35 Burst results for "Daily Science"
Here's what the CDC says fully vaccinated people can do
"Safai here with npr health correspondent. Alison aubrey hale. Said they agreed to be here mattie. So you're here because there was a press briefing by the white house. Covid nineteen response team on monday with some long awaited guidance. A morning. and thank you. I'm glad to be back with you today. Let's get started that. Cdc director rochelle walinsky and she said after weeks of steady decline new coronavirus cases. There's been a leveling of that decline the country's averaging about sixty thousand new cases a day. Yeah i mean it's not great caseload wise. We are pretty much where we were right. Before the winter surge and the most recent seven day average deaths is slightly lower than two thousand deaths per day. So that's pretty troubling but we'll landscape also said she was hopeful and she pointed to the approximately thirty one million people. That's about twelve percent of us adults who are fully vaccinated and is more americans vaccinated a growing body of evidence. Now tells us that there are some activities that fully vaccinated people can resume at low risk to themselves and mattie she went on to detail new cdc guidelines about what activities are considered safe for fully vaccinated people. Because everyone wants to get back to something. That looks kind of like normal or normal ish. I mean this is the news. People have been waiting for right. Vaccinated people can have a little more freedom to socialize but before we get ahead of ourselves. Alison let's make sure everyone knows what we mean. When we say believe excavated shirt so a person is considered fully vaccinated two weeks after getting the second dose of either the pfizer or a modern of vaccines because those required two shots or two weeks. After the single dose of the johnson and johnson vaccine because for that one. You only need that. Single dose to be fully vaccinated. That's right now. These new guidelines are not the final word. There's sort of a baby step towards a return to normal doctor will linski made clear during the briefing. The science of covid nineteen is complex and our understanding of the virus continues to rapidly evolve. The recommendations is today are just a first step so as more people get vaccinated the understanding will grow about what activities are safe to do and this guidance will be updated so today on the show we talk about the cdc's first set of public health recommendations for fully vaccinated people and why it's still important for all of us to remain vigilant. This shortwave the daily science podcast from npr ellison. I am very glad to have you here today. And we are going to go into the caveats and the guidance and we're going the sectors you know. I have to say this does feel like kind of a moment to celebrate that we are getting you know a little bit of freedom back The cdc guidance is relaxing about what vaccinated people can do So i just wanna start off being like this is pretty awesome You know what i mean. Yeah i agree. There's a sense of optimism. we all feel it. We look at these vaccination numbers taking up and thank you know. The new normal is right around the corner. But i just have to say hang on folks like there are still sixty thousand cases. The date musto dolts haven't been vaccinated yet. So there's a lot of vulnerable people out there and the pandemic is not yet in the rear view mirror. Absolutely absolutely so. Let's get into it. What does the new guidance say that fully vaccinated people can do the agency says that fully vaccinated people can gather indoors with other fully vaccinated people without wearing masks and without social distancing they can also gather unmasked with people from another household who are not vaccinated if everybody. There is at low risk of serious illness. So it's really a green light for scenarios of like grandparents who want to gather with their children or their grandchildren right. I mean this guidance gives the example fully vaccinated grandparents can visit indoors with their unvaccinated healthy family members. And that's without wearing masks. Or physical distancing provided of course that none of the unvaccinated family members are at high risk of severe covid nineteen. So let's break that down for a second alison sure who is considered high risk for severe covid. And who's considered low risk people. At high risk include older adults remember the vast majority of data people seventy five and older another high risk group pregnant individuals and people certain medical conditions those at lower risk include kids and healthy adults people who've had minimal exposure to other people bottomline risk goes up with age and the guidance from this week also says that the should be confined to one household. Right yeah right. They're very specific about this. And they give some scenarios The dividing line in your mind sort of be private spaces where you control. Who's around your home and public spaces. So at home if you are fully vaccinated and your friend or member fully vaccinated green light here to gather do at unmasked with knows distancing required alleluia. another scenario. my parents are vaccinated. Now they can come to my house even though we are not fully vaccinated and my ten year. Old daughter is too young to be vaccinated. We are considered low so vaccinated people can go visit unvaccinated people as long as everyone. There is considered low risk. Okay so that's all the good stuff. Let's talk about areas to be kind of cautious around sure. This is where there are some caution flags vaccinated people visiting unvaccinated people from people households at the same time. This is where the risks starts to sort of add up or accumulate so in this kind of situation. Everyone should wear a mask and visit outdoors of possible. Or if you are indoors make sure it's a well ventilated space and maintain physical distance when it comes to medium or large gatherings say baseball game a wedding. It's recommended that everyone including fully vaccinated people continue to avoid them. Yeah i mean. Let's talk about why we still need some of these precautions. Sure i mean officials say there's a growing body of evidence to show that people who are fully vaccinated are less likely to become infected and also potentially less likely to spread the virus to others. They use that word potential because the risk appears to be quite low but this is not completely nailed down yet. So as science evolves there will likely be more updated guidance and the guidance even talked about how in rare cases vaccinated people could get sick could have symptoms. Yeah i mean the risk is low but it's not zero mean the clinical trial showed. The vaccines are very very effective. They're not a hundred percent effective. And so the cdc says if fully vaccinated person has symptoms they should isolate and talk to a doctor and possibly get a test but they also say if fully vaccinated person has a known exposure. Say go to work and they later find out that a close contact was infected. They do not need to quarantine or get tested because they're infection risk is low though they should sort of monitor themselves for symptoms right so if a person who's vaccinated feeling sick they should isolate and talk to a doctor but if they get exposed to somebody who said that doesn't necessarily mean they need to you know go into quarantine. They just need to kind of monitor themselves. That's right
Is The Sperm Race A Fairy Tale?
"Tell me a little bit about what you learned way back when about how conception works well. They showed us this video that described conception as a kind of obstacle course where the sperm little tadpole looking things and when they enter the vagina during this hostile environment. And they've done fight their way through all these obstacles and make it to the egg and the sperm. That reaches the egg wins. Kind of how it was told. Yeah that's pretty standard. It's similar to what i was taught to. And i spoke to lisa campbell angle stein. She's a reproductive bioethicist and she pointed out that we use really gendered language to describe this biology. She calls it a fertilization tale. So the sperm is this shining knight. Who's there to save the aig damsel in distress. And the sperm has all the agency the sperm is on a mission the sperm is fighting off other sperm to be the one to conquer the egg. Where's the egg is just sort of passively floating around waiting for the night and doesn't do anything itself. How does exactly what they told us. Yeah and lisa examined tons of textbooks at all levels from middle school to medical school for this kind of bias and she found some pretty wild stuff. For example sperm had this little hat like structure called the acronym textbooks described it as a motorcycle. Mean they could have called. It did horseback riding home at a ski how they could call the any type of helmets motorcycle helmet rights and that conjures up images of masculinity islanders. Tough guy weathers well clearly once again. The patriarchy finds a way but in this case. Isn't the story. exactly what happens. Biologically how it all goes down. Actually not at all. Oh no right. I am ready to go back to school. I want this post talk. Talk ariella let's do it. Only while buckle up today on the show go back to school to revisit the sperm race narrative and look at the ways that the edge and the reproductive tract plan active role in this process. I'm ariella zabidi. And i'm emily kwong. You are listening to shortwave the daily science podcast from npr. Alright classes in session. We're going back to school shortwave. School the best kind of school yes to learn about conception yeah and just to be clear. Today we're talking about this process as it plays out internally but a lot of folks conceived through the reproductive technologies like ibf. Yeah which are very cool. Okay just to recap. When i was taught conception in school it was basically described as a survivor style. Sperm race but ariella. You're telling me that this is a lie. yes yes. There are a few really big problems with this narrative when sperm i arrive in the vagina. They can't really race. I talked to jimmy heison. She's a biology professor at smith college. They don't have enough energy to make it to the side of conception. They don't have enough directional but isn't that what the cute little tales or for like don't the sperm use them to swim yet. Details do give sperm some swimming ability. But that's not a complete picture. The sperm are getting there faster than they could all on their own. And we've seen in rats and other mammals that even dead sperm can reach the lopion tubes so it seems like sperm. Don't rely that much on their own mobility. So are they getting their. The reproductive tract is bringing them along. Oh that is amazing. Okay how is the reproductive tract. Doing that so i talked to kristen hook. She's an evolutionary biologist. And she told me it's doing this tons of ways by changing the thickness of the reproductive tract fluid. Just like if we were swimming in a swimming pool with water versus a swimming pool of honey. You're gonna move differently in these different fluids or with contractions summer to contractions in your stomach after you've had a big meal or whatnot to move your food through your intestines so it's like the sperm are on one of those moving sidewalks y-yeah they're being transported along eventually reaching the philippian tubes. Okay and what happens after that. So the sperm. Start to move their tails more intensely. Which makes those pretty useless movements. We talked about earlier. More powerful research just that fluids in the reproductive tract kind of give the spur more energy. Think of it like taking a bath in coffee one. That's dreamy to the idea that the reproductive tract literally gives the sperm. Their strike is giving me strength right now. That is fantastic. I know emily. The official name for this process is hyper activation. Though that's riveting and there's even more the reproductive tract also has to prepare the sperm for one. It eventually meets the egg right now. The sperm is a little overdressed for the occasion. It's got a layer of stuff on that prevents it from binding the egg and molecules in the reproductive tract helps strip off layer so that the sperm is ready to bind. Ooh la la naked sperm. Okay and emily remember the sperm. Don't have is they have no idea where the heck they're going so the egg provides them with a gps it releases these super attractive chemicals that show the sperm where to go. Oh so it's like leaving breadcrumbs for them to follow. Yeah and you have to realize that philippian tubes aren't this straightforward path. It's really complex and winding there. There are tons of little crevices so without those crumbs. The sperm probably wouldn't know where to go. We were taught to think of it as a racetrack. Right but kristen. We know better now if you wanna go with a racetrack idea at least recognized that it's a dynamic race track so it's not like the german audubon. It's more like You know like more like a rainbow road where you have twists and turns and places to fall off and there are checkpoints that you get ask for your license registration and proof of insurance. I'm sorry proof of insurance. What does that mean honestly. That's not too far off from reality. And this brings me to may be the coolest part of all of this. Remember that hostile environment you described earlier. Yeah but you know. I was brainwashed back then in health class and i and i regret saying that because it sounds like the reproductive tract is actually far more helpful than hostile here. You totally but it is true that there are tons of obstacles along the way that seemed to be counterproductive. Like at one point these big immune cells surround the sperm and literally. Eat them. No that's terrifying. Yeah you don't want to be the sperm in that face off so it makes sense that you and me and teachers everywhere described this as a hostile environment but now starting to realize that these obstacles the actually have a purpose. It works to separate sperm. That are dysfunctional. From those that are functional works to separate debris that enters into the reproductive track with quotas and it separates the wheat from the chaff. Shall we say and then it takes what it needs or wants to the site of
Coronavirus Vaccine Q&A: Variants, Side Effects, And More
"You're listening to shortwave from npr. As more and more of the covid nineteen vaccines. Roll out. Here at npr. We've been getting a lot of questions from y'all questions like if i'm vaccinated. Can i still pass the virus to somebody else. What are the side effects of vaccines. How soon until we vaccinated enough people to return to normal so today on the show we have answers as part of a special segment. I just did on another. Npr podcast called. It's been a minute with sam sanders. Yes i am in the hot seat for this one. Y'all if you haven't checked that show out do it. It consistently makes me thank laugh. Cry it is so so good. I'm eddie. And you're listening to shortwave daily science. Podcast from npr. My dear friend who had a how are you. Welcome back to the show. I'm doing well sam. How are you buddy. I'm good. I feel like the last time we had yuan seems like forever ago but i think my biggest question with crow virus. Yes whether i could still pet other people's dogs. Oh that's interesting. That's an interesting version of that story because it was about whether or not you could kiss them on. The mouth is however members over the past few weeks. We have asked you our listeners. To send in your questions about the vaccine all right if folks were able to get the vaccine. Can they still carry and transmit corona virus to other people. So let's start off with what we know for sure right. We know that the vaccines that are authorized in the us. Do an excellent job of preventing symptoms of covid including those really scary severe symptoms. And let's just say the moment here on the show to acknowledge how monumental that is. I mean that means fewer cases that result in hospitalizations given our healthcare workers break that means less people dying every day. I mean that in itself is huge. And that's what the vaccines were designed and tested to do so. As far as whether or not vaccinated person could have the virus in their bodies. Pass it to somebody else. Even if they don't get sick there is some early. And i mean like really early data. That looks promising Some that shows that vaccinated people are less likely to have the virus in their body at all or they carry less virus. So that's all very good news but we still don't have enough data to say for sure that the vaccine cuts down on transmission or by. How much so for now we just kind of have to wait which means that vaccinated folks should still mask up. When they're interacting with people outside their household especially if those people earned vaccinated if we know that the vaccine will protect you from getting severe symptoms. Most likely is it safe for two people who are fully vaccinated to hug or like hang out in the same room. Yeah okay so. Here's what i will say about this. Because we don't know for sure if vaccinated people can carry the virus those vaccinated people just need to think about who else they are interacting with right. So if you're living at home with somebody who has severely immuno-compromised is in vaccinated. You would treat the situation differently than if you live by yourself right but if you are to vaccinated people. Maybe even wearing masks for. That added layer of risk reduction. I think you've reduced risk enough. You know to hug it out especially if you were to people that don't have like close contact with other people. I am a big proponent of risk reduction that still allows us to have some of our humanity right and requested. You know to vaccinated hugging. I would argue is one of those situations. People will argue with me. But i would say so. You know there are so many headlines it seems like every day there's a new variant of the corona virus who knows where they're coming from. How effective is the vaccine against other and newer variants of corona virus. So this is a great question. Great question other stumper. I wish your listeners. With throw me a couple of corona. So what i would say is. This is another situation where things are developing right. We didn't know about these variants like a month or two ago but there are some data that suggests that the vaccine might not work as well for a few of those variants. At this point you know most of the experts that we're talking to say they will still work right. That's the beauty of having vaccines that super super effective that even if they don't work as well against one variant they will still provide protection In fact public health officials are saying that the best way to prevent these variants from really taking off in the us is by having as many people vaccinated as possible so for now with the variants that we're seeing in the us. It looks like the vaccines will work. Well on most of them and still provide some protection on the others which is good news. All right As more and more people in my circles get the vaccine. I'm starting to hear them. Talk to me about side effects and a few folks. I know said i was fine. Second dose. I was like knocked out for a day. Or what in. General are the side effects of the vaccine. Yeah this is a great question. I'm really glad we're talking about side effects. Because i think it's important to talk about them and be transparent so all vaccines can cause side effects right. And that's because vaccines worked by kick-starting your immune system similar to what would happen with a natural infection so if you do get side effects like you get a little bit of swelling from the shot or you get a mild fever is just your immune system doing what we want it to do now. Rarely vaccines do more serious reactions like allergic reactions for example. So it's really important to talk about allergies with your doctor before getting the vaccine or you know if you get the shot and swelling gets worse after a day or if your other symptoms are getting more severe lasting more than a few days you should call the doctor but the overwhelming majority of the time sam for the two vaccines that are authorized for use in the us. The most common symptoms are pain at site of injection swelling As well as fevers chills aches feeling tired and and some people experience very little of those symptoms and some feel pretty uncomfortable. Like you said for a few days especially after that second shot because that first shot your immune system's like oh. Hey what's up what's up what's going on in that second job was like oh you like now. You're trying to see so so that is really your immune system really being kicked in action. So like you said. I've heard of people that need to take the day off after that second shot. Here's the thing. Sam those types of side effects. Go away right and you know. It doesn't always go away after a few days. Kobe right you know what i mean. So i think it's important to be transparent about vaccine side effects but also to remind people like for the overwhelming majority. This is not even close to being as bad as a bad case of covert all right next question for you. Let's say you're grandparent has been vaccinated But you a younger person have not. Can you still see them And is this scenario. A little bit safer for the more vulnerable person. Okay so this is. This is a good one Because it's all about assessing levels of risk. And like i said you know risk is not an all or nothing scenario and there's a lot to work through to make these types of decisions so let's walk through this example so you've decided you really really want to see your grandparents right. Your grandparents has been vaccinated. So you've cut the risk of them getting that bad case of covid down quite a bit. And that's big right before going. I would probably try to quarantine for a while myself Especially if they are in a nursing home. Because i don't wanna bring cove into that facility. Because i'm not just an interact with my grandparents. You know if they're in their own house maybe that's a different story. So that's all like before the visit. And then on the day of the visit one thing i would leave your audience with is when you're seeing anybody like the thing to think about is how do i cut down on the amount of air i am sharing with people right. That's the big if you can carry that one thing in your head. That's the biggest thing because most transmission happens in close contact through the air not through necessarily like groceries or stuff like that so that's important to keep in mind so if i'm going over to my grandmother's and she makes me call her that sam by the way the full grandmother she demands respect. You will not be called. Grandma i would be. I would be wearing a well fitted mask like we talked about. If i could and this is a huge one i would try to take it outside if i could if not i would want to get fresh air circulating in the room because fresh air circulation is one of the best things you can do if you have to be indoors and then the last thing to think about his time right. It's not just proximity. It's also time. So i'd make the visit pretty short too. I mean the cdc suggests less than fifteen minutes if you're indoors but that's variable so it's just about keeping that visit a short as you can and then after the visit like i said same thing is going in. I'd probably quarantine for a bit just to make sure if i got it. You know somehow from being out. And about i don't spread it. Gotcha gotcha We are seeing millions of americans getting the vaccine which sounds good and feels good. But when do we know that were there. Like what percentage of the population needs to be vaccinated before you can have her immunity. Yeah so okay. This is unsurprisingly. Another complicated one so apple over here over what. i'll take it. I i mean it's not my first choice but it's not my last okay. Okay so if you're not familiar with this term herd immunity happens after people have been infected or vaccinated instill. There's essentially nowhere for the virus to go. There's not enough susceptible. People left for corona virus Tune fact so there aren't those like massive outbreaks but there isn't one straightforward number to reach herd immunity a changes based on a lot of things the biggest one probably is the germ itself so for this corona virus. Some public health officials if thrown around that like seventy to eighty five percent of people would need to be vaccinated or infected to. Have you know the level of immunity that we would need and and the difficulty knowing the answer to your question sam like. When do we reach. That number is that we don't actually even know how many people have gotten the corona virus. You know realistically. There's a lot of infections that we don't catch for multiple reasons. There's a lot of people that have a symptomatic infections. That kind of stuff so that complicates we also don't know how long immunity lasts so for some diseases. You get once in your protected for years or your lifetime and that's probably not what's going to happen with this one really got those variants on the scene. You've heard of those variants. Those could play a role here too. So there's a scenario in which this first round the vaccine that folks get first two rounds they'll have to be more vaccine shots down the road. I mean there's the potential for that it would be kind of like a booster situation. Perhaps we don't really know yet right now. It looks like our vaccines are working. Really well but i know that there are some vaccine companies that are looking into developing more vaccines. That would you know basically be kind of a booster situation. So i think you know san we ask like when can we reach her immunity when things go back to normal you know i would argue and people would argue with a gun That herd immunity might not be a reality for this virus like some people might know. It's not it's not that bad. Some places might achieve something close to it but this is a global pandemic right like viruses travel with people who travel so real herd immunity. You know global herd immunity would be tough to achieve. And so you know. I think we have to learn how to live with this virus to be realistic. You know the coronavirus will probably be around to some degree for a long time. And so i think focusing on what we can do you know getting vaccinated if you can continue asking up physically distancing reducing your risk as much as you can the more we do those things right now the faster we will get to our new normal which sam. I am happy to tell you. We'll be much much much more livable than where we are. Now last big picture question for you. Matty like a lot of the answers around these questions are complicated and nuanced and data and information will change over time as scientists learn more things but is there any kind of certainty yet or any kind of forecasting on the uncertainty horizon. About what our springs and summers might look like regarding the scene. Can you forecast what the next few months might deal. I mean say It's it's really really tough. I wish i could give you a better idea of this but what it will say is that i understand the question. And it's it's something that i sit with. You know every single day. It's it's it's really hard right like to know when this thing is going to be over like when things are going to feel better and what a would say is that these vaccines are going to make a huge difference. You know when. I said we're not going to be corona virus free. That doesn't mean that it's going to be in our face like this all the time. I mean i. It could be something similar to the flu. Where still impacts our lives but we have systems to to live with it. And you know if these vaccines are rolled out quickly and equitably. I've heard public health officials talking about this fall or or maybe more at the end of the year like really feeling a lot. More of a return to normal. Even if it's not totally back to normal. But i think more importantly than predicting when it will happen is just you know keeping the faith that it will happen like knowing that this will happen we will return to this newish normal and and that we have agency you know and that we have a say in this so so
Fueled By Climate Change, Hurricanes Are Causing Industrial Accidents. Who's Liable?
