35 Burst results for "Contagious"

US rules out summer COVID boosters to focus on fall campaign

AP News Radio

00:50 sec | Last week

US rules out summer COVID boosters to focus on fall campaign

"Federal health regulators have ruled out summer COVID boosters and are focusing on a fall campaign I Norman hall federal regulators are no longer considering authorizing a second COVID-19 booster shot for all adults under 50 this summer The focus has been shifted to revamped vaccines for the fall The Food and Drug Administration says Pfizer and Moderna expect to have updated versions of their shots available as early as September That would set the stage for a fall booster campaign to strengthen protection against the latest versions of omicron two sub variants BA four and BA 5 are even more contagious than their predecessors They push new daily cases above 125,000 and hospitalizations to 6300 Those are the highest levels since February though devs have remained low at about 360 per day Norman hall Washington

Norman Hall Moderna Food And Drug Administration Pfizer Washington
Doctor: Biden likely has highly contagious COVID-19 strain

AP News Radio

00:47 sec | 2 weeks ago

Doctor: Biden likely has highly contagious COVID-19 strain

"President Biden likely contracted the highly contagious BA 5 variant of the coronavirus spreading rapidly through the U.S. according to The White House Biden's doctor reports the president now has body aches and a sore throat but his isolating and recovering and continues on the oral antiviral treatment packs Levin His blood pressure and respiratory rate remain entirely normal and his oxygen levels are excellent with no shortness of breath at all according to his doctor Biden tested positive Thursday and preliminary sequencing of the virus indicated BA 5 which is an offshoot of the omicron strain that emerged late last year It's believed to be responsible for the majority of COVID cases in the country I'm Julie Walker

President Biden Biden White House Levin U.S. Julie Walker
Biden's COVID symptoms improve; WH says he's staying busy

AP News Radio

00:53 sec | 2 weeks ago

Biden's COVID symptoms improve; WH says he's staying busy

"I'm Mike Gracia reporting President Biden's COVID symptoms improved and The White House says he's staying busy I'm feeling much better than I sound President Joe Biden and The White House painted a picture Friday of the 79 year old president still at work despite being diagnosed with COVID-19 one day earlier but during a video conference with his top economic team This is a 38th day in a row of declining retail gas prices Biden's illness was evident Doctor Ashish jha The White House COVID-19 response coordinator The president is doing better He slept well last night He ate his breakfast and lunch Biden's doctors say his COVID symptoms are mild and he is responding to treatment The White House says none of the 17 people determined to have been in close contact with Biden when he might have been contagious have tested positive Biden will be in isolation in The White House living quarters for 5 days Mike Gracia Washington

Mike Gracia President Biden President Joe Biden White House Covid Biden Ashish Jha Mike Gracia Washington
New York reports 1st US polio case in nearly a decade

AP News Radio

00:46 sec | 2 weeks ago

New York reports 1st US polio case in nearly a decade

"New York is reporting the first case of polio in the U.S. in nearly a decade State health officials say an unvaccinated young adult from a New York City suburb had developed paralysis Polio symptoms developed a month ago Doctor Jennifer nuzzo is at Brown university This isn't normal We don't want to see this And it's really a consequence of low vaccine coverage or lower than we'd like to see vaccine coverage The person is no longer deemed contagious Doctor nuzzo says if you're vaccinated against polio don't worry But in communities where vaccine coverage is low then we do worry about spread Vaccination clinics have been scheduled in New York polio was once one of the nation's most feared diseases mostly affecting children because of vaccines it was declared eliminated in the U.S. in 1979 I'm Ed

Polio Symptoms Jennifer Nuzzo Polio Nuzzo Paralysis Brown University New York New York City U.S.
Covid-19 cases continue to rise

AP News Radio

00:48 sec | 2 weeks ago

Covid-19 cases continue to rise

"COVID-19 cases continue to rise According to the CDC the daily average number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S. is just over 126,000 but Eric topol the director of the Scripps translational science institute says that's a huge undercount The real numbers of new cases is extremely high It could be as high as 7 800,000 or even a million new cases a day right now And that's due to the more contagious BA 5 variant It's causing an increase in hospitalizations And it's lasting longer infectiousness for the average person than prior variants Although he adds immunity from previous COVID-19 cases may help along with vaccines and booster shots I'm Shelley Adler

Eric Topol Scripps Translational Science CDC U.S. Shelley Adler
White House urges caution on COVID variants, pushes boosters

AP News Radio

00:51 sec | 3 weeks ago

White House urges caution on COVID variants, pushes boosters

"The Biden administration's top health experts are urging caution as two highly transmissible COVID-19 variants quickly spread across the nation The virus off shoots are even more contagious than their predecessors and moving fast We have seen a doubling in the number of hospitalizations since April CDC chief Rochelle Walensky says too many Americans eligible for vaccines and boosters to protect against the variants have not gotten them Doctor Anthony Fauci says there's no point in waiting for a variant specific shot to arrive this fall The threat to you is now He's urging everyone who needs a shot to get one now White House virus response coordinator Ashish jha singles out older Americans If you're over 50 I haven't gotten a shot this year You should go get a shot It's going to save your life Sagar Meghani Washington

Biden Administration Rochelle Walensky Anthony Fauci CDC Ashish Jha White House Sagar Meghani Washington
New coronavirus mutant raises concerns in India and beyond

AP News Radio

00:45 sec | Last month

New coronavirus mutant raises concerns in India and beyond

"A new mutation of the coronavirus is raising concerns A contagious omicron variant called BA 2.75 is worrying scientists It's gaining ground in India and has already arrived in ten other nations including the United States the UK and Canada experts say it spreads faster than other variants a large number of mutations separate this new variant from its predecessors Matthew Beneke is the director of clinical virology at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester Minnesota He says that in India the rates of transmission are showing an exponential increase It's too early to draw conclusions as to whether it will outcompete the BA 5 variant or cause worse symptoms the concern is that the mutations will allow this variant to get around immunity from vaccines and previous infections I'm Jennifer King

Matthew Beneke India Mayo Clinic United States Canada UK Rochester Minnesota Jennifer King
Pfizer says tweaked COVID-19 shots boost omicron protection

AP News Radio

01:01 min | Last month

Pfizer says tweaked COVID-19 shots boost omicron protection

"COVID-19 vaccine makers are tweaking their formulas and federal regulators plan to review their work this week The Food and Drug Administration is considering ordering a recipe change for both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines hoping to modify boosters might better protect against another search expected this fall in winter Current vaccines still offer strong protection against severe disease and death but those shots target the original coronavirus strain and their effectiveness dropped markedly when the super contagious omicron variant emerged Pfizer says its omicron targeted booster has shown to be effective and increased protection As does a combination shot mixing it with the original The tweak shots also produce antibodies capable of fighting a genetically distinct relatives BA four and BA 5 although those levels weren't nearly as high Moderna hopes to offer a similar combination shot and recently announced similar results the FDA's scientific advisers will debate the data on Tuesday I'm Ben Thomas

Severe Disease Pfizer Moderna The Food And Drug Administrati Ben Thomas
19 diagnosed with Legionnaires' Disease in Bronx; 1 death

AP News Radio

00:46 sec | 2 months ago

19 diagnosed with Legionnaires' Disease in Bronx; 1 death

"And outbreak of legionnaires disease in a New York City neighborhood has sickened 19 people since the beginning of the month with one person dying The city health department says cooling towers in the hybrid section of The Bronx have been tested for legionella bacteria which causes legionnaires disease a form of pneumonia the bacteria was found in four of the towers which the department ordered to be disinfected In addition to the person who died 8 people have been hospitalized the health department says people get legionnaires disease when they breathe in water vapor with the bacteria It isn't contagious and most people don't get sick but symptoms are similar to the flu and those with symptoms should seek healthcare Julie Walker New York

Legionnaires Disease City Health Department Legionella Bacteria New York City Bronx Pneumonia FLU Julie Walker New York
Jansen, Guerrero homer, Blue Jays beat Cardinals 8-1

AP News Radio

00:41 sec | 2 months ago

Jansen, Guerrero homer, Blue Jays beat Cardinals 8-1

"Danny Jansen hits two home runs and drives in four as the Blue Jays are a split of a two game series with an 8 to one win over the Cardinals the homers of the fourth and 5th of the season for the Toronto catcher could his big night at the plate sparked the team moving forward Maybe it was nice to get some breathing room and you know guys were putting great swings and getting up at getting hits and stuff like that So yeah perhaps obviously a professional team and we prepare and hitting contagious It always is So hopefully Vladimir Guerrero adds a solo shot for the Blue Jays Kevin gausman tosses 6 shutout innings and strikes out 8 to improve his record to four and three Jordan hicks is now one in four after giving up four runs over three plus innings for the Cardinals whose four game winning streak is halted Mike Reeves St. Louis

Danny Jansen Blue Jays Cardinals Kevin Gausman Toronto Vladimir Guerrero Jordan Hicks Mike Reeves St. Louis
N. Korea's low death count questioned amid COVID-19 outbreak

AP News Radio

00:45 sec | 2 months ago

N. Korea's low death count questioned amid COVID-19 outbreak

"North Korea says nearly 10% of its 26 million people have fallen ill and 65 people at least have died amid its first COVID-19 outbreak After admitting to an omicron outbreak following more than two years of claiming to be virus free the north says an unidentified fever has been explosively spreading across the country since late April its anti epidemic center has since released fever talus each morning but they don't include any COVID-19 figures some observers say the north must acknowledge the COVID-19 outbreak as it can't hide the highly contagious viral spread and their authorities are under reporting mortality to try to show that its pandemic response is effective while the country lacks test kits to confirm positives I'm Charles De

Fever North Korea Covid Charles De
FDA clears COVID booster shot for healthy kids ages 5 to 11

