11 Burst results for "Dr Folkman"

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

04:08 min | 11 months ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"Where you could launch rockets. And then they also had a microscope set and they had a chemistry set and so I really enjoyed that kind of stuff when I was a little boy. I Even like with the chemistry set. I remember mixing different chemicals together and watching. The Solutions Changed Color. Which is magic but also it was a chemical reaction going on that caused that but I still I never thought about inventing it. I just thought it was. It was fun but you said that you that you fell into what you're doing accidentally or was it. Was it more mindful while I think it's somewhat accidental. I mean you know certainly had no grand plan ever. I think the big thing that changed it for me in terms of what I ended up doing was wouldn't postdoctoral work after I graduated from MIT. When I went to work for Judah Folkman and I was like probably one of the few chemical engineers in the world maybe the only one working in a surgery lab and I started thinking about applying chemical engineering to medicine and that that was that certainly changed my life. Dr Folkman compared research to driving at night. Can you describe that analogy? Yes that's that's very good doctor. Fogelman said You know trying to solve the problem of angiogenesis or some of the other things would be kind of like driving at night. You can only. You can't see past where the headlights go. But you can do the whole trip that way so in other words. You don't know the answer when you're starting but you could make steps and those steps would eventually get you there. What are some images that come to your mind when you think of your research you know one? Is this driving at night? What about like crystallization? You know how they have a formation of a crystal and it becomes like this whole network of Crystals. But that's my own candy that's significant. I mean that that's an example. Certainly one thing that actually we were involved in in fact we started a company on that too was a company called transform where one of the challenges actually when you make pharmaceuticals is having a good shelf life. Because you don't WanNA use a drug if if if the drug after you make it as unstable after a month nobody's GONNA use it. You can ship it all over the world you need and a lot of times. You won't use a drug for a year or two so getting the drug and the right crystal form. That's in the right stability. That actually is a big deal. If you don't get it Nari Crystal Form. It may not be stable and then it won't be useful to anybody but if it isn't there a crystal form it can be very stable. You exercise daily. How long have you been exercising? And why is it so important to you while I've probably been exercising probably for a lot? Probably the last thirty two years thirty. Three years is important while my dad died of a heart attack when he was sixty one twenty eight at the I mean it so I just WanNa live as long as I can for my kids and my wife and my family and what kind of extra what do you do for exercise. Well I Use A recumbent bike Elliptical machine treadmill And waits for how long probably two to three hours? A Day said two to three hours. That seems Above average I think it's probably quite a bit above average certainly for somebody my age but I I'm able to work while I do it and My wife and kids actually exercise a lot. You know we have this gym at home. So sometimes we're all doing it together or at least a few of us and so But I it is certainly above average. You mentioned your wife You met your wife at Mit. She's a neuroscientist. How did you meet? We met on the track. I was running actually outside and so she. I knew her though a little bit because one of the people in our lab was roommates with her so I knew her a little bit. But then we cy sore on the track when we started talking. And so that's how that happened but thank you very much for joining us. It's my pleasure. I enjoyed it very much. My guest has been the chemical engineer. Dr Robert Langer. I'm Jessica Harris. This is from scratch..

MIT Judah Folkman Nari Crystal Form Dr Robert Langer Jessica Harris postdoctoral Fogelman
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

