35 Burst results for "Cholera"
A Forgotten African American Burial Site Could Be Hidden In Washington DC
"Over the past century. Archaeologists and town residents have unearthed dozens of human remains on the thirty three hundred block of street northwest. Experts have spent years trying to identify the origins of the remains. And they told dc ists. Elliot williams they may belong to a forgotten african american burial site. It's a quiet historic street in georgetown on one side. There's volta park a slice of recreational heaven with a pool tennis courts and a jungle gym on the other. A row of million dollar townhomes from the late nineteenth century beneath those homes. Residents archaeologists have found countless skulls jaws ribs and skeletons from bodies buried ages ago. One q street resident. Diana scholl calls a day in two thousand twelve when she noticed something odd at her next door neighbor's house digging a pool and i came home and the police were there and they have found remains the dc. His story preservation office says burials. Like this are quite common on q street. Evidence is growing that this block was the site of a pre civil war. Burial ground for free and enslaved residents men says she loved to know the identities behind the barrels but she also has renovation plans of her own. I'd also love to build a pool or say you know. I don't like what's the protocol know that you've already got a half a body. She's not the only one with questions. Reuther coli the city's official archaeologist has been excavating backyards and basements on q street for nearly fifteen years she and a team of researchers are looking for answers on who might be buried there so q street is unusual for in so many ways. It is very hard to do research on this earlier time period in georgetown because when it was found it was part of maryland. In most cases the city is called on the smithsonian to help analyze store the bodies remains belonging to at least twenty eight individuals are currently sitting and smithsonian lab waiting to be fully studied only seven have been analyzed so far and all of them appear to be of african descent the law and just ville an anthropologist at american university is studying the bodies as part of his dissertation the pandemic has slowed down his research but he says the q. Street burials are crucial to understanding by history in dc. How do we identify these the sentence when there was mass. Push out about relatives from from georgetown. Old newspaper clipping show that victims of cholera pandemic of eighteen. Thirty two were buried in unknown locations. Georgetown justin ville says it's possible. Some of these victims often low wage laborers could have been buried in mass graves on q street. Some residents even believed the burials could be evidence of georgetown's involvement in the underground railroad. I think site Whether or not it's at nap with jerry. Lawler cemetery and or both. I think it's only the starting point for this network of Taking of the black geography. Georgetown if he will once the lab reopens just unveiled plans to hit the ground running and he has the city's full support. It may have taken a longtime for this project. Come up and for everyone to get on board but oh my goodness it's it's time it's come. Congress recently introduced the african american burial grounds network. Act a bill that would direct funding and research toward burial grounds like the one in georgetown. If passed the legislation will help protect historic black graveyards from time development and decay. Perhaps it will help. Uncover some of the mysteries on q street
How COVID-19 human challenge trials work -- and why Sophie Rose volunteered
"In april. Two thousand and twenty. I made what many perceive is a risky decision volunteered to be deliberately infected with covid nineteen. This infection would be part of what is cold. A human challenge show where young healthy people given a vaccine and then deliberately exposed to the virus that causes covid. Nineteen these trials help. Researchers figure out more quickly if a vaccine is working. I think this research is crucial. Because today i'm going to speak to you for six minutes in that time. Roughly twelve hundred and fifty people will be confirmed infected with covid nineteen twenty. One people will die and then this pot repeat hour after hour and day by day until we're able to vaccinate most of the eight billion people affected but squabble crisis. Scientists have been working around the clock to make those vaccine's reality. But what should we do when the human cost of waiting for vaccines is rising by the day. This is a human challenge shells. Come in the different from the traditional phase. Three bucks trials taking place now where people are given a vaccine or placebo. An oss to go about their everyday lives. Researchers have to wait to see how many people in each group become infected until enough of them get sick. We don't have enough data to know whether a vaccine is working. Finding effective vaccine with this method can take months sometimes years and it requires thousands of volunteers. A challenge tall works foster because research control exposure instead of waiting for people to get sick so instead of a year we could know in as little as a month whether a vaccine seems effective instead of thousands of volunteers a challenge shawl relies on just fifty to one hundred because we know if a sudden when people are exposed and develop disease. These trials also allow us together data about the early stages of infection and our response. This data is impossible together in any other way especially for people who become infected but never showed symptoms. This knowledge is important for designing policies. That limit covid nineteen transmission. The time saved translates into precious month's headstart on manufacturing getting a small working covid. Nineteen vaccines scenes foster. These trials are useful even their recent phase through results on encouraging. The arrival of the fuss vaccine is going to be a monumental breakthrough. it just isn't quite the fairy tale ending role harping full. We're going to need multiple vaccines because we just don't have the infrastructure needed to immunize