3 Episode results for "Christine Hot"
How I Raised Funding for my Food Tech Startup with Larissa Russell, CEO of Pod Foods
"The news this is the new school with your host Christine Hot and welcome to a new school where we talk about career paths. You don't normally get to hear about in the classroom every episode. I talked to someone with an interesting life path and learn about how they got to where they are today. My guest today is liber so Russell. Now I love and support all the killer. Lazio's out there but Larissa's especially amazing talk to you because she is such a cool attitude about entrepreneurship and life and staying sane when starting your own business at twenty three. She Co founded a healthy Vegan. Cookie company called Greenlee P cookies but even though customers on the cookies they couldn't get them on major gershon shells because of really high food distributor costs. That's when she and her co founder decided to shut down to cookie company and start pod foods the only food distributor design. I started emerging food brands. Now this company so cool. They're basically trying to modernize a food distribution system which hasn't changed since nineteen forties. Her Company has recently raised three million in seed funding and she and her co founder funeral. Lee were just named on Forbes thirty under thirty first of all. I haven't seen you since flake we met. Maybe Marshall Audition and San Francisco. Yeah I just think it's looks so fine our valley intact not going to have seen you and my news feed a lot like versi starting a business. Oh yeah now I can talk to you because you're a yeah 'cause they remember you got some people from acting class to like D. And you're like Commercial they're explainer video rentals like. She owns her own business. Some bad as yeah. Yeah that was fun. Got a whole bunch of people together and we went into this grocery store and I gave him proof buddy a character and they just stick it to the next level so like have you always been interested in business. No way I mean. What does that even mean? Everything's kind of business. You want it to be for us for me in particular. I wanted to of those very entrepreneurial and I wanted to do my own thing and create something but it wasn't necessarily like I need to start a business. It just evolved into that and so we started with this cookie company which of course that was a business but in a lot of ways it was just a creative outlet in the beginning and then me learn so much about the food industry that made sense to change companies. And do what we're doing now. Okay can you explain a little more about the the cookie company that started for you? Yes I was working at a startup in San Francisco was about a thirty person company in two thousand fourteen right after I graduated from school and I was a data analyst in college no I studied government and economics. I learned the data stuff on the job and just learning what it was like to work in a startup company. What were the different functions and roles because then I graduated? I didn't want to do anymore. I thought I had wanted to go. Be a diplomat and be in the government and all these things which is still interesting to me this different path so it wouldn't do not pursue that first sir. How did you end up as data? Well I didn't want to just start upon this forty year career when I wasn't totally sure and so a lot of the government organizations at least to me I perceived them as a huge long path and I didn't really want to take those steps. I I wanted to invest in learning more about what I liked him so I started looking into to small companies and then most of the start ups are in the bay area. So I'm out for my first job and it was fun. I learned a lot for sure but I didn't really. I wasn't passionate about what the company was doing and a friend of mine who worked in the company also wanted to start this cookie company and he connected me with my current co-founder Fiona and the three of US started the cookie company together. I jumped on the opportunity because they needed an American. They're both from Singapore was it. Were you really interesting cookies or of our business or you just really like the CO founder. Well the cookies were divine. They were green pea. Cookies is based on the Singaporean recipe for Chinese New Year. I stop and try though any left there and my mom's freezer a about four years ago. But basically yeah. They were made out of peas and they were crunchy and divine. But but I really liked about it was all the storytelling that we could do. Because we had different flavors of our cookies and they all had different names and different peas analogy so we just had a lot of people and then it turned out that I wrote blogs in children's books and advice column from Grandma Pearl. The wise old earl grey green peak cookie cartoon. Ps So it was more I mean I look back on it now and I'm thinking what we're doing because it was a cookie company not like an avenue for me to share my thoughts. But that's what I liked about it when we got started and it was Super Fun. So you like this cookie. That'd be fun like make little cartoons and stories for and your friends said. Hey do you wanna work with us on the business? You're like yes. Or what do you do next? What did we do next? I kept my job first of all smart and we just started making the cookies in my apartment by hand the mission district of San Francisco and viewed grind up these roasted peas which ordered online. Because they had to be roasted in a specific way and then we made a very simple recipe five ingredients and we hand rule them and then we went out to Dolores Park and we walked around giving people cookies and asking them what they thought and we had this little survey APP and we said Oh here. Give your feedback on this APP. And then they would say oh. It's too salty gets to sugary. Whatever and they would write their email address. And that's how we got our initial base of people which we used to launch on kickstarter. They feel weird that a stranger scaring giving them free. Cookies are long yes. They felt weird and they thought that our cookies had something in them. Because we were in Dolores Park and they were little and green. Oh Okay we said no. Just happiness and peas. That was it and they're free to. I'm sure there's just say home starting a cookie company. If you'd like a free sample the words still come out of my mouth like autopilot. Why did you cookies so much? Just because they were so different from what's usually in America. It was definitely unusual. Were on the rise. They'll kind of are in the industry I guess but they just tasted really good and we made them Vegan and we wanted to create a positive message around better for you or simple products Instead of the five ingredients Harry and a lot of the messaging in these missile at the time just felt very exclusive or something like that we wanted it to be more inclusive and at the and this is the fun product and you don't have to be rigid in your lifestyle to enjoy something better for you so yesterday. Getting straight for your cooking from your kitchen. You're selling little shops sell them. So when did you decide you had to get to the next level when you open the kickstarter stuff? My co-founder Fiona flew in from Singapore. And she came and lived in my apartment until I kicked her out which ended a log. No He's gotten better at it since then but yeah she came and she lived with me and we decided that we were going to start are pretty much right away. And so all of the making cookies and going to the park was in preparation for the kickstarter campaign. Okay and then we went on take starter and then it kick started us that not because we had I mean we did really well On kickstarter from a marketing standpoint. You got all these people really excited about our cookies. But then we had to actually fulfill and we had no idea what we're GONNA do because we exceeded our goal and we didn't. We couldn't handle that many cookies on order so we had to go out and find a co packer and somebody who had that means. Somebody would make the cookies for us. And then we essentially just by resource cookies and pack them all so we did that. We ordered in all of this packaging to my parents house back in Philadelphia because it wasn't going to fit in my apartment and then how many cookies. Oh something like fifty thousand on my God. There's a lot for us at the time for a San Francisco apartment. Yeah so and then that was in the US and then they also did it in Singapore so my job during this time to know. She had just graduated from school and she went. Back and she did the Singapore kickstarter fulfillment. My family all helped me and my neighbors for about four days. Straight just packing kickstarter orders. Because I was going to India for my friend's wedding and I needed to get it done in a certain period of time. Yeah and so we just stayed up all night for many nights and we fulfilled the kickstarter campaign and turns out our packaging. Didn't work and all the cookies had gotten crushed in the mail. So essentially we just mail crumbs to everybody. Who ORDERED FROM US on kickstarter. Did they complain? Yeah but then we learned about PR and you know the importance of good service. And then it ended up that they were dumping the crumbs on their ice cream and in their oatmeal and stuff because they thought it was so good. Oh actually they weren't mad. Okay very supportive okay. And so is. I'm more forgiving community. You think well yes because kickstarter or you're just starting out ideas usually people don't they realized you're not some giant corporation. That's just trying to take advantage or something so we did that. And then afterwards we decided we needed to shape up when it came to production and so we went on. We figured out packaging to sell. The cookies wouldn't break. We found a place to produce our own cookies commercial kitchen instead of having to work with third party. You just Google this suffer. How do you figure it out googling but mostly asking meeting people who have been in the industry? How do you do this or you make your cookies things like that? So you're meeting other Hukou vendors. Yes other cookie vendors or just food producers and then you end up learning a lot based on what other people are doing and then it may or may not make sense for you. We wanted to do a CO packer for a long time. But they have really high minimums like this lady with fifty thousand. That was low for her production. And so but it wasn't going to be maybe wasn't gonNA make sense for us until we really ramped up. Yeah I can't quite visualize what co packer is like. The she ever on manufacturing food factory and yet can make whatever you want based on ingredients and recipe. You give her pretty much okay and then she can package it however you want to. Yes okay so you just send her design. Gotcha Okay Right. But then you have to make sure that everything's working well and the business was hard food like being. A food manufacturer in general is very hard because expires expires and your slaving away late at night in the kitchen. We did that. Yeah so many nights up trying to fulfill orders or maximize our kitchen time. 