12:05 min | 11 months ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"But it's a long road to getting approval for for anything you mentioned that These have not been approved yet and a firm like Polaris has been very patient. It's patient capital Understanding that they might not see proceeds for decades thus right I mean Though they've done very well as far as I know from what I guess people in Business called an I R STANDPOINT. I mean I think people in the investment business understand that when you're doing medical work you don't do it on on on sales at the time you do it on the promise of the company and that's turned out to work. I mean an early company that I was an adviser do for many many years was was genetech in that came out and stock market and did fantastic and they had no products a lot of promise but ultimately they did get products and those products. Were were blockbusters. Let's talk about the entrepreneurial nature of what you've done your pioneer in science You though you are also a pioneer in tech transfer in a way in commercializing a lot of this research. What are some of the hurdles that you've faced entrepreneurially? Even outside of you know the development of your lab in the early days in the nineteen eighties. You know. Well I think I think the challenges that you run into when you try to Pharaoh things I mean. One is always raising money but to this again. Some of your colleagues won't think highly of it. You know they you know. Dr Folkman actually said at a very well once. He actually got one of the earliest industrial grant. So you got about twenty three million dollars for Monsanto for cancer research in the nineteen seventies and he was at a dinner. Somebody asked him What are the advantages and disadvantages of getting that kind of money and he said well? Let me do the disadvantages. I he said. There's a gene that a lot of people have That's not expressed directly. It's expressed indirectly and he said that genius called Jealousy. And if you're a young faculty member that's not such a good thing because people can control your your future you know and then a third thing is anytime you try to create any entity. You're dealing with all kinds of people. I mean with different personalities. I mean that's good because they're gonNA but somehow they have to come together to create this company and you have to have good business people and good scientists and good Clinical people and sometimes there might be conflicts. And so you have to try to help on those things. You've you've helped launch close to two thirty companies. It's not like you're being Jeff Bezos and you launched one company called Amazon here you have sprinkled dozens of companies around in in your atmosphere. So how do you think about Starting a company. You just say well. Here's a great idea. And Hey you. Ceo With this specific background. You go run with it. And I'll advise you're like a godfather to these companies more than in the trenches every day. I think that that's probably fair. I mean to me my major mission still is being professor and teaching and doing research at MIT in training students. But I also want when we create something for it to get out to the public and and my students and post. Docs some of them. Some of them will go into academic positions Some of them WANNA take their inventions and make a company out of it. And so I you know so if we're fortunate enough to a have made an important discovery and be have somebody who wants to run with it you know. I want to help them do that. Incidentally some of the applications for your research have been in fields other than medicine. One example is in the waste industry. Can you describe that well actually one of the things that one of our post doc Shaw Vidalia created with something was a palmer? But that would help in. What's called flocculation? And what's what and what that means is like you have a swimming pool and you have waste or Junkin. Swimming Pool could be leaves or could be. You know dirt anything. A flocculation is something that makes those things come together so rather than it be over your entire pool over your entire surface. It comes together and it's very easy to then remove And so there's something that Company licensed called Super Flock. That that's was ver- you know very very widely used what are some other tangible technologies? That have come out of your lab that we might know AF- well we've created Fat Substitutes that people have used of foods That's an example like for example Hood no-fat Sour cream or yogurts does use those use these products. I may near a whole bunch of things like that There's a company we've started Called living proof Which is in the hair care industry? And also Jennifer. Aniston is involved in that as well as an investor. Yes and and social so there. There's products that the company in my students and Post. Docs and everybody we've And people the company that created that can prevent frizzy hair that can Give her more body. And of course all a medical wants some of the companies that we've been involved in. I mean they've created products that Can HELP PEOPLE WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA? Help people with alcoholism how people with diabetes. What's an example of an application of your discovery to a treatment of alcoholism so the very first company that I got involved. Starting was accompanied ends attack and what we did was make little discount from our early discoveries that we could make microbes fears that could release molecules of a of any size. We merged that company with our downstairs. Neighbor alchemists and basically that company has Created a micro sphere that can deliver a drug for a month. It's been shown to greatly reduce Alcoholism so microbes. Fear being a polymer that releases a chemical that inhibits the desire to drink alcohol. That's exactly right. Yeah it's A. It's a little microbes. Fear that you can inject through a small needle once a month and And and and dentist just what you said. You can also use that same microscope to reduce people's reliance on cocaine or narcotics as well. We talked a lot about polymers. And a controlled drug delivery To things like tumors. You've also spent a good portion of your career on tissue engineering tissue regeneration. Can you describe what that is briefly? Sure well lots of times. People have serious medical problems where they don't have their gone bad or they're burned or all kinds of problems where they don't have a tissue or organ or has been seriously damaged so around. Nineteen eighty-three a friend of mine. J. Conti he's had a pediatric surgery at mass general. The came to talk to me about this at that time. He was head of the liver transplant. Program at Children's Hospital and we started talking about ways that we might be able to use plastics and sells mammalian cells to to craft new tissues and organs and That would eventually lead to new strategies for creating artificial skin for burn victims New ways of of creating while livers or you know Intestines orcas a lot of them are at the research stage. We're also looking at ways of making spy. New Spinal cords for people that are paralyzed vocal. Cords for people have difficulty speaking or singing so all kinds of things like that. So what is the tissue of while the strategy that we use is you have Palmer's plastic scaffold and then you put the cells and over time the cells make what's called their own extra cellular Matrix so all the same proteins hopefully and sugars and other things that are in the human body To begin with the cells recreate and over time that plastic scaffold dissolves. It's a desirable scaffold that we've designed so in essence rather than ladies girdles or other things. What you're having is with the body normally would have which are the what are called these extra cellular matrix proteins and polysaccharide so the plastic delivers sort of a platter for this artificial tissue. Which flirts with or franchises with the real tissue in the body and they cohere and intermingle and then become their own organism. Pretty well And issues his own challenges. But that's sort of the general strategy that we've developed and Jessica Harris. You're listening to from scratch my guest. Dr Robert Langer founder and chief researcher of the language labs at Mit Dr Langer holds over eight hundred. Issued or pending patents. Two hundred and fifty companies have licensed or sublicense. The discoveries originated in his lapse. Dr Langer is a magician. I'd like to turn to your personal life Tell me about this magic while I've always been fascinated by magic so from time to time. I try to learn how to do tricks. I mean I remember taking even a magic class and I would always love going to magic shops and seeing people do do tricks and I used to do a shows when my kids were little that I remember one time even doing a show at mit for four hundred people. That was a while ago. I I'm probably pretty rusty now. Is there an area of magic that you prefer? Do you like the cards or the body disappearance or what. Yeah well actually I like. I like the cards. People have often broken up magic into two kinds of magic stage magic and close up magic stage. Magic is like the body disappearing and things like that. But I've I've always liked the sort of close up magic with cards or coins but particularly cars have always thought those those are fascinating in a way magic and chemistry or science seem on the face of it very similar. You have something that you know on the surface is is wow generating and your job and your hobby is to understand how to create that. Wow you your job is to understand the reasons for that outcome. Then some things could even you know appear like magic like we just published a paper a week or two ago and science where some of my post docs found like this This plastic or polymer. That can you put it on your hand and starts jumping all over the place and it can even lift things that's almost magical and and a lot of what we've ended up doing in the lab is is understanding better phenomena that Is is extremely complicated. How long have you been interested in magic? Oh I've been many many years since I was a little boy. You grew up in Albany. New York what did your parents do. Well my dad ran Small liquor store and my mom was a homemaker and Jeremy my sister. What was your home? Life like was it was great. I mean you know we lived on a small street in Albany You know I had a lot of friends. Remember playing baseball and football and things like that and I went to the local public school twenty-seven it was. It was nice. You're an inventor. Essentially at what point did you think you know? I'd like to be an inventor or some type of Creator or engineer In your childhood were those seeds apparent to you that early. They weren't apparent to me that early but one of the things that I had That I got US gifts There's a company called Gilbert when I was a little boy and they have made all kinds of great things that kids like to play with. I mean they had this erector set and they had a whole bunch of different ones of various Complexity you know where you could build structures like a merry go round and other where there was like a parachute. Jump another where you could launch rockets. And then they also had a microscope set and they had a chemistry set and so I really enjoyed that kind of stuff when I was a little boy. I Even like with the chemistry set. I remember mixing different chemicals together and watching. The Solutions Changed Color. Which is magic.

