35 Burst results for "Cretaceous"
"cretaceous" Discussed on I Know Dino: The Big Dinosaur Podcast
"That's my guess after watching the show. Lego masters so this exhibit has a model of machine zoro's which is a small theropod found in madagascar similar to a human. It's made of thirty thousand lego bricks. Okay yeah that sounds about right. So that means there's probably quite a few dinosaurs among those five hundred thousand bricks. Yeah apparently took four to five months to build these models. That was after the time it took to design them. That's not so bad. Yeah it was. Unclear was forty five models for all of them or each. I don't know how gotcha depends. What yeah you got to build them brick-by-brick though on the show that we watched they build some amazing things with only eight or ten hours. Yup that's true i think. Sometimes they do they start out by like putting a whole bunch of bricks together into sorta like units. Almost like. you're making an igloo. You start with like a big chunk. I put that in. I'm not sure how come that is though i don't know either. I have not good with the lego's lego plural of lego's lego. Oh her plural of lego's lego that is how unskilled i am with the waco. The lego people the lego fan say the plural of lego is lego bricks where you put the scat it. So this article about the exhibit also says that it pays homage to dippy. Didn't see any pictures though but it'd be really cool if there's a lego version of dippy especially this is too much too much. You could use those clear bricks as the supports. Sometimes i've seen that they use those. Because you can't really have a tail as long as a sewer pods out of maybe with the technic. I don't know if they could save enough structural rigidity to handle that. Somebody's going to try it. So also in england this is in bedfordshire the zoological society. London's esl whipsnade. Zoo has a new zoo. Ask park like jurassic yet with zoo aspect You're like that. It's not really low. I thought it was fun. So from now until september fifth they've got animatronic dinosaurs around there. Six hundred acres zoo which they said has more than ten thousand animals. Slaughtered animals is. I just realized that it should have been mizzou's oik wick. That's probably happened in the past. Have you better than zoo. Aspic classic sounds like zoo tastic and jurassic out but anyway so the zookeepers as part of this exhibit. They built a dinosaur with replica dinosaur eggs and they put them on their squirrel monkeys island home for the monkeys to poke around and there's pictures of them investigating apparently like to push them around and sometimes like take them off to the side to investigate their actually are squirrel monkeys. Last time the zoo. I was joking that a squirrel in the monkey exhibit was squirrel monkey. And you're like wait there it is. That's just a regular squirrel. Yeah these don't look like squirrels. Okay they look like monkeys to me. Kyoto monkeys so the zookeepers also put something with the penguins. They got a t rex footprint next to their pool. And there's some cute pictures of the penguins looking at the print and kind of poking at it and nudging stones around it with the dinosaurs with the dinosaurs and with the mammals..
"cretaceous" Discussed on I Know Dino: The Big Dinosaur Podcast
"In fukushima and was super tragic there were just talking about that at the olympic ceremony opening and i think this had eighteen thousand people died or something really awful. That's awful. I remember when that happened. From a scientific standpoint the seafloor was mapped four years before the soon nami and then they decided go back again one month afterwards so that they could at least get some good data from the nami. Maybe it would be helpful in future catastrophes. Or we might. You never know what you're going to learn from these types of things and you hope it could be useful in some way what they found in this case that they were what they call the time sub aqueous dunes which look very similar to mega ripples. You could probably call them like moderate sized ripples comparison there about one point eight meters or about six feet tall. Who but they have a very similar sort of structure in shape to them as the mega ripples which are a mile underneath central louisiana That earthquake was a magnitude nine. The chicks lou again is estimated at about an eleven so that means the chicks lube would have been about one hundred times the power. And that's why you've got the bigger ripples exactly and then again these got compacted too. So it's hard to say how big they were originally but the authors didn't try to guess at the size of the waves again they were like that's outside of our wheelhouse this is we can measure them. We can find them. We can drill into them and confirm their size but we don't know what kind of waves would cause sort of stuff. We need a sou. Nami expert to come in and sort of pick up the ball Start going about science. You build on each other exactly. Yeah so. that's the story of the mega. Ripples mega mega indeed. Yup this episode is brought to you by sabrina. 's lovely book fifty dinosaur tales and one hundred eight more discoveries from the golden age of dino's yeah..
"cretaceous" Discussed on I Know Dino: The Big Dinosaur Podcast
"If you're you're in california you would have seen that bright radiation and then it would have burst into flames. So yeah i mean there's gotta be some animals. A lot of animals did survive. Even though ninety nine point something percent of them died you know there were some number of them that survived so they must have seen or heard something but yeah it would be crazy but that could be why this is such a useful spot to measure because even though we're eight hundred miles away and that seems like really far way and to get good data if you're within two or three hundred miles you're not gonna get any data other than crater or just a bunch of stuff on top of it Death and destruction a you have to get a little ways away so that it's not completely destroyed but you don't wanna get too far away and fortunately what they think is basically the mega ripples are that leftover debris as the wave crested over where the gulf of mexico shallow d- which is present day central louisiana so is deeper like southern louisiana. And then what's the present day gulf was a lot deeper. And then as you get up into louisiana are shallow out and then the waves crest and then they leave all that debris because they're starting to mix up ground a little bit. They estimate that the area was about sixty meters or about two hundred feet deep at the time which is kind of crazy to think that like central louisiana was sixty meters or two hundred feet underwater which makes deep enough to be disturbed by the huge tsunami wave but not deep enough to be disturbed by later storm waves. Okay because as it's ringing. Maybe you know the huge waves might have caused some ripples. But they don't. It doesn't look super chaotic. They have a certain wavelength to them and they look is fairly consistent. It doesn't look like totally nuts situation that you'd expect if there were just waves beating it up a little bit contained exactly and it's in that perfect spot where it's deep enough that this nami wave crested and left that debris and all that kind of stuff but not shallow enough that those later storm waves would have messed them up somehow or another eventually got covered by paleo gene sediment compacted and then turned into moral and then they're available for our modern researchers to find as mega ripples but again those mega ripples originally were even more mega before. They got compact. Sounds like a scary time. Yes it crazy. As the authors put it it is the first time such buried geologically old soon nami. Mega ripples have been image and quote. But we do have a modern example. We have good data from the twenty eleven tohoku earthquake which caused all of that devastation..
"cretaceous" Discussed on I Know Dino: The Big Dinosaur Podcast
"Maps around the area and saw this ring and thought it was suspicious and look more into it and then discovered that it likely a crater and then presented on it. He wasn't allowed to share the actual data because it was owned by this oil company but he was allowed to share like the idea and some like low resolution images and some stuff like that frustrating. Yeah but i mean he's still got to presented at a conference for. That was the main goal. But since then we've other people gone out there and explored and gotten more detailed maps and we've even drilled into the crater itself modeled the impact and climate modeled. The effect of the impact so way more research has been done. Oh yeah we've seen detailed studies of you know what happens in the minutes and our. We've talked about this on the show. And even within within the mike twenty four hours of it hitting what depending on where you were in the world. I think my personal favorite is a model in twenty eighteen by molly range and others and they showed the impact or hitting. It's sort of a two d graphic of what happened around the impact or and you see just like a chunk of the land goes missing twenty kilometers deep and all this mud and earth gets flung out and you see a mile plus hi sue nami spreading out from the crater just nuts and it also spread out lots of material because it gets rocked out all over the place and in this new paper they call that a boundary cocktail find really enjoyable to fun name the term. It's a fun word for like six hundred feet or more of rock flying on top of you. So just it's at the cocktail so this new paper focuses on the massive tsunami caused by the chicks loop impacter and the new site is about eight hundred miles or about thirteen hundred kilometers north northwest of the center of the crater tiffany guests. What is in that location. What's north of the crater. If you go eight hundred miles north of the catan peninsula where are you. Oh i see why. I read the headlines so i already know okay. It's louisiana new orleans. Well no not new orleans so it's almost exactly six hundred miles from chicks salute mexico to new orleans louisiana. This survey site is about another two hundred miles to the north west of new orleans. Add funny enough. It was also discovered as a survey for oil exploration. They're the ones with the deep pockets. Who fund a lot of these types of things and honestly a lot of paleontologists end up going into oil exploration sooner or later. Because that's where the money is and that's where their skills are useful in this case the site is at lake yacht. I think it's pronounced spelled. I. a. t. t. And they used to weigh at travel time. Data is not gravity data. It's based on essentially what you might think of ground penetrating radar. But i think what they were. Actually using was a seismic survey in other words vibrations basically like the tool andranik park. Except that you don't use a shotgun shell and have. Crt off to the side. It's a little more complicated. That usually the way that seismic surveys work. Is you use. Compressed air if you're in an aquatic setting so there's a boat and it makes really loud noises using compressed air into the water. They have to like get rid of all the marine an walls or wait for marine animals. Move away because it can be pretty disturbing to them and then to stop. If like a whale comes swimming by because they don't want upset them but they make these loud noises. The vibrations of those noises go through the water. And then through the rock and then bounce back up and then behind the boat they tow a whole bunch of waterproof microphones which are call hydrophones. And then depending on what kind of rocket hits and how much it could slow down. It'll hit different microphones at different timing. And then you can use a computer model to recreate. What is bouncing off of way deep in the earth cool super super cool technique and you can get really detailed information. They can actually figure out. There's almost certainly oil in this spot..
"cretaceous" Discussed on Rocks Across the Pond
"Kinda goes on the goes on the attack like even win. There's really no point. So i'm gonna go with drake drake trae cadets unless you have curler well if you count was gonna go. I would say the over hyped part. I won't buy into. But i was like maybe the madonna's maybe sharing on wayne from toronto or greater toronto area from cartridge country. You're toronto. maybe mike harris see if it'll also raptor. Famous tv from toronto goes on the attack a lot. Richard hart adding john epping. Not bad if you again if you leave a few takeaways over the over hyped part is the is the one that makes this tough. 'cause like stuff to say i don't think i'd want. I don't think epic news over hyped. Know anything. he's not hyped off. It's just the fact that he hasn't you know gotten. He hasn't won a brier young. Yeah if you if you take away the over hyped aspect than yeah up in all right. Sounds good into dan. mcgaw is definitely not over. God that if you get rid of the over hyped part and you just say it's you know this animal that's gonna slice you open in. We've you in in leave your carcass on the side. Then right right to the final two ryan que. Triceratops is this one of your favorites. Might son's favourite all right. Does he have a triceratops toy No we haven't gotten toys yet but we have books in right. Currently this is the only specific dinosaur whose name he could say either as dinosaur or ceratops all right. So it's probably the most instantly recognizable of all dinosaurs in the north america. In the north american triceratops with its parrot like beak and huge frill at the back of its head it combined a gentle planting disposition with three fearsome looking horns are probably used in courtship. Ooh but a love going on here and keeping hungry dress or raptors at bay. It's kind of interesting. The sex life of triceratops the dinosaurs from the late cretaceous period and.