'cause you're paying and and then you go to the farmer's market and somebody walks by and they try the cookie and chewing it in your face and it's pretty good you know and you're behind things thing you better like it. Were you selling it at farmer's markets every week yeah. We did a lot of that okay. We're also saw what we sold to tech companies in bulk. Oh that's so smart for their free snacks. Yes yeah that's really smart. Actually yeah and then after that we wanted to get into retail because on our online store everybody was saying. Where can I buy these without having to pay for shipping? I want to get them at the store. The store so we went out and we tried to. Hustle are cookies into the stores and we met we met with a lot of pushback and then even when we went into the stores. It was a pain driving around the city for twenty dollars at a time to follow up on orders and keep the product on a shelf. Kes- Does you would just walk stores and be like. Hey can you buy my like Salman Cookie and tried to convince some process to walk in the store and save by my cookies. And then sometimes they'd say yes and eventually they would say yes and then they would be buying it directly from us because we didn't have a distributor yes. Local stores are like chain stores. Local to start okay. Chains typically would wanNA work with a distributor but it varies because distributors. The middlemen buy and sell a product. They can't work with a lot of the brands. That consumers are looking for so chain. Stores will work with you directly. But it's a longer process zone near I. Starting we would go just directly into the independence and say can you order these directly from me and then if you think about it. A grocery store has tend to fifty thousand individual skews products in it and they can be ordering that from ten to fifty thousand different individual sprints. Yeah because I was also wondering how could they trust you because you weren't a big name yet so how they know you would fill the orders or like the cookies are safe or or the FDA approved? I've I don't know the process. Yeah there's some paperwork sometimes about the insurance and things like that you have to have insurance. You have to be producing in a commercial kitchen but as for being able to produce. That's a risk that comes with working with smaller manufacturers. Your facility might just burn down or maybe you run out of money or there are so many different things for these small businesses that are wildcards but people will take the risk anyway because that's where the trend is all the consumers. Want okay. Well not all you know no. It's like driving the business. People get what they capitalism. Okay so you are trying to hit these stories in the cellular cookies and you said it was very frustrating. Yes because the conversation would always pretty much go. The same way where they wanted us to with a distributor because that consolidates their process And then they can receive everything in one order everything in one and it actually. It would have been good for us because we could just sell the stuff. But then we started looking into distribution and we weren't satisfied with any of the options that existed in a long term for us to grow the business in particular the national distribution system is pretty consolidated. So there are two players that are really running it for natural food and we didn't. WanNa work with them because it wasn't a very transparent process that we had heard of and we felt that it just wasn't optimized for emerging brands or brands. Want to grow fast or even a locally so we wanted to grow and be local regional and national and the path to get. There was not appealing to us. Okay so we decided that it was time to create a change because we weren't alone at all we learn about distribution from all of these other manufacturers who had gone before in. What did you not like besides a lack of transparency? Well if you're not careful. The lack of transparency can really put you out of business as a small manufacturer because you're met with a lot of unauthorized deductions or other deductions on your payments. And then there are also mandatory marketing fees and promotions and lots of things that as a small manufacturer. You wouldn't understand going into it so you don't necessarily know what to look out for you. Can't what percentage of your revenue? Am taking at the end. Oh that's a hard question. I mean they take a margin markup so they'll buy your product and then depending on where they're selling it they could mark it up anywhere from eight to thirty five percent or so but that is covering logistics costs and then beyond that you have a lot of other expenses setup fees and promotions and things like that water these figures even right. They're more like fixed expenses that you can't necessarily get around and you don't know how to accommodate those in your product price. And by the time you figure out how to do that. Your product is so expensive on the shelf. Then the consumer can't afford it. No this happens. I want to buy organic food items. And then I'm like this is like thirty dollars for bread. Economics drives consumers. Yeah so you're fresh air the manufacturers and he didn't WANNA go the top. So what did you think to do next the distributors? And it's not even just that we didn't want to go with them they wouldn't have paid attention to. Us talking to one of them for their early stage brands program. So I guess you know we could. There was a path forward but in general distributors prefer to work with brands. That are a bit more established because they're taking a risk bringing on a brand when they're buying and selling that product it's one of the reasons why the business model is pretty much misaligned when it comes to incentives in the changing grocery landscape because they are profiting from high volume only and now the industry is moving towards lower volumes. Really People WanNa have friends. That are smaller emerging brands. Small to mid sized brands are driving. Seventy eight percent of the growth in the industry awesome. Yeah and so. There's this huge shift because these brands tend to represent cleaner labels and better for you. Products or food drives whatever and they're more nimble and responsive to the changes but when it comes to distribution the they can't necessarily drive all of the Prophet that the distributors are looking for as a one off brands. What advantage is when did you Decided to quit the cookie business and pivot that transition happen. Well it's two thousand. Seventeen and my co-founder Fiona and I. We were trying to make a decision about whether to go. Forward and pursue distribution or not and at the same time we had met unshackled unshackled ventures and we had been having a lot of conversations with them that we're learning a lot from and ultimately we decided that there was a much bigger opportunity to pursue in changing distribution. So I know it seems like a big change from cookie company to software business but it wasn't all that bad because we knew exactly what we wanted to build me went and we talked to all of these manufacturers. We made a documentary film. Internally Ages just interviews. We would wake up at six. Am to call buyers for few weeks because buyers are usually around in the mornings and so we would call and say. Oh student at Berkeley. I would just doing some research and trying to learn about their main challenges and feel the need to hide Well buyers her. It was just one of our strategies. Buyers are really busy and so sometimes we would call and say mookie company. How do I get in your store? And we tried different ways of asking and then they would respond to the best of their ability about what they spent the most time on and what was challenging for them and it became apparent to us that there was just no distributor for emerging brands. There was just no solution. So we thought well if we're GONNA replace distribution or create a distribution solution for this new category of emerging. Then we need to have an end to end system so that includes everything from discovery through the actual receiving the reorder Which means logistics so initially. When we started the company we did all his research and we knew what we were going to do. And then we said okay. Let's do it so we went and we put together a very quick version online store browns and we talked to a whole bunch of manufacturers that we had known for cookie days right and said that we were collaborating with a few other vendors to try something new that did they want to be involved and they did so the joined us and we posted their products online with all of the different specifications that we thought a grocery buyer would be looking for and then we went and we took that initial catalogue of brands to stores and we said. Oh look at all these things you can buy from US. And then they did and then after that we just started to grow and a lot of the processes that we were doing manually because we we hadn't built anything yet everything that we were doing manually. We started to record and Organiz entities workflows. Them we later built into the software. Gotcha other sons really hard just like so much work. When did you quit your job to your day job because you had a balance that beginning? Oh I quit the day job pretty early on in the cookie company. You're making money by them. No I just quit. Sat tutoring and acting stuff. And I supported myself in other ways and so yeah. That was really hard. I mean it was scary more just hard. I felt like I was gonNA always be okay. You get a job again later. You Yeah but suffering is glorified hear these stories and everyone says a high lived in my garage terrible. I mean your friends are out there pursuing awesome careers and living their lives and seeing each other and visiting places. And you're not but it's all a trade off because even though it was hard I never really thought. Oh I'm not GonNa do this and I would much rather be doing that other thing. When the to the size you it's time to talk to investors Do you need it to survive? So there is that. But somehow he'd been making it work but then we also need to invest in the actual business to grow and so we were in this cycle where we could just maintain what we were doing but if we wanted to get it to the next level whether that meant entering distribution or investing in online marketing or whatever we were going to need to start to grow and so we are raising money for that. How does how do you raise money? Figure it out. Oh no well. Unshackled is unique because at the time they would read every single application that came through their cold four and so we got in touch with them through their online form and Funen I made it video introducing ourselves which was funny and so then we started talking to them and then ultimately later on like about six months later. They invested in pod foods not in the cookie company and they helped us with semi initial introductions but fundraising is all about creating a strong network of people and at the same time growing your actual business so luckily view in an IRA good do. Oh you can't just focus on fundraising because then you're not actually growing any right so you really only want to fundraise. When it's the last I mean you're always kind of fundraising but you really want to focus on it. When it's the last hurdle to actually growing so I started to focus more on the fundraising side while Fiona would be working with the team building our product and so in that way we balance each other out for a long time still do okay so how did fundraising work on your and I know you applied and then what else is there and the process with unshackled different. We applied we had some meetings and we were just talking to each other for a long time. And then when we eventually had pod foods invested a small some and that's how we got started with them since then they've been following on but other investment we. We raised some other money from angel investors early on. And it's just about meeting people. I guess there's really no one way that it happened. And if somebody invests then maybe they're inclined to make another introduction or something like that. How much money did you for the priests eat like? Did you know exactly? How much do you want to raise for the precede less? So because there's a lot of discovery need figure out what you're building and then go build it and learn and test a lot of things and so it's really about buying time that point versus later on when you can get the money and then say okay. I'M GONNA spend this amount of money and I know that this amount will come back like if you're spending online ads or something you know how to measure those results but for precede you just need time to figure it out. Yeah was that a tricky. I Dunno doing like feel it felt like we had. We were horses with blinders on. Because now you're asking me and looking back on it. I agree with you. Like what were we doing? How did this happen but at the time it just seemed there was only one logical. Step forward each time and so and it was always just to keep going and it never really goes the way you want it to go but it's going so it's forward momentum always something new and with the precede reclosed some amount and we learned about the whole legal process and the money that we got was enough to hire a few key people. Okay so what? Were your first hires. We also when you say legal reply back well actually. We priced the company for our precede. So when you raise money could either. Just get a template offline basically and say here sign this document and then give me the money a shark template. Okay Yeah. Let's say for a convertible note or something. We didn't do that at that time. We actually priced company with lawyers. And so that means that you are setting the value of the company at that point in time and you're selling actual equity only how to even find those lawyers trust so hard yeah we through referrals from our investors okay and then learn about all of that process when the stakes were lower because precede around and then that was that our first hire was Khloe. Yes khloe came on to do something totally different than what she's doing now and she was just helping bring on brands. At the time. How many brands you happen to time? Maybe about one hundred is. That's a Lotta relationships. Yes khloe it was doing a lot of that and then we would go out and sell the products into stores. There is just I feel like such a self starter really hard things sounds very should i? Did you have any doubts on the way you're like? What am I doing and like twenty for like? I've never done this before. Why should anyone take me seriously? Like did you ever want to give up I never wanted to give up but yes it was definitely terrible sometimes especially on the fundraising side. It's a nasty world out there and you know it's hard for everybody but definitely