Alcoholism Dr Robert Langer palmer Albany Dr Folkman Polaris Jeff Bezos MIT mit Monsanto Amazon Jessica Harris faculty member Ceo cocaine Shaw Vidalia Swimming Aniston Children's Hospital
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

14:00 min | 11 months ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"How did the energy crisis indirectly lead you to the field of scientific discovery? Sure was this gas shortage. You know all over the country and there's the guests orders in Boston was really bad. So they're all kinds of jobs in the petrochemical oil industry for chemical engineers. They are hiring like crazy. Pretty much. My colleagues my friends. That's what they did. They got jobs in the oil industry and so I thought that's what I should do too so I went to A lot of interviews and I actually got about twenty job offers from different Oil companies actually four from Exxon alone. But I remember one of them in particular one of the engineers said to me if you could just increase the yield of this one chemical by like point one percent said that'd be wonderful. It'd be worth billions of dollars and I remember flying home to Boston that night thinking to myself. I just don't WanNa do that. Just seemed to me. You know that I could do things that I could do with my life that I thought maybe could help. People would be more important at least to me so So I started looking for other other ideas about what I could do. Now you send some ideas for a chemistry curriculum to various education institutions. How were they received one of the things I did when I was a graduate student at? Mit is. I helped. Start a school for poor kids and a high school and I got involved in creating new chemistry curricula and so I remember writing letters Answering different adds to different colleges To be an assistant professor that would be developing new chemistry curriculum but none of them wrote me back so the next thing I thought about since I wasn't doing so well finding good jobs finding any jobs where I could do chemistry education. I thought about medicine so I wrote a Lotta to route lot of hospitals medical schools. And they they didn't write me back either but one day One of the people in the lab ours at said to me said Bob. There's a surgeon in Boston. Named Judah Folkman and he said sometimes he hires unusual people. He thought very highly Dr Folkman. I won't say what he about me but I wrote to Dr Folkman and he was kind enough to offer me a job and it was your research with Dr Faulk men that had a seminal impact on What you're doing today to some degree. What was it specifically that you were working on? So Dr Folkman had a theory that if you could stop blood vessels from growing in the body that that might be a new way to stop cancer someday. A new way to treat cancer someday but it was a theory. Actually a lot of people didn't agree with that theory. And and what he asked me to do is to see. If I could isolate what would become the first Inhibitor of of angiogenesis. The first inhibitor of blood vessel growth. So that was how. That's how I got started. If you could stop the growth of blood vessels you could stop the growth of tumors developing further. Is that correct? The thinking was is that An is that tumors without blood vessels will not go beyond a very tiny size of about one millimeter cute but if the tumors permeated by blood vessels then that solves the nutrition problem from them for them and they can get much bigger and then of course they can also metastasized or spread through those same blood vessels and set up shop in other parts of the body. You used an eye of a rabbit to help with your research. What is special about the eye of a rabbit? Yeah well it's it's big So it's easy to visualize so what we thought about was if we could have a plastic. Aslo RELEASED POLYMER. That could take anything. That was in Cartilage that's what we were studying and a not cause harm to the eye and be deliver those molecules for a couple of months or more that that might be a way to study how blood vessels would grow or not grow. You mentioned polymers. These are plastics. Essentially the polymers. We use would be plastics. Polymers could also be rubber and so forth Palmer's basically along chain substance we're talking about manufactured tissues polymers. What was the landscape of biomaterials? When you were pioneering this field in the nineteen seventies. Yeah well it's interesting most biomaterials That people used in the body were are largely driven by medical doctors clinicians. And what they do is they would often go to their house and find an object. It would kind of resemble the organ or tissue. They wanted to fix so just to give a few examples it the material and the artificial heart that was ladies girdle material. Because it had a good you know good buoyancy your flex life and the material and a breast implant That was actually one of them was actually a mattress stuffing because it was the right. Squishy NECE The material in a what's called a vascular graft and artificial blood vessel that was a surgeon going to a close store and finding something they could so well with. And so almost. All of the biomaterials in the seventies had origins like that. They were sort of what I'd call off the shelf materials and that may solve some problems but it also created problems because they weren't optimally designed for the body presentable. If you take the artificial heart the ladies girdle material you put it in the body. And sometimes the blood hits the surface of that and it forms a clot and that clock. Go to the patient's brain and they'd get a stroke in they die and obviously there's been problems with different breast implant materials and other things as well. I'm Jessica Harris. You're listening to from scratch. My guest is the chemical engineer. Dr Robert Langer. Who is the chief researcher and founder of the Langar labs at Mit? He's considered a pioneer in the fields of tissue engineering and drug delivery in the nineteen eighties. You founded the LANGUOR lab at MIT. What was the purpose for this lab? My goals were to do things that I thought might someday help improve people's lives by doing things at the interface of chemical engineering and medicine. How was it received when you went to the administration at Mit? And said you know? I'd like to form this lab just to facilitate this research that I'm doing well certainly the my early years. Doing the research number of my senior colleagues didn't think it was very important or didn't think it was very good and they suggested that I probably should start looking for new jobs. Why wasn't because the field was so nascent there were a lot of I was that I think that that people people's idea of what's important probably has a lot to do with what they're doing themselves and you know and and and they had different areas in this department. But this didn't fit into any of those and the I think the thinking was if I didn't fit into something that that pre existed I probably wouldn't get promoted. I probably wouldn't get tenure since your