The Science of Zoom Body Language
"There's a lot of debate as to how we ended up in the universe. That can encode information Some people use the anthropic principle. That wasn't the case we wouldn't be here. Wouldn't be talking about it but that allowed. Evolution and evolution has evolved more and more complex creatures that eventually evolved nervous system and those never systems automatically evolved a neo cortex which is capable of thinking in hierarchies to reflect the natural hierarchy of the world as i emerging mammals was the size of a postage stamp and as opposed to stamp and little rodents Not very noticeable but allow these animals to actually learn new skills that were complicated and hierarchical Without having to go through thousands of years of biological evolution to change their behavior but then sixty five million years ago there was this cataclysmic event called the cretaceous extinction event and we can see archaeological evidence of that everywhere in the world. Something happen very dramatic to change the environment very quickly and Animals non mammalian species. It did not have a new cortex died out. Many of them did And that's when mammals took over there the ecological niche and to anthropomorphized biological evolution said. Hey this neo. Cortex is pretty useful and it's talk growing it As mammals got more complex than by primates it was no longer flat. It was very convoluted if you know. The brain of primate looks like it has many bridges and combinations to increase its surface area. It's still a very thin structure to stretch out. A human neo cortex be about the size of size of a table napkin injustice. Then but because of its all of these curvatures and convolution. It's about eighty percent of the brain. And that's why we do of thinking and thinking in hierarchies
"cretaceous" Discussed on In Defense of Plants Podcast
"But you know they. Scientific metal is the same as a paleo balkans. What are the questions we want answered. My number one thing about being available botanist is fuel work. The most fascinating part. Now i could tell you stories all day collecting also but that is what is so exciting is beginning to feel and all these things and splitting that you know that to me is what is ultimately when i split iraq is the first human to see these lead for the first time you know by breathe again or like you know that that to me is is might not be one thing but then of course the research questions and the papers golden <unk>. Outreach and mentoring students come with <hes>. so i was really cumulated in all. It took me years to learn about kony for city although seat plants but the question is why do we have this diversity today. What happened to all these groups of plans that when stink <hes>. Why did they stink. And ultimately how can use fossils ones that have been working from goalie. I grew relationship between seed plants. So that's one of the major questions that we're trying to answer these projects and once again. It's a lucky to be at a place where no one has ever been before. And now when i was invited to be part of this project computer collected several samples and some fossils that are so strange that years literally to figure it out wear and we were like know what it is. A spot of the party is also challenging. You know when you find something new when we still have many fossils from golden <unk>. Grits specimens
Reconstructing a Cretaceous Flora
"But you know they. Scientific metal is the same as a paleo balkans. What are the questions we want answered. My number one thing about being available botanist is fuel work. The most fascinating part. Now i could tell you stories all day collecting also but that is what is so exciting is beginning to feel and all these things and splitting that you know that to me is what is ultimately when i split iraq is the first human to see these lead for the first time you know by breathe again or like you know that that to me is is might not be one thing but then of course the research questions and the papers golden Outreach and mentoring students come with so i was really cumulated in all. It took me years to learn about kony for city although seat plants but the question is why do we have this diversity today. What happened to all these groups of plans that when stink Why did they stink. And ultimately how can use fossils ones that have been working from goalie. I grew relationship between seed plants. So that's one of the major questions that we're trying to answer these projects and once again. It's a lucky to be at a place where no one has ever been before. And now when i was invited to be part of this project computer collected several samples and some fossils that are so strange that years literally to figure it out wear and we were like know what it is. A spot of the party is also challenging. You know when you find something new when we still have many fossils from golden Grits specimens
A Deep Dive into Aquatic Plants
"That's a really exciting trajectory. And that's really cool that you really early on saw that connection between water and aquatic plants and to me. It's really interesting. Round because aquatic plants both are influenced by water quality and can wander quality so the two are hand in hand and unfortunately even professionals in You know. I have told the story before. I came from a a nonprofit background that was into water quality and they just scoffed at the idea that native plant communities more important. So it's it's not a connection that people easily make but it's so important for both species and water right ensure as one of the things i've encountered is that i would be on a pond working with a student people walking by and you would hear comments about all. That pond is just all of nasty. Algae at i'd be like actually there's no algae here and it would usually be covered in something like duck queens or full of coon tail and a lot of time. People look look at a water nature. See the plans. But they think they think it's algae under call it Weeds or hans. Come so there's definitely this you know. Some negative not towards aquatic plants and a my goal really is to share with people. You know how cool these plants are and as you said. There's this connection with water quality. Such a great goal to have and yeah i. I was waiting to hear how long it would take for pond skunk to mentioned at some point. Because that's the thing. I hear repeated time and time again and until you really get a chance to throw on a pair goggles or canoe or kayak an area that has a really healthy aquatic plant community. I can kind of understand that because if you're just used to like sort of overflow ponds or farm agricultural ponds sometimes they can look a little bit like pea soup but when you see those communities when you see a really healthy thriving underwater plant community stunning and amazing But it's also this evolutionary marvel because even though everything came from the water if you're an aquatic flowering plant at least you didn't start out in the water. They're kind of the whales of the plant world. they they moved onto land adapted to that and then kind of moved back right. Well actually. I was doing some reading today his i. I'm really interested in in this question. And so i. I was reading to really sort of heavy paper about the evolutionary history of aquatic angiosperms and one paper this one i think he mountain twenty six t in and they they present these two hypotheses. One that there's these plants that are in aquatic orders where they don't have any surviving terrestrial relatives and still. They're thinking that these plants that are in these truly aquatic orders. Their possible origins are aquatic and possibly from early cretaceous period. And then the other part of this is that there's plants that are in aquatic families and aquatic genera- but there are from terrestrial orders and and these plants. They think evolved from terrestrial ancestors that adapted to aquatic environment. So there yet. So these two groups so plant. Some aquatic orders that have aquatic origins. Eventually an implants that are in aquatic fees or quasi general. But they're from russia or news and severe ones that would evolved from terrestrial ancestors how to read another paper. This one was published in two thousand and three but it was a little bit over my head. I feel for the general sense that there's these these two sort of thinking of this quiet orders in plants that came from terrestrial orders so this is all
Duckbill Dino Odyssey Ended in Africa
"North america fossils of duck billed. Dinosaurs are abundant so abundant that paleontologists sometimes ignore them in search of more exciting species like t rex triceratops. They were so common often. Wouldn't lock them and just left him out in the field university of bath evolutionary biologist. Nick long rich but duck bills had never been found in africa. So long rich did a double take when he was visiting the natural history museum of marrakech in morocco and came across the sixty six million year old jawbone of previously undocumented duck bill species night instantly knew what it was and i just couldn't figure out what it was doing. Their its presence in north. Africa was problematic because the late cretaceous period. The planet was warmer which means sea levels were higher. Africa was isolated from all the other continents by water and there didn't seem to be any way that they could get their in this. Perhaps duck bills swim hundreds of miles across open ocean from what is now europe. It's not as far fetched as it might sound. In fact paleontologist once thought duck billed dinosaurs were aquatic but that theory eventually fell out of favour nonetheless. There's evidence that duck bills were well adapted for swimming. they had these really big powerful hind limbs. Great big feet. They've got a long deep tales. It could've used for sculling. They might have been pretty good swimmers. Plus other animal species have been known across oceans albeit rarely elephants monkeys and even hippos for example. Have all colonize new places after swimming or floating. There it's incredibly improbable. But over millions of years these once millionaire events will happen on average once every millionaires to better understand the migrations of duck billed dinosaurs long rich and his colleagues reconstructed their evolutionary tree. The duck bill seem to originate north america. They migrated across the land bridge into asia. Jump over into europe and then finally this european lineage. one branch of that evolutionary tree jumps into africa. Long rich's team dubbed the new species are not yet odysseus. Some duck bills were fifty feet long but not be was perhaps the smallest of these cretaceous vegetarians about the size of a pony and while north american duck bills were being hunted down by hungry. T. rex in africa ours. Knob likely had to contend with fearsome abella sors which were smaller but similar to t rex. The study is in the journal. Cretaceous research insights into aaj. A- could help answer questions about the end of the age of the dinosaurs this just before the asteroid ahead. We're getting a snapshot of the dinosaurs in their final moments that sort of twilight of the dinosaurs along with things like t rex and triceratops. These are the last dinosaurs on earth.
Some Dinosaurs Probably Nested in Arctic
"Those vicious predatory dinosaurs that tended to be fairly small as six to nine ten feet. Long snout to tail there. Certainly in the Jurassic. Park movies the things that terrorize people Anthony Fiorello a paleontologist at southern Methodist University in Dallas Texas for more than two decades. Now, Fiorello has been digging a dinosaur fossils, hundreds of miles north of the Arctic Circle in Alaska. So one of the fundamental questions about dinosaurs in Alaska. In the ancient Arctic is, did they live there all year round did they migrate? How did they get their a recent discovery sheds light on those questions this fossil that's the subject study is a baby dinosaur, the baby predatory dinosaur, and it is a baby. It's not just juvenile and given the size estimate of this thing. This probably was not far from where the nesting ground was. So this is the first physical proof. Alley some dinosaurs nested in the ancient Arctic some of the first Arctic dinosaur remains ever found were discovered back in the nineteen sixties in Svalbard, an archipelago north of mainland Norway. Since then researchers have theorized, the dinosaurs must have migrated to avoid deeply cold winters but Fiorello says this new discovery disproves that idea for you know the classic stereotype for dinosaurs is that had been. that they were living in sub tropical environments oftentimes, somewhat swampy if you look at various artwork over generations, that was quite often how these dinosaurs were reconstructed. In reality the climate north of Alaska's Brooks range seventy million years ago was similar to what we might see today in Portland, Oregon or Calgary Alberta. Certainly a place where. Things were cooler. Or who were capable of being cool at times but certainly warmer than the the Arctic today, the fossil find is a piece of jawbone with a tooth from Dromaeosaur Fiorello and colleagues unearthed it along the banks of the call. They'll river not too far from the Arctic Ocean. The bone is the first non dental evidence of that species in the far north the researchers report their discovery in the journal plus one. Of course questions remain. How did they do what they did because even with the warmer temperatures at the latitude, the thieves dinosaurs were living, which is at least seventy degrees north if not even farther nor. Do they endure long periods of light and dark, and that's where the research will go next for now Fiorello says the new discovery proves that these giant reptiles were well adapted to the highly seasonal environments of the late Cretaceous that we still experience today in the Arctic.
"cretaceous" Discussed on BrainStuff
"Hey brains of is Christian, , Sager here fire ants, , carpenter ants, , bull ants there. . A lot of ant species that can cause a great deal of harm. . The worst one alive today about two Guinness World. . Records is the bulldog ant. . It has killed at least three human some within fifteen minutes. . But perhaps, , the worst aunt ever was the hell aunt, , a prehistoric insect that was recently discovered encased in a chunk of Myanmar amber dating to the late. . Cretaceous period evolutionary. . Biologist Phillip Barden of the Jersey Institute of Technology and his team wrote about the Hell Aunt discovery in the journal systemic entomology. . The hell aunt got its name from its anatomy and behavior instead. . Of having a typical mouth, , the hell aunt had blades that stuck upward think like tusks plus a horn that was reinforced with metal scientists don't know for sure how the hell used. . It's unusual appendages but they have some theories i. . it clear that the ants tusks and horn were mainly used for catching prey. . So here's one possible mo when it came to finding dinner when a tasty insect passed nearby the hell aunts jaw tusks would flip the insect up an onto its horn impaling it spearing prey does take a toll though which is probably why the Hell Lance Horn was clad with metal and if that isn't gruesome, enough , researchers say this prehistoric insect. . Some vampire like tendencies two when the ant snagged its prey, , it's Tusk like jaws close to form a gutter, , which may have been a means of funneling the insects blood right down into the ants. . Gullit, , the Helen scientifically known as Lingua Mir Mex- vladi was discovered in chunk of amber that was ninety, , nine, million , years old although it's unusual appendages were likely used to catch its food researchers say they may have occasionally been used defensively. . This is not the only insect sporting metal either some present day termite species actually have zinc and manganese in their manuals. . However, , there are no modern ants similarly equipped. .
What Made the Prehistoric 'Hell Ant' So Diabolical?
"Hey brains of is Christian, Sager here fire ants, carpenter ants, bull ants there. A lot of ant species that can cause a great deal of harm. The worst one alive today about two Guinness World. Records is the bulldog ant. It has killed at least three human some within fifteen minutes. But perhaps, the worst aunt ever was the hell aunt, a prehistoric insect that was recently discovered encased in a chunk of Myanmar amber dating to the late. Cretaceous period evolutionary. Biologist Phillip Barden of the Jersey Institute of Technology and his team wrote about the Hell Aunt discovery in the journal systemic entomology. The hell aunt got its name from its anatomy and behavior instead. Of having a typical mouth, the hell aunt had blades that stuck upward think like tusks plus a horn that was reinforced with metal scientists don't know for sure how the hell used. It's unusual appendages but they have some theories i. it clear that the ants tusks and horn were mainly used for catching prey. So here's one possible mo when it came to finding dinner when a tasty insect passed nearby the hell aunts jaw tusks would flip the insect up an onto its horn impaling it spearing prey does take a toll though which is probably why the Hell Lance Horn was clad with metal and if that isn't gruesome, enough researchers say this prehistoric insect. Some vampire like tendencies two when the ant snagged its prey, it's Tusk like jaws close to form a gutter, which may have been a means of funneling the insects blood right down into the ants. Gullit, the Helen scientifically known as Lingua Mir Mex- vladi was discovered in chunk of amber that was ninety, nine, million years old although it's unusual appendages were likely used to catch its food researchers say they may have occasionally been used defensively. This is not the only insect sporting metal either some present day termite species actually have zinc and manganese in their manuals. However, there are no modern ants similarly equipped.