being a first time founder. When Donna and I previously only had a cookie company now trying to take on the grocery supply chain and build a tech solution and so we were met with a lot of doubt which that happens to everybody because venture capitals always risky endeavor so I won't compare are experienced anyone else's but it was definitely difficult and you take it to heart. I mean everything that you're doing is your life. There's not it's not your job in your life it's the whole thing and so I look at it differently. Now I view it as a very indulgent practice to be an entrepreneur because you learn so much about yourself and you have this huge opportunity to grow all the time because a lot of times everything is really hard and so funding was really hard and building. The company with very little resources was hard also but it was more about how it would affect the way we viewed ourselves and then until we could really prove to ourselves that we were doing something that we believed in not only. Was it. This vision that we had that we could actually execute on it until we can start to prove that then. It takes a lot to be able to stay grounded with not only the lack of extra validation but a lot of external degradation. Almost you know people are coming at you saying no no knows. It's never gonNA work all the time in so many words or you're not good enough to do this or loved the idea and not sure about the founders and things like that they can really get to you so you just need to learn to validate yourself having six summer time so I mean obviously secure twenty four seven. Why do you? Why did you like the P. Cookie so much? Why do you care distribution rows of the P. Cookies? I don't know why I liked them so much. It just was energizing to me and I have always at least in my short adult life tried to follow what excites me. Even if they don't know why. Just what's intriguing? What's exciting so that's what the cookies were for me. Pod foods is also that way but I can see more rationally. Why really care about this because the industry is going through this shift and it said all parts of it? It's not just packaged food. That's just our little piece but there are so many tens or more brands of thousands of brands out there creating products that consumers actually want and consumer demand is in this direction of something. That's better for the planet better for health. It's awesome everybody wants to vendor up. Yeah but then they're the system is set up for a totally different era of consumer preference World War. Two era packaged convenience ridiculous. And so that made sense then. We just need to ship spam everywhere. But now it doesn't make sense for the new era of consumer preferences and we have the infrastructure needed to meet that. Meet those preferences. It's just that we need to apply existing technologies to the industry beginning what you want to build it and how to fix the problem or what did you take it. And we knew that it was going to have to be an end to end distribution solution. So that means that the grocery store needed to able to order online or with US however they want and they need to order and the need to receive so and they needed to order from a variety of different brands. So when we started we tested the idea just making an online store catalog. Just very easy to do. Anybody can make online store and then when the grocery store would order a whole bunch of products then we had to figure out what happened downstream so that they could receive everything in one. It's very complex. Because brands have a whole variety of production schedules shelf-life how the product is stored. How it needs to be transported. I mean there are all of these different nuances on the brand side but then also on the store side and so we started to figure all of these things out and then as we grew we built more and more of our product so promotions and recommendations features and a lot that we can do with the information. We're collecting about what's trending where things like that. What were your other hires? And how big is your to know now team Miss. Twenty people and that's across all functions really but mostly sales operations and engineering and before we hired another salesperson because chloe had moved into operations role so we hired actually to more sales people pretty soon after that they're selling to the grocery store or they're pitching grocery store or to the food brands or both. We had one of each at the time of how the. How old are you twenty? Seven twenty-seven feel like managing all these people and have their like lately happens in your hands on my own. No well it feels great. There's just so much trust on our team and positive vibes so we bring on really great people and then they manage themselves in a way. We're all kind of managing something in the company. Driving that thing forward so our company culture is the most important thing to us and we work in a very specific communicative and trusting way light hearted way but that's also very intense. So are Y'all base in San Francisco. No WE'VE GOT CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO VIETNAM. A couple people here in La and also like twenty five seventy S. Something like that once. You like favorite enemy question now. Oh I don't have an answer for that. I guess often we will ask somebody to explain something that they understand. Really well and you can learn a lot about someone by the way the explain something to you because we're too young female founders. We're too young. Female founders and people need to be able to accept that when joining the company that we are the founders of this company Was An issue when you'RE RAISING MONEY TO I. I'm sure it was. I mean we never. Yeah I'm I'm sure that it was but I tried not to read into what was going on because it would only harm me and the company in the end for me to advance the company forward. It's not productive to become a victim or even to focus on it even if it's true only way to even fight back or whatever is to go and succeed and so you're not GonNa do that by focusing on how unfair it is. What do you see next for yourself? Well we're expanding now so we disclosed our seed round pretty recently in the spring. Yes thanks and so. We can use that to actually invest in the company for a long time. You're just hanging on in a way. What can what little incremental can we do right but now we know how to spend the money in a way that can grow the business so we expanded the team and we're growing out of Chicago in the bay area and then this year. We're also GONNA luncheon a couple of new regions white Chicago neck so there's a huge opportunity in Chicago because people are out there wanting the same better for you. Clean label farmers market local or regional growing brands but the access even less manages on the coast. Starting because if you go to if you're in San Francisco or la people will pay the premiums for those products and stores right. People are willing to spend more in California for a help your product right and it's not necessarily the same in the middle of the country men that doesn't mean they don't want it right so the competitive landscape is a bit different for us. They're huge opportunity. Also logistically was part of the decision because Chicago is a hub for logistics for the whole United States. Says yes that's a good place for us to have a central location biggest mistake? You've made also years mistake. I mean so many mistakes but it always leads to something so if you learn from it's good yeah right and usually the mistake or things that I could have lived without comeback to not trusting your instinct or your or your intuition. Whatever would eating is the smartest you've done for your just going with it. You know I think the smartest thing are the best thing that I've done for myself is not wasting any time just deciding. Okay well I wanNA live my life and it's GonNa be wild and great and we'll see what happens and so lucky that I've been able to just go start pursuing it from the beginning Do you have any advice for someone who wants to start their own business and of the three Industry Whoa I would say I need to figure out what the need is and your your small piece or big piece. Whatever and and have that vision of the future and then come back to the now and look at your small piece and is there a fit for this little seed that will then grow cooks for basically yeah. I think that a lot of people really want to do a business or start their own thing. But I think it's important to actually focus on the thing itself the problem you're solving right instead of the beanbag chairs or like the lifestyle is overrated. Really I mean it can pay off but you don't WanNa be sitting around in a beanbag chair do physical office yes we have an office in Chicago. Sf and which one thought I do. We have one beanbag chair. We got it as a joke. Yes sometimes legit beanbag chair in our private actor giving thirty seconds promote yourself. Anything you want. Oh sure well if you have a food brand. And you're looking out for a better distribution should check out pod. Foods DOT CO pod. Food Co. And you can sign up online and somebody will be in touch because then you can get better distribution in Chicago Bay area and more regions to come if you're a grocery store owner. I doubt you're listening to this podcast. But you're more than welcome to sign up online as well. What about consumers anything they can do? Support you guys. Yeah this you go by all of the awesome brands in stores and let us know if there's anything in particular that you wish to see in a certain store feedback on your website. No good all right guys. That was my interview with the incredibly humble and down to Earth Larussa Russell. I hope you learned a lot. And you enjoy the show. Please support us by subscribing to just show rating us. And if you're feeling particularly generous leave a review if any comments or questions for me or any guests. Please reach out on the new school. Podcasts DOT COM HAVE AGREE GUYS. Try something new today.
S2E10: How I Became a Hypnotherapist with Juliet Obodo
"To stomach is what hypnosis is imagine. What someone said to you when you're were little kid like there's not someone sent you when you're. A little kid has always thought with you even into adulthood. Is! I have about something about road trips about planes. It's about cooking for yourself. It's about money. This belief was installed. When you're little kit now with a hypnotherapist imagine day go back in time to you as a little kid and for a year straight. They tell that you're amazing. You're smart. You can do anything that he wanted to do for a whole year at the age of stabbed. Someone told you that every day. Imagine how different you're like maybe. This is the new school with your host Christine hot and. Welcome to a new school where we talk about career paths. You don't normally get to hear about in the classroom. Every episode I talked to someone with an interesting life path and learn about how they got to where they are today. Hey guys, happy Monday I'm your host Christine Hong and welcome to the last episode of season two. I'm really excited. Share with you guest today, because she kind of how does similar career paths to me? Growing up I always feel super self conscious. I didn't have a single passion. I remember feeling. Super Jealous of other people who. What they want to be when they grow up even on the show, we've had a few guests. Who told me only one thing? They ever considered for a career Jim Cramer. She only wants to be magician and Matt Miller. He only ever considered skateboarding so this gas. Julia has had many career changes like me. She started as a top sales rep manager then published to Amazon. A travel guide and a fancy novel can had her own six-figure freelance mobile APP design business until she burnt down, decided try therapy for the first time, so in this episode I Juliet about what being hypnotized for the first time was like experience caused her to give up her cigarette sales business and become full-time hypnotherapist how she felt about that career change and expand to other people and what her day days like. When did you first hear about hypnotherapy? What was your first impression of it? So it's funny because arena fantasy novel where I introduced hypnotherapy to character in that activated like her power so hypnotherapy always like something magical to me. Was it something that I actually thought I would do? And so this is like twenty to thirteen. And then I had a break up. And I saw a ad for hypnotherapist. Instead heartbreak, and actually went to her, and it was amazing. Experience like that was like the easiest break-up I've ever had. eraser vice, not how that works, but. We can eat the energy between two, and the motion will break, so we cut courts. So flash forward to the end of twenty eighteen I just felt so. Lost like I was making money. And I hit my business goals, and I just was unhappy. I still felt duck, and I was excited for the next level, and by discovered a