eight billion people on the planet with just one kind. Each type of back seen requires its own special process and equipment to make store and deliver it if we had multiple working covid nineteen vaccines. We could make use of all of our equipment at the same time. Some of the leading candidates need to be kept extremely colds before they live limit to people. This can be really hard especially in countries where there isn't reliable electricity or a secure method to store them. Scientists have been using human challenge. Charles for hundreds of years. They've sped up the development vaccines against typhoid and cholera. And i've helped us better understand how immunity develops to things like the flu. Malaria and dengue gay with use them for other types of coronavirus. Before there's been a lot of debate about whether challenge charles a too risky. I happen to think that those risks of taking a challenge trial would recruit young and healthy participants think between the ages of twenty and twenty nine fewer than one percent of people in that age group need to be taken to hospital after becoming infected with covid nineteen likely even lower in a challenge trial because researchers check to make sure that participants have no pre existing conditions. The risk of a young healthy person dying of covid nineteen is around five thousandth of a percent
Paprika In Hungary
"Let's start today's travel. With rick steves with the role a little pepper from the new world plays in that tasty cuisine of hungary. Note that today's interviews on paprika galicia where recorded just prior to the global shutdowns pepperoni as the backbone of hungarian cooking as the crucial ingredient in chicken pepper. Cash and hardy hungarian stews from mild to hot. We'll find out why this spicy so central to hungarian identity. How to best buys and pepper on your trip and we're going to learn how you can spice up. Your own meals was well to get this education hungarian paprika. We're joined by to guide tonight studio from hungary. And leonard and george farkas anna and george. Thanks for being here. Thanks for having us thrill to be well. Thank you from coming all the way from budapest a long trip. And we're gonna talk about paprika. I mean when we think of hungary we don't know a lot about hungry sometimes. But we think of paprika. What's the connection actually public. A strong connection because it is actually from the american continent and it was The physician of christopher columbus or columbus who brought it to the old world to i not to hungary of course but to spain that through the commercials of the mediterranean sea it got to the ottoman empire and when the ottoman empire extended its political power to eastern century up. We glad to not only bad things that we also got things like the patrika. What are the coffee so paprika and cuffy came as your time in the ottoman empire in paprika actually from america via columbus actually us. So i like teasing are two members and americans who is. That's why to travel here. Righ- flying through the But i like my publisher hungary. There's something romantic about having paprika in hungary. And why does hungary embrace paprika. What does it mean to hungarian. I have great micro-climate lots of sunshine. And what is very important that when we got the paprika was a hot spice and it was the hungarians who grew the might version of it it is from the nineteen twenties when in a small. Get in sega. It was kind of discovered. And since then if you come to our covid market hall you can always buy tubers the mild paprika and the hot fabric honky now. George when i go to budapest i always go to the big market hall right. But it's the name of that. Hologhan bashar knocking hungarian big market or century. You can't miss it when you're a tornado in credits. The first one out of five actually that they built at the time. And what you're going to find is well everything that hungarian cook would want to find. But certainly find peppers. See when you look for the peppers in the market. Well actually. you're not looking for peppers you looking for paprika is already well there is. It is basically a huge difference because many people don't realize it in hungary. Everything is called paprika. Let it'd be around fat skinny red yellow sweet and hot so i'm a little confused. Then so because Is it a pepper or it is a but we call it paprika but we also called a powder paprika yes because when i think of peppers and my supermarket we've got yellow ones and green ones red ones and that all of that. We call paprika even if it's Any shape really And then you have. It already powdered. If you're looking for the paprika that you cook with powdered yes okay. So it's a very unique technique to powder because One of the things that you have to be extremely careful with how you approach paprika once you grind paprika after all the time you spent with it to become dry and ready to grind. You have to do it very slowly makers as soon as you pick up speed you burn the paprika and that remains throughout its lifetime because once you come to cook it again you have to be very careful with a not to burn it because then you just have to start over again tour guides from budapest anna leonard and george farkas are filling in on the importance of peppery cup in the cuisine of hungary right now on travel with rick steves. Okay so when we're talking about this have rica and i think it goes back the days when spaces were really important. I mean spice was big money in the early days of training today today at that time and originally now why was spaces in general very important economically for people well. It was a very important product. It was expensive at that time. It was not so easy to fly from one continent to other a trip two months of making food more interesting or is it a matter of preserving food actually spicy i got to the highest study stock chrissy those who had the opportunity to get products from far far away and paprika also i was introduced for the highest stock resi in hungary after people realised it is not poisonous because i it was considered a supposin and when they discovered that it has healing effect. You know it here the colorado and screw after it they started to make its production but it was a rarity and it was very expensive so at first who is just for the very wealthy and then you learn it. It helped as medicine against scurvy and cholera. Yes but also medication. Very often is a privilege of the wealthier class. Not available for everybody. Some
