19 Burst results for "Coral Restoration Foundation"

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Scuba Shack Radio

Scuba Shack Radio

08:02 min | 8 months ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Scuba Shack Radio

"This is wet notes here on scuba shock radio from monday september thirteenth. Two thousand twenty one first up today is in another idea for diving with a purpose in one of the most recent newsletters from the coral restoration foundation the coral chronicles. There was a report that cr f. is teaming up with the atlantis. Dive resort in douma getty to offer a unique opportunity to participate in a week long program at the result in helping them build and maintain the largest coral nursery endowing. Actually the town where. Atlantis is located. The program is being sponsored by the coral restoration foundation. The loveland living planet aquarium and the meat foundation. The program runs from september twenty fourth to october. First two thousand twenty two there are planned educational sessions on coral ecology along with restoration efforts and techniques. You also conduct restoration. Dives along with some fun dies. This sounds really fascinating. One of the pictures into newsletter showed the table coral at apo island. I vividly remember that area when we dove air in two thousand nineteen there wasn't any pricing available in the article and you'll have to contact the hotel directly if you have the time and desire to dive with a purpose check out this program and market on your calendar. Long time ago. Donna and i lived in hawaii that was in the mid nineteen eighties. At that time we got to experience. What was probably one of the first while in walls in honolulu. If you're not familiar with wilem walls you can check them out. The wall was a large mural of the humpback whale on the side of a building near waikiki. It was quite impressive. Well it might not be a while and wall but if you happen to be near brant rock in mansfield massachusetts you can catch a the view of a mural of a large shark painted on the side of an old restaurant according to wicked local dot com. The mural was painted by a local artist. Shane leonard. Shane was a former football player at boston college. Who has a passion for painting and a passion for sharks. Now the muros on the side of the former arthur and patch restaurant that closed back in two thousand fifteen. The shark faces divers as they head down ocean street which is a one way street. So you can't miss it say. Shane says he likes the way shark. Show emotion. the photo is pretty impressive. there's no guarantee that the building won't be torn down. Now that is unoccupied but according to shane. Even if it doesn't survive it was worth doing so if you happen to be near mansfield mass check out the shark mural on ocean street about a month ago. Patio wear foundation announced their fourth annual aware week. Now this year it will run from september. Eighteenth through september twenty six two thousand and twenty one the whole idea behind aware week is to empower the global dive community to lead or take part in conservation activities in courses focused on local action for global impact in the past aware has focused on two elements marine debris and vulnerable marine species this year in concert with patties blueprint for ocean action. They're adding three more components. Climate change marine protected areas and coral reefs. Some of the ways. That dive shops can participate or by conducting aware classes like dive against debris coral conservation or the aware specialty. Also like us. You can become a one hundred percent aware dive centre where you provide a monthly contribution in support of the patty certifications you award. We are very proud to be one hundred percent aware. But here's something that. Patty aware foundation needs to work on. We need more notice as to win. Aware week is happening. I wasn't sure what was happening this year and our calendar filled up and we weren't able to get things scheduled as i mentioned at the top of the show. We've already created are twenty twenty two calendar and it would be nice to know when aware week twenty twenty two is happening. I also mentioned at the top to show that the re photo contest results were in and that i didn't win while scuba diving magazine. Magazine's two thousand and twenty one through the lens contest is also complete. The winners were recently released at scuba diving. Dot com and the photos will be revealed in september october special photo issue. They received one thousand seven hundred and nineteen photos from around the world. The contest categories included behavior compact camera macro and wide angle. The entries were judged on beauty originality and unique encounters. I check them out and they are spectacular. I only wish. I had the talent impatience to do that kind of work. Now if you wanna get a jump onto twenty twenty two contests they will start accepting entries january third two thousand twenty two and you can submit your photos through may thirty first two thousand and twenty two and finally we recently received our two thousand twenty two aqualung buyer's guide along with information on all the new products coming down from aqualung apex. So i thought. I'd give you a little preview on what's on the horizon. I from aqualung. They are releasing a new regulator the helix pro and the helix it looks like the helix pro is a mid range regular and i think it's replacing their core. It is a balanced first and second stage in his environmentally sealed with four low pressure ports and two high pressure ports. It was built for cold water and has the automatic closure device or a cd. lower end. helix is not environmentally sealed. And it doesn't have a cd and it's designed for warmer water. Also coming out in two thousand and twenty two is their new. Aqua fluck aqua flex men and aqua flex woman wetsuits. I think it's a redesign of their tried and true. Aqua flex line they also have a two millimeter. Free flex wetsuit now. The i one hundred computers going to come in a new color yellow and speaking of colors. They've added a number of different colors to various products including something called sand petrol red and orange as for eight packs. They also have a new regulator the xl four osha and it is billed as a totally sustainable regulator bay from post consumer waste it comes in grey or mint with some great etching. On the first stage. I suspect it's just like the xl four plus being an overbalanced diaphragm regulator with two hp and four l. p. ports. It looks pretty. Sharp and apex is releasing a new dive computer to the sx. It will be program can program up to six gases and monitor six transmitters. The has a titanium basil making it lightweight endurable but also has a color display. There's something more that require. Some more research It says it has in oh to analyze or onboard. But no to sell gotta check that out a little bit. There's a lot more out there and over time. I'll give you more updates from both aqualung and apex. Well that wraps up wet notes. Here on scuba shock. Radio for monday september thirteenth. Two thousand twenty one

coral restoration foundation douma getty loveland living planet aquariu meat foundation brant rock Shane leonard mansfield Patio wear foundation apo island Shane Patty aware foundation scuba diving magazine waikiki boston college honolulu Donna hawaii shane massachusetts
Wet Notes - 9-13-21

Scuba Shack Radio

08:02 min | 8 months ago

Wet Notes - 9-13-21

"This is wet notes here on scuba shock radio from monday september thirteenth. Two thousand twenty one first up today is in another idea for diving with a purpose in one of the most recent newsletters from the coral restoration foundation the coral chronicles. There was a report that cr f. is teaming up with the atlantis. Dive resort in douma getty to offer a unique opportunity to participate in a week long program at the result in helping them build and maintain the largest coral nursery endowing. Actually the town where. Atlantis is located. The program is being sponsored by the coral restoration foundation. The loveland living planet aquarium and the meat foundation. The program runs from september twenty fourth to october. First two thousand twenty two there are planned educational sessions on coral ecology along with restoration efforts and techniques. You also conduct restoration. Dives along with some fun dies. This sounds really fascinating. One of the pictures into newsletter showed the table coral at apo island. I vividly remember that area when we dove air in two thousand nineteen there wasn't any pricing available in the article and you'll have to contact the hotel directly if you have the time and desire to dive with a purpose check out this program and market on your calendar. Long time ago. Donna and i lived in hawaii that was in the mid nineteen eighties. At that time we got to experience. What was probably one of the first while in walls in honolulu. If you're not familiar with wilem walls you can check them out. The wall was a large mural of the humpback whale on the side of a building near waikiki. It was quite impressive. Well it might not be a while and wall but if you happen to be near brant rock in mansfield massachusetts you can catch a the view of a mural of a large shark painted on the side of an old restaurant according to wicked local dot com. The mural was painted by a local artist. Shane leonard. Shane was a former football player at boston college. Who has a passion for painting and a passion for sharks. Now the muros on the side of the former arthur and patch restaurant that closed back in two thousand fifteen. The shark faces divers as they head down ocean street which is a one way street. So you can't miss it say. Shane says he likes the way shark. Show emotion. the photo is pretty impressive. there's no guarantee that the building won't be torn down. Now that is unoccupied but according to shane. Even if it doesn't survive it was worth doing so if you happen to be near mansfield mass check out the shark mural on ocean street about a month ago. Patio wear foundation announced their fourth annual aware week. Now this year it will run from september. Eighteenth through september twenty six two thousand and twenty one the whole idea behind aware week is to empower the global dive community to lead or take part in conservation activities in courses focused on local action for global impact in the past aware has focused on two elements marine debris and vulnerable marine species this year in concert with patties blueprint for ocean action. They're adding three more components. Climate change marine protected areas and coral reefs. Some of the ways. That dive shops can participate or by conducting aware classes like dive against debris coral conservation or the aware specialty. Also like us. You can become a one hundred percent aware dive centre where you provide a monthly contribution in support of the patty certifications you award. We are very proud to be one hundred percent aware. But here's something that. Patty aware foundation needs to work on. We need more notice as to win. Aware week is happening. I wasn't sure what was happening this year and our calendar filled up and we weren't able to get things scheduled as i mentioned at the top of the show. We've already created are twenty twenty two calendar and it would be nice to know when aware week twenty twenty two is happening. I also mentioned at the top to show that the re photo contest results were in and that i didn't win while scuba diving magazine. Magazine's two thousand and twenty one through the lens contest is also complete. The winners were recently released at scuba diving. Dot com and the photos will be revealed in september october special photo issue. They received one thousand seven hundred and nineteen photos from around the world. The contest categories included behavior compact camera macro and wide angle. The entries were judged on beauty originality and unique encounters. I check them out and they are spectacular. I only wish. I had the talent impatience to do that kind of work. Now if you wanna get a jump onto twenty twenty two contests they will start accepting entries january third two thousand twenty two and you can submit your photos through may thirty first two thousand and twenty two and finally we recently received our two thousand twenty two aqualung buyer's guide along with information on all the new products coming down from aqualung apex. So i thought. I'd give you a little preview on what's on the horizon. I from aqualung. They are releasing a new regulator the helix pro and the helix it looks like the helix pro is a mid range regular and i think it's replacing their core. It is a balanced first and second stage in his environmentally sealed with four low pressure ports and two high pressure ports. It was built for cold water and has the automatic closure device or a cd. lower end. helix is not environmentally sealed. And it doesn't have a cd and it's designed for warmer water. Also coming out in two thousand and twenty two is their new. Aqua fluck aqua flex men and aqua flex woman wetsuits. I think it's a redesign of their tried and true. Aqua flex line they also have a two millimeter. Free flex wetsuit now. The i one hundred computers going to come in a new color yellow and speaking of colors. They've added a number of different colors to various products including something called sand petrol red and orange as for eight packs. They also have a new regulator the xl four osha and it is billed as a totally sustainable regulator bay from post consumer waste it comes in grey or mint with some great etching. On the first stage. I suspect it's just like the xl four plus being an overbalanced diaphragm regulator with two hp and four l. p. ports. It looks pretty. Sharp and apex is releasing a new dive computer to the sx. It will be program can program up to six gases and monitor six transmitters. The has a titanium basil making it lightweight endurable but also has a color display. There's something more that require. Some more research It says it has in oh to analyze or onboard. But no to sell gotta check that out a little bit. There's a lot more out there and over time. I'll give you more updates from both aqualung and apex. Well that wraps up wet notes. Here on scuba shock. Radio for monday september thirteenth. Two thousand twenty one