"So, you just got back from the Gulf coast where you were covering Hurricane Laura. How was your trip? The, hurricane damage was really bad. You know a lot of people down there have lost their homes, which is hard to see. Yeah and just to remind everybody Laura was the one that hit the Texas Louisiana border in August. This storm is clearly roaring. You're reaching that critical moment here. This now joins an elite group. It's in the top ten, a small elite group of the most dangerous hurricanes to ever make landfall into the US residents along the Gulf coast are bracing for potential devastation, Hurricane Lara and that area is so flat. It is so full of petrochemical facilities to their these refineries, a lot of new natural gas infrastructure, their chemical plants that manufacture all sorts of things like plastics and solvents actually even the raw materials for p. p. e., a lot of them are manufactured. Rubber gloves and surgical masks. So so what happened when the hurricane of hit all of that a lot of them shut down and when petrochemical facilities shutdown they usually release a lot of pollution right stuff that can't safely sit in pipes. So it has to be released or burn and preliminary estimates just in Texas showed that more than four million extra pounds of pollution were released. That was actually before the storm even made landfall. But the reason I wanted to talk to you is because one chemical plant caught fire because of the storm that is a look at I ten, which has now been shut down as these plumes of smoke emerged about an hour ago. The governor now is confirming this as a chemical fire has made an emergency crews responded to the inferno at via lab in Lake Charles which manufacturers pull supplies. Okay. So we've we've talked about this on the show before it didn't chemical plant in Texas catch fire after another hurricane Hurricane Harvey. Ago Yes and we talked about it on this very podcast because that fire in Texas started this totally new kind of legal battle, a climate change criminal lawsuit, and I have to say so far there is no indication that this most recent fire will lead to similar litigation but with this really active hurricane season that we're having in the super hot water in the Gulf of Mexico hoping spawn these strong. Storms head right for America's petrochemical centers I thought it might be a good moment to revisit that story and the questions that raises. So this episode, we're going to hear that story. It's a story that asks this question can companies and the people who work for them be held responsible, even sent to prison for failing to adequately prepare for climate change, you're listening to shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. Okay Becky, take us back to the beginning of this story. So it's a story that happened in twenty seventeen at a chemical plant near Houston Texas, and it's when this major hurricane struck. We are coming on the air for breaking news. This is Hurricane Harvey, Hurricane Harvey barreling into the Texas coastline as a category four storm with one hundred and thirty mile an hour winds. It's yeah, I remember. Hervey was kind of unique because it made landfall and then it just kind of stopped and sat on top of Texas, just dumping and Dumping Rain. Some places got as much as sixty inches of rain. There was a lot of flooding obviously, our primary layer of protection was our power supply. When the storm hit we lost our primary power. You're hearing a guy who is a division president at one of those petrochemical companies that was overwhelmed by the flooding. His name is Richard. Rendered the company he helped run it's called Arkham. We brought in emergency generators to provide backup power. So what he's describing his in the aftermath of the storm, those generators were compromised. There's this intense effort to keep the power on at the Arkansas plant outside Houston. The plant is near a major highway. It's in a relatively residential area. So why were they fighting so hard to keep the power on basically because the plant was full of chemicals that have to be refrigerated Otherwise they catch fire. We do have that breaking news that we've been bringing you throughout the five o'clock hour this brand new explosion and a fire burning. As we speak the Arkham plant in Crosby, you can see that plume of black smoke billowing into the air. In fact, you can see it for miles and miles away. So they make organic peroxides which are. Volatile Chemicals, they're used to manufacture plastics and other stuff and organic rock sides are pretty hazardous because they can catch fire if they get warm right and they don't even need a spark, right. So organic peroxides contain both fuel and oxygen and when they become unstable, they heat up on their own and catch fire. Yeah. I can really hear that PhD coming through. So the Arima plant, it had a lot of refrigerated warehouses and buildings to keep these chemicals cold, and they also have a bunch of refrigerated trailers outside those warehouses. Okay. So talk me through it. What happened that resulted in the accident so harvey was stalled over the Houston area, just dumping rain for days and the refrigerated warehouses, the buildings they were flooding as the warehouses flooded. The employees were using forklifts to move containers of these chemicals from one refrigerated warehouse to another to try to keep them dry and cool, and the water just kept getting higher and higher and the electrical generators for the buildings started. Flood that's not good and then the forklift flooded. Okay. So would you do when you're forklift floods? So according to the US chemical, Safety Board investigation employees at the plant started carrying individual jugs of these highly flammable liquids in the dark my chest high water while it was still raining to get it to the refrigerated trailers we talked about because only the trailer still had power. Yeah. I read this report and it was terrifying like I can't imagine being one of those people still there as they're in like deep water trying to move these chemicals at one point, one of the trailer started to turn over. On their side. It was really like super scary. Yeah and you might be able to guess what happens next the trailers flooded they weren't refrigerated anymore the chemicals got warmer and warmer until they caught fire. So did people get hurt when the fire started in the plant? Well, the plant had been evacuated. So the employees were okay that we know of but there were some first responders who say they were injured while they were patrolling the area that had been evacuated specifically that there is and respiratory tracts were urinated by air contamination and there were some people who live nearby who also say they were injured. By the smoke and the ash from the fires. So we knew the chemicals themselves can be toxic was the smoke from them toxic as well. That's a good question. So when the chemicals burned, they actually just turned into carbon dioxide and water, but I talked to multiple organic chemists and they explained that the problem is actually the containers that were being burned a chemist at Bryn Mawr. College Name Michelle Francis explained it this way everything from the labels on things to whatever plastic or metal that the containers are made out of all that stuff is GonNa absorb other chemicals that didn't burn entirely. So the ashes nasty. The ashes nasty so that ash is made up of container junk and chemicals that didn't totally burn. That's the stuff that potentially could have harmed the first responders and the people close by and it's not something you ideally want in the air or water right so much. So that in two thousand, eighteen, the district attorney's Office for Harris County Texas announced criminal charges against the plant manager who was actually one of the people carrying those chemicals through the water. And Armas North American CEO, and later they also filed charges against a third person and executive at the company which was really surprising to a lot of people because in general, the criminal courts aren't used to punish companies in their employees for polluting the air and water especially when it happens during big storms and I went down to Houston interviewed the district attorney about it. Her name is Kim Og-. The. Charges are environmental. They are reckless emission of an air contaminant and endangerment of persons. Reckless emissions of an air contaminant feels like a bunch of words that be polluting lawyers like. Big Words. So why did she say she was filing these charges you mentioned that there were a lot of petrochemical plants around Houston that flooded and leak stuff during Hurricane Harvey is there something about these fires that was worse? Yeah I asked her that and one argument she made is that the fires happened because people at Arkham ignored the risk of flooding like they should have known that their plant could flood like that and prepared better. For example, the plant is in a flood plain and even though Harvey dumped more rain than any US storm on record the argument the county is making. Is that there were signs that flood risk was increasing before harvey because of Climate Change we've had new normal in Houston. We've had three five hundred year floods in just a short period of time, and it's true that flooding is getting more frequent and severe in. Houston as it is in many parts of the country and something climate models have been predicting for a long time that extreme rain will get more likely as earth hotter including rain from hurricanes. So in this case, the county is basically arguing that the company had a responsibility to recognize that flood risk was increasing and do. More to keep their chemicals from catching fire. So obviously, the company doesn't agree or they wouldn't be in the middle of a trial right now what is the company say? So after the indictments for announced, I interviewed two of the layers representing Komo and its employees. One of them is pretty well known in Houston been working for a really long time. His name is Rusty Harden Arkham did everything they were supposed to do here hardened says the company followed all the regulations it's required to follow. He seemed pretty galled that employees were facing criminal charges trying to find scapegoats and calling individuals felons. Are you kidding me this is outrageous. It's morally legally ethically wrong and the point he made is that if the current regulations for chemical companies in flood prone areas aren't enough. Then the regulations should be changed by legislatures not by courts and especially he argues by criminal courts sometimes bad things happen that there's no crime. There's no responsibility is not anyone's fault we need to look forward to. The future and make sure that we are prepared for these kinds of things if this is going to be the new norm in many think it is. Okay. So becky, like what is at stake in this trial if the county wins and the company loses will that change how we think about climate change in the law it could actually yeah, I talked to this Guy David Omen he's. A law professor at the University of Michigan, and one thing he said that I think is really interesting is that environmental laws and regulations are generally based on this underlying assumption that the future will look like the past today. Already, we expect companies to be prepared to handle what I might call ordinary rainfall. What climate change is going to do among other things is change our definition of what is ordinary rainfall. Another way to understand it in a legal context is that you can be held accountable and punished. If you don't prepare for something, you should have seen coming. It's the idea of foreseeability so. Like if you know that climate change is happening, does that mean it's foreseeable and you should prepare for it yet that's the big question exactly and how foreseeable extreme weather is hinges in part on how businesses inform themselves about the climate science that's available to them, right? Yeah. Like I talked to an environmental lawyer at the Conservation Law Foundation Alina Mehalle that foreseeability isn't just a question of did you personally know that this could happen but it's really what kind of maps were available to you. What kind of experts did you hire to inform yourself about this decision? What kind of modeling
"daily science" Discussed on Short Wave
"Do not worry if you're confused today on the show, we're going to give you some ways to finally understand what the heck black holes really are. We'll take a mind bending journey into a black hole to a place where the laws of physics break down past the point of no return buckle up. It's going to be awesome I'm emily, Wong and this is shortwave the daily science podcast.
What 'Arrival' Gets Right — and Wrong — About Linguistics
"Jessica con was a teenager when she first learned that linguistics is a thing. She stumbled upon story of Your Life, a science fiction novella by Ted Chiang. It's all about linguist- trying to figure out how to communicate with well aliens I. Think it was actually probably the first time I heard about the field of linguistics. And then I started college the year I saw an introduction to linguistics curson signed up for it. These days Jessica's field linguist at McGill University in particular I work on. Syntax. Basically the way words combine to make sentences in a few years ago. She got an email to be a consultant on a movie, a movie that was coincidentally based on the exact novella she read as a teenager. I'm not trying to draw any connections that aren't there, but you read about linguistics for the first time in a book that became a movie that you became the the person they consulted with. It's amazing right? It's pretty wild I mean when I first got the email that asks me to work on this film I was really ready to push spam because it sounded very strange and then at some point I saw the story of your life and I wait a minute I haven't thought about that in years and then I responded That Film Twenty Sixteen Sifi hit a rival. So real quick. In case you haven't seen it. Here's the gist. This is Davy arrived. All of a sudden twelve spaceships land all over earth trouble saying. And we don't know why they're not doing anything after landing there. Still no signs of first contact or just the sitting there are at least and so governments around the world are panicking trying to figure out why are these alien spaceship sitting here and different teams are going into try to understand why they're here what they want. And we are following one of these spaceships that I think is somewhere in Wyoming and the. Amy Adams who is a linguist? Production. And her job is to decipher the alien language and figuring out what they want. So today in the show another installment of the Shortwave Science Movie Club what the movie arrival got wrong about linguistics what it got. and. Whether or not Field Linguists Jessica coon has actually communicated with aliens. Honestly it's a tossup. I mattie Safai you're listening to shortwave NPR's Daily Science podcast. So Jessica you were the linguist who consulted on the movie arrival. So give me a big picture sense of what that means like. What did they actually have you do? Yeah. So the first thing I did was I got to read drafts of the screenplay which was really fun because it's a very common thing to do and academia we read things and we give feedback on them but usually not this fund of a scale committee meeting ever exactly yeah. It was very funds so I got to read the screenplay and they especially wanted. Feedback on how linguistics and linguists were represented in the film. So there were lots of places where I gave feedback and they incorporated it into the film. There were other places where they would say, okay just, Kinda yes. Yes. Thanks for your help but really in the end linguists are not Hollywood's primary audience and we're not going to get everything right here and now linguists just get to join like all the other fields of people who get really annoyed when science misrepresented onscreen. So welcome to the club. Sorry, we're not GONNA change that. The movie makers also put Jessica through some exercises, basically giving her a whiteboard and asking her would you do if aliens showed up and those exercises actually informed one of the most famous scenes in the movie when the main character we spanks played by Amy Adams. Schools the guy in charge of the mission about the fundamentals of linguistics. He asks her for a list of vocab words. Essentially, the keywords she was planning on teaching the aliens, that day. Cavaliers responding. Lock. help you understand. So Amy. Adams walks over to the whiteboard and scribbles what is your purpose on earth? This is where you want to get to. The question. Okay. So first, we need to make sure that they understand what a questions. The nature of A. Request for information along with the response then. We need to clarify the difference between a specific you. And a collective you because we don't want to know why Joe Alien is here we want to know why they all landed. In purpose requires an understanding of intent we need to find out. Do they make conscious choices or is their motivation? So instinctive that they don't understand a why question at all and and biggest of all, we need to have enough vocabulary with them that we understand their answer. I love that scene Yes that is one of the great triumphs of of linguistics in the film. I mean this was. So this was one of the most interesting parts of the movie for me because I'm you know this idea of building a base for understanding of a new language is like really interesting and and like the first steps in trying to communicate, which is you know like your thing right? So but it's something that I think we. Just, don't think about into see it in kind of in practice was so fascinating and I'm glad to hear it was like pretty well done your eyes question Mark Yeah I. Think I. Think it was really well done. I. Mean I think one thing that is really neat about this movie and what makes it such? You know interesting and intellectual Sifi is. They're not just typical humanoid creatures. We don't already have some kind of magical universal translator in place, and so we have to figure out how how do they even communicate and will we be able to communicate with them given how advanced they are that they've made these spaceships have arrived on earth I, think it's safe to assume that they have some advanced form of. Communication and that that form of communication should have patterns in it that we could eventually decipher. But thinking about you know, is it audible or is it written or could creatures communicate with smells or we just have no idea what could be out there if it's audible is in a sound frequency that human
The First Dog With COVID-19 Has Died, And There's A Lot We Still Don't Know
"April when buddies family I started to notice that something was a bright buddy started breathing really heavily, any hadn't mucus knows, and this was the first thing is family notice that you know the first sign that he was not himself. That's Natasha daily a wildlife reporter with National Geographic. Buddy was a German shepherd who Natasha says by his family's account was a very, very good boy. He loved running through sprinklers, Keitel's love like running and diving right into the lake. His family loved address them up for Halloween, is also photos of him in a bunny costume and you know he's just it looks like he's just grinning at the camera and so when buddies started getting sick this spring, just before his seventh birthday, his family, Robert Allison Mahoney and their daughter Juliana. While, they were worried I mean he'd be completely healthy, and then all of a sudden in the sprain he. started. Struggling to breathe and the first thing. I thought was he has the virus. Meaning the corona virus in the reason they thought that. They had also been sick. So specifically, Robert Mahoney, the husband had tested positive Alison Mahoney. Robert's wife had not been tested, but she was showing symptoms. So she had it to. The daughter Juliana who's thirteen tested negative. But when it came to getting buddy attest, that was a lot harder. But he's regular vet wasn't seeing patients. The Vet significantly said, there's no, he has like just you know there's no way and he prescribed the antibiotics over the phone. Another vets gave buddy ultrasound and x rays. But also didn't think he could have the krona virus remember no dog had yet tested positive in the US. And many vets didn't have the tests for animals anyway. But one day. Robert, Mahoney sister saw facebook post about a vet where they lived on. Staten. Island that had just gotten some test kits. Robert. was like great like let me call right now. Get down there, make an appointment, and so he was able to make an appointment for ten PM on a Friday. So it was a very strange time, but it was the clinic was really busy, and so it was the the first law they had available. That was Friday. May Fifteenth a full month after he started showing symptoms a few days later, but he finally got test that revealed. He was positive. This was a huge deal. Buddy was the first dog in the US known to have the virus and the USDA announced the news in a press release on June second. Buddy wasn't named in that press release. The government only identified his breed. In fact, we only know the details of his story because of Natasha's reporting. The USDA said in. June, that quote the dog is expected to make a full recovery. But Buddy didn't get better. He got more and more sick in June. It. All came to a head one weekend in July. And a warning that the details coming up are pretty tough to hear. So Allison. Came downstairs the morning of July eleventh and found buddy in the kitchen in a pool of modeled flood He was throwing up blood. It was coming from his nose. It was just horrific and devastating for the family, and at that point, they brought him into the vet and the decision was made to euthanize him which was obviously really really difficult on top of two and a half months of stress and confusion that the family had already been through thirteen dogs and eleven cats have tested positive in the US for cove nineteen according to public. Records and while those numbers sound small, they raise big questions about how virus can affect people and their pets. Today's episode. Natasha. Daily on why. Some of those questions are still so hard to answer. Allison Mooney said to me that you tell someone that your dog tested positive for Cova. Did they'd look at you like you had ten heads. You know there's no rubric for navigating covert in your pet. I'm Emily Quang and you're listening to shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. First off the current CDC guidance that there is no evidence that pets can transmit the coronavirus to humans, and that's partially why testing for animals isn't more widespread. We do need to say to that test for animals are different than the test used to detect the virus in humans. All animal tests are processed in different labs are processed in veterinary labs. Not, there's no overlap between human testing and animal testing. So. While some of the mechanics of the tests may be the same. It's not at all taking resources away from humans. But because a covid positive animal isn't seen as a danger to humans, there's been very little scientific study of how the virus can affect those pets or even how it can interact with other diseases are pets may have. That's where we're going to pick up buddy story with an Tasha daily. Yes. So new blood work was taken on July tenth the day before a buddy died, and it was on July eleventh when the Mahoney's brought buddy in. To essentially be euthanized that they found the results of that blood work on and the blood work indicated that he very very likely had lymphoma, which is kind of cancer, right? Yes. Lymphoma is a type of cancer So I I asked a couple of veterinarians who were not involved in buddies case at all to review his full records and they said that, yes, every single one of the symptoms he had could be explained by lymphoma, you know A. A big open question is deity SARS Yovany to present clinically in buddies body, and what that means is did the virus cause any symptoms? For example, the trouble breathing was, and so I think it's it's tough and we'll never have an answer to this was every single. One of his symptoms are the lymph, Oma? Or was some of it, the COVID and the breakdown of fat isn't something that we have an answer to, and you also pose the question. Will. We won't know whether the cancer made them more susceptible to contracting the coronavirus exactly, and that's sort of a big takeaway from his case You know our dogs or cats with underlying conditions like cancer as it turns out. More likely to contract the virus because we know humans are humans It's thought that humans that have suppressed immune systems maybe more likely to contract the virus, but not only that maybe the virus may be more likely to present in ways that are more significant in their bodies if if they're already immuno-compromised. So the same question remains for animals and we just have so little data to investigate it.