"cretaceous" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Paleontologists discovered a new species of dinosaur in Brazil the small lightly built theropod named a reticence museum Nali roam the earth during the Cretaceous period one, hundred, four, million years ago. The findings published in the Journal scientific reports indicate the fossils belong to juvenile with an estimated body length around three point one two maters as just over ten feet and a body mass of around thirty four point, two, five kilograms. Then you dinosaur belongs to a group known secure. So as a lodge group of dinosaurs which are more closely related to birds connoisseurs. And Studies found a link between erectile dysfunction and watching porn the findings presented to the European Association of Urology Congress showed that the more porn people watched the greater the level of erectile dysfunction. Your this found that watching porn was associated with a greater level of dissatisfaction with so-called normal sex with only sixty five percent of respondents rating six with their partner as being more stimulating than porn the studies based on the survey of three, thousand, two hundred. and. Sixty seven males focusing on their sexual activity in health of the previous four weeks researches found respondents on average watched about seventy minutes of pornography awake usually in sessions lasting between five and fifteen minutes at a time, they also found that around twenty three percent of men under thirty five who responded to the survey had some level of erectile dysfunction when having sex with a partner and those who watch more porn also.
Can we survive Number 6
"Welcome to kiss myths and mystery sign your host Kit crumb back from vacation back from Cornucopia. The upper northern corner of the state fantastic area this podcast usually addresses an outstanding myth, sometimes some history, often the common thread connecting myths to mystery, is that both have been around a long time both existed across continental around the world as often as not fact, surrounding these myths and mysteries are difficult to locate or have been lost in the mist of Time Ninety Miss, slip into the category of. Or they rejected out of hand by science yet just because science rejects a meth does not mean that they can prove it does not exist. Recently Dis- podcast covered deja-vu and included four scientific theories on what Deja Vu really was. However, these were just theories, and could no more disprove deja-vu than paranormal explanation could prove Dacia as I present data, surrounding extinction and the current whole scene or six extinction. I've attempted to US faxed are agreed on by experts in the field from around the world. The debate or controversy on the subject is the how come or why now. Now question, the earliest extinction came about when an asteroid somewhere between six and fifty miles long struck the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico. There's some debate about the size of the asteroid, but it's agreed on by the biggest wise on that matter, and it caused a worldwide climate disruption brought about the cretaceous extinction event, a mass extinction in which seventy five percent of Earth's plant and animal species became extinct, basically brought the existence of dinosaurs to end. Keep in mind. This conversation will not cover earliest life. The crawled out of primordial soup. Many of the species survived the worldwide climate change. By the asteroid died out during the second grid extinction, or the third or fourth or the fifth while canes around the world unleash poison gas into the atmosphere, oceans encountered. Huge algae bloom at depleted the oxygen destroying see life is believed that life today evolved from the four percent of animals, see and plantlife. That survived five huge changes in the earth's atmosphere. Here comes great controversy. A heated debate in the scientific community is whether or not earth. Earth is heading into another mass extinction. Currently, the world is a whole scene extinction era, plants animals are dying off at an abnormally fast rate and life. As we know, it is in danger this time. However, the cost is not volcanic activity, nor asteroid impacts. Human activity is triggering a change in global climate which has increased species extinction to between ten and a hundred times faster than normal. The evidence is pretty clear. We are headed toward. Toward the sixth mass extinction, if we are not already in it, all this leads to a very big question, will we humans be part of the sixth extinction? Just because we've survived the loss of x number species, can we keep going down the same trajectory or do we eventually am barrel the systems that keep people alive, and if we could survive, would we really want to live in an environment devoid of diversity of species unlike Vu mentioned. Mentioned earlier in this podcast, it may someday be explained by science, and that today we can say time will tell paranormal neurological. The question of human surviving six extinction can't be addressed in the same time will tell manner simply because when that time that tells arrives, it may be too late to change. The conclusion
Rise of the Moa
"To introduce today's episode. I thought maybe we should begin by reading a poem. Robert Are you game. I'm game for a little little poetry. In fact it's not just poetry. It's Moitri I did not make that joke in my head yet. But maybe because I'm not as perverse as you. This is by the New Zealand. Poet Allen Kerr now's was originally published in nineteen forty nine and it's called the skeleton of the Great Moa in Canterbury Museum Christchurch. The skeleton of the MOA on iron crutches broods over no great waste a private swamp was where this tree grew feathers once that hatches it's dusty clutch and guards them from the damp interesting failure to adapt on islands taller. But not more fallen than I. Who come bone to his bone. Peculiarly New Zealand's the eyes of children flicker round this tomb under the skylights wonder at the huge egg found in a thousand pieces piece together but with less patience than the bones that Doug in time deep shelter against the ocean weather not I some child. Born in a marvellous year will learn the trick of Standing Upright here. You can find that poem by the way. In the nineteen seventy-nine Anthology an anthology of Twentieth Century New Zealand poetry and I really loved the cadence of that poem and also Feel like it. Effectively captures the the weird beauty of these reassembled skeleton remains one sees of the mighty? Moa We just did Marianne Moore in the paper Nautilus. This is another poem like that. I love a good poem. That genuinely ponders biology Like this deals with the evolutionary adaptation of the MOA the flightless birds of New Zealand And the idea of learning the trick of Standing Upright. Yeah now this is going to be a fun. Couple of episodes. I'm really excited about these episodes I think the the Moa one of the things. That's really keeping me going right now to research. Read about the Moa Envision. The more no matter what we`re. I don't know where you are out there as you're listening to this where you are in your previous understanding of the. Moa and other flightless birds But this is a this is a wonderful and weird story that has a number a number of connections to things. We've talked about in the past but also some new angles. We're going to be talking about evolution. We're GONNA be talking about First contact between man and beast. It's it's GonNa be a fun ride and there's no better place to start a fun ride than in New Zealand. The land of avian decadence that's right and the place where where the Mammal is truly debase. That's right because you know. Obviously the rise of mammals is one of evolution's most celebrated victory stories right because in part because we are of course mammals ourselves. And there's perhaps a sense of of the gods and the primordial titans when we consider the age of the dinosaurs that came before us in our own. Mammalian Age That we have ascended in now. Well Yeah I mean. There's very much a case of When you look at the Cretaceous Paleocene extinction event that caused the demise of the non. Avian dinosaurs It's quite clear that their loss was our gain. Yes but it wasn't only our gain the gain of of birds and we often neglect the just the exceptional dominance of birds for this as they the the legacy of of the dinosaur and then they they remain highly successful in widespread to this day. They remain masters of the Air. Frequent masters water and sometimes masters of the land is well now. Why would birds be the masters of the land like they've got the air that seems so much better than the land? Why even bother with the land? Well of course the obvious answer there is that is that to be. A master of the of the air requires a great deal of energy. And if you don't have to fly around you quickly find reasons. Not Too narrowly speaking. Of course we'll so if we're talking about mammals and avian dinosaurs or birds. Why exactly was it that? The loss of the dinosaurs was the gain of these other glades. Well because suddenly you have all of these These these niches in the In in the in the environment that open up this suddenly a bird can can occupy various creatures. Have the ability to occupy mammals included. But this is where we see the emergence of a number of these different flightless birds. This is where we see the emergence of terror birds in the demon ducks. And we'll get into some more examples of flightless birds as we go but yet to be sure we still have some amazing flightless. Land Birds with us today and some of them are are quite enormous. The largest of course is the ostrich. There are two species remaining. There was a third the Asian ostrich that went extinct roughly six thousand years ago. Yeah the two extant species the common ostrich in the Somali ostrich and they're both native to Africa. Yeah and I. Sometimes I feel like we sometimes overlook. How cool ostriches are. I find that it zoos. They for one thing. It's zoo habitat in an and a fenced in area. But then sometimes the ostriches in there with a giraffe seems particularly unfair because the draft of course is the is the tallest extent mammal that we have and It feels kind of like a dirty trick to showcase the world's the world's tallest extent bird with the tallest mammal which towers over right. It's like I'm trying to show off my muscles but then you put me next to a gorilla. Yeah but but we have some other wonderful examples of flightless birds elsewhere for instance. We have emus which are very fascinating to get a chance to look at an email. Just watching e-mu as it goes about its business It's it's remarkable the cassowaries one of my favorites mind to there's a castleberry here at the Atlanta Zoo. Yes see soul the the cast where who we've talked to on the show before with with a friend Jason Ward here in down about Cecil the cassowaries who her member Jason telling us that it's dengue is very like fragrant smells of fruit. Even though it is I mean not to demonize animals but when you get up close to it it is horrifying beast like it's beautiful. It's colors are beautiful. It has the blue and the red and the black feathers. It's gorgeous animal but also if you look at its foot it's foot. Looks like a puppet from a monster movie it is. It is just a killing things. Got These clause in the scaly scabby skin That's a tongue twister. But you look at a castle up close some time if you just WanNa be terrified and audit nature indeed. Yeah they they can. They can prove quite deadly. If you you know the the human comes into close contact with them and their they'd be begin engaging defensive behavior. Oh Yeah don't try to look at their feet up close if there is not a barrier between you. Yeah of course. We have other Flightless bird to consider amazing ones. Of course it's the Kiwi of New Zealand the The Nocturnal Ground Bird. All of these birds are what we call rat. Tights diverse group of flightless birds that were widespread across the scattered fragments of the supercontinent Gondwana. In their Donald Dominance waned over time certainly with the the rise of Homo sapiens. We still have all these various examples that still remain today. And you find you find large flightless. Birds will actually large and small flightless birds everywhere from New Zealand to South America. Without even getting into the the the obvious example of just other flightless birds. There's also the pink win. Yeah of course But wh this raises the question. Why do we have flightless birds? All over the place like this well In the one thousand nine hundred ninety s there was a wonderfully titled Theory Moas Arc. Which would you assume that all of these rats descended from a common ancestor? So in other words the the idea here is that a a flighted ancestor became flightless on Gondwana and then as supercontinent split this one flightless ancestor diverged. Into all these different flightless species okay. So you get one instance of these birds descending from an ancestor and becoming flightless and then the flightless one goes all over the place. And then there's continental drift right to supercontinent splits up and the flightless descendants of that one ancestor all go off into different places and evolve in different directions and they become everything from the ostrich to the Kiwi to the MOA right but one of the the issues with this This idea is that this would mean we'd expect something we'd expect say in New Zealand. Expect the MOA in the Kiwi to be closely related to each other We'd expect that Any any of these rats that live close together would also be closely related but subsequent DNA studies have revealed that this was not the case instead of Moas Arc. The model seems to be one of numerous cases of flighted to flightless evolution around the world so again convergent evolution This repeated instance of a flighted bird evolving into a bird. That doesn't fly which seemed so strange of a of a choice for evolution to make. I mean not to personify it too much. But but what is the advantage there I think we alluded to this earlier. One of the main theories about this is that it's an energy advantage. If a bird doesn't need to fly than it doesn't need to make huge pectoral muscles flapping wings that can get it into the air and if it doesn't need to make those big muscles it can spend that energy on something else. Sorry can just survive on less
"cretaceous" Discussed on SpaceTime with Stuart Gary