program and in the program. It's a mindset program. It was about manifestation, and so I would never into like manifestation and law attraction, but the way she presented, it was like the psychology behind this so with my degrees by 'cause I could get behind her explanation and so. Everyone had to do the hypnosis in the program and I was putting it off, and then I saw people like Oh my God I was like. Wow I'm from Brooklyn, so I don't know. About like it says let me do this thing I under hypnosis and. I healed my inner child. It was crazy I was. Yeah also. Is it raining in my room crying? You could do it for yourself like just off the Guy Wow. Yet yet self-hypnosis an issue. Did hypnosis within the program, so it was like we were primed and ready to make the shift. How does he discovered this program? What is it called Chi is. It's Mitch Academy by It was great because it introduced me to not just like Memphis, but he knows I was like this is what. Is Missing. From THESE MINDSET CURVE GRAB! It's interesting. That is not promoted as much eagles still kind of like our like all. Let's do meditation, but knows this is different because you're under a deeper trance and it's targeted suggestions. Baid leads to summarize what hypnosis is is imagine. What someone sent you when you were little kid like there's not onset you you're a little kid has always start with you even into adulthood. Is a belief that you have about something if it's road trips is about claims. If it's about cooking for yourself, it's about money. This belief was installed when you were little kit. Now with a hypnotherapist imagine go back in time to you as a little kit. For a year straight they tell you that you're amazing. You're smart. You can do anything that you wants to do for a whole year at the age of Seven. Someone told you that every day. Imagine how different your life would be. My God. Did that for my future kit, but also one. How did you discover that pamphlet was manifestation made I think she's running instagram out. We will link to in the show notes for our listeners to okay. I get the hesitation with the hypnotherapy. So when you're like okay, I'm going to try it. How did you perform on yourself? To? Intro is like you lay down in a quiet room, and it's almost similar to meditation at and the suggestions to bring you under your taken under with the guide, the guided imagery and guidance instructions, and then you do a deep ner, so there's something diener. Take person even warned to. US and then you do a convinced, because sometimes like I'm not at the ties, but. If you do the convincing you could check like. Yeah, okay so I'm hypnotized. And, then you create a metaphor or image so I, for example you're going into room, but the room actually represents your mind. and your unlocking doors within the room you're lucky doors with being your mind and self conscious mind thinks in pictures and feelings and sounds so you're saying this imagery will get the message directly to your subconscious mind so consciously you'll be like wow like why am I in the room, but Lee subconsciously so you want us to do XYZ cakes that imprint of information instructions. And puts it on the priority shell with things to do especially since we're all online. Exactly? Yeah, so it's like for example, twitter's agree stream of consciousness, and even like subliminal marketing, so you'll see something consistently for months. If you go. You've had a great relationship with manny gone on greet dates, and all of a sudden people are like guys just pay twenty dollars for dates. They don't want paper dates. They don't want to pay it relates to. Date and. Timeline and all of a sudden. You have a date and you're like. Oh! I, want for dates in the that's not my actual is just something. That I've been seeing consistently through thirty days. You'll Capri from doing that and you're like. Maybe I should start to talk after like. Try Not to you. See somebody videos like. All right savage. Thirty two my. makes. You realize you shouldn't be doing these repetition. It makes you realize that you should curate your social media as much as you can. Because media is the easiest way to speak to your conscious your subconscious mar because it thinks in pictures sounds feelings, so if you see a picture that make you feel a certain way, your subconscious law that in continuously log that. I do the opposite. Most I just don't check so. And I tried to like get diverse newsletters in trucks, diverse people over zoom but. I could create my own like narrow minded in Perth. It's funny I'm actually going to record a youtube video about how to brainwash yourself essentially, so what people can do and I posted a thread on twitter about how to not get controlled by the media, because all stuff is going to be coming answer now, so it's important for you to when you're looking at the news. You're watching trying to get these updates to remove empathy. You don't want to tap into what's going on emotionally. Than it feels like it's happening to you to your subconscious mind, so you happy and healthy. You're feeling bad about the people that are sick at your subconsciously sick to you know like no, no, no, we're not. We're five. We're here. We're just you know sympathizing, so you could still sympathize symphorien. Bet You move that emotional layer empathy and not tap into the new story emotionally. Around the worst hypochondriac like as soon as people were coughing. To I have it like might throw was grow? Your it's crazy. It's like that auto suggestion consistently has people like coming down with symptoms, even if they tests negative, right hopeless CBO fact exactly we'd so you had your first hypnotherapy experience. You said it was mind, `boy, how does it feel to you? He said it felt like being reaffirms the child Yes. So this was sniffing. HYPNOSIS was for money. Like there are other types of. So, this one was to remove the money blocks and I didn't realize why I had my relationship with many. Essentially, you have to go back from birth to age seven. Because that's when the subconscious programs most powerful, and so I went back to at least seven years old, and I remember sitting at the lunch table with my friends, and then they were saying something about some girl like she did it have like a nice lunch and the Nice like high seas she had like store bought used to something and I remember thinking as long as I have my name brand stuff I'll always have friends and people always likely. Interesting so after this experience, your mind was blown. Did you think I? WanNa look into this. Or what was your next? Yeah? I was like? Let's clear some more stuff, so she doesn't offer one on one sessions, but it led me to other. If not there S I didn't see anyone that was like my age or like the energy that map station being passed, you know. Oh, I stumbled onto a place to get certified, but it was. WAS IN LA Times. I was in Brooklyn and I was like I'm actually ready for a change, so if I do this for one year like I would love to just move to La one-year inches. Do this study and I went from beginning hypnosis to now I'm a trainer, so I train if there is now so I discovered this school I was doing business funding in the marketing agency and I'm right now going to be a hypnotherapist. Insecure at all our. Yes, yes, so I was so insecure I didn't tell anyone. Why was La and then also philosophy that I had on this old business account was just like work hard. Get it girl like very very late. Know Feminine, energy, and Maskill, energy, bike. Pull not like gender, but the energy wise so energetic I was always like. I. Worked for Redo it, do it. I would post stuff like you know. Good thing and I realize this is not. The way that things fell into place was that you might Brooklyn apartment? Because they sold the Brownstone and so I was in New Jersey I found a place in Venice each and it's funny. Because I started to do like really active manifestation, I started to really start doing exercises and one of the exercises I did was to imagine the end seem and create a mental loop at some big win NRP. You elaborate what an L. P. is! While? NLP is neural listrik programming and so. Each person has their own idea of word. Certain words mean things to people and so as a collective. Agreed on certain words meeting certain things, so if I said having to send you a contract look at it versus ham over the agreement, and you can take a look at silent. Send it over. The words create certain feelings and certain mental images in your mind as newer linguistic grammar I start to use certain phrases on words to help you access. Access different parts of your mind and see different thing and I. Ask you certain questions to elicit specific responses, and we all so can use imagery with our words to help get rid of cravings like if you're addicted to a certain craving, we can do swish pattern to remove back so for example with wish pattern if you just can't stop eating French fries. Ask You like what's that? Don't Mike. Okay, so through New Orleans mystic programing. You would go through a series of stops that would make your mind all of a sudden associate French. Fries with Allah's. Then you're like. French fries either introducing so it creates new connotations for existing words, thoughts images in your head exactly yeah, and then you use hypnosis to locked in Okay I. get how they pair really well together. Is that common by the way, no a lot of people. Are just like an practitioners, or they just do hypnosis and I noticed to. A lot of people don't feel comfortable doing hypnotherapy. They made you like they call it guided meditations. They don't take the debate. Need to and I feel I. It's a disservice. It's like you did this trading and you're free to share because of like how. Other people take it in, but there are people that really need this. You know you know I had it. They're pissed. You know so. Therapy offers you clarity essentially so you? Have the problem by hypnotherapy new can really essentially get rid of the problem in a short time period, and then still have your therapist to check in, and we calibrate you know it's not wonder other people say oh, so I could get rid of my therapist of like. No, you wouldn't get rid of your doctor like outside. have to go dock more now that I have a fitness train- it's holistic. You know you're not. Not just one dimensional person and I think we treat ourselves that way. That's where the problems are created so in Venice. You're trying to hypnotherapy program you. Considering the idea of getting is caught. You've become a master hypnotherapist yet. and it's funny, because even like I had this idea and I had this clear Pat I. Still Fighting because when I landed in La accumulate I'm GonNa have fun I. Don't need to do hypnotherapy. my identity was still as of business funding coaches. Owner, it was not like. What am I doing? I never really talked about mindset before. Like by giving people advice, you know and add business funding. I give people advice. I'm good at finding ways to really do things the right way and custom, but I still night justify myself as someone to do that. So the first day of class subconsciously I was self sabotaging but I overslept as I was. Just like I'm not GONNA go inside. Call to see if I could get a refund. It was actually the founder that picked up. And so like, she never picks up the phone, so it was like bap moment. She's like it's me I'm wanted founders. No just come is fine. I was like. It's fine, so he said something fishy. Adult P me as all of a sudden, the Uber like. I went each day and then I started to get relaxed housing. This is really cool and then doing the exercise, other classmates in doing it on my sow. And I started to see things differently, and I was just going to do the basic program. Just so I can help. The plan was to incorporate it into my business funding practice site can help clients and their mindset with business funding, because I noticed how mindset is important for everything raising for startups on even just like a fine to different loans and different. You kind of like have to be like I can do anything you have to be home about having these different options and applying and be optimistic awesome to stay on. And I'd have Clyde. Their applications were ideal, but they were excited, and they were focused, and the invention offended, and then I have applicants where they have really applications, but they would like turn in lay, or they would like. Forget something conventionally. They would off. As Oh I was like Oh, I can use hypnosis in my practice to help them. You know everyone feel like the optimistic. Applicants as douse the plan. And I was just GonNa. Stay there do the basic therapy program, but then I stayed for master. State for trainer straining. Wow, what does that mean you valet master in trading as a master practitioner, I'm able to perform something called a breakthrough session, so you spend a weekend with essentially, so it's almost like spiritual mental rehab and we Rohingya diving we go. To like your worst fears the shadow side of view, the