26 Burst results for "Daniel Whiteson"
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Authors and ask them nitpicky physics questions about their wormholes and their warp drives, so we're having a lot of fun, and we answer a lot of listeners e mails. We had a whole episode recently where we just went through listener questions and answered all their questions from seven-year-olds to seventy seven year olds. Sorry, I just had to glance today's. Episode. was particularly familiar with any of the author, so they've talked to this. You y'all do doing. Kim Stanley Robinson by by chance No, we haven't yet, but we've talked to blake crowd. Should we talk to Hugh Award winning authors like an lucky and Mary Robinson Coal and Becky Chambers. It's been really fascinating to see like. How do you build a science fiction universe? At what point do you stop worrying about? Getting the signs right and just think about the story, and then also for me since I'm such a science fiction buff I, just get the fan boy a little bit and talk to all these famous people. This might be too loaded question. But if you could interview a now, deceased science fiction author and ask them some of these same questions, which one would you? Until I learned that he was also a jerk, I would have loved interview Isaac Asimov because. Created not just you know new technology fiction, but like his foundation series where he creates like actually a new field of science in his prediction of future. I thought that was really fascinating. I would love to just understand the the development of that idea how he built the story around it. But then it turns out like many greats. From the past. He was also a jerk to lots of people. He worked with all right well. Thanks again for for coming on the show and chat with us and yeah, we encourage our listeners to check out those episodes, and you know and hang with us. Thanks for calling in from your closet to talk with us as we call in from our closets. Don't expand out of reach. The next time we have on I hope I'll still fit in my pants for the next time I talked to. You guys very much. All right, thank you. Thanks Daniel in the meantime. If you WANNA check out episodes of stuff to blow your mind, head over to stuff to blow your mind, dot com Xu over to the IHEART listing for this show, but ultimately you can find our podcast wherever you get your podcasts.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Time that they're. They're sort of combine there, but does it stop there, or is it reasonable to think about additional directions that you could go in? That are not even conceivable to us in our. You know macroscopic movements. I think would physics is taught us over the last hundred years is that every crazy idea is reasonable to think about for a few moments, and some of them will turn out to be true, and this is one of my questions is like how many dimensions are there to space and I think you can start from just like well. Why would there be three? Threes a weird number. You know it's a whenever you find something about the universe and has a number. You gotta ask like why that number. If you ask mathematicians, what deep numbers you expect to see in a description of the universe, they'll say one or pi or e, but nobody says three unless they're Catholic and think that the trinity has real insight. Into, mental nature of reality and Hey, you know. Maybe they're right, but that's like clue. Number One. It's like. Is there something three ish about the universe like that's kind of weird, but it may be. It is, but turns out that there's no reason to think that the universe couldn't have more dimensions, and you know what that would mean is like another way to move like you're right your position spaces. You know XYZ. You just have another coordinate system and the I thought you might have is like well wherever you go right. Like where do you put? It can't like XYZ seems to describe everything. Where would it be and you have to? It's really hard to think at higher dimension. See how to do this trick where you think in two D and extrapolate to three, because your mind can handle both of them, and then try to use that three the that extrapolation to go from three to four right so many think about to on the surface of a piece of paper three d like a cube. So imagine moving that piece of paper through three dimensional space, and thinking about what that would be like as you interact with the three d objects, a sphere, passing through a piece of paper would look dot grows to a circle, and then shrinks again to dot and disappears so in that same way you can imagine four objects in Three D. space used that sort of mental exercise to imagine like what these other dimensions could be like, and but it turns out that that the current is physics. Don't imagine these other dimensions being like these I. Wouldn't be infinite dimensions that you could go like there's no limit to how far you can go and X. or wires, the but these other dimensions. If they were intimate, we probably would've noticed them already. So if they exist, they would be compact defied. There'd be like rolled up like instead of being infinite. There'd be curved like we talked about before. They might just be like a centimeter wide. And you know what that means is like okay, you have Xyz, and then you have another number which varies between zero and one centimeter. And actually quite a natural idea. If it's true, it would explain a lot of mysteries of the universe like in in the nineties. I remember when this happened. People came up with this idea that we might have. Extra dimensions of space of time to explain why gravity is so weak. Like you know that we have these basic forces of the universe, the magnetic force, the weak force, the strong force. They're all pretty powerful. Compared to gravity, gravity is like ten to thirty times weaker in comparison. Then that's weird. Why can we jump at all? And that's weird like. If you hold a little magnet above the earth, you have the entire gravitational force. The Earth right is being out powered by a tiny little fridge magnet. It's pretty impressive so we wonder like why is gravity so weak? And then we thought well. Maybe gravity isn't actually so weak is just that most of gravity sort of leaking out into these other dimensions? Because the strength of gravity depends on how many dimensions are. Like the as space grows as you get further away from something, the sort of same amount of gravitational power spreads out through that dimensional space, so space was four or five or six dimensional gravity would be weaker right, and so they imagined that maybe space does have more dimensions and the gravity, actually really strong, and these dimensions, a really really short and anywhere past like a centimeter distant. What you're feeling is gravity being weakened because it's spread out in these other dimensions, so that was the idea as sort of cool insight I. Love when you have. An idea that requires you to revolutionize the way you think about the universe and Saul's existing puzzle. That was the idea and it was especially tantalizing, because they realized nobody checked like. What is the gravitational force between two things that are just a centimeter apart, and they realized Oh. My Gosh. Nobody's actually done nat experiment. We didn't even know and the reason is that it's hard like with the gravitational force between two marbles almost nothing so it takes like real experimental bravado to set up. The test detest gravity, really really short distances. And, so they did that. They've done a bunch of these cool experiments of the University of Washington testing, really really isolated situations and they found. The gravity doesn't seem to get any stronger as you bring things really really close together. And then we try to discover these extra dimensions at the PARCO Collider's of course because we particle Colitis for everything you know test, the fundamental theories of the universe and new new new dimensions and clean your laundry and all sorts of stuff. And! The idea is that if gravity gets really strong when things closed up that maybe went, protons get smashed together. You could create little mini. Black Holes because of gravity is really powerful, a short distances than even the really low mass stuff like protons might have enough energy to create black holes. And that's what you know. There's a whole Hullabaloo about whether or not. The particle collider was going to destroy the world. And that's one reason why people thought. Maybe it could happen is that we might create these black holes which would prove that there are extra dimensions and explain why he is so weak, and then also you know, eat the earth and end the human race, but it turns out that we haven't seen any of those black holes, and also we're pretty confident. Confident that we're not going to be creating dangerous black holes at certain, because their other collisions happen all the time very high energy collisions from space that create the same configurations and haven't yet created a black hole to eat the earth, so we thought that was safe, but we didn't see these black holes which would have proven to us? There were extra dimensions. And so currently we don't know there are other dimensions suspicious like we think there might be. It's still could be possible. They would just have to be smaller than about a millimeter but we haven't seen him. We don't have any evidence that they exist. But there are some theories like them like string theory with love if they're eleven or twenty six dimensions, but at this point. Point. We haven't seen him until. We build that, you know trillion dollar. Galaxy sized particle. Collider well looks like we're running out of time here. Daniel. You're you and Harare are still actively putting out episodes of the podcast. Can you give us a just a a brief idea of what is out right now? What's coming out in the immediate future? Yeah, we're putting out episodes of. And explain the universe twice a week. Recent topics include like could dark matter be made quirks, or what's the cosmological constant, or we've been doing a really fun series on analyzing the signs of Science Fiction universes where we interview famous. Authors and ask them nitpicky physics questions about their wormholes and their warp drives, so we're having a lot of fun, and we answer a lot of listeners e mails. We had a whole episode recently where we just went through listener questions and answered all their questions from seven-year-olds to seventy seven year olds. Sorry, I just had to glance today's. Episode..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"It's almost better than sports. All right, we're back, so I've got a question about the Big Bang. Then with respect to the the expansion of the universe, we often hear of course, the Big Bang was that the universe was once in this hot dense state, and then there's this expansion you, you think we go through this period of inflation that seems to be the consensus now and then we keep expanding and cooling, but what form does that expansion take with respect to space? Does that mean that the universe? The contents of the universe expanded into pre existing space or that space itself expanded. Expanded space itself expanded the one thing about it is not like a small blob of stuff, then blew up and moved through space, but instead an infinite universe created with infinite stuff in it, and then the Big Bang happened simultaneously everywhere all at once meaning that all that stuff just got diluted like new space was being created everywhere space was expanding, and it's not like he was stretching stuff into what was previously empty space. It was just creating new space everywhere between all the bits, so what used to be hot and dense and tense is now more dilute. And so, I think one of the biggest misconceptions that the big bang started off like the whole universe size of an atom, and then it's just a big explosion. Were stuff moves through space, but instead I think it's much more natural to think about the universe be created infinite amount of stuff created all at once, and then diluted and then expanded, so that's like requires you to imagine infant creation of stuff, and then an infinite big bang on top of it, which is sort of mind, blowing, and also sort of more natural. I I really liked that explanation because I feel like it places us. It places the individual thinker within the model, instead of placing us, trying to places with with outside of the model which which skews. Attempt to understand like what space is. And then you don't have to ask questions. Like will wear was the big thing. Was it over there over there?.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Always you're balancing each other and giving space which is completely flat. Meaning that on average there is no curvature to the universe that that you know that things should move in straight lines so I read the curvature of the universe described alternately as flat and as almost flat. Could you help me sort out the difference? There is one of those just wrong. Or what's going on? Well it's a measurement right and we're measuring the curvature of the universe and roughly. How do we add up all these pieces and we ask you know? What are they come out to but they all have uncertainties you know. We don't know precisely how much stuff there is in the universe. We don't know exactly how strong dark energy is and we get better and better measurements every year. And those measurements are consistent with totally flat with adding up to being exactly flat. But there's uncertainty there and some measurements suggest a tiny deviation from flat and some measurements are consistent with flat and other things. And so. There's some wiggle room there and at and we're trying to measure in lots of different ways because we don't trust one experiment or when experimenter and so we try to prove these things from different directions and sometimes they slightly disagree so there can be some sort of momentary controversy there. But you know. I think the larger question is like why are we flat at all? Seems so weird once you discover this can be Kurd. Discover their universe just sort of happens to be flat. So you say. Just sort of happens to be flagged as that indicate that you think the flatness of the universe in your expert. Opinion is basically a coincidence. Or do you think that That it's not a coincidence that it's a downstream effect of of something. We don't understand or some other variable it depends right like Before we had this theory for how the universe began it seemed really weird to have a flat. Universe seemed really strange for space to be so smooth and to not have curvature because as you put stuff in the universe is sort of gathered together gravity. And you should make it more and more Kurt. And so it's it's weird to start with a universe it's pretty flat and then end up with the universe is pretty flat like it doesn't seem stable. Seems like if you have any deviation from flatness deviation would build on itself build on itself and build on itself and eventually you'd be pretty far from flat so then our universe is pretty old is fourteen billion years old. This has been going on for a long time. Why are we still flat? And so for longtime that was that was seemed like a coincidence. Either we were so close to flat in the first few seconds that we've hardly deviated at all like we're like balanced on the knife edge and we're still balanced fourteen billion years later which seems unlikely or there's some reason for it and the explanation that we've come up with recently. Is this idea of inflation that the universe was stretched super quickly in the first few moments of the universe that made it. Essentially hyper hyper flat. It's like if you're standing on a tennis ball. You look around and you can tell that the universe is a little bit curve right because tennis balls a lot of curvature to it but if the tennis ball suddenly gets inflated to the size of a planet where you look around you can't tell the earth is not flat right seems to be flat and so that's what happened. We think in the first few months of the universe that explains how the universe got so flat in the beginning so if if this is what it is like in a flat universe I mean. Is there any way to to even discuss like what he would be like within a round universe or a square universe or anything other than a flat or almost flat university? Yeah well it has really fascinating implications for like the possible sizes of the universe. Right at the universe is flat then can go on forever right. You can just keep going forever because it can be flat like an infinite sheet right but in three dimensions if the universe is curved like the universe is the surface of a sphere right in some higher dimensional space. Then it it might not be infinite right. It might be that you move and you keep curving eventually you come back to where you were at. It's an infant but not necessarily having the edges right because like on the surface of this fear the services the Earth. You Walk for long enough you come back to where you started like running to the edge of the Earth so the shape. This curvature of the universe has a lot of consequences for the potential size of the universe and so if it was curved would necessarily be infinite. If it's flat that suggested could be infinite but also might not be right. There's ways to connect the universe can be flat but also still be like weirdly connected like an asteroid game so that you come off one side you end up on the other side because remember space can have these complicated non trivial connections between parts of it. The whole edge of the universe could be basically said wormholes that bring you back to the other side. All right we're going to take one more break. We'll be right back. Everyone then bowling here host of stuff. They don't want you to know in ridiculous history as a podcast. Does I am constantly reading and researching for upcoming episodes but even I need an occasional break so when I feel like I need some kind of mental pallet cleanser. My go-to refresher is the mobile puzzle. Game best means that's fiends. Not Friends Best. Fiends is a puzzle game. You can play right on your phone. It's pretty cool because you go through all these levels solving challenging puzzles that actually engage your brain but it's a casual game that anyone can play and it's actually Super Fun. The great thing about it is that it doesn't take up much of your time but it's great because it fills up those moments where you wish you had something to do..