Scuba Equipment Scuba Travel Ocean Sustainability Ocean Ocean Health Scuba Scuba Diving Coral Restoration Foundation Douma Getty Loveland Living Planet Aquariu Meat Foundation Brant Rock Shane Leonard Mansfield Patio Wear Foundation Apo Island Shane Patty Aware Foundation Scuba Diving Magazine Waikiki Boston College Honolulu Donna Hawaii Massachusetts
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Scuba Shack Radio

Scuba Shack Radio

06:28 min | 11 months ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Scuba Shack Radio

"Last year my goal was to do a segment of your next dive where i featured key largo dive mecca here in the united states. I wanted to time this segment for just after we returned from key. Largo in april of two thousand and twenty. Well we all know how that turned out. We did not get there and again in two thousand and twenty one. We were not able to plan out an excursion as we would have hoped to. Two thousand and twenty two however is on the horizon. But i didn't wanna wait any longer to talk about key largo so here we go with your next dive where we travel to key largo florida. I think i've mentioned it before here on the podcast that my first is after getting a certification where with it's a dive located at the marriott hotel on the overland highway in key largo and it was fantastic. How about your first real dive being on a real historic wreck the city of washington a ship that was in havana harbor when the us main exploded and sank now. There are many reasons to choose key largo as your dive destination. Especially if you live in the eastern part of the united states first off. It's easy to get to. You can either fly into fort lauderdale. Which is my preferred airport. As i find it logistically navigate or miami which is a little closer to key Key largo you just hop in your rental car. That is if you can find one these days and head on down now. Let's talk a little bit about the dive. Operators in key largo as you can imagine being to dive. Mecca that it is. There are quite a number of operators to choose from it's a dive at the marriott is no longer operating but i will talk about two of the operators. I'm familiar with. They are horizon divers and rainbow reef now right after only a couple of months. After i did that first trip to key largo i returned and at that time. I drove with horizon divers back. Then they were located in marina at mile marker one hundred of the overseas highway and that was right next to the courtyard by marriott. Which at the time was a radison. It was very convenient to roll out of bed. Get a quick bite to eat and stroll over to the dive. Shot horizon has moved however and they are now located on the overseas highway at mile marker. One oh six. That's the dive shop in a retail store. Their boats are located about a half a mile up the road next to a place called shipwrecks oceanside now rainbow reef has taken over the old horizon diver facility at the mile marker one hundred marina additionally they also bought out ocean divers on the other side of the marina and have quite a large operation. Now the last time we were in key largo. We stayed at the courtyard and dove with horizon. We were going to go back to key. Largo in two thousand twenty and planned to die with rainbow reef. We didn't make it down there now. If you're looking to do more technical diving then. I think horizon divers maybe a better choice for the shallow reefs that i like rainbow reef might be a good option as they have those big forty six foot newton dive boats now. I have to admit that. I've never done the deeper wrecks down there like spiegel grove. Where the dwayne bid. But i love the shallow wrecks like the city of washington. The hanan bell. Also known as mike's wreck and especially the ben would. They are teeming with fish life and are great places to do fish identification and surveys. You can also experience of great dives on elbow reef molasses reef and french reef another great shallow dive through the book spurring grove. Karl is christ of the abyss. Dry rocks you can grit some great photo opportunities there. The water temperatures in key largo range from the mid seventies in the winter months to the mid eighties in the peak of the summer. When i dove in april of two thousand and nineteen. I was pretty comfortable on the shallow reefs with my three millimeter wetsuit. Only wanna do to morning dives. You can free up your afternoons for some topside adventures. A trip to reef headquarters Is interesting or you can take a tour of the coral restoration foundation and just down. The road is the history of diving museum in l. morada. I was really looking forward to getting to the museum last year and hope that i can make it down there next april. Talk about the dining. While if you're staying at the courtyard on the marina you don't have to get in your car and drive someplace you can just scroll stroll over skippers doc right on the marina. They have some great conch chowder. There and if you want a burger or some pub food than walk a little bit further down to dr sharpies shark bite grill. You'll probably run into some of the dive staff there hanging out now. Another great place to eat is the pilot house and that's located right near the coral restoration foundation very close by and and if you're in the mood for pizza then upper crust pizza at mile marker one zero one point six. Just make sure it's not. Wednesday is their closed. We made that mistake. So as i wrap up this segment. If you've been diving in key largo. I hope that you will agree that it is really a cool place to dive. And if you've never been there. I would encourage you to consider putting a trip there on your counter. I regret having taken fourteen years between visits. I'm not gonna make that mistake again.

fort lauderdale Last year last year washington Wednesday next april united states two thousand miami havana harbor mid eighties Karl key largo florida fourteen years first mid seventies One spiegel grove april l. morada
Your Next Dive - Key Largo

Scuba Shack Radio

06:28 min | 11 months ago

Your Next Dive - Key Largo

"Last year my goal was to do a segment of your next dive where i featured key largo dive mecca here in the united states. I wanted to time this segment for just after we returned from key. Largo in april of two thousand and twenty. Well we all know how that turned out. We did not get there and again in two thousand and twenty one. We were not able to plan out an excursion as we would have hoped to. Two thousand and twenty two however is on the horizon. But i didn't wanna wait any longer to talk about key largo so here we go with your next dive where we travel to key largo florida. I think i've mentioned it before here on the podcast that my first is after getting a certification where with it's a dive located at the marriott hotel on the overland highway in key largo and it was fantastic. How about your first real dive being on a real historic wreck the city of washington a ship that was in havana harbor when the us main exploded and sank now. There are many reasons to choose key largo as your dive destination. Especially if you live in the eastern part of the united states first off. It's easy to get to. You can either fly into fort lauderdale. Which is my preferred airport. As i find it logistically navigate or miami which is a little closer to key Key largo you just hop in your rental car. That is if you can find one these days and head on down now. Let's talk a little bit about the dive. Operators in key largo as you can imagine being to dive. Mecca that it is. There are quite a number of operators to choose from it's a dive at the marriott is no longer operating but i will talk about two of the operators. I'm familiar with. They are horizon divers and rainbow reef now right after only a couple of months. After i did that first trip to key largo i returned and at that time. I drove with horizon divers back. Then they were located in marina at mile marker one hundred of the overseas highway and that was right next to the courtyard by marriott. Which at the time was a radison. It was very convenient to roll out of bed. Get a quick bite to eat and stroll over to the dive. Shot horizon has moved however and they are now located on the overseas highway at mile marker. One oh six. That's the dive shop in a retail store. Their boats are located about a half a mile up the road next to a place called shipwrecks oceanside now rainbow reef has taken over the old horizon diver facility at the mile marker one hundred marina additionally they also bought out ocean divers on the other side of the marina and have quite a large operation. Now the last time we were in key largo. We stayed at the courtyard and dove with horizon. We were going to go back to key. Largo in two thousand twenty and planned to die with rainbow reef. We didn't make it down there now. If you're looking to do more technical diving then. I think horizon divers maybe a better choice for the shallow reefs that i like rainbow reef might be a good option as they have those big forty six foot newton dive boats now. I have to admit that. I've never done the deeper wrecks down there like spiegel grove. Where the dwayne bid. But i love the shallow wrecks like the city of washington. The hanan bell. Also known as mike's wreck and especially the ben would. They are teeming with fish life and are great places to do fish identification and surveys. You can also experience of great dives on elbow reef molasses reef and french reef another great shallow dive through the book spurring grove. Karl is christ of the abyss. Dry rocks you can grit some great photo opportunities there. The water temperatures in key largo range from the mid seventies in the winter months to the mid eighties in the peak of the summer. When i dove in april of two thousand and nineteen. I was pretty comfortable on the shallow reefs with my three millimeter wetsuit. Only wanna do to morning dives. You can free up your afternoons for some topside adventures. A trip to reef headquarters Is interesting or you can take a tour of the coral restoration foundation and just down. The road is the history of diving museum in l. morada. I was really looking forward to getting to the museum last year and hope that i can make it down there next april. Talk about the dining. While if you're staying at the courtyard on the marina you don't have to get in your car and drive someplace you can just scroll stroll over skippers doc right on the marina. They have some great conch chowder. There and if you want a burger or some pub food than walk a little bit further down to dr sharpies shark bite grill. You'll probably run into some of the dive staff there hanging out now. Another great place to eat is the pilot house and that's located right near the coral restoration foundation very close by and and if you're in the mood for pizza then upper crust pizza at mile marker one zero one point six. Just make sure it's not. Wednesday is their closed. We made that mistake. So as i wrap up this segment. If you've been diving in key largo. I hope that you will agree that it is really a cool place to dive. And if you've never been there. I would encourage you to consider putting a trip there on your counter. I regret having taken fourteen years between visits. I'm not gonna make that mistake again.

