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Ruth Snyder Pt. 1
"Due to the graphic nature of these crimes listener discretion is advised. This episode includes discussions of violence that some people may find offensive. We advise extreme caution for children under the age of thirteen. Albert Snyder wove across the living room through the crowd of party gas until he found an unoccupied chair to sit in. He listened to the excitement incitement around him the laughing the music and the card playing but he had no desire to join in on the fun he was having enough trouble trying to keep the room from spinning. He hadn't intended on getting drunk. He was trying to be careful last time he drank like this. He'd woken up the next morning to find his wallet missing. That was the problem with the sort of parties. His wife dragged him to. They always lead to trouble. Albert grunted as his wife Ruth pushed yet another glass of bootleg whiskey into his hands. He I noticed she didn't have a drink of her own. which was strange? It wasn't like route to stay sober when everyone else was indulging. He trying to push the drink away but ruth insisted. She said she wasn't feeling well. And Albert might as well have her share as he molded over over. Ruth smiled stroked his head and called him her baby lamb Albert balked. She never acted this way at home he sent. She was hiding something but it was late and his mind swimming. He decided to let it go and take the drink. Women were inscrutable. His wife. Most of all it was a waste of time trying to figure her out. Whatever she was scheming he worry about it tomorrow as Albert drink deeply a triumphant smirk crossed? Ruth's face again enact him. She had something on her mind and Albert felt certain it was nothing good. Hi I'm Lena. Hobbs and this is crimes of passion in a podcast. Original the legal definition of a crime of passion is a violent crime that occurs in the throes of extreme emotion leaving no time to reflect on the consequences but in this show we explore how passionate relationships sometimes lead us to criminal activity. How does a husband and wife if become killer and victim or killer and Co conspirator if there's a thin line between love and hate what manipulates our relationships into deadly results? You can find episodes of crimes of passion and all other podcast originals for free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream crimes of passion for free on spotify. Just open the APP and type crimes of passion in the search bar at podcast. We are grateful for you our listeners owners. You allow us to do what we love. Let us know how we're doing reach out on facebook and Instagram at podcast and twitter at podcast network. And if you enjoyed today's episode the best way to help is to leave a five star review. Wherever you're listening? It really does help this week. We're covering the unhappy marriage between Ruth and Albert Snyder. Ruth loved bright lights dancing and crowds. She was perfectly suited for the revelry of the Roaring Twenty S. Unfortunately she married a man who rarely wanted to do anything more than sit at home and smoke a pipe by nineteen twenty. Five Ruth was looking for respite from the tedium of her marriage and she founded in a handsome salesman named Henry. Judd Judd Gray next week will explore how things went downhill culminating in a nineteen ninety-seven crime that created a media. Circus arcus inspired books and movies and lead to one of the most famous tabloid photos in American history. Route Snyder was born meany. Ruth Brown in the upper west side side of Manhattan New York. Her birthdate is sometimes listed as eighteen. Ninety one but other records indicate she was born in eighteen ninety five. It's it's possible. She later lied about her age. When reporting to the New York state census? But for this episode the stages will be based on the eighteen. Ninety five birthdate. Eight routes parents Harry and Josephine Brown working class. Immigrants from Norway Sweden. Her father was a carpenter and and her mother was a nurse. Routes early childhood was plagued by health issues. She had intestinal surgery at the age of six. And then a botched appendectomy to me at age twelve. The surgery caused her so many problems that she had to have a second corrective operation when she was eighteen. These health issues may have left ruth with lasting psychological scars before a continue with roots psychology. Please note that I am not a licensed psychologist or psychiatrist. But I have done a lot of research for the show. According to a University of if Sussex steady chronic childhood illness is linked to mental health problems later in life psychologist in senior researcher. Dr Doria glycine stated our results show that childhood chronic physical illness was significantly associated with adult depression in the total sample of more than forty five. Two thousand participants. We studied. Despite her health complications. Ruth attended school until the eighth grade. Some stories suggest that she dropped out to look for work. It may be that. Her family needed the extra income but other reports offer different reason for her early departure from education. According to the newspaper The American Ruth had an affair with teacher when she was fifteen years old. She then became jealous of another female emails student in the teacher's class. The