7 Burst results for "Christina Warner"

"christina warner" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

04:46 min | 2 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on KQED Radio

"Actor nominees Al Pacino and Joe Pesci the Irishman is now playing in theaters and on Netflix why is Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas is you back at the top of the Billboard hot one hundred chart twenty five years after it was first released that story is coming up in the next segment of All Things Considered next time on city arts lectures performer artist and now published poet John Lithgow I'll talk with New Yorker staff writer and humorist Calvin Trillin about a career that spans film stage and satirical farce that's next time on city arts lectures here on KQED city arts lectures comes on tonight at eight o'clock America scores on a global test of reading skills are poor again I'm Josh would Johnson how should school communities raise their standards and who gets to judge next time on one A. B. with us from one a tonight at eleven this is All Things Considered from NPR news I'm ari Shapiro and Ahmadi Cornish or than five thousand years ago a woman in Scandinavia chewed on a piece of birch rudimentary chewing gum of sorts that as NPR's merit Kennedy reports has proven to be a remarkable source of ancient DNA this dark little blob of birch page would be pretty easy to overlook an archaeological site was initially it's a black brown substance that was obtained by heating birch bark but Honda Schroeder appeal you geneticist at the university of Copenhagen says a student coming from the site brought it to him with a question can we get the in and out of this and you know you like well we know haven't really tried so let's give it a go people in the stone age would choose the substance and use it as a form of glued to put sharp points on the weapons they may have also used it as a kind of medicine so these were clues that it might contain DNA but the researchers expected it to be difficult to extract it's still quite challenging to get to you know have complete engine human genome from human remains the DNA sequencing went better than they could have ever expected they were able to reconstruct a complete human genome sure this is the first time that an entire engine human genome has been extracted from anything other than human bones or teeth the team published their findings in the journal nature communications and the DNA tells us a lot about this woman who lived about five thousand seven hundred years ago she had this really you know striking combination of dark hair and dark skin and and and the whites Schroeder says those features were common to other hunter gatherers in this area at the time which is now an island in Denmark he says that even though farmers were beginning to settle in northern Europe the woman's DNA does not show any traces of former ancestry and even beyond her DNA the scientists were also able to extract ancient microbes from her mouth there were sealed in the ancient gone they found traces of a virus and they also extracted remnants of what could have been the woman's last ZTE meal doc and hazel nuts sure says it's unique to have DNA traces of microbes and clues about diet all from a single individual it's really the you know the rich picture from this kind of inconspicuous small lump of birch resin Herford molecular archaeologist Christina Warner says she thinks it was incredibly creative to try to recover information from the ancient chewing gum and the fine says a lot about her field right now as our technology that we're using get stronger we're starting to realize that much more of the past is preserved and we ever thought she recently tried analyzing chewed up stems from a cave in Mexico though unfortunately little information was preserved as technology has dramatically improved Warner says scientists should try to test more objects for DNA that they find on archaeological sites gives me inspiration to go out and start looking for him for more of these unusual contexts in which we might find interesting information a pretty storied legacy for a piece of gum Merrick Kennedy and pureness after twenty five years the number one the song on Billboard's hot one hundred chart is Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas is you only one he thousands of new holiday songs have been released since but none has become an during standard like this one Chris clinic reports on the challenge of trying to crack the tiny you will type cannot.

Al Pacino Joe Pesci Netflix Mariah
"christina warner" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU

90.3 KAZU

03:39 min | 2 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on 90.3 KAZU

"The next fresh air Julie Andrews she has a new memoir about her Hollywood years which began when she was brought to the Disney studios to play Mary Poppins we'll also talk with her daughter theater director and writer Emma Walton Hamilton who co wrote the book and was born just a few months before Anders began work on Mary Poppins join us join us for fresh air that's ahead this evening at seven o'clock right here on K. AZ you the time now is four fifty this is All Things Considered from NPR news I'm ari Shapiro and MOD Cornish more than five thousand years ago a woman in Scandinavia chewed on a piece of birch rudimentary chewing gum of sorts that as NPR's merit Kennedy reports has proven to be a remarkable source of ancient DNA this dark little blob of birch page would be pretty easy to overlook an archaeological site was initially it's a black brown substance that was obtained by heating birch bark but Hana Schroeder a paleo geneticist at the university of Copenhagen says a student coming from the side brought it to him with a question can we get the in and out of this and you know you like well we know we haven't really tried so let's give it a go people in the stone age would chew the substance and use it as a form of glued to put sharp points on the weapons they may have also used it as a kind of medicine so these were clues that it might contain DNA but the researchers expected it to be difficult to extract it's still quite challenging to get to you know have complete engine human genome from human remains the DNA sequencing went better than they could have ever expected they were able to reconstruct a complete human genome sure so this is the first time that an entire engine human genome has been extracted from anything other than human bones or teeth the team published their findings in the journal nature communications and the DNA tells us a lot about this woman who lived about five thousand seven hundred years ago she had this really you know striking combination of dark hair and dark skin and and and the whites Schroeder says those features were common to other hunter gatherers in this area at the time which is now an island in Denmark he says that even though farmers were beginning to settle in northern Europe the woman's DNA does not show any traces of former ancestry and even beyond her DNA the scientists were also able to extract ancient microbes from her mouth there were sealed in the ancient garb they found traces of a virus and he also extracted remnants of what could have been the one and last meal doc and hazelnuts troops has its unique to have DNA traces of microbes and clues about diet all from a single individual it's really the you know the rich picture from this kinda inconspicuous small lump of birch resin Herford molecular archaeologist Christina Warner's says she thinks it was incredibly creative to try to recover information from the ancient chewing gum and the fine says a lot about her field right now our technology that we're using get stronger we're starting to realize that much more of the past is preserved than we ever thought she recently tried analyzing chewed up stems from a cave in Mexico though unfortunately little information was preserved as technology has dramatically improved Warner says scientists should try to test more objects for DNA that they find on archaeological sites gives me inspiration to go out and start looking for him for more of these unusual contexts in which we might find interesting information a pretty storied legacy for a piece of gum Merrick Kennedy and herein is after twenty five years the.

