFI take the control yoke pull the power to idle and pull the airplane into a stall your CFI is going to hold the airplane in the stall. And you are. Going to use the rudders to make sure that the wings stay level. The airplane will be fully stalled you'll be holding it there and on the way down while you're kind of just buffeting along in the stall, you're doing what's required on the rudders to keep the wings level. This will help you build primacy and muscle memory that it is your feet that keep the wings level during the stall, not your hands. There's not even touching the yolk in this case once you're really good at that. Then you want to hold the yolk. So that you can get used to not actually waiting the ailerons in addition to using your feet. So you're really just holding the stick level holding the yolk level and using your feet to keep the wings level. The second exercise you can practice is related to what I call the Lindbergh reference, if there's a YouTube video about this on the finer points channel, just go look for the Lindbergh reference video, but the Lindbergh reference is that corner part of the forward window that is where you will see the horizon when the noses and high pitch attitudes. You. Can't see over the nose. But you can see the horizon touching the dash through the side part of the forward window. I call it the Lindbergh reference because he used to fly with big bags of mail in the front seat. And that's where he would look to get the information. He needed about pitch Yaw and roll. It's also why he gave up the front window on the spirit of sT Louis. So anyway, go watch the video at the point. Is you want to use a marker get like a dry race, Mark or something that won't stay on the window and make a little Mark in that corner. So that you can see the data. I just described the pitch the ya the role and then slow the airplane down until your minimum controllable airspeed with the stall warning horn on not yet stalled, but the stall warning horn on this in most airplanes will require about seventeen hundred to nine thousand nine hundred RPM to hold altitudes. So there is a little bit of power in there. And that's important because even though the left turning tendencies won't be extreme. They will exist. They will be present. So you will. Have to use some amount of right rudder to prevent the airplane from yawning to the left or rolling to the left, and what you'll do once you figure out how much rudder that is. And you're looking through that Lindbergh reference and making sure that there's no Yaw or roll going on you'll gently pull the airplane into a stall. And then release the back pressure gently pull the airplane into a stall and then release the back pressure. And the point of this exercise is to get you looking in the right spot because the reality is if you're looking in the right spot and doing the right things with your feet a wing will not drop in the stall. And you need to learn that understand that and believe that it's true. It's all about your feet, preventing the yawning motion. That's what prevents the wing from dropping. All right. And in most of these training airplanes, if a wing does drop just remember releasing your back pressure is what recovers the stall gets the airplane flying again right away, and that will prevent anything bad from happening after the wing drops. All right. So anyway, I hope that's helpful to those that are having issues and stalls and are a little bit afraid of what happens when a wing drops. Are the next question? I'm going to answer is what about emergency landing on highways. This is a tough one for me. I think if there's this is not a black and white answer. If there is absolutely nobody on the highway if you're in somewhere in rural Tennessee, and you look down, and you think man, there's no cars on the road at all. Then the only risks you have to landing on the road are the median any barriers in the middle any power lines or signing crossing the road. And if you're certain that that stuff doesn't exist, then I'd say fine. Go ahead and land on the road. But as a rule, I think roads are a bad place to go and the accident that I think of and you can go ahead. And look this one up. I can't remember how long ago was probably two thousand and five ish. There was a bonanza that experienced an engine failure taking off from concord airport. That's Charlie Charlie Romeo. Concord, California and landed on the six eighty freeway, and I often use this as an example when talking to students because in that accident the pilot was a father. And his son pitched the airplane down. We're able to glide onto the road with a windmilling propeller and crash land on the road in such a way that they were both. Okay. They both walked away from that. However, the windmilling propeller sliced through the side of a mini van and cut the leg off of a six-year-old girl on her way home from