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Gravity and you should make it more and more Kurt, and so it's it's weird to start with a universe. It's pretty flat and then end up with the universe is pretty flat like it doesn't seem stable seems like if you have any deviation from flatness, deviation would build on itself, build on itself and build on itself, and eventually you'd be pretty far from flat so then our universe. Universe. Pretty old is fourteen billion years old. This been going on for a long time. Why are we still flat? And so for longtime that was that was seemed like a coincidence, either we were so close to flat in the first few seconds that we've hardly deviated at all like we're like balanced on the knife edge, and we're still balanced fourteen billion years later, which seems unlikely. Or there's some reason for it and the explanation that we've come up with recently. Is this idea of inflation that the universe was? Stretched super quickly in the first few moments of the universe that made it essentially hyper hyper flat. It's like if you're standing on a tennis ball, you look around and you can tell that the universe is a little bit curve right because tennis balls a lot of curvature to it, but if the tennis ball suddenly gets inflated to the size of a planet where you look around, you can't tell the earth is not flat. Right seems to be flat. And, so that's what happened. We think in the first few months of the universe that explains how the universe got so flat in the beginning, so if if this is what it is like in a flat universe I mean. Is there any way to to even discuss like what he would be like within a round universe or a square universe or anything other than a flat or almost flat universe? Yeah, well, it has really fascinating implications for like the possible sizes of the universe. Right at the universe is flat, then can go on forever, right? You can just keep going. Going forever because you can flat like an infinite sheet right, but in three dimensions if the universe is curved, if the universe is the surface of a sphere right in some higher dimensional space, then it, it might not be infinite, right. It might be that you move, and you keep curving eventually you come back to where you were at. It's an infant, but not necessarily have any edges right because like on the surface of this fear, the services the earth. You Walk for long enough. You come back to where you started like running to the edge of the earth. So the shape, this curvature of the universe has a lot of consequences for the potential size of the universe, and so if it was curved, would necessarily be infinite. If, it's flat. That suggested could be infinite, but also might not be right. There's ways to connect the universe. Flat, but also still be like weirdly connected like an asteroid game so that you come off one side you end up on the other side because remember space can have these complicated non trivial connections between parts of it. The whole edge of the universe could be basically, said wormholes that bring you back to the other side all right. We're going to take one more break. We'll.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"But there's a whole area of research. Built up the other direction says let's start from the bottom instead of starting from the top breaking protons and electrons into smaller bits all the way down to the plank scale. Start from the bottom. Imagine that it's true. A build up come up with a theory of physics and make a prediction, right? And that's this. This group of theories called loop quantum gravity, and it's really fascinating stuff, and it's you know they've they instead of trying to bring general relativity together with quantum field theory by saying, let's turn gravity into quantum field theory. You go the other direction, they say. Let's take space and make it into a Qantas units. Chop it up in a little bits and imagined that the QUANTA. So then as space is expanding your like popping off new little bits of space sort of conceptually hard to imagine, but your question really was like. Have, we figure that out. Could we possibly see it and so far that whole field is sort of in its infancy decades old? You only realized you know thirty forty fifty years ago. It was even possible how to do basic calculations, and how to just get simple stuff, right? The short answer is we could answer all these questions. We can resolve all these mysteries if we could see inside a black hole. You don't happen to have a black hole. That's sort of impossible right like you're. You're not getting information out of a black hole. Is that correct? That's exactly right, and that's the frustrating thing. Is that like gravity is very very weak very weak force it takes a lot for gravity to do anything very powerful, but inside a black hole you have tremendous gravity so much gravity that it could reveal things like you know the creation of new bits of space, the distortion of space or it could show us like what's. Was the matter distribution like inside a black hole? Because general relativity says that there's a singularity that there's all this mass concentrated in a single dot, zero volume, but spaces pixellated flu. Quantum gravity is right then. You can't have a tiny infinitesimal dot. You need to have a basic unit of space, so if we could see what was going on inside a black hole, we could see what happens when gravity tries to compress things down to these tiny units. Units of space, but you're right. All the secrets of the universe exist inside black holes, but they are unobserved will never get that information out which is so frustrating. It's like if you know the Oracle says here all the answers. I'm going to put them in a box. which if you try to open, it destroys all the answers. It's like some cruel Greek people. You know gals are really safe place to hide the secrets of the universe right. That's right and all your passwords. I keep all my passwords in a black hole just. So the short answer is we're not anywhere close to discovering the basic pixels of space, but I think if you polled physicist. Ninety five percent of them would say that space is probably pixelated so I'm sorry, if I if you already alluded to this and I missed it, but so. Would you say looking for pixellated space? Small students have space is something that could potentially be done by experimental methods available to us if we had you know the ultimate particle collider interview levels. You know you couldn't that are nowhere near what we have today, or is it just like not within reach of any reasonable experimental paradigm that we know about? Now, that's a great question. and one of the amazing things about particle collider. Is No limit to what they can do. It's really just money question like the more money you give us the bigger the particle collider we can build the faster we can shoot. Those particles around and speed is sort of inverse to distance where the faster your particles are going, the smaller the distance they can probe, and so there's really no limit. If we built a Milky Way sized particle collider than yes, we could answer these questions and. We could find space pixels. Could you know see? Quantum affects at this level? But that would cost I don't even know if there's a number for the amount of money, suddenly be bigger than this recent stimulus by a lot. So you're saying it would not be like A. Five, to ten times bigger than the large Hadron collider. It would need to be like galaxy sized or something. Yeah, it'd have to be like ten to fifteen times thought larger. Than, the large collider and that. I don't even know what the acronym would be. You can just call it a large. Hey. Junk collided like very very very very very large V to the fifteen elite something. Nobody's even asking for that money, but yeah, there's no limit to to sort of how small we can peer down if we have a really powerful collider's, we know the technology right like. We just add more little boosters to make the particles go faster. But you know we also are working on kind of technologies to make these collider's more powerful without having to make them ridiculously big and expensive. Because currently we're limited by sort of how fast we can make these particles move, because takes his these little units to like. Give them a kick and Magnus to bend them, but if we can make those accelerators, the little units of accelerators, better, faster and more compact than we could build like table. Top accelerators, their people here UC Irvine working on these plasma Wakefield devices to try to get particles accelerated to really high energies in very short distances. And then it be possible to you know. Peel back a layer of reality and see what's going on underneath the without spending ten to fifteen trillion dollars..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Talking with Daniel Whiteson about space the nature of space. That's right So before we went to the Break Daniel. You just introduce the idea of the expansion of space as we've we've been talking about the properties of space as a as a thing and not just a an emptiness And so of course we know one of the things that space is doing is that it's expanding I I think we all know now that the universe as a whole is expanding and maybe expanding at an accelerating rate. If I've got that writing comment on that in a second what what exactly does it mean for space to expand because why I think from an intuitive level. People might think well. I don't notice space expanding like I don't notice it doesn't seem like the space in between the molecules in my body is expanding so so is space in general expanding or is it just say the distance between galaxies expanding. What form does that expansion take? It's a great question. I love intuition there. You know the idea is like this thing is supposed to be happening everywhere in the universe consort of reconcile that with my experience going to see that happening around me and you know like a few hundred years ago. That was a big conceptual. Leap say like the rules of the universe should also being applied here. So it's a great question and the short answer is that space is expanding everywhere like every unit of space is the same. It's homogeneous as far as we understand. There's no difference to this chunk of space and a chunk of space out there in the deepest voids between galaxies. They're all the same from the point of view of the universe and they're all expanding between they're all creating new space but that's not the only thing happening right. You are made of a Mesh of atoms that are held together with pretty strong bonds and this expansion space is dramatic but per unit of space. It's pretty small. There's not a whole lot of space being made between me and this microphone for example it adds up when you get to like cosmic scale between me and the galaxy because there's a lot of space between us but here on the small scale is not very powerful so the bonds in my body are strong enough to hold meet together in the same for you know the reason why you're staying on earth you know. Earth is holding you down because of its gravity enough to overcome this expansion of space and earth is bound gravitationally to the sun for the same reason the space between us and the sun is expanding but the grabby. The Sun holds us there. It's like if you were sliding away from somebody on ice sheet but had a rope around you and so they were keeping you at a fixed distance. Okay so there are forces within our bodies holding our bodies together that are counteracting that expansive force. But I'm trying to imagine. What exact form does that take? So does that mean that. The the say the bonds between the molecules and our body holding them together actually prevent the space from expanding their so. It doesn't expand or just the space somehow kind of roll out beyond us Without affecting our you know our bodies as it does so you can't stop the expansion of space but you can't keep your constant distance if those bonds were deleted than all the islands the to drift further and further apart but instead you have these bonds holding them together and so it's more than the answer is the latter that space sort of rules out past you. Wow so space is emanating from us at all times. Yeah it's sort of like we're in a pool of space that's expanding larger and larger and we're a smaller and smaller dot inside of it so as a result the university's is get getting more more dilute like the matter energy density of the universe decreases with time because there's no more stuff being created but there is more space being created all the time and so that's the way to think about the whole expansion of the universe since the Big Bang. The universe didn't start out. Small started out dense. It was like compressed in hot nasty and wet and then the Big Bang is just this rapid dilution of space into something much more sparse. And then that's just continued. University just got more and more cold and dilute and spread out as new spaces being created this little chunks of matter desperately clinging to each other to avoid being totally isolated. And I think there's another part of your question which I think is fascinating like at. What scale does that take over like you hold yourself together? Yup the earth holds onto you the sun hold onto the earth. The galaxy holds onto the sun and all the stars and dark energy is probably not going to rip apart our galaxy and even the neighboring galaxies like drama is going to collide into us and the direct gravity. These two galaxies are going to call up smash them together and the Group of galaxies is mostly gravitationally bound. And that's the biggest sort of gravitationally bound thing beyond that. Things are not tightly connected enough by gravity to resist dark energy. And that's so these groups of galaxies that are getting pushed apart and getting further and further away. Because there's nothing really to resist the dark energy push okay so the reason than that You would normally see. The expansion of the universe expressed in terms of like the separation of what galaxy clusters? Or what it would be that. That's where gravity is no longer strong enough to to hold back against it. That's right and it's not. Just the amount of distance you know causes. The causes all the expansion to add up there. That's right it's it's both things I mean. The the amount of distance makes it more dramatic and the distance makes gravity weaker. And so what you think. What happens if you thought of project? The universe forward a billions of trillions of years is that these gravitationally bound clusters. Continue to contract an old themselves together but they get more and more distant from everything else so the future is is islands of stuff separated by even more vast distances of space interesting. So all of this talk about space as a substance and having all these properties that we can measure and not just as a you know a the void or the distance between things is somehow on on one level kind of makes A lot of these like Saifi plots where you manipulate. Space itself with technology seem more plausible. Robert I think you had some questions about this. Maybe right Yeah yeah this this got me thinking about expansion explosive expansion Daniel what do you make of the notion that faster than light travel could essentially be achieved by some manner of of were bubble manipulation moving the space containing the ship rather than the ship through space alone. I'm ready to invest in your work. Dr Company for sure. I read a lot of science fiction and I love these ideas and there's a lot of Baloney and science fiction where they just slap quantum mechanics on a plot hole because they don't really know how to think about it. But I get people a lot of flexibility when it comes to space because we really don't know what it can do and so there's a lot of opportunities there for new ideas and the one that you mentioned I think is is a great idea. It's not just science fiction. I think it really could be that. We could develop a WARP DRIVE. That gets us to just in stars you know. There's one very hard and fast rule about the universe. Which is you cannot move through space faster than the speed of light. But you've got to be a bit of a lawyer about it right. It'd be like a second. You said move through space