34 Burst results for "Dr. Chris Smith"

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:14 min | 3 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Who head. And i'm joined now on the line by mongols health and science correspondent dr. Chris smith chris is also a consultant neurologist at cambridge university and host of the naked scientists. Podcast chris it's always good to have you on the program we heard from the. Who head there about the importance of this moment. Just tell us first. From your perspective why the approval of this vaccine is such a significant development is very easy to obsess at the moment about the prisoner. Pandemic situation while forgetting that we're in the grip of a number of other pandemics malaria. Being one of the issues the other a malaria claims up to a million lives per year. It has come down a bit in recent years because of various interventions including public health interventions mosquito which of the vector for malaria control measures. And things up bednets interventions but it still claims a lot of victims and the ready saleh thing. Is that many of those victims on audio one year old yet. Most of them acquire the infection because their mom caught it when she was pregnant. This affects the way. The infant react immunologically to the infection so when they catch malaria themselves. When they're very young baby they then often have a very severe course with the disease and they may die so having a vaccine which at least make some difference at least in the early days is going to be very very useful and will almost certainly translate into a significant number of lives saved that said while moss counter that by pointing out that this vaccine isn't a magic bullet it isn't perfect and it will prevent we think about forty percent of cases and thirty percent of severe cases but at the same time that still leaves the door open to a very significant number of cases. It doesn't mean we sit back on our laurels. Malaria has gone away so there is still a lot to do as you say you did. Mention the pandemic of the corona virus pandemic there to. It almost feels like we've you know a was developed for that in record time. So that's almost what we've become used to. I mean what. What took so long in the case of malaria not only develop the vaccine by ana stand it has it has been found to be effective already six years ago and now we've only reached this. This approval process the story of this. Maxine begins in the nineteen eighties. Actually in one thousand nine hundred eighty seven and it was a very clever piece of engineering. What they've done. They found a particular part of the malaria parasite and specifically the one that claims the most victims. The most severe form of malaria plasmodium fell room fell sipa malaria which is rife in parts of africa and by hitching this up to hepatitis. B. the virus the outer coat of that which we use as probably one of my successful vaccines we've ever made against infectious disease. The hippie vaccine they were able to produce something. That assembles itself into a virus. Like particle can educate the immune system but has sticking out from its surface. Bits of malaria. Which is how they're able to persuade the immune system. This is bad news. You need to make an immune response against it. That took a while to do and then to prove it works but as you say it's been slow progress but it does appear that it slow up against corona virus vaccines when you think well. Yes in ten months. Got from north to vaccine and going into people's arms. But i was talking this morning to the head of sepe the organization. That's involved in trying to get vaccines are and various measures out to people across the world to stop the cries pandemic richard hackett and he was saying to me. Well yes forty. One percent of the world population is now being vaccinated against the corona virus. Isn't that amazing. Until you learn. Actually that forty one percent. Almost none of them are in poorer countries where malaria it's impor- countries so while we have vaccines against krona of was still not overcoming the equality gap and the equity gap. Is there because deployment of these vaccines into the field into poor. Third world countries into resource. Poor settings is not trivial and so making sure that things can work can work in those conditions be successfully deployed and this is quite a demanding vaccine. This malaria vaccine. It requires the course of four shots over the course of a year. So this takes a lot more planning than just parachuting in some jab saying those into people and done and dusted is a lot more complicated than that is more complicated. And also as you say. Equality gap that exists When it comes to vaccines for the pandemic and other diseases i mean tell us in that sense why also. Malaria just is still so prevalent and has been so hard to eradicate in africa in particular. Well i thought this is insect borne illness which depends upon the enough line. Mosquito which is its main vector so where those mosquitoes are. That's where the disease is also use other disease other mosquitoes to spread. But those are the main vector so therefore you're gonna see cases of the disease where the mosquitoes are. That's the first point. Africa happens to be in that context. The other thing is that diseases always make their homes in the poorest places on earth because our ability to react to control and exert pressure on them to either cleanup environment suppress the thing that's causing it or suppressed the disease so it goes away. Those those measures are always hardest to implement in the poorest places for various reasons. Either because people can't afford the bednets they can't afford the drugs. They can't afford the insecticides. They can't afford to treat their houses so that the mosquitoes don't come and go. They can't afford to have water supplies. That don't leave open water. They can't afford to drain areas or educational problems. When you can't get the message out to people what. The disease is how to prevent it out to prevent spreading how to recognize it early so people can seek prompt treatment. These things all come together. They are all exacerbated by poverty. So you tend to see all of the dread disease diseases all centering hunkering down producing the biggest nitish in the poorest places on earth. Well just just finally Chris you mentioned that the vaccine is not an easy one to roll out. What are the challenges in terms of access. And actually i mean they're going to have to roll out a mass vaccination program across the continent. Yes and there are billions of people in africa. The population also growing quite fast and those people are in some places very urbanized very well connected very easy to access but in other places not so and if you've got people who just to get a glass of water. They've got to walk for. I imagine asking them to come to a clinic together. Vaccine to that not once not twice not three times but four times over the course of the year with a young baby. You can see the challenges here so it's not trivial to do but if the ends justify the means which if you can say well we're gonna give you nearly a fifty percent chance of preventing cases of disease than those are good odds in a situation where you have a high likelihood that you're gonna run into something horrible when you're when you're trying to grow up then it you know people will will do this. They will go the extra mile but it's not easy and we're having exactly the same headaches with these vaccines. There will be situations where we we want to provide vaccines new factors. Richard hackett were saying to me this morning. The world has gone from a situation where we didn't have enough vaccine and that was the reason why the third world was struggling for vaccines. Now we've got plenty of access and we're gonna have billions of doses of vaccine by the end of the year but we haven't gotten hostage it is the ability to deploy them and get them out there into the right place at the right time in the right way and that's gonna be.

Malaria Chris smith chris Richard hackett cambridge university saleh africa Maxine moss infectious disease ana chris hepatitis Africa Chris
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:08 min | 4 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Leader intent on changing the practice of medicine. Navarre's has been exploring uncharted frontiers in science for more than a century. Today the company is working on breakthrough treatments that pushed the boundaries of human understanding and biology data science and engineering to develop and deliver therapies. That help live longer and healthier lives around the world. Novartis reimagining medicine. You're back with the briefing on monocle. Twenty four. i'm daniel h a study by oxford. University has found that the cove in nineteen pandemic reduced life expectancy in twenty twenty by the largest amount since the second world war there were greater drops in life expectancy for men than women in most countries with the largest decline in american men who saw their life expectancy dropped by more than two years. While for more on this. I'm joined by monaco's health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith good afternoon. Chris tell us a little bit more about this report will in the would. Unprecedented has been used an unprecedented number of times and across the western world. What we in the context of corona virus. I mean and what we've seen in the last fifty years or so. She since records began is that year on year. A person born in each given year can expect to live longer than people born previously now. That doesn't mean that that person is suddenly gain. This miraculous healthy living what it means. Is that the media into which they're born and the environment into which they can expect to live means it's conducive with them living that much longer. And so for instance in nineteen eighty a person born in the uk if they were male would expect to live about seventy years if female seventy-six years that had grown by this year to go before the pandemic to into the early eighties in terms of life expectancy same across the western world but because of the extreme excess mortality of covert. What we're seeing is for the first time since records began and what some newspapers dubbing once in a century massive reduction we've seen a big drop in The life expectancy pilots two years in some geographies in the uk a couple of months for men women law unchanged it is a dent for both sexes though because we were seeing a year on year increase for both sexes. The fact that women have not seen an increase in the uk for example is is actually therefore a drop for women because they would expect to lift a bit longer. Well are there any differences between men and women and the life expectancy you say. There's there's a drop their for both but related to in nineteen. Are we seeing any differences. Yeah we all the reason for this. Is that men do have a higher mortality rate. They're more heavily represented in the covert mortality statistics than women. And because more men dying. That's why the impact has been bigger on men or women but people shouldn't go away now thinking right while. I've just had a baby. My babies now destined to live for two years less long in some places all months long in the uk for example. They shouldn't go away thinking that. Because this is an imaginary group of people ball now as though the mortality rates that we're seeing and the prevailing situation continues across the lifetime of that person that's not going to happen of course because after this year. We hope the covet pandemic will be retreat. There'll be a resetting. Things will get back to normal. And hopefully life expectancy will continue to increase again and some of those losses will be made back up but what this really tells. Us is the impact. The corona virus has had and not just directly killing people but the indirect effect of cova too because those indirect effects include people. Not going to the doctor. Because they're worried about catching ovid or we're going to the doctor their cancer. That's brewing. because they're worried about putting pressure on local health services. Those indirect deaths also causing people to to die at a younger asian. They would've done. And that is what has brought down. The current rate at which people are dying in terms of the the age at which that i. I'm glad you brought that up. I wanted to dig into What other factors might be at play behind the numbers here. Is there anything that stands out to you. Obviously you mentioned people maybe not going to the doctor for illnesses. And the thing that we're all concerned about is overwhelming the health service as you say and and people maybe not being able to have certain surgeries or certain treatments are there any other Certain deaths that. Stand out to you in in this report. Will the other thing that we've got to remind is not just direct health but indirect impacts on health if you interrupt someone's education and young people's education has paid a very high price during this pandemic you do directly impact a person's life chances therefore you impact their earning power and the best determinant really of how long a person will live in. How healthy they going to be. How much money's in that book. So person who's education is. Impacted will expect to pay a price in terms of longevity. That's a fact. also other things like mental health. We know that people have been suffering from Really a pandemic of mental ill health during the pandemic as well brought on by the the huge up. People that we've gone through and some quarters also showed that there's been a twenty percent increase in alcohol related deaths and alcoholic liver disease for example has gone up by as much as twenty percent in some countries. Those those probably again a knock on effect of mental impacts disquiet caused by the turbulence of the covert pandemic people losing jobs and so on. But all of these things all come back onto an individual's health and therefore ultimately their longevity we mentioned The largest decline in in life expectancy for american men. And obviously we were looking at the numbers here in the uk. But i wonder beyond that and in other countries particularly where the vaccine role has been slower if there might be a marked drop in life. Expensive expectancy as well. The sutton is going to be an impact across the world because it is a pandemic it is affecting everybody but it's not going to affect everybody equally and although there are countries where they haven't got high vaccine uptake they haven't seen the huge mortality rates that perhaps people were fearing when this all began and i was having this conversation last week with people about the african continent for example where people did expect to see very very high prices in terms of mortality being paid by some of these countries and actually it didn't come out that way and part of the reason is because the average age of these countries in terms of their population is much younger. That's because they've effectively already paid a very dear price at the hands of another major pandemic which we often overlook in terms of its gravity and that's hiv because hiv has already killed tens of millions of people. Right now there are tens of millions of people who are infected with hiv sub. Saharan africa is probably leading the way in terms of numbers of cases. This has brought down the average age of citizens in african countries which means actually they are lower risk from corona virus. Because many of the older people have died of hiv and that has brought down the average age of the population. Chris thank you for this. That was monaco's health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith you are listening to the briefing on.

daniel h Dr chris smith uk Navarre Novartis monaco oxford Chris alcoholic liver disease cancer Us Saharan hiv africa
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:03 min | 4 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"To monaco dot com slash minute those of the day's headlines back to you daniel. Thank you very much chris. Pfizer has said that it's cova nineteen vaccine works in children between the age of five and eleven the announcement could pave the way for its authorization in the united states and other major nations. Let's get the latest now with monaco's health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith who is also a consultant for cambridge university. Good afternoon chris Four listeners. Out there what should we know about this study. Obviously we've talked a lot about whether there is a need toback sonate children. How did this go about and it. An encouraging Study for you. Well this is an additional piece of information. We would have expected the vaccines to work well. In all age groups because so far every age group studied has seen a response an effective response both against a very fiction but also against just infection against roy. Navarre's what visor. Adding here is data for younger than those that have currently been previously been considered with currently seeing regulators advising that children between the ages of twelve and sixteen are vaccinated with these vaccines. But we didn't have information about the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine in younger age groups. Five up to age twelve now. We do a trial from the states. Data released by fis. Show that they do get a good immune response and therefore you could consider that those individuals could be vaccinated if you need to but most most countries in not considering at the moment going down that path would this help. Slow transmission of the virus from schools where a lot of concern has been and into the wider population. Though is there a real need. Do you think to vaccinate children this young. Well the reason that we haven't gone down that path in countries like the uk for example is because if you look at where the cases are there's a relatively high number of cases among young people aged about twelve to seventeen in fact twelve thirty and that's probably for a couple of reasons chiefly that they haven't been vaccinated hitherto but also these are the groups in society that spend more time together. They're better socially networked. They're spending time at school university public transport or weekend jobs or at work some of them and as a result of that they have more context with others. It's unsurprising they would have more cases but when you go younger than that you find that younger. Children don't have that same disproportionate representation in the case numbers so therefore there's a case to be made for using a vaccine in the older kids because they do account for disproportionate number of cases and there will be cases of severe disease and long covert among them but less so among the younger kids. Because they're not getting infected quite so often. What this doesn't april to do though is to say well look if there are younger children who are in households where there's a vulnerable person or they themselves have some kind of underlying health problem that means they could have a more severe running with covert you can then use a vaccine light vices vaccine on license rather than off license and you can say they've been protected and that means that gives you reassurance of million operating outside the scope of regulation but also your prating in a way that protects that person. I'm curious how this would impact the virus spreads in the wider population for countries that have approached corona virus in different way the uk. Obviously we've gone down the road of sort of living with the virus. We've spoken about in passed on this show versus an australia which is sort of closed itself off vaccinating younger children. Would that help stopping the spread more widely. What do you think that chris. I think that there's a case to be made for older kids for the reason of outlined with the fact that they are accounting for a disproportionate number of cases. There are still among their number. Although it's rare people who will become civilian. Well they also can transmit the infection fairly readily amongst both their pig group but critically also through families to odor a more vulnerable people and classmates he may be more vulnerable in terms of stopping the spread. Though i don't think that going into a young age groups therefore bez as much bang for its buck as the older kids do and so i think probably we should use our vaccines in the younger age groups from twelve upwards but the really young age groups five to twelve. I think probably that's more of a sort of a surgical approach. Let's go in with those individuals who either themselves have a severe health problem or or in a household where there's someone who's vulnerable those people. I think could be better protected by that more strategic approach and we wait for age twelve up to to have a more comprehensive across the border price. Because that's where the cases are four countries that might go ahead with vaccinating younger children. I'm thinking maybe in the united states where there's a lot of vaccine hesitancy already. Parents obviously get very concerned about vaccines in young children. Are there any drawbacks here. Are there any concerns for you. Not really the evidence. Is these vaccines offer a safe. The thing that people have pointed to is that that has been an uptick at a very low level of a condition called myocarditis. This means inflammation of the heart. And if we made a piece on the naked scientists about it last week to address this. This is a short short-term self-limiting spontaneously resolving usually not a all dangerous condition that loss for short time and then people are fine. It happens anyway every year. This is not an unknown thing and we normally see people in the general population getting myocarditis probably in response to other vaccines sorry other virus infections and including covert and the rate at which happens in those contexts. She higher than in relation to the vaccine. But this led to people being more cautious perhaps because it's headlines but at the moment we're seeing fewer cases of myocarditis in young people despite the vaccination program that does carry a small increase in risk of that because people are not catching other things. So really when you put all this together. This is a side effect. It does happen in a very small number of cases it's therefore important from that perspective but not so important that we should dismiss vaccination and an overall picture is one of reassuring safety for these vaccines. They do what they say on the tin. They do protect people against fictionally protect against these. They can help to stop spread but probably we should use them given their unlimited supply where we get the best bang for our buck which means we go where the cases are or where. There's the greatest threat to loss of life. Very interesting chris. Thank you for this explainer. That was monocle. Twenty fours health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith you are listening to the briefing a monocle. Twenty four news. Isis is proud to partner the briefing on monocle. Twenty four hours. This is a company that is committed to reimagining medicine. Global health care leader intent on changing the practice of medicine. Navarre's is being exploring uncharted frontiers in science for more than a century. Today the company is working on breakthrough treatments that pushed the boundaries of human.