soccer practice, she'll never walk again. And I always ask my students based on what we know. Now was that a successful force landing the pilot and his passenger walked away. But somebody on the ground loses a leg. I don't think. So. Right. And so the thing about roads is there are cars on the roads. There are people on the roads. And they're not looking up, right? Nobody asked us to be up there flying around. And I think it's part of our aeronautical responsibility. If you will to go in the event of an emergency to go for places where people on the ground are not gonna get injured. Now, having said that I also think of another accident that had nothing to do with the road where Pyo father and daughter were walking down a beach piper lost its engine and was gliding to a landing on the beach and didn't see these two walking in the low lighting conditions until it was way too late the father and the daughter were walking with their back to the airplane. They never heard it coming and they were both killed as the airplane hit them walking down the beach. So this can happen really anywhere. And I think that to sort of summarize my answer to this question. I don't think roads are a good idea as a rule for the reasons I previously described. I also think what we're really considering here is as a broader awareness about people on the ground. My last YouTube video talked about going for a soccer field or a football field or park in the event of an engine failure. If there are people on the ground, none of those places are options. So being able to kind of flying along look down and see landing sites is one thing. Can you look down and see landing sites, and at least have some sort of confidence that there aren't people there that that wouldn't see you coming that would be surprised by an airplane falling out of the sky. So anyway, just great food for thought. Thanks for that question. Moving onto the next one here. Somebody asked me about how do I stay current or get back into find do I have any tips about that. And I think there was this was answered on another male call episode coming out of Oshkosh. So if you're a listener here look back to the thing is to mail, call episodes back where we got into this a little bit. But I. I do think that you know, remembering that is not just about jumping in the airplane. And starting the motor that there's a lot that goes into it. And that you can keep your head in the game by using tools like live dot net to listen to air traffic control, tools, like pilot edge in combination with an x plane flight, simulator and even foreplay. So a couple of tips on that stuff. If you are listening to live dot net. Don't just listen to SFO tower because it's fun. Listen to operations that you might encounter. Listen to class delta airports, if you're going to be flying far this TBN approach control facility do stuff that's relevant, and perhaps even make a schedule for yourself where you do this a couple hours a month using a simulator like x plane, don't waste your time. Learning how to fly the simulator? It doesn't matter if you can fly X playing well or not use the auto pilot and consider it a procedural train. Owner just get your head around checklists and start up procedures and use pilot edge. If you're not familiar with pilot edge where they have live ATC controllers that will go through the motions and communicate with you use that in combination with x plane, and again, give yourself a rigid schedule do this for two hours every month. So that's four hours a month. You've put into it. You haven't gone to the airport you've spent very little money. And then there's four flight, you know, the tool that four flight has become extraordinarily powerful. I did the ground portion of a flavor of you this morning using Google hangout sharing my screen and using four flight on the web and one of the exercises. I had that pilot go through was looking at the surface analysis chart before they looked at the map with the radar overlays and predicting where they thought in wearing the country doesn't matter where they are located but looking at the service analysis where did they think there was gonna be storms and precipitation and why and then we go back to the maps tab and overlay the radar and see if we were accurate is there, in fact. Facilitation where we thought it would be if not why not you know, is there ice where we thought it would be in that kind of thing you can do a similar thing with four flight and the chart before looking at the chart legend just use the sectional charts scan around and see if there's any symbolic g you're not aware of or overlay some Tf ours and see where t Afars are in effect. What kind of fires are they all this sort of stuff can keep your brain in the flying game without actually going to the airport. Okay. So this last question was about why relative humidity is not included in light aircraft