tension between the two girls eventually erupted into a physical fight on campus. If this account is true ruth may have been expelled or she may have left school to avoid embarrassment in the wake of the scandal after dropping out rookie job as an operator for the New York Telephone Company. She had been working there a few years when one morning in nineteen in fourteen she placed a call from the office of a man named Albert Schneider but the call was apparently misdirected. Did Albert be rated Ruth for the mistake and hung up the phone but he perhaps felt bad about losing his temper. He called Ruth back a few moments later to apologize. The pair talked for a few minutes and then Albert invited Ruth to come and visit him. He said he might have a job opportunity unity for her album. Schneider must have been an impressive man to ruth. He was thirty two years old thirteen years older than ruth and he made a good living as an editor with motor boating magazine. He was well educated and cultured having graduated from the Pratt Institute two two with a degree in art and graphic design after they met. He said he could help her get a secretarial job at the magazine office. This was a step up from the New York Telephone Company and Ruth Happily accepted once they began working in the same building. Their relationship relationship turned flirtatious. It's not clear why Albert's singled out. Perhaps he was lonely. He had been engaged before but his fiancee say had died of pneumonia. Two years later Albert still kept scrapbooks filled with Jesse's photographs and wore a pin inscribed with her initials and yet Albert seemed eager to pursue ruth. She was after all tall blonde attractive and receptive to to his advances. That was enough to spark a relationship. Albert took root out too fancy downtown restaurants and shows within a few months month's around Christmas of Nineteen Fourteen Albert proposed. Ruth declined this first proposal but continued to go on dates with with him a few months later on routes birthday Albert tried again. This time he brought a diamond ring hidden inside a box of chocolates. Ruth accepted and four months later. They were married but not everyone. Approved moved of the match. Albert's sister felt she married above her station. We knew none of her friends. She and they were on a different social plane from us. They weren't are kind of people. We only tolerated her for Albert Sake. The couple moved to a house else in Bay Ridge Brooklyn. Ruth found that once they were married Albert was much less interested in fancy Manhattan dinners or feeder outings. He preferred staying close to home working in his garden or on home improvement projects in his workshop. When he did go out it was usually on? His boat wrote a cabin cruiser named Jesse g after his late fiance. The name bothered ruth or obvious reasons and she eventually persuaded him to rename rename. The Boat Ruth. It was far from the only difficulty couple encountered while settling into married life. Ruth loved animals and wanted to fill the house with pets but when she got a dog Albert meter get rid of it she was also eager to have a family family whereas Albert had no interest in children. Ruth reportedly suffered from a condition that made it difficult to get pregnant however her she secretly sought out medical treatment to correct the problem. She evidently neglected to tell Albert of her plans to have children and when she became became pregnant in one thousand nine hundred sixteen he was furious. He was even more upset when she gave birth to a girl. Instead of a boy on November Fifteenth Nineteen. Seventeen Ruth was delighted with their daughter whom they named Lorraine but thirty five year. Old Albert seemed increasingly Singley Moody and temperamental as he adjusted to his new role as a father. Nevertheless with a new baby in their lives lives the couple relocated to a bigger house in Queens village. When routes mother died in nineteen twenty her mother whom they called Granny Brown moved into to the Snyder? Spare bedroom to help ruth take care of Little Lorraine Albert continue to earn a good living at motor boating magazine providing his family with a comfortable double life but the couple argued frequently. Granny Brown leader said that Albert was to Glum for her energetic and fun loving daughter he complained that ruth wasn't domestic enough. She was too wild ruth. Meanwhile didn't think her tastes. Were wild they were just modern by the early nineteen twenty s many urban women were embracing the flapper lifestyle and ruth. Didn't WanNa Miss out roots. Neighbors said that she eagerly made friends all around her neighborhood. Ed As one newspaper described Ruth went to bridge parties and was happy carefree. She drank a little smoke. dolittle danced a little people. People said routes lots of fun. Let's have our over and the added. But Albert's kind of a stick. Albert wasn't just gloomy he could would be bad tempered and vicious according to one account when a neighborhood boy hit a baseball through the Snyder's window out chase the boy home and beat the child with his fists. On other occasions Albert screamed his daughter Lorraine rain when she behaved as a typical toddler. He also complained about ruth spending habits and frequently compared her unfavorably to his late Fiance Jesse Esi he even hung the dead woman's photograph