"Other eating their usual diet or consuming pure Mediterranean diet which is rich in fruits nuts. Vegetables Legumes olive oil and fish and low in red meat and saturated fats. The findings support the idea. That simply improving your day to day. Diet Can Change Gut. Bacteria which in turn has the potential to promote healthier aging paleontologists discovered a new species of Tirana so Dina so at dig site in Alberta the giant meeting theropod which has been named a two threes this degree Turam was identified from a partial skull and upper and lower jaw bones. A report in the journal Cretaceous Research claims that based on the fines that nearly identified species would have been around eight meters long. It was discovered in seventy nine point. Five million-year-old Cretaceous period strata filling a gap in scientists understanding of tyrannosaurus solution. Scientists have identified more evidence linking whale strandings to the use of military Cerna a report in the proceedings of the Royal Society be examined incidents of Submarine Track Military Cerna documented well strategies near the Marinara archipelago in the Western Pacific Ocean. The authors found. About half of all the strandings four out of eight occurred within sixty days of the naval anti-submarine operations. The study supports the theory that Naval Sonar adversely affects. Well navigation. Well it's now official. Research has shown that junk food really can miss with your brain. The findings reported in Journal of the Royal Society Opened Science based on researches. You Fed lane healthy young people a Western style junk food died of waffles. Milkshakes and fast food for wake boy wait. Can I sign up? Yeah compared to those on a control died. The authors found that after just one week participant suffering paid function of the hippocampus. That's the area of the brain that supports memory and appetite and this caused them to experience a greater desire to eight junk food. Even when they were full you also say the hippocampus normally suppresses the for more food when you're full about the junk food diet seems to undermine the self control by increasing desire. Well it seems. Despite all the warnings there are lots of people out there that still believe the fake news. They read online without bothering to check the validity of the story or source. Any study is found. Foraging conspiracies between governments and medical communities. And the idea of ditching. Common Medical Treatments of life threatening diseases for unproven cures astill all the rage for an animal gullible public. It seems doctors hiding can't securities taking berries instead of vaccines and claims that eating instant noodles can kill you with the most popular medical stories of twenty nineteen. Pity they're all fake. Tim Mendham from strain. Skeptic says the fifty most popular fake health stories got over twelve million shares mostly on facebook. Clearly a fun of knowledge. What people should consider when they're looking at a particular claim? Supposedly scientific climb differentiation. Between Science from pseudoscience science follows a process called the scientific method amongst various predecessors on doesn't and the big difference comes down to hammer say use the criteria to shut reputable number. They are things you should be looking at full. None of them are perfect there. Certainly loopholes in Mosul him but if he had one after the other the other the other. It should give you more confidence. That what you're looking at particular client is Jalen. The first is has published at a reputable journal and were peer reviewed by independent researchers. Who should die what they're talking about? Not every journalist recognized shonky journals out there that don't when he puppy review even some nice channels has had areas with. I publish things and I turned out to be lacking in good scientific rigour. The classic one and Whitefield scare tactic of Maizels causing autism was published in the Lancet and that was not a ridiculous taken off. The even these learning journals can actually make us likes to process builds on previous. Would it contributes to future worth if radically contradict something. You have to have a look at it very closely and really find out if it stands up but if science bills one thing. Paul another until he has a pretty goes not one hundred percent but a very good belief that this would be true so peer reviewed publications building not learn anything in the promise you a panacea more accurate Q. You're probably reading a bed online or in the daily press. Anything the promises that forget it. I'm likely because it doesn't happen. That way. That people sort of grab on through anything like hand to sort of try and find the area trying to find a cure. It's exercise something. Superlative is announced with breathless enthusiasm in the press. Be Very very careful. Be careful of research interest. That happens a lot. Unfortunately but people do disclose this an interest where they're getting their funding from a single study doesn't work or it can work if you get a lot more than just a single study to actually make it very convincing finances. Bet If you say that the build up with not about one particular at La reasonable sample size holliston tonight. Sometimes how small sample size pistol see that scientists use to particular case? Nfc just say well. That's not representative country. And of course the other problem with sample sizes especially if it involves people. You're a scientist working university. You'll paypal sample. Size is probably going to be a bunch of grads who try to make a bit of money can be very doc- like all of these things not none of these sort of criteria comparatively supposedly. The subject should be independent people off the street and if he can and they some numbers so if the people who have the recent proposal. I doing the right thing I will say. You can't use isolate as you sample. It just doesn't work fare. You also gotta look at the statistics. Do they made anything you have to watch out for the saints? Ageism statistical significance and all that sort of areas when your average person who's got a busy day kids to look after. What have you. You'RE NOT GONNA go searching through scientific papers to work out what's right and what's wrong. You GonNa read an article online or something. You gotTa have. The associate looked at to get. Your information is reputable and that. Stodgy as well. I mean how many times the programs like a current affair run magic user stories that account a famous approach particular pay company to say my client has this amazing product that you really should be putting the and it's amazing there is pretty tough CETERA. Anything else fine. I'll follow up. Generally speaking there's not proper alternative views expressed the Sisters Amazing Miracle Cure Daikyo. And of course it's not just the current affair. Spf Just WanNa Been Spoon Award for a program. That was doing it serious issues in the judging of some of the things that are being put forward has medicine or myth. My media by mainstream media is not fun could be public actions on peer reviewed. I mean what you do. And you'll probably GONNA use you look at associates which has been peer reviewed and has been studied and you use qualified people so even. If you're not the expert on everything but I know you are but And I made sure the same here. As the the skeptic magazine unlock the fundamental wisdom and I do not anything that I looked to other people who do name and looks around the people who know a hell of a lot more and basically reach the states where the information you get as long as it comes from broad areas of central you build up with signs. It is lot more reputable than one person sitting in they go thank. Ginger is accused of cancer. That's Tim Mendham from Australian skeptics..
How To Make a Mass Extinction
"This episode. Not so scary but exciting citing that we're kind of in the most consequential few decades in the past few hundred million years. That's Peter Brennan. On his website. He describes himself as a placental mammal camel but he's also an award winning journalist and the author of the book the ends of the world volcanic apocalypse lethal oceans and our quest to understand understand. Earth's past mass extinctions a book that the journal Science called a surprisingly lyrical investigation of Earth's mass extinctions in New York City recently and we sat down together to talk about the book midway through our discussion. We'll take a break for a short segment sponsored by the Cavalry Prize with Stanford neuroscientists scientists Carlos shots which perhaps surprisingly has some connections with the discussion of mass extinctions. And now Peter Brandon. Let's talk about mass extinction all right. The book is really kind of a survey of the great mass extinctions in the history of our our planet. Yeah there's a reason though that you go through all that and that's related to what's happening today right. Yeah I really wrote it because I think in the popular imagination mass extinctions or what happens when big rocks from space at the planet. And I'd noticed that there was this really interesting thing. Conversation going on in the geology community over the last thirty years or so where yes and asteroids seems to have something to do with why the dinosaurs went extinct. But they're all these Older mass extinctions some of which were much more severe and almost all of them had to do with severe rapid climate change driven by changes in carbon dioxide basically atmosphere. And so I thought there was both this sort of sci-fi story about these sort of lost worlds that you might not be familiar with 'cause unfamiliar with the dinosaurs but The planet really has been a bunch of different plants over its lifetime and so if I thought that was really interesting to write about but there's also this news hook about. Hey we're starting starting to pull some of the same lovers that have been pulled in the worst things that have ever happened this time. We're pulling the levers in the past natural Rossi's of the levers rate. Yeah so in the past this has happened. It's been for the most part sort of tectonic cataclysms So when one of the mass extinctions there's some weird stuff going on with mountain building that might draw down. Co Two and plunged into an ice age but for a bunch of the mass extinctions actually are seem to be associated with these huge apocalyptic volcanic events called large provinces were just an unimaginable amount of lava comes out of the earth covering Thousands of are actually in one case three million square miles But law alone. If it comes out part of the world can't kill everything on the planet has to be you know because things on the other side of the planet seemed to be going extinct. In these mass extinctions scientists are trying to figure out what that must have something to do with the gases that are coming out at the same time. And what you see in some of the mass extinctions but if you know how to read the rocks if you're a really clever geochemists you can see that there are. These huge injections of carbon dioxide is the air from these volcanoes. And you can tell that it gets really warm. The Ocean starts to lose its oxygen and this thing called Ocean acidification. which we're doing now? which is what happens when too much co two reacts with seawater is is happening in these mass extinctions too? So it's sort of unnerving to see that you know we're not there yet but Were trending direction. Where if you go too far down that road that it can really be all breaks loose right? A lot of people have said we are in the midst of the sixth mass extinction but the scientists who talked to are a little more conservative conservative than that. Well I think paleontologists are certainly you know if you're a conservation biologist or any area and ecologist you can just see this tragedy unfolding all around to you and I'm not trying to minimize the the catastrophic damage. Humans have done to the planet. But I think it's actually. It's both worrying that we could even be in the same conversation as these mass extinctions because these are just you're turning everything up to eleven and trying as hard as you kill everything on the planet. I mean this is the the end the boundary boundary sort of condition for how hard the planet can be pushed. And we're not there yet. which the good news? We still have time to save the planet and that's really the point of that Sort of discussed in the book that you know. We're driving species extinct at a crazy rate today. But they're still time before we get to the level love you know when the asteroid wiped out the dinosaurs when these giant volcanos were happening. So there's time to save the the turn the ship around and it's sort of scary but exciting we're kind of the most consequential few decades in in the past few hundred million years. It's really up to us to to avert to avert this Scott in a mind boggling and I didn't mean to minimize what's going on right now. By saying that the scientists he spoke to her a little more conservative about whether we're in the sixth mass extinction. It's more more like you don't have lung cancer yet. You only have emphysema right so everything's cool. Everything's bad right exactly If we keep up the current rates then we'll get there for certain In the next few decades centuries to Millennia depending on how you count but we will. We'll get there for certain if we don't change their behavior and we're making the sound like a very depressing book but there's some there's some lighter moments to it. I'd say I was it has to do with your felicity as a writer actually happening out there. Scientists the funny people funny people for example. Just to since. We're trying to have a good time here. let's talk about the first time you went out the Cincinnati Rock count people and the guy. The had a name for something that you picked up. Yeah right so if you know how to read the rocks and you know what you're looking looking at. There is no matter where you are in the country. There's not a boring spot for geology And there's some great. There's a APP called rocked which you condemn on my phone and it will tell you what you're standing on basically and so no matter where you are. If you're in New England you can look up. Oh my goodness I'm on this volcanic archipelago that crashed into tropical North America. Four hundred fifty nine years ago or if you're in boulder where I am you know there's red rocks from the middle of Panja and the dinosaurs and you know there really isn't a boring or right here in New York. We're on top of UH either Cambrian stuff from the dawn of animal. Life Ocean rock or in Brooklyn. There's glacial stuff from these crazy ice ages. That happened. Not that long Ongo and there's some cretaceous stuff in Staten Island's from the dinosaurs from these big river delta. So there's an amazing story underneath your feet. No matter where you are and geology is just is sort of amazing endlessly fascinating field. That sort of tells you about these alien worlds at the planet spend before a sort of crisscrossed the country and joined up with professional geologists amend was sort of introduced these groups of amateur theologists. Who are really inspiring people because they take their own time out of their own weekends to You know just pull over to the side of the road. These unloved highway road cuts. 'cause they know that there's amazing fossils there and they're incredibly dedicated to it and I was sort of a Newbie and I joined up with him. One day to look for fossils on the side of the highway in Cincinnati because it turns out that in Cincinnati four hundred fifty six four hundred fifty million years ago It was a shallow sea and it was filled. With sort of weird things. Look like horseshoe crabs in these giant squid like things. And so it's just it's totally alien. SCIFI world infects the lends its name to a particular time because of that right. There's this thing called the Cincinnati and in the late or division period because Cincinnati is the best place in the world to find fossils fossils from this period right before this big mass extinction but I went there and I went with all these Sort of really interesting quirky people. Who Do this spare time? Just pull over the side of the road looking for fossils and we're finding lots of these things called grab delights which are these weird sea creatures that swam in these colonial homes and stuff like that not colonial homes like from I'm from New England But yes I was finding a lot of those and so I would ask people what's this and say. Oh it's a trial by. Oh it's too late and then I thought I found something and I showed it to this guy and that's what it was and he said that's a leave right I said is that good. And he said Yeah Lever Right there and he took it out of my hand and he threw it on the ground so good. Yep Ah so you you went out. With a whole bunch of different people are amateurs and professional researchers and Saul a lot of I just got back from England and I saw the white cliffs of Dover Right So the white cliffs of Dover like a really good example of a lot of stuff. You're talking talking about it's all fossils. Yeah right yeah. I think people don't appreciate that limestone for the most part is Stuff it was. It's calcium carbonate. That was sort of precipitated by sea creatures. And if you go to Indiana and you see limestone if you put under Mexico begin see it's just all a lot of it's like little Z.. Creatures and things like that and the white cliffs of Dover Our caucus fours which are the you know you see today from space in these giant swirling blue green sort of hurricanes in the ocean. And it's just plankton. And you give plankton enough time and it can build up something like the white cliffs of Dover this giant Edifice Livingston. I wants to living
Iridium's Pivotal Role In Our Past And ... Maybe Our Future?