Scuba Diving Scuba Travel Key Largo Largo Florida Havana Harbor Largo Marriott United States Marriott Hotel Mecca Hanan Bell Washington Fort Lauderdale Coral Restoration Foundation Miami Marina Dwayne Karl Mike
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

06:01 min | 2 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"I'm should be the same however metabolomics in the metabolism is is much more influenced by the environment so we're thinking that we might be able to look at the metabolism for some clues as to why the same Gina type does well in one environment and poorly in another we're also interested in looking for metabolic signatures of these specific phenotypes that we see so if any given environment we see that this genotype is is relatively thermally tolerant those studies take a long time to do and they're really involved and there's no way like for example the core restoration foundation houses in excess of a hundred and fifty staghorn coral genotypes and mode has I think in excess of sixty or seventy so there's no way that we can run studies to screen all of those genotypes for different phenotypes so we really need to develop tools and the tools are gonna be genomics metabolomics looking at how related the squirrels are to each other it's not going to be one thing I don't think you're ever going to be able to just take say okay this metabolic signature means this coral is thermally tolerant or disease resistant but it's something that in combination with all of these different technologies were working towards trying to be able to take a one off sample of a quarrel and try to predict some of it's characteristics now I know you get involved with the the big coral spawning event in the keys can you kind of maybe tell folks a little bit about that and also maybe some of the work you did with looking at substrate why substrate for larvae is important yeah for sure so we can talking on a lot about June tape and how it's important in that kind of stuff one of the reasons is so important to understand that you know types we have is that we're having a hard time making more of them so I think most ecologists agree that coral recruitment in terms of larval recruitment as is at or near zero in the keys I guess I should explain so there's two ways these things reproduce and when I'm talking about stopping coral they are a sexually reproductive where you just break a piece off and if it finds the right environment continue to grow and obviously they're just creating a clone so you're increasing coral biomass but you're not increasing the genetic diversity of the population and then I also spawn so they are from Aphrodite's each polyp releases bundles of eggs and sperm and in nature if there's enough density of of spawning corals those things will float to the surface the ocean they'll break down a fertilized and they create these little peanut shaped lar bait recall planula and that plan you'll every single planula as a brand new Gina type that did not exist before and so there's planula in theory if the environment is right find a good substrate to settle on and metamorphosed into a individual policy which grows over time into a colony working with the Florida aquarium we have I don't even call it success a couple years ago we had a single sexual recruit that survived and still growing at the aquarium in downtown Tampa and that's really to this point the oldest sexual recruit that I'm aware of in this species now in palmata there's been some published accounts of you know a handful of of surviving recruits being put back out in the wild so these things also only Spong once a year and so since I've been at UMass we've worked in partnership with the Florida aquarium in the core restoration foundation to go down to the keys every year and it's it's a really nice set up because these things coral restoration foundation let them grow big enough in their nursery a subset that day will spawn in the nursery and so we've got all these known Gino types that are tagged with the genetic identity and we can have them all in one central location where we set nets over them and collect their sperm and eggs and do crosses and that kind of thing so it's a really nice as opposed to some of the people I know that that work on palmata where they're collecting natural spawn off the reef you know they might be miles or hundreds of meters apart when the corresponding they've got a rush to get together and and do a fertilization and that kind of stuff so it's a really nice set up and we bring them back in yeah we've done some work working with Kerry o'neill at the aquarium we did another experiment this year looking at the different sub straight properties that these coral larvae need to settle and what the settlement accuse are so rest of coralline algae microbial biofilms the orientation of the tiles that we sell them on might be important and so there's just a lot of questions to answer there but we only get one shot a year so it's a little problematic and we just don't we haven't yet figured out how to get really good survival from the sexual recruits they're very vulnerable well it sounds like a a lot of fun and and definitely some really fascinating work well before we kind of close up give any words of advice for students interested in getting into this line of work or area I mean what I always tell students I feel like again I feel like I got really lucky and I got into a really fun shield but if you are a student in science and you're interested in research I always tell people that you have to be just as happy if you're studying microbes in Antarctic ice sheets as you are if you're studying coral reefs or something like that it's you really first have to be passionate about the scientific process and using science to answer questions and then once you once you have that passion or you've developed that passion and the skills to pursue it just kind of see where it takes you and it'll probably lead you to some pretty cool places so I guess that would be my advice is to focus on the scientific process first rather than sea turtles are corals or any specific aspect of the natural world well if you really really good advice unfortunately we're out of time I want to thank our guest again Josh Patterson in our producer mark winner for making this show possible and I guess just in general Josh any final words of information or wisdom for the whole listening audience I mean it's the chorus racial stuff that talked about as interesting you definitely look up some of the partners you know the Florida aquarium core restoration foundation mote marine lab there are lots of others that's only a handful that I work with there certainly lots of others but most of us would be more than happy to talk to you about what we do and there's lots of also volunteer opportunities with those not for profit groups.

Gina
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:44 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"We're back, continuing our conversation with my guest judge Patterson scientists, and faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world? Coral reefs and coral reefs in and around south Florida and the keys. Yes. Sure. I mean, this is this is a tough one that's about so corals. You know, naturally live in this very narrow environmental range, right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically, full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients. So if there are too many nutrients in the water other things, we'll be able to grow and out compete the corals but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond lives within their cells. That does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment. And so World War. Wide, you know, similar to, and seagrass, and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and, you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years, they had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier Reef, which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world. And to this point, one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks, that don't know what that is. Okay. Yes. So I talked about that photosynthetic Symbian that lives within the cells of the coral, the coral itself is a Nigerian so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment, but they also because they have this photosynthetic a Symbian living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they. Can use for energy, which is auto trophy. So they're able to, to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is it's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures, but there are other types of stress that can induce a quarrel to bleach. But basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbiotic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stetson of the coral and so it's called bleaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough. We'll just appear by in color. Okay. Great. Now, can you tell too little bit about which coral species? You work on a predominantly in why. So. Yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida and the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more so even than some other other areas in the world. And in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora is. The genus and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of coverage where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser elk horn, coral, which is the other one, they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferator. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh, yet to swim to the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened. And they've been adopted in aquaculture, specifically, because we developed good methods for culturing them. In ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn. Coral acropora serve corners was the primary species that's been used you can take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months, you can have a nice. Hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant, so we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the other acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now. I know you're working on a kind of coral repository and I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is in? Also, why knowing Gino type in pheno type and explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely set to start with a repository. That's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit, that's headquartered in Tavernier, down on key Largo, that is probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits that's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get these. Species off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road, it's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of, as you said, a repository, or an archival living genetic archive on land, because we'll have these periodic events. For example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot, but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types, and I can talk more about that there were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries, and grow them back out rapidly and potential. They wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida query I'm here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Five genie types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point, what it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line. So they're all the same species, but you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary and this one's Ruth. Right. And Bob has Brown hair, and he's six foot four and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two so they have different. And so those things would be the FINA types. So they're all people, or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in, in terms of corals, they're not gonna have different colored hair obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but, but other researchers have started to run. Essays where they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease and, and finding that there are certain subsets that are resistant to Z's on, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrels though. Right. I'm just there. No, no, they're fifty six and seven. They have numbers, but it's funny you do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones and there's some little spindly ones, and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in kind of in passing, but what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual poker for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method it's us today in the keys, and brought a Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with, like a sub surface buoy, and there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis and the corals are home from the branches and they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's, it's more complicated in that, but there attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees, have really allowed us to. Grow a lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another, I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is a technology that's been developed by moten marine laboratories, tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with. But they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with boulder corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral. You know, the size of your poem, but they've discovered that you can head off basically individual coral polyps really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals, grow, and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduates. Students maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie, Laura is a graduate student has been with me for almost three years now. I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with the central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me. And she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess, in the Cayman Islands. But what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys? Little came in specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist, reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species. We work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then even the. Third zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones. And we did some surveys to surveyor fi that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from. That's common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones and what we found was, I guess, not surprisingly that corals that were.