Julie Andrews Hollywood
"christina warner" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

WNYC 93.9 FM

05:39 min | 2 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on WNYC 93.9 FM

"Intersection of our technology and entertainment in making marbles signs and splendor of the courts of Europe more at cnet museum dot org this is All Things Considered from NPR news I'm ari Shapiro and MOT Cornish or than five thousand years ago a woman in Scandinavia chewed on a piece of birch rudimentary chewing gum of sorts that as NPR's merit Kennedy reports has proven to be a remarkable source of ancient DNA this dark little blob of birch page would be pretty easy to overlook an archaeological site was initially it's a black brown substance that was obtained by heating birch bark but honey Schroeder a paleo geneticist at the university of Copenhagen says a student coming from the site brought it to him with a question can we get the in and out of this and you know you're like well we know haven't really tried so let's give it a go people in the stone age would chew the substance and use it as a form of glued to put sharp points on the weapons they may have also used it as a kind of medicine so these were clues that it might contain DNA but the researchers expected it to be difficult to extract it's still quite challenging to get to know a complete engine human genome from human remains the DNA sequencing went better than they could have ever expected they were able to reconstruct a complete human genome sure so this is the first time that an entire engine human genome has been extracted from anything other than human bones or teeth the team published their findings in the journal nature communications and the DNA tells us a lot about this woman who lived about five thousand seven hundred years ago she had this really you know striking combination of dark hair and dark skin and and and the wise Schroeder says those features were common to other hunter gatherers in this area at the time which is now an island in Denmark he says that even though farmers were beginning to settle in northern Europe the woman's DNA does not show any traces of former ancestry and even beyond her DNA the scientists were also able to extract ancient microbes from her mouth there were sealed in the ancient gum they found traces of a virus and they also extracted remnants of what could have been the woman's last ZTE meal doc and hazel nuts sure says it's unique to have DNA traces of microbes and clues about diet all from a single individual it's really you know the rich picture from this kind of inconspicuous small lump of birch resin Herford molecular archaeologist Christina Warner's says she thinks it was incredibly creative to try to recover information from the ancient chewing gum and the fine says a lot about her field right now as our technology that we're using get stronger we're starting to realize that much more of the past this preserves than we ever thought she recently tried analyzing chewed up stems from a cave in Mexico though unfortunately little information was preserved as technology has dramatically improved Warner says scientists should try to test more objects for DNA that they find on archaeological sites gives me inspiration to go out and start looking for for more of these unusual contexts in which we might find interesting information a pretty storied legacy for a piece of gum Merrick Kennedy and pureness after twenty five years the number one the song on Billboard's hot one hundred chart is Mariah Carey's All I Want for Christmas is you one thousands of new holiday songs have been released since but none has become an during standard like this one Chris clinic reports on the challenge of trying to crack the tiny you'll tied it he Kerry single item wish list was the punctuation mark on half a century in which a new original secular holiday song would become ubiquitous every few years this was nineteen seventy nine here's nineteen eighty one now nineteen eighty four in nineteen eighty seven well the soldier hate them you know the both of them you can likely say about any you'll tunes written lately by which I mean this century people still write them down this story ms a of the there's no way that the Senate clothing isn't the most important person in the room up in the North Pole so I thought she deserved to get some sun aloe Blacc a southern California singer songwriter who's been making records since two thousand three and eight new songs on his twenty eighteen out from Christmas fun it is intimidating to think about trying to write something that will stand the test of time he also wanted to try to expand the emotional palette of holiday yeah we want to get together and have fun and give hugs and Christmas cheer there's also like some family members you just don't want to see let dry doctor Demento a pop music historian who specializes in obvious ephemera likens the contraction of the Christmas play list to increase your earning for tradition at this time.

Europe cnet
"christina warner" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