"daily science" Discussed on KQED Radio
"People to foster and sustained safe and healthy communities. Learn more at lang loft dot or GE. And the listeners of cake. Six minutes. Now past 10 o'clock, we're going to have some sunshine later on hot temperatures today and tomorrow inland to temperatures in the low to mid nineties, their eighties in the South Bay and around the space getting into the mid seventies in the city of San Francisco, the high expected to be 69 degrees today. And tomorrow as well. Some cooling inland will start next Tuesday. Or so, this coming Tuesday. Public radio. Hey, all this's sounds. I'm Betty Thiss Week on the show. We answer your everyday questions about Corona Varis. All right. You're listening to. It's been a minute from NPR. I'm Sam Sanders in this week on the show. We are keeping calm. And carrying on in the midst of this pandemic is what, like weak a 1,000,000 of this thing and just getting through life every day. It could be a lot, even just going out for a walk or going to the grocery store. Can be extremely anxiety inducing. So we asked. A bunch of you are listeners to send me your everyday corona virus. Questions kind of question is that in any other context might seem Monday. Help us out. We called up a friend of the show Maddie Sofia. It might just unlike shortwave host. That's that's a real role. I'm playing right. Thank your answers will be more important. If you say that you have a PhD honestly in my own family have found that that is not the case. Sam. Let's try. Let's see if people listen, Teo I'm joined by CDC chief. All right. Maddy is not the CDC chief, but she is The host of NPR's daily science podcast, Shortwave and also, as you heard, she has a PhD in microbiology..
"daily science" Discussed on Short Wave
"To do is drill into the Rock, take a sample, seal it in a container and leave the container on Mars so that it'll be picked up by another mission when well under the best case scenario, the samples would return to Earth in twenty, thirty one. Although, a lot can happen between now and then so it could be longer than that. All right. Any other cool thing about this mission, Joe that you want to mention. Well, yes, and I have to say as exciting news to find life on another planet. Of what's really cool is to have a drone on another planet I made. Man. Your technology. It is something that some scientists and engineers cooked up longtime ago and people said I. Oh, come on. You can't fly a helicopter on Mars a drone on. Mars is not enough atmosphere, but they said, yes, you can, and they put it into a test chamber with something that simulated Mars, atmosphere and showed. Yeah. They could slightest thing around. So they convince NASA administrators. So it's going to be a little helicopter flying around Mars very cool, and when will these various missions get to Mars? They're all GonNa arrive around February of twenty twenty one. So we'll be back then to talk about, right. We'll have you back for an update. Thank you JOE PALCA for coming onto Roy few. Today's episode was produced by Abby Wendell who also roved for the facts and it was edited by yet light reight I tunes. If you like what we're doing on the show, tell a friend about us. We'll be back tomorrow with more shortwave, the daily science podcast from NPR..
Why Shame Is A Bad Public Health Tool Especially In A Pandemic
"Believe me I get it. I'm frustrated and angry to. After all, it's been four months of this. We know the right things to do. And when you see someone wearing a mask or groups of people hanging out close together, it's easy to get mad, even if in all fairness. Once or twice. Open defiance at this Castle Rock Colorado restaurant large crowds, no social distancing, and there's some news coverage right now. That caters to this anger. You know what I'm talking about. Many Americans are out and about on this memorial day visiting newly reopened businesses seems from the unofficial kickoff to the summer showing many Americans not practicing social distancing measure. I'm telling you to wear a mask where a damn ask, but this Kinda thing anger public shaming the urge to yell at people who aren't doing the right things. That can be precisely the opposite of productive. Yeah, as the researcher I've been. Watching all this unfold through that Lens Julia Marcus is an epidemiologist and professor at the Harvard. Medical School, she said he's HIV prevention. And for scientists Julia, who work in HIV or sexual health or even substance abuse? They know that shame can be a huge barrier when it comes to public health, and in these first few months of the Cova pandemic I was watching this same pattern happen where you know, these kind of absolutist public health messages and moralistic undertones were potentially contributing to what became rampant shaming of people who were flouting public health guidelines or doing things that people felt. Felt were high risk, and when we shame people for their risky behavior in a way that distracts us from where risk is really happening, which is typically much less visible like in prisons and nursing homes and food, processing plants, and those don't inspire the same moral outrage. I think for two reasons one. They're not right in front of our faces, but also to we don't think of those as people having fun and a pandemic which I think people really upset. Matt rage, Julia says might feel good to act on in the moment, but it's not gonNA solve our biggest problems right now. I find that taking that rage home, and really screaming alone has been very helpful for me to. Do that as well or you know my rage these days first of all I would say that knows no bounds, but also. To be honest. My regions more directed at institutional failures than individual ones. To episode Julia Marcus on the role. Shame plays in public health crises. We talk masks. School reopenings in the long road ahead. I'm Maddie's defy, and this is shortwave daily science podcast from NPR. Julia Marcus has written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic about why. Shame is not helpful right now and how we can do things better. She's looked this when it comes to mask wearing social distancing and how we open college campuses, we talked about all those things, but the first thing to say here is that there is a fine line between public shaming and some positive forms of peer pressure. I, yeah I WANNA make a distinction here between social norms and shaming I. think social norms are very powerful and. That can be one of the best ways I think to change. Health behavior is like well. Everybody else is doing it so I'm going to do it because it's more like i. want to feel good when I go in the grocery store and I'm not gonNA. Feel great if I'm the only one not wearing a mask, so, but there's a difference between making people feel bad about their risky behavior and making people feel good about engaging and protective behaviors as a way of like becoming part of What the new social norm is Marie right? Right Okay Julius. You've written a bunch of great pieces for the Atlantic. Let's talk about your most recent one I. It's you know how to not open colleges this fall. You started out by describing an email that went out to students at Tulane University earlier this month July seventh. What what happened there? Yeah I mean I I I don't WanNa. Pick on two lane here. Becher, that was it just an example of some of the communications that were starting to see toward students who are on campus this summer and have been having some parties. And there was an email that we're not to students that really condemned stat behavior as disrespectful, indefensible, dangerous selfish, and made it very clear in bold all caps that hosting parties of more than fifteen people would result in suspension or expulsion from the university and that if students wanted the school to remain open, they needed to be personally responsible. I'm in their behavior and When a university says, we will hold you accountable for having a party, and actually there will be dire swift punishment when inevitably there is an outbreak at a party. Students are going to be terrified to disclose that they were there. And students have now said this at the University of Connecticut were interviewed and surveyed about what kind of thing is going to work for them what their concerns are about the fall. And they universally said we. We are early close to universally said we're really afraid of how infection and risky behavior are going to be stigmatized such that we outbreaks will not be able to be controlled, so there needs to be appropriate consequences for putting your community at risk, and I would never say otherwise but that needs to be balanced against the need for public health efforts to be separate from discipline. And we've already seen contact tracing start to break down outside of campuses, because people are afraid to talk about having been at event that that they know is something they should not have been doing yeah. So. You know kind of following that thread. The part of this pandemic that's been hardest for a lot of people is is social distancing in in several of your pieces you wrote about how a lot of the advice especially in the beginning was almost like an abstinence based approach like stay home. See Nobody which absolutely made sense kind of at the. The beginning, but tell me about why. That approach doesn't necessarily make sense for the long-term well asking people to abstain from all social contact indefinitely or until we've scaled up. An effective vaccine is just not going to be a sustainable public health strategy, and I think now our messaging has evolved a bit especially as there's been an accumulation of evidence around. The risk is highest like what's settings or higher risk, in which ones are lower risk, but I think we continue to still have a tendency toward absolutist messaging and I think that our goal should be to two inch. People tour to a place where they are living their lives in a way that addresses all aspects of their health, while trying to keep tr- risk of transmission low, and so one way that that could play out is encouraging outdoor activities, especially in spacious areas, opening up more outdoor space for people, and there's been a tendency to close beaches and close parks where people gather, but. But I actually think doing the opposite on could could be helpful, but the essential point is. We can't stay in our homes forever and many people couldn't stay in their homes for the last few months because they were working sure, but it's clear from other areas of public health that asking people to abstain from something that they fundamentally need or strongly desire is not an effective public health strategies, so we have to find ways of making our messaging more nuanced, that allows people to get what they need to be able to live sustainably while keeping the risk of transmission low until you there. There are examples of nuanced messaging from others accessible public health campaigns. Right I. Mean You work on HIV? Can you give me an example of that? Yeah, so we you know we don't tell people don't have sex. Because that's the best way to not get HIV, we may save the safest thing you can do to avoid HIV transmission is not have sex, but we understand that many people are going to have sex, and that it's a you know a part of a healthy life, and so here are some safer ways to have sex, both in terms of certain sexual acts in in terms. Terms of protection different ways you can protect yourself and you know becomes a more nuanced message, but it's much more sustainable for people and realistic and the long term, and it also acknowledges people's basic human needs right, and there's also this idea that talking about ways to reduce risk encourages people to take those risks, even though from a public health standpoint. We know that isn't true. So I'm wondering Julia like. Why do people hold onto this concern? Like what is this really about yeah I, mean this is definitely not new. It comes up a lot. I think especially around drug, use and sex. And I think the reason it especially comes up in those settings is that those are behaviors that we have a lot of moral judgments about particularly in this country, and there's this kind of moral outrage that happens when we think about people engaging in risky, which is often pleasurable, behavior, sex, drug use, and these days going to the beach like. it's kind of playing out in this new way now with social contact and partying and people having a good time in a pandemic, which it's actually a public health win when we find ways to support people in enjoying their lives, and and getting their basic social or sexual needs, met while remaining a safest possible, and you've made the point that we've. We've already seen this play out with the corona virus, public health officials, hesitating to give people detailed ways to protect themselves instead of avoiding risk altogether, I mean I remember. We reported early on in this pandemic when Dr Burks of the White House Coronavirus Task Force said. We don't want people to get this artificial sense of protection because they're behind a mask. This lack of consistent messaging is one of the reason that a lot of people still aren't convinced that masks are helpful, so you know. Julia, how do public health officials effectively reach? Those people yeah I mean I. Think in general we always see some resistance to any new public health intervention, condoms, and you know pre exposure prophylaxis for each V. I mean every intervention that comes out. There's resistance. There's challenges with implementation. There are moral concerns you know. This is all kind of par for the course, but I think what's new here and a bit different is not necessarily just the polarization which we do, see an Ciaran things like vaccines, but the politicization. Politicization I don't think there has been I can't think of an example where a sitting president has flouted public health recommendations and I think that that has created kind of a politicized around masks. That wouldn't have necessarily been there and so how do we overcome that? And how do we reach people I think again it comes back to hearing people's concerns, acknowledging them, and then working to overcome those barriers in our messaging and I. Think there are some good examples of that there have been a couple of great mask campaigns that have come out of California acknowledging that people dislike wearing them and acknowledging the reasons why people dislike wearing them. And I would guess that they are more effective in reaching certain populations than campaigns that that are more focused on this. Just wear ask. It's really easy kind of messaging. Yeah and don't you care about your community and don't you want to not kill people and That kind of messaging is like early days of AIDS. Messaging around condoms that I think was not as successful as the messaging that really focused on what the barriers were, and how people could overcome them. Yeah, yeah, with all this stuff that we've been talking about colleges masks. You know keeping safe distance. It's pretty tough because the stakes feel so high like this is really a nasty virus, and when we see people, you know not doing the right things, the instinct there to shame them to get mad for a lot of us at first instinct and I. I guess it's just that we need to take some patients to push past them. Yeah, I mean I, think it's really. Valid to feel angry about what's happening right now, and for people who are not necessarily taking care of themselves or their community and putting other people at risk. It's very frustrating to see, but I think especially for public health professionals. It's on us to do the work to avoid the shaming and the anger and the moralizing in our messaging. Because we've learned that that doesn't work in other areas of health and really try to take the time to craft messaging. That is going to be more effective. Julia Marcus. Checkout episode notes for a link where you can find her writing to the Atlantic. Can say the Atlantic is crushing it these days, but the magazine, not the ocean. I mean
Fat Phobia and It's Racist Past and Present
"As a teen Sabrina strings loved getting to hang out with her grandma even when her grandma was obsessing over one of her soap operas I remember one time. She called me into the living room and she's like Sabrina look at Victoria. McCoy's kept on young and the restless. Victoria is killing herself to him. Why are white women dying to be thin? Fast forward to one three adult Sabrina was working at an HIV medication adherence clinic in San, Francisco, where she witnessed real life, examples of women sacrificing their health to be thin nights, spoken to a couple of women both HIV positive who refused to take their HIV medications for fear of gaining weight, and that blew my mind, and immediately took me back to conversations I've been having with my grandma like gosh onto something so important you know when she was talking about it, she saw it as largely a white phenomenon, but the women I interviewed that day. We're both color. Why were these women dying to be thin and did race have anything to do with? Him. Sabrina went on to become a sociologist at the University of California Irvine and wrote a whole book investigating these questions. If you're like me, you might have assumed that. There was some moment in between Marilyn Monroe. TWIGGY EH in which. Suddenly we'll. We suddenly became fat-phobic in those three years, but Sabrina started digging looking at nineteenth century magazines like Harper's bazaar in what she found was troubling articles warning American women well middle class and upper class white women. They needed to watch what they eat, and they were unapologetic, and stating that this was the proper form for. Jackson Protestant women, and so it was important that women eight as little as necessary in order to show their Christian nature and also their racial superiority. Today on the show we go all the way back to the transatlantic slave trade to understand the racial origins of fat phobia, and how black people are still dealing with the consequences today? I mattie Safai and this is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. So Sabrina. Let's let's get into what you discovered about the history of fat phobia a little bit you. You did a ton of research and you started the story several centuries back in Europe definitely in the ethos that like Renaissance Women. you know we're full figured. And that was absolutely a thing that was valued, and then there was a big shift explain what was going on back then so it turns out that the growth of the slave trade, especially by the eighteenth century led to new articulations of what types of appearance we could expect of people by different races, and also what types of behaviors. Such that by the middle of Eighteenth Century, a lot of French philosophers in particular were arguing that you know what when we're in the colonies, we're noticing that Africans are sensuous. They love sex and they love food, and for this reason they tend to be too fat. Europeans have rational self control. This is what makes us the premier race of the world, so in terms of body. Body size, we should be slender, and we should watch what we eat so okay Sabrina. Are you telling me that? When the slave trade started and European saw that African women were essentially curvy much like European women at the time at that point, they decided that being fat being thicker wasn't ideal anymore, and they built a system of oppression around this idea of needing to be. Thinned to prove racial superiority is at eight am I close. It's not quite as intentional as that. Effectively what they determined was that. You know we want it to be able to have a mechanism for ensuring that we could recognize who was slave, and it was free right, and it was easy in the beginning of the was simply skin color. What did you might imagine? After two hundred years of living in close proximity skin color really no longer works has a mechanism right, because now we have all of these people who are We would consider them today to be by racial, and so what they did was they decided to articulate new aspects of racial identity and so eating and body size became of the characteristics that were being used to suggest that these are people who do not deserve freedom. The trans, Atlantic slave trade eventually ended, but argues that we are still absolutely living with these racist attitudes about body size today. And in her book, she also traces how these anti-fat attitudes worked their way into modern medicine for somewhat arbitrarily, reasons for example take BMI or body mass index. That equation actually wasn't intended to be used to measure individual fatness. Though of course doctors did and still do today, can you? Can you explain the problem with using am I as a measure for obesity especially when it comes to black women, who I know have been told that they have the highest rates of obesity according to that measurement to be am I. Yes, so am. I is a measure of the ratio of a person's weight to their height. And