coral restoration foundation Alcorn coral Florida Cayman Islands Gina Great Barrier Reef Gino Mary south Florida university of Florida Josh Patterson Australia FINA Summerlin Caribbean
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:55 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Competing our conversation with my guest judge Patterson scientists, and faculty the rec- of Florida. Okay. Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world? Coral reefs and the coral reef inter on south Florida Keith. Yes. Sure, I mean, this is this is a tough one that's about so corals. You know, naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically, full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients. So if there are too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow and compete the corals but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond lives within their cells. That does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient, free environment, and so. Wide. You know, similar to always tres seagrass, and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and, you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple years, they had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier Reef, which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world. And to this point, one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks, that don't know what that is. Okay. Yes. So I talked about that photosynthetic beyond that lives within the cells of the coral, the coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can entail nutrients in the form of plankton and stuff like that from the environment, but they also because they have this photosynthetic Symbian living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars. They can use for energy, which is auto trophy. So they're able to, to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is it's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures, but there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach. But basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbionese. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stetson of the coral and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear by in color. Okay. Great. Now, you tell a little bit about which coral species. You work on a predominantly in why so. Yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida and the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more so even than some other areas in the world. And in Florida historically, there were two acropora species. Acropora. Is the genus and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser elk horn, coral, which is the other one, they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh, yet to swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened. And they've been adopted in aquaculture, specifically, because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn. Coral acropora serve Corness was the primary species. That's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months, you can have a nice. Ice hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant, so we're working more and more with L corn choral, as well, which is the acropora species, and then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now I know you're working on a kind of coral repository in, you know, I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also, why knowing Gino type in type in explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository. That's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit, that's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo. There's probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits that's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get. These species off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road, it's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, in sort of, as you said, a repository or an archive living genetic archive on land, because we'll have these periodic events. For example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot, but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types, and I can talk more about that there were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries, grow them back out rapidly and potential. They wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida query here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point, what it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line. So they're all the same species, but you can think of like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary and this one's Ruth. Right. And Bob has Brown hair, and he's six foot four and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two so they have different. And so those things would be FINA types. So they're all people, or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in, in terms of corals, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but, but other researchers have started to run. As-as where they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease and, and finding that there are certain subsets that are resistant to these, I'm which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your though, right? I'm just there I no they're fifty six and. And. Hey, have numbers, but it's funny you do get to know him, you know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones and there's some little spindly ones, and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned in kind of in passing, but what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method that us today in the keys, and brought a Caribbean was developed by the restaurant foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with, like a sub surface buoy, and there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis and the corals are home from the branches and they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated in that, but there are attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees, have really allowed us to grow a lot more coral a lot more. Quickly. And then another mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is a technology that's been developed by marine laboratories, tropical research, lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with. But they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with bowler coils as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a quarrel, you know, the size of your palm, but they've discovered that you can head off basically individual coral polyps really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gina type it will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals, grow, and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate students, maybe a little bit about the work. Work, you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie, Laura is a graduate student that's been with me for almost three years now. I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me. And she helped them start one of the first court Welby, first coral nursery, I guess, and the Cayman Islands. But what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys? Little Cayman specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist, reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef coral communities and staghorn coral, the primary species, we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then, even the third zone or the sort of four. Riveria is about fifty to sixty feet. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those resources. And we did some surveys to survey five that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from. That's common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones and what we found was, I guess, not surprisingly that corals that were planted in the same zone that they were grown in did really, really well. They grew a lot on their survived. Well, but cetera and these were tree grown coral. So they're suspended.

coral restoration foundation Gina Florida staghorn coral Great Barrier Reef Cayman Islands Little Cayman Josh Patterson Australia Caribbean graduate student Mary Summerlin Corness Riveria
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:54 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Continuing our conversation with my guest, Josh Patterson. Scientists in faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh will, let's talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world? Coral reefs and coral reef. Interrupt south Florida Keys. Yes. Sure, I mean, this is this is a tough talk about so corals, you know, naturally, live in this very narrow environmental range, right? So they can't get too hot. They can't get to cold. They need basically, full strength seawater most of the time, and then he'd some nutrients, but not too many nutrients. So if they're too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow and compete the corals but at the same time, the corals do have photosynthetic sim beyond lives within their cells. That does take some nutrient so it can't be completely, you know, nutrient free environment, and so world wide. Similar to and seagrass, and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover and, you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple years, they had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching I've ever seen on the Great Barrier Reef, which is hugely concerning, because that's the largest recipient in the world. And to this point, one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks, that don't know what that is. Okay. Yes. So I talked about that photosynthetic Symbian that lives within the cells of the coral the choral itself is an idea, and so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero trophy, cly, or they can entail nutrients in the form of plankton and stuff like that from the environment, but they also because they have this photosynthetic symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they can use. Use for energy, which is auto trophy. So they're able to, to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is it's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures, but there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach. But basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the Symbian. It's either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so, that's what gives the corals color is those symbionese. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stetson of the coral and so it's called bleaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough just appear by in color. Okay. Great. Now, you tell us a little bit about which coral species. You work on a predominantly in why so. Yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida and the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more so even than some other areas in the world. And in Florida historically, there were two acropora species. Acropora is the genus. And they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral which is one of the crop. Reser Alcorn coral, which is the other one, they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh, yet to swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened. And they've been adopted in aquaculture, specifically, because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn. Coral acropora serve Corness was the primary species. That's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months, you can have a nice hundred. Centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant, so we're working more and more with Alcorn choral, as well, which is the acropora species, and then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now I know you're working on a kind of coral repository in, you know, I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also, why knowing Gino, type in type and explaining what those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely such a start with a repository. That's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit, that's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits that's been involved in core restoration, so as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with recovery plan to get these species. He's off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road, it's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of, as you said, a repository or an archive living genetic archive on land, because we'll have these periodic events. For example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot, but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types, and I can talk more about that there were entire Gina types that were lost in that colds velvet. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would've been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries, grow them back out rapidly and potential. They wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida querying here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to archive. Gene, types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point, what it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line. So they're all the same species, but you can think of this one's Bob. And this one's Mary and this one's Ruth. Right. And Bob has Brown hair, and he's six foot four and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two so they have different. And so those things would be FINA types. So they're all people, or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in, in terms of corals, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but, but other researchers have started to run where. They're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease and, and finding that there are certain subsets that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your though, right? I'm just they're fine. No, no. They're fifty six and seven. Have numbers but it's funny you do get to know him, you know, I mean there's some big robust thick ones and there's some little spindly ones, and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned in kind of in passing, but what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual poker for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method it's used today, and the keys, and the broader Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with, like a sub surface buoy, and there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central access, and the corals are home from the branches and they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated in that, but there attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees, have really allowed us to. Grow a lot, more quarrel a lot more quickly. And then another mentioned the boulder corals earlier and this is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories, tropical research, lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with. But they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler coils as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn. So it takes years and years and years to get a quarrel, you know, the size of your palm, but they've discovered that you can head off basically individual coral polyps really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals, grow, and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduates. Students maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie, Laura is a graduate student has been with me for almost three years now. I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me. And she helped them start one of the first court Welby, first coral nursery, I guess, and the Cayman Islands. But what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys? Little came in specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist, reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef coral communities and staghorn coral, the primary species, we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then even the. Third zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the stag on Corliss found throughout all three of those reefs owns and we did some surveys to verify that, and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those difference on. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from. That's common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones and what we found was, I guess, not surprisingly that corals that were planted in the same zone that they were grown in did really, really well. They grew a lot on their survival but cetera. And these were tree grown coral. So they're suspended.

Florida coral restoration foundation staghorn coral Gina Josh Patterson Great Barrier Reef Gino Florida Keys Cayman Islands university of Florida Australia Alcorn choral Bob core restoration foundation Acropora Mary colds
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

12:16 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Our conversation with my guest judge Patterson, scientists at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh. Well, let's talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general your take on the plight of the world coral reefs and coral reef interisland, south, Florida Keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough one that's about so corals, you know, naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic Symbian that lives within their cells that does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so world. Wide, you know, similar to and seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching. They've never seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic Symbian that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can intake nutrients in the form of plankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic assesment living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they. Can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbiotic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white statin of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear by in color. Okay. Great now, can you tell a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some of their other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species. Acropora is. The genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser elk horn coral which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving keys in the sixties, they say, oh, you to swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn. Coral acropora survey corners was the primary species. That's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage Z. You can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with L choral as well, which is the acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And you know, I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is in? Also why knowing Gino type in pheno type and explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely to start with the repository. That's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that is probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with recovery plan to get these. Species off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of as you said a repository or an archive living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire gene types, and I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell vents. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would've been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries and grow them back out rapidly. And potentially wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida query here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to. Archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals, they're not gonna have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. As-as where exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to these. I'm which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrels, though. Right. I'm just verify. No, no, they're fifty six and seven and. Hey have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in kind of in passing? But what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual cultured for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys and brought a Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis and the corals are home from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's it's more complicated in that. But there attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to grow. A lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with bowler coils as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a quarrel, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can head off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gina type it will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate student. Maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. It's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court while e first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then even the thirds. Zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist? But the stagnant correlates found throughout all three of those resources, and we did some surveys to verify that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different sewn, and then we didn't experiment to take corals from that's common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones. And what we found was I guess not surprisingly that corals that were planted in the same zone that they were grown in. Did really really? Well, they grew a lot on they revived well, but cetera and these were tree grown corals to they're suspended in the water column when they're being cultured. We took him into the shallow zone where there's a little more wave energy. We experienced a lot of breakage instead of corals didn't necessarily die. But basically were just little nub ins we actually had negative growth in that zone. So they got smaller which was interesting because they're wild colonies of the same species right next to. To them that are doing just fine. So that's something to consider when we're citing nurseries is that if you want to restore shallow areas, you might wanna consider rowing your corals from the start, you know, maybe an an an attached bottom attached method, and then we'll be plant them in the deep zone we experienced lower survival. And we had it was interesting. We had about forty percent of the corals that that died off within a month. And we didn't know what to attribute that to there was no visible disease. But for whatever reason we moved them to a deeper area on the ones that survived did. Okay. But we had pretty good amount of mortality there. So that's something that we're continuing to look at is the reasons for some of that. Okay. That's really interesting that be due to maybe the numbers of those symbionese those NFL or maybe the type at the different steps. Yeah. Definitely not a static thing. And so we know now that there is genetic diversity within the same Beyonce's. Well, and they come and go and that kind of stuff it's a pretty stable. We think.

coral restoration foundation Florida Gina Cayman Islands Mary Florida Keys Australia Josh Great Barrier university of Florida Patterson graduate student Caribbean key Largo Summerlin Gino core restoration foundation
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