AP News Radio

00:42 sec | 2 months ago

FDA clears COVID booster shot for healthy kids ages 5 to 11

"The the the the food food food food and and and and drug drug drug drug administration administration administration administration has has has has cleared cleared cleared cleared a a a a booster booster booster booster shot shot shot shot for for for for helping helping helping helping kids kids kids kids five five five five to to to to eleven eleven eleven eleven it's it's it's it's not not not not clear clear clear clear how how how how much much much much demand demand demand demand there there there there will will will will be be be be for for for for posters posters posters posters in in in in this this this this age age age age group group group group only only only only about about about about thirty thirty thirty thirty percent percent percent percent of of of of them them them them had had had had the the the the initial initial initial initial to to to to Fizer Fizer Fizer Fizer doses doses doses doses since since since since vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines open open open open to to to to them them them them in in in in November November November November in in in in a a a a small small small small study study study study Fizer Fizer Fizer Fizer found found found found a a a a booster booster booster booster revved revved revved revved up up up up those those those those kids kids kids kids levels levels levels levels of of of of virus virus virus virus fighting fighting fighting fighting antibodies antibodies antibodies antibodies including including including including those those those those able able able able to to to to fight fight fight fight the the the the super super super super contagious contagious contagious contagious alme alme alme alme crown crown crown crown variant variant variant variant the the the the same same same same kind kind kind kind of of of of affects affects affects affects adults adults adults adults get get get get from from from from the the the the extra extra extra extra shot shot shot shot whether whether whether whether elementary elementary elementary elementary school school school school kids kids kids kids need need need need a a a a booster booster booster booster has has has has been been been been overshadowed overshadowed overshadowed overshadowed by by by by parents parents parents parents outcry outcry outcry outcry to to to to vaccinate vaccinate vaccinate vaccinate those those those those under under under under five five five five the the the the only only only only group group group group not not not not yet yet yet yet eligible eligible eligible eligible in in in in the the the the U. U. U. U. S. S. S. S. the the the the FDA FDA FDA FDA is is is is expected expected expected expected to to to to evaluate evaluate evaluate evaluate data data data data later later later later this this this this month month month month and and and and Donahue Donahue Donahue Donahue Washington Washington Washington Washington

Fizer Fizer Food Food Food Food And And An Fizer Fizer Fizer Fizer Virus Virus Virus Virus Fighti Elementary Elementary Elementa FDA U. U. U. U. S. S. S. S. Donahue Donahue Donahue Donahu Washington
The AP Interview: US 'vulnerable' to COVID without new shots

AP News Radio

00:49 sec | 3 months ago

The AP Interview: US 'vulnerable' to COVID without new shots

"The the the the White White White White House House House House is is is is warning warning warning warning the the the the country country country country could could could could be be be be vulnerable vulnerable vulnerable vulnerable to to to to a a a a new new new new wave wave wave wave of of of of the the the the corona corona corona corona virus virus virus virus without without without without new new new new shots shots shots shots White White White White House House House House virus virus virus virus response response response response coordinator coordinator coordinator coordinator Dr Dr Dr Dr she's she's she's she's John John John John tells tells tells tells the the the the AP AP AP AP the the the the virus virus virus virus is is is is adapting adapting adapting adapting to to to to be be be be more more more more contagious contagious contagious contagious and and and and immunity immunity immunity immunity wanes wanes wanes wanes naturally naturally naturally naturally as as as as we we we we get get get get to to to to the the the the fall fall fall fall we we we we are are are are all all all all going going going going to to to to have have have have a a a a lot lot lot lot more more more more vulnerability vulnerability vulnerability vulnerability to to to to a a a a virus virus virus virus that that that that has has has has a a a a lot lot lot lot more more more more immune immune immune immune escape escape escape escape the the the the heat heat heat heat than than than than it it it it even even even even does does does does today today today today John John John John says says says says Congress Congress Congress Congress needs needs needs needs to to to to act act act act quickly quickly quickly quickly to to to to approve approve approve approve funding funding funding funding for for for for vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines and and and and treatments treatments treatments treatments so so so so the the the the US US US US is is is is in in in in front front front front of of of of the the the the line line line line if if if if we're we're we're we're willing willing willing willing to to to to be be be be at at at at the the the the back back back back of of of of the the the the line line line line and and and and get get get get our our our our vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines in in in in the the the the spring spring spring spring we we we we have have have have plenty plenty plenty plenty of of of of time time time time but but but but then then then then we'll we'll we'll we'll have have have have missed missed missed missed the the the the entire entire entire entire fall fall fall fall and and and and winter winter winter winter that's that's that's that's not not not not an an an an acceptable acceptable acceptable acceptable outcome outcome outcome outcome I I I I think think think think the the the the American American American American people people people people John John John John says says says says the the the the next next next next generation generation generation generation of of of of vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines will will will will provide provide provide provide more more more more protection protection protection protection against against against against reigns reigns reigns reigns and and and and countered countered countered countered in in in in the the the the fall fall fall fall and and and and winter winter winter winter and and and and Donahue Donahue Donahue Donahue Washington Washington Washington Washington

White White White White House Ap Ap John John John John Virus Response Response Respon Dr Dr Dr Dr Congress Immune Immune Immune Escape Es United States American American American Ame Donahue Donahue Donahue Donahu Washington
Moderna announces step toward updating COVID shots for fall

AP News Radio

00:53 sec | 3 months ago

Moderna announces step toward updating COVID shots for fall

"Moderno moderno moderno moderno hopes hopes hopes hopes to to to to offer offer offer offer updated updated updated updated covert covert covert covert boosters boosters boosters boosters in in in in the the the the fall fall fall fall that that that that combine combine combine combine its its its its original original original original vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccine with with with with protection protection protection protection against against against against the the the the Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron variant variant variant variant current current current current vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines are are are are all all all all based based based based on on on on the the the the original original original original corona corona corona corona virus virus virus virus but but but but it it it it continues continues continues continues to to to to mutate mutate mutate mutate what what what what the the the the super super super super contagious contagious contagious contagious Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron variant variant variant variant and and and and its its its its siblings siblings siblings siblings like like like like be be be be a a a a two two two two before before before before the the the the latest latest latest latest threat threat threat threat came came came came along along along along the the the the dirt dirt dirt dirt it it it it was was was was studying studying studying studying a a a a combination combination combination combination shot shot shot shot that that that that added added added added protection protection protection protection against against against against it it it it earlier earlier earlier earlier variant variant variant variant name name name name to to to to beta beta beta beta the the the the company company company company says says says says people people people people given given given given that that that that produced produced produced produced more more more more antibodies antibodies antibodies antibodies capable capable capable capable of of of of fighting fighting fighting fighting several several several several variants variants variants variants including including including including Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron than than than than regular regular regular regular booster booster booster booster triggers triggers triggers triggers while while while while the the the the antibody antibody antibody antibody increase increase increase increase was was was was modest modest modest modest mode mode mode mode during during during during his his his his goal goal goal goal is is is is to to to to produce produce produce produce a a a a combo combo combo combo shot shot shot shot that that that that specifically specifically specifically specifically targets targets targets targets Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron well well well well the the the the data data data data hasn't hasn't hasn't hasn't been been been been vetted vetted vetted vetted by by by by independent independent independent independent experts experts experts experts the the the the company company company company says says says says these these these these results results results results really really really really give give give give us us us us hope hope hope hope the the the the next next next next step step step step will will will will work work work work even even even even better better better better I'm I'm I'm I'm Julie Julie Julie Julie Walker Walker Walker Walker

Moderno Moderno Moderno Modern Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicro Julie Julie Julie Julie Walker Walker Walker Walker
It's not over: COVID-19 cases are on the rise again in US

AP News Radio

00:34 sec | 4 months ago

It's not over: COVID-19 cases are on the rise again in US

"Covert covert covert covert nineteen nineteen nineteen nineteen cases cases cases cases are are are are on on on on the the the the rise rise rise rise again again again again thanks thanks thanks thanks to to to to the the the the B. B. B. B. A. A. A. A. two two two two sub sub sub sub variant variant variant variant covered covered covered covered nineteen nineteen nineteen nineteen cases cases cases cases are are are are up up up up across across across across the the the the country country country country the the the the seven seven seven seven day day day day rolling rolling rolling rolling average average average average for for for for daily daily daily daily new new new new cases cases cases cases rose rose rose rose to to to to almost almost almost almost forty forty forty forty thousand thousand thousand thousand this this this this week week week week up up up up from from from from just just just just over over over over thirty thirty thirty thirty thousand thousand thousand thousand two two two two weeks weeks weeks weeks ago ago ago ago that's that's that's that's according according according according to to to to Johns Johns Johns Johns Hopkins Hopkins Hopkins Hopkins but but but but no no no no one one one one expects expects expects expects a a a a peak peak peak peak nearly nearly nearly nearly as as as as high high high high as as as as the the the the last last last last one one one one when when when when the the the the contagious contagious contagious contagious Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron version version version version of of of of the the the the corona corona corona corona virus virus virus virus ripped ripped ripped ripped through through through through the the the the population population population population experts experts experts experts say say say say a a a a higher higher higher higher level level level level of of of of immunity immunity immunity immunity from from from from vaccinations vaccinations vaccinations vaccinations or or or or past past past past infections infections infections infections is is is is keeping keeping keeping keeping the the the the surge surge surge surge somewhat somewhat somewhat somewhat in in in in check check check check I'm I'm I'm I'm Shelley Shelley Shelley Shelley Adler Adler Adler Adler

B. B. B. B. A. A. A. A. Johns Johns Johns Johns Hopkin Infections Infections Infectio Shelley Shelley Shelley Shelle Adler Adler
Pfizer to seek COVID booster for healthy 5- to 11-year-olds

AP News Radio

00:57 sec | 4 months ago

Pfizer to seek COVID booster for healthy 5- to 11-year-olds

"Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer says says says says it it it it plans plans plans plans to to to to seek seek seek seek approval approval approval approval to to to to provide provide provide provide Kobe Kobe Kobe Kobe booster booster booster booster shots shots shots shots to to to to younger younger younger younger children children children children the the the the pharmaceutical pharmaceutical pharmaceutical pharmaceutical giant giant giant giant Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer says says says says it it it it wants wants wants wants to to to to expand expand expand expand cobit cobit cobit cobit boosters boosters boosters boosters to to to to children children children children ages ages ages ages five five five five to to to to eleven eleven eleven eleven using using using using the the the the lower lower lower lower dose dose dose dose formula formula formula formula designed designed designed designed for for for for kids kids kids kids it it it it says says says says its its its its latest latest latest latest survey survey survey survey shows shows shows shows one one one one hundred hundred hundred hundred forty forty forty forty youngsters youngsters youngsters youngsters had had had had already already already already gotten gotten gotten gotten two two two two shots shots shots shots were were were were given given given given a a a a booster booster booster booster six six six six months months months months later later later later and and and and that that that that extra extra extra extra vaccine vaccine vaccine vaccine generally generally generally generally revved revved revved revved up up up up their their their their immune immune immune immune response response response response more more more more than than than than two two two two dozen dozen dozen dozen of of of of those those those those research research research research participants participants participants participants showed showed showed showed a a a a thirty thirty thirty thirty six six six six fold fold fold fold increase increase increase increase in in in in virus virus virus virus fighting fighting fighting fighting antibodies antibodies antibodies antibodies making making making making the the the the more more more more able able able able to to to to fight fight fight fight off off off off the the the the contagious contagious contagious contagious Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron variant variant variant variant the the the the research research research research has has has has not not not not yet yet yet yet been been been been peer peer peer peer reviewed reviewed reviewed reviewed boosters boosters boosters boosters are are are are recommended recommended recommended recommended for for for for everyone everyone everyone everyone twelve twelve twelve twelve and and and and over over over over but but but but only only only only for for for for younger younger younger younger children children children children with with with with weakened weakened weakened weakened immune immune immune immune systems systems systems systems now now now now Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer will will will will seek seek seek seek that that that that extra extra extra extra boost boost boost boost for for for for healthy healthy healthy healthy children children children children five five five five to to to to eleven eleven eleven eleven I'm I'm I'm I'm Jacki Jacki Jacki Jacki Quinn Quinn Quinn Quinn

Pfizer Pfizer Pfizer Kobe Kobe Kobe Kobe Virus Virus Virus Virus Fighti Quinn Quinn
What do we know about “stealth omicron" so far?