what this does not account for is bone density. Muscular already any other type of genetic influences in your way or cultural environmental influences in your weight, and so, what ended up happening? As many people pointed out is that you might have to people with the same BMI, but vastly different life experiences embody compositions outside of the simple reality of their weight to height ratio, right, and the problem of applying this to them in particular, is that African American populations as studies have shown for literal decades since at least the eighties tends to be healthier at heavier weights than white populations. And so that already is an indication that cross racially. This is not a very useful tool, not to mention the fact that even within race there are going to be vastly different experiences, of an individual body between like their weight and their health profile so surreal this message from the medical establishment that excess weight is the biggest you know reason for black women's health problems or a very central of it. Why do you see it as so damaging? For Black Women, ultimately, the main advice that people are given when they so called obese is to lose weight, and there are so many problems with this. We have been telling people to lose weight for decades. What ends up happening is that they either don't lose the weight or they sometimes do lose the weight, and then frequently gain it back so first off. It could be more harmful to tell people to lose weight in the long run, and then in addition to that there are the psychological effects of telling people that their bodies are wrong. Right at their bodies are inherently unhealthy This type of fat stigma also leads to health outcomes right right right, so let's talk about this. In the context of covid nineteen I'm thinking about the recent New York Times op Ed you wrote about how cove nineteen is disproportionately impacting. Impacting people of Color specifically black people, and how you took issue with obesity, gaining traction as a leading explanation for that disparity, so talked me a little bit about that. This piece was actually motivated by something that I felt was very troubling, which was I had been seeing so many report, suggesting that the disparities in Colbert outcomes between white populations and black populations. They would say things like well. You know there's already the pre existing factor of obesity, and somehow that was one of the first things that come up and I thought there is very little evidence that disparities in quote unquote obesity are what's contributing to these negative outcomes, but there's plenty of evidence to suggest that Kobe. Fatalities or maybe even serious complications with Kobe nineteen are being influenced by people's environments. Are they essential workers? Do they have access to enough soap and water hand sanitizer, and so of course might imagine that the ability to socially distance to shelter in place to have access to healthy foods under Corinthian, all of this is very much being structured by a person's social location and black people tend to live in communities without access. Access to a lot of different healthy and life giving resources. Yeah, in in Sabrina, I'll tell you that as a person that reads a lot of the literature on Kovin prisoner biologists I am seeing a lot of papers coming out that are associating with the obesity without with health outcomes of COVID, but those links tend to be correlated right, but even if we were to find out that there's absolutely a causal link. Link between covert and obesity which I think you're arguing. There isn't one especially right now. At least the rates of obesity and white and black populations aren't actually that different right like it wouldn't necessarily be the thing that made it. So can you tell me a little bit about those rates versus the actual percentage of disparities? We're seeing so according to the CDC, the Obesity Twain. African, American and white populations are. Are Forty two point, two percent for white populations and forty nine point, seven percents for black populations are about that and so we're looking at effectively a seven percentage point disparity between white and black populations in terms of rates of obesity, however, when we're looking at serious complications with covert nineteen. What we're seeing is that black people are dying at rates of two point four to seven times that of white populations. How that's seven percentage point differential is leading to two point four to seven times the disparity in serious complications. Death. No one's really being able to explain that. This is the problem with the kind of cords of studies, which is that they lead people to believe that somehow. Is One of the drivers when in fact it could simply be a confounding in these studies, but we're so used to studying obesity and treating these correlations as if they are evidence of causal link that people are frequently not being very critical when they're seeing studies that show these relationships. Sabrina, you've obviously spent years by now working to understand this issue and to educate folks about it I'm wondering you know like why why this. Why have you specifically taken this on one of the reasons? Why continue to do it? Is I've seen what a difference? It's made to people's lives. I mean I've had so many people reach out and tell me that they felt for the longest time like something was wrong, but no one was talking about it or that I have spoken to their personal experience. I couldn't have imagined when I started doing this work. That could have possibly had the impact that it's had you know I'm standing on the shoulders of giants people who have been feminist scholars medical scholars journalists who've been doing this work at least since the nineteen seventies, but we're at a moment right now where there's a critical mass of people who are aware that the discourse surrounding fatness that we've long accepted really is baseless, and we think about a new way of allowing people to have a positive relationship to their bodies, and to cultivate health within themselves and their communities that does not rely on that stigma. Okay Sabrina I appreciate you. Thank you so much for coming on the show and sharing your life and your work with us. I really appreciate it. Thank you so much. It's been a pleasure. Sabrina strings. Her book is called fearing the black body the racial origins
Understanding Unconscious Bias In The Brain
"The human brain is a marvellous sponge that can process eleven million bits of information every second, but like a sponge it's leaky are conscious minds. The thoughts we are aware of can only handle forty to fifty bits of information, the second, which means that way more is entering our heads than we realize this much information coming at us, we consciously process all that information on a very rational logical manner. Otherwise we would be I'm going over every decision we make. Progress Auger Wall is a behavioral and data scientists in the UK and looks at this in her new book. So. What's the human brain to do? While progress says we sometimes take cognitive shortcuts help make those decisions easier shortcuts that can lead to implicit bias or as is sometimes called unconscious bias, which is what her books sway is all about these are some of the biases or prejudices that we carry within us, and we might think that we are really fair, minded and Galley -Tarian, but they often spring up on us when we least expected often via tired or distracted or Nari including of course. Course Racial bias progress gave me a short example from her own life raised in India. She came to the UK over twenty years ago and now lives with her husband and three kids in a beautiful seaside town. The Sandy beach is like ten minutes away, which is great for the dog Abud not very multicultural place at home running into others, bias is kind of an everyday experience especially since brexit up into a supermarket, Wiedeman recently told me Oh. This is now how we do things here. From member has been living in the UK for over twenty years. Biased really is all around. Yes, exactly. advertently quoted love actually which is an expert. About line. How many times have you washed? Love actually? Anyway. Today on the show Prageru Wall on what science has to say about unconscious bias where it comes from and how we can check our unconscious biases in the moment. I'm emily along and this is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR.
"daily science" Discussed on Short Wave
"Okay so we're talking with ornithologists Viviana Reese. Gutierrez and she says if you're around the east coast and you looked outside your window. You might have seen some pretty cool birds this past month Baltimore. Orioles Brisa grows, speaks were also seeing buntings. These cool birds mostly showed up in the spring after migrating from places like central and South America and Yang. Migration is wild. Yes, so in general forty percent of all bird species around the world migrate, and they really come up here to take advantage of the resources <hes> like increase. Increase Insect availability much fear predators, and they'll be here about until August and then they'll go back down to the tropics again. And these journeys, these migration journeys are pretty impressive like I don't think people realize how far they travel, and and and and how long it takes, you know they use various ways to navigate these the sun and stars, magnetic fields <hes> they can fly anywhere from fifteen to about fifty five miles per hour and travel anywhere from fifteen to six hundred miles a day. Oh my gosh, the blackboard warbler. He basically doubles his body weight, and he flies non stop for eighty six hours for about twenty three hundred miles. Wow, wow, while the really really really impressive. In once, the birds finally got here. It was time to find a mate I. Asked Fabiano. What one eligible bird might be looking for in another so there is song actually <hes> so? That's one of the things if it sings a really good song. If. It's right on page that means like. Yes, this is this is going to be a good mate. <hes> color color is also another for example and in some species if they're brighter red. And or the length of their tails, those are indicators at this is a really high quality <hes> mate. I should accept a partner, but a lot of it is it is the song yeah I mean I yeah, isn't it always? Musicians do well. Go beyond you know what I mean. It's true. And then, of course, there's the dancing so for example red wing blackbirds, really really funny dances and displace attract their mates. Described the dance to me, please with the they can shake and display their wings, and they've really sing their little hearts out to attract other maids. Haven't we all? Exactly. These little love birds have to compete for attention and competition is fierce out. There y'all so some folks have noticed for example cardinals fighting with <hes>, one of their mirrors in their cars repeatedly. Become so aggressive, but sometimes they just fight with their own reflection even so. You'll notice birds fighting a lot more and just being a lot more vocal, but as they start nesting. You'll see that that will decrease by this time in the year, most of those fighting birds have settled down focused on being new parents, tending their nests and feeding their young. And Viviana says there are a few things that we can do to help our little bird neighbors out, and that's a question that even asked myself. You know how how can I really help? Birds at home and one of the main ways is to keep cats inside. So it's estimated that cats, even domestic cads that get fed a lot these still go out and hunt and really
A COVID-19 Vaccine: What You Need To Know
"Joe you have been reporting on the pandemic for months now and specifically one crucial part of this story vaccines right I think vaccines are pretty much the way out of this. Most people agree it's been so far the most successful tool in preventing infectious disease. But, of course we don't have a vaccine right now, and so that's why we're doing all these other things like shutting things down and social distancing and wearing masks in washing hands, etc, until we do have a vaccine that safe and effective and available right, and we're basically hiding from the virus in the meantime right, but I've heard that vaccines have traditionally taking years to develop. So, what are we doing to speed up the process well quite a lot actually and just to give you one example. Example a couple of weeks ago. I got a virtual tour of a vaccine facility in Baltimore. What you're looking at here is one step of multiple step process. It's run by a company called emergent bio solutions, and Sean Kirk overseas the manufacturing and technical operations and what he's doing, he's he's pointing a cell phone camera through a glass window into another room with several large stainless steel pieces of equipment. You can see the banks taken out. Talk you, so what's going to go inside? This bag is actually. Believe it or not insect cells that have been modified to make proteins from the coronavirus. That's going to be used to make the vaccine. The technicians are loading this bag into a fifty liter stainless steel vessel. That's part of what's called a bio reactor around the outside of this is the vessel itself it provides. The heating cooling. And with the inserted agitator, the mixing the cells, spitting out a protein that's going to become the corona virus vaccine. All this is being done with the strict standards of the Food and Drug Administration. The vaccine is from a biotech company called Nova Fax, and emergent says they're ready to make hundreds of millions of doses of it on a short timescale. Hold up Joe. Because I thought there weren't any approved vaccine's yet. So what's happening here with this manufacturing? Well, you were asking what's going to speed up the process and this is part of the answer. They're not just waiting to see if the vaccine works. They're doing what's called at risk manufacturing it. They're getting ready to make hundreds of millions of doses of vaccine. And when they finish testing it, it might not work okay, but the government says we don't have any choice because we can't wait until we find out of it works to start manufacturing it. Because that'll just add months and months to the process, so they're getting going right away. Sounds like kind of a gamble, but we don't really have much of a choice. Is that right well? That's what people are saying. I mean it's a gamble that health officials say we have to make if we want to have a vaccine that's GonNa be around in time to put a stop to this pandemic. Okay Today on the show what you need to know about the virus vaccine from how it works to the challenges of disturbing it to. The world. This is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. Okay Joe Palca. Let's start with some vaccine basics I read. There are over one hundred vaccines in development for this corona virus, and these vaccines are trying to do the same thing trigger an immune response from your body without actually getting you sick. Yes, I've been thinking about it as a little bit like showing a picture to someone and say if this person comes to your door. Don't let them in and and that's essentially what you're doing with a vaccine. Right and I guess there are a couple of different ways. Occur virus vaccine can maybe trigger that response. Tell me about a couple of them. Well one thing you can do is you can actually kill the virus. What does that mean well? It's not really alive, but let's say treat it with heat or formaldehyde. It's no longer working and you inject into somebody well. It has the shape of virus and the look of a virus, but it doesn't do it. A virus does so the immune system can respond to that. That's kind of how the polio vaccine that Jonas Salk came up with. Or you can take the virus and modify it so that it's no longer able to make someone sick That's basically what the Sabin Polio vaccine did. It weakened the poliovirus. Immune system saw it made all the right responses, but didn't Cause Disease Gotcha. Since those two, there have been married of different ways. It's just the idea of getting the Munin system to recognize parts of the virus so that it'll have an immune. Without actually making somebody sick all right. Let's talk to about why vaccine development takes so long because we mentioned earlier, it's normally very step by step process and I'm guessing that's why it takes a while right well. Yeah I, mean there are lots of steps in the process. First one is to make sure that the vaccine is safe. You're GONNA, be giving it to a lot of people, so you WANNA. Make sure it doesn't cause any problems on its own important, and then you want to make sure it has an immune reaction immune response, so you measure the cells that people make are the proteins that they make from the immune system after you've given them the vaccine. And then you want to make sure it prevents them from getting sick from the coronavirus. None of these sound like easy tasks I gotta say Yeah No it's. It's all time consuming. It's all difficult. It all requires a lot of people and patients and coordination and You can't really speed it up I. Mean if you WanNa, see if something's going to work for six months, you kind of. Of have to wait around for six months to see if it's GonNa work right, and so with this coronavirus receiving manufacturers trying to compress the time line, but this takes a lot of money and a lot of financial risk, so does anthony. FAUCI of the coronavirus task force thinks we can develop a vaccine by the end of this year, because the government is helping these manufacturers financially through. An warp speed. Here's vouch speaking with NPR's Rachel Martin. It's risking hundreds of millions of dollars, maybe a half a billion to a billion dollars. The government isn't destined that taking that risk way insane precede, and you'll save several months, so joe aside from this. What else can be done to move the process along well I mean one of the things you can do. Do is just get a lot of people working on the problem at the same time, and then you can also do things that will make sure that the regulatory processes smooth so the food and drug. Administration is coming along with you in every step so that they don't have to review everything. After you've done it, they can review everything as you're doing it. But. This idea of having a lot of labs involved in something that's going to really be helpful and I talked with Dr Lewis Fellow over at the University of Pittsburgh Medical School his team is developing something. It's packed with micro needles that contain tiny bits of the coronavirus, and the Niger needles are so small that you don't even feel them, so you while slap on the patch and wait a few weeks and boom, immunity corona virus. Virus Patch. It works if it works, but this is just one approach, and I think that they will basically feed off of each other This is GONNA help us to do these trials both quicker, and to find vaccine. That's most effective when we start to be to be able to compare these different approaches seven Joe. Let's say sometime in the future we have a winning vaccine or a few vaccines that are fully approved. How on planet, Earth Are we going to distribute them like who's who is going to get it I i. m Evi one vaccination. Are Those people born on March tenth? This is a scene from the movie contained I know we promised we wouldn't play this movie again on the PODCAST, but. This scene is kind of how vaccine was deployed at least in the film. So Joe is there massive lottery drawing in our future to decide who gets the CORONA VIRUS VACCINE? I don't think that's going to be the actual way that it's going to be ruled out. Okay. Most of the people I've talked to suggest that it's going to go first to healthcare workers and people who are on the frontlines of combating the disease, but then you want to think about the sort of the societal infrastructure. I mean who makes things go and. I think a number of years ago. People wouldn't necessarily have thought of delivery truck drivers says people who are crucial to the infrastructure of the country, and yet more and more people are now relying on deliveries to get stuff, and so they may be considered critical people who need to be vaccinated or their people who are at high risk for the disease. But the fact is that at some point, we're going to have to figure out a way to get this to everybody. Right Seth Berkley, for the CEO of an organization called Garvey. The vaccine alliance put it really well. We're not going to be safe as a world unless everywhere save so even if you know, we had parts of the world that would have a low spread or no spread. If you had large reservoirs of the virus in other places, of course, you have a risk of reintroduction I like that we're not going to be safe. As a world, unless everywhere is safe. Okay, last question Joe. Will the corona virus vaccine be one that changes every year because the corona virus changes every year. If we know that, or will it be more like the measles are the polio vaccine? We don't know we don't know which I could give you a better answer. But the answer right now is. We don't know so. There's not enough experience with this virus yet to know for sure, of course what's going to happen? It's possible that they'll be a different version that they all need to make vaccines against for every year. or it's also possible, and this is probably more likely that. They'll need to be boosters from time to time, maybe not as infrequently as measles, but may be more frequently that some so that the it's not clear how long the immune response that you get from. A vaccine will work so. The trouble is just I mean it's so new. The understanding of this virus that the people aren't saying