"We're talking about iridium as show. What does this element tell us about dinosaurs? and how they went extinct. We're going to go back. Tens of millions of years ago to start. Yeah well we start and say like nineteen eighty. That's what I said Richard. I said one thousand nine hundred nineteen eighty okay. Well that's actually. When an academic paper gets published by a group led by a father and son team from the a University of California at Berkeley Louis Alvarez the father of physicist and by the way Nobel Prize winner and his son Walter Alvarez? WHO's a geologist and they? We're interested in a specific period of time. In Earth's history it was a transition between two geologic periods the Cretaceous period and the Paleocene good ones too good period. Yeah so dinosaurs still roamed the earth during the Cretaceous period. But after that you don't find any of these dino bones except in our current dinosaurs birds. You're you know what I mean. I I do know what you mean. Yeah thinking of dinosaurs. Birds Birds Dinosaurs. Same thing it's sad. It's true so at any rate but the Alvarez's weren't actually trying to answer that big. Why did the dinosaurs go extinct? Mystery that point Walter and Louis Alvarez. We're trying to answer. Just one part of that riddle which is how quickly that transition between the two periods took place so walter trump off to Italy where there are rock outcrops that were laid down his sediment back at the time of that transition. Okay seems like a good idea. Why look at those rocks knocks well to get the back story? I talked to another Berkeley scientists. My name is Paul Renae. And I'm the director of the Berkeley Ju- Chronology Center any said the secret to figuring Out How fast. That transition happened involved measuring dust from outer space. That's constantly raining down on earth. Tiny amounts Louis Alvarez Walter's father her biggest physicist thought. Well you know we can determine that we can. We can make some reasonable assumptions about how much dust is coming in from from extraterrestrial sources. Okay extraterrestrial we're talking stuff from outside Earth or the atmosphere in Richard. Can I just say the fact that somebody thought thought about measuring cosmic dust to figure out the passage of time sixty million years ago is objectively awesome. It is and when you think about the dust coming from asteroids colliding with each other. It's even cooler and they were looking for particular stuff and In particular if we look at an element. That's rare on on earth but common in meteors in an element. That's rare on earth but common in asteroids Guess what we're talking about Matty I'm going to take out style and I'm GonNa say radium. Guess Excellent guests. Thank you are we. But what's the role of the dust here right well. Louis was operating unreasonable unreasonable assumption. which is that? This dust from meteors rains down on the earth. More or less constant rate. It's dust of course enriched with iridium. So I figured if they could measure is your how much iridium had built up in. This transitional layer. They would be able to tell. How long taken to accumulate? So I'm thinking sort of figuring out how much snow fell over a period of the time. If you know the rate at falls and how much is on the ground except this is tens of millions of years ago Roger Dodger tens of millions of years ago and the iridium doesn't Milton the sunlight so it sticks sticks around you can still see at sixty five or sixty six years later so so it didn't rate when they ran those calculations with the Alvarez's found was stunning. The results were so so extreme. That just just a the passage of a long time would not really explain this. It was many times greater than the amount amount of radium in this layer than expected just from this gradual accumulation so the conclusion they drew was that there had been some huge pulse of extraterrestrial Oriole's Joe Matter and the obvious conclusion that they quickly came to was that it was a large impact a large impact. We're talking to you asteroid did we are an asteroid They think the asteroid smashes into the earth destroying so much of life on earth and throwing up an enormous muscle mass of dust into the atmosphere. The dust itself caused mass extinctions but it also had iridium in it and it spread around the Earth so they realized this collision is a big one and and the conditions that resulted you know reasonably enough they thought they theorized killed off. These won't bring dinosaurs. You know what you're nobody ever thinks about that other life. I feel like it's always dinosaurs. Dinosaurs dinosaurs. I know you don't get little plastic models of marine for him. And if we're talking to you as I mentioned in this paper was published back in one thousand nine hundred eighty and back then. A catastrophic end seemed to mini scientists pretty far fetched because evolution takes place over millions of years so so a lot of scientists were expecting to see gradual changes. and and Paul Rennie says when the Alvarez has proposed this meteor theory created quite a stir in the community it did. Yeah I mean. It was originally not widely accepted but acceptance sort of came in waves and the biggest confirmation team win in the early nineties. There was the discovery of the crater on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. A study published in. Today's issue of Science magazine appears to add weight to a theory that a giant media or struck the earth. Sixty five million years ago and what is now Mexico many scientists. This is the Intro to my story that aired in NPR back in Nineteen ninety-two. Some scientists. See this as evidence that helps prove their theory that the dinosaurs were wiped out by a giant asteroid or comet but as NPR NPR science correspondent Richard Harris reports the theories baby Richard Harris Science reporter even covering this story for a bit. I have indeed actually packs into the early nineteen eighties but that no dinosaur drug please and a really big asteroid could scatter iridium dust. Globally the question was. Where's the crater that a huge asteroid like that would make take a look and listen to all that? Join Your Voice you know I know well what what can be more fun than dead dinosaurs. Really Okay So. This study found the point of impact for the giant asteroid. Yes it was a crater one hundred ten miles across called Jiffy Lube and it was created by this asteroid that had a tremendous amount of explosive power. As you can. Well imagine sure so. When these geologist tested the age of the materials from the crater it turned out to date very closely to the mass extinction by the way? Dating methods. have been recalibrated calibrated since that paper. So scientists now say that catastrophe happened. Sixty six million years ago. Not Sixty five million. What's a million years among friends? Yeah yeah yeah absolutely so Joe. Yeah but the point is of course the impact and the dinosaurs demise lineup perfectly and for that nineteen ninety-two story. I talked to Carl Swisher at the Institute of Human Origins which at the time was in Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley Berkeley no even much larger when we went across the street to the UC. Berkeley and told Walter Alvarez the ages we're getting I think he was quite excited because he spent What the last Ten fifteen years trying to find a crater of each throughout the World Team Alvarez for the win absolutely yes for the most part. There's a lot of evidence but there will always be some skeptics in the scientific community. And you know it's also important maybe to mention that at the same time about the same time there was a whole lot of volcanic activity we also on the earth. So there's always people thinking one two punch. Maybe you're saying definitely came. But was it the absolute Khuda Gra for all these dinosaurs. That's still that's still debated. Yeah astroid touch volcanoes low bit of mix maybe so okay Richard Radium helped us figure out our dinosaur extinction mystery. You mentioned earlier that it could also help us potentially prevent the next global catastrophe. We're not talking another asteroid here. No we have Bruce Willis For Asteroids if you remember the action movie Armageddon No no no actually. We're talking about climate change climate change. How does a radium help? Well what we really need to do to. Combat climate change is to have clean fuel. That's cheaper than fossil fuels. If we could get such a thing in other words would quickly switch to the cheaper fuel and we'd stop dumping all that carbon dioxide said in the atmosphere. I don't know about quickly but sure. That's the dream. Richard Yeah Fair enough. So what's the link between clean fuels radium. Well we really liked to capture energy. She from sunlight and turn that into liquid fuels now. Plants figured this out long before the dinosaurs were even around. Tho- sent this says that's right and the first step in this process is to split a water molecule. And the problem is this is not so easy to do in the lab what chemist need is a catalyst so the chemicals that that speed up chemical reactions out there getting stuff done. You got it and I'm guessing you can see where I'm going with this. A radium is a good catalyst. It is a great catalyst for this purpose and imagine turning sunlight into hydrogen fuel or liquid fuel. You could put into an airplane. Of course there's one eighty problem with the scenario. Iridium you will recall. Aw is one of the rarest elements on Earth's crust because of his scarcity's one of the most expensive metals as well. So he does complicate our Laura Research so is the Mother Nature through that us. That's Guanghui Wing. He's a chemistry professor at Boston College. And he's trying to develop an iridium catalyst to make fuel out of sunlight and he's trying to get around this issue of how little of it. We have our ideas that we wanted to utilize this catheters to his maximum. That is we wanted Khimik every atom conce and since iridium is so rare he wants to make sure every single atom in a catalyst is actually at work speeding up reactions even so oh it's probably a stretch to think about building industry around iridium right so he and his colleagues are also hoping that once they understand how iridium does this magic they can find something else that will work as a catalyst as well or nearly as well and ideally something. That's abundant on the earth. So iridium or something like it could potentially help save the day. That's
A journey into the Chicxulub Crater
"The town of trip to Mexico it's a crater about a hundred and twenty miles in diameter it's about a hundred ninety kilometers during the created this crater was about six miles that's ten kilometers wide hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these comments measurements the crater is hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map NASA researchers examined it from space ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the trip to the crater this is Louise Alvarez a geologist Walter Alvarez a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it they noted increased concentrations of the elements radium in sixty five million year old clay medium is rare on earth but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids the cover is a massive asteroid hit the earth blanketing the world in a medium showers particles wasn't the only effect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dinosaurs which until then had managed to survive for a hundred and eighty million years died out Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes the impact heated atmosphere dramatically because in most big dinosaurs to die within hours this mass extinction definitely happened also evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time became extinct die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history which are also known as the age of reptiles in the age of mammals respectively today scientists call the extinction B. K. T. event after the Germans spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the KT event had an enormous impact on life on earth but what would happen Astrid had missed would have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would co exist or one in which neither could live in a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with the force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently sixty five million years ago some of the animals and plants that are common today we're just getting started these include placental mammals which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms Dr after the KT event and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way it may not sound ecological niches to fill in this scenario today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals including people but even Astrid hadn't had them source other cases life forms come to think anyway sometimes our species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid impact led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story other global catastrophes like massive volcanic eruptions in what is now India most likely played a role also the changing landscape as the supercontinent Pangea broke up into today's continents probably had something to do with it too there's another argument that the check to lab asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction researchers Greta Keller and markets Harding both concluded the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period Keller theorizes particular impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues that the regulator didn't come to the church let asteroid from another event such as a series of
"cretaceous" Discussed on KGO 810
"And I got a ways and sometimes paleontologists have nicknamed at the one that got away this is some these are examples that of how these trace fossils can tell us about the real full living interactions between the dinosaurs in their environments that we get this real sense of them as animals that were now literally impacting one another's lives two chapters in your book about digestive tract these the record in stone of what we know was inside the dinosaur's stomach I want to start with gastroliths because why would a dinosaur eat stones yeah I've often pointed this out whenever I've given talks to audiences on this I say how many do you have a rock collection usually a lot of people will raise their hands that they have rock collections I say well guess what dinosaurs beat you to it by about two hundred million years only the thing is they carry them on their end side these stones can help grind of food they're used for digestion and we see this very commonly and a good number of species of birds it was interesting is around the turn of the twentieth century some paleontologists started seen similar sorts of stones in the interiors of dinosaurs so I started scene in the rib cage of a dinosaur there would be these rocks so they hypothesized that days were maybe a similar function what we found now more than a hundred years later is that the youth camps for lesser called stomach stones are relatively rare and dinosaurs were now finding that they're actually more common not in the beverage dinosaurs but more common in the smaller carnivorous ones there are parts which guess what heart related to birds that we know that birds came out of those kind of dinosaurs so we think these gastroliths were used to help with digestion that they were used to help grind of food or otherwise AT and digestion and that these were probably more common in those kinds of doubt dinosaurs the Serra pot stand some of the other large dynasty we believe all during the Mesozoic from two hundred fifty to sixty five million years ago they all eight stones in in all aspects the oldest evidence of gastroliths in dinosaurs I think is from about for months what I'm recalling about two hundred and ten years ago yeah in the late Triassic okay so Triassic Jurassic and Cretaceous all right now the question of the rest of the internals of the dinosaurs you'll note that you're looking FOR regurgitates rigor regurgitate tests which are vomit that's the stomach contents some preserved in stone feces copper lights and euro lights which is urinary on the stones all spectacular evidence of dinosaurs were here what what do we learn from the contents of the dinosaurs that are preserved this chapter I really enjoyed writing night title that the main title was the remains of the day because it really does give you a sense of what was a dinosaur eating on a particular day or if it was Bruce leaving itself on a particular day how that trace evidence might get preserved there was there's a couple of examples of dinosaur.