research wasn't well received at MIT. Did you ever think of maybe moving to an environment? That was more friendly to the type of work. You're doing well I actually think. Mit was as friendly as any place. You know my first nine grants were turned down an nobody an MIT were on the sections at turned them down in fact mit was was. You know I still think is a great place to be if you go against the prevailing scientific wisdom anywhere in the world. You're going to run into problems. So how did you break through that conventional bias? Why don't know if I really ever did. I just kept doing the work that I thought was important and I started you know publishing it and and I think pharmaceutical companies started to notice it and they said that they were nice enough to say that the work they thought was very important. What were some examples of early breakthroughs that helped to lend credibility to what you were doing? So so we published this paper in nineteen seventy six in nature showing that you could deliver molecules of almost any size so that that was probably the breakthrough Or that was maybe the first breakthrough but people thought trying to get these molecules. Big Molecules through a plastic was kind of like you are walking through a brick wall even though the plastic was porous. Bob People didn't know that then and we didn't know that then either so the challenge would be the following. You could either have something that would be non-porous that you couldn't get through it all or anything. That was poorest. Would be kind of like Swiss cheese so you could get through it but then you get through it almost instantaneously and what we were saying was that we have these tiny little particles and yet the drugs would come out for over one hundred days so the problem would be. How could that happen? And not just defied what? I like to say conventional wisdom. We talk about your your research. I gaining an academic acceptance. What was the first example of the commercialization of one of your findings? Well there were a couple but I think one of the early ones was We designed polymers. That could Dissolve in a certain special way. And we what we call surface erosion kind of like how far. Soap dissolves and. What was done in this particular case as it delivers an anti cancer drug? It sorta told her all done locally so the cancer drug doesn't go throughout the whole body. It just is given locally. To the to the tumor and then there was a company originally Nova Pharmaceuticals and later Guilford pharmaceuticals that licensed it and developed it and ultimately it led to a product. That still used today actually intriguing. Brain cancer called Glee. Delaware for this is one of the earliest examples of the commercialization of one of your discoveries since then Roughly two hundred and fifty companies have license or sub-licensed. Your your discoveries were you surprised by this torrent of commercial applications for for what you were doing. It's hard to say whether I surprised or not. I wanted people to use it. You know when you're in academia and you're a professor. I mean you're training students which I love to do. And you're making discoveries and findings which is also what I like to do but I also WanNa see what we do get used. I just don't want it to be a scientific paper that just you know people read about. I wanted to see what we did. Have an impact on people's lives. That's why got involved in patenting processes them. That's why you know I. I wanted to see our things. Get licensed to companies and ultimately licensed create companies ourselves. Because if we didn't do that you know I find if you're not your own champion. It's very hard to find others. Who are going to be often. There's controversy around Tech transfer universities or academics using their discoveries for commercial ends because it leads to potential conflicts of interest. What was that landscape? Like free you think. Mit You know along with Stanford is probably one of the is the top to technology transfer places and in the world and I think their goal is really the same as mine is not actually to make money. It's not too it's really. How can we you know? Maximize the chances of products being developed. Mit which was founded in eighteen. Sixty one One of its mission was to provide and support industrialization of America so not had more of a commercial slant to it then perhaps academic institutions. I think that's right I think. Mit wants to see products created. They want to see things get out to the public incidently once say at a technology or an innovation is discovered and is profitable. It's split in three ways. Third of the profit goes to the Department. A third goes to the university and a third goes to the inventor. As far as I know that that's the policy that Mit us. And I think a lot of universities. Follow something close to that. We're talking about the profitability of some of these discoveries and you turn to the private sector for the funding of some of these companies. Polaris is a venture capital company in Boston. That has invested over two hundred million dollars in your company's roughly twenty companies How did that relationship start? There was a company we that was starting with A woman named Sherry Oberg and she was Wanted to have a company that would create a new imaging agents and we'd published a paper actually and science that lend itself to doing that. She was a dartmouth graduate on the business school. She knew a guy named Terry McGuire and she introduced me to him and was probably early nineties and she also asked if he was interested in investing in a company which he did. So we've had a great relationship in like you said they've probably done close to twenty companies That we've been involved in. What our imaging agents you said that she developed so in this case. Let's say you were doing an ultrasound And for certain things you can use ultrasound and get a pretty good picture but for example if you wanted to see whether you had a heart defector certain other kinds of vascular abnormality and you try to use ultrasound. Contrast isn't good enough so if you could create an ultrasound contrast station that was good enough. Then you could see things by ultrasound imaging that you wouldn't really be able to see otherwise and you could certainly see it with much much greater detail. So for instance. If you're pregnant and you go to get an ultrasound. Are Some of these. Imaging agents used in seeing the baby and the Placenta. So in the case of of looking at a baby. You don't need to do that because I think the contrast good enough. But if you wanted to look at if you want it to look at something much smaller. Let's say you want to look at at at I'll make this up the babies Toe or something like that and you wanted to zoom in on. It might be very hard to see with the regular picture. The contrast agent might be useful for doing that by the way. I think there are still hardly any ultrasound. Agents approved The ultrasound contrast agents approved. I expect there will be by this or others..