on their bedroom wall. It didn't take long. After Lorraine's birth for the affection between Ruthin Albert to completely evaporate. They shared the same house but live separate lives. Their incompatibility seemed insurmountable. And both I grew bitter as the years went on ruth lay in bed and stare vacantly at the ceiling ealing. She tried to find the will to get up and make breakfast but it wouldn't come. She heard Albert in the yard outside working on one of his projects objects. Perhaps he was building a bird bath for the garden or mending an old cabinet. It didn't really matter as long as it kept him busy and turned away from her. She hoped he spent the whole day. Out there ruth little wave of self pity wash over her every day. A brought a new round of unpleasantness. There was hardly any joy in life. It seemed to ruth a terrible punishment this dole existence. It's empty of pleasure. She felt certain that she had never done anything to deserve this. Unless marrying the wrong man counted as a soon but whatever she had done wrong she was apparently condemned to pay the price for the rest of her life or the rest of. Albert's Albert's the thought meet her WANNA give up and die right there in bed in one thousand nine hundred twenty five. After ten years of marriage thirty year old ruth breath was miserable but if she wanted alimony and custody of her daughter. Ruth had to prove depraved cruelty or adultery. On Albert's part hurt. She had no evidence he was having an affair and his behavior didn't meet the standards for cruelty at the time. She felt she had few options. So she put up with Albert and tried to look for happiness elsewhere in June of nineteen twenty five if she finally found it. Sometime that month ruth went to Manhattan to have lunch with some friends including a salesman named Harry. Fulsome awesome while they dined. A friend of Harry's walked into the restaurant his name was judd. Gray when Harry spotted judd. He called him over to join the party. The group aid and drink into the afternoon as the hours passed. Roots friends drifted out soon. The only people left at the table were ruth and judd. He eventually had to leave to get back to work but he made it clear that he hoped to see ruth again. Ruth thought back on her unsatisfying life in Queens village edge and decided she had nothing to lose and taking him up on his invitation. When we return routes roots marriage deteriorates even further as she in judd embark on a secret affair? Need more more time to bend over the holidays. We've got you covered. Par cast has re released episodes upon episodes of your favorite shows all available to listen to right. Now that means forty seven historical figures episodes fifty five conspiracy theories episodes and a whopping one hundred and thirty four unsolved of murders episodes are available and ready to be heard plus there are dozens of episodes from shows like serial killers female criminals colts and more. And here's the best part. You don't even need to do anything. These episodes are already in your feet. Plus you can still hear new episodes of crimes compassion every Wednesday. Thanks again for your incredible support of podcast. You can check out more. podcast shows on spotify by searching for podcast in the spotify on if I search bar or by going to spotify dot com slash podcast now back to the story in one thousand nine hundred twenty five thirty year old ruth. Snyder felt trapped in an unhappy. Be Marriage to forty three year old Albert Snyder. She was searching for a distraction when she met thirty-three-year-old Henry Judd Gray that summer the pair hit it off immediately like ruth. Judd was outgoing and sociable. But also like Ruth Judd had been married Mary ten years he lived with his wife Isabel and their nine year old daughter in Orange New Jersey. Though he didn't spend a lot of time at home he worked as a traveling salesman for Benjamin Jones company an upscale lingerie and undergarment purveyor. Even when he wasn't traveling his job often required him to spend late nights out in retaining clients at restaurants and nightclubs. Judd enjoyed this part out of the job but his wife was less enthusiastic. Isabelle seemed content to limit their socializing playing bridge or going to country club events. John's flashing lifestyle was at odds with his wife's more reserved nature. So in Judd met Ruth. He found someone more his speed soon after their first lunch together Judd went back out on the road and Ruth went with her family on summer holiday to shelter island. But it wasn't long before the two reconnected. According to Ruth the family vacation to shelter island island was a disaster. She said Albert's bad temper flared and he got into a fistfight with a friend embarrassed wreath decided to cut the trip. Sure and return to their home in Queens. She was furious at Albert for ruining the holiday and was more eager than ever to get away from him in August. She attended a party held by her friend. Harry folsom and found Judd Gray. Also in attendance. He was back from his sales trip. Ruth was pleased to see him and they spent the evening chatting later as they stroll toward Penn station. Judd invited her to stop at his office. This she was in no rush to get home to Albert so she agreed alone and Judd's office. He offered to give her a corset from his sales line. According to Judd route slid