AP News Radio

00:48 sec | 4 months ago

What do we know about “stealth omicron" so far?

"Scientists scientists scientists scientists say say say say an an an an extra extra extra extra contagious contagious contagious contagious version version version version of of of of the the the the Omicron Omicron Omicron Omicron variant variant variant variant is is is is spreading spreading spreading spreading globally globally globally globally but but but but it it it it doesn't doesn't doesn't doesn't seem seem seem seem to to to to be be be be causing causing causing causing more more more more severe severe severe severe disease disease disease disease B. B. B. B. A. A. A. A. two two two two is is is is now now now now the the the the dominant dominant dominant dominant Kobe Kobe Kobe Kobe nineteen nineteen nineteen nineteen variant variant variant variant in in in in the the the the United United United United States States States States and and and and dozens dozens dozens dozens of of of of other other other other countries countries countries countries the the the the so so so so called called called called stealth stealth stealth stealth bomb bomb bomb bomb a a a a crown crown crown crown was was was was first first first first identified identified identified identified in in in in November November November November and and and and it's it's it's it's been been been been driving driving driving driving new new new new surges surges surges surges in in in in parts parts parts parts of of of of Asia Asia Asia Asia and and and and Europe Europe Europe Europe although although although although highly highly highly highly contagious contagious contagious contagious health health health health experts experts experts experts say say say say it it it it doesn't doesn't doesn't doesn't seem seem seem seem to to to to be be be be causing causing causing causing dire dire dire dire health health health health problems problems problems problems in in in in the the the the existing existing existing existing covert covert covert covert vaccines vaccines vaccines vaccines are are are are effective effective effective effective in in in in preventing preventing preventing preventing severe severe severe severe illness illness illness illness and and and and death death death death health health health health officials officials officials officials are are are are also also also also tracking tracking tracking tracking other other other other variants variants variants variants including including including including X. X. X. X. P. P. P. P. first first first first identified identified identified identified in in in in January January January January in in in in the the the the United United United United Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom Kingdom but but but but it it it it hasn't hasn't hasn't hasn't been been been been labeled labeled labeled labeled a a a a variant variant variant variant of of of of concern concern concern concern hi hi hi hi Jackie Jackie Jackie Jackie Quinn Quinn Quinn Quinn

Severe Severe Disease Disease B. B. B. A. A. A. A. Kobe Kobe Kobe Kobe United United United United St Europe Asia Asia Asia United United United United Ki Kingdom Jackie Jackie Jackie Jackie Qu
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

07:32 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"So what would this mean if these types of cancers impacted lots of bivalve populations? What would be the impact of that? We should be very careful with our economic activities when moving animals from one place to another and not only animals, even with the seawater. We should now think on cancer like a parasite. In the case of contagious cancer, it does behave as a parasite. And try to track at least this movement. So we don't put the disease into a disease free area because imagine that these cancers become very aggressive and they reduce potentially the number of individuals and they drive it to extinction. That will be an ecological problem. But if we keep the disease free areas being a disease free area, so no cancer goes into their at least not by our activities in a scenario where this happens that Ole population reduces, we can repopulate with those ones that didn't have the disease. Well, that would be a relief. Fascinating stuff, isn't it, Julia was talking with Alicia Bruce from the Francis crick institute done in London. Now so far, cases of contagious cancers have only been documented in these three animal types. Tasmania Devils, dogs, and the shellfish that we were just hearing about. But we can still learn a lot about cancer biology in general from cases like these, and question whether these could arise elsewhere. For instance, in us. Now Elizabeth murchison is still with us and let's pick up where we left off and we were talking about the transmissible tumors in dogs, Elizabeth. What can we learn by studying how these cancers do what they do? To inform our knowledge of cancer biology more generally. Well, one thing about contagious cancers is that they frequently live much longer than cancers that just arise and remain within a single individual. And that means that we can study cancers long term evolution. And that can tell us how cancers can continue to adapt to their hosts, and this can give us insights into the optimal evolutionary roots that cancers can take. But also they can tell us about how cancers can adapt to escape the immune system under fairly extreme circumstances. So cancers often adapt to escape the immune system even when they're only non transmissible cancers just arising and staying within their host. But these transmissible cancers have to escape what we call an allogeneic immune system. An immune system of a different individual a foreign graft in essence. And this very extreme setting insights into that can tell us more about how cancers escape the immune system even when they stay in the same host. In recent years, we've discovered that cancers also team up with the microbes in the body and in fact just this week there was a paper out that looked at the presence of microorganisms inside cancer cells endowing those cancer cells with additional abilities such as greater resilience so they can spread around the body better. Has anyone looked at these transmissible tumors and asked if they're a bacterial passengers in them that might be aiding and abetting their spread. As a fascinating question and that's actually something that we're currently looking at, although we don't have anything conclusive to say yet. One thing that is really interesting in the dog cancer, however, is that it sometimes takes up little pieces of DNA called mitochondrial DNA from its hosts, and so as it spread along, it sometimes stolen mitochondrial DNA from its hosts which helps it to adapt better to being a cancer. And this might also be a mechanism which might occur from time to time in human cancers. And speaking of human cancers, has this actually happened, I know I reassured people by saying that there's no defined equivalent to these cancers that are spreading among humans all the time at the moment, but are their isolated examples of this happening. Yeah, there are quite a number of examples of cancers spreading between two people or between small groups of people. And these usually occur in three different types of settings. So first of all, there are accidents, such as surgical accents, for instance, and there's one very terrifying case of a surgeon who was operating on a cancer patient and accidentally cut himself from the hand. And then several months later, he discovered a cancer in his hand, the surgical injury site and it turned out to be the cells of the patient, although he was cured, and then there are organ transplant. So when organ transplants have performed, there are very stringent screening processes in place to prevent accidental transfer of cancer cells, but unfortunately this has happened from time to time and cancers have then manifested in the organ recipient. And then the final cases during pregnancy and this is usually a cancer from a pregnant mother can spread to the fetus. This is extraordinarily rare and usually involves leukemia or lymphoma. These are all extremely tragic and sad rare cases, but they can happen from time to time. I wanted to touch on that point you raised about pregnancy because of course that is the body tolerating the invasive growth of tissue, which is genetically incompatible to it the baby is genetically different from mom. So is there evidence that these transmissible cancers in the animals that get them are actually exploiting? That mechanism that is a necessity of the way we reproduce. It could well be that transmissible cancers are making use of some of the adaptations that are there in our cells which allow pregnancy to occur, which as you said is a circumstance when two genetically distinct cell types coexist within the same body. So there is some preliminary evidence suggesting that that could well be the case that some of these pregnancy mechanisms are being used. Elizabeth murchison from the transmissible cancers group at the University of Cambridge. Thank you very much indeed. So overall, in very rare instances under specific conditions, cancers can spread from one organism to another. Now exactly how this happens is still unclear, but it looks like the key is that the cancer can hide itself away from the immune system, maybe by removing Marcus from its surface so it can fly under the immune radar, or making changes to its genetic code that allow it to in some way reprogram the host's immunity. Understanding the distinction between what makes a cancer transmissible or not could help to save species like the Tasmanian devil from extinction, as well as protecting our marine ecosystems. And although very unlikely to cause outbreaks like we see with viruses amongst us humans, thanks to our immune systems being very good at destroying foreign cells, better understanding these conditions can show us how cancer spread in our own bodies and prevent the rare instances of cancer passing on via processes like transplantation. Now let's finish with our question of the week and we are swerving onto the topic of electricity now as Evelyn Wang tackles this battery baffler from Barry. What causes degradation in electric car batteries and what are the upcoming developments in EV battery technology? The batteries that power your electric car are lithium ion batteries. Doctor Chloe Coates from the University of Cambridge is here to drive us to the.

cancer Elizabeth murchison Alicia Bruce Francis crick institute Tasmania Devils tumors human cancers Julia Elizabeth London transmissible cancers group lymphoma leukemia University of Cambridge Evelyn Wang Barry Chloe Coates
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