Dr chris smith chris Four chris Navarre cambridge university monaco Pfizer fis united states uk daniel roy myocarditis australia Isis
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Globalist

Monocle 24: The Globalist

07:59 min | 5 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Globalist

"Nineteen before people receive a third booster dose bought as the delta variant rips across the globe are deeply unpopular lockdowns. The only way of countering another wave. dr. Chris smith is a consultant virologist and monaco's health and science correspondent chris. Thanks very much for joining us. Evidence has emerged showing that while the vaccine is still highly effective in preventing serious illness. It's protection diminishes with time. Is there any consensus. Among scientists and agencies third dose is necessary. we really don't know this is the big quandary. Some countries have embarked on that route. America for example is retaining and offer boosters across the board israel is midway through. Its booster program. Israel is informative because what they're saying is as a country that's well ahead on the vaccine uptake situation earlier in the year. They've got plenty of time downstream of having given those vaccines to see what happens with time to people's immunity and therefore infection rates and they're seeing an uptick in infection rates. So they are deploying a booster in the hopes that they can counteract that the uk doesn't know what to do at the moment. and i think that's why they have really not acted quite yet. We're still waiting for the j. c. v. i. to give pronouncement on what the shape of the booster program is going to be the health secretary shut seiji java said that will be one but we don't know exactly who's gonna get these boosters and the reason matz everyone confused and concerned his right. We know that immunity in terms of antibody levels do drop a bit with time. But does that actually mean you return to full vulnerability or do actually you still have the immune memory from your vaccination so you won't become civilian well so it doesn't matter if the antibody levels have dropped a bit and then taking a step further everybody's situations like that or are there certain sectors of society. Where really it does matter. What's happened to your antibody. Level for instance people who are immunosuppressed him in a compromised or risk groups. So there are trials going on trying to answer. This and various bits of data is being generated at the moment. I think that's probably why we haven't heard in the uk yet. What the direction of travel is gonna be because they want to know what the answers to. Some of these questions are before they say. This is our our course of action in before the winter in new zealand. A single case. So the country back into lockdown. Is there an argument that this is a better way of dealing with the spread of infection. Will that new zealand single cases turned into a hundred cases or more since and in fact where there was previously broad support for these sorts of measures in fact people are beginning to fatigue of them. The reason is it's costing enormous amounts of money while museum and has enjoyed some semblance of normality in the eighteen months. The pandemic began because of their very agile very effective initial off the blocks control of the spread of the virus. This appears to be legacy that's been somewhat wasted by poor vaccine uptake. Only one in twenty kiwis is actually been vaccinated and this is holding back the ability to open up the country it still also means that public health and medical officials in that country face the grim prospect of when they do open up. How are they going to manage that. Because even if you've night a high fraction of the population as you said yourself we know that against delta the vaccines do prevent cases about half the time probably and they prevent severe disease. Nearly all the time. But you'll still gonna get a number of cases of severe disease. You're still gonna get transmission through the population so you're still gonna therefore forget some consequences if you open up a country that was previously closed and had an elimination strategy. You're going to get a big rush of cases all at once. How do you manage that. So is a difficult one to confront however they go this and i think probably when they embarked on this course of action. They were hoping they'd have more vaccine more quickly into more people and the vaccines would solve this problem for them. And unfortunately they've solved one problem but left another one parked which these politicians are going to have to deal with. How is the global vaccination program proceeding. We'll slowly but surely and more and more countries are getting more vaccines into people over time but it is. It is a slow process. There are nearly a billion people on earth probably about a billion of the movie the had covert and immune for that reason or have had a vaccine or youth but that still leaves seven eighths of the population of very significant number of people who haven't had either and as melinda gates of the balloon. Melinda gates foundation said right at the beginning of all of this very presciently. She said this covert anywhere. This covert everywhere so the world remains in this state of paralysis with us. Unable to travel freely countries with closed borders countries. That are that are various other some fairly rigid controls in place for good reason and that is restricting. All of us is ability to to go about our business and eighties denting the global economy and our ability to trade freely trade labor freely and the consequence of that is a knock on effect for for all economies and until we can get vaccines made at scale everywhere. This is going to rumble on one. Kind of good piece. News was across india last weekend announce their own homegrown vaccine as i discuss. Villa this is a. Dna vaccine is about sixty percent effective in the trials that they've done. It's been given emergency approval but it can be made at scale. It's good being resilient and robust in resource poor settings where you can't keep your code for example so that is another important weapon joining the the fight against thicker avars pandemic we had in the headlines hospital leaders here in the u. k. Expressing concern over the rising number of deaths and hospitalizations related to covered. One thousand nine. Why figures rising here will they are rising but then rising very much and if you look at how many cases we are having per day we've got currently between thirty and forty thousand cases per day when we started in the pandemic and when we had second and third waves of the pandemic and the sort of autumn and then christmas period last year we were saying those sorts of cases translating into those sorts of numbers of bed. Occupancies in the nhl. I'm very high mortality rates. In one one diallo fifteen hundred people died. We've currently got fewer than one hundred people per day. Losing their lives to current avars. Yes it's a bit up over season leverage the five year average few percent higher than that but what that tells assists that these vaccines working incredibly well to prevent people developing severe disease the bulk of the cases that we are seeing in the unvaccinated either unvaccinated older people but more alarmingly unvaccinated younger people. And we've got a significant cohort of younger people who are not turning up for vaccination maybe thirty percent of the under thirty s still yet to get a single dose of the vaccine. That's three million people enough to fuel a pretty big outbreak in its sustaining transmission through society. So the message coming out loud and clear from from downing street is please. If you're a younger person do go. Nevada yourself a vaccination and of course this week. We've seen the sixteen and seventeen year olds being offered vaccines for the first time. The aim being try to protect that group before they go to school in a couple of weeks time because what is absolutely certainty is when the schools go back and as the nights close in as as winter comes go into autumn. We all going to see a more Significant increase we're going to the seasonal surge in cases and that means that we will see if we see cases more consequences inevitably but luckily at the moment things are relatively under control from from a healthcare point of view but only just and go into autumn. Things could get sticky. Dr chris smith thank you very much indeed now still to come on the program. The migrant crisis caused by alexander lucaschenko in belarus is zombie spearheading democracy in southern africa..

seiji java Chris smith matz new zealand monaco uk Melinda gates foundation chris israel Israel America melinda gates paralysis diallo Villa india nhl Nevada
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

05:27 min | 5 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"That will inform how that should happen. So what they're doing all the time is keeping an eye on the vaccines that have been administered and how cases evolve evolving occur in people who've had those vaccines and win because this enables us to work out to what extent the vaccines are providing protection in the short and the longer term and in people who have been vaccinated. What are the dynamics of the infection. What the data show us. Is that when people catch the infection having been vaccinated ninety five percents of the time. They all protected from severe disease. That's a massive dramatic turnaround and that has not changed with with the the switch between the alpha and the delta variant. What's different though. Is that where previously the vaccines were producing a very profound effect Stopping people catching the alpha or uk. Kent variant the delta. There still seems to punch through. At least a proportion of the time maybe half the time people get infected despite being vaccinated. But that's not the same as developing severe disease. People can still catch the infection but they don't then develop severe disease but what is clear. Is that when people catch the infection. They become infectious and that's a bit of a nuisance because both infectious people may have no symptoms. They may go about their business as usual. But they may therefore go onto infect other people and this is probably because the delta agent seems to produce a much higher level of virus in the nose and possibly elsewhere and that makes those people more infectious and with time because the immunity wayne's these vaccines and we lose the level of antibody. It may be that more people. With more time being converted into cases of people who can catch the infection asymmetrically imposs- he'll tell us a bit about the process. That's ongoing and i guess it is built around the insights as you say from data sets like this new batch in terms of tweaking improving the vaccine. Is it a case of looking at as you mentioned already potentially adding booster shots. Is it about tweaking vaccines for down for down the road or ultimately the reassurance is still there to a degree and it's just maybe a adjusting our expectations about the nature of the depth of protection. Vaccines provide what. What does that process. What are the mechanics of like. I'm very rishaad optimistic at the moment about the performance of the vaccines in terms of stopping people. Dying the protection conferred. It doesn't matter if you've had pfizer astrazeneca and it doesn't matter if it was six months ago your level of protection is really very good against severe disease and the reason that you get this strange disparity between being able to catch the infection and being able to die from the infection. Was some light shed on this week or so ago. By research from america where the scientists there had been putting the infection into monkeys that develop a disease very similar to us when we get covered and they were able to track what level of antibody protects the monkeys from either getting infected or getting severe disease and it turns out you need a much lower level of antibody washing around in your bloodstream to stop you getting infection in your lungs and severe disease compared with infection up in the upper airways in the nose. And so that's part of the reason why we think that you get this strange phenomenon of people being to be protected from severe disease but still catch impulse on the infection. But the other thing too by mind is that the level of antibody that you get from the vaccine does vary from person to person but it also dwindles with time so that suggests that if you boosted everybody up in antibody levels e would push everybody to the level where they couldn't even catch the infection let alone becomes video more with it so that's part of the rationale behind the idea of giving people boosters and at the moment the us has gone down the route of saying well we can a boost everybody many of the countries during the same the uk currently having a debate internally about whether or not that will be necessary or whether to focus those efforts on a small discrete group of individuals who we know probably have the highest likelihood of having returned to vulnerability in the background. That's like phase one phase two is what can we do to the vaccines to optimize their performance. Now we're comfortable with using them. We know they're very effective. Can we beef them up or make them even more effective and even more effective against delta there are studies being done there was a press release of on a paper from northwestern university just this week where they've begun investigating tweaking vaccines to include. Not just the outer coat. The spike of the virus but also part of the infrastructure of ours could than nuclear caps. It that's that's the inner coat of the virus and including that in the vaccine seems to protect animals in experiments. They've done much better than just the spike alone so it may be the the next iteration what they're dubbing covert vaccine to point. Naught might actually be heading in that direction we tweet the vaccines to give him a bit more lifting power. That's absolutely fascinating stuff. Chris thanks as always for making sense of it for us. It's a fast moving area Always creates heavier insides. Multiples health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith joining us here on the briefing new viruses is proud to partner the briefing on monocle. Twenty four navarre's. This is a company that is committed to reimagining medicine. Global health care leader intent on changing the practice of medicine. Novartis's has exploring uncharted frontiers in science..

severe disease uk astrazeneca wayne pfizer us northwestern university Dr chris smith Chris navarre Novartis
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:33 min | 6 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Way which will i think have an influence just at the end. Play in a way devil's devil's advocate. I suppose and turn it around. The rhetoric from china on these things is always you know quite fascinating the way that they speak about They they made this comment that the investigation you know disregards commonsense and defies. Science is that i mean is that purely just deflections and propaganda or is there any truth to it at all. Well if you're asking a question. Science is all about questions not about answer sciences about coming up with a hypothesis and then testing it. And you find out whether your hypotheses is right or wrong and you refining accordingly. There's unanswered questions here. And there are some very simple experiments scientifically that could be done to see whether or not we can probe the origins of covert within china. That simple question would be can. We please have samples of sewage water. Blood an other specimens that are routinely kept for public health and medical and diagnostic reasons in the bora trees and hospitals all over the world. We know china's got them in spades. We have them in all of our countries. Can we please have those. Because if there's nothing to hide here there's nothing to see here. We can just sample some of those we. We don't even have to have the details of the people. We just have anonymous blood samples. We just read. What's in there and we'll find out where covert came from and china afl refusing. Now there's nothing to hide in the night see here. Don't see why they're refusing to do that. We could do the experiments in china the apparently being repeated in italy. You'll have seen the data this week where the researchers who initially published some preliminary data about a year ago. Now saying we've got evidence that there was already saws covy to the cause of cavite circulating in parts of italy in october twenty nine and people said we might be might be spurious might not be quite reliable. They've been back repeated. These studies and there are people who are in various studies in cancer treatment. Trials that have antibodies to this virus. At that time and the only place they would have got those antibodies if they've been infected with it so that suggests it was already circulating india if we could repeat that experiment in china and do this geographically. We have a chance. Perhaps a pacing back together whether there was a trail into the country from a rural area. Which is what we are being told is the most likely source of emergence will be able to track that we can see how the the vars perhaps got across the country date By date and that gives us a clear picture. Why china won't volunteer these services. I don't know that they're excuses. That this has privacy issues for The patients who samples might be analyzed. But i mean that's just bunkum. This is coming from the country. That has the worst track record on human rights civil liberties and monitoring of its of its populace of any country in the world while its place to leave it. But we're going to leave it there. Chris thanks very much for joining us. That was monaco's health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith now. Here's amazon with the day's other headlines. Thanks chris the united states says it has reached a deal with germany to prevent russia from using its nord stream gas pipeline as political leverage over. Europe the pipeline. Which is nearing completion. Stretches. twelve hundred kilometers under the baltic sea and will double russian gas exports to germany four members of the now defunct apple daily newspaper have appeared in hong kong court face charges of colluding with foreign forces the tabloid which was owned by the pro democracy media. Tycoon jimmy lai folded last month following continued harassment from officials. The director of the olympics opening ceremony has been dismissed just a day before the showpiece is due to be held footage of kentaro kobayashi from the nineteen nineties recently emerged in which appears to be making jokes about the holocaust. We'll have more on the story shortly. And the piccadilly art takeover opens its doors today transforming original artworks into thirty hanging panels and thirteen painted murals on pedestrian crossings across london. Find out more about the project by heading to monaco dot com forward slash minute those the day's headlines tom and chris over to you. Thanks emma now. When it rains it pours the creative show director of the olympics. Opening ceremony has been. Let go just one day before the event is due to be. It comes after footage of kentaro kobayashi from the nineteen nineties revealed that the former comedian made inappropriate jokes about the holocaust. The dismissal is the latest in a long line of scandals to hit the games. Let's get the latest now on this with monica tokyo. Bureau chief and asia editor fiona wilson. Good evening this really such depressing news. The organization of this has been quite a shambles. And especially you know at a time when the focus should really be on the athletes and the joys of participating in an opening ceremony. They just can't catch a break. can they know. Hi chris. you're absolutely right. we've pretty much forgotten about the athletes. have me. I just feel last few days. The the opening ceremony particularly. It's just been sort of engulfed in scandal after scandal. This is the latest. I mean it just came out of nowhere. This one kentaro kobayashi who was very popular comedian and back back in the late ninety s. He did this really unfortunate skit where he sort of parody to an educational program on japanese tv by making a joke about. Let's pretend to the holocaust Sort of unthinkable. Obviously the simon vs intelcenter point to the out pretty quickly and and actually they didn't hesitate some of these scandals in the post. They've waited just too long. They've they've said he's apologized. And they've waited and then public outcry becomes too loudly. Continuity this time they dealt with it very quickly and say shamoto. Who's the head of the twenty two thousand olympics president. The olympics said you know. We're still considering our options. So who knows what tomorrow sermon is going to look like. We've had little sneak preview of cement drone light shows but at the moment. Yeah it's anyone's guess really. And it sounds like You likely won't be there to watch for yourself. Fair very restricts. It'll numbers of course you opening ceremony. I think only about one thousand. You've mentioned before to chris's point about we should be talking about the athletes in olympics. Gombar you could wander through the mic zone. Maybe have a chance to a few people. That's not even do we. Even know how the athletes are feeling. I imagine their mood. Must be similarly somber. Yeah that's a really good point. I mean social media. Ozzy allows people to express valid directly. How they're feeling you're up see right mean tomorrow's opening ceremony which should be this sort of stadium packed event. Yeah they're going to be a thousand people. Just one hundred. Fifty japanese have to say eight hundred visiting Vip's you know the emperor will be. They're not the empress. We know the head of toyota won't be A normal shinzo obey the prime minister who actually secured the game. So you know. I think it's going to be pretty subdued and they've been using words like it will be a sobering ceremony which which doesn't exactly sound thrilling. But yeah i mean you know. Obviously everyone wants to get onto the sport. We've seen some pretty amazing images coming out those fantastic foce from canadian sailing team today. They were out practicing with this incredible view of mt fuji behind them and a reminder the other things going on in everyone's just typing that they can just get over this opening sirmium just got..

china kentaro kobayashi olympics Dr chris smith italy jimmy lai chris afl fiona wilson germany baltic sea monaco cancer india amazon hong kong russia Chris
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

09:17 min | 6 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"We've had lots of corona virus cases. That's not to say that when people catch flu and other viruses they don't have similar post viral syndromes which are not has been made to that in the past. But we haven't focused on it the way we're focusing on corona vars people know for example if you catch glandular fever which is caused by epstein barr virus it can have a long term post viral syndrome. So i don't think this is an isolated thing just with corona virus. I think this is highlighting the fact that when you catch nasty infection it does lay low for quite a while. I'm not belittling long. Cove it. But i'm saying that there are many other manifestations of a similar sort thing which happened. But they've flown under the radar hitherto because we haven't seen the dramatic numbers that we've seen The moment we don't know exactly what long cove it is probably actually an umbrella. Term that describes a constellation of different syndromes or united on similar symptoms and we have to get to the bottom of. What's she causing that and also workout more clearly. Who's got walt for how long so we can give people clear ideas as to how long they they might be on well for really what. The maximum impact is likely to be. But it's not really going to change if we open now or open later if people are gonna catch the of ours at some point despite being vaccinated. They have a chance of having long covered regardless chris. Thank you so much for this. That was our health. Science correspondent dr. chris. Smith you are with the briefing a monocle twenty four and finally on today's program it is that time where we get round up of the week's most interesting cultural stories from our very uncomfortable editor kiara. Who joins me here in studio afternoon kiara and could cheat on you. We're gonna start buying talking about freedom of speech. Yes it's just a small topic for us to conclude show today now. I think it's an interesting debate The i'd like to talk about I guess in regards to the fallout of the latest news from gb news. And for those who don't know this is a new channel in the uk. I guess many understand to be right wing. But the i guess presented itself as this new place as a four debates that were being had elsewhere as bastion of free speech. Now what happened. Was that late last week. I guess in following all the controversy surrounding the england italy game and the racist abuse leveled. Anti english footballers such an english. Proponents one of the presenters on gb news decided to take the knee as a gesture of anti-racism and after that he was suspended from the channel allegedly because the channel said that it was breaching their editorial standards because the editorial standards were about neutrality. And not really weighing in on these positions and but after that got a hurry has decided to actually resign. So this is the latest. I guess in the story. He has decided to resign. Essentially saying that the that d channel is going against everything that it purported to be right. The the idea was that it would be about free speech but actually he was suspended for making a statement on. I mean i guess this is a separate conversation that we can have. But whether an anti-racist statement is a matter of opinion whether being doing unto racist gesture is should be considered something controversial on tv. But i mean that's a whole another conversation which i have my own personal opinion about but also what's interesting. Is that not as a direct replacement. Yes but nigel. Farage famously of uk has been hired to host the primetime show on network speaking of neutrality. Exactly exactly right and he has that he will be taking the sport he deliberately said. I remember taking a knee or anyone. Now i mean is that actually a statement re neutrality. gbd's has been mired in controversy. I guess like they've actually be they've they've had quite poor ratings that has to be said You know they were trying to. We came in to disrupt the k. I guess debate and media landscape. I don't know whether they have managed. Because i guess if they had done what they had intended to do which was to create a new debate. Perhaps it would have been an interesting disruptor but right now and it doesn't seem like they're really being faithful to that promise one to watch for sure. Let us move on to talk about the olympics. We've had some issues of course with those covered cases starting to pop up and wondering whether athletes will even get there and be able to compete and and all the restrictions of course but now the sponsors are getting angry. Yeah i think this is very interesting because obviously with no virtually no audience being able to attend d. games and everything being so restricted in terms of people on the ground. The money that the government is going to make out of the events is going to be on sponsorship and media partnerships. it's not going to be on tourism numbers and so does media partnerships are particularly important now to iota has announced that it will cancel. It's take your relevant ill. It's olympics related ads and this because they realized that actually the games a wildly unpopular in the country has estimated that about fifty five percent of the population is against games look like locally in japan and they think that this could tarnish their brand likely instead. They've decided to pull those ads thing. It's very interesting. The cr won't be attending the opening ceremony. What's interesting is to see how the other japanese brands will will actually react to this. Because the local sentiment about the olympics seems to be quite different from the international sentiment but it's japanese brands that are popping up sponsorship of of the event they've put in billions and billions the equipment toffee lymphocyte billions of dollars to sponsor the olympics. And so if a if partnerships with those five dozen brands do kind of star coming short then it will be trouble for an olympics. That's already not going to be here. Julie economic advantages go for for the japanese taxpayers. Guess to to have anything to say about the local versus international audience. Because of course people will be tuning in from all over the world and they're not so much thinking about restrictions they just want to see the event so our will we see any other brands sort of thinking more internationally in that sense. I guess we'll just have to wait and see how d- different national broadcasters respond to this right. I mean on the bbc. We've already started using one of olympics themed ads etcetera so i think we can probably expect some degree of international kind of difference in the treatment of the games but there are only a few days to go and i think a kind of a knee jerk action like this just a few days before is actually going to inject a bit of panic in the situation as well because they are a big name. They're a huge sponsor. And so i. I worry that the next few days are going to be full of nervousness for the organisers. Just lastly let's talk about net flicks. Who is now spending a lot of time. Courting older viewers. We can say this is really interesting. I mean we have talked about netflix accents. Ups and downs repeatedly on the program. Because i do think that it's interesting to chart. It's course as i guess the biggest mainstream streaming service and what it does tell us about the evolution of the entertainment industry as as a result. Now we know that net flicks new subscription numbers have stalled. And that's because last year did so well right today just got so many subscribers than now. They're stalling but the problem is that they've basically maxed out or almost maxed out amount of younger view as they could get. It is estimated that eighty percent of eighteen to thirty four year olds in the uk and the us which are obviously large markets them already subscribers and so there is only so much more gains that they can have in that demographic and got number progressively decreases the more. You go into the older demographics and it is estimated and now the demographic between fifty five and sixty four has gone from thirty to fifty percent. So there is we're into grow there. I think what's interesting is that we've looked at how netflix always courts different demographics be the international markets or just in terms of age with different content production and it is said that day will be looking at investing rather than into fancy action and horror into crime and documentaries. Is that a bit of a stereotype. Zoo to sail ahead. Only enjoy watching documentaries and true crime who knows yeah well a lot there and we'll definitely keep an eye on as you say. We always check in on netflix. Kiara thank you so much for that. That is it for this edition of the briefing produced today. By james mitchell our studio manager christie evans. The reading is back tomorrow at the same time. I'm daniel beach. Thank you so much for listening..