Mit Boston cancer Bob People Judah Folkman Exxon graduate student Dr Robert Langer Dr Folkman Jessica Harris Brain cancer Delaware assistant professor Dr Faulk
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

03:02 min | 1 year ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"Dr folkman compared research search to driving at night. Can you describe that analogy yes. That's that's very good doctor. Fogelman said <hes> you know trying to solve the problem of of angiogenesis or some of the other things would be kind of like driving at night you can only you can't see past where the headlights go but you can do the whole trip that way so in other words but you don't know the answer when you're starting but you could make steps and those steps would eventually get you there. What are some images that come to your mind. When you think of your research you know one. Is this driving at night. What about like crystallization you know how they have a formation of a crystal and it becomes like this whole network of crystals but that's my own candy. That's significant -nificant. I mean that that's an example. I mean certainly one thing that actually we were involved. In in fact we started a company on that too was a company called transform where one one of the challenges actually when you make pharmaceuticals is having a good shelf life because you don't wanna use a drug if if if the drug after you make it as unstable after a month the nobody's gonna use it. You're gonna ship it. All over the world you need and a lot of times you won't use a drug for a year or two so getting the drug and the right crystal form mm. That's in the right stability. That actually is a big deal. If you don't get it nari crystal form it may not be stable and then it won't be useful to anybody but if it isn't right crystal form it can be very stable you exercise daily. How long have you been exercising. And why is it so important to you while i've probably been exercising <hes> probably for a lot probably the last thirty two years thirty. Three years is important while my dad died of a heart attack when he was sixty one. You know i was twenty eight at the time i mean it so i just wanna live as long as i can for my kids and my wife and my family and what kind of extra what do you do for exercise well i <hes> use a recumbent bike <hes> elliptical machine treadmill <hes> and waits for how long poly two to three hours a day said two to three hours that seems <hes> above average. I think it's probably quite a bit above average certainly for somebody my age but i <hes> i'm able to work while i do it and <hes> my wife and kids actually exercise a lot. You know we have this gym at home so sometimes we're all doing it together at least a few of us and so <hes> but i it is certainly above average. You mentioned your wife <hes> you met your wife at m._i._t. She's a neuroscientist. I had did you meet. We met on the track. I was running actually outside and so she i knew her though a little bit because one of the people in our lab lab was roommates with her so i knew her a little bit but then we cy sore on the track when we started talking and so that's how that happened but thank you very much for joining us my pleasure. I enjoyed it very much. My guest has been the chemical engineer dr robert langer. I'm jessica harris. This is from scratch scratch..

dr robert langer Dr folkman Fogelman jessica harris three hours thirty two years Three years
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

04:06 min | 1 year ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"Let's talk about the entrepreneurial nature of what you've done your pioneer in science <hes> you though oh you are also a pioneer in tech transfer in a way in commercializing a lot of this research. What are some of the hurdles that you've faced. Entrepreneurially even outside of you know the development of your lab in the early days in the nineteen eighties you know well. I think i think the challenges that you run into when you try to borough things i mean one is always raising money but to this again. Some of your colleagues won't think highly of it you know they you know dr folkman actually really set at a very well once. He actually got one of the earliest industrial grant so you got about twenty three million dollars for monsanto for cancer research in the nineteen seventies and he was at a dinner. Somebody asked him <hes> what are the advantages and disadvantages of getting that kind of money and he said well let me do the disadvantages i he said there's a gene that a lot of people have <hes> that's not expressed directly expressed indirectly and he said that genius called jealousy and if you're a young faculty member that's not such a good thing because people can control your your future sure you know and then a third thing is anytime you try to create any entity. You're dealing with all kinds of people. I mean with different personalities i mean that's good because they're gonna but somehow somehow they have to come together to create this company and you have to have good business people and good scientists and good <hes> clinical people and sometimes there might be conflicts and so all you have to try to help on those things you've you've helped launch close to two thirty companies. It's not like you're being jeff. Bezos and you launched. One company called amazon here here. You have sprinkled dozens of companies around in in your atmosphere. So how do you think about <hes> starting a company. You just say well. Here's here's a great idea and hey you c._e._o. With this specific background you go run with it and i'll advise you're like a godfather to these companies more then in the trenches every day yeah. I think that that's probably fair. I mean to me my major. Mission still is being professor and teaching and doing research at m._i._t. In training students but i also want when we create something for it to get out to the public and and my students and post docs some of them some of them will go into academic positions nations <hes> some of them wanna take their inventions and make a company out of it and so i you know so if we're fortunate enough to a have made important discovery and be have somebody who wants to run with it you know i i want to help them do that. Incidentally some of the applications for your research have been in in fields other than medicine. One example is in the waste industry. Can you describe that well actually one of the things that one of our post doc savvy don't created with something was palmer but that would help in what's called flocculation and what's what and what that means is like you have a swimming pool and you have the waist or junkins swimming pool could be leaves or could be you know dirt anything. A flocculation is something that makes those things come together so rather than it be over your entire pool over your entire surface. It comes together and it's very easy to then remove <hes> and so there's something that <hes> company licensed called super flock that that's was ver- you know very very widely used what are some other tangible technologies that have come out of your lab that we might know off while we've created <hes> fat substitutes that people have used of foods <hes>. That's an example like for example hood. No fat sour cream or yogurts does use those use these products. I may near a whole bunch of things like that. <hes> there's a company. We've started started. <hes> called living proof <hes> which is in the hair care industry and also jennifer aniston is involved in that as well as an investor yes and and social ocean so there there's products that the company in my students and post docs and everybody we've <hes> and people the company that created that can prevent frizzy hair..