07:38 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Complex. There's a lot of stuff going on. I heard you give a talk recently, and you were talking about the more kind of cutting edge areas that you and your students were looking at. I think you mentioned meta below makes for example, can you maybe touch briefly on on that or related new technologies? Yeah. I guess metabolism is probably the one that. I'm most familiar with. And even I'm not that super familiar with it. But it's something we're interested in looking into for sure. Because so you have if you've heard of genomics, right? So that's looking at the entire genome and all of genes that are present that's pretty static. So in theory, the genome should be the same. In all of these in these lines of Gina types, each Gina type should have the same genome because it should be a clone of the rest of that type. The metabolism is downstream from that. So when you have jeans, they get transcribed into a and translated into proteins, and then those proteins go and do things, right. They're involved in all sorts of different cellular processes and the result of those cellular processes is the metabolism. So it's things like sugars individual amino acids and really smaller molecules that are the result of whatever that organism is doing. And one of the interesting things that we've observed is that we are now taking the same Gina type. And planting it, not I say, we, you know, other people working on this are taking the same Gina type. And planting it across a different arrange of different environments. And so what we see is differential survival and success. So a Gina tech that does really well in the upper keys might not do well in the lower keys, for example, and genome. Can't tell us much about that. Because the genome should be the same. However metabolism metabolism is is much more influenced by the environment. So we're thinking that we might be able to look at the metabolism for some clues as to why the same Gina type does well in one environment and poorly in another. We're also interested in looking for metabolic signatures of these specific FINA types, that we see so if in a given environment, we see that this gene type is is relatively thermally, tolerant those studies take a long time to do and they're really involved, and there's no way like, for example, the core restauration foundation houses in excess of one hundred and fifty staghorn coral Gina types and moat has I think an excess of sixty or seventy so there's no way that we can run studies to screen all of those types for different phenotype. So we really need to develop tools and the tools are going to be genomics metabolism looking at how related these corals are to each other. It's not going to be one thing. I don't think you're ever going to be able to just take. Say okay. This metabolic signature means this coral is thermally, tolerant or disease resistant, but it's something that in combination with all of these different technologies, we're working towards trying to be able to take one off sample of a coral and try to predict some of its characteristics. Now, I know you get involved with the the big coral spawning event in the keys. Can you kind of maybe tell folks a little bit about that? And also, maybe some of the work you did with looking at substrate y substrate for larvae is important. Yeah. For sure so we've been talking a lot about Gina type and how it's important and that kind of stuff one of the reasons it's so important to understand that Gina types. We have is that we're having a hard time making more of them. So I think most colleges degree that coral recruitment in terms of larval recruitment is at are near zero in the keys, and I guess I should explain. So there's two ways these things reproduce at when I'm talking about staghorn coral they are asexually reproductive where you just break a piece off. And if it finds the right environment. Continue to grow. And obviously there you're just creating a clone. So you're increasing coral biomass. But you're not increasing the genetic diversity of the population. And then they also spawn so they are hermaphrodites each polyp releases bundles of eggs and sperm and in HR, if there's enough density of spawning quarrels, those things will float to the surface the ocean, though, breakdown fertilize, and they create these little peanut shaped larvae that we call plan yellow and that plan ULA every single plan Yele as a brand new Gina type that did not exist before. And so those plan ULA in theory, if the environment is right. Find a good substrate to settle on and metamorphose into individual polyp, which grows over time into a colony working with the Florida aquarium. We I don't know if even call it success a couple years ago, we had a single sexual recruit that survived and it's still growing at the aquarium in downtown Tampa. And that's really to this point the oldest sexual recruit that I'm aware of. In this species now in Paul Mata. There have been some published accounts of you know, a handful of surviving recruits being put back out in the wild. So these things also only spawn once a year, and so since I've been at US we've worked in partnership with the Florida aquarium in the core restoration foundation to go down to the keys every year. And it's it's a really nice setup because these things coral restoration foundation. Let's them grow big enough in their nursery, a subset that. They will spawn in the nursery. And so we've got all these known Gina types that are tagged with genetic identity, and we can have them all in one central location where we set nets over them and collect their sperm and eggs and do cross it isn't that kind of thing. So it's a really nice as opposed to some of the people, I know that work on Paul Mata where they're collecting natural spun off the reef, you know, they might be miles or hundreds of meters apart when the coral spawn, and they've got a rush to get together and do the fertilization and that kind of stuff, so it's a really nice setup. And then we bring them back. And yeah, we've done some work working with Kerry O'neil at the aquarium. Did another experiment this year looking at the different substrate properties that these coral larvae need to settle and what the settlement accuse are. So there's crust Coralline algae, their microbial biofilms, the orientation of the tiles that we settle them on might be important. And so there's just a lot of questions to answer there. But we only get one shot a year. So it's a little problematic, and we just don't we haven't yet figured out how to get really good survival from the sexual recruits. They're very vulnerable. Will it sounds like a a lot of fun? And and definitely some really fascinating work before we kind of closed up giving any words of advice for students interested in getting into this line of work or area. I mean, what I always tell students I feel like again, I feel like I got really lucky and I got into a really fun field. But if you were a student in science, and you're interested in research, I always tell people that you have to be just as happy if you're studying microbes in Antarctic ice. Ice sheets as you are if you're studying coral reefs or something like that. It's you really I have to be passionate about scientific process and using science to answer questions. And then once you once you have that passion or you've developed that passionate and the skills to pursue it. Just kind of see where it takes you. And it'll probably lead you to to some pretty cool places. So I guess that would be my advice to focus on the scientific process. I rather than sea turtles or corals or any specific aspect of the natural world. Well, it's really really good advice. Unfortunately, we're out of time. I wanted to thank our guest again, Josh Patterson, and our producer Mark winner for making this show possible. And I guess just in general Josh any final words of information or wisdom for the whole listening audience. I mean, if the core restoration stuff that I've talked about as interesting, you definitely look up some of the partners. You know, the Florida aquarium core restoration foundation moten marine lab. There are lots of others. That's only a handful that I work with there's certainly lots of others. But most of us would be more than happy to talk to you about what we do. And there's lots of also volunteer opportunities with.

Gina Gina tech Florida Paul Mata Josh Patterson Tampa Kerry O'neil Yele producer Mark
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

12:59 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Back continuing our conversation with my guest judge Patterson. Scientists in faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world coral reefs and coral reefs in and around south, Florida and the keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough ones. I talk about so corals, you know, naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things we'll be able to grow and out compete the corals. But at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so. Wide, you know, similar to ours and seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is a Nigerian so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic assemblyman living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars. They can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a quarrel to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbionese. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stetson of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear by in color. Okay. Great now, can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly? And why so yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida, and the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora. That is the genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser elk horn coral which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferator. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh yet to swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six there listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them in ocean based nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora serve corners was the primary species. That's been used you can take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Ice hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the other acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository in you know, I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is in? Also, why knowing Gino type in Phoenix type in explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo. There's probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get. These species off of the Endangered Species Act is something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of as you said a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries. Grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost so working with the Florida query. I'm here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of gene type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be the FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals that are not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Essays where they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your though. Right. I'm just there. No, no. They're fifty six and seven. And they have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned in kind of in passing? But what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual poker for this work. Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys and brought a Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off a central axis and the corals are home from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to. Grow a lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with bowler corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your poem. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduates. Students maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. It's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with the central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little Cayman. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next sewn, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then even the. Third zone or the sort of four Riveria is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones, and we did some surveys to surveyor fi that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from that common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones. And what we found was I guess not surprisingly that corals that were planted in the same zone that they were grown in. Did really really? Well, they grew a lot on they survived. Well, but cetera and these were tree grown coral. So they're suspended in the water column when they're being awful cultured. We took him into the shallow zone where there's a little more wave energy. We experienced a lot of breakage. So the corals didn't necessarily die. But they basically were just little nub ins we actually had negative growth in that zone. So they got smaller which was interesting because there are wild colonies of the same species. Right. Next to them that are doing just fine. So that's something to consider when we're citing nurseries is that if you want to restore shallow areas, you might want to consider rowing your corals from the start, you know, maybe an an attached bottom attached method, and then we'll be planning them in the deep zone we experienced lower survival. And we had it was interesting. We had about forty percent of the corals that that died off within a month. And we didn't know what to attribute that to there was no visible disease. But for whatever reason when we moved them to a deeper area on the ones that survived it. Okay. But we had pretty good amount of mortality there. So that's something that we're continuing to look at is the reasons for some of that. Okay. That's really interesting could that be due to maybe the numbers of those beyond those or maybe the type, you know at the different depths. Yeah. Definitely. So the semi are not a static thing. And so we know now that there is genetic diversity within the same Beyonce's. Well, and they come and go and that kind of stuff it's a pretty stable. We think obviously when they bleach it's no longer stable, but they definitely are attuned to certain wavelengths of light in that kind of thing. So it's possible that the symbionese and higher light environment were not well suited to to win. We moved them we done subsequent work that makes us think that light might not have been the factor that you know, they seem to acclimate pretty well two different light regimes pretty quickly. So there could be some other factors going on there. It's very complex. There's a lot of stuff going on. I heard you give a talk recently, and you were talking about the more kind of cutting edge areas that you and your students were looking at. I think you mentioned meta below makes for example, can you maybe touch briefly on on that or related new technologies? Yeah. I guess metabolism is probably the one that. I'm most familiar with..

coral restoration foundation Florida Alcorn coral Gina Cayman Islands Gino Australia Mary university of Florida Patterson Great Barrier Josh Caribbean FINA Summerlin Phoenix Tavernier
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:41 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"We're back our conversation with my guest judge Patterson. Scientists and faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh will talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world's coral reefs and coral reefs in and around, south, Florida Keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough one that's about so corals naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow and out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does uptake some nutrient. So it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so world. Wide similar to and seagrass. And some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia and the last couple years they had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest Reese system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can entail nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic Symbian living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they. Can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbionese. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white statin of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough or just appear by in color. Okay. Great. Now, you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora. Is the genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser Alcorn coral, which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving keys in the sixties there, they say, oh yet swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, that's really shifted. So those first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora serva- corners was the primary species. That's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with L corn choral as well, which is the acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And you know, I know that that's important getting explain maybe what that is. Also, why knowing Gino type pheno type and explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely to start with the repository. That's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that is probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the Endangered Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get. These species off of the Endangered Species Act is something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of as you said a repository or an archive living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire gene types, and I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell event. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean based nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida query here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Five gene types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of quarrels, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Essays where they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to seize on. Which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrel, though. Right. I'm just there. I know they're fifty six and seven and. They have numbers. But do it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned in kind of in passing? But what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual cared for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys and brought a Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central access and the corals are home from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's it's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to grow. A lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another mentioned the boulder corals earlier. This is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab, down in Summerlin who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler coils as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a quarrel, you know, the size of your poem. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate student. Maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. That's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped him start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next sewn, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet. And then even the third. Zone or the sort of four reface area is about fifty to sixty feet. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those resources, and we did some surveys to survey five that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from that common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones..