out of her dress so that she could try the course it on as he helped her lease up the garment. He noticed her shoulders had been sunburned sunburned from her trip to the beach. He offered some lotion to suit them. The gesture seemed very romantic to ruth who was still seething about her husband's spends loutish insensitive behavior that night she enjoyed had sex. It was the beginning of a passionate love affair from then on. They took every opportunity to see each other during his busiest. CSL's months judd frequently booked a room at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel so that he could entertain clients in the city without having to return to New Jersey in the early hours hours of the morning soon. This hotel room became a secret. Love Nascar trysts with Ruth. The pair spent long afternoons having sex six followed by outings to the theatre or two rooftop garden parties when describing the details of their encounters. Judd later said I don't remember remember very much about it. I was very intoxicated. When Judd left town for extended periods to go on sales trips he always left his schedule with Ruth? They exchanged phone calls and letters during his time away sometimes multiple letters a day. Judd address. These letters to Mrs Jane Grey Ruth Gave Her postmen specific instructions to make sure every letter containing this address when street straight to her and not her husband. She unabashedly told the Post men that she didn't want her husband to see the letters because they were from her boyfriend. It wasn't only the postman who knew about the relationship beyond hiding the affair from Albert. Ruth didn't seem ashamed of it at all. She the introduced judd to her friends. Her mother and even her daughter seven-year-old Lorraine referred to him as Uncle Judd. She later remembered him as ask the man who gave her candy and gave her mother Nice presents. A contrast from her gloomy father roots seem to have little trouble fitting the affair fair into her life at times if roots mother was not available to watch lorraine she simply brought the girl with her to the Waldorf Astoria Hotel while she injured were in the room together. Lorraine amused herself by writing. The elevators up and down roots mother accepted the affair fair although she occasionally admonished her daughter that it didn't look right but ruth wasn't worried about what other people thought. Judd made her happy three and she was thrilled to celebrate. Her new. Love root skipped giddily down the street toward the train station. She pictured the evening ahead of her chill drinks and a cabaret with judd by her side the whole night. She practically felt tipsy already. You what a difference a nice young man could make. She could hardly believe her luck. She finally had the life she was always meant to have. Why shouldn't she have fun? She was young and filled with energy. It would be a shame to waste all that on an old crab like her husband who had never are really appreciated her but it wasn't just about the good time. Compared to Albert Judd was a dream and gentleman he never shouted at her lost his temper. He let her talk about all her problems and he actually listened she thought it was the most wonderful feeling feeling in the world being cared for and loved and treated like she mattered. If only she could have that every day. Maybe someday she would but for now she treasure. Those sporadic nights the music the caresses the laughter. In trying to forget the Dole life life waiting for her when the fun was over Ruth enjoyed confiding in Judd in one letter she he wrote to him about her cousin Ethel Anderson who was also unhappily married. Ethel was trying to bribe young women into flirting with her husband. She wanted to entrap him into having an affair so she could use the evidence of adultery to procure an easy divorce. Route seemed delighted by her cousins Ingenuity Witty as her affair. With judd progressed. She put more and more thought into how she might escape her own marriage. Meanwhile her relationship with Albert remained deeply strained. They often argued about money. Financial stress can be a common source of marital strain rain. A steady by Suntrust Bank found that thirty five percent of participants named money as the primary troublespot with their partner. With the Snyder's there's also argued about ruth staying out late and about how to raise their daughter Ruth one descend eight-year-old Lorraine to a convent boarding in school and she even briefly got door to door sales job with dental supply company to earn money for the tuition but Albert wanted to keep Lorraine in at home and refused to consider the idea of boarding school. Ruth was tired of it. She couldn't stop thinking about how much easier it would be. If he were on her own. She wanted the freedom to live her life as she pleased she was determined to have that freedom no matter what one afternoon in November of nineteen twenty five ruth heard a knock at at the front door and discovered an insurance salesman on her front stoop. Ruth was always friendly with salesman and invited him inside. She said she was is interested in buying insurance but ask the salesman to come back later and give his pitch to her husband. She also had another request. She asks a salesman salesman if he could get her husband to sign a blank policy form. She was unsure how much they would