07:58 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"Listening to the naked scientists with me, Chris Smith. We are going to leave the world of mammals behind us a bit now. We'll come back to them when we talk to Elizabeth again in a minute, but we're going to talk now about this sort of transfer also occurring in animals called bivalves. These are shellfish, because believe it or not, they also get transmissible tumors, and they include animals like muscles, clams, and cockles. But before we talk about those cancers, rob Ellis, who's a researcher in ecophysiology and sustainable agriculture at the university of Exeter, has gone down to his local history to celebrate the wonders of these organisms. So actually I'm today out on the excess tree in east Devon and in this estuary 5 hours play a critical role for biodiversity. So we have a number of different bivalve populations. Probably most visibly noticeable are those of the muscles in the oysters. So these two species are classed as ecosystem engineers. The two organisms when they settle create a natural reef. Now in doing so, they create a novel habitat. It's able to support a range of other species. If we think about a region, for example, the southwest of England, the number of species supported by bivalve reefs can go up by around 750. As well as improving biodiversity by labs obviously play a really important role as a food source for things like crabs, starfish, and other benthic predators. And actually, they were really important in terms of a food source for humans. So around three miles off the coast of east Devon, it's a bit of a cloudy day today, so I can't quite see it. But we've got the largest muscle farm in the UK offshore shellfish. All muscles of readily filter feeding the population of muscles or a muscle bed can actually improve water clarity and therefore really benefit adjacent habitats such as seagrass beds and associated species like that. They can be a really powerful tool that we can employ, so therefore improve those coastal environments and reduce human impact. If we were to lose bivalves, this would be a really important problem in terms of impacting coastal biodiversity, impacting coastal function ecosystem function and also in terms of impacting our ability to utilize those resources as a source of human food as well. Based on those insights from rob, losing bio valves would be pretty disastrous. But these animals are also impacted by contagious cancers. These diseases have only recently been found in bivalves, but could have driven past declines in numbers. Alicia bruthas cancer researcher at the Francis crick institute who studies these rare conditions in bivalves explains. These cancers, which is a leukemia like cancers in virus, where reported in the late 60s and in the 70s and 80s of last century, but it was not till 2015 when they were discovered that they were contagious because we needed to analyze the DNA to know that that cancer cell did not originate it in that individual uncomfortable individual. And we have any idea about how it spreads from one organism to the next. The hypothesis is that somehow the cell is released to the environment. We don't know if it is an active release. Or if it is when he's dying, positively, the cells are released to environment. Then the cells float in the seawater and they survive in that seawater. So maybe the temperature and the salinity and all these conditions might have an impact and finally these bivalves, what they usually do in nature is that they filter water. Probably by filtering water, they take some cancer cells that were floating in the water. And those cancer cells go inside and then they start to the battle. Mammals, immune systems have evolved in a way to detect things that are foreign and get rid of it, but I'm guessing the immune system of by bulbs is quite different to immune systems like Oz so it's a flaw in their immune system that allows this type of contagious cancer. We do know they have defense, but they don't have the same immune system as us. So a lot of research has to be done to actually understand why they are not as successful as our immune system to defend themselves from a contagious cancers. There are many parasites that are affecting this kind of animal survivors. So a lot of research is being done to try to understand why is this happening? Why is not immune system of these animals fighting against all these parasites and, of course, as well, the contagious cancers. You said that these cells appear to float in the water, passing from one organism into the other. How far do we think these cells can travel? Earlier this year, it was published that a cancer the same cancer was found in some clams in the Atlantic coast of Spain and also in the Mediterranean coast of Spain. And those two places are located more than a thousand miles away. So how is this possible? Was the cell the cancer cell able to float and travel that far? We are not sure we also have to consider that maybe human activity played a role in moving that cancer from the Atlantic coast to the Mediterranean coast. But for instance, in masses in other types of contagious cancer, it has been found in teale, South America, in North America, in Europe, and even in Russia. But in the case of masses, masses attached to the boats and boats travel along distances. So by moving the masters from one area to another, that is probably how these contagious cancer was arriving to. So many places in the world. But yeah, in the case of the clams that usually leave buried in the sand, so they don't attach to the boats. It's very interesting question as well. And with these cancers, are they restricted to an individual species in the sense of Ava council arrives in one species? Does it stay within that species? Because they're genetically similar or can it sort of jump the species barrier and move into another? For most of them, it is how you describe it. So the cancer rising and animal and it spreads to other individuals of the same species. But surprisingly, there are several cases in virus where the cancer arose in one virus species and nowadays it is found in other species. By reading the DNA, you are able to study the history of that cancer. We found the cancer in the RTV news clam, which is a clam that lives in both the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast of Spain by studying the DNA, we find out that the cancer cell did not arouse in the water clam, but arose in a different species. Which was called Venus clam. And another case of cancer that crossed that species barrier is the masses. And this one is very interesting because it has gone not only for material stresses, it is also infected. Three extra additional species that is like the master of cancer. So it seems like we have these cancers that can not only spread from organism to organism, but they can spread potentially from species to maybe different species, and then also can potentially travel in some way we don't know and spread from population to population..

cancer east Devon rob Ellis contagious cancer contagious cancers Alicia bruthas Francis crick institute Chris Smith university of Exeter tumors Atlantic coast Elizabeth Mediterranean coast leukemia teale Spain England rob UK
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

07:31 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"And interestingly, we think we've been tracing this from nearly the beginning of its genesis. There is a lot of effort going into trapping Tasmanian Devils in the geographic location of dev T two, which is in the southeast of Tasmania, and it's quite confined at the moment. Although recent efforts have shown that it is moving northwards. And so it is starting to spread unfortunately and become more prevalent. It seems like an unusual phenomena for this to happen twice in one species, is this a case of lightning strike in twice in the same place, or are these animals? Do you think just susceptible to these types of conditions? I think it probably is lightning striking twice, as you say. But I think we need to probably be more aware in wildlife, generally, possibly these tumors are arising at different times, but that they don't have the success that DFT one and DFT two have had in the population. So I think it's probably likely that these tumors do arrive sometimes. With communicable diseases in humans, we aim to treat them. We aim to develop vaccinations or other medical treatments. It's anything in the line like that for Tasmanian Devils. Will there be a vaccine for these tumors, do you think? Transmissible tumors should be not easy to vaccinate against, but they should present some sort of roots for vaccination. And certainly we've been able to show that if we can restore some of these antigens that I was talking about before that usually coat the tumor cells, then if you put those into a Tasmanian devil or in a co culture situation, which is what we call this, then we can actually see an immune response against these antigens on the tumor cells. So that tells us that the Tasmanian devil immune system is capable of responding. But unfortunately, it does seem as if this type of vaccine with these antigens on the surface of the tumor cells, it does work in some animals, but it doesn't seem to work in a 100% of animals. And we're not quite sure what the efficacy of that is. And why it doesn't work in some instances. So I think we need to do just a bit more work to understand what it is that the immune system responds to and whether then we could make a more targeted vaccine based on that information. Let's hope they can Hannah settled there from the university of Southampton. Now, Tasmanian Devils has just been hearing a one mammal that experiences these transmissible tumors, but another animal probably one that's even more familiar to you is one that we all know and love, it's our best friend, and that's dogs. They are also victims of a contagious cancer. And here to tell us more about that one is Elizabeth murchison from the transmissible cancers group at the University of Cambridge. Tell us first, what is this transmissible tumor in dogs? And how does it spread? Dog transmissible cancer is quite different to the one Tasmanian Devils. It's also spread between animals by the transfer of living cancer cells themselves. But in this case, the cells are spread during mating. And this results in genital tumors. It's actually a very, very common, although most people in the UK probably haven't heard of it. And that's because its main reservoir is free roaming sexually active, uncontrolled dog populations, and as we know, they don't occur in the UK anymore. But actually interestingly, this disease was first described in the scientific literature in the UK, 200 years ago in London. So we know it was common here once, but it disappeared in the 20th century due to the control of dogs. And what fraction of dogs worldwide have got it then. It's extraordinary about 1% of dogs worldwide in places where this is endemic, which is most places have this disease. So it's extraordinarily common. It's quite shocking to think how many dogs have this disease. But it's different to the Tasmanian double cancer in that it's not nearly as deadly. Dogs with this disease, they tend to have localized tumors which remain in the external genitalia. They don't metastasize or spread to other parts of the body that frequently and also the other wonderful thing is that this disease is highly curable with a course of simple chemotherapy, most of these dogs almost a 100% of them will undergo a complete cure. And we think that that's actually something to do with the immune system rather than to do with the way that chemotherapy drugs act per se. Hannah siddle was telling us about the Tasmanian Devils that there's evidence that in each case because there were two diseases they've originated from one individual, is the same true with the dog tumor then. Exactly. And that's the really fascinating thing about this dog cancer that all the tumor isn't all these dogs all around the world, they all carry the cells of one individual dog that first gave rise to this cancer. Extraordinarily, we think that that one dog lived about 6000 years ago. And that dog was a dog which got a cancer rather than that cancer dying together with its dog hosts as most cancers do. Those cancer cells spread to another host and from there that one single cancer lineage has survived for thousands of years and has spread all around the world and it's by far the most prolific and widespread cancer that we know of in nature. It's really a really remarkable phenomenon. How do you note 6000 years old? Well, that's an estimate, and it's based on counting mutations in the genome of this cancer. So as cancer cells are actually indeed any cell divides, it will accumulate mutations with time. So what we've been able to do is estimate how quickly cells of this dog cancer accumulate mutations and we've done that by collecting tumors where we know the tumor was spread from one dog to another dog and we know when that happened. So by counting the number of mutations in these short intervals, we've been able to estimate how many mutations occur per unit time and then by counting the number of mutations back to that original dog and applying this mutation rate we've been able to come up with this estimate, which does have huge error associated with it. So we think around 6000 years ago, give or take a few thousand years. Why do you think that the Tasmanian devil tumor is a disaster for them? But in dogs as you've pointed out, it's eminently treatable and much more mild to the disease. Well, this is an interesting question because it does make you wonder whether thousands of years of evolution have potentially caused this dog cancer to adapt to being a less aggressive cancer. Because if you think about it, a cancer which comes in and kills its host is going to limit its own possibilities for onward transmission. Whereas a cancer that comes in and causes a fairly mild disease, lives alongside its host for potentially years, has many more transmission opportunities. So although we can't time travel back to that original cancer that first arose from that dog several thousand years ago to see whether it was actually more aggressive, it's a really interesting possibility that this cancer may have adapted to being less deadly. Absolutely fascinating. We'll leave it there for now. Stay with us though, please, Elizabeth, we'll hear more from you a bit later on in the program about these sorts of cancers, more generally. You.

Tasmanian Devils cancers tumors Transmissible tumors Elizabeth murchison transmissible cancers group Dog transmissible cancer genital tumors UK Tasmania university of Southampton Hannah siddle University of Cambridge Hannah London Elizabeth
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

05:59 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"To feed some of our food is labeled with little tags, so we know whose food is food, 'cause everyone has a little bit different weights. So again, we're doing a scatter feed here so we throw food throughout their habitat. We spread it around so that they have to go forage for. Some of the devil's over here are pretty shy. Tasmanian Devils don't really truly follow their name. And actually very timid by nature. So do you dip all the threatened species so with some of our braiding females that we're hoping to breathe this season we've got camera footage monitoring them feeding. So we just make sure that's turned on every night and we check that every day just to see if the females of 8 and over and over. And the main reason we need to check this is because if they're going through stress they don't eat the food is often always frequently as normal and that way we can tell that they are going through there. It's just and we can start to prepare for braiding. Sanctuaries like the heasley sanctuary supported by zoos Victoria in Australia are playing a vital role in helping the Tasmanian devil avoid extinction through their breeding programs. These animals are also being released into the wild on islands and mainland Australia to up their numbers. This is because their numbered sightings have dropped by 80% in the last two decades. And as Ben said, they are officially and endangered species. Hannah siddal and assistant professor in molecular immunology from the university of Southampton explains what has caused this drastic decline. So the majority of the decline is being caused by what we call DFT one, which is devil facial tumor disease. And that is the tumor that emerged sometime just before 1995. We do now have a second contagious cancer in the Tasmanian devil population terms, deity two. And it is now responsible for some declines that in a very limited geographic area where it's still located. And you say this is a contagious cancer. So how does this spread from one animal to another? It's a little bit like for us a virus or bacteria because it can pass when the devil's contact each other. Rather than being a virally induced tumor, this is actually the cancer cells themselves that are able to pass between individuals. And we think in the case of the Tasmanian Devils that this is primarily a care and when they bite each other, which unfortunately they do tend to do when they're fighting and in the mating season as well. Our best evidence at the moment is that these cells are actually grafting into the next devil when these biting behavior occurs. And once these tumor cells then seed into the next individual, they grow and establish and make a new tumor which can then be passed on to the next individual. That's rare, isn't it? Because cancer is made up of a unique individual cells that have gone rogue in a way. So what is it do you think that makes this cancer able to transmit in a population? We think that these tumors are taking advantage of the fact that although genetic diversity is not so low that these animals are clonal or exactly the same, they do have a lower level of genetic diversity than in populations that have more healthy numbers. We do think that these tumors may be taking advantage of this fact. And that may be allowing them to initially start to spread between a few individuals. After that though, the idea that there is not enough genetic diversity in the population and so this is allowing the tumor to take hold, that idea breaks down a little bit because we do have some genetic diversity and enough genetic diversity in the population to stop the tumor spreading. But tumors are very good at acquiring new mutations and they adapt, of course, they adapt to their environment. And so they will acquire adaptations that are then helping them to then passage between individuals. And we have found that one of the adaptations that they have made these tumors is to lose some of the proteins or what we call antigens on the cell surface of the tumors that are usually a flag for the immune system and would stop the tumor from transferring between individuals. This adaptation then allows the tumors to essentially become silence or invisible in the population. Other cells in this tumor the same in every individual infected. Essentially, yes, so when we say they're the same, they all have derived from a single ancestral tumor cell, which is a cell in a Tasmanian devil that became malignant a long time ago. The tumors that are currently circulating in the Tasmanian devil will be slightly different to what they were when that tumor first arose and started transferring because they've acquired new genetic mutations. New adaptations to their environment. You mentioned that there are two of these contagious cancers in Tasmanian Devils. So what's happened there? Is this the same disease? But it's just a really mutated version, or is it something new entirely? It is something new entirely in that it arose in a completely independent manner from a different individual this second tumor. Really, really unusual to have that occur. And actually, this is the only mammalian species where we know that that's occurred. We think that the second tumor arose sometime.