right. That's fine so you can't travel through light year of space in less than a year. But what if you didn't want to move through space right? What if you squeeze space itself right or if you stretch space and that's the basis of these work. Dr Ideas is to get around by saying. I don't WanNa go all the way to Alpha this and Tari I wanNA squeeze the distance between here and Alpha Centauri or I want to create this warp bubble which continuously is like squeezing the space in front of me. So I can move really really fall. What would have been otherwise really far in short amount of time and and that way you can get somewhere which would have taken light a long time to get there. But it only takes you few moments because you've effectively shortened that distance so I think that's totally plausible. I think it's far far beyond our abilities. You know it's sort of like this moment when physicist pass things off to engineers. You know like we're interested in. Is it totally possible or totally impossible? Once we decided probably possible then. It's a practical question of like. How do you focus that much energy in order to accomplish that? Actually build something which does this. And that's a whole separate question and you know they're even crazier ideas for how to get far through space which take advantage of this this news of modern conception of space and that's like don't even go through any space at all. General Relativity tells us that you can be creative about assigning the distances between bits of space. Right it doesn't have to be you lay out a grid and everything that's next to each other has equal distances right. Math can change the relationship of points in space. And it's more than just like taking a sheet and stretching it and squeezing it to make gentle differences you can have crazy Arrangements you can connect bits of space which are not adjacent to each other. And that's what we call A. Wormhole is a connection between bits of space which have no reason otherwise to be next to each other. But it's like I'm here in Orange County you're in Atlanta. What if we just somehow said Orange County is next to Atlanta? And you know we just rearranged the connections that's what a wormhole does and shockingly crazily mind-bogglingly. That's not against the rules yet. This makes me think of the examples we saw in the hyperion. Novels where you had essentially warp gates that were allowing a river in one world to flow into a river in the other world which feels completely fantastic. But you like what you're saying if you lawyer up appropriately it's not completely out of the realm of possibility. Yeah not out of the realm of possibility at all and it's the kind of thing which might never be practical. They might be that. We're never able to build something which allows you to have a house where your bathroom is in one planet in your living room is another. I love that book But also might be totally possible. It might be seem impossible. And then somebody has a breakthrough like oh turns out. It's a lot easier than we thought and use the cost The entire energy output of the human race for a year just to transmit a particle through normal. Now we can do it for five cents you know and then the next year. There's an APP for it right. The progression of Technology and You know the way a wormhole would work. Is conceptually quite tricky. Still you need to create a black hole. You need to open this. Mola you need to keep it open. It might require the creation of exotic matter and all sorts of stuff. But it's technically not impossible that excites me? Mostly because I love to visit these other star systems and walk on another planet or at least have some humans walk another planet can tell us about it..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"And so. That's propagation of information in so gravitational wave is a special form of that. Say you're familiar with the concept of like putting a mass that deforms space imagine you put a massive space and then you take it away and put it in space and you take it away and you put in space and you take it away. What's going to happen? It's not going to be very pleasant for the occupants of your space they're gonNA get jerked around right back and forth back and forth and that's sort of more dramatic version of what happens when two black holes orbit each other is. They're creating ripples in this gravitational field and you feel those as stretching and squeezing of space itself and we measure that here on earth by having really long rods essentially and watching them shrink and expand shrink and expand with those nor lasers that you would use to measure that. Yeah the practical way. You measure a very small change in the length of a long rod is that you don't actually bill the physical Rod. That was the first thing they tried actually did it here. At UCI do Weber did that and because he had no idea like maybe this is easy to spot right. Let's just build a big block of metal in Sivas Rings and expands? Say what was it made out of is just a big cylinder metal. But nowadays they're miles. Long and their laser they use lasers to measure the length between two isolated mirrors and I think that the biggest misconception people have about space being bent by mass is. They're used to this rubber sheet analogy where you have like a big rubber sheet and you put a bowling ball in it and it bends space in the bowling ball's supposed to represent the sun and the rubber sheet is supposed to be represented space and that's helpful up to a point because he gets you to think about space being bent instead of flat. But it's also I think confusing and the ways confusing that it's bending in some sort of third dimension right and that analogy space the universe to D and You put some object in it and had bins in some third dimension but our space. It's three deavere to ball when you put a mass in it it doesn't Bend in some fourth dimension. It's not like our spaces in bed and in some higher dimensional space and then he gets bent in fourth dimension. It's an intrinsic bending not an extrinsic. It's not like there's somebody out there with a true set of rulers in four D space and they're noticing our space being bent it's an intrinsic bending which means it just changes the relationship between points in space right. It says okay now that space that bit of space is closer. This bit of spaces further away. Wow so I've never thought of it that way. So so you're saying that. The gravitational influence of a large object like star is in some literal since shortening the distance between points of space. As you get closer to it absolutely Lo massless particles photons travel not in straight lines. They travel along geodetic which means the shortest path through curved space. Now in the middle of nowhere. There's no mass anywhere that happens to be a straight line that's why it seems like photons travel straight but photons and also be bent by the Sun. How does that happen? Photons have no mass right. Well the the the sun is changing the shape of space so that the shortest path from A to B is no longer will we consider a straight line. It's a geodesic the shortest path and so general relativity mass changes the relationship between space between here and there and That's what we maybe you hear. People talk about like the space time metric that relates. How bits of space are connected so this is sort of the the biggest conceptual leap to make from the rubber sheet analogy to our actual three D space. Which is that. It's an intrinsic bending relationship between points in space and that's what a gravitational wave is doing. Also it's a ripple in this metric as it passes through space thing. Oh these things are now closer together now. The further apart like you can change the distance between two things without those things moving relative to each other right because you change the relative distances. It almost makes me think in terms of How this is communicated to non experts that would maybe be better to not use terms like bending of space and maybe more like compressing or squeezing of space. Yeah but base can also be expanded. Ride like what we're seeing right in. The universe right now is that space is expanding which is crazy. It's like something out. There is menu factoring new units of space all the time. It's filling the universe with new space. That's that's the hardest thing for me to get my mind around where this base is coming from what it means to make new space. And Are you making? Units have do space space continuous and smooth and like man. There's so many questions. Oh well I wanNA talk about that. Maybe we should take a quick break and then when we come back we can explore the expansion of space. Sound good problems. It's human nature to hate problems. But why is that after all problems inspire us to mend things? Ben Things make things better. That's why so many people work with IBM on everything from city. Traffic to ocean plastic new schools to new energy flight delays to food safety.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Space as a really goes against a lot of our intuitions where you know I think the standard understanding of empty space. What's out there beyond earth? You know even if you could clear all the hydrogen and dust and everything out of it is that it's just this empty relationship between two points, but you mentioned of course the the idea that they're you know. Quantum fields that can be excited and can give birth particles instead well I might be putting words in your mouth, or is that correct though yeah? Yeah Yeah, okay, but earlier you mentioned also that it has other properties, so it sounds like you're saying space really is a thing. It's almost like a substance of a kind. Yes, space is a Goo-. Right we. I imagined space sort of as a place to hold her ideas right like maybe when you think space in your anything deep space, you imagined some like glowing XYZ axes that used to the backdrop on which may be your calculations. Take Place, or your spaceship flies through or whatever sort of but they're. They're like mental metrics. We use to understand where things are as sort of the initial idea of space, but then it turns out. This base can do things that are inconsistent with that right like space can ripple. We've seen gravitational waves when black holes orbit each other and eventually collide or other things happen. They create these ripples in space itself these ripples, their space, getting stretched and space getting contracted right squeezing, and and and shrinking and expanding again very very small, which is why they were hard to discover. We've discovered it's base can do things, so it can ripple it can expand right. We've talked about the expansion of the universe, the universe expanding its first moments, and it's continuing to expand in addition space can bend. Maybe the most familiar example is understanding gravity as distortions in space by having mass nearby, and and so space can do all these things that nothingness cannot do that. Backdrop cannot do. You can't just think of spaces like the theater of the universe. It's a weird dynamic thing in itself. Yeah I think in general. Our listeners are going to be more familiar with the idea. That space can can been in accordance with general relativity. There's a big object. Creates curvature and space time. It's a little bit harder to picture exactly what's happening with the first thing you mentioned with The ripples through space time so that's something that would be like. That's like how we detected gravitational waves right. Is that correct? so what what exactly is happening when a ripple goes through space like how? How do you measure that? What what is that in the moment right? Well, you know a ripple through space is information propagating through the gravitational field something very important that came out of general relativity that we didn't have with Newton's gravity is the concept that information takes time to move gravitationally like if the sun disappeared. would. We feel the sun. The gravity instantly disappear, or would you take a moment turns out Newton says it would go away instantly. Einstein Says No. You wouldn't even notice for eight minutes because the gravity from the Sun will take the information about the son being gone with take eight minutes to get here gravitationally. And so that's propagation of information, right so gravitational wave is a special form of that say you're familiar with the concept of like putting a mass that deforms space, imagine you put a massive space, and then you take it away and put it in space, and you take it away, and you put in space and you take it away. What's going to happen? It's not going to be very pleasant for the occupants of your space. They're going to get jerked around right back and forth back and forth, and that's sort of a more dramatic version of what happens. When two black holes orbit, each other is, they're creating ripples in this gravitational field, and you feel those as stretching and squeezing of space itself, and we miss that here on earth by having really long rods, essentially and watching them shrink and expand shrink and expand. Lasers that you would use to measure that. Yeah, the practical way you measure a very small change in the length of a long rod is that you don't actually bill the physical rod? That was the first thing they tried actually did it here at UCI. Do Weber did that and because he had no idea like. Maybe this is easy to spot right? Let's just build a big block of metal in Sivas drinks and expands. Say. What was it made out of is just a big cylinder metal. But. Nowadays they're miles long and their laser. They use lasers to measure the length between two isolated mirrors and I think that the biggest misconception people have about space being bent by mass is they're used to this rubber sheet analogy where you have like a big rubber sheet, and you put a bowling ball in it and it bends space in the bowling ball's. Ball's supposed to represent the sun, and the rubber sheet is supposed to represent space, and that's helpful up to a point because he gets you to think about space being bent of flat, but it's also I think confusing, and the ways confusing that it's bending in some sort of third dimension right, and that analogy space the universe to d and You put some. Some object in it and had bins in some third dimension, but our space. It's three deavere to ball when you put a mass in it. It doesn't Bend in some fourth dimension. It's not like our spaces in bed, and in some higher dimensional space, and then he gets bent in fourth dimension. It's an intrinsic bending, not an extrinsic. It's not like there's somebody. Somebody out there with a true set of rulers in four D space, and they're noticing our space being bent. It's an intrinsic bending, which means it just changes the relationship between points in space, right? It says okay now that space that bit of space is closer, this bit of spaces further away. Wow, so I've never thought of it that way, so so you're. You're saying that the gravitational influence of a large object like star is in some literal since shortening the distance between points of space. As you get closer to it, absolutely Lo massless particles, photons travel not in straight lines they travel along geodetic, which means the shortest path through curved space now in the middle of nowhere. There's no mass anywhere that happens to be. Be a straight line. That's why it seems like photons travel straight, but photons and also be bent by the Sun. How does that happen? photons have no mass right well. The the the sun is changing the shape of space so that the shortest path from A to B is no longer. Will we consider a straight line? It's a geodesic, the shortest path and And so Gr-. General relativity mass changes the relationship between space between here and there and That's what we maybe you hear. People talk about like the space time metric that relates how bits of space are connected, so this is sort of the the biggest conceptual leap to make from the rubber sheet analogy to our actual three d space, which is that it's. It's an intrinsic bending the relationship between points in space, and that's what a gravitational wave is doing. Also it's a ripple in this metric as it passes through space thing Oh. These things are now closer together now the further apart like you can change the distance between two things without those things moving relative to each other right because you change the relative distances. Almost makes me think in terms of how this is communicated to non experts that would maybe be better to not use terms like bending of space, and maybe more like compressing or squeezing of space. But base can also be expanded ride like what we're seeing right in the universe right now is that space is expanding which is crazy. It's like something. There is menu factoring new units of space all the time. It's feeling the universe with new space. That's that's the hardest thing for me to get my mind around where this base is coming from what it means to make new space, and are you making units of do space space, continuous and smooth and like man. There's so many questions. Oh well. I WanNa talk about that. Maybe we should take a quick break, and then when we come back, we can explore the expansion of space sound good. Problems. It's human nature to hate problems, but why is that? After all problems inspire us to mend things ben things make things better. That's why.