negative stuff like bring that all up to surface. We make peace with it, and then we talk about realign your values across all areas of your life. Because a lot of times people say like. Oh, I'm the boss at work, but at home I fall back or do this like your identity across the areas of your life disjointed, and that's why you have stress. You don't have this overall clear identity of who you are in your life. Life, so we real- line all the areas of your life, so you feel and rebalance it, and then we talk about your real shoe goals for the next year two years five years your life. What do you really really want eventually? It's like you come in and you're like. Yeah, this is what I believe I want. This is at the end of it. You kind of like see like. That was not actually what I wanted. Okay, I get it now. That's very addictive 'cause I'm imagine you did it for yourself and you. If you career jobs so I've had that issue to someone like really. What's my identity Engineer. And I realized like I was like a certain person. Relationships within a certain person might family in that I was another person with my clients as like person that was doing marginally. No wonder you're tired got burnt out. You're like four different people are more not right is that is normal. We're taught to do that when naturally you should feel comfortable, just kneeing you in all areas of your life. Makes it so much easier. You're putting South I and being. Yourself and your naturally you so you're not always trying to be someone else. How do you Li- that with other people's expectations, but I'd say if you're younger or maybe female, not why? Right in the corporate world, saying they won't take you seriously unless you have a certain demeanor that you don't necessarily have your friends or your boyfriend. So how do you align that? It's more like a empowering exercise because it's like you are stepping into the role as because you may be trying hard because you subconsciously don't believe yourself. Younger is. Ask So. It's like highlighting to your strength. It's like actually you are pretty much sometimes the smartest person in the room. It's okay to be you know me it's like. If you have an idea, you should share it with the team. If you have a at home with your family, you share with them right? Why can't you share it with ut? Mount work. You know asking questions like that, so you're describing master, P, protection or any? There's next level trainer, so does that mean? Yes, so as a trainer I'm able to open up my own training institute. That's what forward institute is so next year will have. Have a location in Brooklyn so I'll be able to train hypnotherapist NLP practitioners and ESP also ricky wrapped in because I'm getting my master. Ricky also means you could actually train other people that actually makes so much sense. It's like I learned that ubt teacher. Yeah, as the Dow was even like even more our work, because it's like you really have to be a hundred percent. Invested into the law, the rules of mental laws essentially an into the lifestyle, so it's like I'm a completely different person essentially, and it's funny that I'm here New Jersey because this is like the perfect. Setting to see how different I am your family, 'cause they seem you grow up. They know you to eat certain way like my entire families looking at me like Oh, like I A, but now it's like this is me like accepted. How did you seem different to them? Now I used to have a temper like I used to have like a short fuse. Don't bother her leg. Don't eat her leftovers. Her leftovers. A So it's, it's just really funny. And then the energy like I'm more open, so I don't ask me for vice or check in with being for certain things, a more stable and ground in might clients they have you know especially with quarantine dealing with toxic family situations, so it's like everyone is you pushed out you create? Your subconscious minimum for certain behavior, and you create your subconscious minimum for like how much money you may how you allow people treat you once you creep subconscious minimum than people kind of fall in line with that. So you got your trainer and Masters Certificate for an LP and for hypnotherapy in Venice California. So would you do next? Because he also had this sales business people to raise money for their business. Is this the Ford Stop Solutions Yes? Yeah, so I actually got a online business manager for forward. It's like after. This work was like i. no longer really fell connection with these other business, but I knew like I have a lot of money invested in it and I was just kind of coming back to Earth I knew like the best solution would be just having someone to manage it. Not just like getting rid of the business had a team to salt. Lake I couldn't just all right everyone. I know that there is this. So I gotTA online manager for both businesses, and so that has been really helpful, and then before it started solutions I was trying to incorporate the mindset, but it was almost like trying to push it in there and I realize that the people that I would attracting. They either want one or the other for business, coaching or mindset. Let's like if they come to me for business funding I'm like so I. Want you to take a deep breath in so I decided to create the separate website for institute, and since I was going to start training, people just had as just separate instance, and I started incorporating myself into because before. It was almost like I, focused on the. The Industries I wasn't allowed personal brand gain involved in my other businesses. It wasn't me might face arm business really, but with Ford Institute. I talk about myself allot because I'm going to be hypnotized people so I. Want them to know like film. I am I. Know My values in why I'm doing this, so it resonates with them, and so they know who they're coming to see essentially as a practitioner. That's when I. To tweet a lot more as such postponed instagram more and really just start sharing. Everything I learned my mental before and after like where I was and where I am now, and it's you're here now. You can get here with me in. As little time as also. This wasn't something that took years of therapy something that I was able to do within under year. How did you get your first clients? And you said you've had a deal of skeptic. So how did you overcome that? Also when I made the decision to do wit. That's when the client up actually I was getting. My now's done and the next me was like asking me questions and I was like yeah. I'm a hypnotherapist because I'm stepping in identity. That was your first time saying I'm a hypnotherapist ethanol salon. Instead of I'm a business owner. I train yet, Arda. Interest you got your first client just. Change your mindset. It's completely shifted cashews. Mom and she's like I've been. Feeling this rage Rhodri and so you know that was the first thing that I treated. Wow! I'm mashing every therapists. Ashby. Practitioner has their own touch technique. Say prefer a niche. How did you refine your technique and decide which check to us for this client in particular, I think it was easier because when I was telling her about the process, and what I do and I suggested to her what to do in made it easier Kinda to see like what I would use to help her deal with this issue. When someone comes to you for particular issue is really a underlying, you know subconscious reason as so the goal is to. Find that real reason why this person does the thing that you widely get triggered. What's useful about. The way that they structured in my background is in second bio. Elect to look at being processes so as I was learning I kind of organized things. Where like if this person has this than I do this, XYZ. is so I kind of followed? Wipe my notes that I took in class to alleviate the issue. Do the foul up with her too interesting. That's so cool. Your previous career was helping you with your new career. Actually yeah, and so essentially like that's what the basis of programming is. How you do. Anything is really how you do everything, so you can have these moments that you really want in your life and apply all around and then just have this balance. That's how you developed your technique. was there anything particularly you did for like road rage client? Inappropriate time line therapy, so we go back to the first time. He ever felt anger. And, so that's usually like you know maybe in the womb, or you're in the crib. Hit your head. You're like any hit your head again in a you like this is making me angry. Saying went the first instance of anger and removed emotional charge in her subconscious timeline, so need remove that it's not like she'll never feel angry again, but we alleviated all the anger that has come to this point, and then he also ask subconscious mind. What is it about this situation? That makes you angry. Turns Out, she actually felt guilty. Because she patchily her kid at home, she wanted get faster to like imagine her kids, so she was just getting angry at the driver's. Wow, is that a hypnotherapy more appear? actually is more all right, not more NLP because it's asking her. These guided questions. Ruben questions ring up the answers subconsciously. Change your mindset. You're like I. M hypnotherapist. That's how you introduce yourself and it was just easy to get their clients from there yet. They kind of felt I would like post on instagram. Owens like Oh, so we do now and I'll tell them, and I would talk about like a particular issue in how to get rid of that issue and do a call to action like you need. Help just me. Fight or anything yet, so it was just like just hopping on Google video and. Then, you know now I zoom and Demio for group assumptions, but at that time even like my classmates or the people I was learning with. They're like. Wow, you already have all these. I guess I always been good at sales sales is really service always been good at providing a service or showing a solution? I was assuming as south person and I was excited to. This is the reason why I went into it like my intention. When I took this road was to help. People get rid of certain issue. Hey, if you're dealing with this, this is what you do with two what? What is your day to day like now so now with Cortina's before? It was kind of like different, but now it's pretty much the same so in the mornings. I do my daily practice and I write i. read a right writing a mental manifestation manual now my brain trainings I create like these two hundred page manuals that people can utilize or the brain training, and essentially almost like the everyday. Brain training so I'm riding bat daily now. They're GONNA pay that. I've been writing editing. Sending it off to the designer to do designs in approving that, and then I have sessions in the afternoon and I record a video in the evening. I posted on social media based on. That I get so like the DMZ. Get Creep, but content essentially because I want to answer people's questions. Hasha. Cool the road rage. Is that like a typical session for your. Is there even a typical session? Also now I mostly focused like the people that come to me are perfectionists and high achievers that feel lops I bear in their career path or in their business. Or in just still stock in general, so my goal is to basically help them remove the subconscious blocks, so they can hit. The next income level were hit the next promotional. Level in their company and so forth on just like more formats east hypnotherapy sessions. Oh! Okay, that's become your knees. Just naturally kind of yeah. The makes sense your parents are those your favorite? Types of clients were quick. Yeah, because a lot of times they have a therapist or they get therapy, but they know that the day something is missing for them. Is like yeah. I go to my doctor. Check up, but you still need. They need like a fitness trainer brain trainer, essentially as so. That's where I come in I. Show them the tools and these are people that want to really do it, so they stick to the program just like how when I took the program with Memphis Station Babe like I was. was at a certain point in my life, where I was ready to make the most of whatever tools that I had so. It wasn't really just like the program it was. The program was a tool that I use because I was so ready for this change. These people they had something that was the catalyst, and now they want to up level it and make it their new reality do new experience. They don't want it to just be like a one off thing like manifesting like a large amount of money, and then all of a sudden. That's it. He had a friend who was obsessed with becoming a millionaire before each thirty. Happened and he's like. I'm still unhappy. Exactly like. To find what really drives you and to your own personal success framework. Whenever you're stop you know exactly what you need to do to get unstuck essentially. Do you think your representative of the typical hypnotherapist in L. Practitioner now? It's so funny because I think to. That's what helped me. Get along more clients, too. Because usually they're