How Tear Gas Affects The Body And Why It's Dangerous During This Pandemic
"Tear gas. I started seeing all the reports of law enforcement using tear-gas all over the country all. Julius protest after protest. I saw the photos of the the white smoke coming up. Videos of protesters, desperately washing out there is. People are choking gasping for air. Volga. tear-gas clearly makes it hard to breathe. Very Soul what bench march from whatever was an I just thought. What exactly's tear-gas. It doesn't seem like a good idea to us in the middle of a respiratory pandemic. Back streets as protesters picking up some of those canisters. Throw them back at police. Unprecedented Street. We actually have any science about whether it's safe or not. So Lisa set out to answer those questions. That's when I started talking to researchers and scientists and really getting a sense that. The combination of the way that tear gas is being used in these protests, the huge quantities the frequency with which it's used the way police are using Ed is really a cause for concern. Today on the show why using tear-gas could be especially dangerous right now during a respiratory pandemic, and how some law enforcement tactics could be making its impact, even worse I'm reporter Emily Quang, and this is short wave, the daily science podcast from NPR. So as far as I understand, tear gas is a term that's broadly applied to describe a set of chemicals right, and these are liquid chemicals in. It's not actually a gas right, so the term tear gas is confusing because different people use them in different ways, scientifically speaking tear-gas refers to several different chemicals that make your skin burn that make it hard to breathe. It's really painful stinging. The way that the CDC refers to tear gas and the way that law enforcement refers to tear gas sometimes they're referring to a broader set of chemicals, but in general, yes, tear gas is actually a tiny liquid droplets, and my story focused on the most common type of tear gas used by law enforcement in the US, and that is a chemical called. See US and see us. How is it designed? How does it work so it's designed to cause pain and. The description I got from a scientist. WAS THAT CIS? Gas triggers a particular pain receptor in your body. It's the same receptor that's triggered when you eat with Sabi, but it's much more powerful. If you take that stinging sensation from eating with Sabi and multiply it by up to a hundred thousand fold that is how much more powerful CS is. It sounds incredibly disorienting. How of those you've interviewed described hit by tear gas. What that experience was like? Yeah? I I mean I. Personally am very lucky and have never been exposed to tear gas, but the various protesters I interviewed. They describe this incredible feeling of fear and helplessness. Your eyes are burning. Your nose is running. Your mouth hurts, and you have trouble breathing, so you can't see you're in pain, and you're having trouble catching a breath and you feel like you're choking. This one protester I interviewed was part of this protest in Philadelphia that got a lot of media coverage, and at one point she was in a part of this highway that ran partially underground, so what was the stark semi-enclosed space and with tear-gas got in there? Everyone panicked. You know they couldn't see everything hurt and they were trying to run away, but there was really nowhere to run, and she said that she actually feared for her life. She feared that in the panic she would get trampled and she did actually get bruised all over because people were stopping her as they were running away. So as you look to tear gas from a medical standpoint, what it does to the body and one of the things that you discovered is that tear? Gas has a big impact on the lungs. Can you tell me about that? Right so one of the things scientists told me is that when you inhaled tear gas? You're going to start wheezing and coughing and that means that your lungs are working hard to try and get rid of this. Tear gas, so it doesn't have the same amount of strength or the same reserve to fight off any additional infections you might get and that could make people who've inhaled tear gas more susceptible to getting the corona virus. Particularly, if they already have asthma or some other respiratory condition, because they are already at higher risk to catching infections, like influenza or the common cold, and so the fear is that tear? Gas could trigger an asthma attack, or further weakened the body's ability to fight off Covid, nineteen rights and the tear gas. It also weakens the demonstrators protections against the krona virus, because it changes the way people are moving around in a crowd, it creates chaos. Yes, and this is one of the things that public health professionals are worried about is a lot of protesters are doing the responsible thing by wearing masks during the protest, but as As soon as you hit with tear gas, you're trying to breathe as much as possible because you're gasping for air and at that point instinctively you're gonNA. Take off the mask to try and get some fresh air and when you do that, you're going to be coughing because you're trying to get rid of the tear gas in your lungs, and we all know that coughing is one of the things that spreads cove it, so there's a lot of fear that people who have the corona virus spider as dramatic as they're coughing while trying to deal with tear-gas that they're spreading the disease among other protesters in the crowd From your reporting looking at protests around the country I'm wondering to what patterns you've seen with. How tear gas is being used by law enforcement. We've seen it used in different ways, but a pattern that we've seen is that. The police are often using a lot of tear gas. They are using it in quick succession, and it's that combination of the sheer volume of tear gas, and sometimes it's being used in situations when the protesters are trapped in an area and can't get away like we've seen in Philadelphia and that really compounds the dangers and risks of tear gas right, so it's not just that it's being used. It's how it's being used, and how often right so? Tear gas comes in a variety of forms, and there are different tactics and tools that police can use. They can spray it from cans. They can shoot canisters filled with tear gas, and there are some manufacturers for example that will sell grenades that not only does it expel tear-gas there's also bright lights, loud noise to further cause confusion and make the protesters tried to disperse. There's also a type of product called a triple
Science Movie Club: 'Contact'
"Summer. I just re watched contact last night and I feel like it held up. You know I feel like I was still really happy. With what is your. What are your thoughts? I was very pleased. Yeah and I feel like I need to watch it more. Regularly summer ash knows a thing or two about making contact if you will with space. She's a real life radio astronomer. Who Works at the. Va a telescope facility. In New Mexico. Be L. A. Stands for very large array basically a group of radio antennas working together to Observe Space. And it just happens to be where lots of the movie takes place so it is very large. That does not align the telescope itself is made up of twenty seven separate dishes there each roughly one hundred feet tall and eighty feet in diameter weigh two hundred thirty tonnes and they all act as one. So they're all pointing at the same thing and they are just a super powerful instrument could call it the most scientifically productive ground based telescope in the world. So it's pretty awesome as where your it's pretty frequent. Contact isn't just about the search for extraterrestrial life. It also touches on stuff like academic culture and scientific funding all stuff worth digging into so stick around. I'm Mattie Safai. And this is shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR.
"daily science" Discussed on Coronavirus Daily
"As businesses. Think about bringing people back into offices. They need to know a lot. More about how the novel Corona Virus travels through the air indoors. A recent study from South Korea's version of the CDC might tell us something about that. In early March some cases emerged at a call in downtown Seoul. The call center was in the nineteen story building. Mixed use lots of different offices and apartments seemed like a place where there'd be a major cluster of cases but when they investigate what they find is really interesting. That's Derek Thompson senior editor at the Atlantic. He told here and now host Robin Young. That only a hundred people in the building tested positive. But they're all on one floor and more than that. They're all on one side of the floor in one densely packed phone bank. And what this says. More broadly about all of our indoor spaces is that what seems to be most dangerous. Are these spaces? That are tightly packed. Close spaces were lots of people are gonNA be talking and so they're going to be breathing in a lot of the same air that seems to be the most dangerous place where you can see the transmission of Cova Nineteen. It sounds like they are saying that if you're in an elevator and nobody's talking and you're only in there for a couple of minutes as opposed to people who are talking for a living because it's a call center and they're tightly packed together for a long time. That's a huge difference. Yeah from the public health experts. I've spoken to I would say it's a spectrum of risk you don't WanNa be in. An elevator suddenly breaks with four other people. If one of those people has coveted nineteen but loud speech in particular emits a spray of fluid droplets. So people who are talking loudly. If you're in a call center you were being paid to constantly talk There's been other studies that have shown that there's been huge outbreaks in choral rehearsals so I think with the public health. Experts would say is think about this as a spectrum if you're in a close base with people that are wearing masks and not talking. That's definitely a lot safer than being in a similarly. Close a place where there aren't masked where people are talking constantly but at the same time you do I think in general want to avoid being an tightly closed unventilated space with other people. If one of them is sick. This is reminding me reading that during the nineteen eighteen flu pandemic in Boston. There were fines for people who are called big talkers who just loud and emitted a so. They had a sense back then. That was the amount of energy behind your speeches. Well what does that mean for like sporting events? This is a really good question. I mean you're already seeing in places like South Korea that are beginning very slowly to open up professional sports at their starting without fans. And that's because if you're a fan of of your team and they hit a home run or you're watching basketball when someone hits a three two win the game you want to scream but that very same instinct that is cherish. -Able in normal circumstances suddenly becomes potentially toxic during an epidemic. And so I think I've spoken to healthy building. Experts thinking exactly about how we can get back to normalcy even before a vaccine in sports stadiums but it simply requires not feeling. Those stadium's capacity requires queuing up lines. The people can constantly remain socially distanced even if they are wearing masks. You'RE NOT GONNA get back the same level of normality in a world. Where normal behavior suddenly so dangerous Derek Thompson of the Atlantic talking to here now host Robin young some workers at restaurants hair salons and other places where they have to deal with customers. Up-close are scared to go back to work. Others can't work because their kids are home. They have pre existing conditions so. Npr's Chris Arnold took a look at workers options as businesses. Start to call them back. Lindsay is a waitress. And I am. Who's been out of work for two months but this week the pug style restaurant that she waited tables at is reopening. I don't feel comfortable going back yet. I don't think that there's any way with people. Eating food. Not having masks on with servers having to touch their plates and their silverware. There's just absolutely no aid to keep the servers safe. Lindsay says her restaurant setting up increased hand washing disinfecting Olsen spacing the table six feet apart. But she doesn't think that that's enough. Were only using her first name because she's worried about losing her job and she just feels like it's too early for restaurants to reopen. It's insane to put yourself in that assertive risk category just so you can walk. People their food to their table. Still if your employer offers you your job back and you refuse it. Generally speaking you're not supposed to be able to keep collecting unemployment. But there are exceptions and strategies. That workers should know about Andrew. Stenner is a worker protection expert at the progressive think-tank the Century Foundation. He says for people like Lindsey. The best place to start is by talking to your employer and say you know what I don't feel comfortable coming back right now but maybe in two weeks. I might feel comfortable once. We know how this is all working out. Can I wait? F Your employer says okay. Sure I can't even bring everybody back in anyway then. Your unemployment benefits won't stop. That's something that any worker can try. But beyond that some workers have special protections. My big concern is that most workers don't understand their rights here. Michelle Evermore is with the nonprofit National Employment Law Project. She says if you have a medical condition like diabetes heart disease and immune deficiency and your doctor advises against going to work during the pandemic Congress voted to let people in that situation. Collect unemployment if you have an underlying condition. I contact your employer and explain why you can't return to work and then explain to the state agency while you can't report to work and you should be eligible to remain unemployment assistance. Then there's the problem of parents who were stuck because they can't do their job from home but they also can't return to work because they don't have child care. Congress approved help for them to Hye. Feldblum is a lawyer with Morgan. Lewis and DC. She advises businesses as they reopen. And she says she tells many employers to consider letting those parents not return to work if someone is unable to work because of childcare needs because they school place. It here has closed then. That person is eligible unemployment. But she says getting back to the safety issue it just feeling unsafe. That's not enough to stay on unemployment now. If you just scared about going to work you have to go to work in order to get paid stunner and ever more say though if your workplaces not taking the basic safety precautions at similar businesses in the area are you can document that you might qualify to refuse to go back to that job and stay on unemployment. Npr's Chris Arnold on Fox eight news in Cleveland time now for a new daily feature on Fox Eight News Morning. They do this segment every day. What Day is it with todd? Meany segment that many of us including those of us who work on this show might find helpful Wednesday by the way. Today is not Wednesday but the question is why are we all having this problem because memory thrives on novelty you don't store events that are sort of insignificant or not novel neurobiologist deemed WanNa Manno told. Npr's Daily Science podcasts. Shortwave that when you're bored time slowly so retrospectively. It seems to fly by because you don't have many mental landmarks or mental crumbs his advice. If you're trying to lock your sense of time back in a little chartering gauge in novel activities if you do the crossword puzzle every day even that will become a bit predictable and Nano so if you now well now not GonNa do the crossword puzzle. When do pseudo puzzle well? Then that is something new something novel something that your brain will have to work a bit more ad and might store some novel. Experiences linked to more on the pandemic time-warp from NPR. Shortwave is in her episode notes. That was a great a great leader and Tutsis with more on the growing virus. You can stay up to date with all the news on your local public radio station or on. Npr Dot Org. We will be back with more tomorrow. I'm Kelly mcevers..
"daily science" Discussed on Hidden Brain
"We want to know if it's because the drug. We gave them or spontaneous remission or is it is it because the doctor patient interaction is because of the ritual of taking pills biomedicine is really is very interested in whether a drug has a specific target that works independent of all those other factors. That's where the placebo control comes in. It's a way of making medicine more like science and more scientific and it is the problem is this can lead to the same kind of logic we heard from the people who debunked Anton Messmer if a drug improves. Patient's pain by seventy percent and placebo improves it by seventy percent researchers. Don't stop and say wait. Sugar pills are alleviating seventy percent of the pain. This say this drug doesn't work in other words cures. Don't count as cures when they are caused by placebos. The totally dismisses what happens in the placebo arm of a randomized control trial. It's as well. The strug is no good. It's no better than placebo or this drug is really goes better than placebo rather than dismissed the placebo effect as merely what happens in the control arm of a trial. Ted decided he would study the placebo in its own right in two thousand eight. He published a study on treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome or IBS two hundred sixty. Two patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups. All the patients were screened by doctor. The first group was told to keep doing what they had been previously. Doing the idea was to see if patients got better merely through the passage of time. Think of this as the time heals arm of the study. The second group was assigned to a pretend treatment involving acupuncture needles. The last group got the pretend treatment plus a bonus the also had a warm empathetic conversation with the acupuncturist who was trained to US them. A number of questions why. They thought they had the illness. What made it better. We ask them. How's affect their work has fixed lies and we did things like touch attentive listening to repeat words. Explain US what would meant tat. Also gave the acupuncturists acting advice. S The patient if you can still for twenty seconds and think about them and then estimate important question that they would want hear. What tennis colleagues did with the study was to break down to placebo effect into three components? Each arm built on the other. One time heals to time heals plus a pretend treatment. Three time heals plus pretend treatment plus warm interactions with the healthcare provider. And we got really a very straight line. We had a small placebo effect with no treatment because time heals. We had moderate placebo effect with just a fait treatment. And then we did the full monty. It went up sixty percent improvement of adequate relief. That's incredible Mantha. Placebo effect had shown that the placebo effect be valuable in. Its own right as a treatment. His study demonstrated that the placebo effect was made up of different factors Egypt which could be deliberately employed to unleash healing but had also recognized that placebos demanded something that may doctors uncomfortable deception. Everyone believed that deception or concealment is necessary for people to respond to Placebo. 'cause the idea was will you fake people? You trick them placebos kind of trickery and I sat with myself for a long time read the literature and I said you know what no one's tested that ever in history. What's going on here when we come back is deception necessary for the Placebo? Effect to work can honesty and the placebo effect mix. I find this just as astonishing. Is anybody else? And I'm the patient here. There's more than one science story out there. If you've ever wondered hummingbird tongues. How do they work was the movie? Twister scientifically accurate or what moons are the best moods. Listen and subscribe to short wave. Npr's Daily Science. Podcast.