Daniel Whiteson on Space Itself
"How would a physicist defined space while all of space in one sentence? That is a pretty tall order. You know I'd have to say To be honest to say we really have no idea. What space is I mean? I think it's wonderful that you're asking this question. It's the kind of question that it takes like a sort of maturity of science and philosophy to even understand why the question is interesting and important. You know it's like it's like we're fish. Scientists for thousand years swimming through this fluid and then only recently realized that AIDS. It's something fascinating something to study. Something that has properties can do weird things. And so it's it's a deep an important question you know. And and just to digress. A tiny bit more like it makes me wonder how many other crazy basic questions we aren't even asking because we don't realize how rich the topic is you know so. I feel privileged that. We're at this moment in science when we can ask. This question would is space and understand that it is an important question all right so I totally dodged your question there but I can try to give a one sentence answer. If you'd like shirt will start simple and then and then we'll get more into the nuances here. All right well a simple answer to what is space is that I mean I could try. It may be impossible I'd say the simplest description I can give for. What space is is something which has various properties we've discovered it had can contain quantum fields it can expand and it has relationships to other parts of space. So that's more a description of what we've what we've observed about. Space is not really an inherent standing of what it is because we don't have that understanding. Well maybe this brings me to a question. I wanted to ask later on but If there is no good answer to this It can help ground us as we go forward so I wanted to ask. Is there such a thing as a hypothetical physics without space does all physics assume space and can we imagine say a possible world that exists but does not contain space or is that just inconceivable that all physics that we do assume space like all of our modern theories the standard model and quantum field theory they all operate in some space and there are different kinds of theories of have and some of those make different assumptions for what that space is my quantum field theory? You right down with the spaces in advance. He say I'M GONNA assume space in three dimensions and extends all in all these directions. And then I'm going to talk about the fields that are in that space other theories like general relativity. Space is part of what you're trying to get at. It's not like the backdrop. It's the thing you solve for you so if I have this configuration. Then what does the space look like? But they all assume space. I mean space gives you a relationship between stuff right tells you this year and this is not here and in the end all trying to understand the world we live in and everything. We live in space. So it's pretty hard to grapple with a non spatial theories or non spatial physics. So yeah I would say that We Need Space Okay. But so if we could come at it from the exact opposite angle. He think you couldn't really have physics without space. Could you have a universe full of space with no matter energy in it could space exist without any contents? Good space exists without any contents and yeah that is an awesome question. And it's fascinating because we have two theories of physics right now quantum mechanics and general relativity and they're both awesome achievements staggering insights into the way the universe works. And they give different answers to this question right so general. Relativity is Einstein's theory and he has a bunch of equations. Say What the universe look like depending on what you put in it. And he is and it's really hard to solve like this very few ways. You can actually saw these equations. One of the very few ways actually can get an answer out is what they call the vacuum solution like to say. Assume this nothing then. What is the universe? Look like if there's nothing in it all right. Einstein can solve that problem. Quantum field theory though theory says hold on a second space is filled with all these quantum fields and particles and matter and all the stuff that you make me and you are just like excited states of these fields so when you look at an electron it's not a particle it's not a wave it's a little ripple in some field which is not in-space. It's part of space. Save all these fields of the electron field. The electro magnetic field all the fields associated with each of the forces. Lots of them. We can talk about them later if you'd like but some of them never relaxed completely. Some of them are always have some energy in them. For example Higgs field. The Higgs field is an every part of space. And it's always got some built intention to it and that means that this energy in every part of space so quantum field theory says no. You can't have space without some energy in it. There's some inherent energy to space or the general. Says I can totally imagine it. And we don't know which theory is the fundamental truth theory of the universe if either one we can't seem to make them play together very well and so this question really goes to the heart of like the nature of reality itself fascinating kind of thing that in five hundred years visits will know the answer to and look back at. Us and be like man. Those people didn't understand anything about the nature of the universe. They were living in right. What a bunch of Caveman cavewoman. Like Mrs so. I love that idea about quantum field theory if I understand this right. You're saying that under the assumptions of quantum field theory. You could have a big block of space and even if you were able to clear everything out of it clear out. All the hydrogen particles clear out all the dust. So there's no matter left in it. You still you still really wouldn't have an empty void. Is that correct? That's right? Every unit of space comes with energy built in it comes from the factory with energy already in it and and in lots of those fields can't not cannot relax a higgs field is one example but many of these fields cannot relax all the way down to zero and so it's impossible according to these quantum theories to have space with no energy density in it at all and and that stuff all stuff is is some kind of energy like the matter that makes me and you. That's just a form of energy so to say that the space has seen it really means. It's not
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Whiteson of Daniel and Jorges explain the universe. We are so privileged to have Daniel. Join US again today. Daniel say hi and introduce yourself for anybody who wasn't around last time. Hi Guys! Thanks so much for having me on great to be back. I'm Daniel. Lights and I'm a professor of. Of Particle Physics at UC Irvine, down, here in southern California, and I'm also the CO host of the PODCAST, Daniel and Jorges explain the universe, a podcast with my good friend and collaborator Whore Hey Cham- in which we talk all about the craziness of the universe, we try to answer questions. We try to share the wonder and the mystery of the universe in a way that makes it accessible and hopefully a little bit fun well. We really appreciate you joining us today. Daniel so. So. I wanted to invite you onto stuff to blow your mind today to talk about space. This is actually a subject I've I've wanted to tackle on the show for a while with the unifying question of what is base. Why is there such thing as the distance between the earth and the sun or between an atomic nucleus in the electron that orbits it because I think a lot of the time when we think about physical reality, we just immediately look past space to. To the things that occupy it, we, we assume space as a kind of given a defacto canvas on which physics can be realized, but I wanted to think about space itself. What is it? HOW DOES IT Exist? Do we know anything about where it comes from and where it's going? So maybe the easiest way to start off today would be to to get as simple as we can so in simplest terms in a sentence if you could do it, how would a physicist defined space? While all of space in one sentence, that is a pretty tall order. You know I'd have to say to be honest to say. We really have no idea what space is. That, you're asking this question. It's the kind of question that it takes like a maturity of science and philosophy to even understand why the question is interesting and important. You know it's like it's like we're fish scientists for thousand years swimming through this fluid and then only. Have realized that AIDS. It's something fascinating something to study something that has properties can do weird things, and so it's it's a deep an important question you know, and and just to digress a tiny bit more like it makes me wonder how many other crazy basic questions we aren't even asking, because we don't realize how rich the topic is, you know so I feel privileged that we're at this moment in science when we can ask this question would is space and understand that it is an important question. All right, so I totally dodged your question there. But I can try to give a one sentence answer. If you'd like, shirt will start simple, and then, and then we'll get more into the nuances here all right well. A simple answer to what is spaced is that. I. Mean I could try. It may be impossible. I'd say the simplest description I can give for what space is. Is something which has various properties we've discovered it had can contain quantum fields. It can expand, and it has relationships to other parts of space. So that's more a description of what we've what we've observed about. Space is not really an inherent understanding of what it is because we don't have that understanding will. Maybe this brings me to a question. I wanted to ask later on, but If. There is no good answer to this It can help ground us as we go forward, so I wanted to ask. Is there such a thing as a hypothetical physics without space? Does all physics assume space, and can we imagine say a possible world that exists, but does not contain space, or is that just inconceivable? That all physics that we do assume space like all of our modern theories, the standard model and quantum field theory they all operate in some space, and there are different kinds of theories of have, and some of those make different assumptions for what that space is my quantum field theory, you right down with the spaces in advance. He say I'M GONNA, assume space in three dimensions and extends all in all these directions, and then I'm GonNa. Talk about the fields that are in that space other theories. Theories like general relativity. Space is part of what you're trying to get at. It's not like the backdrop. It's the thing you solve for you so if I have this configuration, then what does the space look like? But they all assume space I mean space gives you a relationship between stuff. Right tells you this year, and this is not here and in the end all are trying to understand the world we live in and everything. We live in space, so it's pretty hard to grapple with. A non spatial theories or non spatial physics, so yeah I would say that we need space. Okay, but so if we could come from the exact opposite angle. He think you couldn't really have physics without space. Could you have a universe full of space with no matter energy in it? Could space exist without any contents? Good space exists without any contents and yeah, that is an awesome question, and it's fascinating because we have two theories of physics right now, quantum mechanics and general relativity, and they're both awesome achievements staggering insights into the way the universe works, and they give different answers to this question right so general relativity. Is Einstein's theory and he has a bunch of equations that say what the Universe look like depending on what you put in it and he is. And it's really hard to solve like this very few ways you can actually saw these equations. One of the very few ways actually can get an answer out is what they call the vacuum solution like to say, assume this nothing. Then what is the universe? Look like? If there's nothing in it, all right Einstein can solve that problem. Quantum, field theory though theory says hold on a second. Space is filled with all these quantum fields and particles and matter, and all the stuff that you make me and you are just like excited states of these fields. So when you look at an electron, it's not a particle. It's not a wave. It's a little ripple in some field, which is not in-space. It's part of space. Save all these fields of the electron field, the electro magnetic field, all the fields associated with each of the forces. Lots of them. We can talk about them later if you'd like. But some of them. Never relaxed completely. Some of them are always have some energy in them for example Higgs field. The Higgs field is an every part of space, and it's always got some built intention to it, and that means that this energy in every part of space so quantum field theory says no. You can't have space without some energy in it. There's some inherent energy to space, or the general says I can totally imagine it, and we don't know which theory is the fundamental truth theory of the universe if either. Either one, we can't seem to make them play together very well. And so this question really goes to the heart of like the nature of reality itself, fascinating kind of thing that in five hundred years visits will know the answer to and look back at us and be like man. Those people didn't understand anything about the nature of the universe. They were living in right. What a bunch of Caveman cavewoman like! Mrs, so I love that idea about quantum field theory. If I understand this right, you're saying that under the assumptions of quantum field theory, you could have a big block of space, and even if you were able to clear everything out of it, clear out all the hydrogen particles clear out all the dust, so there's no matter left in it you still you still really wouldn't have an empty void. Is that correct? That's right. Every unit of space comes with energy built in. It comes from the factory with energy already in it and. And in lots of those fields can't not cannot relax. A Higgs field is one example, but many of these fields cannot relax all the way down to zero, and so it's impossible according to these quantum theories to have space with no energy density in it at all, and and that stuff all stuff is is some kind of energy like the matter that makes me and you. That's just a form of energy, so to say that the space has seen. It really means it's not empty so what you're describing space..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Daniel and Jorge Explain the Universe
"Employed a cartoonist in the creator of PhD. Comex Hi. I'm Daniel Whiteson. I'm a particle physicist and I'm the CO author of the book. We have no idea a guide to the unknown universe. A book about all the things we don't know about the universe and you've read it with a really awesome and fund cartoonist. I did back and I was recently contacted by one of our listeners. And one of our readers in the Czech Republic. WHO's reading our book in check? I hope it says the same things. It doesn't English will. He actually told me how to to translate the title in check literally into English but how does it translate apparently translates to. We don't even know fart about it on the word Fart isn't it says it's a very common expression check for I don't know about that and that's the expression they chose for the title in check. Wow I wonder if we had named that made that the actual title in English Maybe Louisville dislike more copies. I don't know maybe the Kinda stink but it's a really fun book. It's all about the unanswered questions of the universe. All the things we'd like to know about our lives and the where and where we live and how the universe began but don't yet know and so we hope on this podcast to take you on a tour of what we do and don't know about the universe and maybe one of you out there. A young budding scientists will be the one to figure out the answers. That's right we bring to the all the amazing mysteries of the universe all the farts in the universe and all the mysterious farts mysterious parts. The ones that fourteen it. You can't smell through this audio podcasts. Or welcome to Daniel and explain the universe a production of iheartradio in which we examined the amazing mysterious all the weird and wonderful things in our bunkers conquers universe. And we talk about them in a way we hope entertains you. It also teaches you something deep about the physics of our universe. Yeah we talk about all the Cinema Nice and beautiful beautiful and wonderful inspiring thing that are out there in the universe the big in the small but we also talk about some of the crazy things that happen as right because the universe is dramatic and it is violent and when it wants to make a splash it goes big it goes supernova goes hyper Nova I know yes it to the on the program we'll be tackling perhaps one of the most I Dunno violent or you know dramatic or you know maybe interesting events that happen out in the universe and that happens quite a bit. That's right it's one of the most interesting and dramatic things that can happen in our universe one of the things. We've seen the kind the thing that we can even find in historical records that people in ancient times noticed happening the sky and wondered what he was all about right and so the question is how much do we know about it. How much do we understand about this? Incredible Event and word we can do if one happens near us. Yeah and the answer is basically dig a hole impre. Let's get into that to the on the podcast. We'll be asking the question. Aw what may say Supernova blow explored. I guess Super One supernova explode or what makes a Supernova a Supernova Supernova. What makes Supernova so super? Yeah Y isn't it a super duper Nova or will you know the name Nova is actually really quite fascinating. It means new and says Super Nova's like something super new in the sky comes from people looking at the sky saying. Hey that wasn't there before or that's different and it's pretty rare to see something change in the sky. I mean we're used to the patterns of the seasons in the days the nights and all that stuff but otherwise is the stars in their life span is much longer than ours and so to see dies pretty unusual we'll be talking about Supernova and what what causes a Supernova Supernova and how that works but it's basically the biggest explosion you can have in base right. Is that true the whole universe. That's the biggest explosion that happens is the biggest explosion we've seen so far. I mean the stars are one of the biggest things out there. I guess you could imagine a galaxy exploded but it's hard to see how that would happen at Galaxy Lexi Nova. Nobody's ever seen that yet. What would you call that at Uber? Nova or Columbia Nova over Nuba. But