6 Burst results for "Danforth Center"

"danforth center" Discussed on Science Facts & Fallacies

Science Facts & Fallacies

03:39 min | 6 months ago

"danforth center" Discussed on Science Facts & Fallacies

"You go so. I read on twitter that this is a monsanto ploy to get roundup ready cassava into africa. So they can hook farmers on on their pesticides and their. Gmo's kevin so What do you think of that. That's really good except for a couple of things. One of this was done by carlo k. r. l. o. which is kenyan agriculture and livestock research organization and in conjunction with Other organizations on the african continent this was devised by Interest from uganda from kenya from nigeria Science attends aena scientists throughout the african continent as well as some assistance with The danforth center which is in saint louis missouri so Which was ironically the same place as monsanto. Just smoking gun. I didn't think about that. So this is this is some folks at danforth or doing some beautiful work with verka. Which is the virus resistant cassava. And there's a number of groups there that are working on this one of which has one of my students on their But this is a game changer for kenyan farmers because if you can t previously deal with this she would have to use lots of insecticides to control white flies because you can't control the virus all you can do is control. The virus spread the white flies in an attempt to limit the virus. And so now you can cut back on insecticides. This is a real score for the kenyan farmers. And you know my heart goes out to. It's been approved. I don't know how much it's been released. But this is a product made by kenyan farmers for can or kenyan scientists for kenyan farmers and. We need more of it now. If it wasn't clear i was obviously being to see. She's about the about the monsanto thing but the point in bringing that up. Is you know as you explain given. This is very much a local project and it's meant for farmers and consumers over there but the problem that that i'm seeing lately is that there are people making the sort of that this colonialism argument that You know these powerful western companies are are are trying to take over the developing world again. It's this whole kind of conspiratorial thing and it's not just coming from anti gmo. People anymore there are people that have sort of embraced certain aspects of critical race theory and postmodernism. And they are making this argument to so they'll say like well. Gmo's are fine but you know not gmo's from From america that that kind of thing so it's important to push back and say that this is a local thing yes very much and people have been starting those those those discussions because they resonate very well with folks in in in an africa. We're colonialism wasn't issue and certainly is residues. Were not always fair or reasonable to the to the people who are from there. I mean there's a lot of bad stuff that went down horrible things yet so there is a sensitivity to that That spector but The the bottom line is as you say this is for them from them. And gosh i hope there's a whole bunch more of it one other thing that i I know happens. Because i've i've heard this from farm local farmers in those areas..

monsanto carlo k kenyan agriculture and livesto aena danforth center danforth saint louis uganda africa nigeria kenya kevin twitter missouri From america
"danforth center" Discussed on Talking Biotech Podcast