performance charts. And I thought this was an amazing question because the reality is. You'll read in textbooks all the time that the amount of water vapor in the air plays a huge part in how the aircraft performs, but when you look over the performance charts for most light airplanes, we only see altitude and temperature. So what about relative humidity? And why isn't it included in most light aircraft performance calculations? And so I reached out. This was a question. I honestly didn't know the answer to you. So I reached out to Scott dense stat of. Aah. Aviation weather workshops at E V, W X, workshops dot com. Scott is a former national weather service meteorologist, the former weather. Scientists for four flight Scott has a new website called weather spoke for those that are looking for a. A comprehensive tool to help them with whether decisions he's also the author of a book called pilot weather book. So you can find Scott at whether spark dot com at pilot weather, book dot com or at av w acts workshops dot com. But this is what he told me. I'm just gonna read what he said in an Email, Scott, then said says keep in mind that relative humidity is a bad way to measure how much in quotes moisture is in the air. Never rely on that it simply tells you how close you are to saturation the amount of moisture in the air and Minnesota during the winter with one hundred percent, relative humidity is way, less than a relative humidity of fifty percent in Miami. In the winter do point is the key. The reason that moisture isn't included is that the overall density differences are not as significant as how temperature affects density altitude, for example, say that the ambient. Air temperature is eighty degrees Fahrenheit, and the do point is sixty five degrees Fahrenheit, assuming timid or of three zero zero inches. You'll get a density altitude of one thousand five hundred forty four feet at sea level. And he mentioned that he's using the density altitude calculator at weather dot gov as a reference. But he says increase the ambient air temperature by five degrees to eighty five holding the pressure and do point constant and the density altitude becomes one thousand eight hundred fifty five feet or a three hundred and eleven foot increase. Now, put the temperature back at eighty degrees Fahrenheit, holding the pressure constant and raising the do point by five degrees to seventy degrees Fahrenheit. This is a huge increase in moisture, by the way, and the density altitude is only one thousand five hundred ninety four feet or a fifty foot in increase. He says try ninety five degrees with do point of sixty five degrees and the density outs. A tube is two thousand four hundred sixty eight or an increase of nine hundred twenty four feet now with that temperature and the dew point set to eighty the density to heat now becomes two thousand six hundred and forty two or an additional one hundred and seventy four foot increase. So you can see that temperature is the king when it comes to density altitude or density differences in the atmosphere. The dew point. Typically doesn't vary as much as temperature in the morning. The relative humidity might be fairly high, but the heating of the day kicks in and the do point actually might drop as the boundary layer of the atmosphere becomes well mixed while the temperature soars in the afternoon. And he says not sure if any of that makes sense. So it made total sense to me. The short story is moisture is negligible. Right. We've got much bigger fish to fry when it comes to calculating performance, and for the aircraft that we're flying as Scott showed us here in these calculations. You can make dramatic changes in the moisture, and it really doesn't result in huge swings in the density altitude. So anyway for more from Scott, you can check out whether sport dot com or pilot weather, book dot com. My thanks Scott, dense dad who was a CFI and a former Neth national weather service, researching urologist, and Scott is from av w x workshops dot com. Thanks gun. Aviators that's all for this episode of the finer points. I wanna thank Scott dense stat for his feedback on that. I want to thank everybody who sent in those questions, please. Remember that on Instagram? Now, I am learned the finer points. You can find me at learned the finer points can always send me an Email. Visit me online at learned the finer points dot com or find the finer points Facebook page. I want to thank you for downloading this podcast. I want to thank the sponsors and the patrons. You're the best fans on the internet. I'm Jason Miller until next time. He say fly your best. For the job. With the aren't have a program. The finer points is brought to you in part by four flight, the app pilots depend on and by Bove's makers of the e twenty headset. And by the generous support of listeners like you through patriotic. Yeah. Guy. On the. Vaughn.