I guess is maybe It's the biggest explosion because you know stars are some of the MOS energy peg things out there right. I mean they that can explode like A. You don't see a black hole. Exploding you don't yet see black holes. Exploding that would be fascinating and yeah the key to having a big explosion is not just being massive having a lot of energy but releasing it very very rapidly. That's basically what an explosion is is like. It's like a bomb. You wanted to posit a lot of energy and want to really quickly so you get a shock wave action action and that's the thing that makes Supernova exciting that they happen quickly also is the thing that makes them hard to understand and hard to spot. Because we don't know precisely what it causes the star to go Supernova. And they don't happen that often so it's pretty rare to see one start to go. Oh really we don't know what causes these Super Nova's no no. We have some general sense for what happens during Supernova. We'll dig into it on today's podcast but what makes it go now not next week to predict when an individual star Star will go Supernova is not something we know how to do. Nobody's pressing his switch that you can see your they don't announce a big countdown like Nafta you know thirty seconds still super taking ticking ticking time bomb no and astronomers would love to see a star like five seconds before super new ones second before Supernova the first moments. It's you know that would be fascinating taking catch it as it has. It's happening Yep and there's actually a guy who was watching the skies in two thousand sixteen and astronomer an an amateur astronomer. He was just happened to be looking at one star through his telescope and he saw go Supernova like in real time. Wow what are. They handed that they're pretty low because it's actually not that many stars that will go supernova like not every star ends up in a Supernova and of course stars live for really long long time and so the calculated the odds is like one ten million one hundred million that if you're looking at a star through a telescope that you'd be watching it go Supernova. Oh so that this person. I was looking at the star through telescope or hurt telescope and it went Supernova as he was looking at it as he was looking at it now of course this time delay went supernova along time ago but the the images from that Supernova arrived on earth as his eyeballs. Were pointed at it And to hide it he proved his. Did he have we about his cell phone on and they serve it all good amateur. Astronomers have cameras attached to their telescopes so he snaps some photos and of course he alerted astronomers who appointed their telescopes at it to try to catch a glimpse of the first moments of this star going Nova wide. Is that true. We actually took pictures of it. Oh Yeah Oh that's pretty interesting interesting. Wow Supernova sort of famous people have heard of them. People know that they're a thing they're pretty dramatic their PR campaigns have been pretty good. Yeah they're they're sort of in the general consciousness for sure of I think culture and society. I mean everyone knows them as is stars exploding but I was curious. You know how much people actually NOPE SUPERNOVA did. They know what really happens inside the know what causes it to know weather. We understand Supernova so I walked around campus here at UC Irvine. And I ask folks what they knew about super nervous. Yeah so think about it for a second you've probably heard a Supernova is but do you know what causes them and how they actually explode. Here's what people had to say something to do with the star exploding explodes. What makes the death of the star Supernova exploding sorrow to what makes it? It's age explode when you builder. Who knows also I know that Supernova are winstar reaches the end of its life and eventually the force of gravity overcomes the push from the inside of Star and it collapses and then explodes? I know they're in space and it's is it is it when a star like implodes of something. I know that they are the final all stage stars. What makes him happen eventually? The the it becomes too dense the elements that it creates in the in the middle at that point point collapses in on itself. And there's a few things that can happen but a Supernova is one of them a Supernova. All right cool so I think it sounds sounds like everyone knows what it means. It means the death or the explosion of a star. Yes they knew that it marked the end of the life of a star but few people had really offense ends for like what's going on inside the SUPERNOVA. What makes it happen? Why do stars die that way? I do stars die at all. One of the burn forever to it's a big explosion in space and you're saying it's rare so only about one to three Super Nova's per century or something like that in a typical galaxy yeah we have seen a lot of SUPERNOVA 's from birth but almost all of them have been other galaxies and that's because most stars will not go Supernova in galaxy like the Milky Way that has about one hundred a billion stars only about one or two maybe three we'll go Supernova in a hundred years so it's not it's pretty rare most stars don't go Supernova Most stars do not go Supernova the fact that we've seen hundreds is only because there are so many stars in so many galaxies out there but you know we're lucky we're glad actually that they're not a lot of Supernova because they're pretty devastating. Oh I see so if a Supernova goes off in a galaxy far away. We'll we'll actually sad like you'll outshine the whole galaxy and we'll see You know take over the light from the galaxy. That's right it's a really dramatic event. It can be as bright as the entire tiresome of all the light from the rest of the stars in the galaxy and so it's like it doubles the brightness of Galaxy when it happens and the most amazing things things that most of the energy from Supernova doesn't even come out in the form of light so you're seeing a tiny fraction of this incredible explosion in the visual spectrum. So if you see if you're looking at a galaxy at any point and you see certainly bright up it's because of a supernova inside of it like one of its hundred billion stars went boom. Yeah precisely well. Let's get into Daniel all right An expert let's explain to people would a Supernova is I guess what's the technical definition of a SUPERNOVA. Yes yeah so technically. A SUPERNOVA is the end of the life of some kinds of stars not all-stars that most ours will not go Supernova. But it's essentially actually the star explodes and sends out most of the energy that's stored inside of it out into space in the form of electromagnetic radiation so visible light which is a tiny any fraction and an enormous number of neutrinos. Just like gobs. And GOBS and gobs of neutrinos and then also a north man of matter is like shockwave of just stuff that gets spewed across the universe like the shrapnel in a grenade like shrimp on the grenade and is good that that happens because because that goes out in its seeds other stars to form and it spreads heavy metals that were burned inside that star out into the university. You can get interesting things like rocky planets.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on Stuff To Blow Your Mind
"Hey what stuff to blow your mind. My name is Robert Lamb and I'm Joe McCormick and I was just out of town for about a week and a half Sir Robert. You recorded some interviews while I was out that's right. I didn't have you to talk to so what am I gonNA talk to so. I just started calling people up and saying hey let's let's talk about some stuff. Breath and one of these individuals was Daniel Whiteson who is a physicist and the Co host of the podcast Daniel in Harare. Explain blame the universe. We've been meaning to talk to these guys for a while and I'm sorry I missed the chance to to chat with you and Daniel but I'm excited to hear what y'all talked about yeah. This is a this is a fun little conversation. We talk we talk a little bit about physics and particle physics a little bit about science communication and just also just the nature of science and yeah it was just really a really fun little Chad. It was nice to actually you know chat with a physicist about this because I know there are times where we you and I we are not as so and so when we're tackling some of these like really complicated physics related topics you know we're we're at time struggling with the content and you know having in helping the listener struggle with the content when our nature as generalists is brought out. There's an there's certainly an advantage in in being a journalist and listening to journalist but it was also just really cool to to speak to an expert about some of these topics so it's a it's a really really fun when so without further ado let's go ahead and jump into the interview and will jump out at REX force in the low medium hi Daniel Welcome to the show can you didn't just introduce yourself your name and your title for for everybody out there listening. Hey thanks a lot for having me on I'm Daniel Whiteson. I'm a professor of Experimental Particle Physics at University of California at Irvine. I'm also through the CO host of Daniel and Jorges explain the universe our podcast comes out twice a week about mind blowing crazy stuff about the universe and and together with him well wrote a book called. We have no idea a guide to the unknown universe that tells you all about all the things that we don't know about about the universe and how let's see. How do the show actually start? I know it's been going for for quite a while. Now you have a number of episodes bank tab yeah we're actually just hit a hundred episodes. Oh Nice so we'd be yeah. It comes out twice a week and so we've been doing it for just over a year and the topics vary from like how big is the universe to more pedantic stuff like how does lightning work and does anybody actually understand it. we just looked for mysteries anywhere puzzles that physicists to unravel and we hope our listeners like the heroes blather about now again. You're you're a physicist and science. Communicator is a science communicator and a comic artist correct that's right but he actually also has a PhD of his own. Oh yeah yeah he has a hilarious background. He went to Grad School in robotics and was developing little robots that could run like cockroaches which is pretty hilarious but on the side he started doing a comic strip just sort of procrastinate the real work he should have been doing and then took off and became frankly more more popular than his academic research and turned into a full-time GIG for him. So how did you guys come together. I on the book and then again the you know the podcast follow well we we met on tinder of course no Jorges SORTA is something of a celebrity in academia his comics that he's been putting out called impeached economics really captured sort of existential angst of doing research and working under a professor and being a Grad student and so when I was a Grad student loved his work. Can everybody around me loved his work because they expressed something. We were all feeling you know how you can be in the lab all day and make no progress or even move backwards so he was something of a celebrity and by maybe ten years ago I was working on some science communication and I had the idea what if we could use comics to explain some of these complicated concepts APPs in physics that might be much simpler visually but the problem was. I don't have any artistic skill myself so I couldn't draw these things so my wife who's also an academic could amick. She suggested to me she's like Oh. Why don't you email champion? Ask Him to your drawings and I was like yeah and I'll email Brad Pitt and we with me right I mean it's sort of at the same level for me but emailed horray cold email and he actually wrote back and five sounds like a fun project and we've been working on stuff ever since vents awesome. Oh Yeah I mean I'm obviously worked well together and the book on the PODCAST. You guys have wonderful report. Yeah we we have we have fun doing the podcast mostly because as we have fun talking science to each other when we were working on the book we spent a lot of time talking about the concepts and figuring it out and something that Hor he's really I'm good at is teasing out what's interesting about a topic and figuring out how to connect to the general public in a he's not a trained as a physicist but he has a science background obviously the brain for so we can understand these concepts but he's outside the field so he's able to sort of bridge between you know the the the hard science and the general general public and so I think that works really well but yeah we just had finally just laughing. All the time we'll talk is that we thought it'd be fun to hey record those conversations and share them with people so you're already touch this little bit but the you know part of this as a scientist and a science communicator you you're you're privy to the inside world of scientific research and Academia Emma but then you're communicating it to a more general audience you mentioned the the idea of going in working every day and either feeling as if you're not making progress or feeling like you're slipping backwards. Did you feel that there is a there's a misconception concerning science in the general public that regarding the rate of progress in in science or what progress looks like yeah absolutely. I think that most people have no oh I dea what the life of a scientist is like just out of not having had the experience you know I think most people go to work and they have a pile of work in front of them and then they work work through it you know and then at the end of the day they've done something right you even somebody whose job is very simple like chopping wood or something right. There's this famous time. Bernstein spent a day chopping wood and he was like wow that is really satisfying day. Get A day's worth of work done whereas in science you can work for for months and make no progress or ruin things that you've established but then one day you know you can make a huge leap forward and those the days we live for. It's very statistic. it's hard for me to really remember what I thought. Science was like before it became a scientist but you know as a kid I imagined it was days filled with insight and discovery mind blowing realizations about the universe you know but those are very rare and few and far between yeah I think think on you know on the exterior in the general public we tend to focus in on those those big moments right those Aha moments of discoveries like the final paper or not the final paper the resulting paper that comes out you know it's it's those moments in the day day to day that we ended up focusing on that's right and in order to be a scientist you you need to be interested did in those big moments those drive. That's what pulls you through the work but you also have to have an appreciation for the craft of it right the day to day actual work and and I learned this when I was trying to become a scientist because I I joined a field that I thought was exciting like I I became a plasma visits when I was first exploring physics and and because because I wanted to solve the world's energy problem and develop fusion I thought that was really awesome but the day-to-day work of working on these reactors I found mind-numbingly mind numbing lead dull the concept like I might one day develop. A fusion reactor wasn't enough to interest me every day and then I tried condensed dense matter physics where a shooting lasers at Goo and trying to make a do weird stuff and I thought that was awesome but day to day you're like tweaking laser and trying to make it work and that wasn't that much fun and then eventually stumbled on particle physics where most of the work day to day is writing computer programs. You're solving these little intellectual puzzles involved volt with debugging computer programs and understanding statistics and for me that was really fun. It's totally separate from the actual big questions. We're trying to answer every day. You know what's the universe made out of. What's the smallest thing so I tell this a lot to Grad students who are thinking about particle physics? I say find a field where you're excited about the big questions but you also got enjoy the day today would shopping because that's what you're doing so he in your work you you deal with subatomic particles and and astronomy you deal with reality at the the micro-scale and the macro scale distances smaller and vaster than our our as humans are evolved since re perceptions. What does it feel like? Gazza is a human scientist to be trapped between these two realms that you know at times are are are very difficult to imagine yeah. It makes me feel very very small. Well you know it's a I feel like the job of physics at this level is to expand our horizons. You know we've seen the universe sort of the scale of stuff stuff. That's like a meter down to a centimeter down to maybe millimeter we can grasp right with our minds and what we're trying to push those boundaries to the very very small and very very large and you know the first thing you learn is that there's a huge amount going on at the very small level and at the very big level and that just makes me feel like you know a small and insignificant in sort of the best possible way I mean it's like it tells me that the universe is so fascinating and so filled with mysteries that that were really just beginning to crack the surface and I love that feeling I love feeling like there are amazing discoveries out there waiting for us and so it makes me feel like you know I'm an explorer and there's a huge amount of territory that is left to touch so it's an exciting feeling but also intimidating now. There's I guess there's even no matter how you know larger small the details of the university dealing with your there there is this bedrock experience of reality and you know I've I've read a little bit about the idea that it can read lead to like a reality bias. Is that problem for physics a reality -ality bias. That's awesome. I think it's a problem for physics but it's also the only thing we can do. I mean most of what we do. In physics is try. Try to extrapolate from what we know into what we don't know probably the let's exploits new territory the summertime particles. How does that stuff work? What does it look like when we do that? We build mental models models in our mind. What might be happening that are based on the kind of things we know right when I say particle probably in your head you're thinking thing tiny little ball Reid? He'd be spinning something. Why do you think that because that's one of the things in the catalog of your mind? It's harder to come up with a completely a new thing right. It's like if somebody gave you a totally new fruit you never even before you might be like It's kind of like apple with. Maybe a little bit of Cherry and banana in it right. You describe things. You don't know in terms of things you know because that's the only thing we really can do so yeah..