"daily science" Discussed on Bullseye with Jesse Thorn
"Which is like just by being attractive enough that people like you I really I mean that's what my whole next special is about is like you know and you heard in that clip. It's just feeling like man. Things would be a lot easier if I was a lot prettier and I resent it and I know I'm pretty but like I still struggle with it. I mean you went into the field where I mean. If you're going to go into the entertainment industry maybe be. Radio is even better example comedy. Stand up comedy is pretty much the one where where you can go into it being moderately good looking and you get up on his stand up comedy stage dear the. You're the best looking person anybody seen all night. You know yes I that was intentional. I mean I don't think it was intentional. But like I say I I'm a comedy nine but like take me out of comedy and you know I'm clinging to a mid range seven most days and that's fine it just is what it is but yes I. I tend to get more attention for being unattractive. Oh you're one of your attractive for comedian. I'm like no kidding. That's at shows this for like I I needed to. I needed to pick something right. Stand out and yeah and I'm not kidding you Jesse. As soon as I could I assume they started aging which you start aging forever. Obviously but like a certainly feeling aging. I was like I couldn't. I couldn't of sprinted quicker to a radio show and building my broadcasting schedules because I know where it's going as a woman. My face is falling and as much as we love our Frances mcdormand's and our Meryl Streep's and then after that we run out of examples because people like Hollywood does hate older women. And you can't convince me otherwise. There are exceptions always. It's just not a good show Hollywood's not a good place to be as a woman and that's why I do radio and stand up. It's the only place where you're allowed to kind of age. But not even one of the things about stand up comedy. Is that when you are? Stand up comedy performer. The feedback loop is like very clear and direct. It's very easy to distinguish between people laughing at your joke and people not laughing at your jokes and you start at stand up comedy pretty young and I wonder if that was part of the appeal for you. That here's a place where at least even if you you know. Most most people aren't especially great when they start saying up comedy. But even if you're not especially great you can at least figure out what you can do that people definitely like and you can tell because they told you by laughing at it yes. I it's it's that immediate response that these people like me. I DIDN'T HAVE TO BE I. Didn't I mean my sense of humor grew out of the fact that I I had a raging eating disorder when I went to school and my freshman year and I had no friends and no one wanted to be friends with me. 'cause I looked so sick and I just developed by. I didn't even mean to but I just became really funny because I was like I gotta I gotTa create a diversion from people thinking. I need help because I wanted to like be in my disease. I didn't help. I didn't want to make everyone worried about me so I just became really funny. And that's what led me to stand up because people said you got. You should do. Stand up your funny and then as soon as I tried. Stand up that that. You're the exact thing you're talking about the validation the laughter. The we like you felt it wash over me immediately. I knew exactly what I wanted to do. The rest of my life. It was like it was like a drug and it continues to be like a drug. I mean I don't know that stand up is all has been all. It's it's it's given me so many riches in life but it's also caused me a lot of pain because I have become obsessed with it and had until this quarantine I needed to do it every single night and if I didn't felt some sort of deficiency I felt less than because it was also the first time and I had been searching for to be something interest to be special at something. I was smart but I wasn't the smartest I was good at swimming. I was in the best was always so freaking average and the first time I did stand up I was good like I just had a knack for it and it was undoubtedly like what I should do. Everything was first time something clicked and I was like okay yes. I'm finally good at something. I finally am special in some way. And I think that that's what a lot of stand ups or seeking is like they just didn't feel special growing up and they finally do and and now I'm addicted to it like completely addicted to to the spotlight and and and and I realized that it's it's and a lot of times it's fulfilling and beautiful ways but it's still something that isn't real you know it's not real love. The cheers from a crowd or the laughter. It's not like some bad didn't save me during this court. My fans didn't save me during the quarantine I had to go back home with my parents like it's not real love so I'm realizing that it's kind of empty and especially having to be away from it and I'm like okay. I got to find something new working comics. You know a big part of a work in comics life. Most working comics is set set. Set set sets like what sets of you got you got tonight. How many sets of you got this week? How much stage time do you have this week? And that is not a possibility for anybody. No it's I'm thinking the same thing I I have more of a handle over it now and I've been doing it so long and I've I've gotten burn out from doing it. So many times in terms of like just repetitions set set set set set and then. I just show up at a club crying because I'm so tired and I don't even know what to say and I've had those I always like overdose and I need like intervention and I was about to hit one right before this quarantine but I'm seeing comics. Who Haven't been through it before and are really addicted to it kind of spiraling out and I worry about them because these are really lonely. Men Who are not in touch with their feelings and have no intention to be income in touch with their feelings and they don't realize that the hours these guys that used to do you know seven hour sets back in the day like Chapelle would go on stage. People be like he did seven hours or Dean. Cook would do like four hours at the store. I never was that impressed by that to be honest with you. I've always thought that was kind of sad and I. I know Dane well and he'd probably admitted to like you. Just don't want to go because you don't WanNa feel your feelings. You don't want to be back in your life. It's numbing and for me. It's totally a drug and so much so that I've seen it paralleled other things I've been addicted to in my life like I towards right before the quarantine I was getting on stage and I would say for the past three years. I've gone on stage every single night. At least you know because if you add up the multiple sets I do I just never take a night off and I got to the point where I would get off stage and someone would go. How was that and it would be. I was just thirty seconds ago and and and they're in the other room so they don't know and I'd say I don't know I couldn't even tell you I wasn't even the high wouldn't even last to the next room and it used to be the high would last week's because you only get on stage. Once every two weeks the open mic and now it wouldn't last after hung up the MIC. Like it was only in the moment that it would feel good and it was starting to feel like not even good then I could be I could be on stage and thinking about something totally different so it kind of got away from me. Even though it was still something I was doing every night. This is allowed me a chance to reflect and be like what do I love about it? And what do I want to go back on stage? Have you had any insight in that reflection the biggest insight of how does I don't really miss it to be honest with you? I've really gotten my phil from doing radio and from doing podcasts. Like I feel like I've gotten what I need to out of my system in terms of being creative and I'm spreading the message I wanNA spread. There's I'm still getting to exercise my ability joke right and to perform a set by doing things like Bill Maher going on Conan like their outlets for me to do organized comedy that isn't just stream of consciousness radio or podcasting but stand up itself. I I don't miss it and I think to be honest with you. I think a part of the reason I am not dying to do stand up is because no one else is doing it and as soon as the gates opened again and we are able to do it. I'll I'll be back at it whether I want to or not. Because the compulsion to do stand up for me is a compulsion to not fall behind to not be clip. St- There's only room for so many gotta stay good. The reason I'm good is because I've just worked my tail off and I'm so scared of beat Lino. I go out every night and do a set because I think about doing this. Set someone else's doing that set and they're going to get better and I'm not and now I'm like fine with it because everyone's bad right now like one tweet recently like we're all going to have to learn how to do stand up again and I'm like yeah this is. It is a muscle it is. Yes you'll have muscle memory but we're all GONNA be starting from scratch again and it's kind of delightful if I was like you know. Hold up with a broken legs or something and I couldn't do stand up. I would be having a much worse time than the fact that no one can do. It will continue my conversation with Nikki. Glaser after quick break in just a minute. We'll talk about her work at comedy roasts including maybe the most savage joke she has ever told in. Public. It's Bullseye for maximum fund DOT ORG and NPR. There's more than one science story out there. If you've ever wondered hummingbird tongues. How do they work was the movie? Twister scientifically accurate. Or what moons are the best moods. Listen and subscribe to shortwave. Npr's Daily Science.
"daily science" Discussed on Coronavirus Daily
"Odds are the state where you live is not testing enough people for the corona virus alternately. I am deeply worried that four six eight weeks down the road. We're going to find ourselves exact same place. We were in in early March and we will have to shut the economy down again. Dr Sheesh. Joh- runs the Harvard Global Health Institute which along with NPR has analyzed testing in every state. It turns out that only a handful of states are doing enough testing to reopen safely. You can track how your state is doing. There's a link to that in our episode notes and we learned today that another three point. Two million people filed for unemployment for the first time last week that means in all at least thirty three point. Five million people have lost their jobs in the past. Seven weeks coming up why. Scientists are racing to understand how the virus is mutating and an effort to train dogs to sniff out cove in Nineteen. This is corona virus daily from NPR. I'm Kelly mcevers. It's Thursday may seventh. Where did the corona virus come from Internet? Search TRAFFIX SUGGESTS. A lot of us are looking for answers to that question. One theory that the White House is promoting a theory for which they have yet to produce any evidence is that the virus leaked from Chinese lab. Just thinking about the way that we do this type of work. I think it's very unlikely it would be very unlikely. This would be a lab exposure. Npr's Daily Science podcast shortwave talk to variety and epidemiology and heard over and over again that it is far more likely. This virus originated and spread naturally by way of close contact between humans and animals. Here's why I. There are many corona viruses out. There evidence suggests this virus might have come from bats are studied in a lab and Wuhan Wuhan Institute veracity. It's a top tier Chinese research center but experts also estimate that bats on a global scale. Kerry four thousand different corona viruses. Most of the viruses. Actually probably don't even have the capacity to infect humans that Simon Anthony University Medical Center for scientists to find a corona virus in the wild that had already evolved in a way that was highly infectious to people. Those are just lottery odds we also should say. Us intelligence agencies have ruled out any version of events where the virus was made and leaked intentionally and scientists at the Wuhan Institute a variety denied. They had any such virus in the first place even if they did for it to leak out. Some very stringent lab safety protections would have to have been seriously ignored at risk. Two lab workers themselves on top of all of that scientists would only do work in the first place with viral samples that had been frozen in liquid nitrogen and then killed using chemicals. What does the abundance of evidence suggest? That's Raina Plow Right at Montana State University. In this case the abundance of evidence suggests this is a virus that has spilled from bats either into another species and then humans or perhaps from bats directly into humans. The virus might have spread in that wet market. We've heard about but scientists don't know that for sure either in China like a lot of places in the world. Humans and animals are in increasingly close. Contact graph fragmenting habitats with building royds through most regions of the world where incrementally destroying the lodge landscapes that animals have to live in. Npr's Emily Quang and Jeff Brumfield have more on the origins of the virus and why scientists believe working with China is key to learning more about it you can listen to more about this. On shortwave and Pierce daily signs podcast. You can find links to that in our episode.
How An Early Plan To Spot The Virus Fell Weeks Behind
"The government's missed opportunity for surveillance of the crow bias. What slowed scientists down and the loss time that could have been used to give some cities an earlier warning. You're listening to shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. Okay Lawrence so it least. Six cities were supposed to be using surveillance systems that were originally built for the flu to test for cases of the Corona virus weeks into that effort. Only one had done that. So where's a good place to start? Let's start in Los Angeles. They ran into some issues back in February. They knew that tracking the outbreak through the number of positive cases that were popping up. Just wasn't a great idea. Because testing was so limited right in order to get tested at that time you had to either recently traveled to China or had close contact with somebody else who tested so. It was like a really high bar to get tested. Yeah and that was because almost no state labs could run the CDC's corona virus tests at the time they had sent out faulty test. Kits see no even patients with the right symptoms. Really couldn't get a test. Which makes it really hard to see. What's happening in a community but for this project the surveillance cities they were guaranteed testing by the CDC and they could send their samples to the agency's headquarters in Atlanta. So how did Los Angeles Start? Looking for the corona virus so county health officials starting talking to hospitals about testing these mildly symptomatic patients. You know and they got pretty far with one of them Dr Prabhu Gander of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health. He told me when the hospital's board discussed it though they declined to be part of it we only had one confirmed cove in nineteen case in La County and they were concerned that if the second case in La County was linked to this hospital. That there'd be a certain stigma that would potentially be bad for the hospital. Okay so they were worried about the hospital's reputation. Do I have that right? Yeah and he says. The hospital was concerned that patients would be anxious and avoid the hospital if they found the corona virus there now county. Health officials declined to name this hospital because they said they agreed to keep discussions confidential. Well okay so how did L. A? Eventually get testing started. Another hospital reached out to county health officials and that was La County USC Medical Center the Chief Medical Officer. There is Dr Brad Spell Berg. And he knew surveillance monitoring was important. This is a leading edge indicator. If you don't look at it you're missing the Canary in the coalmine. You're waiting for the coal mine to collapse on you. Yes Spielberg wanted to do this. But his hospital into one of the biggest issues in this story of the pandemic testing to speed things up they were gonNA use tests from a private lab but there was only a small number of them. That was against huge resistance. The whole system is like you're wasting our tests. Don't do this. But his hospital pushed ahead and began testing at the county's Medical Center and some of its clinics on March twelfth. When the results started coming back it looked as if five percent of the patients they tested positive for corona virus. Bruce People that had been going to work going to social events wandering around in the community for the days and days. They have the right. This was well before we had broad social distancing policies. Yeah we didn't have that almost anywhere in the country at the time but once officials in La county new this you know they realize that people have been walking around with the virus more of them that they knew and this was a really key turning point in how they responded until then it was about trying to contain the virus. Us contact tracing to track down every person who may have been exposed you know but one of viruses spreading undetected epidemiologists will tell you that containment strategy just isn't enough so in the days after those results Mayor Eric. Garcetti issued a stay at home order for Los Angeles your actions matter and they can and will save lives. Okay so that's what happened in L. A. What happened in those five other cities most of them also struggled to get going? You know for example. New York City didn't get results from its sentinel testing until March thirty first. I couldn't get more information about why it took so long. You know the city is obviously overwhelmed right now but at that point the surveillance was too late to be useful. I mean there are already forty thousand cases at that time. Yeah not exactly an early warning at that point and you know Seattle also had struggles Washington state officials had an idea of how they want to do a sentinel surveillance when they first started talking to. Cdc One of the things. I propose very early was that we use samples from Seattle lose steady. Scott Linquist is the state epidemiologist. He wanted to use the Seattle flu study. Which is a research project that was already testing people with respiratory symptoms surveillance? That was up and running. My point was why. Don't we use those samples? It's up and running. Let's do it and that was denied the problem according to the CDC and FDA was that it was a research project and it didn't have the necessary approvals to run clinical tests for patients and they hadn't gotten consent from the patients to do the corona virus testing so the FDA denied the request at that time. Okay actually make some sense to me so was Seattle able to get anything together eventually. Yes about a month after that the Seattle flu studied did get all the necessary approvals. And they're doing testing now but linguists thinks they clearly could have used it earlier. Could've let us know that it was here before we had the community outbreaks and transmission in the long term care facilities but We miss that period so okay. This effort came up short to say the least. These were weeks when we could have been looking for the virus but the system itself didn't work those extra weeks had to have made a difference right. Well it's to say recognize situation where we been passed as wanted to. That's Dr Joseph Z. A deputy incident manager at the CDC said the delays happened because it was an entirely new virus. It took extra. Planning for collecting samples shipping them ensuring healthcare workers had protective gear. But whether that time made any difference question about whether this revolt we delay APP on longer. resulted in losing visibility. In those half thing and it's and I don't think so. Three weeks is an enormous amount of time to allow cases to accumulate without knowing about it. That's Jennifer nozoe an epidemiologist at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. If it has sentinel surveillance stood up in A number of cities cities where we would expect to see cases. I We possibly could have caught it earlier and possibly intervened before the case numbers exploded. And you know when you look at the data. It's not hard to see that. The places with earlier state home orders seem to have done better there curves are flatter and they avoided a lot of the hospitalizations and deaths according to models. It really wasn't easy for officials to issue those orders. You know if you remember. There was a lot of debate about when to do it. But from talking to these cities the ones that had this hard data from Sentinel surveillance community spread was happening. They were able to act. I write so okay. Obviously this a very useful public health tool does the CDC have any plans to do this in the future. Yes a number of the cities and counties I spoke to are planning on starting sentinel testing again soon because you know as the outbreak starts waning. They're going to need to find the flare ups and spot the new cases before it spreads even more the trump administration is also talking about using it in their plan for reopening the country. So we'll be doing sentinel surveillance throughout nursing. Homes throughout inner city federal clinics throughout indigenous populations to really be able to find early alerts of symptomatic individuals in the community. Dr Deborah Brooks is talking about doing that testing for people who don't show any symptoms but who may still be infected and spreading the virus the epidemiology. I spoke to said you know this is something the country has to get right. This time. You know not just waiting for cove in nineteen cases to walk into an emergency room but designing studies to go out and looking communities and actually get the early warnings that this kind of testing could have provided in the first place.
"daily science" Discussed on Short Wave
"You're listening to shortwave from NPR. So a few weeks ago I was sitting around just gazing outside my window leaves or turning green. Daffodils and tulips are popping up. And doing their thing. You know just watching spring blossom in front of me in when I think spring. I think bears bears coming out of hibernation. I mean who doesn't Ray? I cannot tell you how excited I am to talk about this because I was like. I know there's some cool physiology going on. I'm going to read as much as I can about this before. I talked to raise so that. She's impressed with me and I couldn't stop writing questions because there's so much there really is as you can hear. I was aggressively excited to talk to Ray Win Grant. She's a large carnivore. Biologist who studies black bears? Ray fines black bears. Let's say relatable. I love that they eat and sleep so much. It's like honestly they make me feel so close to them because their main like drivers and life are about like finding a lot of food so that they can sleep for a long time saves bears. It turns out that there's a lot more to hibernation than finding a sweet cave and taken along so today an in depth look at hibernation and the unbelieveable bare science. That makes it possible I met. And this is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR..
"daily science" Discussed on Bullseye with Jesse Thorn
"What were your best memories of that? Time was the best part about that. I you know eight nine years of your adult time the navy. Yeah well. There was a certain validation for me at that time. If you were black a you know you you expect to be a steward or something. You know the guys that served the officers you know like you see in the movie stars so there was a chance to prove yourself that you could. You could do do technical things. I remember arriving in Pensacola Florida. When I was eighteen years old and having to overcome the perception that you weren't smart enough to be an aircraft mechanic. I mean what kind of genius does it take to change some spark plugs or something. So there was the noble pursuit of trying to change perceptions. You see you gotta remember You know there was the sixties DNC. What's going on in Iran now with the street stuff? Well when I was young. That was my reality. If I went to Birmingham the you'd have to go unity. You know you know you didn't even need to go very far. That was my time in life. Where you were trying to change perceptions when you got out of the Navy you Held a sort of variety of of regular guy type jobs the kind of jobs that people pulled when they get out of the service for a while When did it occur to you to become a musician while when I got out of the Navy? The my goal was to do something else. Good goal and I knew from you know you. You don't when you have a talent like that you know you have it when you're five years old. It's just getting to it. You know it's getting around to your about thirty when you made your first demos right Somewhere You know a probably older than that you know. So it's like you add. Football Games trump. Okay figure on Sunday. Maybe there's twenty forty million guys watching football game. A thousand of them think they could or maybe ten thousand of them think that if they got the chance they could play quarterback three of them probably could so I was one of those guys it was. You know living run. I saw these You know I think I could do that. slyke becoming playboy centerfold. I have run into people who have expressed a desire to be in playboy who it's unfortunate because they just say cute you know to so so in the process and as big funnel you got all these people and it's hard to do you know to get into business like this first of all you gotTa have the talent and then you gotta figure out the terrain you know. What's the path to it? I'm from Slab Fork West Virginia so I managed to figure this out. And you know through some luck and some and some conniving or whatever. The question you get asked most often is. How'd you get started? You know if if I knew how to write the book on how to get into Showbiz. I wouldn't have time to talk to you. I'd be too busy working on my book that I could sell. A lot of books will hear more from the late. Bill withers after the break. Stay with us. It's Bullseye for maximum dot org and NPR. There's more than one science story out there. If you've ever wondered Hummingbird Tongues. How do they work was the movie? Twister scientifically accurate or what moons are the Best Moods. Listen and subscribe to shortwave. Npr's Daily Science podcast video games. Video Games Sadio Games. You like them. Maybe you wish you had more time for them. Maybe you want to know the best ones to play. You WanNa know what happens tomorrow when he died in that case. You should check out triple click. It's a brand new podcast about video games. Podcasts about video games but I don't have time for that sure you do once a week. Kickback is three video. Game experts. Give you everything from critical takes on the hottest new releases two scoops interviews and explanations about how video games work to fascinating and sometimes weird stories about the Games. We'd love triple click hosted by me Kirk Hamilton. Me Jason Shire and me Mattie Myers you can find triple click wherever you get your podcasts and listen at Maximum Fund Dot Org by welcome back to Bullseye Jesse Thorn this week. We're looking back on the life of Bill withers. We're hearing my first interview with him from two thousand seven. Let's hear another song from bill withers ain't no sunshine one.