want the policy to cover. She planned to fill in the details of the policy later leader once they came to an agreement on the final amount the salesman was happy to oblige. He returned later in the week and convinced Albert to sign China Blink Policy Application the next day ruth called the sales mental. Let him know that Albert had made a decision. He wanted to purchase riches of fifty thousand dollar policy. It contained an indemnity clause that paid out double in the event of a death by Misadventure Ruth Truth was listed as the beneficiary with the insurance policy in place. Ruth stood to gain as much as one hundred thousand dollars. In the event event of her husband's accidental death. The amount would be worth nearly one point five million dollars today Albert likely. We had no idea ruth had taken out such large policy on his life just as she had done with. Judd's Love Letters. She gave instructions to the postmen to hand and over any envelopes from the insurance company directly to her so that Albert wouldn't see them. Ruth paid the premiums on the policy. The herself even though the expense cost more than half of the weekly allowance Albert gave her to run the household. She figured the cost would be worth the eventual. We'll pay out with the policy in place. Ruth began to think less about how to get a divorce and more about how to become a widow when we return ruthin judd concocted deadly plot to get rid of. Albert's Snyder now back to the story in late nineteen twenty five thirty thirty year old. Ruth Snyder was deeply infatuated with her new lover. thirty-three-year-old Judd Gray. The affair made her all the more eager to be free of her dreary husband. forty-three year old Albert Snyder. After she secured a large insurance policy on her husband's life she had all the more reason to look forward to his demise in fact she seemed ready to engineer his death herself. According according to Albert's family roots first attempt on her husband's life occurred in July of one thousand nine hundred twenty six on a warm summer day Albert was taking a nap in the Living Room Granny Brown was out with Lorraine and ruth left the house to run errands not long after she went out Albert woke. Oh God feeling sick and gagging. The house was filled with gas fumes. He stumbled outside gasping for fresh air when Ruth returned to find him in the garden. She acted horrified. She claimed that as she passed the living room heater she he accidentally kicked the gas tube. Free of the Living Room Wall on her way out the door but it didn't seem like an accident. Albert's sister said that later later the trying to kick the gas to free of the wall and couldn't do it. They thought ruth must have yanked it out on purpose by some accounts. Ruth also made several attempts to poison Albert by pudding by chloride of mercury tablets. In his drinks telling him they would cure his chronic hiccups. The pills didn't kill Albert. The only made him vomit but since hiccups did in fact go away. He apparently apparently didn't question his wife's treatment when poison didn't work ruth reportedly tried to guess Albert again in early nineteen twenty seven. Then she wants more use the excuse that she had kicked the gas tube as she was leaving the house she came home yet again to find him gasping in the street complaining that he had almost as fixated leader at a party with his family members. Albert made an offhand remark about out how close his wife had come to widowhood however he appeared to be joking for whatever reason it didn't occur to him that his wife might actually actually be trying to kill him perhaps because they were ordinary middle-class people living in ordinary middle class life. In Albert's Brits Mundane World Wives complained about their husbands in rare cases. They might even divorce them but they didn't kill them though. The idea might seem absurd according to evolutionary psychologists David Bus. Almost anyone can be capable of murder. Dr Dr Busek said that murder fantasies are incredibly common. In a study of five thousand individuals. He found that eighty four percent of women and ninety ninety one percent of men had at least one clear fantasy about committing murder Dr bus stated though we like to think that murderers are either pathological misfits or hardened criminals the vast majority of murders are committed by people who until the day they kill seem perfectly quickly normal perfectly normal just like roots Snyder but she was serious about killing her husband and she would not be deterred when Ruth could engineer. Albert's death on our own. She turned a judge for help sometime in February they met for a date at the waldorf-astoria they drink heavily. Billy and ruth lamented the state of her marriage. Crying to judd about everything that had gone wrong. She told Chad her arguments. It's with Albert. Were worse than ever before even saying that whenever Albert lost his temper he threatened to kill her. She was also losing too much money every month. Paying her husband's insurance premiums at some point Albert was sure to find out and he'd be furious. Ruth felt she was running out of time to get rid of her husband. She was desperate for Judd's advice at some point that night. The formulated pleaded plan. They decided ruth would render Albert unconscious. I giving judd the chance to sneak in the house and kill him on