professor jennifer aniston monsanto dr folkman Bezos faculty member amazon palmer twenty three million dollars
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

03:59 min | 1 year ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"He thought very highly a doctor folkman won't say what he thought about me but i wrote to dr folkman and he was kind enough to offer me a job and it was your research with dr faulk men that had had a seminal impact on what you're doing today to some degree. What was it specifically that you were working on. So dr folkman had a theory that if you could stop blood vessels from growing in the body that that might be a new way to stop cancer someday a new way to treat cancer someday but it was a theory and actually a lot of people people didn't agree with that theory and and what he asked me to do is to see if i could isolate what would become the first <hes> inhibitor of of angiogenesis the first inhibitor of blood vessel growth so that was how that's how i got started. If you could stop the growth of blood vessels you could stop the growth of tumors developing further. Is that correct yeah. As the thinking was is that <hes> an is that tumors without blood vessels will not go beyond a very tiny the size of about one millimeter cube but if the tumors permeated by blood vessels then that solves the nutrition problem from them for them and they can get much bigger and then of course they can also metastasized or spread through those same blood vessels and set up shop in other parts of the body. You used an eye of a rabbit to help with your research. What a special about the eye of a rabbit yeah well. It's it's big <hes> so it's easy to visualize so what we thought about was if we could have a plastic a slow release polymer that could take anything that was in <hes> cartilage. That's what we were studying and a not cause harm to the eye and be deliver liver those molecules for a couple of months or more that that might be a way to study how blood vessels would grow or not grow you mentioned polymers. These are plastics essentially the polymers ulmer's. We use would be plastics. Polymers could also be rubber and so forth palmer's basically along chain substance. We're talking about manufactured tissues polymers. What was the landscape of biomaterials when you were pioneering. This field in the nineteen seventies yeah well. It's interesting most biomaterials <hes> that <hes> people used in the body who are largely driven by medical doctors clinicians and what they do is they would often go to their house and find an object it would kind of resemble the organ or tissue they wanted to fix so just to give a few examples it the material and the artificial heart that was ladies girdle material because it had a good you know good buoyancy your flex life and the material and a breast implant <hes> that was actually one of them was actually a mattress stuffing because it was the right squishy nece <hes> the the material in a what's called the vascular graft and artificial blood vessel that was a surgeon going to a close store and finding something they could so well with and so almost all of the biomaterials <music> materials in the seventies had origins like that they were sort of what i'd call off the shelf materials and that may solve some problems but it also created problems because they weren't optimally designed for the body example. If you take the artificial heart the ladies girdle material you put it in the body and sometimes the blood hits the surface of that and it forms a clot and that clock go to the patient's brain and they'd get a stroke in they die and obviously there's been problems with different breast implant materials and other things as well. I'm jessica harris. You're listening to from scratch. My guest is the chemical engineer dr robert langer who is the chief researcher and founder of the langar labs at m._i._t. He is considered a pioneer in the field of tissue engineering and drug delivery in the nineteen eighties. You founded the languor lab at m._i._t. What what was the purpose for this lab. My goals were to do things that i thought might someday help. Improve people's lives by doing things at the interface of chemical engineering and medicine. How was it received when you went to the administration at m._i._t..

dr folkman cancer dr faulk dr robert langer jessica harris palmer researcher founder
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

03:02 min | 2 years ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"Dr Folkman compare. Aired research to driving at night. Can you describe that analogy? Yes, that's that's very good. Doctor Oakland said, you know, trying to solve the problem of angiogenesis or some of the other things would be kind of like driving at night, you can only you can't see past where the headlights go. But you can do the whole trip that way. So in other words, you don't know the answer when you're starting, but you could make steps and those steps would eventually get you there. What are some images that come to your mind when you think of your research, you know, one is this driving at night? What about like crystallization, you know, how they have a formation of crystal, and it becomes like this whole network of crystals. But that's my own. That's significant. I mean that that's an example. I mean, certainly one thing that actually we were involved in. In fact, we started a company on that too. Was a company called transform where one of the challenges actually when you make pharmaceuticals who's having a good shelf life because you don't wanna use a drug if drug after you make it as unstable. After a month. Nobody's gonna use it. You can ship all over the world you need and a lot of times you won't use a drug for a year or two. So getting the drug in the right crystal form, that's in the right stability that actually is a big deal. If you don't get it in the crystal form, it may not be stable, and then it won't be useful to anybody. But if it isn't the right, crystal form, it can be very stable you exercise daily, how long have you been exercising? And why is it so important to you while I've probably been exercising? Probably for a lot. Probably those last thirty two years thirty three years, I import while my dad died of a heart attack when he was sixty one. And you know, I was twenty eight at the time in it. So I just wanna live as long as I can for my kids, and my wife and my family, and what kind of exit. What do you do for exercise? Well, I use recumbent bike elliptical machine treadmill and weights. For how long probably two three hours a day said two to three hours that seems above average. I think it's probably quite a bit above average, certainly for somebody my age, but I I'm able to work while I do it, and my wife and kids actually exercise a lot we have this gym at home. So sometimes we're all doing it together, or at least a few of us. And so, but I it is certainly above average. You mentioned your wife you met your wife at MIT. She's a neuroscientist had. Did you meet we met on the truck was running actually outside? And so she I knew her though a little bit because one of the people in our lab was roommates with her. So I knew a little bit. But then we saw on the track. And we started talking. So that's how that happened. Thank you very much for joining us. It's my pleasure. I enjoyed it. Very much has been the chemical engineer, Dr Robert Langer. I'm Jessica Harris. This is from scratch.