15:50 min | 3 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"When you go to the dentist. There is pleasant process where they scrape your teeth, and they take is called dental calculus or tartar off your teeth is that lesson for any. No. But luckily that is a relatively new thing and back in the day. And like medieval times, people were not having their teeth scraped every three to six months, and I say lucky because there's precious information hidden in that dental calculus may be able to learn about the oral microbiomes of the people who live in the past and also about different diseases that they might have had. And now, it's also telling us things about their occupations what they did every day or or kinds of chemicals encountered in their lives. I have Christina Warner here. She's gonna talk about some dental calculus that was contaminated with a blue mineral, so Christina. What did you find these blue particles associated with dental calculus on these remains was when we first saw them? I mean, probably the last thing I would have expected to find we were trying to look at it in house. Yeah. We expected the bacteria has after all calculus is made a plaque dental plaque. Which is made up of bacteria, and we expected to find little bits of food because when you're alive, and you have plaque on your teeth, and you're eating or your smoking or your breathing and pollen all these little things. Get stuck in your plaque overtime, the plaque calcified at mineralized in your mouth from the minerals in your saliva. In fact, it's the only part of your body that fossilising while you're still alive, and this actually happens over and over again these layers actually build up almost like tree rings or layers of an onion. So after you've calcified one layer you'll form another layer that apply can keep doing it. This woman that we looked out. We actually cross section debt, and there were so many layers. It really looked like this calculus hadn't been removed in twenty or twenty five years that had so many layers built on top of each other. But for an archaeologist this is a gold mine. It's like a time capsule that tells the story of of this woman's life. What was the first thought from the group if you know, they saw these little blue flecks in in her teeth under the microscope? We had no idea what it was. We could be some sort of contaminant is there's something in soil. That's blue. Yeah. No, no. There's not we looked into extensively actually blue minerals are very rare. They tend to be things you have to mind from deep in the earth. They don't occur in surface sediments. So we thought well, maybe maybe it's a it's a mineral of some kind, and maybe it's a paint. Because certain was so blue was Royal blue the brightest brightest blew it looked like Robin's eggs tiny little, Robin. I bet it. I was probably as right as right is a pretty common mineral, it's a pretty inexpensive mineral, and it's really widespread across Europe. And it was used by are in the middle ages. I was pretty sure it was as right? It ended up being fairly complicated to identify for a number of reasons. One is as we were looking at it the blue began to fade and disappear. Oh, yeah. This happened over and over again it took a while. I figure out what was happening, and we finally figured it out when you wanna look at calculus under a microscope. You can't just put under microscope. It's too compacted. And you have to break it up and the usual way of doing this is to apply a little bit of weak acid, and it just dissolves the mineral enough to allow the particles to come out. It turns out that many mineral pigments are actually unstable in the presence of acid and they lose their color. That's what we were seeing. So that gave you a clue that maybe it wasn't as right? We'll also breaks down from we actually tested many different reference, pigments and determine which were stable in. Which were not. So like cobalt blues is stable. But as right is not and Lashley was not there, aren't that many lose that were available to the medieval painter, they had a admitted access of the blues that they had available to most blue because of particular element. So cobalt blue is split because cobalt, Azure is blue because of copper, Vivian. I is blue because iron Rapids Lashley, actually, not one mineral. It's a bunch of minerals together. Blue component is called laterite. There's also white minerals in they're called slug apply and also pyrite the golden flex that. People often recognize one thing your paper reminded me of is that in a television show, and they say what is this mineral residue and just handed to the lab and that have hands and back and answer is never that easy. You had to go through a lot of steps to identify. What exactly was going on here on these T? So what were some of the tests that you had to subject this mineral to will the trouble with Lazarie? The blue mineral is that there's nothing unusual. About it. In terms of its elements made up of the same elements that are found in soil just configured very differently into in their mineral structure, and so we use a technique called Rahman spectroscopy which actually allows us to look more at the mineral structure itself, and that we were able to get a very good match for lodge right after we identified the blue crystals as being a match using two different methods for laterite. We thought let's test some of these white particles that ordinarily would completely ignore and they turn out to flog apply laterite and flog pie only Coker together in legislation that gave you that confidence that you what you are looking at. But it's really surprising that that's what you're looking at. It was extremely surprising. This Lashley was one of the most expensive and rarest artists materials of the middle ages. We did not expect to find it. I think it's hard for us understand how expensive it was. And how difficult it would have been to get their lap. Lashley only had one source during the middle ages, and that WAS FG. Anniston? So this pigment had to traveled from its source in Afghanistan overland along the paths of the silk road, basically at through the Islamic world. Whereas probably refined into a pigment traded up into Venice. And then distributed into Europe made in extraordinary six thousand kilometer journey to make it into the mouth of this very ordinary one about that in women. What about that last little bit of the journey? How would it end up in her mouth? I mean, there's no way this could happen completely Occidental's. She must have been exposed in a very intimate way. But help Osprey happen. Now, we spent a long time debating what the possible scenarios could be. I have my favorite. It's not the one that it is my favorite is all the the book kissing that people were doing it. The look if think has so so this is really incredible during the middle ages, but but actually later than the that was eliminated it. Yeah. Yeah. During the fourteenth century, there's this sort of fat. Bad for what they call emotive devotional osculation so says like intense kissing books, and the idea was to become very affectionate with the images. Eventually they started creating these little osculation targets at the bottoms of the pages to try to encourage priests, for example to kiss the target and not the face of Jesus because it was wiping away face that one was discarded because it was it wasn't the timing wasn't right. And let's turn to one of the what are the likely scenarios in which woman would have introduced us into her mouth. So he came up with two of the we thought were more likely that either she was trying to produce a pigment herself. And thus may have inhaled some of the dust, and that was so she would probably producing it either for herself or one of her sisters or she was an artist herself with the first scenario, although it's possible. I don't think it's likely for one reason. And that is because if you just take lapis largely Sony new grind now you'll. Will get a really dull gray pigment. It's not nice. It has too much of the flog pie and other minerals inside that dole the color. So what you have to do is