tumors Tasmanian Devils cancer Hannah siddal facial tumor disease Australia university of Southampton Victoria Ben
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

01:34 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"You're listening to the naked scientists with me, Chris Smith, and in this half of the program, we're going to be talking about cancers that can spread not just within a body, but from one individual to another. Now cancers are made from a person's own cells going rogue, if a cell acquires the right combinations of mutations or changes in its genetic code, it can divide uncontrollably and lead to the formation of a tumor. As these cells contain a unique individual's DNA. If they end up in another individual's body, it should sound the immune alarm, just like an incompatible organ transplant, they should be recognized as foreign and destroyed. Now some viruses which of course also infectious like the human papilloma virus or HPV can also cause cancer, but this is because they can trigger changes in a cell's genetic code that leads to tumor formation, and in these sorts of cases the virus is infectious rather than the cancer itself. In the very rare instances of contagious cancers though, it's the cancer cells themselves that are passing from one individual to another. And that's exactly what we're going to be exploring this week. To emphasize, these cancers haven't been observed naturally yet in humans, but they have been spotted in other animals, and one animal that's experiencing a rare cancer outbreak are Australia's Tasmanian Devils. This disease which only appeared for the first time in recent decades has pushed the species to the brink of extinction. Threatened species keep a bin from the heels fill sanctuary at zoos Victoria in Australia explains how they're helping to save the Tasmanian devil. To Julia revie, during, well, I suppose you could call it feeding time at.

cancer Chris Smith cause cancer tumor formation HPV Tasmanian Devils Australia Julia revie Victoria
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

03:19 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"We seem to have, it sounds like someone standing outside in a field on a rather windy day with not much else going around. It's very low frequencies that we're hearing there, isn't it? That's right. Well, it sounds like someone standing in a field recording in a win. Because in a way, that's what it is. It's a wind on a different planet, but at the end of the day, we're picking up a wind. You're right that we're hearing very low frequencies. And that's one of the interesting things about audio on Mars that the Martian atmosphere is much thinner and made of different substances to the Earth's atmosphere and so sound will behave differently. Sound is a wave that travels through some kind of medium like air or water or whatever. And depending on what that medium is, that can change the way the sound works. So think about when you inhale a helium balloon and then your voice goes all squeaky. That happens because the speed of sound in helium is much, much faster than the speed of sound in normal air. I suppose that's the same with something like water, right? There's a speed difference between water in it. Exactly, yeah. And so in physics, the speed of a wave is the frequency of the wave times the wavelength. And the wavelength has to stay the same because that's set by the size of your vocal cords. And so if the speed increases, then the frequency has to go up as well, and so your voice sounds squeaky when you inhale helium. The opposite thing is true for Mars atmosphere. It's a very thin carbon dioxide atmosphere, and so the sound is going to be very, very low. So you get the opposite effect, the speed of sound is lower on Mars. And so you lose those high frequencies. And so everything sounds very kind of booming and low. The surprising thing is that there's actually not one single speed of sound on Mars, has actually two different speeds of sound, or the speed of sound on Mars varies depending on how high pitched the motors. The reason is really interesting actually. If you think about what sound actually is, it's like a wave that carries energy through the air and if you imagine a wave washing through the air, you can't imagine all the little air molecules bouncing into each other. And that sort of model works here on earth, but the martial atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and the carbon dioxide, these very little rigid springy molecules. And so as a wave travels through the marshmallow atmosphere, some of the energy they're wave goes into vibrating the little carbon dark side molecules. And so depending on the frequency of the wave, it's either going to travel as sound as on earth or it's going to lose some energy. And so you get this sort of double speed of sound effect. The other thing that I noticed about this audio is that it's just wind. It's just the weather, there's nothing else really going on. It's quite, it's quite quiet place really, isn't it? That's right. And I think that, again, that's because Mars's atmosphere is so thin. It's actually pretty bad at transmitting sound. The rule is the denser your medium is, the better it's going to transmit sounds. If you go the opposite direction and think about water much dense to the air and whales can communicate over thousands of miles in the oceans because they are talking through this dense medium in Mars still atmosphere you have the opposite problem and it would be very hard to have a conversation standing ten meters apart because your voices would just get attenuated. And so any distance sounds on Mars like rocks moving around or whatever. The sound just disappears into the thin air. Well, you know, as the old saying goes in space no one can hear you scream, well, sounds like that. Almost applies to Mars as well. You are listening to Matt botwell and Harry Lewis talking about that observation that sounds of different frequencies,.

motors Matt botwell Harry Lewis
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

03:14 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"These green bacteria are retained within the primary tumor cells when they leave their site, traffic in the peripheral blood, and then see that a distant organ. So what this group has been able to uncover is that different strain bacteria have different profound impacts on the ability of cells to travel or spread throughout the body. And what if you remove those bacteria, the tumor spreads less well or is less likely to take up residence at a distant site in the body. Yeah, that's right. So through a number of different combinations of antibiotic treatments, they were able to selectively kill the bacteria within the tumor cells themselves. And when they did this, they identified that certain strains that were obliterated reduce the ability of the cancer cells to seed and create metastases. Where do these microbes come from in the first place? How do they get into the cancer to start with? Our bodies are composed of large diverse microbiome phyla, most well characterized within the colorectal intestinal tissues. And through many years of research, we've seen that many of our other organs also have this relationship with bacterial strains within our body that are normally there. So these are normal residents. I think a big question out there is how do the bacteria that are in the surrounding environment actually get into the cell itself. And there's a number of bits of research understanding this, but I think we're really just getting at the surface of this process of this in a way I guess symbiotic relationship of the bacteria going intracellularly to the cancer cells and promoting their survival. And what do those microbes do so that when the cancer cells do break away from the primary tumor, where the disease begins and start to travel around the body, they are more likely to spread somewhere else. What's the role of the microbes in that happening? Yeah, this is where this particular study I thought really sparked my interest here with their able to demonstrate is that when the microbiome occurring intracellularly that makes them more healthy, one example that they looked at is shear stress. So imagine fluid is flowing through our peripheral veins and arteries and that's really harsh conditions on cells and they sell membranes. So if you're not in the right structure or formation, you will die. They've demonstrated that the microbiome helps to reprogram the cell to survive these conditions. How do we use this knowledge then? What I think is really beneficial from this study that's coming out is that we need to start looking at how we treat metastatic cancer differently than we are currently. We should start considering how to target these different strains. And it's not just what's happening at the cellular genetic level, but other contributing factors as well. Eric Rahman, taking a look at that new study that's just out in the journal cell. From baffling British weather. The sideways spines over the vertebra coming off here. To looking at a cheetah from the inside out. Games making their way to the.

cancer metastatic cancer Eric Rahman
"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

The Naked Scientists

05:08 min | 4 months ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Naked Scientists

"All engine running. Absolutely genius. Get this. Welcome. Welcome. This is the show where we bring the science. What that essentially means is discovery is advances. Research. Technology on the believable. Without further ado, this is the naked scientist. Hello, welcome to the naked scientist the show where we bring you the latest breakthroughs in science, technology and medicine. I'm Chris Smith. Coming up, the latest on the COVID-19 symptoms that now make up the official symptoms list why do we prefer some smells over others it turns out it's got nothing to do with culture, it's all in the shapes of the molecules, and how can sound travel at two different speeds or Mars. We'll hear how. And following the news, we'll be talking about cancer, but not the type you might expect. There are quite a number of examples of cancers spreading. These are all extremely tragic and sad rare cases, but they can happen from time to time. These accounts that defy what we understand about biology, they can jump from one animal to another, but how do they do that? And could this ever happen in humans? The naked scientist podcast is powered by UK fast dot co dot UK. The first up UK COVID cases have reached a new high water mark in recent days, with surveys suggesting that millions of infections have occurred over the last week. This coincides with the cessation of free testing and the publication of a new list of symptoms that might earmark a case of coronavirus, there are now 9 things on that list. So why this switch and why now? Tim Specter at King's College London has led to Zooey initiative that's logged COVID symptoms throughout the pandemic. And I caught up with him and began by asking, what is the most likely giveaway that you've got a COVID infection? In 2022. Based on your symptoms at the moment, make COVID are presenting with cold like symptoms. Number one being sneezing, runny nose, headaches, fatigue, and sore throat. After that, you may have some of these other symptoms which often appear a bit later, which might be a cough, fever, and some distortion of your taste, although unlikely to be loss of smell. Plus a whole range of other muscular aches and pains, et cetera. So at the moment, with COVID levels approaching about one in 14 people, it's more likely if you have cold like symptoms that you have COVID than a cold. That's quite a turnaround from the holy Trinity that we've been using to diagnose this from the get go, which was the fever the cough and the loss of sense of smell and taste. So why the switch all of a sudden? Well, we've been lobbying the government probably for 18 months now to change the list and they have steadfastly refused, although this evidence has been building up over 18 months and most other countries in the world have changed over a year ago. My belief is that the government did this to stop complaints that they couldn't meet demand with their free testing. And that's why on the 1st of April, when they abolished free testing, they came out with this new expanded list of symptoms in line with virtually every other country in the world. What sort of impact is this going to have then? Well, it depends how widely it's used and promoted by the government. I think the key here is about employers and I think that's where it is going to have an effect which coincides with the government stopping payments for sick pay for COVID. And has led to this rather muddled guidance. Yeah, I mean, I found this as an infection control doctor. I found this somewhat confusing where the message appears to be. If you can get out of bed and get out the door, you can go to work. Does it not say the same thing to you? It does. The only exception is if you've got a proven fever. Which is what, you know, a member as a kid at school, you know, desperately hoping I had a fever, so I didn't have to go to school. It's completely contradictory to say there is this list of symptoms, but then in the guidance for going to work, essentially says, if you've got a runny nose, a sore throat, and you're sneezing all over the place, if you feel well enough to go to work, go there, and sneeze all over your colleagues, or sneeze on the tube, and nowhere does it say, do as much as possible to mitigate, spreading it to a hundred people. Do you think it in the grand scheme of things is actually going to make much of a difference though? If we assume that COVID has turned into a much more mild illness, because talking to some of the infection control nurses at the hospital, I work at, they were saying that they've got people routinely in their 90s who are picking up being picked up by screening, completely asymptomatic. What a turnaround from two years ago and that actually we are in danger of paralyzing systems because we are trying to control the uncontrollable and perhaps the approach of accepting that now we have done our best to minimize the threats and the threats are low that now it is time to regard this more as a cold rather than.