Dr Folkman Dr Robert Langer Doctor Oakland Jessica Harris MIT thirty three years thirty two years two three hours three hours
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

04:15 min | 2 years ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"At MIT and this was during the nineteen seventies during the energy crisis. How did the energy crisis indirectly lead you to the field of scientific discovery? Sure. The sketch shortage, you know, all over the. Entry the gas orders in Boston was really bad. So they're all kinds of jobs in the petrochemical industry for chemical engineers. They are hiring like crazy pretty much, my colleagues my friends. That's what they did. They got jobs in the ARL industry. And so I thought that's what I should do too. So I went to a lot of interviews. And I actually I got about twenty job offers from different oil companies actually four from Exxon alone. But I remember one of them in particular, one of the engineers said to me, and if you could just increase the yield of this one chemical by like point one percent, he said that would be wonderful be worth billions of dollars. And I remember flying home to Boston that night thinking to myself. I just don't want to do that just seemed to me, you know, that I could do things that I do with my life that I thought maybe could help people and would be more important at least to me. So so I started looking for other other ideas about what I could do. Now, you send. Some ideas for a chemistry curriculum to various education institutions Hauer. They received one of the things I did when I was a graduate student at MIT as I helped start a school for poor kids and high school, and I got involved in creating new chemistry curricula. And so I remember writing letters answering different adds to different colleges to be an assistant professor that would be developing new chemistry curriculum. But none of them wrote me back. So the next thing I thought about since I wasn't doing. So well, finding good jobs finding any jobs where I could do chemistry education. I thought about medicine so I wrote a lot to route lot of hospitals and medical schools, and they they didn't write me back either. But one day one of the people in the lab ours at said to me said Bob there's a surgeon in Boston named Judah Folkman, and he said sometimes he hires unusual people. He thought very highly Dr Folkman, I won't say what he thought about Mick. But I wrote to Dr Folkman, and he was kind. Enough to offer me a job, and it was your research with Dr Faulk men that had a seminal impact on what you're doing today to some degree. What was it specifically that you were working on? So Dr Folkman had a theory that if you could stop blood vessels from growing in the body that that might be a new way to stop cancer someday a new way to treat cancer someday. But it was a theory and actually a lot of people didn't agree with that the and and what he asked me to do is to see if I could isolate what would become the first inhibitor of of angiogenesis, I inhibitor of blood vessel growth. So that was how that's how I got started. If you could stop the growth of blood vessels. You could stop the growth of tumors developing further is that correct? Yeah. As hit the thinking was is that an is that tumors without blood vessels will not go beyond a very tiny size of about one millimeter cute. But if the tumors permeated by blood vessels than that solves nutrition problem from them for them, and they can get much bigger. And then of course, they can also metastasized or spread through those same blood vessels and set up shop in other parts of the body of a rabbit. To help with your research. What is special about the eye of a rabbit? Yeah. Well, it's it's big. So it's easy to visualize. So what we thought about was if we could have a plastic slowly polymer that could take anything that was in cartilage. That's what we were studying and a not cause harm to the eye and be deliver those molecules for a couple months or more that that might be a way to study how blood vessels would grow or not grow. You mentioned polymers these are plastics, essentially, the polymers we use would be plastics polymers could also be rubber and so forth commerce. Basically a long chain substance. We're talking about manufactured tissues polymers, what was the landscape of bio materials when you were pioneering this field in the nineteen seventies..

Judah Folkman Boston Hauer MIT Exxon cancer ARL Dr Faulk Mick assistant professor graduate student Dr Folkman Bob one percent one day
"dr folkman" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