older and I don't see a lot of their hypnotherapist color so. So when people see me, there is so cool to see. That looks like me doing this. Because I thought felt like weird, that was like even thinking of this. People still think hypnotherapy is something like Woo, Woo and out there so you know I'm just here with like my glasses and I'm just like I'll still talk about like real housewives Beverly Hills in hypnotherapy I'm pretty just like. Regular, so they follow me for a while before a match league book, but they see that it's not. As. We were out there as you think it's just giving you the tools necessary and showing you how to tap into your subconscious, because that's not something we learned school. What do you think the media end filming? TV gets the most incorrect about hypnosis that it's like we can just force you to do something you don't want to do over the circle dis not at all. Funny? The pendulum is you can use it to increase your metabolism. What what? How so basically with the pendulum with your brain? Your brain controls your hand movements right? It's just like a lie. Detectors has like what the? Trapped like what's going on in your brain with your body movements, and so with the pendulum you can ask, and you could on the piece of paper like what's my? Level right now and then they'll swing. Like I'd like to increase metabolism now. How moves, so you can mentally increase your metabolism. Numbers basic level so I increased Fisa right now like. Sixty five. Now I can say. Can I increase it by twenty? And just swinging more because of your fingers, metabolism's increasing. Yes, so because is sending the signal to my hand. Little little to give it that little kick to do that. I'm holding it still, but the in voluntary movement from my conscious mind is creating movement. That's people play with the Ouija board is their subconscious. Not Really Spirit Board. It's like you're so conscious. Board sees the biggest thing about family is that they think you can control when hypnotherapist? Yet it's big like Oh, I'M GONNA! Make you like turned into a secret assassin like. When people say on afraid of him like while you're being subliminally programmed daily on twitter on instagram on any That's what the media is, and that's what created to do to able to share these ideas of how you should be living your life. It's easy way to wear tenants and rules of society or the culture that you're at you can notice the difference with British television versus American television and even media. I noticed something when I was younger, I was like wow, the kids on Canadian shows aren't as as kids on American shows. They were as superficial. Superficial like they picked real upping kids like Basho degrasse like these kids look, that's I I, liked the show more 'cause like these are real kids like they. You know like look like regular kids. At for American shows they picked based on looks I, and then acting ability the British. They really big on acting ability the really draw win, and so it's like you could see a difference between way casting in America versus casting Canada and casting in the UK and you think out the people that are doing the casting where they were raised their raised as. We're beauties importance, so they take back with them into their jobs. That makes much sense. Yeah, 'cause Britain is so much more about formal acting training and school so much more important there. In factory, and so use how subconscious influence within the media is perfect to us to infiltrate your subconscious in how you can. How choose things like just like when you see the two parties in the US like two parties, but it's based on US growing up. There's always good and bad right. It's never good and good or gooding bitter. Either good or bad and. If you WANNA be on this side. Then you have to be the part right. They're not really similar at all right, but then you see it's a lot of similarities or these two parties, and this is even in the UK how we have two parties and so based on us. How grew up where there's either good or bad it, so nobody wants to be bad knowing. The party that's bad once considered their party is the good one. What is your favorite least thing by your job? My favorite actually is right after session. It's like they have like a inner glow come Ou- when they come in to the fashion there like. An after actually like they seem more confident, and you could see visibly the weight being lifted off their shoulders. The lease mayor part is people they try to. Understand it or they're trying to understand it. They kinda like discounted. Maybe like just like I love meditation. I'm like well. You know that really meditation or people they follow South Care influencers or people that most quotes and stuff, and they think that is the same as like what I do and I'm like I'm not an influencer I'm sharing actual techniques that clients that you can use to. If you can't of me, do this hopefully. The more people that discover my account or discover therapy. They kind of see the difference. Because we're in is there to inspire you. One is there to actually help transform. DIVA dream job. Is there anything you're aiming for currently? I'm really excited to start to. These packages to corporations. Because my goal is to help thousand people this year, and so if I work with larger businesses out, be able to roll it out to the employees, especially now like that people are working from home and getting these tools into more people's hands, because I can only like see a certain number one on one clients, but offer it as a corporate wellness package I can help a lot more people. Yeah, so is hypnotherapist here. Dream career? What yes? Oh, turns out it actually is. Going to school to get my incredible site. The association, of American hypnotherapist is only for doctors that use hypnotherapy, so that is like my next stop excellent. Yeah I feel what is the most difficult decision you had to Mexico Fill your destiny hooding my first business, like on the back burner, Kinda like stepping away from it and shifting my public identity, and so it was hard just starting over especially after you've had a career for a decade. Now like I was on podcast topping business funding the money person money coach. It's like now kind of like switching into. More received ing and Kinda going complete one eighty I. think the defining moment was. I suppose out good things. Come to those who hustle now. Good things come to those who ally. That's so funny. Yeah, going from your incher like hi. I'm Julia voted money catch. Now I'm a therapist. xactly. Yeah, that was the hardest part just like letting go of the identity that I built for so long. Do you think you've have a biggest mistake humane in your career? I would say in the beginning charging too little I was thinking I. Want to get into so many people's hand and like I. Just I didn't charge a lot because. After learning what pricing money really is to people I was doing them a disservice as well charging so low. I need to start charging more so they. Proved themselves there making the stuff in completely new direction to give them that energetic to give them ability to shift its hyper person to invest so much into their mindset. That's already a transformation for them makes sense. Yeah, I've noticed this. It's so weird to charge more to be taken more seriously exactly congress. Is there anything you did? That was the best thing for your career. I would say I gave a lot away for free is, either you charge what your work or just give the rest for free, but you know like the little trip wires or little stuff for this like just give away. Let them get this transformation. You're free stuff. At then they buy into it. They know that it will work for that. As that's been the best thing creating so much content around this business with the business funding, it was really on referrals and advertising. It's like you're LEMme. Sure. I would like somebody though it by now like. Did you know that your subconscious mind is responsible act like really teach people about themselves before they felt confident enough to tap into that. Yeah, it's like the freemen model and business basically exactly yeah. Cool for any aspiring hypnotherapist south there. People just want to try it out in. See what it is. You have any advice for them. Yeah, I would say to check out youtube like a lot of hypnotherapist. Start to create like content on Youtube so you can learn the differences between hypnosis and meditation on my channel I started to go into the detail, Abbott playlist about hypnosis how you can use it in your life outside of video about why I became a hypnotherapist, so they watched that if it resonates with them, I'm also going. Going to post a video about five signs to know that you'd make a great hypnotherapist because I wish I knew that when I first started like. If you're someone that is able to create processes like that is ideal skill. If you're a good listener, if you have great memory, but you can be hypnotized to improve your memory so and if you just feel like that, your purpose is to be someone to show people the way than battling for you, so those are the videos on your channel. What's your channel caught on Youtube? Is Juliet Great. Do you have favorite video on someone else's channel? There is Maria here. She has a training institute for notice. He's based in the UK, but she like. Classes here in the US as well. He has great videos are she's been doing it longer than i. have so that someone that I actually look up to. COOL SO AL links above. Youtube channels are show nuts, says end of our interview, so usually like to give our guests sixty seconds pitch anything you want. During the pitch today. Yeah I'd love to. If you guys could check out my brain trainings on. Ford Institute dot, com and so went. My brain trainings is thirty three days we focus on a particular outcome, and so this gives you the benefits of both NLP and hypnosis, so you'll be able to go under south notice, and it combines it with meditation, Neural Activation and subliminal audio's so you can actually sleep your way to a new you. How do you afford institute. F W. R.. D. Institute DOT COM. It used to be on the show I loved those great like kind of looking back on my journey here. Hey, guys hope you enjoyed our interview with Giulio Bodo I found her journey so so relatable, especially being embarrassed to tell others when you make a less commonly accepted career choice, he can find links to anything mentioned in the episode in our show nuts at the new school podcast dot com slash episodes. This is actually our last episode of the season, so stay up to date on content. Content and when will be back? Make sure to follow us on Instagram at the new school podcasts and on twitter at the new school pod. Be Sure to subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. We're currently collecting potential guests for season three. Do you feel like you or someone else would be an amazing guests on our show? If yes, please contact us on our website, the new school podcast. PODCAST DOT. com slash contact while your ultimate got one hundred turn your passions into meaningful career. His Guy to our weekly newsletter at the new school podcast Dot Com I. WanNa wrap up the season by saying. Thank you so much to all you listeners out there for your support and making the new school possible. How such an amazing summer guys. I'll see you guys back soon for season. Season three as usual. I encourage, you ought to try something new to the new school. Of Christine. Hong is produced by Jenni Snyder Christiani editing by Semi Self John Simpson and Joseph Show video editing Josh Stanley special thanks to our marketing team who help us spread our mission and put the new school name out there Kitty Sake Emma. Borgerding Giovanni Cortez the Shell Dina Che Amoruso with Shammar.
Science under the microscope (Prove It: Part 2)