Talking Biotech Podcast

08:13 min | 6 months ago

"danforth center" Discussed on Talking Biotech Podcast

"He doesn't go to the in process so no protein. No virus right. Yes and so. Where was the technology developed. This was a collaborative effort between different institutions. We have a the main institution that it is shown in kenya. Is that kenya. Agriculture livestock research organization. This is primarily primary such institution in kenya of cause been corroborating the advanced utions for example. Come from the invasive nairobi. We do have a lot of us. Assault incision from the country. Who are helping us in. In a for example in communications and now we do also have other partners from neighboring countries for example like you anda their participated with us all do the process as we have been developing that technology and we do also have other countries like nigeria we have entered i coined and of course we do also have a partnership with one of the institutions in the us at that. Don't add done for the france and santa so we the this team including scientists from africa and sandisk from donald danforth center or came together and we came up with technology. Yeah that's very exciting. Because sometimes critics will say. This is all just companies forcing their products on people in kenya. So this is a a product that's developed from kenyon and an african laboratories in conjunction with some help from I think it's The taylor group at donald danforth plant science center right to and so but there are groups in kenya and groups around the world. Who say they're opposed to this kind of technology and what have they done. And how instrumental avai been to slowing approval of this particular technology We have not had out of assistance especially for the cassava and mindy because we have been have already approved that the production of cotton in the country and this is in the process. So we do have some concerns which came up from the environmentalists are saying that The the that might be a general which may affect crops which are neighboring. But we have done enough studies to show that tab that is not going to be an effect of jr info on the food safety or that information was done in provided to the rita's that investment so even We have had some lizzie sense. But we can say that we've been able to effect Address the questions that have been coming up of course being new technology are we appreciate that Groups of people who are not to have not for it but when we present the information that is needed to that to let him Authorities and approve so then add is majority of that before i satisfied. That's a really good point. I didn't think about this before. But you mentioned that. Cassava is propagated. Vegetative lee does cassava even flower. Yes it does for our any to produce a seats and now it's one of the process of improvement when doing then the conventional breeding but It's not the main at process of propagation because When you do the conventional breeding you the seeds that you get to be Different the segregation is very very high. So you have unprinted different varieties so anad they also take time to by the time they dominate the breaking dormancy so that you can have a variety that is going to be stupid that farmers. It's a big process so and a few kisses you may have maybe one or two formats. I've seen a crop that has foreign into the acid that flow into the ground and determinated admittedly ventured it might be distributed as variety but very is extremely decades. Because it's not that process of propagation. Have you had to work. Or have you gotten to work