coral restoration foundation Florida Florida Keys Cayman Islands Gino Gina Mary university of Florida graduate student Patterson Josh Australia Caribbean key Largo Summerlin core restoration foundation Great Barrier
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

07:36 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"I think you mentioned meta below makes for example, can you maybe touch briefly on on that or related new technologies? Yeah. I guess metabolism. Probably the one that I'm most familiar with. And even I'm not that super familiar with that. But it's something we're interested in looking into for sure because. So you have if you've heard of genomics, right? So that's looking at the entire genome and all of genes that are present that's pretty static. So in theory, the genome should be the same in all of these in these lines of Gina types, each Gina type should have the same genome because it should be a clone of the rest of that type. The metabolism is downstream from that. So when you have jeans, they get transcribed into a and translated into proteins, and then those proteins go and do things, right. They're involved in all sorts of different cellular processes and the result of those cellular processes the metabolism. So it's things like sugars individual amino acids and really smaller molecules that are the result of whatever that organism is doing. And one of the interesting things that we've observed is that we are now taking the same gene type. And planting it, not say, we other people working on this are taking the same gene type and planting it across a different arrange of different environments, and so. So what we see is differential survival and success. So Gina type that does really well in the upper keys might not do well in the lower keys, for example, and genomics can't tell us much about that. Because the genomes should be the same. However metabolism metabolism is is much more influenced by the environment. So we're thinking that we might be able to look at the matab loom for some clues as to why the same Gina type does well in one environment and poorly in another. We're also interested in looking for metabolic signatures of these specific phenotype that we see. So if any given environment, we see that this genus type is is relatively thermally, tolerant those studies take a long time to do and they're really involved, and there's no way like, for example, the core restauration foundation houses in excess of one hundred and fifty staghorn coral Gina types and moat has I think an excess of sixty or seventy so there's no way that we can run studies to screen all of those Gina types for different. Phenotype? So we really need to develop tools and the tools are going to be genomics metabolism looking at how related these corals are to each other. It's not going to be one thing. I don't think you're ever going to be able to just take say, okay. This metabolic signature means this coral is thermally, tolerant or disease resistant, but it's something that in combination with all of these different technologies, we're working towards trying to be able to take one off sample of coral and try to predict some of its characteristics. Now, I know you get involved with the the big coral spawning events in the keys. Can you kind of maybe tell folks a little bit about that? And also, maybe some of the work you did with looking at substrate y substrate for larvae is important. Yeah. For sure. So we've been talking a lot about Gina type and how it's important and that kind of stuff one of the reasons it's so important to understand that Gina types. We have is that we're having a hard time making more of them. So I think most colleges degree that coral recruitment in terms of larval recruitment is at are near zero. The keys, and I guess I should explain. So there's two ways these things reproduce. And when I'm talking about stagnant coral they are sexually reproductive where you just break a piece off. And if it finds the right environment continue to grow, and obviously there you just creating a clone. So you're increasing coral biomass. But you're not increasing the genetic diversity of the population. And they also spawn so they are hermaphrodites each polyp releases bundles of eggs and sperm and in HR, if there's enough density of spawning corals, those things will float to the surface the ocean, though, breakdown fertilize, and they create these little peanut shaped larvae that we call plan ULA, and that plan ULA every single plan Yele as a brand new Gina type that did not exist before. And so those plan ULA in theory, if the environment is right. Find a good substrate to settle on and metamorphosed into an individual polyp, which grows over time into a colony working with the Florida aquarium. We I don't know if even call it success a couple years ago we had. A single sexual recruit that survived and it's still growing at the aquarium in downtown Tampa. And that's really to this point the oldest sexual recruit that I'm aware of in this species now in Paul Mata. There've been some published accounts of a handful of surviving recruits being put back out in the wild. So these things also only spun once a year, and so since I've been at UF we've worked in partnership with the Florida query and the core restoration foundation to go down to the keys every year, and it's a really nice setup because these things coral restoration foundation. Let's them grow big enough in their nursery, a subset that. They will spawn in the nursery. And so we've got all these Gina types that are tagged with genetic identity, and we can have them all in one central location where we set nets over them and collect their sperm and eggs and do crosses and that kind of thing. So it's a really nice as opposed to some of the people, I know that work on Paul Mata where they're collecting natural spun off the reef, you know, they might be miles or hundreds of. Meters apart when the and they've got a rush to get together and do the fertilize Asians and that kind of stuff, so it's a really nice setup. And then we bring them back. And yeah, we've done some work working with Kerry O'neil at the aquarium. We did another experiment this year looking at the different substrate properties that these coral larvae need to settle and what the settlement accuse are. So there's crust Coralline algae, their microbial biofilms, the orientation of the tiles that we settle them on might be important. And so there's just a lot of questions to answer there. But we only get one shot a year. So it's a little problematic, and we just don't we haven't yet figured out how to get really good survival from the sexual recruits. They're very vulnerable. Will it sounds like a lot of fun? And definitely some really fascinating work before we kind of close up. Giving me words of advice for students interested in getting into this line of work or area. I mean, what I always tell students I feel like again, I feel like I got really lucky I got into a really fun field. But if you're a student in science in you're interested in research, I always tell people that you have to be just as happy if you're studying microbes in Antarctic ice sheets, as you are if you're studying coral reefs or something like that you really I have to be passionate about the scientific process and using science to answer questions. And then once you once you have that passion or develop that passionate and the skills to pursue it. Just kind of see where it takes you. It'll probably lead you to some pretty cool places. So I guess that would be my advice to focus on the scientific process. I rather than see turtles or corals or any specific aspect of the natural world. Well, it's really really good advice. Unfortunately, we're out of time. I wanted to thank our guest again, Josh Patterson, and our producer Mark winner for making this show possible. And I guess just in general Josh any final words of information. Wisdom for the whole listening audience. I mean, if the core restoration stuff that have talked about as interesting, you definitely look up some of the partners. You know, the Florida aquarium core restoration foundation moat marine lab. There are lots of others. That's only a handful that I work with there's certainly lots of others. But most of us would be more than happy to talk to you about what we do. And there's lots of volunteer opportunities with those not for profit groups as well. Thanks again. Josh for joining those really really great information. Please be sure to check out Josh is relevant web link which.

Gina Florida Paul Mata Josh Patterson Tampa moat marine lab core restoration foundation UF Kerry O'neil Yele producer Mark
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:41 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"We're back. Conversation with my guest judge Patterson, scientists in faculty received Boorda, okay, Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world's coral reefs and coral reefs in and around south, Florida and the keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough ones. I talk about so corals, you know, naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow and out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely nutrient free environment and so world wide similar to oysters and seagrass and some of these other really critical coast. Habitats. We've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that does L at that is okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero trophy, or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to. To take advantage of both means of getting nutrition, and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbiotic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white skeleton of the coral, and so it's called bleaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear white in color. Okay. Great now, can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species. Acropora is the genus, and they are branching corals that historically were. Spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the acropora L corn coral, which is the other one. They do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferator. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties there, they say, oh, yeah. To swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean based nurseries they grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora server corners was the primary species that's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it. And take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn choral as well, which is together a species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also, why knowing Gino type in phenotype in in explaining what those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that is probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the Endangered Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get these species off of the Endangered Species Act is something that is a long. Down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species in sort of as you said, a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nursery. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that there were entirely Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean based nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost so working with the Florida query. I'm here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation. In their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is is just we know that this line of corals is genetically distinct from another line. So they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And and so those things would be the FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run assays where they're exposing systematically, exposing different Gina. Types to disease, and and finding that there are certain subsets that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrels, though. Right. I'm just no, no. They're fifty six. And. They have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones. And there are some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in passing? But what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual Tokar for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys, and the broader Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central access, and the corals are hung from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to grow a lot more coral a lot more. More quickly, and then another I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that, but the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate students maybe a little bit about the work. Work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student has been with me for almost three years now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Katie actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet and then even the third zone or the sort of four. Refaeli area is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those resources, and we did some surveys to surveyor five ad and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we did an experiment to take corals from that common nursery in the middle zone out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones. And.