"Thanks to build a bear workshop for sponsoring us today. Make birthday memories that will last a lifetime at build a bear workshop during their birthday month. Kids get to count the candles before making their own birthday, treat. Bear. The birthday treat. Bear is made just for birthdays and only costs as much as the age. You're celebrating, visit, build bear dot com to become a bonus club member for free and learn more about all the fun ways to celebrate birthdays at build a bear workshop. You're listening to brains on Wor. We're serious about being curious, brains on supported them part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Did you disarm the security system? Yup. And the museum guard switched his coffee to decaff. He's out like a light and the dogs give him a laptop, full squirrel, videos. They're good what I mean. It's mostly stuff. I shut myself, but I tried to do some interesting things with a camera angles and think it turned out Grady dogs. Homemade videos told them they can log into my Netflix account if they get bored. But I think they're into the squirrel content. So final, whatever as long as they're accurate. Now, how'd you get this diamond out of this case into thought, why don't we take that painting instead? I think it would match our rug or not here for a painting. It's just our living room really needs a conversation starter in that painting would draw the I. We're here for one thing only the world's largest diamond. Okay, fine. But what are we even going to do with a really big diamond? Are you. Kidding me? What? Why don't we do? Diamonds are the strongest material in the world. Right. But is that even true? Of course it's true. Everyone knows it's true. It's just there have been some major advancements in manmade materials lately, and how do we even measure the strength of material? Are you kidding me right now? It's worth looking into who said that, oh, it's me the guard I woke up because I had to pee by the way you're both under arrest. This is part two in our series prove it how to find the facts. If you haven't heard part one, you might want to check your feet and start there. Okay. Here we go. How can we. The year is then test. Motive. One we've say feels dry, but that's just shine allies. This week, and let's check the fax in through. Oh, we can printed. Let's check the facts in. Two. This is brains on. I'm Molly bloom. M. I co host for the series is twelve year old Katie from Fairfield, Connecticut. Hi, Katie. Hi. So Katie, we're talking science today. If you could study any branch of science, which would you choose and why? Well, I really liked biology. We about it in school now, actually, I really like just studying life. It's cool. It's amazing how oath can hold so much life when no other planet can. Yeah, it is really amazing. And what do you think science internal ISM having common? Well, I think science and journalism have one major thing in common. They both need to be well researched and the inflammation needs to be accurate. And do you think like journalists and scientists have some things in common to? Yeah, they both have to do the research if like you can't do a scientific spell moment. If you think plants can't don't need sunlight. Right, very true. It's kind of have to have like a base level of knowledge to get started. Okay. Let's see how the science stacks up for that claim we heard earlier. We heard this one from listener Finley, hi, my name was Finley. I've from mild Luc, California. I've heard that dime other their strongest material in the world. How do we know it's true? Let's bring back our fact checking buddy Linda cue from the New York Times. I Linda. Hello? Hi, our diamonds, the strongest material on oath. So we used to think that that was true until two thousand fifteen. When scientists made a new material out of carbon, which is the same thing that diamonds are made out of, they call it q carbon. It's even harder than diamonds, but other scientists haven't been able to replicate that experiment yet. So it's not certain super now think of it as q carbon is challenging diamonds for the top spot, but the results aren't really conclusive. That's really interesting. So the answer is maybe it. So how did you go about checking that fact? Right? So I just googled hardest material in the world. And that brought me to a bunch of news write ups of this twenty fifteen study that came out about q. carbon. And then I thought, what does that really mean? So I went to this website called the conversation and it's where scientists kind of right blog post describing their areas of expertise and the sky who studies material sciences wrote up a really thorough explanation for what hardness means. And so from there, I learned that like scientists actually have a very specific way of measuring hardness and this is how we can tell that diamonds are the hardest because they scored the top level in this measure. And where did you find the information about how no one's been able to replicate the q. carbon? I couldn't find anything else after twenty fifteen on q. carbon, except for a couple of quotes saying like, this is really interesting. I'm still in. I still want to look into it. So in Google Scholar, which is Google, Dave. Debase for scholarly research. I wasn't able to find any other studies on carbon after twenty fifteen. Well, thank you so much, Linda for checking that fact for us today. Thanks for having me. Science has helped humans fine facts about the world for thousands of years. So it only makes sense that we're going to answer this question to my name is Jade nine years old from Sydney, Australia. And my question is how science work. It's a big question. So we asked some of scientists funds to help us into it, and we asked them to do it in ten mode to less. That's easy. Fix something new tested, observe, revise and repeat work, but turning curiosity into knowledge signs worked in the base of facts, not Pinon science works by asking questions and designing studies to collect data to answer those questions. Science works to predict the world through a process of asking questions, making relations and evaluating ideas. Science works with questions and experiments to me sciences, being Charlotte calls solving mysteries of all earthly things. That was Yulin nor bash, Diana Dragomir, racial Burks, grassy Oguz, Nicarico guitar. Julie row and Molise Snell rude. And you can meet all these brilliant scientists in past episodes of brains on had debris dot org to find them. There's no one magic way to do science, but at its core scientists this, it's a rigorous examination of the world around us, and people would doing this long before we call the science back. Then we call these people philosophers naturalists or doctors, but any way you slice it, it was still science that rigorous examination of the world where counselors rigorous changes all the time. That's Alex. She's a scientist join at Mississippi State university, but even though the exact methods used have changed, science has some basic characteristics. There's repetition and someone's doing the same experiment every single day for three years, or they go around the world following different clips in order to make survey Sion's of it has to be replicable, meaning that if a scientists finds something in an experiment, other scientists should be able to recreate it and find the same thing. There's also these qualities of the scientists that make them rigorous. So they're disinterested and their objective. These kinds of policies that allows them to think beyond themselves science also about precision the seventeen hundreds tools like thermometers scales and other instruments of measurement were becoming more exact and consistent, and they've just gotten better and better ever since. Okay. So science is about objectivity, precision, repetition, and curiosity, but it's also about creativity being able to think about things differently. So let me talk about William Harvey then be. Really low me know what's there to say. He was a British scientists working in the sixteen hundreds, so four hundred years ago and he wanted to learn about how our bodies work. Yeah, like what's the deal with blood back then people thought that blood came from the liver just kind of like sloshed around the body until it reached the part where it needed to be and would be absorbed in my day. We had no fancy machines, the see inside bodies. If you wanted to find out what's going on in there. Well, you had to cut a body open, and as you can imagine, it's hard to find volunteers. It's actually really hard to observe life in without killing it. Right. But William Harvey was very curious, and he noticed that this idea of where blood came from and how it worked in the body was old. Yeah, this guy named Galen came up with it like a thousand years before I was even born. Are we really? Okay just being like, yes, you're Galen blood just sloshes around while I'm not so one experiment. He does involves a man's arm. In a piece of fabric. So get this. I tied the fabric tightly above the guys abo- and the vein pops out blood with stuck there and couldn't get out. And then I could feel the valves in the vein and tried to push the blood around in the Baynes. It was obvious it could only flow in one direction and this did not gel with what everyone else was thinking about the way blood worked. If it sloshed all around the body, it wouldn't be stuck in one spot like that. And then there was the snake, he cut a snake open and pinched the blood off above the snakes hurt. So the snake is still alive. A heart is still bleeding, but is still flowing. And the hurt starts to shrink and starts to get pale, and it becomes clear to him that this is this is because it's empty. Right? So he's pinched off these the vein about the heart in it. It's meant that the heart can't Philip was blood, and so it starts to look like a dead hurt, like starts to really slow down on struggle. And so then he lets go the blood in it and fills up the hurt again. And hurts reengaged happy. And then he pinches off the air data and the heart becomes filled with blood. In doing this. He claims that he has demonstrated that the heart pumps the blood and it circulates through the body, boom, major discovery right there. Take that Gaylon the fundamentally changed the way people thought about bodies right thought about their own body and thought about the heart. The Hartson that becomes quite a bit more important. And this has based on these very careful set of experiments. And of course, the study of our circulatory systems didn't end there. Scientists after William Harvey kept doing experiments and learning more. The process of science is never done. Scientists are still learning new things about the way our hearts beat, but sometimes experiments fail, and these failures can be just as important as the experiments that go perfectly according to plan. We're going to give an example. Of that in a minute. But first we're going to do very nonscientific test a test of your listening skills. It's the. Here it is. Okay. Any guesses? Well, it sort of sounds like PayPal being whistled or maybe even toned. And do you think what kind of paper that might be? It sounds like paper, it's definitely not book paper. It doesn't pay boat, but I'm not really show. Okay. Well, we're going to hear that again a little later, so maybe he'll have a different guests. Keep mulling it over. What does end us your own mystery sound, or maybe drying of scientist at work or question, go to brains on dot org, slash contact. It's super easy. Just ask Drako who sent us this head, scratcher catchers. We'll unravel that mystery at the end of the show in the moment of plus we'll give a mega huge, super loud full of love, shout out to the new members of the brain on role. These are the kids who power our podcast with art and all around awesomeness. So stick around with us. Today's episode is sponsored by OB. They make coding robots for a new generation of creators. Like my daughter named my robot, Bella. Right out of the box. She programmed Bella to do some pretty amazing things set timers. She has different speeds in different directions, and then there's tornado mode where like you spend super fast and to do all this even tornado mode. There were no screens involved markers and paper were all she needed green, red, green, red or red green red green. Then she spins, of course, it's easy to code Oba online too. There's this nifty visual editor called ozo- Blackley. You just click and drag these brightly colored blocks, then arranged them in different patterns to create an ozone Blackley program for your body and get this right now. Brains on listeners can see ozo- bots in action and get fifteen percent off. Go to Oba dot com slash brains that's ozeki Ozero be OT dot com. Slash brains for fifteen percent off since. Like a good deal, Bella. Thanks to Bomba's for sponsoring us today. Bomba's wants you to know they've been working on their socks. They've been researching developing making multiple improvements to performance and comfort over the past two years with an arch support system that provides extra support where you need it most and cushioned foot bed. That's reinforced for comfort without added. Bulkiness Baba's feels like a hug around your foot. Not to mention Bomba's, stay up technology insures that your socks stay in place without leaving a Mark and the super soft cotton material mix. You never want to take them off. So whether you're a runner, power, rocker or power lounger there's a pair of Bomba that'll add comfort to your life. Go to bomb bus dot com. Slash brains and use the code brains for twenty percent off your first order. That's b. o. m. b. a. s. dot com. Slash brains offer code brains b. r. a. n. s. and you'll get twenty percent off your. Your first order that's bombos dot com. Slash brains, your listening to brains on. Here's a fact. I'm Molly and this is Katie Kovac. Okay. So we just heard how rigorous experiments led to people understanding that our blood actually circulates around our bodies, but failed experiments are important to cute, dramatic music. It's time for the sad tale of the EPA. Ether in eighteen hundred scientists thought that this stuff called Newman difference. Ether was