you have to refine it and the technique use to refine lavishly at this time wasn't really known in Europe. It was primarily performed in in the Islamic world. But what I think is probably the most likely is that she was an artist herself, we do know from some artists manuals around the same time that one technique for producing a really fine point for for fine painting work involved. Compressing the the paintbrush between the lips the lap is largely was quite distributed through her mouth zone. It wasn't Dustin one place. It was also really disperse. So it didn't seem to have been incorporated as a paint, for example, if she had kissed it had gotten stuck an also there are some really amazing letters from right around the same time period. Maybe a little bit later. Also in Germany where there is a men's monastery. There's an or Mario. Who is the keeper of the books and he had commissioned the production of several new books from a neighboring women's community. So when you say when you say she was an artist it's more about eliminating manuscripts than it is about making paintings, correct? It was very likely for eliminating manuscripts. Because it was a lot of book production right at this time. It gives evidence that women were producing books and they were producing important books. Yeah. But unfortunately, these letters don't stay which pigments were being used we can tell by the amount of silk, and the amount of parchment that he was sending for these books to be made that they would have been quite nice books. Is there anything else from the grave site or from the ruins of the monastery where where this this remains were or anything else there that would help with that the women's community from the letter was different one. Okay. Not this community. The remains of from a site called doll. Heim doll Heim is located in western Germany and today. It's actually the site of museum about monasteries and the cemetery that we focused on was one of the very associate with one of the earliest religious communities that was founded in this area, and it was a women's community with interesting about all Heim is almost nothing survives at all. Today. You can go and visit and I recommend doing. So it's really fun. But all that's left of the women's community is the stone Dacians, none of the walls. Are there? There's no art that survives. There's not a single book that survives this poor women's community, which at its at its height supported actually, very small group of women. Only about a dozen women live there at any given time it underwent multiple fires burned to the ground multiple times. It was sacked in at least to battle. It was hit by plague and eventually it was abandoned during another war and a non was murdered and the whole community fell apart this was centuries later, and then later a group of monks moved in and they built a monastery, and that's the monastery. That actually release revives there today. And that today is really the museum people go to visit. But you can still find this kind of traces of this little women's what they call a frown closer this little women's monastery, a little women's community still bear the church foundations and the foundations of of the place where they lived, but it's very small kind of tucked away and forgotten. It's like had just been a rate how absolutely race. And so to me that was something that was so interesting is in this totally unexpected context from this very ordinary seeming woman from the cemetery we've been able to identify someone who was likely in live, quite extraordinary person. She must have been a very talented artists, and I say artists here because lapis Lashley was not used by scribes who is not used typically to write words, it was used to illuminate pictures. Wow. That is amazing. So other other remains from the site that that might be able to shed more. Light on this. We only in this. Initial study looked at for individuals. And that was because we had a completely different purpose to the study originally. I think what this has shown me is that this could be a really important way of going back and revisiting many monasteries and identifying artists and crafts people one of the big lessons. We learned here is it's also very important. How you analyse the calculus in most cases, what people would normally do is start the decalcification with the acid walk away. Wait till it was finished. Come back all of it would have been gone. So it made me wonder how many artists have already been looked at. But because of the way the calculus was treated, we never saw it. Yeah. So one of the things we want to go back to ply these new techniques and to see if we could kind of approach is in a different way is start to identify the artists themselves in the archaeological record how common was it for women during his time to be scribes or to be. Arneses involved in bookmaking as a fantastic question. And this is something that Alison beach who's the historian of the project has researched extensively and she's turned up quite a bit of evidence of women who were prolific producers of books, but a lot of detective work has had to go into this because one of the tones we face as women often did not sign their works in some cases, a list survives on non later. None for example, would write down that sister. So and so wrote these books, but if you look at the books themselves, nothing indicates that what she was also able to do is take one book that was signed and match the handwriting to several other anonymous books, and so we could see okay. This group was all written by one person. And here it signs. We can apply that name to all of them. But it's really painstaking work to try to reconstruct this. And so I think it's really helpful to have the second line of evidence. Any many people might think that archaeologists and historians worked together because we were. On kind of similar things. But actually, it doesn't happen that often we kind of exist in different worlds, one group lives in libraries and one group dig in the dirt, those are very different. So you guys are not all Indiana Jones, your son. No, we're we're quite different. You know, here was a really great problem that we all got to sit together and really talk about. And then we needed more. So we teamed up with physicists. So it was a fun project where we really had archaeologists historians physicists all sitting together. Talking trying to puzzle out this question, and that was tremendous fun. That is really cool really seems like this is a totally different way of doing archaeology. Who would have thought that? If you wanted to understand artists in the middle ages. You would look at their dental plaque. Yeah. Sometimes I think we get tripped up with thinking that artifacts are only stone tools and pottery, but there is this entire archaeology of the invisible that is out there that we are only now starting to appreciate things decompose breakdown at a at a large scale. But. Any of the microscopic particles and the bio-molecules actually preserve were really really longtime. How I feel like we're right now in the renaissance of archaeology like with a lot of new scientific technologies that are available were kind of new kind of archaeology as being born. And I'm really excited about it. Very cool. Okay. Thank you again casinos than really fun. Thanks so much. Cristina Warner is a professor in the department of arguing genetics at the Max Planck institute for the science of human history. You can find a link to her research insights Vance's at science MAG dot org slash podcast. And that concludes this edition of the science podcast, if you have any comments or suggestions for the show right to us at science podcast at a s dot ORG. You can subscribe the show anywhere. You get your podcast or you can listen on the science website. That's science MAG dot org slash podcast to place. An on the science podcast contact mid roll dot com. The show is produced by Sarah Crespi and Meghan can't well and edited by podgy Jeffrey cooked composed the music on behalf of science magazine and its publisher AAA offs. Thanks for joining us.