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on TechStuff
"I wouldn't say rather I'll just say that those were what my questions were about one topic which connects them, which is we the one way we might discover alien civilization is by I detecting, they're particle physicists. I have not heard this might be if somebody if aliens are building like enormous particle collider is like the size of a solar system that we might eventually like sweep through the essentially the pollution from that part from that particle accelerator and discover them in that way, that would be pretty crazy way to find an alien species. But that would be awesome. Because it would it would tell us that. Hey, look particle physics is not just a human thing. It's a universal thing. Wants to know what the universe is made out of an everyone's figuring it out by smashing stuff together. So that'd be pretty exciting discovery. And is interesting. I'd I had not heard about that particular kind of an idea. I I've heard of of course, enormous constructs that could especially when you talk about things like the Carta shops scale and Utah thinking about like, the Dyson sphere, and that kind of stuff these hypothetical machines that would need to exist in order to to take advantage of say an entire solar systems energy output, which would be necessary to reach those higher levels of. Nation that we've heard about, but I hadn't heard about a hadn't thought about a particle accelerator the size of a solar system to be perfectly us the large. Hadron collider is is a big enough beast for me to try and get my mind wrapped around. I mean, they're talking about some ingredients pensive, so yeah, the size collider is gonna take another level of civilization before we can afford that kind of equipment. Yeah. Hey, guys. This is Jonathan from the future just breaking into Jonathan from the past to explain that. We're gonna take a quick break with our conversation with Daniel Whiteson to thank our sponsor. Guys. Let me talk to you a little bit about turbo tax live. I don't know about you. But for me, nothing really cranks up my in Zion, easy, like tax time. I'm always worried I'm going to do it incorrectly..
How Does Gelatin Work?
"Hey, brainstorm listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions in science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Even listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. He brain stuff unmourned Bogle bomb, and if you've ever eaten in the cafeteria or attended a cookout or family reunion in the United States. Chances are good that you are dessert or salad options included, some form flavored gelatin perhaps from the brand name jello, hundreds of recipes use flavored gelatin to create everything from your simple institutional style squares to ornate designs that incorporate varied flavors fruit and whipped toppings jello and similar mixes consist of five basic ingredients gelatin water sugar or artificial sweetener, flavorings and food coloring. The gelatin is what allows you to mold the stuff into whatever shape you like solid at room temperature but melts in your mouth, but let's breakdown y gelatin behaves that way gelatin is a processed version of a structural protein called collagen that occurs in many animals bodies, including humans collagen makes up almost one third of all the protein in the human body. It's a fibrous protein. Gene that strengthens the body's connective tissue and allows them to be elastic that is to stretch without breaking as you get older. Your body makes less collagen and individual collagen fibers become increasingly cross linked with each other one might experience this as stiff joints due to less, flexible tendons or wrinkles due to the loss of skin elasticity. Gelatin can also be made from the collagen in the bones, hides, and connective. Tissues of cows. Pigs today, the gelatin jello is most likely to come from pig skin. Collagen does not dissolve in water in its natural form. So it must be modified to make gelatin manufacturers grind the animal parts and treat them with either a strong acid or a strong base to dissolve the collagen. Then the pre-treated material is boiled controls every step of the process ensure purity and safety the materials are washed and filtered repeatedly during this process. The large collagen protein ends up being partially broken down the resulting product is gelatin solution that solution is chilled into a jelly. Like material then cut and dried in a special chamber at this point, the dry gelatin about ten percent water is ground. If it's going to make a flavor gelatin product like jello, it'll be ground into a fine powder. When you buy a box of whatever brand of flavor gelatin at the grocery store, you get a small packet of the powder gelatin with a sweetener flavorings and colors added at room temperature. The gelatin protein is in the form of a triple helix. This is a fairly ordered structure not entirely unlike that of DNA with DNA to chains of nucleotides are twisted together in a spiral pattern resembling a ladder. It's a design known as a double helix in the gelatin protein, three separate chains of amino acids called poly peptide chains have lined up and twisted around each other. So to make this dry gelatin able to fill out and take the shape of a mold you first at boiling water to the powder gelatin you then star the mixture for about three minutes until the gelatine dissolves completely. But what happens to gelatin? When you add that boiling. Water the energy of the heated water breaks, the weak bonds that hold the gelatin strands together, they're helix structure unwinds and you're left with free floating protein chains. A next you add hold water and refrigerate the gelatin mixture, which makes the chains begin to slowly reform into their tight triple helix structures as it cools the mass acts like a sponge soaking up the water that you added, but in some places there are gaps in the helix and and others. There's a tangled web of these poly peptide chains the chains form sort of net and the net traps water inside pockets between the chains. This protein net is strong enough that the gelatin will hold the shape into which it's been molded, but because of the water trapped in the pockets, the mold has that characteristic jiggle. But gelatin isn't just for making fun, molded salads, or desserts. Gelatin is a common ingredient in foods because it's so versatile. It can also be used as a thickener to give foods and more pleasing texture into a multiply or stabilize processed foods like yogurt or cake frosting. It's used to clarify juices vinegars and even beer special gelatins are made from only certain animals, or from fish to meet the standards of folks who don't eat products made from the mammals that are usually involved and vegetarian and vegan substitutes made from extracts of gooey stuff. Like seaweed are available to the range of those products that gelatin can be found in is legion everything from dairy and dairy substitute products like sour cream margarine and cream cheese to suites like gummy bears and marshmallows to process meats, like sausage and can't him to soup sauces, gravies jellies and even whipped cream. It's the coating for pills that makes them easier to swallow. It's in some lozenges, and white minutes, and cosmetics may contain a former gelatin that doesn't tell you might see it on the label as. Hydrolysed collagen and gelatin aren't just used in foods and health and cosmetic products. It's also commonly used in the manufacture of photographic films and papers match heads sandpaper glossy, printing papers, playing cards and simulated human tissue for testing, guns and ammunition and for forensic science. It's even sometimes used to hold down the hair a synchronized swimmers in place. Today's episode was written by Linda, see Brinson and produced by Tyler clang for more on this and lots of other well gelled topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. You know, people say necessities, the mother of invention. But that's not always true. Sometimes the mother of invention is advertising. Yeah.
Can Cheese Actually Make Wine Taste Better?
"Hey, brainstorm listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions in science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Even listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren vocal bomb here. A wine lovers on the whole probably don't need any particular excuse to pair a glass with a rich cheese board. But a recent study in the journal food science shows what people have long suspected cheese improves, the taste of different types of wine. Researchers at the center for taste and feeding behavior in France asked thirty one French wine drinkers to taste for different wines. I on their own then with each of four different cheeses to see if and how the taste of the wine was changed by the cheese. The method used to evaluate the taste is called multi intake temporal dominance of sensations, which simply means that the drinkers were asked which taste sensations were dominant in length and intensity or in layman's terms, which ones did you enjoy? And why the winds were the same through all five tastings, a sweet white a dry white a full bodied red and a forty red in the first session, the tasters took three sips of each wine with no cheese. In the following sessions. They again took three sips, but in each session tasted a different cheese between sips all four cheeses ranging from creamy, two semi soft and stinky to semi hard too, hard or tasted with each wine. The study found that all of the wines tasted better after eating cheese less stringent unless sour and in the case of the fruity red, for example, that Ferdie flavor lasted longer the lead researcher Meribel Marini told the telegraph. We learned the duration of the perception of stringency of a certain line could be reduced after having cheese and the four evaluated cheeses had the same effect in short when having a plate of assorted cheeses, the wind will probably taste better. No matter which one they choose which is a relief to those of us who find creating pairings a clunky prospect at best the effect of the cheeses on the taste of the winds probably happened because the fat in cheese coats, your mouth, and reduces the dryness it might feel due to tenants from the wine a bit of tannin in wines and other. Things like tea or meant is a fun sensation. But too much can be puckering and unpleasant beyond making wine and cheese parties, a potentially less expensive endeavor. The researchers have a practical application for this study. To better understand how the taste of food can change when paired with other foods leading to new and possibly better meals as different foods are served together. Today's episode was written by Karen Kirkpatrick and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other flavorful, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, brain stuff listeners today. I wanted to tell you about the new podcast the brink in which hosts aerial Casten and Jonathan Strickland shared the stories of entrepreneurs who took a bold step without really, knowing if solid ground would be on the other side, tune into learn how Walt Disney bet his company and his house on the world's first feature length cartoon, and how a refugee from Vietnam turned a door to door business into a chili sauce empire every week. The brink will bring you news stories of the trials 'em triumphs of people who didn't let adversity stop their dreams because sometimes things just don't go your way. But what really matters are the choices you make when the odds are against you. You can listen and subscribe to the brink on apple podcasts iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Why Did London Once Have a Train for the Dead?
"Hey, Matt I have yet to ride one of those birds scooters 'cause I hate those things that does not surprise me at all Joel. But you know, I've been getting Instagram adds to give me to become a bird charter to join that gig economy. Oh, that's right. Just like Uber folks are getting targeted to start side hustles to make an extra buck or even to try to make a career out of it. But should you? Do it not all side hustles are created equally. Exactly every week. We dive into practical money topics like this on our podcast. Listen subscribe to our show on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcast. Just search for how to money. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain Steph Lauryn Bogle bond here what you ride a train with undead passengers or if not what about a train with actually dead passengers from eighteen fifty four to nineteen forty one. The London necropolis railway took a forty minute journey across twenty three miles. That's thirty seven kilometers carrying both the deceased end the living who mourn to them to a cemetery after departing a special station near Waterloo, built specifically for the line. And its passengers the train rocked its way across the three in countryside on a route selected for it's comforting views once arriving at the Brookwood cemetery in Surrey at the time, the world's largest cemetery and built in partnership with the railroad funeral goers would lay their dearly departed to rest, and then have drinks and snacks at one of the cemetery's to train stations. Oh, we spoke with John Clark, author of the two thousand six book, the Brookwood necropolis railway. He said both cemetery stations had refreshment rooms usually run by the wives of the station. Staff. Off the cakes and sandwiches served would probably have been homemade, and it would have been customary to eat this lunch with a Cup of tea at the station before returning to London. The refreshment rooms were fully licensed, so guests could have alcoholic drinks as an alternative to tea or coffee. After this brief repacked, the guests, then boarded the train and return to London. The trains passenger list. A bit lighter than before the idea may seem odd today when many of us keep the debt as far from daily life as possible. But at the time it was a popular one during its peak. London's necropolis railway transported more than two thousand dead bodies a year. The number of live mourners at carried reached into the tens of thousands even so riding in these same trainers. Corpses. Took some getting used to Londoners initially wondered whether loading up the mourners and the deceased and transporting them on the same train was a bit too practical, the Bishop of London when appearing before the houses of parliament a full twelve years before the necropolis railway opened considered it. Improper Clark says that the bishops stated he would consider the hurry and bustle connected with it as inconsistent with the solemnity of a Christian funeral plus they're worthy corporeal elements with which to contend such as the odors and potential disease. Transmission of the bodies. Social mores were tested to could the rich really ride side by side with the poor to bury their dead. And the concern wasn't limited only to people of different social classes. There could be different religions aboard each requiring its own traditions. The solution at least aboard the necropolis railway was elegant in its simplicity separate cars were designated by class, but all were allowed to ride regardless of their station in life the cemetery. Meanwhile, allowed the rich and poor to be buried side by side, but section separate areas for various religions, it was a workable solution for the time and one driven by necessity. Few could argue London's in town cemeteries were already chock full by the middle of the nineteenth century Londoners were being buried at a rate of about fifty thousand a year previously buried bodies sometimes removed and cremated to make room for new ones until parliament began closing admission at city, cemeteries and shipping bodies to greener pastures like the out of town Brookwood cemetery, which encompassed about one thousand five hundred acres, but the nineteen twenty s motorized hearses worthy. Vehicle of choice for moving the dead and many Londoners had access to either automobiles or one of the trains the living that also made a stop at Brookwood station and in April nineteen forty one during World War Two the London terminus of the funeral train was damaged in a German v. Two rocket bombing Brookwood it no longer serves exclusively as a departure spot for the debt, and they're mourners, but remnants of these stations are still visible if you know where to look how's that for living history? Today's episode was written by Lori Al dove and produced by Tyler client for more on this and lots of other lively, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions in science. A like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. You can listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explained the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
BrainStuff Classics: Why Do We Fart?