epstein barr viral syndrome kiara olympics Farage gbd chris uk fever flu walt nigel Smith italy england netflix japan Julie
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

08:38 min | 6 months ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Briefing coming to you. Live from studio one here. At midori house in london daniel beach coming up on today's program. Germany begins to assess the impact of the country's devastating floods. This is my very reach. I know people have been affected. And i'm personally also shocked by what has been going on their senior politician. Alexander graf lambsdorff tells us how the freak weather has affected his constituents plus. We'll have the very latest on high level talks between india and china following eight tenths standoff along their vast shared border. Monaco's dr chris. Smith will also have an update on england's ping democ and why it's putting additional strain on the health service and we'll get a cultural roundup from our very own kiara ramallah as well care. What if you got for us. Thanks daniel albie token about the mirage of free speech and why faraj is not the answer more trouble on the horizon for the olympics and net flicks new so the head strategy all that right here on the briefing with me. Daniel bauge armand lashes angle. Merkel's likely successor as germany's chancellor has apologized after. He was caught laughing during a visit to areas afflicted by severe flooding in the west of the country. More than one hundred eighty people have died. In belgium and germany and hundreds remain missing earlier we spoke to alexander graf lambsdorff of the free democratic party about the impact. The flooding has had on his constituents. Let's have a lesson. The first thing that needs to happen is that the people that are still missing Looked for looked after. Save develop possible that we help those who have been afflicted. By this poverty really apocalyptic situation followed by a rebuilding of infrastructure but also the the minds in the soles of the people affected that was alexander. Graf lambsdorff of germany's free democratic party. Mr lambsdorff is also a senior member of the european parliament. Well let's get the latest now from stephanie. Bolton from develops stephanie. Welcome back to the show. We've seen some incredible images this morning and over the weekend. What are officials saying now about the situation on the ground where the situation in the west of the country which are the both regions the lender as we say in german not on this fine and followed so the areas and say north of frank food in south of cologne more or less The situation is now getting better. The rain has ceased and people are trying to start the rebuilding on leaving the rebuilding. That just trying to clear up and clean up what is really applicable apocalyptic and it was interesting the chancellor was they're gonna macking yesterday and she said there wasn't even a word german to describe the scene. She was saying the problem. Now is that The weather front as another weather phone. Now in the southeast so in bavaria and bordering to austria in there are lots of rivers not only the tenue but many other rivers and you see destruction there now and actually. The rain is going to persist there. So it's a very serious and dangerous situation now in another part of germany. The other thing we're watching of course is the political follow. What has the reaction been to armand. Lashes behavior late last week and to his apology while over the weekend. Well that was a very unfortunate Moment for militia who's the Spits and candy dot as we say For the federal election the end of september. So he is the head of the cd you gonna macos party and her likely successor because the cd you is is leading the pulse and always has been but there was this moment where the president Funk by steinmeyer he was giving a speech and in the background you could see shit joe king and laughing with other people from his party and that of course in these states now in our days with the social media that when round and of course the the reaction has been very harsh. A lot of people are saying that she does not have the quality to be chancellor that he didn't really he hasn't understood the situation the seriousness and that this behavior office would really Show that he is not able to be the chancellor because in such a situation of crisis He wouldn't he wouldn't manage it. And of course that was quite Because angela merkel mcclellan a little bit later and the truth is if you compare the appearance and and how they Hold themselves public between russia on today's massive different. She different than she is. She seems to be on. She is because she has so much experience much more professional and she seems to have just more empathy for the people and that is very difficult for me lawsuit because they were actually writing not high but better in the polls compared to the greens the greens had a green party. Had a massive problem with bash. Bits and dot unabated book and now the cd was losing again. So it's a bit of a roller coaster over there. yes absolutely. You mentioned the elections that are upcoming at the end of september. That's two months away. How is this crisis playing into how the leaders are then responding of course green says he mentioned there underscoring the impact of climate change in this crisis. What other parties. What are the other parties looking a to see how they might be able to take an advantage from this. Sounds terrible to say but they'll be thinking about the the days ahead as well. Obviously the question of climate change is back in the center of attention It was very much the koruna crisis and the rebuilding economic rebuilding on after coming out of the pandemic and climate the climate change which is a core Issue of the green party and this is why the green party in germany is also very popular because they are very credible in their policies to fight climate change. but i mean The cdu and was quite successful trying to have it both ways in a way saying yes. We definitely need to fight climate change but also we have to. We have to protect gems. germany's economy. We cannot burden industry and also consumers with too high prices war addicting climate. Change now with the pictures that are coming out of germany and now again even in other parts of germany everyday climate crisis is in the center in focus again and this will help the greens. The big question for the cd. When i'm in lush it is if at the end of september while the cd is still very likely to win. But the greens together with the liberals and dsp could fall what we call a traffic light. Coalition so Red yellow green and that is the big question for for the election. Stephanie just lastly here and briefly. What is the rule of angela merkel. You mentioned earlier. Her sort of responsible figure her maturity in this What is her role as we look ahead to the elections. Well of course still the chance of germany. Some i mean obviously you are always lame duck when you leaving office. But she is the one who is determining policies until the end of september She is as we know we call her the season councilman so she's the crisis chancellor she's very good at crisis situations. She she her her visits Yesterday or the day before in in the flood region Again more popular. She is very popular and whoever will succeed her in berlin the chancellery and confirmed has to reach up to to the of popularity and seriousness and management skills. That she has shown over the last sixteen years mean. Germany will say we are glad to see the for but there is also an understanding that in germany and outside germany she. She is a historic figure and she has managed many crisis. Mainly she's done a really good job. Thank you stephanie. That was developed stephanie. Bolton there now here's monaco's carlotta rabelo with the day's other news headlines thanks daniel rights activists journalists and lawyers around the world have been targeted with phone malware which has been sold to authoritarian governments by the israeli surveillance firm. Nso the investigation by seventeen media organizations suggests widespread abuse her venison hacking spyware. The danish cartoonist..

Germany alexander graf lambsdorff free democratic party midori house daniel beach dr chris daniel albie faraj Daniel bauge armand Graf lambsdorff Mr lambsdorff stephanie steinmeyer ramallah angela merkel mcclellan Merkel Monaco joe king european parliament Bolton
UK Government Confirms Plan to Lift Lockdown Measures in England

Monocle 24: The Briefing

01:24 min | 6 months ago

UK Government Confirms Plan to Lift Lockdown Measures in England

"At the start of next week the uk government will drop nearly all of the measures that were introduced to help stop the spread of cova nineteen across england. Prime minister boris. Johnson's big bang reopening is being keenly watched around the world and its success or otherwise is likely to determine whether other major nations will follow suit while monica's health and science correspondent. Dr chris. smith. Told reese james what we should expect a nineteen fifty lies of course the that the government had deferred the big opening up so called freedom day. Which was deferred. 'cause the original day the twenty first of june was judged to be too high risk because we had grubbing rights of iris. We had the delta variants which is the indian sub type two which is spreading more than the government had anticipated and there were not enough people it was judged who had received both doses of vaccine which we another critical to head off the delta veterans who had been vaccinated which meant we were risk of a much greater search if numbers so the case was made let's defer to the nineteenth to july. This will give more time for more people to have more days vaccine in other words. We'll we'll get more. People double jabbed and that should make the opening up a bit safer than it otherwise would be because they'll be more people who've had those critical to digest magazine and therefore low risk. Were they to actually run into to environment infection.

Prime Minister Boris Dr Chris Reese James Monica Johnson England UK Smith Iris
Global COVID Vaccine Inequality 'Becoming More Grotesque'

Monocle 24: The Briefing

01:06 min | 8 months ago

Global COVID Vaccine Inequality 'Becoming More Grotesque'

"World. Health organization has warned that glaring covid nineteen vaccine inequality has created a two track pandemic with western countries protected and poor nations still exposed. The warning came as the leading charity. Unicef said that millions of coronavirus vaccine could be wasted if wealthy nations send large amounts of left overdoses to the developing world. In one go. Well let's get the latest on this now with monocle. Twenty four health and science correspondent dr. chris smith chris is also a consultant virologist at cambridge university. Good afternoon to you chris. Good to have you on the program as always and let's start with that issue about. I guess western countries being undone by their own largest this problem with flooding these needy markets in one go. There just isn't infrastructure to cope with that. It's a tricky one isn't it. We've never been down this path before. We've never tried to do what we're attempting to do. Which is vaccinating entire planet. An entire planet with eight billion people on it. We think there's probably in the region of seven billion people who are not immune because one billion have either had the infection recovered and become immune or they've had vaccine so far

Chris Smith Chris Health Organization Unicef Cambridge University Chris
Biden Tells Intelligence Agencies to Probe COVID-19's Origins

Monocle 24: The Briefing

01:46 min | 8 months ago

Biden Tells Intelligence Agencies to Probe COVID-19's Origins

"Us president joe biden has called on intelligence in the country to redouble their efforts to investigate the origins of the covid nineteen pandemic. The president's ordered a report to be issued within ninety days amid growing pressure from republicans and the broader scientific community which owning us now is more nichols health science correspondent. Dr chris smith also on the line is louis lukens format. Us diplomat now. Senior partner at cigna global advisors. Thank you both for joining us on the program today and lukens actually start with you on this political pressure. I guess that joe biden is perhaps reacting to can you characterize what what. What is that pressure i can. Who are the main players. The main actors here who are low to offer these tough questions. Well martha sure. I would describe it as pressure on joe biden from from other parties to to carry out this investigation i think he genuinely and and his top scientists agreed that they that we need to have a better understanding of where this virus originated and how it originated. He asked president biden s the intelligence community to do an initial report which he was briefed on recently and he was unhappy with the results of that because the intelligence community was split some of the agencies felt that it was a lab accident and others felt that it was more likely animal to human contact and so he is now asked intelligence community to redouble their efforts as you said an in ninety days produce a report i think he recognizes that they may not have a final answer. He he he wants to say. He says he wants to bring us closer to definitive conclusion. He doesn't say bring us to a conclusion. But i think he feels is important that we have a better understanding in order to prevent future pandemics.

Joe Biden Dr Chris Smith Louis Lukens Cigna Global Advisors Lukens President Biden United States Martha
Sage Calls Emergency Meeting Over Rapid Spread of Indian Variant

Monocle 24: The Briefing

01:40 min | 9 months ago

Sage Calls Emergency Meeting Over Rapid Spread of Indian Variant

"Who we begin today's program here in the united kingdom where leading scientists are holding an emergency meeting in a bid to tackle a surge of the highly transmissible indian covid nineteen variant comes as prime minister. Boris johnson warns that new strains of virus could cause even greater suffering next winter. Then the lost if they're allowed to take hold well. Let's get the latest on this with monica health and science correspondent dr chris smith. Chris is a consultant for logistic cambridge university. Good often not always great to have you on the program Just about this Indian variant and the specific threat that we are beginning to understand. It might post. Initially we thought there was just one variant and it got dubbed. Be one six one seven and it's been documented for a few months in fact since last year but then we realized that in fact there are multiple subtypes of this variant. So they're now get designated as a subtype one subtype two subtype three and the one. We're most concerned is the subtype to and in this country in the uk depending on who you talk to and how the data compiled more than a thousand cases or about five hundred cases now. That's because some analyses do include returning travellers that have been picked up and then isolated others are therefore including Everybody so depends on which of those metrics you use. The one to be most concerned about is what is happening in the community because what we are concerned about with any kind of variant of the corona virus including this one now dubbed by the who as a variant of concern meaning it has destructive or disruptive potential

Monica Health And Science Dr Chris Smith Logistic Cambridge University Boris Johnson United Kingdom Chris
WHO releases coronavirus origins report

Monocle 24: The Globalist

01:28 min | 10 months ago

WHO releases coronavirus origins report

"Than a year after the coronavirus pandemic i swept the globe. The world health organization report into the virus has finally been released although it doesn't give a definite origin for the disease the w. h. o. Says it's likely that it was transmitted from a bat to humans via an unidentified intermediate animal species virologists and monocle. Twenty four health and science correspondent. Dr chris. smith joins me to discuss this now. chris. Thanks for coming on firstly. Why was this report so long in coming and there are a number of reasons but one of them was that the chinese were not terribly supportive. If you record just a few months back. The investigators were held up getting visas. Getting into china they were just stuck in singapore rages and then once they got there. It was very much. The staged managed thing and this is not happen for the first time in so many times before the they've been number of obstacles pushing the way which meant that. That was difficult for a start. And just doing this kind of work is really tricky. You're saying where is the smoking gun that caused a pandemic in a city that has millions of people living in it into country with a billion plus people living in an is a big country such try and track all these different moving parts down and pin them down on one mechanism is really really tough. Which is why this report has a number of different possible reasons to account for what they think might have gone on. It has also taken a very long time

Dr Chris World Health Organization Smith Chris Singapore China
One year on: What have we learned about viruses since news of COVID-19

Monocle 24: The Globalist

03:12 min | 11 months ago

One year on: What have we learned about viruses since news of COVID-19

"Is a year since the world. Health organization declared a global pandemic and the world's began to adopt the lockdown status. That we are now so familiar with and according to the. Who also face the prospect of the pandemic staying with us until at least the start of next year. So what have we learned or dr. chris. Smith is multiple twenty-first health and science correspondent and a regular voice on one twenty four. Good morning chris. Well i remember this time last year. We were having a very similar conversation about the world going into lockdown. And he said we've got a book on bird flame. We're having a meeting. I think we might be all right. How how things out for you. In what respect. Because i if you look at different aspects of of how my life has played out then busy would be the best definition. But but i have a career which is a media career and providing science and medical commentary on things like pandemics at the same time. I have a medical career. Which is vera gist. So it's a bit like someone took. Ill musk's big effing rocket and place like no one on each leg and just ignited the same time i appreciate i. I've been very busy and in some respects. It's been an exhilarating terrifying right for others. It's obviously been devastating in terminal respect as well as in a sort of economic respect. So i think everyone is fed very differently. But maybe that wasn't what you were asking. Well let's focus on the variety section of it there. Is this sense of trying to be prepared. I think there's a feeling that many people had this time last year that we didn't know what was around the corner but the everybody was doing their absolute utmost to make sure that they could be as ready as they could be. What was it that we learned about viruses and how to deal with them within in the last year. We'll know not the golden rule book for anything night this because every situation is different every viruses different. And we'd never had a situation like this. We'd had similar situations. We've had flu outbreaks before and we'd had saws marquand the ancestor. That came in two thousand eighteen. Two thousand and three off of saul's sauce covey too but we hadn't seen anything quite like this as a result the there is no golden rule. Book says when this happens. This is how you handed of course. Also every country's different every population is different than makeup of those countries is different the way in which people work how they live what they do as a country how they respond as country. The letter prepared misses. The country is different. The amount of travel that goes on between countries is different. So it's really tricky. When you've got that extremely heterogeneous makeup of the world which makes a great place. of course. it's very difficult to then say. Well this is how you control something because there is no evidence to fall back on apart from things they'll related but not the same and when you've got that difference and it's a fluid situation where it's always a moving target because as we might one step forward things change the then mean. The virus takes a step foot. We've seen that with the various example. It's been tricky all the while it's been a massive learning process at every stage to work out how we can best out this challenge and we are not there yet. I mean my my mistake. My biggest mistake. I think was anticipating that we would have solved this problem by now. I honestly thought that by now We we would have been on the road closer to home for

Vera Gist Chris Smith Saul FLU
Oxford University To Begin Trial On Mixed Vaccines

Monocle 24: The Globalist

01:29 min | 1 year ago

Oxford University To Begin Trial On Mixed Vaccines

"The university of oxford is to start to trial combining vaccines made by astrazeneca. And it's an order to introduce more flexibility and speed in vaccinating the world but it comes to switzerland has said it needs more data before it approves the oxford astor's annika job despite both the uk and the eu not only approving it but fighting last week over. Getting hold of enough doses. Let's hear from dr chris smith monocle twenty health and science correspondent. Good morning chris. Good to have you back. How does this work then when you combine to actions well this technique is good hetero lagos vaccination quantum mouthful. But what it basically means. Is you give persons one jab of one time and then a bit later on after three four weeks twelve weeks you give them a totally different vaccine. But also on the designed to program the immune system against coronavirus. We've been doing this thing fractured decades for different kinds of infections. And it works really well and the reason. It probably works very well. Is that when you go to school and you learn your lessons you then learn how much you've learned when you sit in the exam whole basically it's knowledge but it's being applied tested and stressed in a different way and it sort of similar with how the immune response works to Seeing one kind of stimulus decry navarre's than another one. And you make them much more. Resilient and robust response that way or at least not as the theory that's the outstanding knowledge. We haven't tried it with krona var so to make sure that what we assume is happening. That's why the government is putting forward this seven million initiative to find