with policymakers and maybe folks in in parliament to help educate them about new technology. It is one of the midge activitists. As you've been developing technologies will be our fossil. been having We have a strong team of of communicate as a communications team. Have been happing as Scientists to make sure that we communicate effectively so that people can understand and nam of course the approval process is also has to have a public participation and it was a challenge to us because the main one of drought approval process was the dan. Judy the coffee detainees but to be able to use technologies reicher. This one to be able to communicate effectively in terms of regulators and partisan make us from that was from the beginning of the vision of the project. We informed them so every step. They knew what we are doing. And we'll take them to the field to see what we have done. We take them to that greenhouses to them. So by the time we are giving the ask application at most of that people who are involved in the regulatory process. They understood what you have done. So the participation of the forty people but his bishop of that of the government but his bishop of even the abbas decode as it has been continuous. And i think that this has helped us adult in terms of being able to make them the progress to be able to make. Will policymakers are good. But what about farmers are excited to accept the new technology. Yes there Meeting for us one of the questions that you have to keep on setting is. When is this crop going to be less and we have to keep managing expectations. And letting them know that. This is a regulator technology and technology has to go step by step and nassau. The famous are waiting for it. Especially from a- he jones where the deceased is a major problem and it happens to be at these regions Also the may production medias and do you imagine that the technology will move into other parts of africa sutton as the other countries. I waiting for it for example our name bus. Uganda day we have been working together with them. We have gone through every step together with them and now of course they have not. They don't have a police Not all that can help them to commercialize the product but died the process of which. I'm sure the did the that the laws be made. They will immediately be able to cap the crop. You'll get one hassle. Ami now in the have said that during the convention confined feud trials because they would want to start with what we also have other countries moravian mozambique of course nigeria. Diseases not nigeria. But they're also looking to see about the their buffer tradition of of the casino. So what we are seeing is that many countries also can attain see that If it has been commercialized in kenya and is doing well. They asked ticket. People wanted to learn more about the project. Where would they look thank you we do have the contact person. Of course as i said. The main project is being land by By bike cairo. The connect Position and if they go to the website of cadre they can get mine for mission. We do have a project website at this website is www dot plus dot org and now of course we also that you can. If you go to that website you can be able to see our contact. I you can talk to the cairo scientist. We have what they need. Scientists in. Cairo is a takata in tarija. I.

kenya Agriculture livestock research donald danforth center taylor group donald danforth plant science nigeria sandisk nairobi kenyon reicher mindy Cassava lizzie africa rita france lee parliament Judy us
"danforth center" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast

In Defense of Plants Podcast

05:51 min | 1 year ago

"danforth center" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast

"The microbial world and to my listeners. Probably the most. Famous interactions are the mike arousal associations or maybe some of the bacteria that form in the knowledgeable lls and help fix nitrogen but there is a wide spectrum. Oftentimes pathogenic interactions between plants and microbes. So what made you go sort of the pathogenic or at least like disease route with them. Tie back to where. I kind of realized that when they get sick they actually died and when they died. Then there's less moves go around the world that means prices will go up and that means people that are less fortunate probably not gonna be able to bottles plants or bottles products eventually and it just kind of tie back to where i wanted to katina help others. So it's still tana original passionate helping others. i'm just doing it at a bigger in a much broader implant. That's really cool. Yeah and thinking about sort of all of the threats we face with climate change and just habitat loss. And you know everything. We're going through society right now. Understanding how plants are going to either survive. Stressed out or die has huge impacts across the board whether you're an ecologist worried about conservation or the idea of like food security and just getting people with their right to have access to good food. All of this can tie back to plants on some level and really that stressor. It's not like they're all just gonna fry because it's too hot out a lotta times. They're getting stressed and dealing with a lot of other stuff. Which is where your research. A lot of your research comes in so you mentioned <hes>. They have similar ways of fighting disease but not exactly because their plants. They're not animals and so let's think about how plants interact with microbes. Do plants have and immune system on a broad spectrum. Is it anything akin to like what we have so. Am i get some backlash for this. But i go hanley. Okay always been. That's always been this debate whether plants have immune system and i some people like to use it <hes>. I don't like it at all. Okay just put a bad. That they don't have white blood cells. They don't have antibodies. They don't have this like adaptive immunity like we do. I don't really consider that as amused. Glance <hes> what. I like to call that. Halfway is planning needs. So they have immunity something. They have components that they made themselves the fan against grows okay <hes> but they don't really have that adaptive like components that you will call an immune system so i think <hes>. If we want to go down with differences so plants and humans <hes>. One thing they do have in common is they both. Have these receptor like proteins or something that helps them to chat micros. Okay so the way. That dataset microsoft similar invoke lanson mammals. The difference with the malians is <hes>. Wadis components that water similar <hes> allow these receptors are intracellular and <hes>. Mammals while plans are intracellular. So they stay outside of plant sale and they perceive those microbial related is cool now thinking about all of the different sorts of microbes that can cause an issue for a plan. I mean there's bacteria viruses fungi. I mean does the response. Sort of differ depending on. What's coming in or is it. Just kind of all lumped in and sort of the mechanisms of detection might have some variants. Or where does it begin depending on. What kind of micro talking about here. And i think that's what kind of <hes>. Fascinate me about this. Feel is like <hes>. Depending on what the pathogen is or what motive of affection is doing like you get a totally different defense mechanism front of land. So let's say bacteria for example <hes>. That's half jello. So that receptor. Or the estrogen receptor of plants dakin that said a certain points of jello or from some better and when they detect that part of on they send like a sidney lynne halfway or finland was biased. Light through the plant sales down the activate a defense response or to defend ourselves against the pathogens. So that's like the plant site first response to it <hes>. But bacteria what they have evolved to do as they had these small proteins or relatively small proteins call factors and these factors what they can do. They can kind of turn off that plants. Though plans they try and go for gel on. They'll try to turn the pathway on and a bacterial cells secrete of that. There's an plant sale and l. Shut off that halfway. Jeez yeah no and that allows the bacteria to continue to invade the vet the planned sale with some cases plant sales. They of all some of these <hes>. Resistant genes components which are located intra zillur so when arafat their turns off there signaling pathways. You have somebody's resistant. Genes that can detect those offenders and entered on this really robust defense response to kind of just get rid of packaging and so it's just this back and forth on race between planning micros is kinda fascinated with and i'm so glad you said the arms race analogy because that's all i was thinking of is like it's like tit for tat. Every new thing that one develops the other one kind of has two counter end to think that you know obviously there are different players nowadays but this is something that's probably been going on. Ever since plants evolved are crawled onto the land with their roots. And to think of all of the ways. This has been going on through time. It's just this constant change evolutionary pressure to just constantly be going back and forth with these potential pathogens and the ways you can fight them. That is so cool. Yeah i mean it's still kinda going still going on to this day like they're still evolving is still trump