Tim Specter King's College UK cancer Chris Smith cough runny nose Zooey fever COVID sore throat headaches fatigue London government
The Math of Resistance With Tiffany Justice of Moms for Liberty

America First with Sebastian Gorka Podcast

02:19 min | 4 months ago

The Math of Resistance With Tiffany Justice of Moms for Liberty

"Talk to us about the math of resisting. That when you think you're just one person, when people don't want to stand up and ask that question, the school board. But if one person says yes, I'll ask that question and you just decide to stand beside them and then you realize somebody else will and somebody else will talk about the catalytic knock on effect of showing others that they're not alone Tiffany. Yeah, I think it's hard when you see a company like Disney and others coming out and trying to shame parents and saying, well, you're not accepting of people. That's baloney. This isn't about, you know, this bill in Florida wasn't about homosexuality or heterosexuality. This was about children and innocence, and that's something everyone can get behind and fight for. I really think there's an effort to divide us as American citizens and they're trying to divide us on principle. The funny thing is, I think that Americans are smarter than that. And they're going to see past it, and they're going to work together. So I agree with you. We hear all the time. People come with their moms for liberty t-shirts somewhere. That one person joins them when we're joins them and then collectively they can't be stopped. Again, school districts might be able to pick off one or two parents, right? They can't pick off 40. So stand with each other, lock arms, shoulder to shoulder, and let's show Disney and these woke corporations and ridiculous politicians what we're made of. And what does it take to get involved and start a chapter? Yeah, so you can go to our website, moms for liberty dot org. You can click on the map on your state. You can see where chapters are currently in your state. As I said, a 180 chapters and 34 states. We just added Hawaii. That's very exciting for us. Give us a couple that haven't got any chapters. A negative shout out to some states. Yeah, no, absolutely. We need some more chapters in Georgia in Arizona. We need, again, would love to grow Alaska, alaskans, if you're listening, we'd love to have a chapter in Alaska. But yeah, I mean, what we're seeing is that it is contagious. We're going to do an automated video of how moms for liberty has grown in states. And I'll take it as state like Pennsylvania, for example. To see the way that the chapters have grown one by one by one by one and then to turn around and have 14, right? And all working together, that affect at the state level is just

Disney Tiffany Florida Alaska Hawaii Georgia Arizona Pennsylvania
"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

The Jordan Harbinger Show

07:05 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

"Back named levels into approximate west german levels. Right by the authors speculated process of social contagion and the change in norms about back pain. Which if you have back pain. You're excused from your obligation. I need to be very clear what i'm talking about and back pain and all of these things. I am not saying that anyone who suffers from these conditions has a mental illness. I'm not saying that there's nothing wrong with them. I'm not saying they're making it up saying none of those things. All i'm saying is that there is a social contagion component to these conditions. That's easier to see when it afflicts other groups in when it afflicts our own another example of this in latin america. There's a condition called sue. Sto which means sort of spirit loss. The idea is kind of religious. Belief that someone losing their their spirit and condi- from this condition and you can have epidemics of system so as well and from our perspective. That doesn't make much sense but of course they might look at us and think analogously it does make sense that these things are socially contagious but of course it also makes sense that it is real mental illness or real of real physical or physiological or psychological condition. I mean when you're talking about suicide. Clusters where teenagers just for example teenagers here about somebody committing suicide. And then there's a rash of these same types of of incidences. It's not that they're not really depressed. It's just that that depression or that condition. That causes them to do that contagious well. It's complicated as soon as i. Touch is one of the things that spells that happens in tuesday's shire's spreading there is a a lowering of the threshold for taking your life. So you know there was some threshold now. Some person takes her own life and it lowers your threshold for doing so. And that's what's causing the cascades. It's not that people think that's so or or suicidal aviation thinking about suicide wary. Human being has contemplated from time to time taking their own life. I think that's not abnormal. Many listeners will have had an odd thought when driving late at night. You know what happened. I just drove off his bridge or drove into oncoming traffic or or will have had a kind of intrusive thought like while walking across a high place. What happens if i slipped. Or maybe i should jump. What would it be like to jump and so on. It's not uncommon for human beings to have this. But when you when you start getting these cascades people might say to act on these kinds of thoughts so there's like some based on level of depression or some baseline level of these types of intrusive thoughts. Now when you begin to have the kind of change in the environment you can get these sort of outbreaks and suicide. Clusters have been known for hundreds of years. I mean it's not a novel observation. You know we are psychological. Animals were influenced by each other. Our emotional state depends on the emotional state of those around us. Our beliefs and ideas depend on the beliefs ideas of those around us. And so we copy each other we do. We were talking earlier about how this copying is really good because it's efficient. It's a kind of social learning but it can also have a downside. What was that experiment. I can't remember if you wrote about read about it somewhere else. But essentially there was an experiment where they had a bunch of people. Look at this guy. I don't know if they were acting bill also milligram. Of course why. Not right of course. Melbourne was a genius. Absolute genius and the backstory on him is amazing. He left yale at goes to the city. University of new york is no research budget and he proceeds to conduct a series of landmark experiments. Which were still talking about. you know. Decades later on a shoestring the experiment. You're alluding to is the milgram sidewalk experiment. And what he did. Is he arranged to have some confederates. On a block segment in manhattan. And he has a guy sitting in a window on the sixth floor of a building. Let's say and then he has other confederates. That are stop in the middle of the block and look up at the guy across the street up in this window. And when he experimentally varies varies the number of people that have stopped to look at the widow. So for example. If one person stops it looks the other passersby. Who are normal people. They're not part of modems. Experiment that their subjects subjects of his research other. Passersby just walked by this one person completely ignore hip. I mean if you're walking down the sidewalk and you saw one guy looking up somewhere you would might not even notice this person. You probably would do anything then. Milk has two people standing. Look up and now some passersby glance up here what are those guys looking at but they keep walking then goes three four five six people when you get to six people that stop and look up. Everyone else stops and looks up at the so miller was able to show that. There's a kind of nuclear process for social movements like crystals forming. You know you to have a critical mass and a certain amount in the crystal grows and grows and it was able to do this experiment and then he had people hiding and observing. What do the passersby do when they when he varied the size of the set looking up at the individuals brilliant experiment do you think it all about cryptocurrency or markets and seeing. Oh my friend bought this. And i mean you have to have some thoughts on this craziness as well right. Yes i mean. I just keep thinking. I've been watching bitcoin go up for. I don't know however many years now. Yeah i'm not a sophisticated investor. And i am not sophisticated about these types of money-making farsighted but i remember looking at it and thinking. I wonder if i should just put a little money literally. Fight invested a thousand dollars back. Then it'd be worth. I don't know how many millions today i mean. It just kills me that. I didn't just pay attention to do it but yes i mean. There's a lot of subtlety about cryptocurrency. In of serious conversation could be had about cryptocurrencies about what they represent for our society what they represent the future of money which ones are likely to be successful. In what ways are they the same or different than the hard assets like gold and so on and fiat currencies but they absolutely have a social component as well. You know that this sort of faddish -ness of buying in the same steep rise of course will be followed by steep fall when if they crash just like the tulip mania a four five hundred years ago inclosing here. Is there anything we can do to defend ourselves against this type of influence. I mean it seems impossible to avoid on the one hand. We don't want to insulate ourselves right. We want to get good habits and we wanna get good thoughts and feelings and contagious emotions from friends and family. But also i kind of don't want to get wrapped up in buying tons of different crypto currencies and lose money gambling or eating too much or smoking or. I don't want those things to be contagious. How do we block out the negative influences or is it just not that possible. Well i think there's no way to stop being. We are social animals. I mean there's no way to completely insulate yourself from this but there are habits of mind. You can cultivate and practices. You can cultivate which reduces the likelihood you will you know. Just engage in copycat behavior. The first is to surround yourself with a variety of people with different views. A certainly politically. i think. That's very wise like my friends. Run the gamut in the political spectrum. I i enjoy arguing with the ones. I disagree west. I like having people. I do agree with. It's gratifying and nice to see that my opinions about things are shared by some.

sixth floor manhattan two people today latin america University of new york first one person millions hundreds of years west german six people Melbourne four five hundred years ago Milk one guy one Decades later three tuesday
"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