Oxford Astor's Annika Dr Chris Smith University Of Oxford Astrazeneca Switzerland EU Chris UK Government
New Strains Of CoronaVirus Are Breaking Out Worldwide

Monocle 24: The Briefing

05:15 min | 1 year ago

New Strains Of CoronaVirus Are Breaking Out Worldwide

"Now anybody who has had any experience of life on this earth the last year or so. We'll be firmly of the belief that one strain of covid nineteen is more than enough as it spreads itself around the world however new variations keep being detected including one in the uk which appeared more readily transmissible a south african one which might be might be rather somewhat resistant to vaccines and brazilian one. Ditto small numbers of both of the latter have already been identified in the uk and dot dallas present elsewhere or on route. One joined with more. By dr chris smith monocle twenty fours health and correspondent also a virologist at cambridge university. Chris as we have discussed many times before all viruses mutate. What they do. Is this one doing so unusually quickly an door. Dramatically hello andrew. We don't think so in some respects. This is to be expected for the reason. You've outlined that the that all viruses mutate and change this one's no exception and therefore we're going to see a gentle drift or evolution of the virus specifically. We're going to see that happening. Most often. in parts of the world where the prevalence of the disease is highest in other words. Where you've got lots of people being infected. I'm passing the virus to lots of other people. That's loss of the roles of the genetic dice that the virus can take in order to accrue changes and optimize itself because at the end of the day viruses optimize themselves in order to spread most efficiently in their particular host and this is a new infection humans therefore it was pretty well adapted to us but not perfect. There's some room to maneuver and that's what the virus is doing. Its adjusting its behavior and its biology. A bit in order to spread most optimally among us. Humans the different variations though in different places those responses by the virus to local conditions. I guess whether it's it's climate or something else yes. Any kind of organism on earth is going to adapt itself in response to selective pressure applied by the environment in which it lives. These corona is a living in a human environment and therefore all behavior to a certain extent affects the behavior of the virus as we apply more selective pressure to it by making his job harder to spread between us for instance by social distancing through various other public health measures and spread control infection control. You'll going to select for viruses that all reproductive fitter in other words. They're better at doing what they do. And and in that way you'll get something that is usually more transmissible. That's what we saw the slight surprise here. Is this question about whether it is causing more severe illness or not now. Obviously the jury is a little bit out on this. At the moment we do have some directional data than that may be the case but it is early days of only just begun to take this trend. So we're not entirely sure whether this is a statistical artifact just a product to the fact there are lots of numbers and so the viruses is producing lots of infections. So we're seeing more severe infections or whether the genuine is evidence for higher talapity rate in each of the cases. So that figure we've been given by the uk government that suggests that the uk variant might be thirty percent More deadly which is an alarming sounding figure. Is it possible that figure is either less alarming than it sounds or actually not entirely accurate. Will the government put this across a downing street. Press briefing country balance-sheet presenting numbers in terms of deaths per thousand. And he said if you look at say a sixty year old man the risk with the parent strain of corona virus of that person passing away. If you had ten people with a thousand people with krona vars you might get ten people with die with this new variant that ten rises to thirteen or fourteen hence a forty or thirty percent increase in the mortality rate so they are nevertheless odds to emphasize the case fatality rate remains very low so in other words we haven't got something that's killing thirty percent people what we've got something that appears to based on the data that initially have been analyzed. Be a little bit more lethal as in not for the person. Obviously if you die but it's on average killing slightly more people than before but we don't know for sure if that's the case i mean. We have got a number of studies that present this london school hygiene tropical medicine of showing that the the risk ratio is about one point three five times greater with the new variant than the over one point three five. That's a thirty five percent increase. Imperial college of donna. Study then numbers range somewhere between high twenties to mid thirties. In terms of percentage increase in risk ecstasy university They did a smaller study. One point nine one was there multiple in other words. It's ninety percent worse. A public health england cited figure one and a half or so so therefore all of them seem to be centering on there being an increase in risk. But we don't know exactly how big that risk is but we think there is one but we need to reassure ourselves. This is real finding. it's not just a product of the fat. We're seeing lots of infections with this new air. It might be that. We're there foreseeing because of the disguise of the the problem more people who are at risk of having a severe infection. Cropping up with this very factional. They are trying to control for that so it doesn't like it might be real

Dr Chris Smith UK Cambridge University Dallas Andrew Chris Imperial College Of Donna London England
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

04:55 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Bleak though the covid nineteen news is on a number of fronts. There is mercifully tunnel. Luminated light in the form of several vaccines becoming more and more available and a race of sorts is on countries which can vaccinate their populations. Fastest will aside from doing. Obviously the right thing themselves. A considerable competitive advantage in terms of reopening at home and potentially reengaging with the world leading the field by a stretch is israel more than a million israelis over a tenth of the population have already received the first shot of the to phase pfizer. Biontech job one joint first of all by alison kaplan some journalist with herod's alison. Obviously israel has certain natural advantages. Here i it is only nine million or so people living in quad small geographic area but that aside. What is israel secret. How is it done it so quickly. Well i think we've got a very lucky combination of two factors number. One is the hustle of prime minister. Benjamin netanyahu who you know he's been around for a very long time developed a lot of connections in in many places and he made it a priority. I think to line up very early. Orders of <hes>. A vaccine from multiple companies sort of placing his bets while widely and <hes>. And putting a lot of pressure on the <hes>. On the heads of the companies. And i think he you know. He carries a lot of weight. 'cause he's because he's a very well known world figure but i think that you can't give the credit to netanyahu because the way that the israeli healthcare system is set up is. It's a public health system but it's also highly competitive. We have four or five very large. Hmo's each with their own staff each with their own infrastructure who are set up every season to give multiple flu vaccines and basically what the country has done his taken these multiple. Hmo's and for the covid. Vaccinations put them on steroids. And they were very early and very well organized to and they're all very digitized so everyone's just getting a text message on their phone over-sixties in high risk people right now. I'm telling them to <hes>. To go online and sign up. They can do that. They can do by phone if they want. So it's really a winning combination of netanyahu's hustle and and the way that the israeli healthcare system is very efficient and effective. Is this also one of those moments. At which and. I'm reminded here of a conversation we had earlier in the with. Joseph woo foreign minister of taiwan. Who made the point that his is a country which like israel is also accustomed to collectively responding and mobilizing in times of crisis. Is there something to that. Absolutely no listen. They don't call it the six day war for nothing right. The the country knows how do <hes>. How to scramble and get a lot done. In in short amounts of time now the other side of the coin paint too rosy picture of the situation in israel because we are making amazing progress and vaccinations. But we've had some terrible terrible trouble of enforcing the restrictions for the coronavirus virus to keep people safe in our infection rate while we've been able to keep deaths down again. Excellent healthcare system has not been so successful. Israelis are very good at doing things. But they're not so good at not doing things. And so the whole social distancing and keeping things closed has not been a huge success here and tanio as much as he may be. The hero of the vaccine. Effort is is having to handle a lot of very harsh criticism about how the government has not effectively managed. The crisis is any talk at all of extending. This rolled out to the palestinian territories. As for now right now know. There are some clauses in the oslo accords of the mid nineties. I think that specifically refers to vaccines that gives the palestinian authority atonomy over vaccinating the palestinian population and they've even been some palestinian officials. That said we haven't asked israel to help us with with vaccines going to go our own way. That said i think that once israel really feels that it's got its population in hand and israel is not a sort of going to head to the finish line. There's going to be a hold up in january because israel does not have sufficient orders ship for delivery in january but once israel does feel secure about getting its population of vaccinated. I think that it's going to extend some sort of assistance to <hes>. Certainly the west bank because the populations are mixed and so having a lot of covid in carriers among the palestinian population. Israel has a self interest in doing something about that but until now nothing has happened. Alison haaretz thank you for joining us.

israel alison kaplan Hmo netanyahu Joseph woo pfizer tanio Benjamin netanyahu herod Alison haaretz dr chris smith alison flu taiwan palestinian authority uk oslo astrazeneca oxford west bank cambridge university
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

02:38 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"When you have a vaccine. It builds a complete house. But the booster dose that you get later, effectively storm proofs and whether proofs and road tests that house so that it's not as though you're going to give people a defective protection or less good protection by just one dose, and then a period of time later following it up because the way this works Is that when you build that house you billed below that House of Foundation, which is immune memory on the new memory is rooted in immune cells that know how to build that house again. So if you re encounter the same threat down the track, it's not by your starting from scratch. You revert to that immune memory. And you say, right? I've encountered this threat that you've seen in the past. How do I respond to it? And out of that memory comes the antibodies. You know how to make the white blood cells. You know how to make so Actually, it's not as though the response won't work. If you wait a period of time, there is even evidence. It might be even better with some of these vaccines on this is where AstraZeneca coming from, If you do wait a little bit longer, so I think actually we are following the science. It's just It's not been road tested with a clinical trial in this way, and we're going to get that data, aren't we? By doing this in the UK on that perhaps, will provide other countries with the reassurance that they could do the same. Viral virologist Dr Chris Smith at Cambridge University here in Britain. So many questions still, But one thing is clear. This global pandemic has exacted and still exacts a very painful price and intensive care units air filling up again having an impact on almost all areas of medicine, including cancer treatments. Other vaccination programs, even keeping patients away from their family doctor's offices, and there's another huge cost. Mental health. Laura Woods is a nurse here in England, who works in hospitals and prisons. Shoulders how the virus is up ended her life. And the well being in recovery of her patients. In those early weeks, it was getting kind of with working for 14 16 hours a day thinking around how we're going to respond to patients who may be distressed or disturbed, you have covert or how we would have to intervene or manage people who refused to isolate. Thinking about what personal protective equipment we would need. If we were managing a violent patient with Cove it there was certainly nothing that I had experienced like that in the 17 years that I've been working in mental health. I don't know how useful the analogy was, but there was a lot of talk around kind of preparing for war. There were daily briefing calls, making sure that we had stocks of peopie and deliveries and There was something away encompassing about Cove it it was everywhere..

House of Foundation Laura Woods AstraZeneca Dr Chris Smith Cambridge University UK England Britain
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

06:22 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Looking for quick profits to find out more. I've been speaking to Keith Bear, a fellow at the Center for Alternative Finance at Cambridge University's business School. Think their number reasons, but probably the most significant one is the interest of institutional investors in Bitcoin as an investable assets at the moment, there are many examples of this and goes back. I think you're a two when some of the major exchanges like ice in the U. S. C. M E started providing facilities for trading Bitcoin futures more recently last year without institutions like PayPal Square hedge funds and others that are actually now taking significant interest in Bitcoin as message on this This new wave of money to some extent that is coming. There has that interest from institutional investors that are making a real difference. I think as far as the way that big corners tenacity is have perceived. Do you think this is something permanent or just fleeting Because of the extraordinary times we're in? I'm sure you heard the governor of the Bank of England. Cautioning about using Bitcoin, he said. It's hard to see the Bitcoin has what we tend to call intrinsic value. That's right. I mean, there isn't any, you know, asset, the banks Bitcoin in any sense, and it's largely driven by the price that people are prepared to pay for it. Of course, though, there is the way that they can works. There's inbuilt scarcity into the model itself. There are only ever going to be a maximum of 21 million Bitcoins available as simply because of the way that the work is being designed. But to answer your question, I think you need to remember because it's obviously a very volatile asset volatility has been pretty high over the last six months, for instance, and it also was Own. You know, significant changes associated with news coming in, from example from the way that is going to be regulated in certain jurisdictions, etcetera, so these can cause significant swings. But you know, there is a point of view. I think that institutional investors have been to some extent waiting on the sideline, and it's really over the last year or six months where you know, there's some of the announcement sentimental today we have could have happened. That really made a significant difference center arguably those now going to be in the market forever than withdrawing from the market, So who knows? It's obviously a highly volatile Alas, it I'm not one that I don't think anyone would want to speculate easily as to where the Valley maker doesn't matter of calling a digital gold is that speculative? Well, if you consider what Bitcoin was originally designed to do, you know, largely around payments more than anything else, because that means that making payments. It's not that efficient in the sense that that becomes the network is limited to around. Five or six transactions per second, as opposed to visas. The payments network, which handles thousands of transactions per second, because that's what it's designed to do so the real value of Bitcoin really Asa's, you say, is as a store of value. But arguably that store of value is a bit offended by the fact that the volatility can be so great as the mentor before, But does you right? You say it is often a line to gold If you like this an equivalent of additional version of gold in that respect, there was this the gold as the physical manifestation and as the value driven by the way that Physical element is you know how the price follows based on supply and demand, which Bitcoin is a virtual ass? It doesn't have that same physical manifestation, of course, Keith pair of Cambridge University's business school Listening to news hour on the BBC World Service. I'm leads to set well here in Britain, as in many countries, the race to vaccinate is honest. The number of covert nine cases continues to climb due in part to a new, highly infectious variant. British hospitals say they are overwhelmed so health officials have decided to give his many people as possible. Ah first dose of one of the two vaccines approved by regulators. That means delaying the second dose. The U. S is government's top infectious diseases expert, Dr Anthony Fauci says he does not agree. He says the United States will stick to giving people Two doses, the second of the Fizer buying tech vaccine around 21 days after the first the manufacturers of fact vaccine say it's crucial to achieve the maximum level of protection. Who is there a right and a wrong and does it depend on the vaccine? I've been speaking to Dr Chris Smith, a virologist at Cambridge University. See, agree with Anthony Fauci. One has to be dynamic about this on To protect the maximum number of people because that's the end of the day what we're trying to do, and it turns out if you crunch the numbers since the first does the vaccine does most of the heavy lifting And it's the second dose that sort of consolidates and cemented in place. It actually makes sense. In the first instance to go in to meet Andre trying, vaccinate the maximum number of people that you can in the first instance and then follow it up. Even if you have to bend the rules a bit with second dose later. And that translates into We think more life saved, but where's we're constantly being told, right from the beginning. We have to follow the science now. Fizer by on Tech says it should be. The second dose should come 21 days after the first Where is the Oxford University? AstraZeneca says that if you can, you can wait up to 12 weeks. So are they blending the two? Both of ride on guy can see. Both sides of this is different vaccines. They're different. That's a completely different vaccines. And we can't do an apples with apples comparison in that way, Unfortunately, because they work in different ways, they're they're completely different formulations that different virus vectors actually, and want one's genetic vaccine. One, sir, a disabled virus. But the point is this that the immune system does not work with the stopwatch. It doesn't say, Well, it's been three weeks now. So I can't respond to this because actually you you've waited too long. Way that this works, and I think people might be a bit confused. Just think. What if you need two doses? Is this like building a house where the first dose puts the walls up on the second day's puts the roof on? Do I? Therefore having incomplete response? If I only have one dose now have to wait with the rain pouring, and in the meantime, It doesn't work like that. When you have a vaccine. It builds a complete house. But the booster dose that you get later, effectively storm proofs and whether proofs and road tests that house so that it's.

Bitcoin Cambridge University Dr Anthony Fauci Keith Bear Bank of England Fizer PayPal Square Dr Chris Smith S. C. M E Center for Alternative Finance AstraZeneca United States Valley maker BBC World Service Britain Andre Oxford University Tech
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

05:58 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Just days before the Yuletide festival, London and areas in the East and southeast home to nearly 18 million people have been placed in what's called Tier four that means mixing over the Christmas holiday has been completely scrapped. Another rare used to plan the easing of rules has been narrowed to just one day December. The 25th the measures come is concern mounts over a new variant of the Corona virus, which is set to present some 70% faster. Prime Minister Boris Johnson, under criticism again for changing the rules at short notice, said he had no choice. We have said throughout this pandemic that we must and we will be guided by the science. When the science changes. We must change our response. When the virus changes its method of attack. We must change our method. Of defense. And is your prime minister. I sincerely believe there is no alternative open to me. Without action. The evidence suggests that infections would saw hospitals would become overwhelmed on Saving lives at Christmas. So what has changed with science? Joining us now on the line is Dr Chris Smith, the virologist at Cambridge University. Welcome Dr Smith to the program. We just heard from the prime minister, saying the science has changed what has changed. What scientists have been monitoring. In fact, monitoring for a little while is this new variant of Corona virus on the way this came to before was that there is a consortium on their job is to read the genetic code off viruses that infect people. And then to report back on them on. They noticed back in September that one particular change to the new Corona virus was cropping up a bit more often. And over time, a bit more often became a lot more often on by this month, very, very, very often. Indeed. And in other words, it went from a handful of cases to about 25% of cases in some parts of the UK to 60% of cases, new coronavirus cases in some parts of the UK By this month, and at the same time we see those geographical areas of the country, which appeared to be quite resistant to the measures imposed by being in the highest tier of control on the lockdown. Continuing to accelerate and continuing to increase their cases, leading to speculation that perhaps this new variant is fueling and driving the increasing cases in those areas on bleeding toe concern now that will be to carry on with Christmas plans as it had been This would lead to a dissemination of this new Barrett, which is currently most represented down in the southeastern corner of the country across the country, therefore, accelerating the pandemic from many angles across the country on been taking us to a much worse place than we would otherwise be. Having gone through Christmas and into the new year and his new very insists we're being told is not any more deadly, but it spreads a lot faster. This is at the moment. The I suppose the suspicion we don't know for absolute sure What we've got is an association on you Got to be careful to say something causes something You gotta prove that, But what we're seeing is a step change a change in the number of these cases of this new variant, and at the same time, a dramatic increase in the number of Cases of the virus in general, suggesting that 1 may be leading to the other, but it does need to be formally proved. That's the case. The suspicion is as Boyd voiced by the Prime Minister Boris Johnson this evening. That is is increasing. The transmissibility of the virus may be by as much as 70%, which would be sufficient across the country as a whole to increase the R value. Remember, our is the number of people that each infected case causes to catch the virus. Why not point for which is actually very big increase in the grand scheme of things. And so that's what worried politicians to the extent that they are saying we no need to bear down on this change our plans restrict Christmas. Is this happening elsewhere as well. The new variants of the Corona Barbosa are of hearing well since the coronavirus burst onto the world stage back to the beginning of year on China announced to the World Health Organization into the world in general that this had occurred. People been tracking the genetic code of the virus and documented more than 12,000 different mutants or or changes in the virus. This one is no exception. Therefore, all viruses mutate and change. They do it because, as they make new baby viruses, they make genetic spelling mistakes, and some of those genetics spelling mistakes come for some kind of advantage on the virus. It's more likely to produce more viruses or to spread more rapidly. Therefore, it dominates in the population. We've seen this lots of times with this new coronavirus. This one's not really exceptional in that respect. But what it is doing is fueling a more accelerated pandemic in the country at the time when we can least afford to have that on as a result, that's why people worried, but certainly the changes which being documented some of them have been seen elsewhere around the world previously. Talk to Chris Smith. Thank you for joining us, a virologist at Cambridge University. Well, it doesn't need to be said, but it has been a long, hard year for everyone, including here in the UK During the first lock, long lockdown here, which began in March, there was a widespread compliance with the rules. The well. Britain's obey the rules again, especially when they've been promised all year. They would be able to enjoy Christmas. Even if, as the prime minister put it, it would be a merry little one. I've been discussing attitudes with a psychologist and a pollster. Susan Mickey, professor of health psychology at University College, London who's advised the government on his coronavirus measures. And Joe Twyman, founder of the polling company, Delta, Paul..