Winners and Losers of the Democratic Debate
"The Democratic Party is trying to figure out who it is during these presidential primary debates the big it's the big highlights that you see we'll go through some of them it's all the Sniping Amy Klobuchar and Liz Warren and Kamala Harris get some shots in their Liz worn the people going after Elizabeth Warren then you've got booed edge in Baidoa going after each other and that's all very interesting the central fact of the debate is that Biden is falling apart his polling is collapsing his ability to stand on stage is collapsing Bernie Sanders had a heart attack a week and a half ago he seemed much much more lucid and vibrant and energetic than Joe Biden did and to our knowledge Joe Biden hasn't had any heart attacks this was all about your and he just he was saying things that didn't make a lot of sense he was kind of losing his train of thought he was pushing different analogies together it just didn't and buyer confidence that this is the guy at one point biden was explaining his economic plans and he said he was gonna he was gonNA stop people from clipping coupons in the stock market get what I've talked about is how you get things done and the way to get things done is take a look at the tax code right now the idea we have to start rewarding work just wealth I would eliminate the capital gains tax that would raise the capital gains tax to the highest rate of thirty nine point five percent I would double it because guess what why in God's name should someone who's clipping coupons in the stock market make in fact pay a lower tax rate than someone who in fact is like I said a schoolteacher and a firefighter it's ridiculous and they pay a lower tax so none of that is true nothing he said even comes close to approaching truth to be I don't even know how you judge the truth value of the statement clipping coupons in the stock market because people do not clear up coupons in this I guess they would be really just really good frugal stockbrokers if they clipped like if there were some coupon to get a better price on some mm some portion of a company doesn't make any sense I think what he was trying to say is people gambling in the stock market that's that's a frequent analogy you hear from the left and that it's unfair the people who are gambling are paying lower tax rate than their secretaries this is aligned Warren Buffett's used this line it just isn't true it is not true at all where does it come from it's because the capital gains tax rate is lower than the income tax rate for some people actually eat for people Oh who you know if you're talking about your secretary you're talking about the you know the janitor is paying more higher tax rate than the the stockbroker or the on manager of that perhaps isn't isn't true anyway even on the income tax rate but what happens is for a lot of people work in finance they get a salary but then they get most of their money as a bonus or in when you're talking about the millionaire billionaire class they're paying capital gains on the or paying capital gains taxes on their investment income so you're not even talking about bonuses you're not talking about income you talk about money that's in the market that's investments and then the money that you make out of those investments you pay a lower tax rate even on that that is money that has already been taxed at the corporate level so even that argument is not true but y the way this gets interpreted is that billionaires are paying less money in taxes than their secretaries that is never that's not even close to true the wealthy in this country pay virtually all of the taxes the top ten percent pay the vast majority of taxes in this country top one percent pay a lion share of taxes in this country I mean the half of the country doesn't pay any taxes at all in terms of federal income taxes so this whole argument is bogus the problem with Biden is not that he's making a bogus argument everybody was up there said he wasn't even making the argument well and he was confusing his words and then here's the knockout punch they brought up Ukraine Anderson Cooper brings up Ukraine and Joe Biden incredibly lies on camera again and says he never discussed Ukraine with us President Yeah as you've said your son Hunter today gave an interview admitted that he made a mistake and showed poor judgment by serving on the board in Ukraine and did you make a mistake by letting him you're the point person on Ukraine at the time if you can answer book my son statement speaks for itself I did my job never discussed a single thing with my son about anything having to do with their crane known is indicated I have we've always kept everything separate even when my son was the attorney general of the state works we never discussed the there'd be no potential conflict okay there's a lot of confusion here first of all he says he's doubling down on a statement that he made that no one his ever suggested that Joe Biden talked with Ukraine or talked with his son about Ukraine and there's no evidence of that at all the trouble is someone has suggested that the person who suggested that was Hunter Biden in a New Yorker profile in July and he actually reiterated that statement on good morning Arca on ABC News two days ago did you and your father ever discuss you know as I said only time was after news count it wasn't a discussion in any way there's no to this no we never did what hold on hold on you say did you ever discuss Ukraine he goes no just one time there was one time we I'll shoot they told me not to say that no there's no but we didn't we wasn't even a discussion sure we said something he said something we were talking about it but that's not I wouldn't call that a discussion it was more of a discourse it was more of a Colo Que- it was next question place past next question Joe Biden even in his answer by the way he says we never talked about Ukraine even when my son was the attorney general of Delaware that's not the sun we're talking about joe his Sun Beau Biden his late son Bo Biden was the attorney general of Delaware the son who was on the Ukrainian Energy Board was Hunter Biden and hundred says he did talk about it and Hunter Biden goes on because good morning America their credit actually pushed him on it. There's an old saying you didn't talk about it then you're saying you did talk about it by the way what were you doing on the board in the first place that I hope you know what you're doing doing I said I do and that was literally the discussion why because my dad was vice president United States there's literally nothing as young man or as a full grown adult that my father in some way has not influence over as it does not serve either one of us when he said I hope you know what you're doing what did he think you were doing well he read the press reports that I joined the board of reasonable which was eight Ukrainian natural gas company and there's been a lot of misinformation Shen about me not about my dad nobody buys at but advises idea that I was unqualified to be on the board what were your qualifications to be on the border berries I was sharing with the board Amtrak for five years I was the chairman of the board of the UN World Food Program I was a lawyer for boies Schiller flexner one of the most prestigious law firms in the world didn't have any extensive knowledge about natural gas or Ukraine itself though no but I think that I had as much as anybody else that was on the board for yeah this is this is not going well for Hunter Biden because he's right he probably didn't have any less knowledge than anyone else on the board this is a crooked board that's what really anti boards are certainly an oligarch countries like Ukraine when and corrupt countries like Ukraine they say what previous experience did you have what qualified you to be on the board of this Ukrainian energy company while you're while your father was vice president as well I was on the board of Amtrak you know that other company that has a relationship to the federal government that my father famously travels on so much that they call him Amtrak Joe Yeah it was on that so what are you calling me a nepotistic for and before that I was on another board and hey look I did have one real job I worked for boies Schiller which is maybe the most famous democratic lobbying law firm in the country okay all right doesn't acquit himself very well here so biden collapses on stage in real time two ways to respond to this for the Democratic Party and for the candidates they can either remain hardline progressives or they can try to take Bernie Haddens place in the moderate lane because the moderate lane now is falling apart so there is an opening here I was wondering I thought why on Earth was the Lgbtq townhall on Friday what was the purpose of this and then it occurred to me people were tweeting about this they had that LGBTQ crazy town town all on Friday because then it allowed the Democrats to look more moderate at this debate just a week later less than a week later while we're having to discuss any of the LGBT issues in the pronouns and the genders so there was a real opening and I think the Democratic Party tried to try to make sure it looked in opening four moderate now some candidates can't take that Bernie Sanders is never going to be a moderate he went full bore leftist last night he said on the collectivist issue Parekh Salon climate change you said it's the greatest threat that the planet has ever faced this planet faces the greatest threat in its history from climate change and the green new deal that I have advocated will create up to twenty million jobs as we move away from fossil fuel energy efficiency and sustainable energy all right the weather which may or may not increase in temperatures slightly a little bit over the next century he is the greatest threat the planet has ever faced says Bernie Sanders the man who probably never heard of the Cretaceous Paleo gene mass extinction event three quarters of it wiped out he probably hasn't heard of that one so he's just it's a little historical ignorance for him that's the far left that's about as far left as you go with Bernie Sanders Baidoa Rourke so trying to play into that left Lane Betas campaign is falling apart I mean there's pretty much no reason should be at this debate anymore and so he's he's been trying to signal that he's as left as they come over the past few months this is after a career where he played himself off mostly as a moderate in Congress and so he obviously doesn't believe in anything but he felt leftism was going to bring them all the way it looks like that's not gonna work so he's one last tries going to say that we're going to undermine the second amendment he's GonNa take away all your guns go door to door take them all away how exactly are you going to force people to give up their weapons you don't even know who has those weapons look we're GonNa make sure the the priority is saving the lives of our fellow Americans I think almost everyone on this stage agrees that it's not right and as president would seek to ban the sale of fifteens and AK47's those are weapons of war they were designed to kill people effectively efficiently on a battlefield to be clear exactly how are you going to take away
New species of dinosaur discovered in Japan
"Scientist in Japan say they've discovered a new species of dinosaur Akito university researchers wrote in the journal scientific reports they can be a source japonicus was active during the Cretaceous period over sixty five million years ago the plant eating giant probably weighed between four and a half and six tons depending on whether it walked on two or four legs and makes this the largest dinosaur ever found in
"cretaceous" Discussed on KLBJ 590AM
"Authorities say a Russian airliner carrying coal miners to the remote arctic islands slammed into a snow capped mountain as it came into land one hundred and forty one dead reminds me I recently flew on a Russian airliner the Atlantic is an amazing sight to see lined up from the coast literally the coast of Africa all the way to a few hundred miles now from the American coast hurricane hurricane storm storm storm literally lined up from Africa to near America one increasing in strength the storm after another it is an amazing sight they said it was not going to be a season like we had last year with storms literally lined up from the African coast to America but here we've got it once again surprising the people who try to predict the weather ahead of time something on dinosaurs the scientific debate over whether dinosaurs were warm blooded like mammals and birds or cold blooded like reptiles is simmering again several scientists claim that they found the first fossilized evidence at least some dinosaurs were cold blooded is a cat scans of quotes superbly preserved specimens encoded dinosaurs from the Cretaceous period showed they have nasal anatomy is similar to that of such cold blooded modern animals as crocodiles and other lizards these scanned specimens included a try on a source of rex and many others several experts say the research does not close the debate over whether the extinct creatures were cold blooded or warm blooded so there you've got it I have got what I think is probably the fax the great bream read the other day on T. W. A. flight eight hundred all by the way while we're on the subject of eight hundred in the photograph up on the web page reporting to be the alleged missile that brought it down arm one that might brought it down there is trouble on the web and there are some large servers in such that went down.
"cretaceous" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"Norwegian authorities say a Russian airliner carrying coal miners to the remote arctic islands slammed into a snow capped mountain as it came in to land one hundred and forty one dead reminds me I recently flew on a Russian airliner the Atlantic is an amazing sight to see lined up from the coast literally the coast of Africa all the way to a few hundred miles now from the American coast hurricane hurricane storm storm storm literally lined up from Africa to near America one increasing in strength storm after another it is an amazing sight they said it was not going to be a season like we had last year with storms literally lined up from the African coast to America but here we've got it once again surprising the people who try to predict the weather ahead of time something on dinosaurs the scientific debate over whether dinosaurs were warm blooded like mammals and birds or cold blooded like reptiles is simmering again several scientists claim that they found the first fossilized evidence at least some dinosaurs were cold blooded they say cat scans of quotes superbly preserved specimens and quoted dinosaurs from the Cretaceous period showed they had nasal anatomy is similar to that of such cold blooded modern animals as crocodiles and other lizards these ground specimens included a try on a source rex and many others several experts say the research does not close the debate over whether the extinct creatures were cold blooded or warm blooded so there you've got it I have got what I think is probably the fax that rate bream read the other day on T. W. A. flight eight hundred all by the way while we're on the subject of eight hundred in the photograph up on the web page purporting to be the alleged missile that brought it down to one that might brought it down there is trouble on the web and there are some large servers in such that went down.
"cretaceous" Discussed on The Librocube
"You know what I feel like the series name, should maybe not intermingle with the book names within the series because it can make it confusing Orion in the dying time book number three of the Orion series. Sounds dumb the book. However, not dumb. It's good. I like these books. The are, you know what one when we're these books published. Let's see nineteen published. Nineteen Ninety-one is that the original, though, originally published may very well be. Yeah. So nineties, sci-fi fantasy kinda sorta kinda sort of. I don't know how you would I think, if you listen to last sewed, ser a little hard to pinpoint. It's got Sifi. It's got a myth elements in the terms of God's Greek gods. But they're not actually odd. So the gist of this series is human beings, eventually reach a point where we become so advanced in technology and biology, I guess he would say, sort of that classic where we become. We've actually volved to become nothing but thought nothing but balls of light, quote unquote. And when we reached that point, we sort of realize, we can manipulate time, we can travel in time, we can change things in the past to affect our future, which shit. I guess goes awry, it's at that point that we are kind of God's right, the interesting thing. There is that. It's those beings that then go back and not only create humans, but over the course of time half to prevent things from these humans becoming extinct, which would then make them selves extinct. So the reason the God's they're mostly you kind of think of them as the Greek gods. They often go buy those names, they often have powers like that often look like that. So thinking of them as the, the Greek enrollment gods actually, as well is, is not right. But it's also pretty close to accurate anyways, so they wouldn't exist. I if the reason they're involved in the, in the seemingly day-to-day lives of humans is because they have to be because they have to protect them, because if they don't the nave himselves would see suggests it's almost like that on this isn't some fancy as well. That idea that if you are a God. Your power is gained through the followers that you have. So if you have more followers, the more powerful, you will be, which is sort of a cool interesting idea for a fantasy setting the cows that measured like almost, like, you know what I've, I've often thought of enough did this for comedy bang, bang. Oh, maybe we'll segue for future segment here company bang, bang. When I do would you rather scenarios? Sometimes I'll throw in one that I like a or just the sort of idea that you have an army of the number of Twitter fall all your all your Twitter. Followers are your army who who has the most powerful army, so that sort of dumb idea. Okay. So in this one, let me read the good rates, and maybe it'll be a little more specific. A sequel to Orion and vengeance of Orion. At the end of the Cretaceous period. Earth is in the grip of the dinosaurs. Third leader is a reptile worshipped by the Egyptians as a powerful God for thousands of years..