The Jordan Harbinger Show

07:57 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

"For the conclusion of my conversation with nicholas kristof. So this isn't it doesn't sound like it's a ripple effect from one person. It sounds like it has to do with all of the nodes. All of the people being nodes and radiate kind of radiating. I don't think that's the right term but like in all directions in their. Yes that's right. That's exactly right and everyone is doing is everyone is acting this way within the network and this is of course why some people are more. Structurally influential than others. So for example one intuitive understanding of this is you know is you're bioterrorist and you had to infect one person in san francisco the germ who would you in fact exacts some monk. That's by him. Sells you know often some monastery because that person is not in one else. You have the enjoyed understanding where some people are going to be. Spread germs more. And that. that's the person you really want to get a going. So the capacity to reduce rebels varies from person to person. How conscious this process right. So am i sort of out loud. Thinking am overweight. it's just the way guys are these days. It's not a big deal or is it very unconscious imitation. Proliferation of unhealthy habits and diets and exercise patterns and acceptable body size. But it never quite leaps into my consciousness. It just happens the should be both so one of the things that's happened is if you look at those old photographs oh young. Men listing on the second world war. They all look like how you guys fright. But it looked at the analogous recruits today would be you know much bigger and what happens is that there's a kind of spread in norms about acceptable body size. So you're surrounded by other people who get bigger and bigger and of changes your expectations. About what a normal body sizes and then used her gain weight and pass it on to the next person we've been able in some work. We don't provide evidence for these normative in other words. It's not just the angel. It's not just your friends. say you know. Let's up beer and you're like no. That sounds like a yucky combination. But no my friend is suggesting beers length. Let's do that. And of course you adopt the muffins at bir diet and gateway yes that does happen but it's not just that it's that there's a spread of norms as well not just the spread of the. You're so by seeing your friends lor wait. Let's say you change your ideas about what an acceptable body sizes. Then you can gain weight or here's the tricky part. You can even be an ace of domestic carrier just like for example i could be infected with germ have symptoms. Give it to you. You have the charm but you don't have symptoms and then transmit it to your wife. Coup gets the germ and symptoms so you function as an ace of dramatic carrier just like case corona virus. The virus could spread some are of dramatic while the same happened with norms for example like obesity cer- example. I have the norm. I adopted norm. But it's okay bigger. I've gained weight. You see me that has gained waves. You don't gain weight but now your ideas about what an acceptable body size are have changed. Were exposure to me now. You encounter a new friend of yours. Who has started to gain weight. And if you're having to directing you might have set it up fred. let's jim you might have kind of given them a correction but now having seen me your we'll actually does battiston stock. You so i'm not gonna say anything you see you then have become a nascent dramatic carrier of nor even though it has not affected nor body size for example right so i'm sitting there going well. I'm just abnormally fit and trim everyone else. I'm not gonna right compared to my. I'm not gonna i'm not gonna their lifestyle to impose my norms of working out all the time and watching what i eat. That's that's ridiculous. Can we use these powers for good because that seems very useful. Like imagining. Imagining companies organizing. So that they're using the influential people to improve the health and fitness and work habits of others. And also i wanna know how to increase my own influence so that i have a positive effect on others. Like how do i get my virtues to spread versus being upon. Well i mean the answer. That question is yes and my live has been doing for over ten years now many experiments showing how you ten foster desirable cascades of gamers as will earlier i alluded to developing world. Settings were we shall. Chris can foster the spread of anti diarrheal practices to reduce diarrhea in bellevue world. Villages and di. Rita is a leading killer of young kids. In must've been melvin world or we have a big trial just finished me support from the bill and melinda gates foundation in honduras where we've been able to show that we can improve charles child. Health behaviors in thousands of people by fostering signs of behavioral cascades and many other experiments were done online with also working companies for example of companies. That are trying to increase or decrease the prescribing behavior of physicians. You'll get doctors to change. What medications they prescribe nations or what tests they order. You wanna reduce needless test ordering by physicians. We wanna foster diffusion of innovation through networks of doctors of these desirable prescribing who test ordering practices. We have done many many applications like this and so many commercial firms. of course. we're we're interested including the health of the public. They want associates. But you know our our technology can be used as always as well incidentally also be used for ill like any technology you know you can invent a gun for hunting and then you can use it to murder people and you know. It's a dual use technology. Our technology and the idea is at my lab. Many other similar labs advance can be used for good or for l. Frankly you know that is something. We our minds love. It certainly also discussed the various things. We social networks can seemingly spread good ideas bad ideas political ideas smoking right back. Pain suicide clusters or something. You mentioned in the pain thing was interesting though to tell us about that. That was kind of out of. I didn't see that one coming. You know well. I mean the thing is there. Are these diseases which are called. Culture bound syndromes which are are diseases which are very typical of a particular cultural group in which far as we can tell have no physiologic basis. Now when we look at other cultural groups we can thank. Those people are nuts. For example there's this illness in certain countries in asia. Where a man becomes convinced that his penis is disappearing and it's been drawn up into his body and there's no physiologic basis for this belief and a penis has not in fact but the the treatment for this condition is to have a trusted family member. Hold the pena's twenty four hours a day to make sure that it doesn't doesn't receive psychological kind of belief system and you can have outbreaks of this condition like epidemics of this condition. Right now. we look at that. We think because they never heard of duct tape over there. We look at that. We think that's nuts. But they might look at us and think that's nuts for example we have epidemics of anorexia in our country and this is seen in very distinctive subgroups in our population often us sort of upper middle class white girls particularly afflicted by this condition. It's not of course restricted to that group but you rarely see in very poor countries. Where food is scarce. And it's a bit of an odd kind of condition so from an outsider's perspective. That might look to them. It looks like the penis disappearance story for example and back pain which typically afflicts of middle men and often. there's no physiologic basis that. We can ascertain for this condition also might be in this category where it is a kind of social contagion and there was a very interesting sort of study that was done. I think that is what you are alluding to what got us onto. This santon is that in east and west germany after the reunification of germany. I can't remember right now. Which side has the lower incidence of back pain. I think eastern was east. Germany at low had very low levels of back pain in middle aged men and west. Germans had high levels very similar population of human beings and then after the reunifications suddenly east german back named levels into approximate west german levels. Right by the authors speculated process of social contagion and the change in norms about back pain..

san francisco Chris nicholas kristof asia Rita honduras germany Germany charles west germany today east west german east german twenty four hours a second world war both jim over ten years anorexia
"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

The Jordan Harbinger Show

03:28 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

"Sinologist sometimes loss. And you're right to suggest that now in the modern era of might might be harder to lose knowledge. Not necessarily a not for everyone and not always for example. Just think about the y two k problem all right when we are all struggling electric tale of a sudden all these fortran programmers. The knowledge was last. We couldn't find. These guys were brought out of retirement bait wages to deal with these. You know this code code base that had been written decades earlier and the knowledge was almost lost and how to deal with that code that was at the basis of many machines. Yeah it was a programming language called like cobol or something like that. i think. yeah portrait. Yeah well you could be right. I think i'm. I'm not sure i'm not. I'm not super confident on that that. Yeah i was reading in zero. I think it was that when we shake hands. We often sniff our hand. And we don't notice it and that might come from pre humans using smell to evaluate and i noticed. Well i didn't notice. Somebody told me an ex girlfriend told me that after i shake hands i often touch my nose and i try not to now. But she noticed it she goes. You always do the shake hands and you do that. Like one finger on the knows she notices before you read about in the book. Oh yeah this is like fifteen years ago. She noticed this habit. That vindicated your former girlfriend that she thought i had like a nervous tic and i thought maybe not nervous. I don't really understand what it's four. So i didn't know it was a primal thing that a lot of people do. Yes apparently according to some studies chimpanzees do something similar so there is a sense in which we don't you know human beings it culturally. We don't sniff each other. In other words it would not be considered normal behavior when you encounter a stranger to sniff them like dogs do for example that would be odd but a certain chimpanzees do that and we apparently is claimed through this surreptitious observation of human beings done by these other scientists. You know that we smell our hands after. We shake hands with other people. And that's a way of assessing sampling. Gilfach should factories signals of other people switching gears. A little bit go into a little bit of the knowledge from connected as well. You make an interesting point in that humans have only been able to choose where they live and not actually modify their environment up until the last few thousand years speaking of peers and aqueducts and things like that what we can modify our our social groups and connections so genetically we in the past have been rewarded for things like kindness the ability to connect well with others. And i'm wondering have you read rutger bregman. Yes yeah. I couldn't recollect a right over there. I can look over and see his book. Yes he was on episode four ninety four and his point was the same that look yes. It looks like psychopaths and sociopaths. Whatever are rewarded in society but much more so do we reward people who are kind in connect well with others in its quote unquote always been that way. Because of the way that we evolved to live in groups. I want to talk a little bit. About how behaviors spread because this is fascinating and it's different than say like habits spreading through a network and this is the milgram sidewalk experiment for example. If you wanna take us through a brief example of what this might be. Because i think we all we pick up habits from friends but we don't know that we pick up mindsets and habits and behaviors of all kinds from from people. We don't even know. Yes that's right. I mean in a way. It's just the claim that all kinds of bananas spreads new networks not just germs for example.

fifteen years ago one finger rutger bregman zero four episode four ninety four decades earlier Gilfach last few thousand years two k
"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

The Jordan Harbinger Show

07:08 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on The Jordan Harbinger Show