prime minister Prime Minister Boris Johnson Dr Chris Smith London Cambridge University Corona Barbosa UK Dr Smith Joe Twyman World Health Organization Britain University College Susan Mickey China Boyd Barrett Delta founder
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:45 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"And parts of essex and hot fanfare are hours away from returning to the highest level of covid nineteen restrictions following an alarming spike of cases in the capital pubs restaurants and other indoor entertainment. Venues will close once more. The latest surge has been ascribed to a new variant of the corona virus which appears to be growing more rapidly than previously for the moment however the uk's government says it has no plans to review the curious christmas truce. It appears to think it has negotiated with the virus. While i'm joined with more on this boy monocle. Twenty four health and science correspondent dr. Chris smith also a virologist at cambridge university chris. This the idea that there's a new strain of covid nineteen sounds like the very definition of the absolute last thing. We want to hear at this point. How grim news is this to be quite honest with you. I'm not alarmed. I'm not surprised. And i'm actually quite reassured and explain all those things ovar mutate because they're based on the same genetic code is running in pretty much will life on earth then the same mechanisms that lead to life evolving and changing apply viruses. And so as they go through their hosts they would evolve and change and corona virus is no exception. That's exactly what's happened to you. Therefore we would anticipate that we would see different strains and different emerging and indeed. This is not the first time it has happened. We've seen happened early. On in the pandemic in china we've seen it happen and disclosed various different forms of the viruses spread across the world and in europe they documented some of the same changes are now being seen in this new variant in the south east of england. So this is not altogether new in terms of concept and is not altogether new in terms of variant. This being disclosed. We're reassured by matt. Hancock saying yesterday house commons the the. Don't think although they are confirming that this will lead to the virus sidestepping the effects of a vaccine. We don't think it makes people who catch it for ill. It just may be transmits a bit better. Although that speculation on airpods that they're they're saying it might be linked to an increasing cases in the southeast england in terms of course load but don't know for sure if we're going to try to be exceptionally optimistic about this. Is there any possibility that the reason the viruses having to mutate to survive is there an indication that perhaps that means we've got it on the run will certainly when you apply pressure to a virus and by pressure. I mean for instance putting a vaccine into a population so you create an immune barrier or you put in place public health measures. You are forcing the virus to change to optimize to those new conditions. Because that's why things evolve in the first place. They're responding to selective pressure from their environment. And we know we do this to the flu. We know this happens with hiv. When we give people hiv drugs for example then the virus that grows in them is the only one that can bypass the blockade of drug. And that's why we use multiple drugs at wants to minimize the chance. The happening so the concept is common. Well understood so yes. It is. Theoretical possibility that by applying pressure to the virus. We are forcing it to become more infectious so that despite robbing it of opportunities to transmit it can still continue to transmit given the does appear to have become more infectious in the capital. However does it make the proposed relaxation of restrictions around christmas. Look even more. Ill advised than they might have. Well we don't know it has become more infectious in the capital. We know we've got more cases same in the east and southeast of england essex positive of cheer kent. They've seen big increases in numbers of the trend is in an upward direction. Which is why caution. Reproach has been taken in the uk by moving. Probably the best part of eleven million people who live in those territories into a so-called tier three situation to apply more pressure to the virus. The idea i think is this is anticipating the trend is going upwards where we are today is not where we're going to be tomorrow and so by bearing down on ahead of christmas when there's going to be this loosening effect where we got five days of reveling and <hes>. Enhanced mixing the there are going to be more cases so if we start molo point and already have more control at the virus to start with them. We're going to end up finishing the low point than we otherwise would is or anything that the rest of the world should have learned from the united states. Experience we've thanksgiving because that was sort of a test run of what happens if all of a sudden millions of people travel by aircraft and by train and spend at least today in close quarters with households other than their own well. This is exactly what happened with chinese new year and when millions of people were mobilized to crush china to get together for the chinese new year this probably spawned even more cases because people traveled internationally for that event to so yes. History is full of examples of peop- of of <hes>. Repeating itself and this is no exception. We are anticipating that. The mixing that goes on over christmas will lead to more cases. The question is how many more cases and how are we going to cope with them. So is there a good reason at least scientifically good reason. Why not just this government. But any government wouldn't just say to its people look seriously. Christmas is basically cancelled <hes>. We are just going to have to suck this up for a few more months. We do have a vaccine to look forward to. We do have a restoration of normality to look forward to. We might maybe think about throwing in an extra couple of bank holidays around. June but christmas is basically not going to happen. Will the president of the royal college of emergency medicine was asked this very question on bbc. Radio four's pm program. Yesterday an her answer was. Are you asking me. This is a doctor or as you asking me this as human and actually you get a very different also because the doctor slash the infection control person is going to say which just council everything we should imprison. Everybody break the chain of transmission bear down on the virus but the human element of this is people need something to look forward to. Morale is incredibly important. And if you rob people away of the one thing. They've looked forward to in. What is the end of a very dismal year than this will probably translate into poor compliance in the long term. it will probably therefore translate into in the long-term more cases more headaches more problems and ultimately more casualties from are so. I think the government have of compromise. Here the trying to go for a controlled christmas. Where if you allow people some flexibility you know that most people will be responsible. You hope that they are. You're willing to tolerate some degree of of letting your hair down because you know that in a noncompliant christmas where you'd said don't do this and if on breaks the rules anyway he's probably going to be a higher price to pay in the long term. I think that's really the equation that they've done. Well let's look finally at the progress of that vaccine which is now being rolled out in united kingdom and again it's a question of government messaging. Does it strike you. As a missed opportunity that there is a website with a rolling hourly update of how many people have now been vaccinated. Well the numbers are not that high yet <hes>. You see numbers like yesterday. They did three hundred people or four hundred people in this hospital and that hospital. And when you see that there's this peak of mount everest which is sixty eight million people in the uk high eight billion people on earth. Hide one what. You wanna do <hes>. When you knock a few hundred off that is not much. And so. I think maybe that's coming may be there. There is that opportunity in the future but for now. It probably wouldn't be a big demonstrable difference

donald trump joe biden us elect harrison Hillary clinton Biden michigan biden colin powell political party california new york washington Trump pennsylvania georgia twitter gretchen whitmer trump
London And Surrounding Areas Restarting Lockdowns Due To Coronavirus Mutating

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:45 min | 1 year ago

London And Surrounding Areas Restarting Lockdowns Due To Coronavirus Mutating

"And parts of essex and hot fanfare are hours away from returning to the highest level of covid nineteen restrictions following an alarming spike of cases in the capital pubs restaurants and other indoor entertainment. Venues will close once more. The latest surge has been ascribed to a new variant of the corona virus which appears to be growing more rapidly than previously for the moment however the uk's government says it has no plans to review the curious christmas truce. It appears to think it has negotiated with the virus. While i'm joined with more on this boy monocle. Twenty four health and science correspondent dr. Chris smith also a virologist at cambridge university chris. This the idea that there's a new strain of covid nineteen sounds like the very definition of the absolute last thing. We want to hear at this point. How grim news is this to be quite honest with you. I'm not alarmed. I'm not surprised. And i'm actually quite reassured and explain all those things ovar mutate because they're based on the same genetic code is running in pretty much will life on earth then the same mechanisms that lead to life evolving and changing apply viruses. And so as they go through their hosts they would evolve and change and corona virus is no exception. That's exactly what's happened to you. Therefore we would anticipate that we would see different strains and different emerging and indeed. This is not the first time it has happened. We've seen happened early. On in the pandemic in china we've seen it happen and disclosed various different forms of the viruses spread across the world and in europe they documented some of the same changes are now being seen in this new variant in the south east of england. So this is not altogether new in terms of concept and is not altogether new in terms of variant. This being disclosed. We're reassured by matt. Hancock saying yesterday house commons the the. Don't think although they are confirming that this will lead to the virus sidestepping the effects of a vaccine. We don't think it makes people who catch it for ill. It just may be transmits a bit better. Although that speculation on airpods that they're they're saying it might be linked to an increasing cases in the southeast england in terms of course load but don't know for sure if we're going to try to be exceptionally optimistic about this. Is there any possibility that the reason the viruses having to mutate to survive is there an indication that perhaps that means we've got it on the run will certainly when you apply pressure to a virus and by pressure. I mean for instance putting a vaccine into a population so you create an immune barrier or you put in place public health measures. You are forcing the virus to change to optimize to those new conditions. Because that's why things evolve in the first place. They're responding to selective pressure from their environment. And we know we do this to the flu. We know this happens with hiv. When we give people hiv drugs for example then the virus that grows in them is the only one that can bypass the blockade of drug. And that's why we use multiple drugs at wants to minimize the chance. The happening so the concept is common. Well understood so yes. It is. Theoretical possibility that by applying pressure to the virus. We are forcing it to become more infectious so that despite robbing it of opportunities to transmit it can still continue to transmit given the does appear to have become more infectious in the capital. However does it make the proposed relaxation of restrictions around christmas. Look even more. Ill advised than they might have. Well we don't know it has become more infectious in the capital. We know we've got more cases same in the east and southeast of england essex positive of cheer kent. They've seen big increases in numbers of the trend is in an upward direction. Which is why caution. Reproach has been taken in the uk by moving. Probably the best part of eleven million people who live in those territories into a so-called tier three situation to apply more pressure to the virus. The idea i think is this is anticipating the trend is going upwards where we are today is not where we're going to be tomorrow and so by bearing down on ahead of christmas when there's going to be this loosening effect where we got five days of reveling and Enhanced mixing the there are going to be more cases so if we start molo point and already have more control at the virus to start with them. We're going to end up finishing the low point than we otherwise would is or anything that the rest of the world should have learned from the united states. Experience we've thanksgiving because that was sort of a test run of what happens if all of a sudden millions of people travel by aircraft and by train and spend at least today in close quarters with households other than their own well. This is exactly what happened with chinese new year and when millions of people were mobilized to crush china to get together for the chinese new year this probably spawned even more cases because people traveled internationally for that event to so yes. History is full of examples of peop- of of Repeating itself and this is no exception. We are anticipating that. The mixing that goes on over christmas will lead to more cases. The question is how many more cases and how are we going to cope with them. So is there a good reason at least scientifically good reason. Why not just this government. But any government wouldn't just say to its people look seriously. Christmas is basically cancelled We are just going to have to suck this up for a few more months. We do have a vaccine to look forward to. We do have a restoration of normality to look forward to. We might maybe think about throwing in an extra couple of bank holidays around. June but christmas is basically not going to happen. Will the president of the royal college of emergency medicine was asked this very question on bbc. Radio four's pm program. Yesterday an her answer was. Are you asking me. This is a doctor or as you asking me this as human and actually you get a very different also because the doctor slash the infection control person is going to say which just council everything we should imprison. Everybody break the chain of transmission bear down on the virus but the human element of this is people need something to look forward to. Morale is incredibly important. And if you rob people away of the one thing. They've looked forward to in. What is the end of a very dismal year than this will probably translate into poor compliance in the long term. it will probably therefore translate into in the long-term more cases more headaches more problems and ultimately more casualties from are so. I think the government have of compromise. Here the trying to go for a controlled christmas. Where if you allow people some flexibility you know that most people will be responsible. You hope that they are. You're willing to tolerate some degree of of letting your hair down because you know that in a noncompliant christmas where you'd said don't do this and if on breaks the rules anyway he's probably going to be a higher price to pay in the long term. I think that's really the equation that they've done. Well let's look finally at the progress of that vaccine which is now being rolled out in united kingdom and again it's a question of government messaging. Does it strike you. As a missed opportunity that there is a website with a rolling hourly update of how many people have now been vaccinated. Well the numbers are not that high yet You see numbers like yesterday. They did three hundred people or four hundred people in this hospital and that hospital. And when you see that there's this peak of mount everest which is sixty eight million people in the uk high eight billion people on earth. Hide one what. You wanna do When you knock a few hundred off that is not much. And so. I think maybe that's coming may be there. There is that opportunity in the future but for now. It probably wouldn't be a big demonstrable difference

Chris Smith Southeast England Cambridge University UK Essex England Hancock China South East Chris Royal College Of Emergency Med Matt FLU Europe United States BBC ROB Headaches
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

10:12 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Well. Biontech and pfizer's landmark coronavirus vaccine has been given to the first person in the uk as part of a mass immunization program. The uk's vaccine roll it is being watched keenly across the rest of the world has other countries begin. Prepare to vaccinate their own populations for the latest on this. Let's talk to our health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith. Chris is also consultant for all the gist at cambridge university. I good afternoon. Chris tyler so i guess <hes>. So far so good at least we have. We have a soundbite already. We had at the top of the program from this ninety year old woman. Who's been there the first to be to vaccinated chris last week. We saw a little bit of <hes>. Chest thumping on the part of some politicians the uk saying look. This is great <hes>. The uk is steaming ahead. How eagerly he would you say not. Just the immediate neighbors across this side of the channel but around the world are going to be watching. What are they going to watching. Forty you think over the coming days and weeks as this rolls out well think it will be a confidence boost to those other countries because no one likes to be i they unless it's a shorty. A dead cert. There's always some risk with any kind of intervention. And this is no different. So having a regulator a regulator that's world renowned the jewelry the medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency. Which is the. Uk's regulator which prior to just having jurisdiction over the uk walls prior to the brexit transition kicking providing that service for the whole of europe. Now europe does that through the ama it. It gives a precedent that other countries can look to and say right. Okay one fairly ferry. Big actor has gone ahead with this nathan. It's good therefore we're happy to <hes>. Gives us some confidence too. So i think that there's always that aspect to it and it's coming good for the uk in the sense that it saying here we are. We've had a pretty rough time with this. But now some some fantastic triumph of sciences kicked in and we're about to start deploying this across the country and we're gonna we're gonna protect our outpatients. We have this type of approval from a respected <hes>. Player how much do agencies elsewhere of course within the eu and obviously <hes>. similar bodies all over the world. how much does it short circuit <hes>. For them as you said. It establishes a precedent <hes>. And does that mean that you have you know days or weeks then knocked off the process. Of course he. I'm sitting here in switzerland. Obviously a lot of talk as well about of course is also on the uk as well so does it actually then really prevent <hes>. And and and and you do you have a moment where you have a real series of time locked off. They'd process well. The europeans are considering this through the jurisdiction of the ems the european medicines agency but the uk is still subject to a you know and in the uk is used one particular rule which is a regulation one seven four which is a specification for in public health crisis. Or emergency you can. Emergency approved something for use in your particular jurisdiction so the nhra has used that to approve this for the uk. Any other country in europe could've done the same thing so it's quite interesting that they've actually decided to white on a broad overarching decision from the a. But it doesn't matter. Who your regulator is they have to meet the same checks and balances. Because at the end of the day they all the gateway between a manufactured product and the public who going to receive it and it's on their neck that the decision rests so then going to say a will. They did it so we'll kind of ignore with this stuff would just sign it off. They are going to apply wherever they are in the world the same rigorous checks that they would apply whether or not someone else regulated something but it does help to give them confidence and he gives them a bit more political impetus when they see that. Another major regulator has taken a product which is also going to be wheeled out in that particular country and said well you know what's good enough is enough the ganda over the past few weeks. Of course astrazeneca moderna in this case. Biontech visor they. They've all been popping up in the headlines. Chris and of course various speeds that of course these approval processes have been working at now. We have three vaccines. We're we're now told her that there might also now be a fourth which is very much in play might be getting closer to approval. How different are all of these in terms of effectiveness and and do they all function largely the same way or do you. Also because obviously many countries that are hedging their purchasing all of them. Am i going to be particularly concerned. In a couple of weeks. If if i choose to get the moderna vaccine versus the astrazeneca versus the by pfizer one. In fact i think the uk has go options in on seven different vaccines and yes. You're right three of them are nearing the finishing nine in the uk but there are many others waiting in the wings around the world. There are ten different types of vaccine the work in ten different types of ways or being generated a more than forty and now in advanced stages of clinical trials. So pretty soon. We're going to have more vaccines than we can shake a stick at up to a point. That's a good thing and it's a good thing because not vaccines are going to be suitable for all people not vaccines are going to be available to all people not vaccines are going to work in all territories and what i mean by. That is if we take the fiso vaccine as an example. This needs to be kept at minus seventy degrees until five days or so before you're going to use all nine hundred and seventy five doses that are in batch and i've just seen a letter go from medical director saying can we make sure that we we use all nine hundred seventy five days in a within the five days so that we don't waste any of this very precious vaccine. Now that's going to be no use whatsoever in some countries where they don't even have a stable. Electricity supply let alone a stable minus eighty degrees freezer. So therefore having lots of options is a powerful thing also <hes>. We don't know what the long term outcomes with these vaccines against be. We know that they provide pretty high level of protection but short after the vaccination program is finished in other words in in the weeks to a month or so. The person's completed the vaccine course. They're protected with the fis vaccine to the level of about nine hundred ninety five percent. But what happens in five months. What happens in a year. we don't know. And it may well be that other products that come along are able to confer a longer term protection. They might confer a big boost if you give one of those on top of one of the other products. This is a learning process. We're going to be sort of going through this process as time goes on an. It's always good to have more options. Where this sort of things concerned. If if your project yourselves twelve months twenty four months out do you think we also end up in a place because of because of cost because of stability many other things that they're only going to be potentially to vaccines. Is that the way things often go. The other ones might be effective but they might be too expensive as you said they might be too volatile and they fall by the wayside. I so i guess what i'm getting at. Will there sort of a clear winner in all of this in terms of one of the players and obviously the concoction that that ends up within the syringe. Well it's hard to say. I mean you know it's like niels bohr. Who is the forefather of quantum mechanics. Said prediction is very difficult especially when it concerns the future. But it's it's going to be very hard to know because we don't know what the long term outcome with these agencies. They are expensive. These genetic vaccines that pfizer. Madonna offering all pricey the astra zeneca vaccine. Which is still sitting with the regulator here in the uk. At the moment that one will be much cheaper and is also much easier to deploy and store so that there are pros and cons of all these things and it may not come down to simply a case if this one does this and this one does this therefore two horse race. I think we will definitely be a market for a few of these products whether or not. That market's going to be sufficient to sustain all forty plus of the clinical trials that are going on now but but certainly while the world is rushing to get this stuff in sufficient volume. Because that's the issue at the moment the companies just can't push it out the door fast enough the moment it's any partner storm so people are desperate to access whatever vaccine they can as fast as they can and just before we go chris any sense. When you're maybe discussing with your medica- medical call leaks. What the uptake is is going to be. I was talking to a doctor at the university hospital here in zurich the other day his defense was that you know probably just within the hospital owned probably fifty percent of the staff. You know would not be interested in taking the vaccine. Is that sort of a a pretty good gauge. In terms of how the public will look at this. Or if you're not in the medical trenches all day maybe you're going to be keener to take it any any house view from your side. I'm sensing quite a degree of what we dub vaccine hesitancy based on the questions that are coming into various radio programs on participating in basic enquiries from members of the general public and if you look at the day to this come out of the pew research center in america have been running a number of population surveys in the states and originally that was very alarming showed that fifty percent of people would reject a vaccine offered one at that point in time. They recently repeated that survey found that in fact the uptake had risen to fifty from fifty to sixty percents so in other words forty percent. Turn it down. But that's still forty percent. Turn down right now in the uk. We think it's probably going to be <hes>. Less than that but at the same time still a significant proportion of people are uncertain citing rapid production very rapid approval. As a reason for concern. I do think this is largely going to take care of itself though because what will happen is that because of the way in which these vaccines are being rolled out to high priority high risk groups. I with a trickle down into the younger echo lonzo society over time by the time many of the people who live in countering who is saying. I'm nervous about this. Come to be offered a vaccine. It will have actually been through a very significant proportion of other people and that may well have in still quite a bit confidence into people are safe track record by then so i think it may be one of those short term problems. The actually takes care of itself. That's what i'm hoping anyway. Chris thanks very much for that. That was monocled health and science. Dr chris smith.