04:41 min | 2 years ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts

"So as as she was saying, I think that after time people can quit look over their shoulder every day. I get up and wondering if the is looming for them again and move on. I mean, that's what makes me so happy about the show about Sharon's experience because she was told by physicians don't have any children and after a while five and she said, none cared. I'm gonna have my kids normal life, Monica mcnealy. How I mean, how many immunotherapy is are are out there right now. Well, we have fifteen cancer indication. Fifty indications. So fifteen specific cancer conditions that are now approved have drugs approved by the US FDA for treatment using him, you know therapies. But what's another fascinating thing about our field is there are literally thousands last count about two thousand different new immunotherapy drugs agents approaches that are currently undergoing clinical testing. So the field is just been blown wide open by by the proof of principle that untangling this biology can have a true transformative effect on patients lives, and I just took a single landslide two thousand currently in development or clinical trial, different agents from hitting different tart, different components of the immune system are all undergoing. Nicole testing across the world. And when's the last time cancer research has seen that kind of explosion in potential therapies? Oh, I don't think ever. I mean, this is really this is really a completely new era. And you know, we really have to knowledge that why are we here? We're here because there's been a tremendous investment on the part of our government on the part of of of industry in understanding tumor biology in a very deep level. And that understanding is leading to so many different possibilities for for treatment of cancer. I wonder if I, I, I wanna just inject a little bit of not skepticism, but perhaps a little caution here because and please correct me if I'm wrong because I remember a while ago maybe a generation ago, there was a lot of excitement, for example, around Judah Folkman research and NGO Genesis and cancers thinking like if we, if we sort of figured out a way to block the blood flow to tumors at that would be a way to. To really get rid of any and all cancers in the body. Very exciting line of research perhaps didn't yield the kind of treatments that we're seeing. Now with immunotherapy should we so should we continue to have some some measure of a grain of salt or skepticism, even around this moment of great excitement of jail Magnette couldn't have possibly picked a better example. You know, we didn't plan this, but you know, one of the things I'm sure Dr Alison can will chime in here too, is that that work that Dr Folkman did to look at the blood vessels is now being combined with the drugs that Dr Allison's group has developed with with came out of his work and the combination of targeting the blood vessel together with targeting the tea with activating the taking the brakes off the t. cell is producing even better responses in some tumors. So at that nothing goes wasted. That's that's correct corrected the one of the things that we're realizing that. Is coming coming. True is that does that just immunotherapy can be combined with not only other therapies but with conventional therapies chemotherapy. And as you said end you enter Genesis therapies in virtually anything that kills tumor cells can be used to prime immune response. So that's why they're so many combinations out there. So many that we've, we've got a really, you know, have have data before deciding to do a combination in any kind of scale or else would you know we're going to be going down a lot of false leads. All right. Well, you know, we've had a lot of callers who want to join us because obviously cancer is a huge issue that does have an impact on so many people's lives. You're listening to our to Jim Allison. He was awarded the two, the two thousand eighteen Nobel prize in physiology or medicine for his work in cancer immunotherapy, he shares that a word of the tussock Honjo of Kyoto University, and you're also hearing from Monica Burton Yolly. She's president of the American society for Clinical Oncology. Chief of the division of surgical oncology at danafarber, Brigham and women's hospital cancer center. So we've got a couple of the top researchers in cancer with us this hour..

cancer Dr Folkman Monica Burton Yolly Sharon Nicole hospital cancer center Monica mcnealy Jim Allison American society for Clinical US FDA Nobel prize Judah Folkman Brigham NGO Genesis Magnette Dr Allison Dr Alison
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

02:02 min | 2 years ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"I really enjoyed that kind of stuff when i was a little boy and even like with the chemistry shout i remember mixing different chemicals together and watching the solutions change color which is magic but also it was a chemical reaction going on that caused that but i still i didn't never thought about inventing it i just thought it was it was fun you said that you that you fell into what you're doing accidents or was it was it more mindful while i think it's somewhat accidental i mean you know i certainly had no grand plan ever i think the big thing that changed it for me in terms of what i ended up doing was what my post doctoral work after i graduated from mit when i went to work for judah folkman and i was like probably one of the few chemical engineers in the world maybe the only one working in surgery lab and i started thinking about applying chemical engineering to medicine and that that was that certainly changed my life dr folkman compare aired research to driving at night can you describe that analogy yes that's that's very good doctor oakland said you know trying to solve the problem of angiogenesis or some of the other things would be kind of like driving at night you can only you can't see past where the headlights go but you can do the whole trip that way so in other words you don't know the answer when you're starting but you could make steps and those steps would eventually get you there what are some images that come to your mind when you think of your research you know what is this driving at night what about like crystallization you know how they have a formation of a crystal and it becomes like this whole network of crystals but that's my own jimmy that's significant i mean that that's an example i mean certainly one thing that actually we were involved in in fact we started a company on that too was a company called transform where one of the challenges actually when you make pharmaceuticals who's having a good shelf life because you don't wanna use a drug if drug after you make it as unstable.

judah folkman jimmy
"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

From Scratch

01:49 min | 2 years ago

"dr folkman" Discussed on From Scratch

"Some ideas for a chemistry curriculum to various education institutions hauer they received one of the things i did when i was a graduate student at mit as i helped start a school for poor kids and high school and i got involved in creating new chemistry curricula and so i remember writing letters answering different adds to different colleges to be an assistant professor that would be developing new chemistry curriculum but none of them wrote me back so the next thing i thought about since i wasn't doing so well finding good jobs finding any jobs where i could do chemistry education i thought about medicine so i wrote a lot to route lot of hospitals and medical schools and they they didn't write me back either but one day one of the people in the lab ours at said to me said bob there's a surgeon in boston named judah folkman and he said sometimes he hires unusual people he thought very highly dr folkman i won't say what he thought about mick but i wrote to dr folkman and he was kind enough to offer me a job and it was your research with dr faulk men that had a seminal impact on what you're doing today to some degree what was it specifically that you were working on so dr folkman had a theory that if you could stop blood vessels from growing in the body that that might be a new way to stop cancer someday a new way to treat cancer someday but it was a theory and actually a lot of people didn't agree with that the and and what he asked me to do is to see if i could isolate what would become the first inhibitor of of angiogenesis the first inhibitor of blood vessel growth so that was how that's how i got started if you could stop the growth of blood vessels you could stop the growth of tumors developing further is that correct.

graduate student assistant professor bob boston judah folkman mick cancer dr folkman dr faulk one day