March fourth. Nineteen twenty seven judd. Gray went to a hardware store and purchased a window sash. Wait an eighteen inch steel bar about the size of rolling pin weighing about five pounds. He also purchased chloroform and some cotton rags. Judd leader said they planned to execute execute the murderer that evening but when he arrived at the Snyder House he and ruth got cold feet and cried like babies full nerves. Blue told John to go on home but within a few weeks another opportunity came ruth wrote to John and told him that she and Albert were going to a party on Saturday march nineteenth. They were going to bring their daughter nine year old lorraine with with them while they were away the house would be empty. Because Ruth's mother plan to be away on a nursing job. It would be easy for Jad to sneak into the house and wait for Ruth. And Albert's return. Ruth expected that after the party Albert would be drunk invulnerable. It would be the perfect moment and to pull off the crime. Judd agreed and went to work setting up an alibi. On Friday afternoon Judd Gray took a train to Syracuse in upstate. New York that evening he checked into the hotel Onondaga and spent the night there the following morning on Saturday march nineteenth. He spoke to clients over the phone on Saturday afternoon. He had lunch with a friend hand and asked for a favor. He said that he had plans to meet up with a girlfriend in Albany. He didn't want his wife or employer to find out and so he asked his friend go to his hotel room. Post a few letters mess up the bed so that it looks slept in and place a do not disturb sign on the hotel room door that way nobody would guess at he'd ever left Syracuse. The friend didn't mind lending a hand with his cooperation. Listen Judd felt certain that he had an airtight alibi. By every appearance John remained at the Onondaga hotel for the entire night in reality. Judd Gray spent that Saturday evening on a train riding back to New York. City Routes Snyder was is ready for his return as planned. The Snyder family went out Saturday night to a neighbor's burs Bridge Party other attendees later recalled that Ruth acted very affectionately toward her husband that night Albert founded strange even commenting minting that. She didn't treat him that well at home neighbors also remembered that ruth refused to drink much that night. She said she felt sick and told the the host to give her share of the drinks to Albert. Albert seemed ready and willing to overindulge around midnight while Albert Ruth Anne Lorraine still at the Party Judd arrived at the Snyder House. Ruth had left the door unlocked for him and he crept inside. Judd climbed the stairs to Granny Brown's room. He went inside where he found a bottle of whisky lying on the bed and he began to drink it. It helped him pass the time as he waited for the Snyder's return around two o'clock in the morning. The Snyder niners left the party and made their way back home. Ruth trying to keep her breathing steady as they approached the house house. She was already worried. Her husband's suspected something. If she could just get through the next few hours everything would be alright. When she got inside roots voice trembled as she told Lorraine to hurry to bed? She helped the girl into her pajamas hoping hoping her daughter was too tired to notice how her hands were shaking. According to the plan judge should already be inside the house. Ruth knew he must be waiting in the room next door probably feeling as nervous as she was unless something had gone wrong perhaps he had gotten cold feet again perhaps he was still upstate. She shook those thoughts out of her mind and left her daughter's room. She paused in front of Greeny Brown room making sure the hallway was clear before opening the door so far she was safe. She heard her husband in the master bedroom. Getting undressed oblivious. She poked her head into Granny Brown's room and there was judd waiting for her like a loyal dog. Ruth gave a quick nervous. Smile down the hall. She she heard. Albert's settling into bed. He didn't suspect a thing. Ruth was suddenly flooded with an overpowering certainty. It was either going to happen tonight or never. It was time to make a decision. Thanks again for tuning into crimes of Passion Ashen. We will be back Wednesday with part two of Ruth Snyder Story. We'll see the aftermath of Ruthin Judd's plot and the media circus that followed you can find more episodes of crimes of passion and all other podcast originals for free on spotify. Not only to spotify already. Have all of your favorite music. Are you sick Banal spotify making it easy for you to enjoy all of your favorite podcast originals like crimes of passion for free from your phone desktop or smart mart speaker to stream crimes of passion on spotify. Just open the APP in type crimes of passion and the search bar and don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram instagram at podcast and twitter at podcast network. We'll see you next time. When True Love Means to crime crimes of passion was created by Max Cutler and his podcast studios original executive producers? Include Max and Ron Cutler sound designed by Trent Williamson with production assistance by Ron Shapiro and Carly Matt in this. This episode of Crimes Of Passion was written by Christina Tammy's with writing assistance by drew Cole. I'm laney hubs.