astra zeneca niels bohr pfizer Madonna uk echo lonzo society keener zurich pew research center Dr chris smith chris america
Covid-19 vaccine: First person receives Pfizer jab in UK

Monocle 24: The Briefing

10:12 min | 1 year ago

Covid-19 vaccine: First person receives Pfizer jab in UK

"Well. Biontech and pfizer's landmark coronavirus vaccine has been given to the first person in the uk as part of a mass immunization program. The uk's vaccine roll it is being watched keenly across the rest of the world has other countries begin. Prepare to vaccinate their own populations for the latest on this. Let's talk to our health and science correspondent. Dr chris smith. Chris is also consultant for all the gist at cambridge university. I good afternoon. Chris tyler so i guess So far so good at least we have. We have a soundbite already. We had at the top of the program from this ninety year old woman. Who's been there the first to be to vaccinated chris last week. We saw a little bit of Chest thumping on the part of some politicians the uk saying look. This is great The uk is steaming ahead. How eagerly he would you say not. Just the immediate neighbors across this side of the channel but around the world are going to be watching. What are they going to watching. Forty you think over the coming days and weeks as this rolls out well think it will be a confidence boost to those other countries because no one likes to be i they unless it's a shorty. A dead cert. There's always some risk with any kind of intervention. And this is no different. So having a regulator a regulator that's world renowned the jewelry the medicines and healthcare products regulatory agency. Which is the. Uk's regulator which prior to just having jurisdiction over the uk walls prior to the brexit transition kicking providing that service for the whole of europe. Now europe does that through the ama it. It gives a precedent that other countries can look to and say right. Okay one fairly ferry. Big actor has gone ahead with this nathan. It's good therefore we're happy to Gives us some confidence too. So i think that there's always that aspect to it and it's coming good for the uk in the sense that it saying here we are. We've had a pretty rough time with this. But now some some fantastic triumph of sciences kicked in and we're about to start deploying this across the country and we're gonna we're gonna protect our outpatients. We have this type of approval from a respected Player how much do agencies elsewhere of course within the eu and obviously similar bodies all over the world. how much does it short circuit For them as you said. It establishes a precedent And does that mean that you have you know days or weeks then knocked off the process. Of course he. I'm sitting here in switzerland. Obviously a lot of talk as well about of course is also on the uk as well so does it actually then really prevent And and and and you do you have a moment where you have a real series of time locked off. They'd process well. The europeans are considering this through the jurisdiction of the ems the european medicines agency but the uk is still subject to a you know and in the uk is used one particular rule which is a regulation one seven four which is a specification for in public health crisis. Or emergency you can. Emergency approved something for use in your particular jurisdiction so the nhra has used that to approve this for the uk. Any other country in europe could've done the same thing so it's quite interesting that they've actually decided to white on a broad overarching decision from the a. But it doesn't matter. Who your regulator is they have to meet the same checks and balances. Because at the end of the day they all the gateway between a manufactured product and the public who going to receive it and it's on their neck that the decision rests so then going to say a will. They did it so we'll kind of ignore with this stuff would just sign it off. They are going to apply wherever they are in the world the same rigorous checks that they would apply whether or not someone else regulated something but it does help to give them confidence and he gives them a bit more political impetus when they see that. Another major regulator has taken a product which is also going to be wheeled out in that particular country and said well you know what's good enough is enough the ganda over the past few weeks. Of course astrazeneca moderna in this case. Biontech visor they. They've all been popping up in the headlines. Chris and of course various speeds that of course these approval processes have been working at now. We have three vaccines. We're we're now told her that there might also now be a fourth which is very much in play might be getting closer to approval. How different are all of these in terms of effectiveness and and do they all function largely the same way or do you. Also because obviously many countries that are hedging their purchasing all of them. Am i going to be particularly concerned. In a couple of weeks. If if i choose to get the moderna vaccine versus the astrazeneca versus the by pfizer one. In fact i think the uk has go options in on seven different vaccines and yes. You're right three of them are nearing the finishing nine in the uk but there are many others waiting in the wings around the world. There are ten different types of vaccine the work in ten different types of ways or being generated a more than forty and now in advanced stages of clinical trials. So pretty soon. We're going to have more vaccines than we can shake a stick at up to a point. That's a good thing and it's a good thing because not vaccines are going to be suitable for all people not vaccines are going to be available to all people not vaccines are going to work in all territories and what i mean by. That is if we take the fiso vaccine as an example. This needs to be kept at minus seventy degrees until five days or so before you're going to use all nine hundred and seventy five doses that are in batch and i've just seen a letter go from medical director saying can we make sure that we we use all nine hundred seventy five days in a within the five days so that we don't waste any of this very precious vaccine. Now that's going to be no use whatsoever in some countries where they don't even have a stable. Electricity supply let alone a stable minus eighty degrees freezer. So therefore having lots of options is a powerful thing also We don't know what the long term outcomes with these vaccines against be. We know that they provide pretty high level of protection but short after the vaccination program is finished in other words in in the weeks to a month or so. The person's completed the vaccine course. They're protected with the fis vaccine to the level of about nine hundred ninety five percent. But what happens in five months. What happens in a year. we don't know. And it may well be that other products that come along are able to confer a longer term protection. They might confer a big boost if you give one of those on top of one of the other products. This is a learning process. We're going to be sort of going through this process as time goes on an. It's always good to have more options. Where this sort of things concerned. If if your project yourselves twelve months twenty four months out do you think we also end up in a place because of because of cost because of stability many other things that they're only going to be potentially to vaccines. Is that the way things often go. The other ones might be effective but they might be too expensive as you said they might be too volatile and they fall by the wayside. I so i guess what i'm getting at. Will there sort of a clear winner in all of this in terms of one of the players and obviously the concoction that that ends up within the syringe. Well it's hard to say. I mean you know it's like niels bohr. Who is the forefather of quantum mechanics. Said prediction is very difficult especially when it concerns the future. But it's it's going to be very hard to know because we don't know what the long term outcome with these agencies. They are expensive. These genetic vaccines that pfizer. Madonna offering all pricey the astra zeneca vaccine. Which is still sitting with the regulator here in the uk. At the moment that one will be much cheaper and is also much easier to deploy and store so that there are pros and cons of all these things and it may not come down to simply a case if this one does this and this one does this therefore two horse race. I think we will definitely be a market for a few of these products whether or not. That market's going to be sufficient to sustain all forty plus of the clinical trials that are going on now but but certainly while the world is rushing to get this stuff in sufficient volume. Because that's the issue at the moment the companies just can't push it out the door fast enough the moment it's any partner storm so people are desperate to access whatever vaccine they can as fast as they can and just before we go chris any sense. When you're maybe discussing with your medica- medical call leaks. What the uptake is is going to be. I was talking to a doctor at the university hospital here in zurich the other day his defense was that you know probably just within the hospital owned probably fifty percent of the staff. You know would not be interested in taking the vaccine. Is that sort of a a pretty good gauge. In terms of how the public will look at this. Or if you're not in the medical trenches all day maybe you're going to be keener to take it any any house view from your side. I'm sensing quite a degree of what we dub vaccine hesitancy based on the questions that are coming into various radio programs on participating in basic enquiries from members of the general public and if you look at the day to this come out of the pew research center in america have been running a number of population surveys in the states and originally that was very alarming showed that fifty percent of people would reject a vaccine offered one at that point in time. They recently repeated that survey found that in fact the uptake had risen to fifty from fifty to sixty percents so in other words forty percent. Turn it down. But that's still forty percent. Turn down right now in the uk. We think it's probably going to be Less than that but at the same time still a significant proportion of people are uncertain citing rapid production very rapid approval. As a reason for concern. I do think this is largely going to take care of itself though because what will happen is that because of the way in which these vaccines are being rolled out to high priority high risk groups. I with a trickle down into the younger echo lonzo society over time by the time many of the people who live in countering who is saying. I'm nervous about this. Come to be offered a vaccine. It will have actually been through a very significant proportion of other people and that may well have in still quite a bit confidence into people are safe track record by then so i think it may be one of those short term problems. The actually takes care of itself. That's what i'm hoping anyway. Chris thanks very much for that. That was monocled health and science. Dr chris smith.

UK Biontech Dr Chris Smith Chris Tyler Pfizer Europe Astrazeneca Moderna Chris Astrazeneca Cambridge University European Medicines Agency AMA Nhra
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:24 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

", as the covid nineteen pandemic has been sucked ever further. . into. . The deeply tedious culture wars polarizing many Western democracies they gathering climate has been made on behalf of so called herd immunity. . This is the fairy which holds that if nature is permitted to take its course, , within reason, , sufficient antibodies will be distributed among the populace to reduce the viruses spread to a manageable kroll. . The World Health Organization has now sat emphatically upon this view who chief Ted, , Ross Cabrera's calling herd immunity scientifically, , and ethically problematic one joined with more by Dr. . Chris Smith. . Our Health and science correspondent also virologist Cambridge University. . Chris, , he calls it scientifically and ethically problematic I. . Think the ethical problem is pretty easy to spot, , which is that you know a great many people would need to die. . What's the actual scientific problem here if you would just taking a brutally utilitarian approach? ? Well I think really it's a lack of knowledge <hes> the moment we think that about ten percent of the world's population. . So perhaps even as many as a billion people rounds bit more than ten percent have had the infection, , but we don't know, and , the reason we don't know is because in order to work out with people have had it or not we have to do antibody tests and antibodies. . And you can think of this as the analogy is a bit like footprints left in the snow when you've had an infection, , a person who has had it and cleared it no longer has any virus detect, , but the footprints of the vars having been there all the antibodies left in your immune response. . If you take those antibodies, , that's a sure fire marker, , you must have encountered whatever the infection is that you're interested in the problem is that it's not clear to us that when we test people for antibodies, , all we rarely detecting all the people that have really been infected or have. . We missed some have we missed. . A few are more people responding in ways where they might antibodies the we're looking for. . We just don't know at the moment. So . scientifically, , we don't really know what we're tackling here. . We don't know what the long term consequences of coronavirus infection are. . They may be trivial. . They may not at least for proportion of people there is this phenomenon dubbed. . Long Cove where people have post infection, , inflammatory syndromes and symptoms that can go on for months. . Now, , we don't know what fraction of the population get that or whether certain people are more susceptible to that younger people older people we don't know. . So scientifically, , medically, , there are issues here. . If we understood the thing completely you'd say, , well, , we know exactly what we're getting into. . Sign. . On the dotted line or not whereas with this, , it's a black box. . We don't know what's inside on the subject of understanding things completely where are you on the UK's most recent? ? Of restrictions lay his TIA's and levels. . The U. K. seeking to make things clearer because they've been criticisms levelled at the government for having rules that people not even prime minister. . An Very Scottish MP's can remember, , and as a result, , this is leading to confusion transgressions and that's translating into more spread of the virus. . So in order to gain a tighter grip on the virus, , the outbreaks in various parts of the country, , this tiered system has been introduced to on tier two tier three also dubbed medium high, , very high risk and the idea is that everybody across. . The country has a baseline of medium risk and so anybody who's not in special restrictions at the moment is medium but in other parts of the country where there are special measures needed, , you have this way of escalating up to high risk and the threshold is said to be one hundred per hundred thousand people in the population who are affected in order to trigger that escalation and I think part of this is not just that the people everywhere know where they stand they know how prepare for if they're area becomes. . A higher risk area local planners can put in place policies but also means that more control can be potentially devolved to local authorities and local actors because there, , there's a lot of knowledge on the ground are very skilled people in public health and so on who could work more strategically locally and I think some of these measures do open the door to more of that kind of thing. . But again, , it's it's produced the usual anticipated reaction of people. . As I'm away confused today blame them people are confused there's lots of. . Uncertainty and no one likes this sort of change when you've just got used to work in one way and then morals come in and people are obviously trying to to make sense of how exactly this is or isn't going to work the thing that would of course stops or savers from having to try and understand what the government is telling. . US would be a vaccine in has been bad news I guess on that front, which , is Johnson and Johnson suspending <hes> trials of their vaccine. . Do we know why that happened? ? Nobody's worth bearing in mind that this happens all the time. . When we're developing drugs, , foams, , companies go into the drug development vaccine manufacturing process expecting to fail ninety percent of the time not because they're not good at what they do. . It's because they're very good at what they do that they succeed ten percent of the time, , but it's a very tough. . Challenge with very rigorous standards and west safety is an absolute priorities of red line that you can't cross safety and ethics. . So as soon as you have a trial running if there's anything untoward, , the the safe thing to do that point is you hope the trial you investigate and you appoint somebody independent of the trial who is an independent observer who will Come, , in they would appraise the situation and then they'll cite note we can. . We can say this is not because of the drug this is because of natural occurrences something you can resume your trial but on safety grounds, , you always hope thing investigate and then make a decision and this happens a lot to happen to Astra Zeneca a couple of months ago. . A month or so ago with with their co vaccine and investigators came end, they , found that there were cases reported. There . was a new case of a of a condition transverse lightest, , which is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system. . They were able to say, , well, , because this happened sporadically in the population, , there's no reason to suspect that this was caused. . By the vaccine in this case. . So we'll resume the trial. . It may be that this the same will happen for. . Johnson. . And Johnson's vaccine trial. . So is there any consensus really among you and your fellow boffins about likely timeframe for vaccine will I've asked a couple of people this one person who is working on behalf of one of the regulators to keep. . Tabs on one of the vaccine projects. . Another person who's actually in the finance sector has been having conversations with the pharmaceutical companies at the front runner in this and both interestingly guy very similar time windows suggesting that about of next year was the most likely time by which we would have data assuming that the data that is provided are provided <hes> shows. . The vaccines work I mean. . Let's assume that because that's a big. . If an it's necessary if assuming everything works, , then you've got to go through various checks and balances and take a lot of boxes from a safety point of view which takes time and so that's why they're saying probably midway through next year, , and then there's the whole issue of WHO's going. . To get vaccinated because in a report in the Financial Times last week <hes> Kate. . Bingham who's the vaccine taskforce lead said an acknowledged that <hes> about thirty million people are front runners for receiving vaccines. . But where does that leave the other thirty five, , million <hes> not? ? No, no , information has been provided. . Yes. . On on what the government strategy is going to be. .