Our spoiler-free Avengers: Endgame discussion (The 3:59, Ep. 549)
"The. Tonight, and Roger Chang as I Mike sarin Tino. So vendors endgame staters tomorrow night. But I as Mike, and I had a chance to see early the movie poised to be probably the biggest opening weekend of all time with maybe a billion dollars. The question is is a worth it. And let's let's not get spoiler is built is worth three to. Yes. The done. We say more you go. Sure this been ten years or eleven years, storytelling. Yep. This thing is setting up the end of the first set of ten years, and we're setting up the next ten years. I think is it's a lot. There's a lot of service. It's awesome fitting, and it's it's three hours and for some reason does not drag. Yeah, that's what I found really impressive about. This thing was that it had a lot of master serve. Right. It had the basically pay off law. The loose ends from eleven years, storytelling. There are tons of characters involved tons and really set things up for the next ten years, and it actually kinda succeeded in doing all that it was like you said it was very satisfying conclusion, I retelling both of you to when we began I expected to just leave to go the bathroom because of the three hour length. So I was like, hey, just tell me what I'm gonna miss because I'm doing the review, but we never left. I don't even think anyone theater. By no one left. Everyone was stuck to their seats. The riveted the entire time. Ultimately, though, if you're not a hardcore fan. Are you going to appreciate this movie is this for you? I think as a spectacle it could be enjoyable if you just want to watch some dumb action over the care of the characters are, right. But if you did the investment of the ten years or even like half of that or some of the characters you're gonna have a huge payoff everything. So I think a casual movie goer will go that was that was incredibly insane. Right. Be like, it's all three hours. Why am I paying attention? Right. But I think it's going to hit both audiences. We had differing opinions about which movies, in my opinion, you only really need Infinity war and maybe watching captain Marvel's mid credit scene. But other people feel different things. There's deathly lots and lots of tips if you've watched substantially more than that, of course for me. It's really if you've watched the movies at the Russell brothers who directed this film, the ones that they've been apart of I think that's sort of good roadmap for there are some other definitely call box other things it really they're allowed deep cuts in there. But can't wait for everyone to see. It said it opens up Thursday night tomorrow night. Next up to galaxy full launch has been delayed to some unknown future date at this point. But we do have our review up. It's sort of a review of what is now the pre production unit, but Jessica door court bottom line says that is a fascinating piece of technology with folding gimmick that really wows you, but definitely show signs at of first generation product that needs a lot of polish what the review this morning. The explain how it's a premium priced product. But it doesn't feel premium because the apps and everything don't work just quite right yet as it's the beginning of this kind of style. It's gonna take a long time for developers to figure out how to automatically have the apps wit from the front to the back back to the front or inside outside that kind of situation and the intuitive -ness of how do multi-tasking on device like this because it's essentially, Android tablet, and that doesn't have a lot of. Foothold right in. Marketplace reminds me of the red phones red hydrogen phone's launch very expensive, very high end concept idea, but not for everyone, but it was confusing. His Samsung was marketing this sort of as a luxury device. More people not really as a developer sort of kind of is. That's what it is. Right. Developer device it it's a testbed device. Four foldable for broader foldable phone market. So I'm hoping that the issues here don't Cretaceous that that broader because right now, we don't need foldable phones, we can just fine without them. But I think the fact that this opens the door to so many different kinds of devices. What's the most exciting part for me? It's morally storage seen it. I'm a my as actor and Mike serpentine. Thanks. Listening.
What If the Meteor that Helped Wipe out the Dinosaurs Had Missed Earth?
"Today's episode is brought to you by smart water twenty years ago. Smart water, reimagined, what water could be from thoughtful bottle designed to supporting smart people who are changing our world through fresh thinking. Like, you smart water has added electrolytes for taste and great tasting water helps you stay hydrated, feeling refreshed and ready to take on your day. Refresh yourself with smart water. Welcome to brain stuff from how stuff works. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb here on the northern coast of the Yucatan peninsula near the town of chick. Love. Mexico is a crater about one hundred twenty miles in diameter. That's about one hundred ninety kilometers the asteroid that created this crater was about six miles. That's ten kilometers wide and hit the earth sixty five million years ago in spite of these immense, measurements, the craters hard to see even if you're standing right on its rim to get a good map. Nasa. Researchers examined it from space. Ten years before the nineteen ninety discovery of the chick fil crater, physicists, Louise, Alvarez and geologist. Walter Alvarez, a father son team proposed a theory about the impact that we know today created it. They noted increased concentrations of the element iridium in sixty five million year old clay radium is rare on earth, but it's more common in some objects from space like meteors and asteroids, according to the Alvarez theory, a massive asteroid had hit the earth blanketing the world iridium, but shower of particles wasn't the only affect of the collision the impact caused fires climate change and widespread extinctions at the same time dime stores, which until then had managed to survive for a one hundred eighty million years died out, geophysicist Doug Robertson of the university of Colorado at boulder theorizes, the impact heated earth's atmosphere dramatically causing most big dinosaurs to die with an hours this mass extinction. Definitely happened fossil evidence shows that about seventy percent of species living on earth at that time. Became extinct. The massive die off marks the border between the Cretaceous and tertiary periods of earth's history. Which are also known as the age of reptiles and the age of mammals respectively today, scientists call the extinction decay t- event after the German spellings of Cretaceous and tertiary the t- event had an enormous effect on life on earth. But what would have happened if the asteroid hadn't missed would it have led to a world where people in dinosaurs would coexist or one in which neither could live. In a world where an asteroid whizzed past earth instead of crashing down with a force of a hundred million tons of TNT life could have progressed much differently. Sixty five million years ago, some of the animals and plants that are common today. We're just getting started these include placental mammals, which are mammals that develop inside a placenta in the womb and angiosperms, which are flowering plants insects that rely on flowers, such as bees were also relatively new many of these life forms thrived after the t- event, and without that mass reptilian extinction to clear the way they may not have found ecological niches to fill in this scenario. Today's world might be full of reptiles and short on mammals, including people. But even if the asteroid hadn't hit done stores and other Cretaceous life forms might have become extinct. Anyway, some dinosaur species had started to dwindle long before the asteroid's impact. This has led many researchers to conclude that the asteroid was just one aspect of a complex story. Other global catastrophes. Massive volcanic eruptions in what is now. India most likely played a role also the earth's changing landscape as the supercontinent Panja broke up into today's continents. Probably had something to do with it too. Then there's another argument that the chip to love asteroid hit the earth too early to have caused the extinction. Researchers Gerda Keller and Marcus Harding, both conclude that the impact took place three hundred thousand years before the end of the Cretaceous period. Keller theorizes chick fil impact was one of at least three massive collisions Harding argues at the iridium layer didn't come from the web asteroid but from another event such as series of meteors burning up in the atmosphere. He bases. This theory on ROY particles objected during the impact a most of these are in an older layer of the earth than the Katie iridium layer, according to both of these points of view the absence of the club. Asteroid strike may not have had a big affect on the k t extinction earth was a warm planet for most of the time that dinosaurs lived after the end of the Cretaceous period, the world got a lot colder and experienced several ice ages. Whether dinosaurs could have survived such change in climate is debatable. It's hard to come to a definitive conclusion about what the world would look like today without the chicks love impact. But the question of whether people in dinosaurs could have coexisted is a captivating won the ideas, president in everything from the Congo legend of mock lame Obembe to King Kong to the pervading kitsch of the Flintstones. Then of course, there's the prevailing scientific theory about the origin of birds that they are in essence dinosaurs that we are coexisting with today. Today's episode was written by Tracy the Wilson and produced by Tyler claim brain stuff is a production. Iheartradio's how stuff works to hear more from Tracy. Check out the podcast stuff, you missed in history class and for more on this and lots of other historic topics is that our home planet. How stuff works dot com. And for more podcasts from iheart radio is iheartradio app. Apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Jerry Lewis is dead. Sid vicious incurred. Kobe also did Amy wine-house Johnny cash and more disgrace. Them's rock and roll true crime podcast with stories about musicians getting away with murder and behaving. Very badly is available now hosted by me Jake Brennan, you can listen to disgrace of the iheartradio app. Apple podcasts or wherever you get your podcasts.
"cretaceous" Discussed on Newsradio 970 WFLA
"When I talk about catastrophes, I prefer to do the ones that are more recent like the black death in Europe. And and things that have happened even early in their own lifetimes. It looked like class real catastrophes. But you can't get away from the the the thing that ended the dinosaurs sixty six million years ago because at the end of the Cretaceous period. Wow. That impacts that we got destroyed three quarters of all the life on earth. And and the dinosaurs that have been around for for all that time disappeared, but you asked for the very worst that that that's sort of our favorite because of dinosaurs were big, you know, guys love dinosaurs. We replace we all did posters of the month on the wall. At least I did. But the worst of the five big cataclysms that that we call mass extinctions was the one two hundred fifty two million years ago. You said the very worst. Well, that was it we now caught the end Permian mass extinction because ninety six percent of the creatures on earth. Died ninety six percent of even the types of things like the lovable little trial bites. Look like little horseshoe crabs. So we're everywhere I have some fossils of the living room for people to look at and all of these trial bites said it live for hundreds of millions of years. We're now overnight practically they were gone. So you gotta give it to the to that event as very worse right before you came on, Bob. I was talking with special guest about the nuclear power plants in the possibility of danger from them he thinks I should all go away. Do you think that could be an earth killer, all those power plants? Have something happen that George has turned out to be less bad than people. Fear people fear nuclear power, and I understand why they do, but the power plant accidents have actually been far gentler than than than anything. If you look it up in a Hananel almanac. Look up the Three Mile Island accident of nineteen seventy nine right outside of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. It's called a disaster. But then when you read about it, you find that there was no property damage. No private.
"cretaceous" Discussed on 850 WFTL
"Later the area was a little flooded than the small dinosaurs are swimming with the current that's going across that. And then their tracks are going in the opposite direction of the large Hornets Papa track detail. How it's frozen in time because you're standing there looking at something that happened. What did you say? This was a mess. Zoa? It's muscle works late. From the Cretaceous period. Those rocks. I think have been dated at about ninety five million years ago. How did it? How did he get preserved? What what what created the preservation flood over the water? Yeah. What can happen with dinosaur tracks because I track modern animals so often I'm always thinking about this. How do these tracks get preserved in this same stance? This was a long either lakeshore on the flood plain of a river where the tracks were made. And then what had happened was they might have hardened a little bit in the sun. So they're exposed safer day or two they and a little bit. But then all you need is a little bit of floodwater to cover it and bury them. So you get a little bit of silt or clay or sand gets deposited on top of the tracks. And that's enough to preserve them. Then they're not gonna give weathered anymore. So that may have happened in this instance. But the he's that where it happened, right? Where you were standing or would that have moved? That's. This is the great thing about dinosaur. Tracks is almost always when you're looking at dinosaur tracks you were looking at exactly where dinosaur was walking sitting running sleeping or whatever. It might have been doing. That's the beauty of acknowledgee is very often these trace fossils show. You exactly where that dinosaur was when it was doing what he was doing. We'll come back with more acknowledgee looks for Donald cells without bones dinosaur lies revealed by their trace, fossils, not the bones were looking at the tracks, the boroughs, the nests the feces everything that is left in stone. Anthony, j Martin is the author, I'm John bachelor. Business. Plans dot com is a fifteen year old.