danforth center donald danforth plant donald danforth plant science saint louis missouri postdoctoral associate Dr kevin cox hamas microsoft university of missouri mike saint louis colin
"danforth center" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast

In Defense of Plants Podcast

06:07 min | 1 year ago

"danforth center" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast

"All new to me like the past five years of been. . that. . It's been my job as technician but it's been an education as well and you know doing the various projects and they're a really came to understand too that these grasses are also a lot of the food we eat. . You know like corn is an Ghani. . So. . It would really fascinating and also you know how ecosystems that they dominate learning about the prairies system and the Tigris vary system here what it what it was and <hes> I just I didn't have that appreciation before it's it's kind of it's really sad to think about like most of its gone. . But what's left is I feel I don't I? ? Feel like there's just something. So . magical about like a remnant prairie especially like in the Midwest, , I don't know if he's been to the Flint hills in Kansas unfortunately I haven't and I'm dying to get out there I recommend that even just for like a weekend trip or something it's just so cool I mean it's from song words like where the Buffalo Roam like literally you're standing on Kaban Hill and as far as you can see is just you know grasses and and Bison That's nice. . You can hear it with the way you talk about it and it's something that <hes>. . You know when people get bitten by the quote unquote bug of sort of just prairie or grassland ecosystems even if it's not grasses at the focus, , it isn't magical thing and then unfortunately you do have that realization like Oh God it's all gone practically but I still get chills when I walk into a remnant prairie I mean if you walk along an old railway or something like that you realize. . What this is not fell to plow ever you know it's it's an amazing experience and it makes you appreciate it and I said this since I've moved here. . It's almost like the lack of prairie and realize realization people have about what we've done to. . It makes people more passionate about a and some of the most passionate botanist biologists, , ecologists I know are grassland ecologist. . You know these people that spend all their time trying to understand and even try to restore these ecosystems. . Yeah. . Some of the people that I work with like if I'm in the field collecting and stuff i. . I. . Tend to kind of go towards protected areas in state parks and such and most of the time people are so helpful and interested and passionate even if they don't know that much about grasses when they. . Know when I asked them if they'd like to join a long or something there'd be just so into it. . But yeah, , I I wish more people in the general public kind of understood the importance of grasses and General I? ? mean. . Sometimes when I tell people I, , work on grasses, , asking questions about their lawn. . A. . Yeah. Yeah. . . Speaking of we were talking before we started recording of. . I get a lot of lawn care specialists trying to promote like net. . You don't understand what the goal of this podcast is. . A well. . But it's cool that you dove into this and you found a passion for grasses and and you know whether you truly sort of start to understand them or not like it no matter where you are on that scale, , you realize it's a world that you open up. . So many doors of discovery and like you said, , there's everything from the food we eat to the species that form the backbone of major ecosystems on this planet. . You know this is a really important group of grasses and I mean I was embarrassed when he sent that email I started looking I, , was like Oh Yeah I. Don't . I don't pay enough attention to this and I looked up Andrew Guinea. . I really need to because there's a lot of species that are really important things I know things I should probably know a bit better I mean this is a large group and it's really cool one to have fallen into which is a Yeah and <hes> they're also beautiful like bigly stem and little. . Like this time a year. . They're gorgeous and you know I'm really big into like native RV to. . Especially, , after reading Doug amies latest spoke earlier this year I've started kind of like a string, , all my and family. . Native but. . But I you know even like in Missouri Illinois, , you don't even have to try hard to find really gorgeous plants the other native here. . Just you know we barely have to do with new yard like I planted a bunch of grass and little bluestone earlier this year is. . That's really exciting and it is beautiful and it's something that I think needs to be demonstrated more. . So Kudos for setting up sort of like an aesthetic. Gardner. . . I'm assuming you know and I don't i. . wish I could really kind of think back to my early days of thinking about what a grassland would look like or would my perceptions are expectations of it were because it's never the case and its till this day when I get into different types of grasslands I'm always surprised that the structure the. . Complexity and just the overall feel of what it's like to have different species of grass oftentimes within close proximity to each other and again, , a lot of those are Andro Guinea. . So what makes this group? So ? special I mean you mentioned there's a lot of them. . Some of them are really important for crops in our society but there are also from an ecosystem standpoint really important. . I mean, , is that Kinda what the motivation of working with the Andrew Bogan e is because there's there's other graph groups out there. . Yeah. . <hes> at the Danforth Center you know the big mission there is to work to to feeding the world population with the effects of climate change, , growing relations and stuff like that. . So a lot of the work there is food focus, , but I definitely come from a more conservation approach with that I'm just more passionate about it but. . Yes. . So these grasses <hes> you know there's the big four in various here so that it makes up three of those switch grass dean grasp <unk> wisdom. . The pretty dominant. . Yeah and their mode of photosynthesis while SOC- for <unk>, , really efficient and fixing carbon emissions and the water efficiency