Lashley Europe dental plaque Christina Warner Robin Afghanistan Venice Germany Max Planck institute Heim Indiana Sony Lazarie stone Dacians Rahman Coker Anniston Vance Cristina Warner
These 1,000-year-old, blue-specked teeth could rewrite medieval history

Science Magazine Podcast

11:31 min | 3 years ago

These 1,000-year-old, blue-specked teeth could rewrite medieval history

"Where they scrape your teeth, and they take is called dental calculus or tartar off your teeth is that lesson for any. No. But luckily that is a relatively new thing and back in the day. And like medieval times, people were not having their teeth scraped every three to six months, and I say lucky because there's precious information hidden in that dental calculus may be able to learn about the oral microbiomes of the people who live in the past and also about different diseases that they might have had. And now, it's also telling us things about their occupations what they did every day or or kinds of chemicals encountered in their lives. I have Christina Warner here. She's gonna talk about some dental calculus that was contaminated with a blue mineral, so Christina. What did you find these blue particles associated with dental calculus on these remains was when we first saw them? I mean, probably the last thing I would have expected to find we were trying to look at it in house. Yeah. We expected the bacteria has after all calculus is made a plaque dental plaque. Which is made up of bacteria, and we expected to find little bits of food because when you're alive, and you have plaque on your teeth, and you're eating or your smoking or your breathing and pollen all these little things. Get stuck in your plaque overtime, the plaque calcified at mineralized in your mouth from the minerals in your saliva. In fact, it's the only part of your body that fossilising while you're still alive, and this actually happens over and over again these layers actually build up almost like tree rings or layers of an onion. So after you've calcified one layer you'll form another layer that apply can keep doing it. This woman that we looked out. We actually cross section debt, and there were so many layers. It really looked like this calculus hadn't been removed in twenty or twenty five years that had so many layers built on top of each other. But for an archaeologist this is a gold mine. It's like a time capsule that tells the story of of this woman's life. What was the first thought from the group if you know, they saw these little blue flecks in in her teeth under the microscope? We had no idea what it was. We could be some sort of contaminant is there's something in soil. That's blue. Yeah. No, no. There's not we looked into extensively actually blue minerals are very rare. They tend to be things you have to mind from deep in the earth. They don't occur in surface sediments. So we thought well, maybe maybe it's a it's a mineral of some kind, and maybe it's a paint. Because certain was so blue was Royal blue the brightest brightest blew it looked like Robin's eggs tiny little, Robin. I bet it. I was probably as right as right is a pretty common mineral, it's a pretty inexpensive mineral, and it's really widespread across Europe. And it was used by are in the middle ages. I was pretty sure it was as right? It ended up being fairly complicated to identify for a number of reasons. One is as we were looking at it the blue began to fade and disappear. Oh, yeah. This happened over and over again it took a while. I figure out what was happening, and we finally figured it out when you wanna look at calculus under a microscope. You can't just put under microscope. It's too compacted. And you have to break it up and the usual way of doing this is to apply a little bit of weak acid, and it just dissolves the mineral enough to allow the particles to come out. It turns out that many mineral pigments are actually unstable in the presence of acid and they lose their color. That's what we were seeing. So that gave you a clue that maybe it wasn't as right? We'll also breaks down from we actually tested many different reference, pigments and determine which were stable in. Which were not. So like cobalt blues is stable. But as right is not and Lashley was not there, aren't that many lose that were available to the medieval painter, they had a admitted access of the blues that they had available to most blue because of particular element. So cobalt blue is split because cobalt, Azure is blue because of copper, Vivian. I is blue because iron Rapids Lashley, actually, not one mineral. It's a bunch of minerals together. Blue component is called laterite. There's also white minerals in they're called slug apply and also pyrite the golden flex that. People often recognize one thing your paper reminded me of is that in a television show, and they say what is this mineral residue and just handed to the lab and that have hands and back and answer is never that easy. You had to go through a lot of steps to identify. What exactly was going on here on these T? So what were some of the tests that you had to subject this mineral to will the trouble with Lazarie? The blue mineral is that there's nothing unusual. About it. In terms of its elements made up of the same elements that are found in soil just configured very differently into in their mineral structure, and so we use a technique called Rahman spectroscopy which actually allows us to look more at the mineral structure itself, and that we were able to get a very good match for lodge right after we identified the blue crystals as being a match using two different methods for laterite. We thought let's test some of these white particles that ordinarily would completely ignore and they turn out to flog apply laterite and flog pie only Coker together in legislation that gave you that confidence that you what you are looking at. But it's really surprising that that's what you're looking at. It was extremely surprising. This Lashley was one of the most expensive and rarest artists materials of the middle ages. We did not expect to find it. I think it's hard for us