all around us. They thought, well, if sound ways move through air and waves in water, move through water light needed to move through something to and that something was a substance. They called the luminaries ether. It always sounds to me like the best band name right the the, the subtle fluids in the limited for Easter to people who wanted to prove that the Lumina frus ether was all around us where Albert Michelson and Edward Morley. They thought they could do this by detecting what they called the ether wind. If there was luminaries ether all around, you'd be able to detect the ether moving as our planet moved through it kind of like feeling the wind moving past a car as it's driving. Take it from here. I'll IX in Mali last. We left the tale of Albert's Michelson and Edward Morley in eighteen eighty seven. The duo were back in the United States after a frustrating trip to term any. Morley old friend. It's good to be back in. Ohio are trip to Germany was disappointing. That's one word for it, but I have not lost hope yet. This instrument, this beautiful precise tool of detection that we built and designed ourselves will work this time. It will prove the existence of the ether once and for all we will detect the ether wind with this infor- Rommedahl Hausa. I mean, this stuff is everywhere, right? It fills the space around us. It lets light travel through air at least that's what everyone thinks. I mean, we didn't detected in Germany, but we have made the detector more precise and this time this time it will succeed. Our names will be lifted alongside, sir, Isaac, Newton, chairs to that commence, the experiment. That's the sound of time passing of science happening. Morley. Old friend? Yes. Michelson old chum the result? Yes. It's not there. The luminous ether. It's not there, but what is there? What will their fellow scientists say? What will happen next. Around us if it's not luminaries EKO. So when they repeated the experiment in Ohio, I think that at this plane, people were paying attention and I think there was an understanding that this was an elegant experiment. The design was great. The precision was top notch and if they weren't finding it then yeah, maybe it wasn't there so they had to admit, they were wrong. It's sort of blew up the way they and other physicists thought about the world, but scientists at the time weren't bitter or upset or sitting around saying, oh, no, I think it was. It was more of a like, oh, wow, like look at the whole new set of possibilities. This opened up and you know, in some ways, this freed physicist, especially to think about the world differently soon. Enough scientists came up with new ideas about how light traveled and many of these ideas were confirmed by experiments. So even if a particular experiment fails, science is still working and scientists. Are constantly replacing old ideas with new ones that helped paint more complete picture of how the world works. We've heard some examples of how science worked in history, and now it's time to Hugh scientists working today or better yet to scientists are pal San and spoke with a pair researchers in new and exciting field. He'll take it from here. Even today. Scientists are making discoveries that are changing how we see the world and ourselves. So I am Regina. Joyce cordy. So my name is Mona decided, and I'm gonna Sistan professor at week for us university, and I am a PHD Canada at the university of Notre Dame, Regina and Mona study something called the microbiome. So the microbiome is the word we use to talk about the world of microbes. Microbes, which would be sort of like the bacteria and other very, very, very small organisms, tiny living creatures. You can't even see with the naked eye that live all around us. They live on our skin. Inside of our mouths inside of our gut. So our stomach end, the organs associated with digestion most of them don't actually do anything to us, but many of them do help us. For a long time. People mostly thought of bacteria is something that can spread from person to person and cause harm that infect us and make a sick, the node, but around ten or so years ago, scientists started using a new tool called a DNA sequencer. Now, DNA is complex molecule found in living things and each living things. DNA is unique. So this DNA sequencer can analyze all the different strands of DNA in a sample and tell you what life forms are in it. So researchers used this tool to study the bodies of healthy people, and they found that these people weren't alone. They were full of trillions of these little bacteria called microbes, and a lot of microbes weren't bad. They were actually helpful. They are very involved in our digestion. Imagine you've eaten a burger burger is going down. You stomach all of your stomach. Juices are all over it, but they're also all these tiny creatures on top of it bacteria and other very, very small, microscopic organisms that are taking all of the pieces of the burger apart. And so they can actually help us to process the food that were eating and extract nutrients from it. Specific microbes that are taking the fun part. Other microbes are taking part the me as well as some that are just focused on the lettuce, and sometimes they can actually produce vitamins that are actually been soaked up by the human body. And altogether this helps us have a more productive digestive system. These microbes also seem to influence our mood and some even fight off the bad bacteria to keep us healthy, both, Mona and Regina do research to learn more about the microbiome. Regina has been gathering samples of different bacteria from Boston subways, which, yeah, sounds totally yuck. But it turns out most of the samples had the same kind of microbes. We'd find on our skin or in our homes, nothing too alarming, which is a huge relief. I think it is a relief. You know, I think that it's very difficult for people to separate these out. I can hear you say, you know, we found bacteria and I think immediately jumped to thinking that it's something dangerous. Mona wants to know how this collection of microbes living in us changes as we age. But it's hard to study people because we take a really longtime age. So instead she joined project studies babboons in Kenya. So he follow about five hundred bathrooms every day of the year, except Sundays and Christmas. If we see them leave a sample. So if they who. Who will benefit and then collect it. Those poops r. clues stinky important clues. You see, they contain all kinds of information about the microbes inside the babboons Mona can study the poop from Abboud when it was younger. And then again later when it's old to see how the samples changed, Mona in Regina, will write about their findings and share them. So other scientists can learn from the results and ask new questions. Maybe the science will help us develop new medicines or find new ways to measure or health, or maybe it'll help us discover something totally unexpected that will once again, change how we see the world. If that happens, you can bet scientists like Mona to sorry and Regina. Joyce cordy will study that too. Brands on, okay. We've waited long enough. Let's find out the mystery behind the mystery sound before the big reveal. Let's hear it one more time. All right. Any final guesses? It's definitely paper, but I'm not sure which kind. What kind of paper might sound like just think about the kinds of paper in your life? It sounds like copy people put to paper, excellent guests. Well, here is the answer that was a sound of pages being turned in a newspaper. My name's Christine hot, and I'm the managing production editor at the Minnesota daily. Which is the university of Minnesota's student run paper to ask you Katie. Do you actually read physical newspaper? Do you read it online? I read it online. You're probably not super familiar with newspaper sound then? Yeah, that newspaper paper is a very specific kind of paper and it does make a very loud sound when you turn the pages. Yep. Pretty loud. Christine's job is to decide the layout of the newspaper. So like which article goes on which page and what picture goes, where and then we usually rank the stories like what's like, what would you be in the front? What should be in the back because the front and back the pages that people tend to look at and then from there, like how we designed it to make it appealing is we put really big pictures, his pictures draw the eye, and we also put more important things toward the top. Christine thinks of all the right in the world, journalism is the most important when it's done. Well, it helps people understand their world and make smart decisions. People really go into journalism because of a passion, tell the truth and to give people the correct information and like make change and understand what's going on. In our next episode, we're diving deep into the world of newspapers and journalism, how journalists go about finding facts and how do they do their jobs? I can see the headline now, scrappy little podcast blows the lid off the world of news. Exactly. Is not just one way to do science, but as a quote to the work that the scientists do, they gather evidence to test ideas in a way that is replicable, precise and objective scientists, constantly testing what we already know to find new knowledge. And sometimes this means old ways of thinking are replaced with new ones that did for this episode of brains on wins on is produced by Molly bloom Sanchez and Sandon totted. We had production help today from Nedley prof striker, and Emily, bright and nearing health from Veronica Rodriguez Anthony craven, and Eric, Trump's dad and many. Thanks to Meghan ready. Andrew Stevenson, ano-, Jonathan Blakely, Eric ring. I'm Curtis Gilbert, Sam, chew and max nester and Boone Don is supported in pulp funding from the National Science Foundation. We're nonprofit public radio production and donations from our listeners help us keep making new episodes. If you're interested in supporting brains on, you can head to brains on dot, org slash donate. Can. You can find more episodes of planes on at planes on dot org, and you can find us on Instagram planes under squall on. And you have a question mystery drawing or high five to share head to brains on dot org slash contact. Now before we go, it's time for a moment of. My name is Jake. Oh, and I have one what California and my question is, how do snailed get yourselves. You know, we've see like little videos of hermit crabs moving from one shell to another because they don't make their own snails their shell. They make it themselves. They're physically attached to it, then it gets bigger as they get bigger. My name is Schuyler and I studied reproduction in marine animals and I live in Maine there, lots of different kinds of nails. And a lot of snails often lay an egg sac, where the snails, the baby snails develop, and they go through all these stages before they crawl away. And when they crawl away, they have a little shell on them. Some species actually have them hatch after only few days there in a larval stage, it's sort of a baby stage on called a villager and don't quite look like a little snail. They don't have a full show. Tour, looks like a glass slipper bowl, and it's very thin. They gather Cal. Tim carbonate from what they need to make it harder. It really depends on the species and where they live and their their habitat. And what sort of useful, sir? Lifestyle choice, not employ sort of how they're shell grows and all that. I was born ready to read this list of names. It's time for the brains honor roll. These are the amazing listeners who share their intelligence and ideas with us. Here they are Amy from green river Wyoming, Sandra from Boston, Jack from Redmond Washington Paolo for Montgomery village Maryland, Lauren from Hopewell, Illinois, Alex Naida from Vancouver Nora from San Jose, California, Tyler, Gavin for muscle Vigo, Illinois, Helena, and Alex from Houston, Kira and so fear from Davis, California, Kate, and Jack from newburyport, Massachusetts, Isaac from Lafayette, Louisiana, Jack, from Warrenton Virginia, Matthew from Denver on tape from Greer South Carolina tasks from Mountlake terrace, Washington. So FIU from Queensland Australia. Joseph from Houston, Christopher and Caroline from Zurich, Switzerland, violent and Lucy from beechwood, New Jersey alita from Oakland, California, Henry from Florence, Massachusetts, look and Anya from Los Angeles. EMMY Lou from Sydney, Australia, Nemea from Charlotte, North Carolina sought meal from several. Illinois, Mike from Silver Spring, Maryland, Audrey, and Oscar from Denver, Stella, Henry, and Kate from Ogden Utah. Isaac, Isaiah, and birdie from Nairobi, Kenya. So FIA and Lotus from Pittsburgh miles from Chicago. Fiona from cork, Ireland Hazel and Russell from San Francisco Yanni and kion for Miami maximum Lanta from Pennsylvania. Nathan enhancer from Dallas Caitlyn from Honolulu. Stephen from San Anselmo, California, and Django and mile from Santa Rosa, California. We'll be back next week with more answers to your questions. Thanks for listening.