"In two thousand and four in a tiny town. A young woman named Rebecca Gould was brutally murdered nearly fifteen years later her killer is still on the loose. It's just really surreal walking around. Don't mention so much. Guys out there yell. I'm Katherine towns, and this is Helen gone catch new episodes by subscribing at apple podcasts or on the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff. I'm Lauren Volvo bomb, and I've got another classic episode for you today in it. Our former host Christian Sager answers, a basic yet nonetheless burning question, why do we fart? Rain stuff. It's Christian Sager. So in the late eighteen hundreds there is this French guy and his name was lapel Mon, and he was one of the stars of Moulin Rouge, people would come from far and wide just to watch this guy fart. Yeah. To watch him fart, lapenne them on you see was a professional flatulence, which as it turns out is still sort of thing. And certainly it's a dream job for some. But if you want to move out of the ranks of amateur windbreakers, an into those stinking hallowed halls of the professionally flatulent, you will need to know if thing or two about farts, like what are they why do they happen? And why do they smell so bad? Well, first things first everyone farts every single person. Yes. You to listening to this. You do to to not far would be medically fascinating and probably dangerous on average. Most people are passing about one. Leader of gas a day spread out over thirteen to wait for it. Twenty one incidents. That's Twenty-one separate times in one day, the composition of a fart varies widely. But usually what we're smelling is something that's mostly nitrogen along with oxygen carbon dioxide and even methane. This gas itself comes from several sources the air you swallow gas that enters your intestines from your bloodstream and so on but about seventy five percent of your farts are created in your lower intestine. And unfortunately, not by you see the bacteria living inside you right now, they comprise a micro Buyum all of their own. And when we say, it's intricate. We mean it so intricate that David Attenborough could make a documentary about it these bacteria form this thriving empire with billions of tiny separate organisms living inside their host. And that's you. They're living with you. And symbiosis. Now flatulence occurs when food passes through your stomach and small intestine without fully breaking down. So what does this mean, this means that the food hits the large intestine in an undyed jested state? So for example, let's look at lactose which is present in dairy products like milk and cheese, if you're lactose intolerant than you lack the enzyme that breaks lactose into sugar molecules for the bloodstream without this lactose just breezes through your stomach and small intestine into your large intestine where it becomes the special of the day for billions of Hungary bacteria, those guys love lactose. And if you're not going to digest it they will as they digest this lactose, they emit a number of gases, including methane, hydrogen carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide, which is responsible for the unpleasant, aroma. This process is similar to how yeast produces carbon dioxide to. Leaven bread. And speaking of food. It's true that some foods do produce more flatulence primarily because they contain more indigestible carbohydrates. I'm looking at you beans, nutrient dense, vegetables and fiber, rich foods all have a reputation for nibbling flatulence, that's not necessarily a bad thing. See a scientists learn more about the relationship between diet health and a person's microbiome they're discovering that these flatulent foods may encourage the growth of beneficial bacteria in your gut when they're producing that next embarrassing puff of gas. They're also making molecules to protect your intestinal lining and prevent infections. So remember the next time you're silent crime accidentally ends up sounding like stuttering, trumpet, your intestinal bacteria are the real culprits. They are the ones actually farting. And and look I want to emphasize this. They are farting inside of you. You and then you fart their farts out. Are we clear on that part, which leads us to the bigger question of the day? Who are we fighting inside? Episode was written by Ben Bullen and produced by Tyler clang to hear more weird and funny true stories from Ben check out his show ridiculous history. Available wherever you get your podcast. And of course for more on this and lots of other easily digestible topics visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian Steph listeners in Lumine today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel and explain the universe in which physicist, Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions and science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. You can listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explained the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Is Black Friday the Busiest Shopping Day?
"I'm Jeff Rosenthal. Co-founder of summit a thought leadership community ideas festival, and I have a new podcast called art of the hustle. We'll be breaking down how the world's most fascinating successful. People have hustled their way to the top hearing their wisdom and understanding their ways of seeing with guests like Arlan Hamilton, and Tim Ferriss new episodes drop every Wednesday. So subscribe now on apple podcasts or listen on the iheartradio app or anywhere else. You find podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, I'm Lauren Vogel bomb and for scores of Americans as soon as they digest their thanksgiving Turkey. It's time to think about holiday shopping local newspapers wear such still exist are bursting with circulars and advertisements heralding black Friday sales and every retailer that's ever gotten. Hold of your Email address has been sending desperately friendly missives coined in the nineteen sixties. Black Friday refers to the day after thanksgiving that marks the traditional kickoff of the holiday shopping season. The black and black Friday symbolizes stores turning a profit a being in the black versus in the red with the term stemming from an age when handwritten financial ledgers recorded prophets and black ink and deficits in red ink. These days many stores, don't even wait for Friday morning. They open at midnight or even earlier on thanksgiving evening to give deal hungry shoppers and early start for the shelves. But is black Friday really the biggest shopping day of the year in America. Not everyone is eager to whip out their wallets while the scent of pumpkin pie still lingers in the air. You can divide holiday shoppers into two distinct camps, the black Friday, go getters, and the procrastinators breathing a retail mall the day after thanksgiving can involve heavy crowds, and seemingly endless masses of cars. Waiting to find parking people elbowing their way through aisles and qs once you're finally ready to check out all the while the nonstop tune of Jingle Bells the most frequently played holiday song. In shopping, malls goes jingling all the way into every crevice of your brain black Friday enthusiasts as worth the hassle though since many stores will strip down prices to move merchandise. As far as the number of humans who walk in and out of stores black Friday halls the been one hundred and one million braved the crowds in two thousand sixteen that heavy black Friday foot traffic translates to high dollar prophets accounting for four point five to five percent of all holiday sales in two thousand fourteen the average. Shopper spent about three hundred eighty one dollars over thanksgiving weekend of the total retail spending was about fifty one billion dollars. And although more recent numbers are difficult to track down trend watchers say they've been going up. But these undeniably large numbers aren't the largest of the season. In fact, black Friday isn't the busiest shopping day of the year normally, despite what popular opinion holds. Instead the holiday shopping procrastinators win out the highest sales day of the year. It usually strikes the Saturday before Christmas. How is that possible? If shoppers lineup in front of stores at the crack of dawn on black Friday, a customer volume goes through the roof, but sales don't follow suit surveys have shown that despite these steady streams of people flowing into stores on black Friday, not all of them drive home with trunks full of holiday presents. A for instance, one study conducted by researchers at Indiana University found a consistently low rate of purchase among black Friday shoppers higher percentage of those shoppers bought items the following day into. Net shopping and early previews of black Friday sales leaked online may also trim the amount of transactions that day as people have more options for tracking down the best bang for their holiday buck in two thousand five online retailers designated be Monday after thanksgiving to be cyber Monday the web merchants figured that. This day would see a substantial sales bump because majority of online shoppers make their purchases at work with the general boom in online sales. The distinctions are breaking down as people shop online every day of INC's giving weekend including Turkey day itself. With two thirds of all orders coming in from smartphones and tablets as of two thousand seventeen and black Friday is a phenomenon that spread beyond the states as of two thousand seventeen countries like Spain, South Africa and the UK which do not celebrate thanksgiving. Nonetheless, saw increases of up to forty six percent over that weekend versus their average daily sales online. Oh, and in case you were wondering about another shopping holiday over thanksgiving weekend. Small business Saturday was created. In two thousand ten by the Goliath credit card company American Express as a way to encourage spending at small local shops. Today's episode was written by Kristen conger and produced by Tyler clang if you're doing some shopping this weekend. Consider our online store t public dot com slash brain stuff. Every purchase supports us directly. And of course for more on this and lots of other worthwhile, topics. Visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey, Jim breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions and science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Even listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Does Turkey Really Make You Sleepy?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners in Leuven today. I wanted to tell you about a new podcast here at how stuff works. Happy face hosted by Melissa Jespersen. More for Melissa nineteen ninety-five was a nightmare. It's the year the teenager learned her father, Keith hunter Jespersen was a serial killer is also when her spiral of doubt began when you look like your father, and you share intelligence, and charisma how do, you know, you're not a psychopath to join Melissa she investigates. Her father's crimes reckons with the past and wades through her darkest fears that she hunts for a better future. Tune in every Friday for new episodes of happy face a series that doesn't just explore a serial killers mind, but the investigation has daughter needed to walk away whole you can listen and subscribe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. He brain stuff. I'm Lauren Vogel bomb. And our question of the day is does Turkey really make you sleepy America's favorite holiday bird. Does have the makings of a natural sedative in it and amino acid called tripton. Tripped event is an essential amino acid, meaning that you need it. But your body can't manufacture it. The body has to get trip to Finn and other essential amino acids from food trip to vent helps the body produce the B vitamins niacin, which in turn helps you produce. Serotonin serotonin is remarkable chemical that acts as a sort of calming agent in the brain and plays a key role in sleep and trip to Finn is also a precursor to another common compound melatonin. So you might think that if you eat a lot of Turkey, your body would produce more serotonin and melatonin, and you would feel calm and maybe more likely to fall asleep. But nutritionists and other experts say that the trip defend in Turkey probably won't trigger the body to produce more serotonin because defendant works best on an empty stomach. Mc the trip in thanksgiving Turkey has to vibe with all of the other amino acids. The body takes in in order to pass the blood brain barrier and get to work only part of the trip. Defend key dinner will make it to the brain to help produce serotonin. The fact that thanksgiving meals are often carbohydrate heavy actually does help. I think of all the bread stuffing potatoes corn and candied tubers covered marshmallows that we eat before we even get to the real desserts, the insulin. Our bodies releases to process all of that also serves as sort of rideshare vehicles for a lot of amino acids, but not for trip to Finn which hitches a ride to the brain on a protein called albumin. So with most of the competition out of the way, it is. In fact, easier for trip to fin to get into our brain and start the process that leads to the production of more serotonin melatonin. Meanwhile, is produced outside of the brain. So you don't have to worry about that competition at the blood brain barrier. But you do have to worry that you have all the other compounds necessary for your body to create it. Overall. Researchers think it's neither the melatonin nor the Serra Tonen produced from trip to Finn that leads to rampant late afternoon napping on thanksgiving. Most likely it's the whole traditional meal together producing lethargy the average thanksgiving meal contains three thousand calories more than most of us usually eaten a whole day and your body works hard to digest all that food. After all your nervous system is set up to prime your body for maximum nutrient absorption every single time. You eat a part of this is called our rest and digest response when we eat. We excrete more saliva and gastric juices and our heart rate and blood pressure lower. Also, our bodies are sending more blood to our guts in order to help out. Meaning that less is available for the brain. And these skeletal system all of this can make you feel the limb heavy and relaxed also if you drink alcohol with your dinner, you'll likely feel the sedative effect of that as well. But there is a way to take advantage of the trip defend in Turkey. If you have trouble getting to sleep one night while they're still leftover Turkey in the fridge. You can have a late Turkey snack. And that nutritionists say might be the right amount of trip to fin on an empty stomach to help produce sincere tone. Today's episode was mostly written by a house stuff works contributor, the name of whom has been lost to time. If it was you right in it was produced by Tyler clang with the kind of Paul decade for more on this and lots of other fulfilling topics, visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners in Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel. Or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey, Jim breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions and science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. Even listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Is There a Best Way to Load the Dishwasher?