understand how expensive it was. And how difficult it would have been to get their lap. Lashley only had one source during the middle ages, and that WAS FG. Anniston? So this pigment had to traveled from its source in Afghanistan overland along the paths of the silk road, basically at through the Islamic world. Whereas probably refined into a pigment traded up into Venice. And then distributed into Europe made in extraordinary six thousand kilometer journey to make it into the mouth of this very ordinary one about that in women. What about that last little bit of the journey? How would it end up in her mouth? I mean, there's no way this could happen completely Occidental's. She must have been exposed in a very intimate way. But help Osprey happen. Now, we spent a long time debating what the possible scenarios could be. I have my favorite. It's not the one that it is my favorite is all the the book kissing that people were doing it. The look if think has so so this is really incredible during the middle ages, but but actually later than the that was eliminated it. Yeah. Yeah. During the fourteenth century, there's this sort of fat. Bad for what they call emotive devotional osculation so says like intense kissing books, and the idea was to become very affectionate with the images. Eventually they started creating these little osculation targets at the bottoms of the pages to try to encourage priests, for example to kiss the target and not the face of Jesus because it was wiping away face that one was discarded because it was it wasn't the timing wasn't right. And let's turn to one of the what are the likely scenarios in which woman would have introduced us into her mouth. So he came up with two of the we thought were more likely that either she was trying to produce a pigment herself. And thus may have inhaled some of the dust, and that was so she would probably producing it either for herself or one of her sisters or she was an artist herself with the first scenario, although it's possible. I don't think it's likely for one reason. And that is because if you just take lapis largely Sony new grind now you'll. Will get a really dull gray pigment. It's not nice. It has too much of the flog pie and other minerals inside that dole the color. So what you have to do is you have to refine it and the technique use to refine lavishly at this time wasn't really known in Europe. It was primarily performed in in the Islamic world. But what I think is probably the most likely is that she was an artist herself, we do know from some artists manuals around the same time that one technique for producing a really fine point for for fine painting work involved. Compressing the the paintbrush between the lips the lap is largely was quite distributed through her mouth zone. It wasn't Dustin one place. It was also really disperse. So it didn't seem to have been incorporated as a paint, for example, if she had kissed it had gotten stuck an also there are some really amazing letters from right around the same time period. Maybe a little bit later. Also in Germany where there is a men's monastery. There's an or Mario. Who is the keeper of the books and he had commissioned the production of several new books from a neighboring women's community. So when you say when you say she was an artist it's more about eliminating manuscripts than it is about making paintings, correct? It was very likely for eliminating manuscripts. Because it was a lot of book production right at this time. It gives evidence that women were producing books and they were producing important books. Yeah. But unfortunately, these letters don't stay which pigments were being used we can tell by the amount of silk, and the amount of parchment that he was sending for these books to be made that they would have been quite nice books. Is there anything else from the grave site or from the ruins of the monastery where where this this remains were or anything else there that would help with that the women's community from the letter was different one. Okay. Not this community. The remains of from a site called doll. Heim doll Heim is located in western Germany and today. It's actually the site of museum about monasteries and the cemetery that we focused on was one of the very associate with one of the earliest religious communities that was founded in this area, and it was a women's community with interesting about all Heim is almost nothing survives at all. Today. You can go and visit and I recommend doing. So it's really fun. But all that's left of the women's community is the stone Dacians, none of the walls. Are there? There's no art that survives. There's not a single book that survives this poor women's community, which at its at its height supported actually, very small group of women. Only about a dozen women live there at any given time it underwent multiple fires burned to the ground multiple times. It was sacked in at least to battle. It was hit by plague and eventually it was abandoned during another war and a non was murdered and the whole community fell apart this was centuries later, and then later a group of monks moved in and they built a monastery, and that's the monastery. That actually release revives there today. And that today is really the museum people go to visit. But you can still find this kind of traces of this little women's what they call a frown closer this little women's monastery, a little women's community still bear the church foundations and the foundations of of the place where they lived, but it's very small kind of tucked away and forgotten. It's like had just been a rate how absolutely race. And so to me that was something that was so interesting is in this totally unexpected context from this very ordinary seeming woman from the cemetery we've been able to identify someone who was likely in live, quite extraordinary person. She must have been a very talented artists, and I say artists here because lapis Lashley was not used by scribes who is not used typically to write words, it was used to illuminate pictures. Wow. That is amazing. So other other remains from the