Dr. Chris Smith World Health Organization Cambridge University Ross Cabrera Ted
WHO: Letting virus spread to reach herd immunity is "unethical"

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:25 min | 1 year ago

WHO: Letting virus spread to reach herd immunity is "unethical"

"As the covid nineteen pandemic has been sucked ever further. into. The deeply tedious culture wars polarizing many Western democracies they gathering climate has been made on behalf of so called herd immunity. This is the fairy which holds that if nature is permitted to take its course, within reason, sufficient antibodies will be distributed among the populace to reduce the viruses spread to a manageable kroll. The World Health Organization has now sat emphatically upon this view who chief Ted, Ross Cabrera's calling herd immunity scientifically, and ethically problematic one joined with more by Dr. Chris Smith. Our Health and science correspondent also virologist Cambridge University. Chris, he calls it scientifically and ethically problematic I. Think the ethical problem is pretty easy to spot, which is that you know a great many people would need to die. What's the actual scientific problem here if you would just taking a brutally utilitarian approach? Well I think really it's a lack of knowledge the moment we think that about ten percent of the world's population. So perhaps even as many as a billion people rounds bit more than ten percent have had the infection, but we don't know, and the reason we don't know is because in order to work out with people have had it or not we have to do antibody tests and antibodies. And you can think of this as the analogy is a bit like footprints left in the snow when you've had an infection, a person who has had it and cleared it no longer has any virus detect, but the footprints of the vars having been there all the antibodies left in your immune response. If you take those antibodies, that's a sure fire marker, you must have encountered whatever the infection is that you're interested in the problem is that it's not clear to us that when we test people for antibodies, all we rarely detecting all the people that have really been infected or have. We missed some have we missed. A few are more people responding in ways where they might antibodies the we're looking for. We just don't know at the moment. So scientifically, we don't really know what we're tackling here. We don't know what the long term consequences of coronavirus infection are. They may be trivial. They may not at least for proportion of people there is this phenomenon dubbed. Long Cove where people have post infection, inflammatory syndromes and symptoms that can go on for months. Now, we don't know what fraction of the population get that or whether certain people are more susceptible to that younger people older people we don't know. So scientifically, medically, there are issues here. If we understood the thing completely you'd say, well, we know exactly what we're getting into. Sign. On the dotted line or not whereas with this, it's a black box. We don't know what's inside on the subject of understanding things completely where are you on the UK's most recent? Of restrictions lay his TIA's and levels. The U. K. seeking to make things clearer because they've been criticisms levelled at the government for having rules that people not even prime minister. An Very Scottish MP's can remember, and as a result, this is leading to confusion transgressions and that's translating into more spread of the virus. So in order to gain a tighter grip on the virus, the outbreaks in various parts of the country, this tiered system has been introduced to on tier two tier three also dubbed medium high, very high risk and the idea is that everybody across. The country has a baseline of medium risk and so anybody who's not in special restrictions at the moment is medium but in other parts of the country where there are special measures needed, you have this way of escalating up to high risk and the threshold is said to be one hundred per hundred thousand people in the population who are affected in order to trigger that escalation and I think part of this is not just that the people everywhere know where they stand they know how prepare for if they're area becomes. A higher risk area local planners can put in place policies but also means that more control can be potentially devolved to local authorities and local actors because there, there's a lot of knowledge on the ground are very skilled people in public health and so on who could work more strategically locally and I think some of these measures do open the door to more of that kind of thing. But again, it's it's produced the usual anticipated reaction of people. As I'm away confused today blame them people are confused there's lots of. Uncertainty and no one likes this sort of change when you've just got used to work in one way and then morals come in and people are obviously trying to to make sense of how exactly this is or isn't going to work the thing that would of course stops or savers from having to try and understand what the government is telling. US would be a vaccine in has been bad news I guess on that front, which is Johnson and Johnson suspending trials of their vaccine. Do we know why that happened? Nobody's worth bearing in mind that this happens all the time. When we're developing drugs, foams, companies go into the drug development vaccine manufacturing process expecting to fail ninety percent of the time not because they're not good at what they do. It's because they're very good at what they do that they succeed ten percent of the time, but it's a very tough. Challenge with very rigorous standards and west safety is an absolute priorities of red line that you can't cross safety and ethics. So as soon as you have a trial running if there's anything untoward, the the safe thing to do that point is you hope the trial you investigate and you appoint somebody independent of the trial who is an independent observer who will Come, in they would appraise the situation and then they'll cite note we can. We can say this is not because of the drug this is because of natural occurrences something you can resume your trial but on safety grounds, you always hope thing investigate and then make a decision and this happens a lot to happen to Astra Zeneca a couple of months ago. A month or so ago with with their co vaccine and investigators came end, they found that there were cases reported. There was a new case of a of a condition transverse lightest, which is an inflammatory condition of the central nervous system. They were able to say, well, because this happened sporadically in the population, there's no reason to suspect that this was caused. By the vaccine in this case. So we'll resume the trial. It may be that this the same will happen for. Johnson. And Johnson's vaccine trial. So is there any consensus really among you and your fellow boffins about likely timeframe for vaccine will I've asked a couple of people this one person who is working on behalf of one of the regulators to keep. Tabs on one of the vaccine projects. Another person who's actually in the finance sector has been having conversations with the pharmaceutical companies at the front runner in this and both interestingly guy very similar time windows suggesting that about of next year was the most likely time by which we would have data assuming that the data that is provided are provided shows. The vaccines work I mean. Let's assume that because that's a big. If an it's necessary if assuming everything works, then you've got to go through various checks and balances and take a lot of boxes from a safety point of view which takes time and so that's why they're saying probably midway through next year, and then there's the whole issue of WHO's going. To get vaccinated because in a report in the Financial Times last week Kate. Bingham who's the vaccine taskforce lead said an acknowledged that about thirty million people are front runners for receiving vaccines. But where does that leave the other thirty five, million not? No, no information has been provided. Yes. On on what the government strategy is going to be.

Johnson Government Dr. Chris Smith Cambridge University World Health Organization Astra Zeneca UK Long Cove Financial Times TED Ross Cabrera Bingham Prime Minister Kate
Donald Trump and Melania Trump both test positive for COVID-19

Monocle 24: The Briefing

06:26 min | 1 year ago

Donald Trump and Melania Trump both test positive for COVID-19

"The October surprise is a cherished part of US presidential election mythology the late breaking game changer with engineer contrivance or priests of. Two Thousand and twenty s octo surprise seems to have come early. President, DONALD TRUMP and first lady melania trump have both tested positive for covid nineteen and will now be self isolating. It is just thirty two days until the presidential election joining me with more on this Dr Chris Smith Monocle two, thousand, four, hundred and science correspondent and Scott Lucas professor of US Politics University of Birmingham Chris First of all would it possibly actually have been more of an October surprise if none of the key figures in this election came down with the illness I think. So I'm pretty surprised actually the. They've oh, taken. So long to catch it if you wind your mind back to SORTA March April time, Prince Charles was one of the first people note in the UK when the first high profile people who meet a lot of people to catch it. Then thankfully recover on therefore slightly surprised that Donald Trump and other people who are on the presidential campaign trail have encountered court and demonstrates this before maybe they have maybe that time they didn't know maybe this time they do maybe this time they're saying something about it. Scott Lucas. DC will just right now be waking up to this news and trying to understand how it is going to affect the last month of campaigning What do you think obviously debates again to have to be remote if they going to be held at old trump won't be able to hold anymore rallies and presumably the bulletin team will now all have to be tested and may have to isolate as will. Probably, what Chris said, we're shocked that this had come out before that the by campaign team probably had gained for this type of possibility. They will have been testing regularly, and of course, Joe Biden is in the middle of a train stopped tour of key swing states such as Ohio, and Pennsylvania. So they'll go ahead as much as you can be normal in the next month while offering hopes for the recovery of Donald Trump along as well as trump's close aide. Hope Hicks. I think it's the trump campaign that'll be in disarray today trying to figure out what to do Let me just say for a couple reasons why I? As we've noted trump no longer has his primary outlet of campaign rallies, large gatherings without mass without social distancing where he just rambled for sixty ninety minutes and try to grab headlines. Secondly, a, you're in a position where corona virus goes back to being the number one issue in the campaign and the trump campaign hoping to bury it or push it to the side. Let's talk about Supreme Court. Let's talk about trump's cultural war against that extremist anarchist. Let's not talk about two, hundred, ten, thousand Americans who are dead closing seven and a half million cases, and then thirdly, this actually I think undermines disinformation the trump campaign had put out about Joe Biden being physically mentally unfit indeed remember. If you remember, he goes back that far enough that they mopped Biden for supposedly being in the basement for observing coronavirus restrictions and not coming out and campaigning publicly before the start of June. It looks Joe Biden's white wise right. Now while the questions over judgment physical health, we'll be about Donald trump and four years ago. Of course, President Trump mocked, Hillary Clinton for becoming ill with what looked like pneumonia during the campaign, Chris. Is it possible that this might make a difference, one way or the other to how seriously Americans take this I mean, might hopefully make it clear to trump's base that this virus is real and it is dangerous but alternatively should trump not appear to too badly affected and should he recover quickly that might rather dangerously amplify his narrative that it's not that big a deal Martin did it could go either way couldn't it and indeed? He has the odds in his favor even in a person's eighties that chance of making a recovery in other words not succumbing to grove infection as well north of ninety percent. So it's not to give him that just because someone who is his age mid seventies who has other pre existing health conditions? He he does have obesity they will increase risk. It's not a given though that he'll come off worse for this he make. A complete recovery probably most people do and the other thing to bear in mind is, is this genuinely the first time? He's had it because it may well be he has become reinfected and this time perhaps I'm speculating wildly here and I might be completely wipe them up but wouldn't it be wonderful if he ends up I've got this of course it but then bounces back incredibly fast and demonstrates how powerful he really is. you can see that working well for him. You can also see this for the reason, Scott that you mentioned it playing badly for him in that it does amplify covid nineteen as an issue in the in the minds of most voters but. What are the actual practical considerations here? I. Mean You mentioned the Supreme, court nomination to fill that vacancy left by the death of Ruth Bader Ginsburg. CanNot actually go ahead and I guess the big question is there any doubt whatsoever about the actual election at this point? Assuming that. Kony Barrett did not get corona virus donald trump when she made a public appearance alongside him six days ago. Yeah. This can go ahead because you're talking about the hearings that take place. In the Senate. which will be socially distanced I'm sure. So Mitch McConnell push that through the problem for the trump campaign, they can no longer make that the headline event and try to galvanize their supporters around given these circumstances. Secondly, on the delay of the election is extremely difficult to delay the election you have to amend. Through Congress an act from eighteen forty, five, i. think the practicalities of that are very, very difficult and I think it's a huge gamble for Republican senators, some of whom are facing difficult reelection battles to do that because the Democrats will say, they're just trying to use a pretext to push this this back because remember, we've been facing a donald trump who has been saying if I don't like the election result, I don't have to observant I can stay in the White House that I think undercuts the effort that could be made to say look there's A legitimate reason given the pandemic to push the date back. Scott. Lucas Christmas thank you both very much for joining

Donald Trump Scott Lucas Joe Biden Dr Chris Smith President Trump United States Us Politics University Of Birm Chris First Mitch Mcconnell Ruth Bader Ginsburg DC Supreme Court Lucas Christmas Engineer Obesity UK Prince Charles Professor
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

06:11 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"Good afternoon from Zurich we start in Lebanon where people are calling for justice following a huge blast in the country's capital Beirut at least one, , hundred and thirty five people are known to have died in the explosion thousands more have been injured and many more have lost their homes. . Komo mosaic is an entrepreneur who lives and works in Beirut, and , he's very good friend of the MONOCLE team. He . joins us on the line from Beirut Hello Komo. . Good morning by the Hello Calico I I wanted to to start, , of course with maybe you painting a little bit of a of a picture for us <hes>. . We are of course. . Yeah. . Now well, , over day into this <hes> aftermath of this blast of course, , we've spent a lot of time in Beirut together over the years in good times and in bad. . But what is the spirit of the city today? ? What's the spiritual sippy can be after you know I'm not going think immature I think everybody's so this mushroom blast you know. . And <hes> someone course barrel Shema. . So it's the second. . Sousa search biggest love ever the over so. . I don't know what can be. . She would <hes> emergency mode on Tuesday nights of trying <hes> I. . I was I drove from the mountains to within like half an hour which takes maybe two or three times more time. . I was trending on the streets just to meet by partner who was wanted at the other end of the street. . So I think first, , they were completely under the show yesterday we were trying to. . To suck leaning. . Roberson. . Understand who's alive was that was one bit and today is our survey after Sabang and trying to understand what happens and it's devestation. . There's nobody people's there's not once the. . Organism is doing anything. . People are in this three hour cleaning the streets. . They are helping people took years, , their houses they are moving. . To you know and. . It's just keeping. . Others today the. . which talking to understand what happened it took us two days to understand I'm I'm curious to to understand also the psyche because you of course have been through so much as all Lebanese have the decades and of course, , there have been there have been car bombs <hes>. . There have been <hes>, of , course, mass , protests, , and of course we know that Lebanon has been. . Through a particularly difficult patch of of late <hes>, , and of course, this , this happens I want to about the resilience of of the Lebanese spirit. . Are you seeing that because I think we all often always agree that the Lebanese have to be the most resilient people in the world given all that they've they've been through but what what is the spirit like right now? ? I don't want to hear sort at all anymore I even pronounce foods are. . You know I can't hear it anymore I don't think it is what it is just sort of you know we have no choice but to survive But to be able to survive, , I'm not able to to say the word was arch to be able to survive your orders need a minimum of strength or. . or in your hearts, , which is fine. . Doesn't exist at all anymore I. . think it's like treaties trump and we cannot take all anymore. . It's. . It's you know. . It's lot of. . Destruction seeing all your life what would you know over and over again? ? In the weight it's like bombs tighter cannot be but this. . Is. . Where it had suspended for dinner is. . Completely. Destroyed . the trees in front of our issues on how can you get down? ? Of A tree it is beyond that you can you imagine just like. . An on bump and since too much to go over. . Where we don't have the choice where we're where you know we're looking at our wounds now. . and. . <hes> I jumped out of meeting where we're trying to set up a kitchen was censored. . <hes> was the. . Central Kitchen full dress project to start cooking for emergency. . So we're just trying to get out now of success of the emergency and seeing what can be done and what we can do, , what must be done, , but it's really very, , very, , very difficult to scale beyond anything you can imagine. . Kamal over the last forty, , eight hours. . Of course, , we've heard a number of countries probably France what am I talking about AIDS and and of course, , emergency intervention in the country are you already seeing signs of that? ? Are you seeing troops or support from from elsewhere already involved with recovery? ? You Emmanuel Macron. . And votes French president arrived city. . To visit. . That city and president haven't even said a word of on. . Anything have been on the grounds so as or nationally and metro is now on the ground just planted and bill, , and then the number I cannot. . I cannot reply to France and seventy support trump over. . So we're you cannot believe what it is. . It is overwhelming it's warming our hearts it's giving maybe this is the only thing thousand giving us hope sore going to go on. . So, , yes. . That's about specific receptacle trump something as to moral. . That's for specific projects about play you we need everybody. . To be able to grow up Camilla's in Beirut <hes>, , we will look forward to, , of course, , speaking to and Komo hopefully also. . Looking forward to coming up to Beirut to join you very soon

Zurich Dr Chris Smith allience UK Switzerland Germany US Cornelia Meyer Earl Palais Open feely Kris Dr Christmas Siriusxm DUDEK Guebuza Syria France Germany America Austral Sirak potter Huck
"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:27 min | 1 year ago

"dr. chris smith" Discussed on Monocle 24: The Briefing

"A. Beijing has recorded dozens of new locally transmitted corona virus cases it comes amid fears of a second wave in the Chinese capital. Well, I'm joined now for more on this by Monaco's health and science correspondent Dr Chris Smith and by the Daily Telegraph's Beijing correspondent, severe yen, a warm, welcome both back to the program Christmas. Maybe I'll come to you just first of all. This is one of those stories I. Guess Everyone's been talking about the you know the second wave. The fact that it was pretty much inevitable whichever markets we were talking about the we'd see the this uptick. Given that background. How concerned should we buy? It seems where we're saying out of Beijing at the moment, when in some respects I'm actually reassured the A we know about this. The China chose to tell people tell people promptly. They were pretty transparent about as far as we can tell, and my view is that when we know about an outbreak, it means we can do something about an outbreak. The worry is. Is when you create a culture of fear, which some argue is also going on in China. And as a result of that culture fear, things get covered up, so it is very important aries, transparency and sharing of data, and then people come in and do things about these outbreaks, because that means actually than going to become bigger outbreaks. This is at the moment contained outbreak. It's received an appropriate response which is. Is that what they've done is they've identified the source and they've said in exactly the same way as we have done in previous outbreaks with previous diseases in previous decades and centuries, you form what's called on sanitaire you go in a former ring around the area where the action is, and you lock it down, and then you trace out the people who've got it. You find the source you isolate all of. Of, those, and then you quarantine, people who develop it and it's study fizzles out. That's what they're doing. And therefore I am kind of reassured in some respects, but obviously also alarmed because what it shows is even a nation, which has now going to track record for dealing with this pretty promptly, and pretty effectively is seeing repercussions, and that means that every other country needs to be on his. God's will. Well. Let me ask you then for from. Your vantage point that it does it tally with what Christmas was saying there about. You know transparency of information that may be a little lacking an an an certain sort of dynamism in terms of response. Is that the view with people you're talking to? One China has vowed. To avoid a second will haunt and very immediately they've ramped up measures to try to contain the latest outbreak. There is a fifty six day streak of zero cases, but over the weekend, but Saturday and Sunday there were thirty six new infections. That's a record daily total high since late March. And so Beijing, the capital city of China of course officials who are very worried about what that means, and as Chris said, this does really underscore the challenges that countries face you know. China has had these very draconian lockdown quarantine measures, there are a lot of restrictions still in place in terms of health screening for instance checking your body temperature to enter public places, facemasks still largely required. Some of those were relaxed, but all these measures have just come back in full force and in practice if you're not wearing A. A face mask just walking down the street. You can be shunned. People will just step away from you, so there's a real sense and worry still about what this all means and it's coming. Summer has just started, would it? All tells us that again. Nations cannot really let their guard down because this virus can be transmitted across borders. The preliminary assessment that health officials in Beijing have said is that they think the virus came from overseas. They think it is similar to a strain that has been spotted in Europe. Christmas given given what you've, both been describing their I. It does it. Does it feel like if not the height of folly sending a high risk strategy for certain markets that are further back in the whole cycle of the pandemic? Just we've been talking today on the station about. The opening backup of European economies I. IT feels like there is an inevitable second second spike. Moving too soon, I guess is the question. Well we'RE GONNA. Move at some point. I'm one must remember that this is probably the biggest market, certainly in the whole of Asia, possibly the whole of the world there are, there are more than ten thousand people who work there alone in this market. It S huge. Those are just the staff. Not The visitors see you can imagine the opportunity afforded to an infectious disease to spread in environments. Environments like that, so it's not really surprising that we see markets repeatedly at the center of the action with these sorts of outbreaks, and that's because you've got the perfect storm brewed up there. You've got lots of people all in very close proximity for long periods of time sharing air, and you've also got a as was being hinted at the opportunity to import things and those things could be. Produce, it could be people to come work in the market. It could be other things that you're bringing through. Animals live animals, and so on an all these things opera opportunities for disease is to spread and jump around so I think keeping an oil markets is the crucial thing because they all the capitalist here. Well I exactly that point sufficient if I come back to you I think we spoke a number of weeks ago, about whether this pandemic this long period, and now all of the reflection. About. Policy and the rest of it could that prompt a proper robust discussion about yeah, the regulatory environment at markets this sort of thing. Is that it's still too early at this stage to have that discussion, or do you feel like the wheels are emotion you are. With the the government here has banned moved to ban the consumption of wildlife and the trading of wildlife. Exotic Wildlife, but there's a cultural interest in it because it's still allowed for instance for farmers to breed to raise, and also to sell these animals if they're used for traditional Chinese medicine, that's a cultural traditional practices. That's even one that the government has supported and pushed including for as a remedy for the coronavirus. So this particular virus is one that epidemiologists have been saying that cannot fully eradicated. Two Zero. China has had a great streak of nearly zero for a while. Most cases that have occurred over the last couple of weeks have been imported infections travelers arriving in China from abroad. But the move has been to try to completely contain it to get zero, but again, because that's not entirely possible, so disease experts say what's important now is to move towards very aggressive contact tracing which is what you've seen authorities here do they're going door to door knocking to ask if you've been in contact with this market, if you've been anywhere near someone who may have been to the market, and then doing mass testing to try and capture anyone who may have been at risk, and to quarantine them immediately and to find a way to get them. To to medical help, and so all of this, our containment measures to deal with a response, really that needs to be ramped up that nation to be thinking about because again. This is not something that can get two zero forever. Failure and for that Christmas, thank you both very much. Being with surface, the Telegraph's Beijing correspondent and Dr Chris Smith is more twenty four health and science expert. You are listening to the briefing on Monaco Twenty four in association with Allience. In a series of key insights, from `alliance is chief economist Ludovic SA- Brand Monaco presents stories that shed light on. From the future of.