Florida coral restoration foundation Gina Gino Cayman Islands Mary Australia Great Barrier graduate student Patterson Acropora Katie Laura Josh core restoration foundation FINA key Largo Summerlin
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:40 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"We're back continuing our conversation with my guest judge Patterson. Scientists and faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world's coral reefs and coral reefs in and around, south, Florida Keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough ones. I talk about so corals naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things we'll be able to grow and out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond lives within their cells that does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so World War. You know, similar to seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is a Nigerian so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero trophy, or they can intake nutrients in the form of plankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they. Can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition, and what happens with bleaching is generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is symbolic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stella ten of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough. We'll just appear white in color. Okay. Great. Now. Can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly? And why so yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida, and the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species. Acropora is. The genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of coverage where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser Alcorn corn coral, which is the other one. They do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh, yeah. To swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six there listed as threatened and they've been adopted in agriculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them in ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn. Coral acropora serve Corness was the primary species. That's been used. You could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the proper species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also why knowing Gino type in type and explaining what those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo. There's probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the injured Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get these. Species off of the Endangered Species Act in something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of as you said a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean based nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost so working with the Florida querying here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to arc. Five gene types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals is genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one, Bob, and this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be a FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Assays where exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your corals, though. Right. I'm just. No, no. They're fifty six and seven. They have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones. And there are some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned in kind of in passing? But what are a couple of really common ways that corals are actual poker for this work. Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys, and the broader Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So yeah, it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis, and the corals are hung from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to. To grow a lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is a technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler coils as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact, you know, on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduates. Students maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. That's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with the central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Katie actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet deep. And then even the. Third zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones, and we did some surveys to surveyor five that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different songs, and then we didn't experiment to take corals from that's common nursery in the middle zone and out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones..

coral restoration foundation Florida Alcorn coral Florida Keys Cayman Islands Gina Gino Australia Mary university of Florida Bob Patterson Josh Katie Laura core restoration foundation Great Barrier Corness
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

12:10 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Back continuing our conversation with my guest judge Patterson. Scientists and faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh will talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world's coral reefs and coral reefs in and around south, Florida and the keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough ones. I talk about so corals naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get to cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things we'll be able to grow and out compete the corals. But at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so. Wide, you know, similar to oysters and seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic Symbian that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is a Nigerian so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero physically or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic a symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars. They can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting your tradition, and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a quarrel to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbionese. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stella of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear white in color. Okay. Great now, can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora. Is the genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the acropora reser elk horn coral which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties, they say, oh, yeah. To swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, you know, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean base nurseries may grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora serve corners was the primary species. That's been used you can take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Nice hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the other acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also why knowing Gino type in phenotype in explaining what those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo. There's probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the Endangered Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get. These species off of the Endangered Species Act is something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species in sort of as you said, a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean base nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost. So working with the Florida querying here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals is genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And and so those things would be the phenotype. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals, they're not gonna have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Assays where exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrels, though. Right. I'm just no, no, they're fifty six and and. They have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in passing? But what are a really common ways that corals are actual Tokar for this work. Sure. So the probably the primary method that used today in the keys and brought Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis, and the corals are hung from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's it's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us to grow. A lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the boulder corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same gene type they will fuse back together. So they're able to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate student. Maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student has been with me for almost three years now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Katie actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet deep. And then even the third. Zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones, and we did some surveys to surveyor five that and look at differences in how colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from that's common nursery in the middle zone and out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones. And what we found was I guess not surprisingly that the corals that were planted in the same zone that they were grown in. Did really really? Well, they grew a lot on they survived. Well, but cetera and these were tree grown coral. So they're suspended in the water column when they're being cultured. We took him into the shallow zone where there's a little more wave energy. We experienced a lot of breakage cost didn't necessarily die. But they basically were just little nub ins we actually had negative growth in that zone. So they got smaller which was interesting because there are wild colonies of the same species right next to. To them that are doing just fine. So that's something to consider when we're citing nurseries is that if you want to restore a shallow areas, you might want to consider rowing your corals from the start, you know, maybe an an attached bottom attached method, and then we'll be planning them in the deep zone we experienced lower survival. And we had it was interesting. We had about forty percent of the corals that that died off within a month. And we didn't know what to attribute that to there was no visible disease. But for whatever reason when we moved them to a deeper area on the ones that survived it. Okay. But we had pretty good amount of mortality there. So that's something that we're continuing to look at is the reasons for some of that. Okay. That's really interesting could that be due to maybe the numbers of those sim beyond those Antonelli or maybe the type, you know, at the different steps. Yeah. Definitely. So the Democrats are not a static thing. And so we know now that there is genetic diversity within the Beyonce's..

coral restoration foundation Gina Florida Alcorn coral Cayman Islands Australia university of Florida acropora reser elk horn Patterson Josh Great Barrier Mary graduate student Caribbean Katie Laura Summerlin
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:40 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"We're back continuing our conversation with my guest. Josh patterson? Scientists at the university of Florida, okay? Josh will talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world coral reefs and coral reefs in and around, south, Florida Keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough ones. I talk about so corals naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things will be able to grow and out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely nutrient free environment and so world. You know, similar to oysters and seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest reef system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed we call hetero trophy, or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars. They can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and the symbionese either leave or are expelled from the corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbiotic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stella ten of the coral, and so it's called leaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough would just appear white in color. Okay. Great. Now, can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora. Is the genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the acropora Zor El corn coral which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferate. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties there, they say, oh yet to swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, but that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six they're listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them and ocean based nurseries they grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora server corners was the primary species that's been used you could take a five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Nice hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also why knowing Gino type in Phoenix and explaining what those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit that's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the Endangered Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get. These species off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species in sort of as you said, a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that. There were entire Gina types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean based nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost so working with the Florida query. I'm here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to our. Archive Gina types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of type as at this point. What it mostly is is just we know that this line of corals is genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be the FINA types. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals are not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Assays where they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subsets that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your quarrels, though. Right. I'm just there's no, no, they're fifty six and and. And they have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in passing? But what are some of the really common ways that corals are actual Folkard for this work? Sure. So the probably the primary method that's used today in the keys, and the broader Caribbean was developed by core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis, and the corals are hung from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's it's more complicated in that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor. And so these trees have really allowed us. Us to grow a lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is a technology that's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, who I also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that, but the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate. With students maybe a little bit about the work. You end your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild into restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. That's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with the central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Katie actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet deep. And then even the. The third zone or the sort of four reef area is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones, and we did some surveys to surveyor five ad and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from that's common nursery in the middle zone and out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones..

coral restoration foundation Florida Alcorn coral Florida Keys Gina Josh patterson Cayman Islands Gino Mary Australia university of Florida Katie Laura core restoration foundation FINA Great Barrier Zor El Phoenix Summerlin
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

06:09 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"So a Gina tech that does really well in the upper keys might not do well in the lower keys, for example, and genomics can't tell us much about that. Because the genome should be the same. However metabolism metabolism is is much more influenced by the environment. So we're thinking that we might be able to look at the metabolism for some clues as to why the same Gina type does well in one environment and poorly in another. We're also interested in looking for metabolic signatures of these specific phenotype that we see. So if any given environment, we see that this genus type is is relatively thermally, tolerant those studies take a long time to do and they're really involved, and there's no way like, for example. The core restoration foundation houses and accessible one hundred fifty staghorn coral Gina types and moat has I think an excess of sixty or seventy so there's no way that we can run studies to screen all of those Gina types. For different phenotype. So we really need to develop tools and the tools are going to be genomics metabolism looking at how related these corals are to each other. It's not going to be one thing. I don't think you're ever going to be able to just take say, okay. This metabolic signature means this coral is thermally, tolerant or disease resistant, but it's something that in combination with all of these different technologies working towards trying to be able to take one off sample of a coral and try to predict some of its characteristics. Now, I know you get involved with the the big coral spawning events in the keys. Can you kind of maybe tell folks a little bit about that? And also, maybe some of the work you did with looking at substrate why substrate for larvae is important. Yeah, for sure. So we've been talking a lot about Gina type and how it's important in that kind of stuff one of the reasons it's so important to understand that Gina types. We have is that we're having a hard time making more of them. So I think most ecologists degree that coral recruitment in terms of larval recruitment is at or near zero. Oh in the keys, and I guess I should explain. So there's two ways these things reproduce. And when I'm talking about staghorn coral they are asexually reproductive where you just break a piece off. And if it finds the right environment will continue to grow. And obviously there you're just creating a clone. So you're increasing coral biomass. But you're not increasing the genetic diversity of the population. And then they also spawn so they are hermaphrodites each polyp up releases bundles of eggs and sperm and nature if there's enough density of of spawning corals, those things will float to the surface the ocean, though, breakdown fertilize, and they create these little peanut shaped larvae that we call plan ULA, and that plan ULA every single plan as a brand new Gina type that did not exist before. And so there's plan ULA in theory, if the environment is right. Find a good substrate to settle on and metamorphose into an individual polyp, which grows over time into a colony working with the Florida aquarium. We I don't know if even call it success a couple of years ago, we. Had a single sexual recruit that survived and it's still growing at the aquarium in downtown Tampa. And that's really to this point the oldest sexual recruit that I'm aware of in this species now in Paul Mata have been some published accounts of a handful of of surviving recruits being put back out in the wild. So these things also only spun once a year, and so since I've been at US we've worked in partnership with the Florida query and the core restoration foundation to go down to the keys every year. And it's it's a really nice setup because these things coral restoration foundation. Let's them grow big enough in their nursery, a subset that. They will spawn in the nursery. And so we've got all these known Gina types that are tagged with a genetic identity, and we can have them all in one central location, where we set nets over them and collect their sperm and eggs and do cross it has and that kind of thing. So it's a really nice as opposed to some of the people, I know that work on Paul Mata where they're collecting natural spun off the reef, you know, they might be miles or. Hundreds of meters apart when the spawn and they've got a rush to get together and do the fertilize Asians, and that kind of stuff, so it's a really nice setup. And then we bring them back. And yeah, we've done some work working with Kerry O'neil at the aquarium. We did another experiment this year looking at the different substrate properties that these coral larvae need to settle and what the settlement accuser. So there's crust Coralline algae microbial biofilms, the orientation of the tiles that we settled them on might be important. And so there's just a lot of questions to answer there. But we only get one shot year. So it's a little problematic, and we just don't we haven't yet figured out how to get really good survival from the sexual recruits, they're very vulnerable. Well, that sounds like a a lot of fun. And and definitely some really fascinating work before we kind of closed up. Do you have any words of advice for students interested in getting into this line of work or area? I mean, what I always tell students I feel like again, I feel like I got really lucky and I got into a really fun feel. Field. But if you were a student in science, and you're interested in research, I always tell people that you have to be just as happy if you're studying microbes in Antarctic ice sheets, as you are if you're studying coral reefs or something like that you really I have to be passionate about the scientific process and using science to answer questions. And then once you once you have that passion or you've developed that passion and the skills to pursue it. Just kinda see where it takes you. And it'll probably lead you to to some pretty cool places. So I guess that would be my advice is to focus on the scientific process. I rather than sea turtles or corals are any specific aspect of the natural world. Well, it's really really good advice. Unfortunately, we're out of time. I wanted to thank our guest again, Josh Patterson, and our producer Mark winner for making this show possible. And I guess just in general Josh any final word of information or wisdom for the whole listening audience. I mean, if the core respiration stuff that I've talked about as interesting, you definitely look up some of the party. The Florida query on core restoration foundation mope marine lab. There are lots of others. That's only a handful that I work with there's certainly lots of others. But most of us would be more than happy to talk to you about what we do. And there's lots of volunteer opportunities with.