Lashley Europe Dental Plaque Christina Warner Robin Afghanistan Venice Heim Germany Lazarie Rahman Coker Sony Anniston Stone Dacians Dustin Six Thousand Kilometer Twenty Five Years
"christina warner" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

Science Magazine Podcast

11:18 min | 3 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on Science Magazine Podcast

"Hello. Welcomes the science podcast for January eleventh two thousand nineteen I'm Sarah Crespi this week show. Megan Cantwell talks with Justin Reich about massive open. Online courses also known as mooks after coming online more than a decade ago. Some of them are starting to pivot to money-making model. Justin, suggests there might be some good reasons for that. And I talked with Christina Warner about a skeleton with mysterious microscopic crystals. Stuck in tartar of her teeth for more than thousand years, Christina and argue geneticists ended up collaborating with physicists and historians to figure out what the substance was where it came from? And how it came to be attached to the skeletons teeth. Nukes or massive open online courses gained lots of attention in twenty twelve as a way to make education accessible globally through access to free video lectures and assignments from some of the world's best professors, many enrolled in these courses, but unfortunately, the attrition rate was also quite hi, I'm Meghan can't. And I'm here with Justin rake to talk about the state of mukhsin twenty nineteen and why summer now offering online master's degrees for professionals. Hey, justin. Valley me. Yeah. It's great. Have you on could you just give background on? How mooks were started sore in two thousand six seven two thousand eight a group of mostly Canadian educators who are doing really interesting innovative work with launching online classes on the open web classes usually had a course number at a university. But then they put all the materials online. So everyone who wanted to join in and they had a couple thousand folks who had arrived to those classes, and then in two thousand eleven refu- different folks in California who were enthusiastic about the idea, including Peter nor vague in Sebastian thune, and they had over a hundred thousand people sign up to their introduction AI class. So it was sort of idea that caught fire. What was the goal of providing the service? You know, there are a number of the key principles the beginning of this said our goal is to really widely disseminate these learning opportunities, they sort of hope that it would be kind of a blue ocean market is as what is called in. Terms of there would be a a whole vast array of people who worked consuming the service that would be potential consumers that good spread widely especially places that didn't have access to lots of higher education. What problems debase e emerge from these programs as they spread to these areas? People instead of distance education for a long time in self regulated learning is really hard. It's really hard to to say I'm gonna make some extra space in my life to take. This course in persist all the way through it. It proven much easier to have people who already have access to higher education get access to more higher education through this kind of free unstructured online learning than it is to create new on ramps into higher education. Other incredible stories of people from every single walk of life, every single background who've been countered moods and a really great. Our for learning experiences from them. There's a pretty high rate of people who end up not continuing their Mook or soon after they started they stop it. Has this problem persisted or worsened overtime, or has it pretty much just been a problem throughout we've good access to Harvard in IT data. So we can make claims about what we see in that typically about half the people who registered, for course, never show up or click into all that's not a big deal. It's totally fine for people to indicate interest in something that not decided to pursue that interest. And that hasn't really changed very much. What has somewhat gone down at least in Harvard in IT data is the proportion of people who return after a second year. And most of the folks who come in. Join a hurt extra mighty X. Course don't come back the following year, for subset, of course, in that proportion of folks has gotten smaller with each subsequent year, both as total number of people who've enrolled his gun up for years, then gunned down more in recent years, but that that's been sort of a stable trend one of the particular challenges. I think the courses like when someone signs up through Twitter or signs up for Instagram. There's no logical ending your feet just keep scrolling over and over again, but courses as. That ends people. Go often, they do other things just hard to build a lot of growth when you have this sort of natural breaking point. But once they realized that is problems are persisting, did they do anything to address them? Or was there any way for them to address it colleagues in I have published studies where we tried different sorts of interventions based on social psychology or behavioral economics, and we've had some initial evidence booze things might work. Although as we've replicated them over time, we haven't seen all of the gains that we might hope building. A course that you can really learn something from that really advances. The science of learning is much more resource intensive than just getting a course out there that teaches some people stuff universities are typically trying to take the budgets. They have to make new courses disperse them widely across lots of different groups. So that the money spread fairly lots. Of course, you can get made. And it's hard to get your course out there on a budget on a deadline and have a whole Reese. Search agenda that's going along in parallel with it. Yeah. These programs definitely need money to sustain and previously. They started out by selling certificates of completion as a revenue stream. But now they're shifting to a different revenue model. Could you talk a little bit about that emerging consensus conversion around online master's degree programs or other kinds of programs that are targeted at working professionals. Some of this is not brand new. So you dastardly very early on have interesting partnership with Georgia Tech where they created the online master's degree in computer. Science course era announced that they were gonna make more partnerships with schools to offer fully online based master's degrees the pivot to supporting universities in creating masters degrees. Put these move providers competing with a lot of well established organizations that help universities that create online master's degrees, and are these mooks run differently in comparison to these more well-established programs one trend might be that. A lot of the established organizations have helped -versities create online courses have mostly focused on courses with staffing models that most people would recognize from older online education. There's twenty twenty five forty students in a class if there's one instructor at their some sense of connection, there's not at all the scale see like in the Georgia Tech online. Computer science masters where they're really trying to do a combination of automating quite a bit of the instruction. And then, you know, some some interesting labor models where you'd ask the network of people around the world that grade people's assignments there's not one ta sitting it George attacker. There's thirty ta sitting round table, Georgia Tech, regretting all these things. They're taking advantage of crowdsourcing sort of other models to try to find new economy. Scaling teaching so this pivot Q professional degree programs with mooks has there been any comparison yet between the retention rate with these programs versus Moore well-established. Program known and it's gonna take a while because the programs are designed to complement working professionals. We have under review right now. Another paper that we're doing which is a review of MIT's first micro masters program, the supply chain management program, you know, in the mount of work that people put into these classes sort of in the corners nooks and crannies of their lives. People describing to us like I go sit at my desk at lunch fire up videos, like stay after work late to the night doing these things such pretty hard to make it a kind of full time commitment the way that these were set up as a result. It's a little bit tricky to figure out when people have traded from the program when they've really left it's not necessarily a bad thing if someone's poking along at one Coursey year in takes a lot longer to finish. But they are able to do that they meet their goals. One thing that might be good thing is that if the costs of these programs are reduced in. You're paying them per course or credit than the risk is also distributed. You're not. To paying up front for big pergram and things like that. So overall, would you say that the programs through mooks are more affordable than these other online degree programs and the target audience for the Mook programs are different than the traditional online programs? One study that's out on this. And again, it's with this. I sort of Georgia Tech class. They did a need study where for idiosyncratic reasons. No knew that they made in the emissions process grade cut scores. If you're below this cut score, you didn't have a chance getting omitted of your bump, the cut score, you could be considered. And of course, people just above and below that score not actually different from one another, you know, sort of a random ization. So you can look at people on either side of that cut scores and sees or what happens to them the people bound the cuts for go in many went into the George and the people who didn't get into the programs. They didn't pursue other options. So the argument that Josh and his colleagues make is that this is sort of genuinely creating new kinds of pathways for people. How big the demand is kind of remains to be seen. But. It's an interesting model. So what do you think is the future of mooks given this pivot to professional degrees? Macaulay Mito says that people often hope that new technologies will disrupt existing systems and oftentimes new technologies get domesticated by existing systems in so one future. You could magin here is what you might. Call productive domestication that in various nooks and crannies mostly focused on sort of professional education masters degree programs. There are ways that already indicated people can get some cheaper more efficient more in line with their work life, schedule degrees through these programs. If we saw that as the case, you know, one good lesson that might emerge from that is that as there are inevitably new technologies that catch the attention of education administrators education policy makers a good stance to take something along the lines of. Oh, there's probably like neat ways that this new technology can help us do what we're doing better particular kinds of ways. But it's unlikely that any. Regular new technology is gonna lead to sort of dramatic reorganization of of higher education, particularly around the most pressing challenges of how do we support first generation students? How do we create more access opportunities? Places physically distant from centres of higher. Education's those challenges. I think -nology can play a role in engaging. But in many ways, those challenges will remain sort of political challenges policy challenges where we make investments more so than new technologies that precedes grand reordering of things. I think much than you bet. Thanks so much for having me, Justin right kiss assistant, professor in the comparative media. Studies department at the Massachusetts Institute of technology. He could buy link to his piece at science bag dot org slash podcast. Stay tuned for Sarah Krispies interview with Christina Warner about mysterious crystals in the teeth of thousand year old skeleton. When

mooks Georgia Tech Justin Christina Warner Harvard MIT Justin rake Sarah Crespi Meghan Megan Cantwell Justin Reich Twitter California George Sarah Krispies Macaulay Mito instructor Josh
"christina warner" Discussed on KQED Radio