Science Is For Everyone. Until It's Not.
"Way to support what we do. You're listening to shortwave from. Npr Brandon. Taylor was the kind of Kid who kept a rock journal and I grew up on a farm and so I would keep very detailed notes about my grandpa's like chickens that he was breeding I mean if this kid wasn't destined for a career in science. I don't know who some people go to college. And they're like what is my major. I never wavered The the biggest change in my life was deciding that I would instead of being a neurosurgeon. Studied Niro Chemistry like that was like the big gene wilder. I walked on the wild side so like for me my entire life. I thought I was going to be a scientist but today brandon is not a scientist. He's a writer. His debut novel real life came out this year and it was a big hit got written up in the New York Times magazine. So it's safe to say things are going well for him but Brennan says walking away from science was like walking away from religion science. Is this incredible amazing way of knowing the world knowing the universe unknowing meaning and in some ways? It's it's a Kenta faith in that way and it's also incredibly painful and fraud and difficult and so it is also a ken to faith and that Leaving Science was for me. It was a ken to burning down my life and trying to find a new world view because that is the thing that I built my entire life around. I didn't experience a single moment of doubt looking around the world right now. It's never been more important to have all kinds of good people in science and that's why we should listen to stories like Brandon's so today in the show. How years of being made to feel like he didn't belong forced brandon to make the tough choice to leave science. And why? That's not just a loss for brandon but for science itself. I'M MAT ISA fire. And this is shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR. So Brandon Taylor wrote about why? He left science in an essay for Buzzfeed. It's a story that starts at the University of Wisconsin Madison where he went to study biochemistry. I got there in two thousand thirteen and I think from I mean from right away. It was again unhealthy situation Brandon was in his early twenties gay man and out of ninety or so students in his graduate program. He was the only black person I was staying with Three undergraduate boys and one of them kept using racial slurs with his best white friends. And in this like very casual way But then I also would be walking home at night and The the white boys on the on the sidewalks would also say the N. Word and they would like push me and say racial lights things so okay. That was in town. Science was supposed to be a refuge from all of that.
Science Movie Club: 'Twister'
"Alley. Burgos still remembers the first time she saw it. I mean we all do as about in fourth grade. It was maybe around midnight. Probably not that late because my parents probably wouldn't let me step that lay but Curtains drawn. I was knitting and I happened to come across admitted I happened to come across this movie on. Tv is just flipping channels. You know and I saw a tornado so I started watching it and I was just mesmerized. I remember my dad coming down and like yelling at me to go to bed. I was like just just wait. One more minute like I need to keep watching this Which she did and she saw the defining weather film of Nineteen Ninety. Six a movie. I love to hate twister starring Bill Paxton and Helen Hunt in the movie chase down tornadoes trying to find a way to study them up close and personal and eventually they end up finding each other like it is such a good kind of bad movie. Yeah absolutely it's one of those things that you just watch like. Oh it's so good but so bad at the same time. So today. Our first shortwave. Movie Club we're talking one of my personal favorites twister with Alli Burgos meteorologist in analyst for the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration. I- Madison via shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR. Alright here's the plan. I'm GonNa talk about some scenes in the movie alleys going to tell us about the science. Here we go in pretty much any scene with a tornado. It makes the sound. It's so ridiculous because tornadoes don't sound like roaring lion. I'm pretty darn sure. I think when I was reading a little bit about the movie they really want to make the Tornados. Seem like you know. A person are like this thing with like character and soul and generally tornadoes actually sound more like this constant low rumble sound or more like a rushing train. All right all right next up something. They got Kinda right the whole movie. Scientists are trying to get this instrument called Dorothy into the path of a tornado. We put her up inside a tornado. So they don't get sucked up in send out readings from the inside radio back information about the internal structure wind velocities flow a symmetry. We learn more than thirty six and they have in the past thirty years profile. The tornado for the first time the cool thing is is that these instruments are real. Scientists actually tried a version of this in the eighties sprite. Yeah so they modeled Dorothy after a real instrument called toto from wizard of Oz. The little dog toto. That's why they named it. And so the basic idea was to put that in the path of a tornado and had I could measure temperature and pressure and winds because what they really needed was to be able to get measurements real time so they only had things from radar doppler. So that's all from faraway measuring all those things and they tried it a couple of times in. It's really dangerous. As as the movie shows of trying to put something into our tornadoes half but now they actually have a new program that Noah is starting to fund called Torres and this is taking really small weather balloons and putting instruments on that and flying them up in Tornado. Okay so the balloon kind of takes that instrument package with it versus having to put a big clunky metal thing right in the power. So we've come a long way from like dropping something off a pickup truck into the center of the Tornado so cool so so the instrumentation while it wasn't like trying to measure exactly the same things was actually based off of a real experiment yet. They exact concept behind it was was the same so the last big scene of the movie is perhaps in. This is saying the. Let's be honest. It's the best season so the main characters are trying to get as close to an f five tornado. Great idea as they possibly can. And they deliver this device into the tornado and they kind of like get stuck on this farm. They're trying to run away from the Tornado at the same time report. You couldn't do in real life. Okay okay this is good because this is going to ask you about. But they basically find their way into this tiny shed Phil. Paxton is like it's fine. We're going to tether ourselves to this pipe. That goes really deep in the ground. Do with these two leather straps and then f five tornado rolls over the shed. Horrifically over the rips. The shed out of the ground. They're like being pulled up into the center of the tornadoes. One it is the most fun scene of the movie. You feel like you're inside of that Tornado with them. You see lightning bolts going on. There are multiple mini tornadoes within the big tornado. Within the tornado passes and they're totally fine her fine. Yes the biggest issue with that scene. Is that if you did have supposedly an F five tornado which you wouldn't be able to tell just looking at it is that all of the debris flying on around them would most likely kill them an f five tornado has wins upwards of three hundred miles an hour so even if you have a small small screwdriver for example of rats flying at that speed hits you you're gone and if you saw in that scene there is a shed and it's like full of like farming equipment ause and they would probably get hit by something like that but it certainly makes it a fun scene so tell me when you're saying you can't tell just by looking at because they're like this is an f. five right yeah so you can actually determine the scale or the intensity of a tornado just by looking at it what scientists have to do is do a damage survey afterwards and see all of the damage that the tornado caused and then from that they can determine the intensity walked has now moved on to the northeast. I've just got Mordovia. That even stronger Hornet is now starting to form twenty five miles from one you know so at at no point. Can you predict that a tornado is going to be at five before it happened? Correct to do the damage report. And you say okay based on this system this right and they were just going by you. Know bigger means stronger more violent. And that's not always the case you can actually have tornadoes that are look pretty small but that are very very violent. Okay all right so we have hated on twister a little bit by now but I feel like a lot of times in science movies. Scientists seem like pretty buttoned up lay definitely predominantly male. Which they still are in this movie. But you know. The lead researcher in this movie is woman. She's got a personal stake in her science. She's really passionate about helping people in that kind of stuck with me for sure. Yeah I think that stuck with a lot of people and I think a lot of people don't realize that there are tons and tons of researchers out in the field and so it's really cool just seeing people like down getting their hands dirty and really putting their heart and soul especially into something that is so important to help people and you told me that. This movie played a big role in your life to. Oh definitely I was one of those weird kids that watch the weather channel. Every morning waking up from school normal kid and so- twister definitely kind of showed me that there's another side of science besides just being a TV broadcasting like you can go out and research these things and going to college to study meteorology. My parents actually bought me that movie as a parting gift on DVD. It's fair to say that this movie inspired you in some way to go into your. Oh definitely and I think it inspired a lot of people to I know all of my meteorology friends speak very fondly of this movie when they were kids.
"daily science" Discussed on KCRW
"Is a special report from NPR news covered nineteen what you need to know about coronavirus I'm Lucas Univar let's take a look at how coronavirus is impacting everyday life and how you can stay healthy experts say your first line of defense is Google hand washing I think fancy just twenty seconds of you soap and water Mary Louise Kelly host of All Things Considered met with Matt he's a fire of NPR's daily science podcast shortwave start by just explaining the why and we don't know we're supposed to wash your hands but is this really keeping us and everybody else from getting sick yes it's actually one of the easiest and most effective ways to prevent getting sick so a lot of the germs that we worry about getting through our nose and mouth so if your hands are dirty that's a problem and we touch our face a lot there's been a few studies that show it's more than fifteen times per hour so it's horrifying were gross and so you definitely want to keep those hands clean in preparation for this and burning out I went online I watched a video that our editors have sent round it kind of terrified me because I'm not doing ninety percent of the things you should be doing it was super complicated instructions from places like the World Health Organization are very intense and will make you feel like you've never wash your hands right wherever but the important thing is to do it for long enough to do the basics get the soap everywhere and if you do that you're probably okay okay Mister okay and here we are all right you're ready you're saying first thing you're going to get your hands what does it have to be hot no and no it doesn't at all okay so just look warm room temperature you're free to get hands what water off the ground trying to waste water okay yes and then write some stuff on your hands and.
"daily science" Discussed on Short Wave
"You're listening to shortwave from. Npr missed yesterday's episode. You missed the story of Cincinnati Pediatrician Nicole Baldwin. And Tick Tock So. I like the music. I think it's Super Fun to watch people being goofy and dancing and all that kind of tick tock is a social media where people basically do that. Be Goofy to music. So who follows you talk to you know my daughter in? That's not horrifying. Yeah I it's funny dinner. Conversation House but I think a lot of Of Physicians Right now are following me I definitely do have some adolescent patients in the past couple of weeks of come into the office. And they're like I saw here tic TAC. I follow you on dog. So that's that's fun because that's who I'm trying to reach. Is that population with some of these messages by messages. Nicole means posts about family health and last month. One of them opposed of hers. Promoting the importance of vaccination went viral and not entirely in a good way. I was scared and we did even at home. Call the police just to have them do extra patrols around our house. In the last episode we examined how Anti Vaccine Activists Harass Nicole through social media eventually finding her office and threatening her practice this episode. We'RE GONNA explore why the Internet is so good at fuelling misinformation. You know the Internet is really good at helping people find other people like them Rene Directa who you also heard in the last episode. Is the research manager at the Stanford Internet Observatory? She studies the spread of misinformation through what she calls inadvertent algorithm mic amplification and. What that means is the recommendation engines or the trending function or the search function. We know that these are kind of features that send a lot of is in the way of certain information and so the question has been Do the platforms have an obligation to ensure that the information that they are sending people to is quality information and there are some people who think that the answer is no that but my belief is that we should not be in a world where the most popular website takes top billing on. Google particularly when the notion of most popular Is derived from easily gamed metrics. So Today Rene. Dirigiste helps explain how people game the Internet and the Internet in away games us when it comes to spreading bad information online. I Matt Safai. In this shortwave daily science podcast from NPR..
Service Animals In The Lab: Who Decides?
"If you're a scientist say a biologist or a chemist and you have to work in a lab. You're super familiar with the term p. p. e. personal protective equipment which is P P is outer garments goggles brutes and gloves. That's Joey Ramp. She works at the Beckman Institute for Advanced Science Technology at the University of Illinois at her Bana on a champagne. And Yeah basically anybody who sets foot in a lab needs some form of even if you have four feet beat see. Joey has a service dog. Can you hear how little like Greg Sampson okay. He was getting up all right. Here we go Samson. A golden retriever is trained not to bark and he's a very good boy when he's in the lab With Joey he wears goggles worn military. Canine and buy police canine and law enforcement. He wears rubber boots on each paw and he also wears a lab coat underneath his harness and that keeps them safe. Samson intern keeps joey safe in the lab and out hoped years ago. Joey suffered traumatic brain injury. She also has. PTSD Samson senses when she's in a stressful situation that could trigger her PTSD. He picks things up. Because you can't over that well and he helps her balance embrace when she's moving around. It's it's a cliche to say that the dog saved my life but A service does that every single day but there was a time when Joey was told that she couldn't have her dog with her at least not if she also wanted to be in the warm they immediately said. Oh my gosh. You can't possibly bring a service dog into this environment. It's too dangerous so sadly there are a lot of science science faculty that are reluctant to allow anyone with a disability into stem or science and When you have a service dog UGH That that makes it an even bigger problem from the moment you walk in. You have a service dog. It's very visible. It's very different. And they have the power to say. No this episode. Why Joey is trying to change that? And why it's not just an uphill battle for her before a stem workforce force striving to be more inclusive I mattie Safai and this is shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR
"Seattle Calgary or Juno. You might have felt it October. Twenty Eighth Two thousand twelve seven point eight magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Canada near the archipelago of Haida Guay earthquakes. Earthquakes aren't unusual in that area. Because there's a big fault line nearby but it turned out buried in the data associated with this earthquake. was something unusual joie. We were not particularly looking for something but we were Trying to look for earthquake Evolution processes when you in fan is a professor officer at Florida State University. I am has Malla Gist. Or you can say a geophysicist in a more general term and so a couple years back when he he was looking at the data from the two thousand twelve earthquake off the coast of Canada he noticed spent before that big earthquake struck. There were records of what looked. I like smaller earthquakes nearby just migrating from north to south and by noticing that I saw I found a precursor to the earthquake creek and that was quite exciting to me and that would have been pretty cool on its own a previously unknown precursor to a big seven point eight earthquake but just to make sure it was a real thing when you looked at some data from two years before and the year after so not only to Intel thousand ten thousand thirteen. Tom And what we started to find is that such activities would would happen but only happen during wintertime. uh-huh so those smaller earthquakes in the ocean weren't a precursor to the big earthquake all because they happen before it and after it to now. You don't have to be a seismologist to know that earthquakes don't exactly know when it's wintertime. That's right that's right. Yeah earthquakes aren't seasonal right. They kind of just happen when they happen by. The weather is no sure is so that was Eureka. The Eureka moments saying while the nationality of this sussman activity obviously is quite important. What when you in some of his colleagues would later confirmed? Is that storms out in the ocean. We're causing what they say is a seismic phenomenon that they never knew about before instead of finding earthquakes. We found storm cracks storm. Quakes this episode. How they happen and what they could teach us? I'm Maddie Safai. In this shortwave. The daily science podcast from NPR VR.
China's Coronavirus Is Spreading. But How?