Taylor Albashaun Kellogg lab Kellogg Lab lab technician Danforth Plant Science Center Kellogg Ahbash Schon Saint Louis Andrew Paganini Andrew Poe Toby Kellogg Missouri Saint Louis Webster Plant Science Center Saint Louis Missouri eggers technician ag biotech professor
Doin' Good by Grasses

In Defense of Plants Podcast

06:07 min | 1 year ago

Doin' Good by Grasses

"All new to me like the past five years of been. that. It's been my job as technician but it's been an education as well and you know doing the various projects and they're a really came to understand too that these grasses are also a lot of the food we eat. You know like corn is an Ghani. So. It would really fascinating and also you know how ecosystems that they dominate learning about the prairies system and the Tigris vary system here what it what it was and I just I didn't have that appreciation before it's it's kind of it's really sad to think about like most of its gone. But what's left is I feel I don't I? Feel like there's just something. So magical about like a remnant prairie especially like in the Midwest, I don't know if he's been to the Flint hills in Kansas unfortunately I haven't and I'm dying to get out there I recommend that even just for like a weekend trip or something it's just so cool I mean it's from song words like where the Buffalo Roam like literally you're standing on Kaban Hill and as far as you can see is just you know grasses and and Bison That's nice. You can hear it with the way you talk about it and it's something that You know when people get bitten by the quote unquote bug of sort of just prairie or grassland ecosystems even if it's not grasses at the focus, it isn't magical thing and then unfortunately you do have that realization like Oh God it's all gone practically but I still get chills when I walk into a remnant prairie I mean if you walk along an old railway or something like that you realize. What this is not fell to plow ever you know it's it's an amazing experience and it makes you appreciate it and I said this since I've moved here. It's almost like the lack of prairie and realize realization people have about what we've done to. It makes people more passionate about a and some of the most passionate botanist biologists, ecologists I know are grassland ecologist. You know these people that spend all their time trying to understand and even try to restore these ecosystems. Yeah. Some of the people that I work with like if I'm in the field collecting and stuff i. I. Tend to kind of go towards protected areas in state parks and such and most of the time people are so helpful and interested and passionate even if they don't know that much about grasses when they. Know when I asked them if they'd like to join a long or something there'd be just so into it. But yeah, I I wish more people in the general public kind of understood the importance of grasses and General I? mean. Sometimes when I tell people I, work on grasses, asking questions about their lawn. A. Yeah. Yeah. Speaking of we were talking before we started recording of. I get a lot of lawn care specialists trying to promote like net. You don't understand what the goal of this podcast is. A well. But it's cool that you dove into this and you found a passion for grasses and and you know whether you truly sort of start to understand them or not like it no matter where you are on that scale, you realize it's a world that you open up. So many doors of discovery and like you said, there's everything from the food we eat to the species that form the backbone of major ecosystems on this planet. You know this is a really important group of grasses and I mean I was embarrassed when he sent that email I started looking I, was like Oh Yeah I. Don't I don't pay enough attention to this and I looked up Andrew Guinea. I really need to because there's a lot of species that are really important things I know things I should probably know a bit better I mean this is a large group and it's really cool one to have fallen into which is a Yeah and they're also beautiful like bigly stem and little. Like this time a year. They're gorgeous and you know I'm really big into like native RV to. Especially, after reading Doug amies latest spoke earlier this year I've started kind of like a string, all my and family. Native but. But I you know even like in Missouri Illinois, you don't even have to try hard to find really gorgeous plants the other native here. Just you know we barely have to do with new yard like I planted a bunch of grass and little bluestone earlier this year is. That's really exciting and it is beautiful and it's something that I think needs to be demonstrated more. So Kudos for setting up sort of like an aesthetic. Gardner. I'm assuming you know and I don't i. wish I could really kind of think back to my early days of thinking about what a grassland would look like or would my perceptions are expectations of it were because it's never the case and its till this day when I get into different types of grasslands I'm always surprised that the structure the. Complexity and just the overall feel of what it's like to have different species of grass oftentimes within close proximity to each other and again, a lot of those are Andro Guinea. So what makes this group? So special I mean you mentioned there's a lot of them. Some of them are really important for crops in our society but there are also from an ecosystem standpoint really important. I mean, is that Kinda what the motivation of working with the Andrew Bogan e is because there's there's other graph groups out there. Yeah. at the Danforth Center you know the big mission there is to work to to feeding the world population with the effects of climate change, growing relations and stuff like that. So a lot of the work there is food focus, but I definitely come from a more conservation approach with that I'm just more passionate about it but. Yes. So these grasses you know there's the big four in various here so that it makes up three of those switch grass dean grasp wisdom. The pretty dominant. Yeah and their mode of photosynthesis while SOC- for really efficient and fixing carbon emissions and the water efficiency

Technician Andrew Guinea Midwest Doug Amies Andro Guinea Danforth Center Andrew Bogan Kansas Flint Hills Kaban Hill RV Missouri Illinois Gardner
"danforth center" Discussed on Radio Survivor Podcast