KQED Radio

07:48 min | 3 years ago

"christina warner" Discussed on KQED Radio

"He has since made it clear the troops will stay in Iraq. We have been told that the remote US outposts near the border will now take on emotion more important role in the fight against. Yes. I don't think it's helpful to try to put a time line to this fight Lifton incontinent Kent poke is leading coalition operations in the border areas. What's important is that not only do we defeat ISIS? But then also help the Iraqi security forces to be able to prevent the reemergence. And white questions remain about America's way their role in the Middle East. It's clear what their alloys think about the plan. Major General Mohammadi from that. Your key army is working closely with the Americans. Defy the dash the news of US forces pulling out of Syria has already emboldened ISIS militants still who could a firm grip on the east of the Euphrates river. It's narrator is largest twenty to twenty five kilometers. An in reality. Their continued existence is a serious threat to the region of one of the key forces fighting in Iraq or Iran backed paramilitary groups despite being part of the Iraqi government's security forces and sharing a common enemy. They have always opposed. The US presence in the region alley Mawson is one of their commanders. Michelle. Fisher shop, but also especially the US has been defeated in Syria and the Middle East the presence of U S forces in Iraq is not acceptable anymore. It's time for them to leave five diplomatic measures. But if they refuse to leave we'll force them out just like we did in the past Martha legit homes, look on that report was by the BBC's convert foreman edgy to go on trial today in the German capital. Berlin, accused of stealing a giant solid. Gold coin worth almost four million dollars from a city museum. One of the defendant says set of help to facilitate the theft by working as a security guard at the bottom museum bet in correspondent, Johnny hill. Reports it was an audacious heist carried out in the dead of night just down the road from Anglia Michael's apartment in the center of Berlin. Prosecutors believed the men used a ladder to get into the boat a museum where they evaded burger at arms and smashed through bulletproof glass to take that price. A giant twenty four karat gold coin made in Canada and known as the big maple leaf the coin which weighs one hundred kilograms was engraved with the image of the Queen. No, Royal getaway carriage for the thieves. However detectives believe they used a wheelbarrow to whisk the coin off into the night. The big maple leaf has never been recovered. What was for a time officially recognized as the largest coin in the world is thought to have been cut into pieces melted down and sold now is Jenny hill. A pet food manufacturer says it's created a dog food that's made up of forty percent insects. The firm says the product is nutritionally balanced and helps to avoid the environmental consequences of eating pets. Meet our environment analyst, Roger harrabin reports. It's estimated that pets can seem around twenty percent of the world's meet that's led some owners to worry about the impact of their dog on the planet as meat production is a major source of greenhouse gases. League and dog foods are on sale but environmentalists donors wanting to treat that pet animal protein can now turn to a Dutch product called Yura the grubs of black soldier flies make up forty percent of it. Insects do use a fraction of the water and land of cattle. So this looks and environmental Boone that it's not quite so simple. Normal dog food is mostly awful. So dogs are typically eating meat that humans have rejected to really make an environmental difference owners would need to join their dogs in cutting down on the meat, Roger harrabin, and fairness Haywood some other stories from our news desk. An unseasonal quantity of snow in much of central and eastern Europe has killed at least fourteen people in many parts of Austria, the risk of avalanches is now at the highest level. As Bethany bell reports. The latest victim of a snow slide was a sixteen year old boy who was skiing and sent I'm Tom. I'm back with his family when he was buried in the snow many ski resorts have had to be closed because of the heavy falls of snow including car in the each Tyler Alps. A number of roads have also been blocked by falling trees. The authorities are struggling to keep the rates clear. The snow keeps on falling school textbooks in Brazil will no longer need to highlight the country's ethnic diversity under new rules published by the education ministry, the requirement to show positive images of women is also being dropped the changes mean that even though more than half of Brazil's population is black or mixed race a scuba. Showing only quite meals who'd be deemed acceptable for classrooms. Dozens of seals have become stranded in a Canadian tone blocking traffic and the entrances to homes and businesses to of the animals and Roddick's bide arm. Newfoundland died after being struck by a car their concerns. Others will starve to death. It's against Canadian law to interfere with marine mammals such as seals. Thanks. Scientists say the discovery of tiny fragments of blue paint on the teeth of an ancient German. None shed new light on the role of female artists in the middle ages. The pigment known as lapis lazuli was used for illustrating the most valuable religious texts as correspondent Matt McGraw explains. The chance fight made me there were more female illustrators. And I thought the weird habit of licking the end of a paintbrush has revealed new evidence about the life of German religious artist more than nine hundred years after her death. Scientists found tiny blue paint flecks accumulated in a plaque that had fossilized on the teeth of the mid. Aged woman from the twelfth century. They believed the particles of the rare lapis lazuli pigment are likely to have collected as she touched the end of her brush with our tongue originating in Afghanistan. Lapis lazuli was highly prized in Europe where it was used to make ultra marine Avila. Blue color, so expensive that Michelangelo couldn't afford to use it. Researchers believe the woman came in contact with the pigment because she was a highly skilled artist involved in the illustration of sacred texts they believe that they're studying indicates that many more women may have been involved in aluminum books than previously thought see author. Dr Christina Warner says the study sheds new light on Italian place, the has essentially disappeared nothing survives except the foundation of building. There's no art. There's no books kind of the site that had been forgotten and written on history and three this work. We put it back on the map, and we discovered another place where women were engaged in artistic production. We have. I've no idea about the scientists that their technique will help them find other medieval female artists who were essentially rendered invisible. From a history written mainly by men that was about McGraw. That's almost it for the newsroom, but before we go his main headline again, and it is that Felix. She's a Acadia has been declared the provisional winner of the presidential election in the Democratic Republic of Congo. But his main rival says the vote was rigged. Thanks good. Bye. Distribution of the BBC World Service in the US is made possible by American public media producer and.

US Iraq Middle East ISIS Roger harrabin Syria Matt McGraw Europe Brazil Kent Jenny hill Michelle America Berlin BBC Major General Mohammadi BBC World Service Euphrates river Canada Democratic Republic of Congo