Gina Florida Gina tech Paul Mata core restoration foundation Josh Patterson Tampa Kerry O'neil producer Mark
"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

Pet Life Radio

10:39 min | 3 years ago

"coral restoration foundation" Discussed on Pet Life Radio

"Continuing our conversation with my guest. Josh patterson? Scientists and faculty at the university of Florida. Okay. Josh, we'll talk a little bit more now about your coral restoration work. Can you describe in general, your take on the plight of the world's coral reefs and coral reefs in and around south, Florida and the keys. Yes, sure. I mean, this is this is a tough one that's about so corals naturally live in this very narrow environmental range. Right. So they can't get too hot. They can't get too cold. They need basically full strength seawater most of the time, and they need some nutrients, but not too many nutrients, so if there are too many nutrients in the water other things we'll be able to grow and out compete, the corals, but at the same time, the corals do have a photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within their cells that does up take some nutrients, so it can't be a completely, you know, nutrient free environment and so World War. You know, similar to oysters and seagrass and some of these other really critical coastal habitats, we've seen a massive decline in coral cover, and you know, your listeners might be familiar with some of the bleaching events that happened in Australia in the last couple of years. They had pretty much two straight years of some of the worst bleaching they've ever seen on the Great Barrier. Reef which is hugely concerning because that's the largest system in the world and to this point one of the most functional remaining systems. Maybe if you don't mind explain what bleaching is for folks that don't know what that is. Okay. Yeah. So I talked about that photosynthetic sim beyond that lives within the cells of the coral. The coral itself is an idea in so they're related to jellyfish, and they can feed what we call hetero trophy, or they can intake nutrients in the form of zooplankton and stuff like that from the environment. But they also because they have this photosynthetic a symbiotic living within them. They are able to take advantage of the sun's energy to create sugars that they. Can use for energy which is auto trophy. So they're able to to take advantage of both means of getting nutrition and what happens with bleaching is. It's generally associated with warmer than usual water temperatures. But there are other types of stress that can induce a coral to bleach, but basically that symbiosis breaks down on a cellular and tissue level and symbionese either leave or are expelled from corals. And so that's what gives the corals their color is those symbiotic. And so when they leave you can see straight through to the white Stetson of the coral, and so it's called bleaching because the entire reef if it's bad enough just appear by in color. Okay. Great now, can you tell us a little bit about which coral species you work on a predominantly in why? So yeah. With restoration aquaculture in Florida. And the recent Florida are I would say in that particularly dire straits more. So even than some other other areas in the world and in Florida historically, there were two acropora species acropora. The genus, and they are branching corals that historically were really spatially dominant on the reef. So you had big swath of covers where it was just staghorn coral, which is one of the crop reser Alcorn coral, which is the other one they do also naturally hybridize. And so there's a third called proliferator. But anyway, when you talk to people that were diving in the keys in the sixties there, they say, oh, yeah. To swim through the staghorn coral to find the interesting quarrels, that's really shifted. So those were the first two species that were listed on the Endangered Species Act in two thousand six there are listed as threatened and they've been adopted in aquaculture specifically because we developed good methods for culturing them in ocean base nurseries. They grow really fast and staghorn coral acropora server corners was the primary species. That's been used you could take five centimeter fragment. They reproduce naturally just by breakage. So you can take a five centimeter fragment and bring it into a nursery and within six to twelve months. You can have a nice. Hundred centimeter or more colony that you can then divide it and take back out to the reef and out plant. So we're working more and more with Alcorn coral as well, which is the other acropora species. And then some of the slower growing boulder corals were also starting to work with in terms of restoration. Now, I know you're working on a kind of coral repository. And you know, I know that that's important. Can you explain maybe what that is? Also why knowing Gino type in phenotype in explaining those are as well for corals is really important. Yeah. Definitely. So to start with the repository that's a collaboration that I'm involved in with the Florida aquarium and also the coral restoration foundation, which is a large not for profit. That's headquartered in Tavernier down on key Largo that is probably one of the oldest and largest not for profits. That's been involved in coral restoration. So as part of the because these species are listed on the Endangered Species Act. They have come up with a recovery plan to get these. Species off of the Endangered Species Act. It's something that is a long time down the road. It's certainly not something that's going to happen in our lifetimes. But one of the things in that recovery plan is actually land-based nurseries to maintain the genetic diversity of the species, and sort of as you said a repository or an archival living genetic archive on land because we'll have these periodic events, for example, twenty ten we had a big cold spell that killed off a lot of the not a lot but killed off some of the remaining genetic diversity of staghorn coral that was held in nurseries. So there were entire Gina types. And I can talk more about that. There were entire gene types that were lost in that cold spell events. So had we had them in a land-based nursery. We would have been able to take them back out to these ocean based nurseries and grow them back out rapidly and potential they wouldn't have been lost so working with the Florida query. I'm here at the center for conservation. We are actively starting to arc. Five gene types that are maintained by the coral restoration foundation in their ocean base nursery. And so what Gina type is I think of Gina type as at this point. What it mostly is just we know that this line of corals is genetically distinct from another line, so they're all the same species. But you can think of them like this one's Bob. And this one's Mary. And this one's Ruth, right and Bob has Brown hair. And he's six foot four, and Mary has blond hair and she's five foot two. So they have different. And so those things would be in a phenotype. So they're all people or they're all corals, but they have different characteristics. So some in in terms of corals, they're not going to have different colored hair, obviously, but they might grow at different rates. They might have differential, thermal tolerance. So some might bleach easier than others, and they also may have some differences in disease resistance. This is not work that I've done, but but other researchers have started to run. Assays they're exposing systematically, exposing different genotypes to disease, and and finding that there are certain subset that are resistant to disease, which is a big problem. Okay. Now, you don't name all your corals, though. Right. I'm just no, no. They're fifty six. And they have numbers. But it's funny. You do get to know him. You know, I mean, there's some big robust thick ones, and there's some little spindly ones and that kind of stuff. So can you tell you mentioned it in passing? But what are of the really common ways that corals are actual Folkard for this work. Sure. So the probably the primary method that used today in the keys, and the broader Caribbean was developed by the core restoration foundation, and it is the tree nursery. So it looks like a big tree underwater. It's anchored to the bottom, and then floated with like a sub surface buoy. And there are these horizontal branches that come off of a central axis, and the corals are hung from the branches. And they seem to do a lot better that grow a lot faster. We actually did a study where we did a direct comparison using trees, and then there's a block method where they're basically just attached. It's more complicated than that. But they're attached to cinderblocks that stay on the ocean floor and so. These trees have really allowed us to grow a lot more coral a lot more quickly. And then another I mentioned the boulder corals earlier, and this is a technology. That's been developed by marine laboratories tropical research lab down in Summerlin key, also work with but they've developed this micro fragmentation approach the problem with the bowler corals as they grow much slower than the staghorn coral or Alcorn on. So it takes years and years and years to get a coral, you know, the size of your palm. But they've discovered that you can cut off basically individual coral polyps, really small pieces, and there's some sort of response there where they start growing a lot faster sort of they're in recovery mode. And if you do that with the same coral with the same Gino type they will fuse back together. So they're able to to really greatly increase the rate at what she's corals grow and make it feasible to do restoration that can have an impact on the scale of years instead of decades. Now, can you tell us a little bit? I know you've got graduate students, maybe a little bit about the work you in your students have done in the Cayman Islands comparing some of the wild and restored quarrels. Yeah. So Katie Laura is a graduate student. That's been with me for almost three years. Now, I guess and she went this was last summer. She made three separate trips to the Cayman Islands working with the central Caribbean marine institute, which is another nonprofit Haiti actually worked with them before she came to me, and she helped them start one of the first court Welby first coral nursery, I guess in the Cayman Islands, but what's really neat about came in as opposed to the keys little came in. Specifically is they have within four hundred meters of shore. They had this really distinct terrorist reef system where you've got three distinct depths that have different coral reef, coral communities and staghorn coral the primary species we work with is found in all three of those reef zones. So everything from really shallow to just a couple of feet, you know, to the next zone, which is where the nursery is located which is probably about thirty feet deep. And then even the third zone or the sort of four reface area is about fifty to sixty feet deep. And so a lot of corals aren't that much of a generalist, but the staghorn coral is found throughout all three of those reef zones, and we did some surveys to verify that and look at differences in how the colonies appeared between those different zone. And then we didn't experiment to take corals from that's common nursery in the middle zone and out plant them in a controlled way across all three reef zones..

coral restoration foundation Alcorn coral Florida Cayman Islands Josh patterson Gino graduate student university of Florida Gina Australia Mary core restoration foundation Great Barrier key Largo Summerlin Katie Laura