Beijing China Dr Chris Smith A. Beijing Daily Telegraph Monaco government Europe Asia chief economist Allience Telegraph Ludovic SA
Doctor Chris Smith Speaking About Coronavirus

Monocle 24: The Briefing

05:57 min | 1 year ago

Doctor Chris Smith Speaking About Coronavirus

"The longer the covid nineteen lockdown goes on the more we learn about covid nineteen not least because being locked down like this. We don't have a great deal to do but ever expanding testing is teaching us about the spread of the virus will hopefully help us figure out how soon something like normality becomes a possibility he in the UK Health Secretary. Hancock has suggested that seventeen percent of Londoners may now have covid nineteen antibodies. I'm joined with more on this prime article. Twenty four health and science correspondent Dr. Chris Smith also a viral adjust at Cambridge University. Chris first of all that figure seventeen percent which suggests as I understand that seventeen percent of Londoners have been infected by cove nineteen to one extent or another. Does that sound like a plausible number? Yeah I think I think it does some countries and indeed some commentators in many countries hyping the number would be a bit higher. But Tha that does seem to twin with what we knew about the circulation of the agent. We New London was hot spots. We knew it took off their more than in other parts of the UK and this is also backed up by the that in the parts of the UK. This the Ciro positively right in other words. The number of people with antibodies against the new kind of ours is between five and seven percent so that does align with that so quite high circulation in London lower levels of circulation across the rest of the country but across the whole it means that the vast majority of people are not immune therefore only a small fraction of the countryside. Fall has actually called the new cry of ours. Is there anything we can infer from that figure in London? Not Merely about the level of infection but the the level of exposure what. I'm wondering is if you take a given Londoner for the sake of argument. Let's say it's Me Prior to lockdown traveling at least twice a day on Tube trains most of which were pretty crowded frequently being out and about in London which is a busy city speaking to. I don't know dozens of people a day as a journalist does is there any meaningful chance? I wouldn't have been exposed at some point. I it's very likely that you probably have encountered this. But he's whether or not you encountered any infectious dose of it because that's the key thing nodal viruses virus particles might equally and when a person is infected. They are producing from their body and all of their secretions of from the respiratory tract. So that's coughing sneezing just breathing droplets of moisture which virus particles in the they hope for in the for a period of time and it may well be that some of those virus particles that just stopped so although that virus particles and although they might have some genetic information in them they just might not go off like a dodgy firework you like them nothing happens so a person who breathes in some of those particles isn't guaranteed that will catch it so it's not a given if you're sharing it with someone who's infected. You're definitely going to get it. Because it depends how much they're actually issuing from their body into the that you then encounter but yes people in London had an above average Johnson counseling other people who were infected and therefore infectious and because of the high density working environment in London. The high density of traveling in London as a result of that the opportunity afforded to the virus to spread was higher which is why London took off soon took off foster and had high levels of virus. I've rule and I think part of this is probably a reflection on the London's also right next door to one of the world's busiest airports Heathrow which would have an she connected with the London. Transport system would perhaps have been a a conduit into the country with many cases arriving via that route every day. And then probably moving into the capital and helping to spread it if seventeen percent is not it yet is. I don't know whether this is a useful way to be thinking or not but is there. A number percentage at which a widespread lifting of lockdown measures starts to seem like a sensible way forward. Well if we're using how immune people all the immunity right in the population. Then we'd need to be up in the high tens of percent like sixty seventy percent of the population immune in order for this to have any kind of serious impact on the ability of the virus to spread because this whole notion of herd immunity. The word is unfortunately been misrepresented misunderstood by many people as meaning some kind of a strategy to allow people to catch the virus naturally into become immune as a country herd immunity just means that the vast majority of people are immune which means that there are so few susceptible individuals left in the mixture that the virus Kennel circulate. And so you protect the UNAMUNE few by the immunity of the many. That's what herd. Immunity means but in order for that to work. You need very high numbers of the population to be immune so when we vaccinate people against diseases like measles with the Mo. That's why we try to get to ninety five percent of the population because we know even when we get to ninety five percent the population. A handful of people just won't respond to the vaccine so that gives us a bit of safety margin and it means that a good. It to eighty five percents people are gonNA be reliably immune and that means the fifteen to twenty percent who not and this includes newborn babies every year just unlikely to encounter so unlikely to encounter someone who's actually got it that there's no transmission chain in the population that is potentially achievable for this new corona vars volunteer routes. Either we all catch it and we become immune and then new members of the population who bowl not yet an organic. Because there's no disease can eating or more tracks if we make a vaccine against this when we get the vaccine into everybody either way we arrive at a stay of heard immunity where this too few people who are susceptible in the population for the Vars to be able to maintain a transmission chain Christmas. Thank you as always. That was our health and science correspondent. Dr Chris

London UK New London Dr Chris Dr. Chris Smith Cambridge University Hancock Secretary Respiratory Tract Tube Johnson
How a llama could hold key to beating coronavirus

Monocle 24: The Briefing

00:58 sec | 1 year ago

How a llama could hold key to beating coronavirus

"Buffon's are working to isolate an antibody occurring in llamas specifically in one lama named winter. They believe it may yield a treatment for covert nineteen. Here's virologist Dr Chris Smith on Thursdays Briefing so-called camera in other words members of the camel family these Llamas Alpacas and also don't make antibodies like our own or they. They do make antibodies their own. But the don't exclusively make antibodies on their own. They made this other class of antibody. These H. is which I like a small or miniature antibody so this is potentially a real thing even though it does sound like something contrived as the wretchedly labored setup for an atrocious Pun Lama winter virus erected be something better luck next week for molecule twenty four. I'm Andrew

Dr Chris Smith Buffon Andrew
Are the lockdowns working?

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:11 min | 1 year ago

Are the lockdowns working?

"Governments will be wary. That lockdowns may prove to be like wolves in rather be in being rather rather easier to stop than stop. But what do the scientists think? Well he is one on joined once again by monocle. Twentyfold Health and science correspondent. Dr Chris Smith Regular listeners will know that Chris spends his busy days working as a virologist at Cambridge University in Chris. First of all. Is it possible at all? I know this might be a bit of A. How long is a piece of string question but possible to quantify what difference the lockdowns have made? We think that they've made us turn the corner. Andrew as in when you model what this was doing certainly in the UK and other countries in terms of the growth of the pandemic and the number of cases it was growing exponentially and quite quickly. We saw the numbers of cases growing level and off and then admissions to hospital leveling off and then the number of people losing their lives leveling offer now beginning to to go down so this is certainly this intervention broken the chain of transmission or at least made it run through trickle rather than down a nice drag strip so it's definitely putting an obstacle in the way of the spread of the virus In terms of how long it's GonNa take for the peak to drop down get out of the foothills and onto level ground again though. We don't know that yet. So that being the case how and what certainty does anybody know? When do I even start lifting? Lockdowns how do you make that judgment? That's the million dollar question or in the case of what the U K economies being hit by billions per week and people really want to this question if I asked lots of times of lots of different people. Both Vala gist mathematicians politicians. I talked to and I get the same answer. We don't know So people are beginning to look at this from another perspective which is rather than what's out trigger point when to institute change the beginning to say. Well what do we think we could do to sort this out and walk? We therefore implement straight away spicer very interesting mathematician in Paris yesterday. And he's come up with very interesting strategy of carving countries up into a series of sales almost like mobile phone network cellular network cells. And thinking about how you call the country up not just arbitrarily doing in a way where you say. Well where are the people? Where do they go to work? We create sales where you don't divorce people from their work of course and these cells are ring-fenced so you have a Green Cell Novartis Activity Red Cell Virus activity so it's backed up by testing in surveillance and the idea is that you don't allow people to move outside their cell unless they have a very good reason to do so and you put in place. I measures in each cell to make go green by the vars control there. And once you've got to adjacent green sells a you merge together and so now people can move freely within that green area. You probably with me now. You can see you. Divide the country as honeycomb and slowly green or red turns to green under these circumstances. And this he says for a country the size of France or population the size of the UK. You'd be looking a five or six months of these sorts of measures in order to get control and have us bank to something resembling what life used to be like. What are we learning so far about public consent to such measures? Because obviously what we've been going through all over the world. These last few weeks has been absolutely without precedent certainly in reactionary. I think it just has been completely without precedent. So we're having to learn as we go along about what people are willing to put up with Have you been surprised in any direction by the cooperation of Publix? We knew that people were certainly very very good at getting behind this in the in the outset. And we know that people when you when you generally throw down the gauntlet in front of the people and say. There's a very good reason to do this. Let's get behind it people. Do I mean Captain told me who said I want to raise a thousand pounds by doing one hundred laps of my care home garden for my one hundredth birthday and threw down the gauntlet internationally and got twenty seven million pounds. He's raised now just goes to show. The people of re good at getting behind. The cause of the compliance was excellent. But when all this began the psychologists said to policymakers members of government there will be a period of time during which compliancy is very good and then people will begin to tire of this. And you won't be able to get them to do it forever. Many people pooh-poohed this idea but we're beginning to see evidence of this. Because if you if you look at the traffic densities own roads. Traffic density is rising again. If you look at the number of people who actually back at work numbers are going back up. People did get behind it to stall with but I think people are beginning to tire. And we're not going to be able to hang onto people's confidence in this forever so is is it possible then or arguable. Might even be a good thing that some of the lockdown restrictions being lifted that. We're seeing in some places at schools or small shops that those there's actually a psychological aspect To those decisions as well as a strictly medical one well one school of thought. If excuse the PUN is the by sending bag schoolkids what you actually do is facilitate a whole heap of spread through that sector of society and since we know the risk that school kids Ingende and given the schoolkids have younger parents on average the risk. Their parents is going to be really low. This is one way of a controlled spread through a sector of society leading to natural acquisition of immunity and resistance to this without actually placing additional risk in in the way of people who in my swamp so some cynics saying well one way to solve this problem. Is You just Let the scores Go back. And this will take care of the immunity and immunization naturally of quite a broad swathe of society. Now that's certainly one approach and other approaches to say we're not going to do anything to have vaccine. Most people agreed that this is impractical and at the opposite end of the scale completely to the vaccine and not doing anything is the we. Just go business as usual now. Most people are comfortable that we can't do that but so something somewhere between the two where we use. What will be probably much richer. Data informed by testing in terms of where immunity is around the country where the viruses circulating in the country and where people are living working commuting where the facility for spread is greatest. If we combine all of this information. I think we probably will end up adopting something like the model. I outlined that the Parisian mathematicians are proposing perhaps not identical but something which enables a degree of normality in some places reinforced by testing and surveillance together with Other signs brought to bear such as issues like vaccination when that eventually materialize. If it does an any drugs we can throw it this as well as continuing to protect the most vulnerable people either by shielding them or by testing the workers who are going to care for them and then only deploy workers to care for the most vulnerable people who know on our immune.

Dr Chris Smith UK Green Cell Novartis Lockdowns Cambridge University Publix Paris France Andrew
Bordeaux wine fired into space to test ageing

Monocle 24: The Briefing

03:48 min | 2 years ago

Bordeaux wine fired into space to test ageing

"Were just hearing from our similar resident scientist Dr Dr Chris Smith in Andrus report. And we're pleased to say that. He joins us again to tell us. About a bizarre story that involves sending bottle of of Bordeaux wine to the International Space Station. Welcome back to the program. Chris so I guess the first obvious question would be why June. I'm asking myself the same question actually under the company who had doing this. I strongly suspect it is a publicity stunt first and foremost it's really expensive to send crates of things anywhere that loan into space and spaces the premium price tank. They say they want to find out what the effect of space radiation will be on the wine. Because we know that when you're up there in space even on the International Space Station there is greater degree of in incident. Radiation in the form of cosmic particles raining in on you. And they're saying that they want to see what the effect of one year in orbit will have on this vintage although we only notes from Bordeaux we don't exactly what winds they're going to send they haven't disclosed exactly exactly how they're going to do the experiment but it's based on reasonable principles. which is that? We know that wine does have a bottling age. Some winds age well some winds h less. Well we also know that the chemistry in the white carries on evolving once. You've actually made the wine and put in the bottle so it will be interesting. I'd say to see where they going with this. I suspect there was a say. It's not much more than a publicity stunt has been sent to space before. Oh Yeah. The Soviets were predictably way way ahead of the curve on this one and in fact some of the Soviet cosmonauts became very adept to smuggling more than their ration because the thing is while some space races are some space faring nations Much more constrained about their alcohol consumption actually in the same way as we used to give sailors a tot of rum. The the Soviets actually used to to issue a a drink vodka allocation to the cosmonauts. Some of them then decided this wasn't sufficient for their requirements and so they actually went on force diets before the space flights and use the extra capacity they generated by slamming a bit before they went into orbit to pack additional reserves into the inside. This space suits Now now they're all pictures of them. Drinking said Volcker in space. Whether or not they really did take much extreme spicer that night but yes certainly been booze in space especially could say that was the first booze cruise of any real note. Situation like nowadays can astronauts for example bring alcohol space or drink in space or they've been told they're not allowed to open these Bordeaux uh-huh samples that are going up but I suspect that they do. Yeah I mean we know this unless restaurants have definitely taken taken a taught I think was he buzz Orrin who when he was about several on the moon. I'm said Reich. I am going to going to have a pause for a moment here and during his paws yes she did have a sweet out of. I think it was a chalice that was given to him from Church. So thank you had a bit of community and why not. But I don't know about now whether or not there are different rules these days for for the people on the I aside I don I doubt I suspect they do get a little bit of drinking. Do you think there is an actual case for conducting research on what happens to why in in-space considering that you know looking looking at all those blinds to fly people to Moss for example they are going to be in space for months and months and months or even years will. Let's just take a step back and say well what's the point of doing anything anything in space. We're trying to discover. Actually the effects of exposure to that environment things like micro gravity etcetera. And I was talking to Jessica merely offer day. She's one the astronauts currently owned the ISS at the moment. She's a physiologist working with NASA. And the reason I was talking to was because she's interested in how things like geese fly over the Himalayas is because they gave from ground level right up to extremely high altitude and then back down again and that caught the attention of

International Space Station Dr Dr Chris Smith Jessica Orrin Scientist Himalayas Reich Andrus Volcker Nasa In-Space ISS Moss One Year
To Keep Track of World's Data, You'll Need More Than a Yottabyte

Monocle 24: The Briefing

03:36 min | 3 years ago

To Keep Track of World's Data, You'll Need More Than a Yottabyte

"Do we need more prefixes for numbers, especially for very large ones? Well, the international bureau of weights and measures is considering just that let's get more on this with Dr Chris Smith who is from the naked scientists that Cambridge University. Welcome to the program. Chris first of all, I think for listeners it may be news that the bureau of weights and measures to be I p m in its French acronym actually exists, but beyond that, what is the background to this story. Well, the bottom line is that I interviewed someone about ten years ago who was busy developing part of the square kilometer, right? Which is going to be the world's most powerful telescope. And he proudly told me that by the time. This telescope goes live the world is going to generate in the region of an exa by of data. Yeah. We got that very wrong because. World's generating hundreds of times more data in a in a year. And that and this is the problem. What's an exit bite them for that massive, what's terabytes or a gigabyte? Well, these real numbers that a prefix is in front of the word bind to mean, very big numbers. And they go up in olders of of magnitude three three magnitudes of ten. So for instance, when we're talking about a megabytes millions of bytes. I'm talking about gigabytes has billions of bytes terabytes is thousands of millions. And so on an exit bite is rapidly followed by Zetter, abide followed by a iota bite. Now. That's where the road in an as you can see that. We're actually getting close to the top of the SCO with y'all to buy switches one full of by twenty zero is because actually we think that within the next decade. That's roughly how much data we're going to have stalled on. So what scientists are saying basically is we need some new prefixes to describe these enormous numbers that we're going to start generates you not just the data that he physics than describing the universe as well because we're beginning to get into the regime. Where we need big big numbers to to be described. And we haven't actually got the scientific numbers defined to do that with. So this time, do you think the bureau of weights and measures will be able to predict this is of numbers that we have going forward when we're we're speaking about data will they create the right prefixes, or is there simply no way of telling. Well, the current suggestion comes from rich Brown from the national physical tree in the UK the national physical labar tree on Al effective equivalent of. What goes on in Paris where we do weights and measures full the UK, and he raised this point road to paper in the journal measurements. Which is what stimulated this discussion in which is in his paper. He put scored a couple of proposals. For new words that we could use going to be considered by the Paris panel in October his proposals all the Rona all NA, which would describe something with twenty seven zeros off to the number one and the quicker. Which would describe one fully by thirty zero. And the opposite end of the scope a really really tiny things. So a decimal points, and then a set number zero men the number the room toe for the mo- tens to the minus twenty seven and the quick to- tend to the minus thirty. So these are the numbers that putting Ford and they've been well informed by there's a mixture of Greek and Latin in the in terms of how they came to these these names, and it means that they using letters that we haven't used yet already and it does leave a be behind. So we still got one number when we run out of metro road. We got one more number. We could add beginning with A B. And he's already thought some suggestions above deca, which would be tend to thirty three an abundant. Oh, which would be ten to the mind is she three

Dr Chris Smith UK Zetter Paris Cambridge University Ford Ten Years