"cretaceous" Discussed on WZFG The Flag 1100AM
"About to hear is an expert piece on global warming from the Whitton wisdom of Michael Savage. That's Dr Michael savage to you. That's a real PHD from a great university. I'm not a chiropractor Nora podiatrist. Although I use both October two thousand fourteen I talk about the lies spread by the warmest, the global warming community, and I compare it to the hysteria created by Joseph Stalin and his fake scientists Lysenko listen carefully. New data shows that the vanishing polar ice is not the result of runaway global warming. It was a great article by Christopher Booker in the telegraph dot UK. And he wrote this when future generations look back on the global warming scare over the past thirty years. Nothing will shock them more than the extent to which the official temperature records on which the entire panic. Ultimately rested was systematically adjusted to show the earth is having more much more than the actual data justified. So we've been tricked by Al Gore and the gangsters in the warmest industry, as we all know as I've been wanting you for years. And it's a big article in very important. And I want to give you some data for those of you who have the inclination to follow this. It's two paragraphs long. Are you ready for this? Are you listening during the Cretaceous period which occurred one hundred and forty five hundred to sixty six million years ago? The mean atmosphere carbon dioxide content over a period duration was seventeen hundred parts per million, which is six times the pre level. What does that mean? Meaning before industrialization occurred on the earth. There was a carbon dioxide level that was six times higher than the industrial level. And the mean surface temperature over the period duration was about eighteen degrees centigrade, which was only four degrees above modern level. So it was hotter than. And what does the atmospheric carbon dioxide for for October twenty fourteen three hundred ninety five parts per million? So let me just reverse this for you. The current atmospheric carbon dioxide for twenty fourteen is about four hundred parts per million. Okay. One hundred and forty five million years ago, it was seventeen hundred parts per million. How do you figure that if it was so much hotter than which by the way because the Cretaceous was a period with relatively warm climate, and it resulted in high sea levels and created numerous shallow inland. Seas? These oceans and seas were populated with now extinct marine reptiles ammonites rudest, while dinosaurs continued to dominate on land during that period one hundred and forty five to sixty six million years ago during the Cretaceous, that's when dinosaurs ruled the earth. And at the same time of this warming new groups of mammals and birds as well as flowering plants appeared because warming was actually beneficial to life on earth you understand that. But I'm not arguing that we should continue to pollute nor am I arguing that man is polluting to the point that the earth is dying at all. I'm just telling you that one hundred and forty five million years ago, the mean atmosphere carbon dioxide level was six times. About six times what it was before the pre industrial level and at four hundred seventeen hundred about four times that of today and the mean surface temperature over the period of that time was four degrees centigrade above modern level. So what does that tell you in a nutshell that the conman? Surrounding Al Gore. The conman with the fake solar contracts and the stooges like Brian Williams in the media who featured government line are the most dangerous liars the world has ever seen. They've set not only industry back, but they've set science itself back. In fact, it's the greatest science scandal in the history of the world. And I wanna tell you why this is happening. You say, well, I know why Mike waste your time. It's all about money. Follow the money. Well, that's part of it. It's about control it's about control control, control, control control. Never forget that. This is an attempt to scare you with a false scare. So the government can save you and tax you to death. And I'm gonna give you more data on that. But what I was reading about this scandal the biggest science scandal ever, call global warming. I immediately thought of v Lysenko affair. Which you probably don't know about. I may be the only one in the American media who knows about the Lysenko affair because most of them don't have any background in science. I remember studying genetics in the nineteen fifties late fifties. When genetics was huge subject. And we were all fascinated by learning the structure of the Watson and Crick put out the double helix. It was the most exciting time in science at that time I came along a little later and as a young student I was excited by science Sputnik. Remember was launched and they put a rocket into space. Remember all those days in America, try to catch up to Russia. But Lysenko was a big name. What was Lysenko? Why am I comparing this to the Lysenko affair? You know, what it was it was about a fake scientists named trophy. Lysenko who switched all reality to create false science about genetics. You see the Soviet agricultural system was dying and people were starving because of communism. Russia had once been a net exporter of wheat. But because Stalin, I pay attention to this Stalin came along. And I started to attack the middle class farmers. He named them a smearing name in Russian he called them kulaks. He said they were exploiters that they were robbing from the people by charging too much for the produce of the land. Is it sound familiar? Does a sound like the fairness doctrine does it sound? Like, the fairness a litany that you hear from Al Sharpton, and the brigades of the vermin on the left about fairness, so they attacked the farmers in the Soviet Union. Then what happened is they took over the farms, and what happened was thirty million Russian starve to death. So because the government can't manage anything. I couldn't do it in Russia and a can't do it here. So along comes Stalin, and he finds this crackpot Lysenko. Who says that he's going to he has found rather a new way to increase agricultural production in Russia. It was a complete lie and it was fake. In other words, science had become a stepchild of politics. I'd really rather talk about the greatest science scandal of our lives, and I've been trying to do it. And I'm trying to tell you why this is happening and in what context that fits. So I went back to the Lysenko affair something. You haven't heard on Fox News because none of them went to college. They went to college. But they didn't learn anything. Let's put it that way. They learn law. Maybe they learn politics, but they didn't learn science and Lysenko was a crackpot geneticist in Russia in the forties and fifth forties. Right. And he manipulated and distorted scientific data about genetics to give out the predetermined conclusion dictated by the Stalinist regime in order to convince the Russian people that the theories of evolution that had preceded based upon Greg Mendel Mendy, leeann genetics were invalid and this political crank Lysenko's concept of breeding plants was the way to go and it would increase the crop yield in Russia. Will it was not, unfortunately, didn't work. Getting work at all. Nevertheless, the core of Lysenko. Wisdom was to reject the work of Gregor Mendel and denounced the concept of genes as idealist. Did you hear this? In other words, anything that didn't please Stalin. He called idealist. And that was one of Stalin's favourite snarl words for ideas. He found unacceptable. And the the point I'm making is you don't have to follow it from a science point of view. You don't have to be a genius and science to follow any of this. It was a fake science was all fake, and anyone who stood up to Lysenko in the Soviet Union in that day were publicly denounced, they lost communist party membership the way you are thrown out of clubs today. I don't mean nightclubs if you express conservative us, you can lose jobs if you talk about affirmative action being a disaster for America or about the lie of global warming. You can be thrown out of your job, and in those days in the Soviet Union could have been arrested by the secret police, if you said, wait a minute this Lysenko businesses crap. Now what you don't know is that this guy. Lysenko had such a grip on science many, many of his opponents disappeared in the Soviet Union. Did you know that they just they weren't just dismissed from their academic jobs? They disappeared. And similar political strong arm tactics. Also hobbled the Soviet nuclear physics program because they were required to follow only theories that had the communist party's blessing. Did you hear this? Now, let me bring down home. Let's bring it all down home in America. We're facing a measles epidemic. Brought in by massive influx of illegal alien children from Doris and Central American countries. One hundred thousand of their mothers in them came in many of them were unvaccinated or frankly carrying the measles virus, the sixty eight virus, which has caused death and paralysis to Burke yellow says he flooded America with with sick immigrants. And yet the stooge at the CDC. This Thomas Friedman who one day should be held up on war crimes charges for crimes against humanity for what he's doing just as in the Soviet Union. I'm telling you the truth will come out and one day when the truth comes out, we need to have tribunals for these videos, evil men. They're no different than the good Germans and no different than the good Russians. They're no different than the Lysenko is in the Soviet Union who lied and made certain that all science was etiological pure if you're following me. So this guy like Thomas Friedman at the CDC won't even tell you that this measles. Outbreak is coming from them. He'll tell you it's because of the elites in America with our parents who were concerned and don't vaccinate their children. That's a miniscule reason. The maximal reason is the influx of illegal aliens with the measles virus. That's number one. But it's much broader than that. Now, we go to the global warming lie, which is become a monstrous trillion dollar machine and anyone who disagrees with it. With the facts showing there is no global warming. There has not been any man made global warming. And no matter how many facts you present. Tell me what happens public denunciation loss of communist party membership meaning loss of membership in the democrat or Republican parties, maybe a loss of a job. And maybe even worse. Eventually the Soviet Union rejected. Lysenko was fell out of favor in the mid fifties and early sixties as Nikita Khrushchev tried to destroy style and is the Soviet Union. And then Lysenko self was stripped it was out of the Soviet agricultural academy. Nineteen fifty six and he slipped into obscurity afterwards. So what does the comparison to today? Harrison today, a far left. Writers far-left so-called journalist far left academics who continue to advocate global warming. Continued to advocate the most obtuse theories that have no validity whatsoever. And we have to free ourselves from this won't happen. This year it won't happen. Next year. You may not happen for a few years, but we will rid ourselves of these a Stalinist types in America. It will happen in our lifetime. The truth shall set us free. It's the only thing that can save us from the Obama Soviet era is truth truth truth, and I have a grandchild after children and a grandchild. And I don't wanna leave the world a prison camp that is being a erected right in front of our eyes. The prison of lies can only be dismantled by the truth. What you've just heard is not the twilight zone, but the right right zone, meaning the right right zone to be in. Now, you hear that ninety eight percent of all scientists agree that man is destroying the earth through global warming. Well, there was a time when ninety nine one hundred percent of scientists said the earth. Was square. Wasn't. There wasn't that one hundred percent. Jim of scientists said the earth was flat and one man dared say the round so when same point what are we supposed to believe the big lie because ninety eight percent of government, scientists receive government grants from government stooges that want to take over the whole world and control us and cradle-to-grave. I'll say the same thing. No, I say science doesn't work like that. It works based on evidence. Okay. We'll be back in a few.
"cretaceous" Discussed on KSFO-AM
"Is an expert piece on global warming from the Whitton wisdom of Michael Savage. That's Dr Michael savage to you. That's a real PHD from a great university. I'm not a chiropractor Nora podiatrist. Although I use both October twenty fourteen I talk about the lies spread by the warmest, the global warming community, and I compare it to the hysteria created by Joseph Stalin and his fake scientists Lysenko listen carefully. New data shows that the vanishing of taller ice is not the result of runaway global warming. It was a great article by Christopher Booker in the telegraph dot UK. And he wrote this when future generations look back on the global warming scare of the past thirty years. Nothing will shock them more than the extent to which the official temperature records on which the entire panic. Ultimately rested were systematically adjusted to show the earth is having more much more than the actual data justified. So we've been tricked by Al Gore and the gangsters in the warmest industry, as we all know as I've been wanting you for years. And it's a big article in very important. And I want to give you some data for those of you who have the inclination to follow this two paragraphs long. Are you ready for this? Are you listening during the Cretaceous period which occurred one hundred and forty five to sixty six million years ago? The mean atmosphere carbon dioxide content over a period duration was seventeen hundred parts per million, which is six times the pre-industrial level. What does that mean? Meaning before industrialization occurred on the earth. There was a carbon dioxide level that was six times higher than the industrial level. And the mean surface temperature over the periods of rain was about eighteen degrees centigrade, which was only four degrees above modern level. So it was hotter them, and what does the atmosphere carbon dioxide for October twenty fourteen three.
How Jurassic Park led to the modernization of dinosaur paleontology
"Are endangered i think we are the least endangered species on the planet in many respects simply because we have not just the experience but the intelligence to deal with so many of these challenges and i just think we are going to be longterm survivals now happiness might be something else survive on right well there's that i mean you certainly see all the post apocalyptic thrillers and and the depressing sorta looks into the future but it really doesn't need to be that way i think we're just gonna see an increasingly manicured planet and increasingly ordered planet where the wild becomes not wild at all it's managed wild human civilization there's no reason that we just can't continue for millions of years into the president was just a modem of civilization and technology you can get around this stuff through intelligence kelly peter ward watch his entire talk at ted npr dot org today on the show the anthropic seen ideas about the age we're living in and where it fits into the geological time line and with that in mind here are three simple steps to finding dinosaurs well you know paleontologist we all use the same formula this is ken lack of aura the paleontologist we heard earlier in the show the first thing is you have to find rocks at the right age and since ken studies dinosaurs of the cretaceous period i'm usually looking for rocks that are sixty five seventy five million years old second they have to be the right kind of rock those rocks have to be sedimentary rocks you can only make a fossil on a sedimentary rock you can have a fossil on iraq that was formed by magma or lava and third get yourself to a place where those rocks are right on the ground below your feet so you need to get yourself in a desert usually where there aren't too many plants covering up the rocks but where there's just enough rain to cause a rozhin that exposes new bones and you find those three things rocks at the right age there sedimentary rocks and that are in a desert and you get yourself on the ground and you just walk and you walk until you literally see a dinosaur bones sticking out of the rock.
The Deadly Deinonychus Raptor Had a "Terrible Claw"
"Weekend's deadly in a like daily gangs dynamic is wrong in may millions terrible law come in they probably had veterans win defined more fossils the know for sure i think did they live in the early cretaceous in they were years predators paleontologists think that they probably wanted impacts they were about the size of the human they want to feed in had a long tail if they keep the balance i like to see south the consumer in one side's detail on sites ahead in a related to the loss after one something interesting
A Dinosaur So Bird-Like It's Name Means Bird-Like
"Lived in the cretaceous we're not really sure where only for my mmus list but scientists think that left four stem swamps today refined on my list fossils in north america a new phone my mission was proudly as big as a human may be alot baker june know the name on the phone my miss means bird copier necessarily good name because on the phone might miss looks like a bird day hostage oh