"Hey, brain stuff listeners in Leuven today. I wanted to tell you about a new podcast here at how stuff works. Happy face hosted by Melissa Jespersen. More for Melissa nineteen ninety-five was nightmare. It's the year the teenager learned her father, Keith hunter Jespersen was a serial killer is also when her spiral of doubt began when you look like your father, and you share his intelligence, and charisma how do, you know, you're not a psychopath to join Melissa she investigates. Her father's crimes reckons with the past and wades through her darkest fears that she hunts for a better future. Tune in every Friday for new episodes of happy face a series that doesn't just explore a serial killers mind, but the investigation has daughter needed to walk away whole you can listen and subscribe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you get your podcasts. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff unlearn Vogel bomb. And look I'm not here to start any fights among your family. Many people have very strong ideas about how to best tetris load of dishes into a dishwasher, but I am here to give you some scientific advice because if the dishes are not coming out of your dishwasher is clean as he'd like you might be tempted to blame the appliance or your brand of detergent. But the problem might just be what an how you're stacking in the machine when you're loading in its first important to consider what's dishwasher safe, and what isn't some of the items on the no fly list are fairly obvious. Cast iron will rest and loose seasoning. If placed in a machine a fine, China and crystal can't handle the intense heat, but you should also leave out insulated, travel, mugs. The high heat of the machine can ruin the vacuum. Seal and reduce the mugs ability to retain heat aluminum. Pots are very prone to scratching and can develop a dull finish Turner, blackish color in the wash and wooden spoons or cutting boards can crack from the heat and humidity allowing germs to set up. Shop. Also, although most nonstick pans on the market today are dishwasher safe. Check the washing instructions first and limit dishwasher time, even if it is allowed frequent high temperature washes can cause the coating to wear off. Secondly, either rinse all of your dishes before stocking them, or none at all most modern dishwashers come with a sensor that evaluates the water to determine how long the cycle should be. And how much water is necessary to produce a thorough clean during an initial rinse cycle. It'll measure how cloudy the water is and run more or less thorough wash cycles accordingly. If only some of your dishes are rinsed it won't be able to properly evaluate how to run its wash cycle plus on the side of not hand rinsing. I at all of the dish detergent, you use likely has compounds in it that are specifically designed to break up food particles. A basically the companies that make those detergents assume you won't pre wash. If you do those compounds may leave a powdery residue on your dishes because of that we'd recommend that users of modern, dishwashers and commercial, detergents, scrape off chunks or anything that might clog the machine, but not be fussed about rinsing sauces or crumbs a third you wanna fill the machine to your best advance. Pige load the dishes to face the center of the machine spray arm sprays out in a circular motion so plates that aren't facing the center, we'll get a heavy cleaning on the wrong side. Also because the heating unit is located on the bottom of most machines, heat sensitive, plastics, should go on the top rack to avoid risk of melting forks and spoons should face up to minimize the risk of nesting inside a packed utensil basket. And this also keeps the basket from getting in the way of the wash making sure the head of the utensils gets nice and clean. If you have a ton of silverware to wash try to spread out similar pieces to avoid nesting or alternate them. Head down head up along the same lines resist the urge to overload the dishwasher in general, if one item is completely blocking another neither will get truly clean. Finally, you should run occasional maintenance on your machine, your dishwasher likely has a filter that needs to be removed and cleaned out on occasion, a most soils like saucer crumbs will slip right through the filter, but any errant chunks of food will get caught. And clogged up to clean, simply remove and rinse. With a little bit of dish, soap, a ABI SHA to rinse it completely or it will cause sudden thing during the next cycle also limescale especially in areas pard water and grease can build up in these spray arms and filter over time to prevent any problems from escalating, it's a good idea to clean your machine about once a month. There are dishwasher specific cleansers on the market or you can Google to learn how to run a cleansing cycle with vinegar. Today's episode was written by Allee point and produced by Tyler claim for more on this and lots of other sparkling, topics. Visit our home planet. Testif- works dot com. Hey, Brian stuff listeners in Leuven today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works then. You'll or hey, explain the universe in which physicist Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey cham- breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions and science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of what's the Higgs bows on can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space, new episodes, come out approximately pied vita by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. You can listen and subscribe to Daniel or hey, explained the universe on apple podcasts the iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts.
Why Do We Trick-Or-Treat on Halloween?
"In Leuven ad today. I wanted to tell you about one of our compatriot podcasts here at how stuff works Daniel and Horry explain the universe in which physicist, Daniel Whiteson and cartoonist or hey chum breakdown. All the amazing things, we know and don't know about our wild universe. They talk through some of the biggest questions in science like how did the universe begin? What is everything made of can we travel back in time? And where do my socks go after I put them in the dryer. It's recommended for anyone who wants their mind blown by awesome science or commuters who just wish they were out in space. New episodes come out approximately pie divided by two times a week on Tuesdays and Thursdays. You can check out Daniel her. Hey, explain the universe on apple podcasts or wherever you like to listen. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, rain stuff. Lauren Boko bomb here to grasp the rhyme and reason of why children, Don ridiculous, costumes and banged down. Doors demanding candy once a year, we must rewind the clock a couple of millennia and visit the ancient Celtic clans of Britain, the Celts celebrated the end to fall harvest and the beginning of their new year with the pagan festival, Sal wean which fell on November first on the night before the celebration. Commenced the dead were thought to travel back home for their annual visit to frighten away any accompanying evil spirits, the Celts lit fires around the countryside and some dressed in disguise when venturing into the Erie outdoors to avoid being recognized by familiar, but less than friendly ghosts, traces of these rituals persisted as centuries wore on and even as the Catholic church sought to abolish these pagan pastimes and the eighth century the church began commemorating the feast of All Saints on November I possibly as a replacement for Salween the preceding day became known as all hallows eve was further. Sean. Shortened to Halloween as the secular Salween and sacred all hollows intertwined, the dead spirits. The characterized the holiday assumed more negative connotations at hence, the modern Halloween. Icons of scary witches ghosts and ghouls to appease these evil spirits, people left food and drink outside to protect their homes from spiritual retaliation, gradually savvy. Celebrants took advantage of the tasty offerings by dressing up as the dead and trekking from door to door to ask for provisions in exchange for protection from wicked spirits, according to the American Folklife center the practice, which became known as mumbling served as a precedent for trick. Or treating in England. The poor would organize soul parades to bed for alms on all hallows eve and exchange for prayers to deliver dead souls from purgatory to heaven as the years wore on children took over the tradition. Calling themselves solar 's bands of children would knock on doors and sing songs in return for sweet current topped breads called soul. Cakes the trick or treating custom crossed the Atlantic with the influx of immigrants from England and Ireland who moved to the United States in the mid eighteen hundreds but trick or treating wasn't widely popular in the United States until around nineteen forty before. Then the mischievous holiday had spiraled into an adolescent free for all marked by rampant. Vandalism and excessive tomfoolery as communities sought to provide alternate Halloween activities for the local youth trick or treating as we know it today gradually caught on retailers. Also noticed the trend and began offering ready made costumes and candy manufacturers seized on this golden opportunity in the late nineteen seventies and early eighties. Sensational reports of razors and candy apples, treats laced with laxatives and other horror stories dealt a blow to trick or treating nonetheless, the tradition is still alive. And well today just ask the national confectioners association this pumpkin hued holiday takes the cake for the highest candy sales of the year in two thousand eighteen Americans are expected to shell out. About nine billion dollars for Halloween candy, but in spite of halloween's commercial appeal, those ancient Celtic rights still echo on as hordes of costume children trick or treat every year in the October twilight. Today's episode was written by Kristen conger and produced by Tyler clang to hear more from Kristen check out her podcast unladylike, they've got a book out to and of course for more on this and lots of other treats, visit our home planet. How stuff works dot com. Hi, I'm Daniel am Horry. And we're here to tell you all about our brand new podcast Daniel, and hey, explain the universe in this podcast. When I talk about a lot of things mostly about physics and the universe in all those big mysteries. Scientists a lot of
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on KPCC
"Questions that we have so super symmetry as a theory is something that people are really excited about at the large hadron collider it would allow us to make a step toward a unification of the forces that we know about it would answer some of our aesthetic questions maybe it would provide a dark matter candidate for us the thing that makes it such an attractive theory is is that it could potentially answer a number of our questions in a way that a lot of people see as elegant um but at the same time we're not interested in it if it's not a if it's not what reality is uh so that's again where i think the the interplay between experimental essen and theorist is incredibly important what's been happening as we've been taking data doing our our experiments and looking for super cemetery is yeah we have no evidence ford at this point theorists are looking at ways that it it can be modified and okay maybe you've missed it over here maybe you've missed it over there and i i think as long as there is uh is space for that i think we we go down that road but we make sure that it's not the only thing that we're exploring we don't want our biased sees of what we think might be the best ideas a because maybe they're just the ones that we've had the ideas we thought of we don't want that to dictate the only thing that we do so i think we keep chasing after super cemetry as long as it's not the only thing that were deal on talking with them in a canales sarah them the mirrors and daniel whiteson about two physics super symmetry all kinds of other questions and challenges in the world of physics deliberate 447 to four he 255 it can also tweeted sifi we'll take a break and talk lots more right after this breaks they will no mary i am i replayed of this is science friday from pri support for science friday comes from draper draper's team of engineers biologists developers.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on KQED Radio
"Cosmic rays found in smartphones that could turn your phone into a particle detector and if enough people sign up for a lot of phone that we turned the existing network of smartphones into a massive global telescope is looking into space to see these things and then potentially be could get a lot more candidates and understand something about this may be unravel some huge cosmic mystery if you're just joining us we're speaking with daniel whiteson whose new book is called we had no idea a guide to the unknown universe and i have to ask you about one of the most interesting things to me from this book which is that the speed of light which is the fastest speed anything can travel as far as we know three hundred million meters per second why is that how sure we that nothing could travel faster than the we're really pretty sure that nothing can travel through space faster than the speed of light it's ingrained into our basic physics theories at this point and if it were not true we're pretty sure would have seen it so lots of experiments verify that but the question is why that speed one twice that speed or a tenth of that speed makes a big difference to our perception of the universe things seem so far away because it would take thousands and thousands of years to get there if the speed of light was much faster interstellar travel would be much more possible if the speed of light was much slower than with the even further away an interesting thing is that as far as we know are theory the universe this is just a knob at the control panel of the universe in your deciding which of these with speed of light our universe should have you could have dial it up or down and you still get a totally functioning theory of the universe we just don't know why this setting does that mean something is it totally random we have no idea is it constant has always been three hundred million meters per second as far as we can tell and you might wonder will how could we toe with a thing that we can look backwards in time pretty easily when it comes to cause malaysian astronomy just by looking out into space were light is taking a long time to get to us meeting the events were looking.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on AM 870 The Answer
"Stuff out there in the universe and the more you look more you see things that we don't understand and that the funny thing about exploring the universe thick what out there we talk in the book about all the questions we have how big the universe star was it made out of that you know there are questions that we don't even know yet more week for the more we discover the limit of our knowledge but to me that the cutting or discourage during their depressing think we don't know the truth exciting to think that there are huge anther it out there that we haven't learned yet because remember the science quit they're not philosophy questions you can argue forever peter questions with real hard answers that we can learn we could discover we can gain this information about the universe so it's fun to think what will be doing is also important to remember that we can do it one of the things that makes me nervous bears is talking recent years about the black holes or may collapse and stars so what is a black hole in what's it the hiring of a black hole and is a scary as it sounds blac chyna i am very dangerous but we don't need to be scared of they're all very far away of a black hole is too big blob stuff that so the stuff of gravity is really strong it pulled that the gathering through tiny little blog and strong that even light can't escape it so black holes or just really really dense rock financially with a huge amount of gravity if you ever came near a black hole you'd be in trouble it would repeal part and it would really be empain but there aren't any black hole to near of this one in the center of our galaxy but we're far enough away from it to be really pretty well that's reassuring that's daniel whites and a particle physicist at the university of california irvine author of we have no idea a guide to the unknown universe in conversation with a host of our program carol marks more conversation between carol marks and daniel whiteson when a touch of grey the talk show for grownups continues in a moment.
"daniel whiteson" Discussed on AM 870 The Answer
"A touch of gray the talk show for grown up some eichel harrison in the anchor chill let's get back to the conversation between the host and founder of our program carol marks and physicist daniel whiteson author of we have no idea a guide to the unknown universe the basic thing that the the the shocked me on the i'm so happy i learned that really when it comes to the are what makes a particles in our universe the ones that are considered normal they really only represent five percent of what the universe is so why is that so low but the great question to all kinds of particles we discovered can only five percent of the stuff in the universe that means dr dan asked and enter the code is in candy bars and all sorts of sovietmade admitted con of particle and that just five percent of the universe why the low will we really have no idea but we thought this was the typical we thought we were normal studying earth and our fellow that are rock will give clues about universe turned it particularly an unusual kind of the universe the huge life of stuff neither twenty seven percent something we called dark matter we know darkness if we down in space because it affects the week route gallic you've been but we really don't know much about it we know what to do we know that a lot of it there's a lot more of it the news of our kind of matter for anything we shouldn't call our matter normal matter because the unusual and in the rest of it two thirds of the of the universe is pie if something else entirely cold dark energy and we don't know much about it at all accepted it ripping the universe apart causing things to fly apart faster and faster yet at the huge mystery but it's exciting exciting can do that you don't know very much about the universe that means you could discover well what baffoni lien was when it comes to matter the scientists have discovered some evidence for the existence of of jack matter and they even have some pictures of happening in a net truly amazing so what happened right so dirk matter you invisible but you can indirectly you can either because it been light if there's a huge.