"Deadly new virus has cropped up in China the dramatic surge in cases of a deadly mystery virus. It's something called a corona virus. The pneumonia like illness originated in central. Insult China there are actually many types of corona viruses. This one causes fever dry. Cough difficulty breathing. Diarrhea and body aches the the number of infected exploded over the weekend. Hundreds of people have been infected Chinese officials taking every precaution to contain the virus and as of Thursday afternoon. We're recording this workers outside of the local hospital in bio suits. Seventeen people have died or good afternoon governor. Jay inslee governor of the state of Washington on top up of all of that. We're here to give a brief into the public regarding the novel. rotavirus on Tuesday officials announced. It's shown up here in the United States. Patient is a man in his thirties. He is in the hospital here behind me and then later in the week. Chinese authorities closed off the city of Wuhan at the center of the outbreak. Nick wants eleven. Million people are being told they can't leave and more. Chinese cities have followed suit. Such a massive operation to restrict people moving on spreading. The disease is unprecedented. So this episode. We'll tell you what officials are saying about the origins of the virus and what we know about the likelihood that it will continue to spread Brett. I'm Mattioli and you're listening to shortwave the daily science podcast from NPR. So we're talking corona virus and here to help us do that is NPR. Reporter Jason Bogin who covers global health and development. Hey Jason Hey Mattia so this thing cropped up about a month ago and this past week China announced more cases and the number of countries where it's been found outside of China continues to grow. Oh and one big thing. We haven't mentioned yet. Is that this weekend. Is the busiest holiday travel season in China. One of the largest travel seasons in the world. Yeah it's like doc Thanksgiving and fourth of July all combined into one. Hundreds of millions of people typically travel for the Lunar New Year which is January twenty fifth man. Ah brings up something about virus. Does it spread easily amongst people who are on trains. We don't exactly know the Chinese government has said it appears to be respiratory Tori. But they haven't been able to confirm that that is exactly the route of transmission at the moment and how communicable is how likely it is if people are sitting next next which other on buses and planes and trains that it could spread right. Okay so let's back up and explain what we do know. Starting with where it started the city city of Wuhan in central China yet so all indications are pointing to this wholesale meat market in Wuhan. It's a place where they have live. Animals that are slaughtered. There's also fish that are sold there as well as meet and the idea is that the corona virus and seems to be what have hap has happened jumped from one of fold animals in the market over to humans. And at this point we don't know exactly what animal that is. We don't as one of the big questions that still out there. If you remember SARS that big outbreak started in two thousand two was really big in two thousand and three. It's called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome now is also corona virus. Chris and it spread all over the world. Almost eight hundred people were killed before eventually stamped out and health officials in China say that this current virus doesn't look his deadliest that but it's still really serious for SARS. It was these palm. Civic cats that were being sold in AL markets in China and once that was identified identified then the Chinese government banned the sale of civic cats. That's Matthew Freeman urologist at the University of Maryland. School of Medicine Right. Okay so I wanNA talk a little bit about how a virus like this can jump from animal to human because it's not often explained super clearly. Yeah so a key. Part of that jump is when a virus mutates and and when people talk about mutations and viruses. What they're talking about is something that actually happens? Naturally when a virus replicates right so viruses loved to make lots of little copies of themselves elves and when they do they can make little mistakes during that and knows can change who or what the virus can infect. That's right and Matthew Freeman that Corologis. He thinks that SARS actually started out in bats and it mutated jumped over two those civic cats and then eventually got into people all and here's how he described it as these viruses replicate in these in bats day mutate a bit and if the wrong bat and the wrong other animal become in contact potentially usually when they're caught in the wild whether they're brought onto farms than it can jump into that species and often times. What we found is that the virus needs a little bit more mutational events to happen where can replicate in this intermediate animal before it can jump into people so in the case of SARS it started in bats takes a little bit jumps into cats mutates more jumps into humans right and there are other types of corona viruses that exist in birds in rodents are in camels. But in this case it's proving difficult to figure out what the exact animal source is this corona virus right which brings us back to that market in and Wuhan where they think it all started yet. We spoke to this Guy Kevin Olive oil. WHO's the VP research at the public health? Nonprofit it's called ECO health alliance as been to a lot of markets like this one in in Southeast Asia and he said they can have a wide variety of animals some of them while domestic and it creates a kind of melting pot. Where it's possible for these viruses to jump between species when the animals are alive in the market? They're stressed out. There's a lot of contact with feces and saliva and in terms of butchering the animals. With blood you know. It's pretty chaotic. It's not ed clean as you would think and There's a lot of contact with animals and animal fluids and body parts and so you can imagine in that Type of environment. Yeah it's really hard to zero in on one particular animal as a source You know in this instance. There's some question about how careful the Chinese government has been among in dealing with this way. Once they found out that there was this big problem they went in and cleaned everything. Up in some of the researchers are a little bit Upset set that a lot of potentially useful evidence got destroyed in this effort to just clean up this market right. They kind of reacted quickly and now makes it harder to trace that. Yes now the scientist just because they did that clean up. The sizes are playing catch up there sampling animals and other markets. Trying to see if they have the virus and in the meantime there could potentially still be animals most spreading this type of virus in other markets in China right and then of course beyond that they're saying it's now spreading not just from animals to humans but from one human human to another. Do we have any other clues about that. Human to human spread. That's happening. This is one of the big questions that still out there. What is the human to human spread doesn't have have to be really close? Contact is spreading through the air. We talk to this epidemiologist at the London School of Hygiene and tropical medicine. David Heymann. He says one clue is that there seems to be many clusters of infected people who all belong to the same family and they've had intense contact with an infected person it. It doesn't seem that the current virus spreads very easily face to face with a cough or a sneeze but even said we still don't know what sheriff the infections happen through. These family. Clusters this case in Washington state. That patient says he didn't visit any of these markets. He doesn't recall coming into contact with anyone who was was sick rain and also brings up another thing. That's kind of concerning which is that at least fifteen. Healthcare workers in the city of Wuhan a reportedly among people who've been inspected and that's always an evil omen within emerging infection because health workers. See a disease may think it's a common pneumonia. They're not as careful. They should be in washing their hands or in patient care and as a result they then get infected and then it spreads within the hospital or can spread to their families and then into the community so so hell in the concern. Is that those workers who may not know that they're actually infected with the virus and feel healthy actually are this phenomenon known as super spreaders people who end up actually infecting a lot of other people. And we've seen this in the SARS outbreak there. There were some super spreaders. There are some key people who ended up spreading the virus to a lot of other people and in that really contributed to the spread of SARS globally. So the question is are there super spreaders with this virus. We don't really know that yet. Gotcha and in the meantime when the CDC announced it confirmed that there's that American patient it also so announced screening at certain airports here in the states right and as we talked about airports We should mention screenings were implemented during the SARS outbreak. They didn't have much of an impact on containing SARS that said the. CDC screening is happening now at airports in La San Francisco New York Atlanta Atlanta Chicago and basically passengers off a plane with a fever or they seem to have cold like symptoms. They're going to be taken aside for health screening testing now You know even the best case that's GonNa take our Z.. Samples getting sent back to the CDC in Atlanta. So if you're flying for me you're going to be routed into one of these airports where they're are able to check you and see if you're showing signs of having this disease. Gotcha okay so Jason. Yeah this is obviously getting a lot of attention get right now now what our public health officials and journalists like yourself the most worried about look the the worst case scenario is an airborne flu that spreads rapidly around the world has maybe a long incubation period. gets out there and then kills lots of people. Yeah that's not really what we're seeing at the moment went But it is still concerning because you are getting spread that we don't know exactly how it's happening so that's what's most concerning installment that we don't know how it's spreading and we don't no the underlying number of people who've been infected or how long that incubation period which could mean we've got a whole slew of them coming down the fire shirt okay Jason Boban update you're welcome will link to NPR's reporting on corona virus in the notes of this episode which was produced by Brett. bachman edited by Andrea Andrea. Kasich in fact checked by Emily von.
"daily science" Discussed on Wait Wait... Don't Tell Me!
"From NPR WBZ Chicago this is wait wait don't tell me the NPR News Quiz Utah up our panelists run their mouths are bluff the listener game call one triple eight wait wait to play we'll be back in a minute with more wait wait tell me from NPR for this podcast and the following message comes from trader Joe's where you never have to wait to discover delicious foods and beverages from around the world speaking of waiting you don't have to wait for more episodes of trader Joe's original podcast series inside trader Joe's filled with fresh aches everything from frozen food to flowers and fresh produce is to judge spices find new episodes on apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts more at traderjoes dot com trader Joe's on Instagram Pinterest and Youtube Maddie Safai here host of a new daily science podcast from NPR culled shortwave we'll bring you new discoveries everyday mysteries and this week Bill Monroe Professional nerd and creator of X. K. C. D. explains how do you science to tell if you're a ninety skip listen and subscribe to shortwave from NPR from NPR WBZ Chicago. This is wait wait don't tell me the on news quiz I'm Bill Curtis playing this week with Peter Gross Roxanne Robertson Roy Blunt Junior and here again is your host at the eccles theater in Salt Lake City Peter Sagaing thank you bill thanks everybody the right now it's time for the wait wait don't tell me bluff the listener game called one triple eight wait wait to play our game on the air hi your way don't tell me I'm stockwell Alpert nurtured Sudbury Sudbury near Boston right twenty miles away twenty miles away what.
"daily science" Discussed on NPR Politics Podcast
"Comes from NPR sponsor IBM problems it's human nature to hate problems but why is that after all problems inspire IBM to mend things Ben things make things better that's why so many people work with IBM on everything from city traffic to in plastic new schools to new energy flight delays to food safety smart loves problems IBM let's put smart to work visit IBM dot com slash smart learn more Mattie Safai here host of a new daily science podcasts from NPR cold shortwave this week the first all female spacewalk we got to talk to both of those astronauts in space we have you loud and clear NPR listen for that and subscribe to short way from NPR okay we are back sue one of the things we have repeatedly talked about is that this is a political process and even though Democrats would likely have the votes to impeach president trump in the house it's a real uphill climb in the Senate where twenty Republicans would have to change their minds on the president and that just seems really hard to to imagine how much does some clear cut evidence like this change that dynamic if at all it's a little too soon to say I would say that Taylor's testimony is hi impact in the course of this investigation it will make an impression will it test Republicans loyalty the President I'm hard pressed to say that it will because what we have seen consistently so far is republicans very willing to stand behind the president at virtually all turns it will be curious to see how they respond he's seen someone who would be in a position to know to say that the military assistance was indeed directly tied to Ukraine <hes> conducting these investigation they were waiting to hear those exact words right they they were and I think us again when it goes to the Senate question Taylor is a very credible witness he's a career official he someone that is respected in known across the political spectrum and it's very hard to deny that kind of testimony the thing that I think just from the a lot of Senate Republicans were bothered by the idea of a direct tie between military aid and political assistance and that's one
"daily science" Discussed on Up First
"Here thanks for checking out this episode of shortwave the daily Science podcast from NPR here today with NPR health correspondent. Allison Aubrey Hail Jason Hey there mattie today we're talking about something that's in the headlines a lot right now yep vaping right and you're going to start us off today with a story about a young woman the I'm when her family was packing up the car to take her off to college she started feeling some pain in her chest you know I didn't really think anything of it I took some advil moved to the ICU because I was on thirty five liters of oxygen and she is it barely breathing on her own right gasping for air and here's the crazy thing I mean along the doctors are like Oh you have Mona Oh we're going to put you on antibiotics it must be some kind of infectious disease have you been around other people it took a long time.
"daily science" Discussed on On Point with Tom Ashbrook | Podcasts
"The nineteenth century who was he and why was he so important. Yeah <hes> Ville Bjork nece <hes> who's a Norwegian physicist and mathematician and what he recognized he came to meteorology a little bit late. <hes> you know he really wanted to be kind of famous physicist. This was the the sort of the the moment of of Einstein as well <hes> but he realized that if you could calculate fluids in the atmosphere or the atmosphere is a fluid <hes> and use the equations of physics thermodynamics <hes> each each of those calculations was its own kind of hypothesis and you could be proved right if you could observe the atmosphere now if you could be proven right or wrong each day and so you can kind of think of the weather forecast not as a kind of you know not as based on observations or storm chasing but rather based on real quantitative measurement and know exactly how right you were wrong you were and tweak it again on so you had this kind of daily science experiment but of course and he went so far as to successfully kind of right right down the equations that would make this happen. I'm meteorologist referred to them as the primitive equations but of course he had no way to calculate them. <hes> there was an English mathematician who came after him a guy named Lewis Fry Richardson who thought that you would actually give it a try but when he tried to we need sort of did the math what it would take to calculate the atmosphere within enough time to make a useful forecast which is to say before the future that you'll predicting actually came. He realized that he would need sixty four thousand people human computers in a stadium to to do it fast enough well. We'll talk more about Richardson in just a moment but we're talking this hour with Andrew Bloom. He has a new book out fascinating book called the Weather Machine Journey inside the forecast. We have an excerpt of it at on point radio DOT ORG and we wanna hear from you whether predicting the weather has become more accurate <hes> over time with the use of supercomputers especially but are you relying more on APPs or.
"daily science" Discussed on Curiosity Daily
"Today. Learn twelve science-based tips for better meetings common dinosaur myths, you should stop believing. And what happened when a seventeen year old boy stayed awake for eleven days for science with satisfy some curiosity. Do you feel like meetings are almost always a complete waste of time? And they get in the way of you actually getting work done. Well, you're not alone. And you're kind of right. According to calculations by lucid meetings organizations spend between seventy and two hundred eighty three billion dollars a year on ineffective meetings. That's why I condemn have started actually studying meetings and the research has led to twelve science-based tips for a better meeting ready to work smarter. Not harder. I'm really glad that we're a small, but mighty company that doesn't have a lot of meetings. It's really great. Yeah. It's like whatever I have a meeting. I feel like I'm there for. Reason. And I just there for the amount of time that I need to get stuff done. And then I go back to work. Yeah. It's good. I have worked in giant companies with lots of regular meetings. And I may have to pass these tips along to some of my old co workers call and the last place where I worked isn't the only company having a lot of meetings. Do you know how many meetings happened in the US every day as many as fifty six million? The typical worker spends six hours a week in meetings. That's almost full workday and managers Evans, twenty three hours of meetings week that's more than half a week of work. Thankfully, a team of researchers from the university of Nebraska Omaha and Clemson university looked through two hundred studies of meanings to come up with some science-based tips for leading successful meetings. Let's start with the planning face before you even schedule the meeting set clear goals, make sure this actually needs to be a meeting in. It's not something that'll work just as well. In shared documents or Email chain in. Invite the key stakeholders, so you don't come up with a great idea in a meeting that gets shot down by manager Who Wasn't There, and right, and circulate and agenda. This is the number one thing I learned in college about running meetings and agenda will literally change your life or your meeting life. Anyway. Okay. So now come the tips for what to do during the meeting. I reiterate and stick to that agenda. Trust me, this will make everyone's life easier, especially yours keep the meeting short and sweet and steer the conversation from fatalistic comments like nothing can be done or this situation is hopeless and instead move towards productive questions. Like, how can we improve X given that why didn't work encourage participation from everyone? So you don't just get that random co worker who spends the whole meeting on his laptop. We have all been there and treat everyone's comments with respect. But also joke around in upbeats atmosphere actually more conducive to collaboration after the meeting send up meeting minutes promptly. And if you really. Want wanna crush your next meeting? Senate a quick survey asking for feedback on the meeting this concern, even the worst meetings into a learning opportunity. We haven't done any myth busting stories on a while. So today, we're going to tell you about some dinosaur misinformation. It's time to clear the air if Jurassic Park taught you everything, you know, about dinosaurs than you might want to brace yourself. Although that movie is still pretty great. It is so great. I had a friend wearing a Jurassic Park t shirt and some kid pointed and was like that's not Jurassic world. And we felt old what? Yeah. Well, I don't know if this first dinosaur myth will make you feel any better. But here it is Dennis ORs are not extinct, obviously, some of them are, but every living bird is actually a dinosaur mind blown here's another game changer. Dinosaurs were not necessarily cold blooded is a bit of a mystery exactly how they produced heat since there are a lot of different ways to be warm blooded. But we do know from microscope examinations of their petrified bones to metabolize names were simply too fast to have just relied on the sun for body heat. You might know about this next one, but not all dinosaurs. Or scaly, lots of dinosaurs, actually, had feathers, and what's more not all dinosaurs were green or Brown? Some probably were. But we actually do know that some dinosaurs were red black, white and other colors. In fact, they weren't even necessarily the same color all over we can even say with certainty that some dinosaurs had striped tales like a raccoon. Here's one more myth. You should stop believing. Dinosaurs were all around at the same time. I'm really sorry to burst your dinosaur fan fiction bubble but the renaissance Rex stegosaurus never had a death match with each other. Yeah. If the T Rex and built natural history, museums then they would have installed stegosaurus fossils as the main exhibit. Dinosaurs were around for a long time. In fact. Oh, yeah. Didn't we just mention they're still around today? Now that you know, the truth about dinosaurs. I just have one question for you. Ashley, what do you call a dinosaur with an extensive vocabulary? What the Sorus today's episode is sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Everyone knows about the risks of driving drunk. You could get in the crash and people could get hurt or killed. But let's take a moment to look at some surprising statistics almost twenty nine people in the United States die every day in alcohol, impaired vehicle crashes. That's one person every fifty minutes even though drunk driving fatalities have fallen by third in the last three deck. Ends drunk. Driving crashes? Still clean more than ten thousand lives. Each year. Many people are unaware that driving while high can be just as dangerous in two thousand fifteen forty two percent of drivers killed in crashes. Tested, positive for drugs. Not so harmless after all is it and get this from two thousand seven to two thousand fifteen marijuana. Use among drivers killed in crashes. Doubled. The truth is driving while high is deadly. So stop kidding yourself. If you're impaired from alcohol or drugs, don't get behind the wheel. If you feel different you drive different drive high. Now, get a DUI drive sober or get pulled over. What's the longest you've ever gone without sleeping on purpose? Was it eleven days because that's the world record for the longest amount of time staying awake. It's held by Randy Gardner who is seventeen years old at the time and his story is pretty wild. I lasted about twenty four hours straight one time. And I decided that wasn't the life for me. Yes. Same. I think I've mentioned this on the podcast before actually. But like. The only all night I've ever done was in junior high which seems like that English teacher probably shouldn't have been assigning assignments that required seventh graders to do all nighters. But who might judge? I've definitely done it more recently than that. But I had just as good of a reason I had to play smash brother. Oh my gosh. You have a problem, Cody. No, No, I I don't. don't. Care about you. I don't go to meetings. So I don't have a problem. So this story started in late December nineteen sixty three. There's literally a song by the four seasons called December sixty three. Oh, I Don. I. Fifty. Branding Gardner had a theme song. Awesome. Randy Gardner wanting to beat the record for most days without sleep. So that he could get this win his local science fair seriously, and this experiment became something of a national sensation. In fact for a short time. It was the third most written about story in the American press after the assassination of president Kennedy and the Beatles historic trip to the states. That's why it's not too surprising that an actual sleep researcher named Dr William Dement heard about the experiment and came to keep an eye on. How things went in the end Gardner stayed awake for two hundred and sixty four point four hours, which is roughly eleven days in twenty five minutes, and that whole time Dement and a couple of gardeners, friends tracked exactly how his mind was doing with a series of cognitive and sensory tests after two days without sleeping. He started to have trouble repeating simple tongue. Twisters and he sucked being able to identify objects by touch his senses seemed to heighten and he became sensitive to strong smells by the fifth day. He was hallucinating and soon after that he started having. In trouble forming short term memories, he kept himself awake with the help of physical activities. And weirdly his basketball game actually improved over. The course of that sleepless week and a half a few things happen after the experiment was over. I the good news Gardner and the other boys won first place in that science fair. He had his achievement immortalized in the Guinness Book of world records. And of course, he finally got to get some Shaddai about fourteen hours of it. As a matter of fact, but they get us book of world records. No longer accepts entries for longest periods spent without sleeping because of well. The bad news in the late two thousands Gardner started to experience insomnia on a nightly basis. There's no way to say for sure, but he's convinced the reason was his teenage stunt he suffered from a recurring inability to sleep for several years until finally settling into a more reliable routine. But still he only enjoys about six hours of sleep per night. These days kids, don't try this at home.