Radio Survivor Podcast

07:56 min | 1 year ago

"danforth center" Discussed on Radio Survivor Podcast

"The love of Radio and sound. My name is Eric Klein with me today his Jennifer weights, and before we jump into the interview today with the author of the book preaching on Wax The phonograph and the shaping of modern African American religion by Lebron Martin. I WANNA share with you a piece of sound from an old phonograph. So it's scratchy old. It's from the twenty s I believe and it's a reverend James Gates preaching. To his audience on the recording on preaching on wax about the evils of shopping corporate. Off The change though is the top. and. Then why they think I want you to listen. Then I want to put it into Out. Obvious gene stole the time has come as I've said to you before. Offer you the pattern is you're marching. In the town where you live. and to the country people. Out Yonder, when you come to town spend your money with people who are will give you credit spend money with the people who are give you age off. I'm telling you this for your book and I bought I. Won't you sing tonight as never? Gentlemen me you be. Violent. Time. To read. Then Again that is the B side of a seventy, eight record that. According to today's guest on radio survivor was never released. Possible because it was. deemed. Noncommercial not not ready to be. Sold in stores. Criticizing the emergence of the national chains during what was. Basically, the eve of the Great Depression in the United States today's episode and interview was produced by Jennifer. Today we're speaking with Laurent Martin the associate professor in religion and politics at the John C, Danforth Center on religion and politics at Washington University in St. Louis. And today we're GonNa talk about preaching on Wax Lauren wrote a book preaching on Wax, Phonograph, and the shaping of modern African American religion, and this is an aspect of audio history that I was completely unaware of so Laura. Own. Can we just launch right in and have you talked about this fascinating research that you did into the early uses of phonograph records in the twenty s through the early forties to spread religious messages and I'd love to know more about why records were such a huge tool for black clergy during this time period store in first of all, thanks for having me what I tried to chronicle in the book preaching on lacks was the phenomenon of African American preachers signing record deals beginning in nineteen, twenty five with major record labels to court and sell their sermons. This process began acting twenty-five ended about nineteen, forty, one because of the outbreak of world to in there was a cap a limit put on certain types of production materials, particularly, SHELLAC, which is what early records were made of. Picks up again after the war with purchase recording again on wax of beginning after the war nineteen forty-five and until Zainal records sort of lost, their way to attract could set. The process over nineteen, twenty, twenty, five, in one, thousand, nine, hundred, forty, one on one hundred. African. American preachers signed record deals with labels such as I. Columbia. Than paramount records and then some of the smaller labels. Okay. Records, and then even some of the chain store labels such as Montgomery reward. Of course, the the largest one would have been victor, which will later Victor Rca and their chain store label, which is called Bluebird. As well as Other chain stores also had record labels to lose a pretty large phenomenon in some of these records sold as much or more estimable popular abuse singers. Today Are Austin. Featured in sold alongside the likes of bessie Smith New Armstrong Duke Ellington. Slow on the same record labels at times, outsold some of those folks. Amazing. What we? It's a pretty, pretty amazing phenomenon what from what we can tell record labels in the early on prewar era didn't keep track of record sales away that we have today with soundscan in other organizations like that. But one way you can tell about sales. Through the record label archives, you can in the catalog, you can tell about how many records of a certain sermon or song were ordered in. There was a supplemental order. It gives you a key about the popularity in times though the summer property sold the most discern by the of a pitcher out of Kansas City named JC Burnett. This call, the downfall of American Nezar, and that sermon had orders of up to close to ninety thousand. Records that Columbia records close orders for the record. But where? Right. Off. And these songs. These tracks on records was the downfall of Nebuchadnezzar. By JC Burnett was that a musical sermon or was it straight speech? So what J. J. Supernet and Reverend Gates do is that they do bring in. Call, and response, and so when you're when you listen to the sermon, you'll get a chance to hear people singing in the background or you'll hear people saying chanting a man preach or rats right, and says, you get more of a essentially a recording of evangelical expressive worship service all on wax, and so what those folks did was to sort of recreate the church moment. Now, the early Early Period Nineteen, twenty five is the first sermon. Those sermons are recorded in their very stayed the very more of a lecture style son, the popularity kicks off when the sermons are more expressive than sort of recreate in African American, expressive worship service. Where were they were? They recorded in the field. You know in in churches or were preachers brought into the studio to record you know kind of a Kansas sermon. In the early days, we'll beginning nineteen, twenty, five on the first preacher, Girls Calvin, Dixon is his name. He's out of Norfolk Virginia, he preaches a sermon called an equal stirs her nest, and he Columbia hears about him a local record town of record-dealer, talent, scout seasons, popularity, zone, small church network. He travels to New York in records and Columbia Studios, and that's during the days of acoustic recording where you had a horn connected to a stylist that would you would speak.

Reverend Gates JC Burnett Laurent Martin Jennifer Eric Klein Columbia Studios Victor Rca I. Columbia United States Zainal bessie Smith New York Kansas Laura Columbia St. Louis Washington University Montgomery associate professor