"Show the soon nami stones were an interesting factoid as well so do you remember these as well. This is something you wrote about a while ago. Yeah no that's not me sounds aren't oppose arrow and i thought that a year ago so you've been driving fifty eight. I can't remember things from a year ago from january challenge sensor another interesting phenomenon. These are these large stone markers in japan which warn people about the dangers of nominees and mike carry messages. Like do not build your dwelling below this line. For example a hundred years ago those nami washed many many miles. Inland destroyed everything. We'll have the the high water. Mark is a certain spot. The ancestors of modern japanese living on this location erected stones and said. Mrs just how far gone. Don't build your houses below this stone and his knowledge is transmitted by are also by oral tradition. Little children were in these communities. Were taught about these stones were taught about how their ancestors died or taught about how their ancestors have less message to them so they knew about it and when nami came about ten years ago again during kashima disaster people who built their houses above the those markers none of and all of their houses were spared and in fact these oral traditions about this events that occur outside of letting memory not occur more or less often than once every one hundred years require the transmission we were talking earlier about the transmission of warnings in religious texts or literature about what it means to confront plays with respect to nominees are sort things and so for example there is islands in the indian ocean the nicobar islands where These are some of the last untouched people on the planet. They are a protecting group. They have no contact with the outside world. They live in a base scrape almost a stone. Age wave the very very limited technology. They you know they fire arrows at the helicopters occasionally are seen how the sentinel islands right where everyone who gets on the that's right. Yeah that's right. They don't like strangers. Amazing journalist are a drunk tourist except to go there and they're kill but these groups report that they have oral traditions that say when the oceans henry receives like does horrid nominee on that trump or the great way but waters gets back on shore like a time going out but an odd time for a tied and much more than that oral traditions. As when you see this go to this. Temple and pray is a snow temple. That's inland on a mountain. You know and they all survive so india with its modern technology and louise offshore and its radio and television communications and everything else was devastated. But you know on these islands. They survived because they have this oral tradition. So yeah these these are warnings. we tried enforcement. And incidentally this is sort of a tangent tangent but it's actually a set of ideas that is for yet. Another book called blueprint. The evolutionary origins of a good society came out again more recently. So i remember that one easier. Which is that our capacity to teach each other things which many lists are probably take for granted is actually exceedingly rare in the animal kingdom in this capacity for teaching and learning from each other is the fundamental root of our capacity for culture which is in fact in our ability to be a cultural animal to transmit knowledge across time and space that has made us one of the ascendant species on the planet so just illustrate this point many or most animals can learn independently. You know little fish in the sea can learn that if it swims up to the light it will find food there that independent learning a single organism probing its environment and learning by stimulus response. You know what's happening Animals can learn socially that means by a survey ship other animals. For example. you put your hand in the fire. You learned that it burns so if you've acquired some knowledge fire burns but a price burned her hand or i can watch you. Put your hand. The fire and i gained almost as much knowledge. But i pay the price by hand has a branch or two more extreme example. We go into the forest and you eat red berries and die. You learned that red berries a deadly and great price. And i watch you eat red berries better ninety red berries so it's incredibly efficient. That's called social learning. Were you learned by mimicry or imitation or observation of other members of your own species. Many animals do that but we do something even more remarkable is we teach each other things. We set out to transmit knowledge from one person to another in particular between genetically unrelated individuals. And this is exceedingly rare in the animal. Can we it serve other primates to it elephants. Do it certain cetacean species and a smattering of other not to exaggerate smattering of other animals. Do to and this capacity for teaching which many listeners probably take for granted but is actually quite distinctive feature of our species is in fact one of the ways we we've survived so the to nami stones are kind of our ancestors teaching us right the existence of oral traditions or the existence of scientific knowledge which is accumulated in written texts or transmitted was cools. Or other means this is one of the fundamental qualities we have as human beings and and is essential dark capacity to survive including faced with pandemics. It seems like there's less danger of losing knowledge. Everything's on the internet forever. God forbid i should forget how to do the mock arena or whatever but it seems more likely we will lose our sense of reason like to see you to the buck arena. Have to say you know what. I'm pretty sure it's out over over across cross bike. Goodness hip shake head right. I i have to google it. But i can google it. It's still there somewhere. We're more likely to lose our sense of reason right because of misinformation disinformation plus poor education. And that's kind of my worry less so with a new dark ages. Where in correct me. If i'm wrong here but like the romans were living in concrete dwellings. They themselves couldn't build for like seven hundred more years. Because that's right. There's there's some knowledge that slots the roman recipe for concrete that was incredibly strong even had concrete that could solidify underwater they build these offshore appears with specialized concrete and europeans. Were living in rome. Houses for seven hundred years made out of materials and techniques that they themselves did not know had been lost. there is knowledge. That's lost my very favorite is the unto keita mechanism. Is clock like device. That was built by ancient. Greeks are two thousand years ago using complex metal gears the likes of which we're not seen again for a thousand years. Wow there is a specialized knowledge. Another famous example. This is the purple dye technique for extracting purple die from a certain kind of shellfish that was available north africa again Someone recently was able after many years of effort to reconstruct the recipe for making this purple dye was very elaborate process..

seven hundred years japan north africa a year ago two thousand years ago seven hundred more years fifty eight a hundred years ago indian ocean trump ninety red berries india ten years ago about one person nicobar islands a while ago one hundred years two more extreme single organism
"contagious" Discussed on Anxiety Slayer

Anxiety Slayer

01:47 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on Anxiety Slayer

"Page or whatever start. Check yourself check what you're choosing and you will feel so much better when you let some of these folks go when you let some of these influences fall away. Yon specifically checking on your anxiety. How is miami's. It level was our after time with this person or time with this person on social media or social media platform is. It's all association. It's all connection of soul so just check in. I'm so glad that we came together again for another episode. Thank you so much a nanga and thank you to all of our listeners. Join us next week. For a conversation with dr caroline dean author of the magnesium miracle. We discussed her. new research. Shows an alarming number of people who suffer from anxiety are magnesium deficient seventy percent. Is the number wild. We will dig in and teach you more about what's happening and how you can support yourself and feel better. Thank you so much for listening to anxiety slayer we'll see.

next week seventy percent Yon dr caroline miami
"contagious" Discussed on Last Day

Last Day

06:27 min | 1 year ago

"contagious" Discussed on Last Day

"A beloved celebrity dies unexpectedly before their time. . And the headline start to quickly pile up and take over social media. . But there's no real story yet. . No details no explanation just click -able headline with a bunch of photos. . Celebrity. . Dead at forty, , eight, , thirty to twenty, , four whatever and in the absence of any real information, , a question inevitably arises. . Was it an overdose or suicide? ? Unfortunately, , I am acutely aware of what it's like when the answer is overdose. . Please refer to season one for that story. . But when the answer is suicide, , how the story is told matters. . For so long there has been cautioned around public discussion of suicide. . Asking the news media think a little harder by reporting it, , they could be perpetuating the story. . We touched on this episode one but if media gets the message wrong and that wrong message reaches a struggling person at the wrong time, , the consequences can be devastating even fatal. . For example. . In Two thousand fourteen after beloved comedian actor Robin Williams died by apparent suicide. . And that shocking news flooded the headlines. . Suicide rates went up by ten percent. . This detail got repeated after another prominent suicide death we'll designer kate spade was found dead in her apartment today her death and apparent suicide. . We saw after Robin Williams suicide rates went up ten percent. We . Know Kate spade reportedly was infatuated with his suicide. . which became part of another subsequent suicide. . Relearn today we lost a friend and colleague Anthony Bourdain. . Anthony is the second public figure to die this way this week. . Was the first some experts point to a phenomenon? ? They call suicide contagion, , which often happens moments such as this. . And it turns out there is a long historical precedent for this. . There's this phenomenon called the weather effect. . Stick with me. . This won't take long. . It is a fancy literary version of the outdated term copycat suicide. . And it comes from this seventeen seventy four to novel called the sorrows of Young werther the book spoiler alert and with the sympathetic hero or they're dressed in a blue code and yellow trousers shooting himself after being rejected by someone he loved. . In the years that followed so many young men were found dead having shot themselves while dressed as werther that people freaked out and banned the book in several countries. . In one, thousand, , , nine, , hundred, , sixty, , two, , when Marilyn Monroe died. . The following months were filled with extensive coverage about her apparent suicide. . which led to widespread sorrow and an apparent twelve percent uptick in suicides. . These are obviously massive national reactions to the loss of our beloved heroes and icons. . But you see the same thing happening in communities or someone dies by suicide. . All of sudden, , you have to worry about the other people in town. . Or the kids in the schools. . And it brings us to this very complicated question is suicide contagious. . This question of course has been plaguing us this whole project not just because we're talking about suicide. . But also if I didn't know, , we are doing it in the midst of a global pandemic where community spread is all we're talking about. . So is it as simple as that? ? Is suicide something you can catch and if so. . How do we protect ourselves. . Like. . What's the equivalent of a mask for suicide? ? I'm Stephanie Woodall's Wax and this is last day. . We knew early on that, , we wanted to talk about contagion but truth be told we didn't totally get what it meant for suicidal thoughts to transfer. . Is it like. . Flipping a switch not suicidal one moment suicidal the next. . And that's how we were thinking about it. . Until we heard this. . Every morning I wake up and I make agenda for the day. . I love plans I love knowing my options. . In sixth grade when the first suicide cluster happened in my community when we lost more than three people in one year. . It was the first time that suicide became on my list of options when I was going through a problem. . I feeling, , Sad, , one day I think through what the options were. . NAPPING, , think about hanging my friends I thought about taking my own life I thought about going out. . On my list of what I could potentially do to help. . Figure it out in solve it. . This is Lisa. . How speaking at a jet event a few years ago. . And when we watch this video something clicked. . We knew we had to talk to her. . Can you tell me a little bit about yourself like who are you? ? WHO IS LISA? ? Yeah. . So that's such a hard question sometimes answer. . It makes sense that this is a tricky question for Lisa because a lot has changed in a short period of time. . Today Lisa is twenty two and she just graduated from college. . She's about to start a theory impressive job as an engineer at a little known company called Apple. . But. . In sixth grade, , she was in a very different place at the center of what is probably the most commonly referenced example of suicide. . Contagion. . Lisa was a student at gun, , high school. . In Palo Alto California a school that comes up again and again when you start to dig into the concept of suicide. . Contagion

Anthony Bourdain Robin Williams kate spade werther Marilyn Monroe Anthony
"contagious" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

KTAR 92.3FM

02:09 min | 2 years ago

"contagious" Discussed on KTAR 92.3FM

"Contagious. Let's be the shining bright lights in our community. What better way to celebrate this independence date and pulling at Sanderson for under that giant, enormous old glory. They always have flying out front more, Mr Pratt. But I tell you, it's an explosive day here in Spanish Ford there, Romy. Happy Independence Day to you. And thanks for coming by. We appreciate everybody's business We ended up last month is being number One in the zone, of course, were the most awarded for dealership in the United States. We received all the awards from Ford again, and it's just from taking care of our partners like you guys and everybody else that comes into Sanderson. We helped him out by just being a straight up shore cards do the way that we do it business. And happy Independence Day to you, Mr Pratt. If you want to take advantage of some of the stuff that we do our inventory is you two are his biggest anybody around? We still have some of these 90 nuff one fifties at 0% 80 for everything else. We've got 0% 72 months. That's the Mustangs and Echo sports and escapes and rangers and we got two fifties. We have 0% on we got We just across the board have a lot of Discounted rate financing through Ford Motor Credit. Who's another one of our huge partners? Of course they are there. Ford credit. What am I thinking? That's 51st Avenue in Glendale. Or if you prefer shock from home by from home, Sanderson for dot com they even deliver. Well, you know that will deliver the cars, too, will do anything. Almost eat. A bug just depends if we're not going to be one of those one of those Hornets out there. The killer Hornets We will do anything here to make the car deal for somebody and you know what We'll do We'll be treating everybody fair will be taking care of him will make ensure that, um, that they're satisfied customers, and that's why we take our business to Sanderson for Happy Fourth of July there, Romy to Rosie, Gary, Lance. Everybody over there and our staycation winner there going to be driving an edge. I talked to him about it. Romy and sport utility vehicle that's kind of small, super comfortable, easy to drive Great fuel economy. Sanderson Ford..

Sanderson Ford Ford Motor Credit Ford Mr Pratt Romy Hornets United States Contagious. Glendale Echo Gary
"contagious" Discussed on 850 WFTL

850 WFTL

02:27 min | 3 years ago

"contagious" Discussed on 850 WFTL

"Corner harmony do what shop with shop teacher Kelly hello warning listening to doo wop music is contagious and large doses are recommended well.

contagious
"contagious" Discussed on 850 WFTL

850 WFTL

05:35 min | 3 years ago

"contagious" Discussed on 850 WFTL

"At the do up shop with shop teacher, Ken held warning listening to music is contagious and large doses are recommended. The share? Yes. I. Cry. Why? Back. Now, let's take it up tempo with Al Emiko events with come on baby from nineteen fifty eight. All the ball. The ball. All the ball of the ball. Oh,.

contagious