The Finer Points - Aviation Podcast
Aired Last week 7:35
Schoolhouse Blizzard - Jan. 12, 1888
You know, people say necessity is the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah. Or pure accident. How about ego maniacal delusion? Absolutely. Or just a desperate longing. To be cool. I'm Robert lamb, and I'm Joe McCormick. You're the host of the science podcasts stuff to blow your mind. And now we're branching off into the exploration of invention. Invention is the story of human history told one piece of technology time the things we made and how they made us invention publishes every Monday, listen and subscribe to invention on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you find your podcasts. Welcome to the stay in history class from how stuff works dot com. And from the desk of stuff you missed in history class. It's the show where we explore the past one day at a time with a quick look at what happened today in history. Hello and welcome to the podcast, I'm Tracy v Wilson. And it's January twelfth the schoolhouse blizzard took place on the state in eighteen eighty eight happened during the relatively early days of weather forecasting in the United States. Thanks to the telegraph. It had become possible to spread the word about whether events whether forecasts quickly and on February ninth eighteen seventy so just eighteen years before Ulysses s grant had signed a resolution that made observing and recording the weather something that was under the guidance of the secretary of war ultimately fell to the signal service corps, recording the weather and making predictions at I was really general, and it was done for big chunks of North America. But gradually over the years became more detailed more frequent and more specific. This was not nearly what we can expect from weather forecast today, which even today. There will be days where the forecast says it will not rain, and then you get rained on. But it was a lot better than nothing. So by the winter of eighteen eighty seven to eight hundred eighty eight this forecasting had been going on for a while people had started to rely on it, and the weather that winter happens to have been particularly hard. There had been blizzards in December with temperatures sitting so cold afterward that nothing really melted. And then by the morning of January twelfth suddenly that long cold snap broke, the temperature got up to forty degrees Fahrenheit or four degrees celsius which supe- people who had been in. These frigid temperatures for weeks felt almost like a heat wave people who had been cooped up inside all out, and in some cases, children headed off to school for the first time in days a lot of people were out and about in relatively light clothing because when you're used to being well below freezing a sunny day. Okay. At forty degrees can feel really warm the weather forecast for that day which had been composed the day before in Saint Paul read quote, the indications for twenty four hours commencing at seven AM today for Saint Paul Minneapolis. Inva- senity warmer weather with snow fresh southerly winds coming variable for Minnesota warm with snow fresh too high. So the winds coming variable for Dakota snow warmer, followed in the western portion by colder weather, fresh too. High winds generally becoming northerly snow will drift heavily in Minnesota and the coda during the day and night wins will generally shifts to high colder northerly during the afternoon and night. So the forecasters were expecting a wave of warm weather, followed by drop in the temperature, but not a drop so severe as to warrant a freeze warning for later on in the day, tragically, though, it turned out that the weather got a lot warmer than expected. And then a lot. Colder as the temperature started dropping on the twelfth the signal corps started sending telegrams updating their earlier forecast with a cold warning. But for a variety of reasons this warning did not arrive in most places in time to do much good. So a blinding blizzard rolled through the area where previously been so warm earlier in the day and it happened in the afternoon. Just as a lot of children were heading home from school temperatures plummeted and winds gusted beyond forty miles an hour, and the snow was also particularly fine to the point that people's eyelashes froze together in the couldn't see. Accounts of what happened on that day are full of just dramatic occurrences things like teachers trying to keep their students safe and warm at school or trying to guide them home through a blizzard. When none of them could see people got lost just out of sight of their homes and died within steps of their doorsteps, livestock and other animals froze to death an estimated two hundred to three hundred people were killed and then another blizzard struck the northeast that March. This was another massive storm. And it was nicknamed the great white hurricane. This killed at least four hundred people in eighteen eighty nine newly inaugurated, President Benjamin Harrison moved the responsibility for weather forecasting to the department of agriculture in part because of the embarrassment over these two back to back tragedies. Both of which had not had a freeze warning issued. Far enough ahead of time to keep people safe. You can learn a lot more about this in the January eighteenth twenty sixteen episode of stuffy missed in history class called the schoolhouse blizzard. Thanks to Casey Perriman Chandler maze. For their audio work on this show. You can subscribe to this day in history class on apple podcast, Google podcast, the iheartradio app and wherever else get your podcast. You can tune in tomorrow for an incredibly destructive riot. Hi, I'm Ariel Casten Jonathan Strickland and together, we're going to tell you the stories behind some of the biggest triumphs and failures and business. That's right. We're going to explore situations that tested the medal of entrepreneurs pivotal moments required making decisions we'll be talking about some big companies that everybody knows like Disney LEGO and Harley Davidson together, we try to answer the question. What do you do when you find yourself at the brink? Listen and subscribe at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to your podcasts.
This Day in History Class