UN: Child Malnutrition Soars in War-torn Yemen
"The children of Yemen are suffering acute malnutrition president at rights as the world's worst humanitarian crisis grinds on UN agencies have warned in an alert based on new food security analysis in some areas more than one in four children is acutely malnourished. said the UN Children's fund UNICEF along with the World Food Programme, WFP and the Office for the Coordination of humanitarian, affairs or. They cited data from one hundred and thirty three districts in southern parts of Yemen which are home to one point four, million children under five. It revealed a ten percent increase in acute trish in so far this year even worse is the more than fifteen percent rise in children suffering from severe acute malnutrition meaning that at least ninety, eight, thousand under-fives are at high risk of dying without urgent medical treatment from Geneva. Here's UNICEF spokesperson Eczema. Kado. The most significant increase is among young children who suffer from inferior acute malnutrition. This is a condition that leaves children around ten times more likely to die. Z's as such as cholera, diarrhoea, malaria, or acute respiratory infections, all of which are common in Yemen. According to Wip by the of twenty, twenty, four in ten people in surveyed areas of Yemen about three point, two million people are likely to be severely food insecure data for the remaining districts. Northern Yemen has yet to be published, but the situation is expected to be equally concerning based on historical trends. Fighting between government on non-state actors has continued in southern Afghanistan's Helmand province where civilians have been killed thousands displaced the UN hazard an update from Austria, the UN Humanitarian Aid Office reported that more than two weeks since clashes began near Lashkar Gah city. The security situation remains volatile while talks between the Afghan government and Taliban representatives continue in Qatar fighting has also been reported along the road connecting Chicago with Kandahar city in the East with improvised explosive devices planted on main highways continuing to threaten those looking for shelter. Amid attacks affecting fifteen medical facilities, the World Health Organization W. H.. O.. Also reported that the closure of clinics has affected thousands of people although handful of partially reopened. Science needs to be more accessible, transparent, and in tune with people's needs if global threats like the covid nineteen pandemic ought to be overcome effectively, you agency heads said on Tuesday in a joint appeal for free access to scientific reviews, data tools, and software audrey. Azoulay. From yes. Go Ted Ross at an Gabri ACIS from the World Health Organization has. Michelle Bachelet High Commissioner for Human Rights called on the international community to take all necessary measures to make this happen with the additional support of Fabiola Gianotti who had Sunday European Laboratory for particle physics. The appeal also intends to promote trust in research and technology at a time when rumors and. False information I increasingly common in a statement UNESCO the UN agency for Education Science and Culture said that the recent response of the scientific community to the cave nineteen pandemic has demonstrated how well open science can accelerate the achievement of scientific solutions to global challenges. But the agency insisted that sustainable solutions to global threats require an efficient transparent and vibrant scientific effort from everyone in society not just scientists in line with the wishes of UN member states UNESCO is developing guidelines explaining how countries can implement open science policies to bring citizens closer to science and how they can commit to helping to share scientific knowledge around the World
If approved, UK to start controversial Covid vaccine challenge trial infecting patients
"Researchers are preparing for a step toward finding a corona virus vaccine a particularly terrifying step it's called a challenge trial and it means you give the vaccine to people, and then you expose them to the virus to see if the vaccine works. Channel trials are used to test vaccines for diseases like typhoid, cholera and malaria. The difference here is that if new vaccines for those. Illnesses do not work there at least ways to treat the people who've been infected for covid nineteen. Of course, there is no cure and treatments are still limited. So a challenged trial raises some real ethical concerns. Arthur Caplan is a bioethics professor at New York. University School of Medicine. We don't fully understand the Cobra virus we're going to give it to people intentionally make them sick. What if there's a death? What if there's long-term disability? What if things go really soured for the subjects? As, just GonNa look like an ethics catastrophe researchers in the United Kingdom? Still think challenge trial is worth it and they plan to try one
U.K. Moves Toward Ethically Controversial Coronavirus Vaccine Trial
"Vaccine Trials are happening all over the globe today. The UK government announced funding for phase. One of something called a human challenge trial for a corona virus vaccine. The process will require young healthy volunteers to be infected with the virus in an effort to speed up vaccine testing a company called H Vivo and Imperial College London. Have the contract is set up the first part of that process. Here's more from the world's caroline dealer the idea itself sounds wild intentionally infect people with the very virus returning our lives upside down to avoid. People hear about these trials. Many people's immediate reaction is, how could it be ethical but Oxford bioethicist deb Yom row gic says, it's possible if certain conditions are met one of those conditions is that the expected benefits of the research outweigh the risks. In this case, how many infections could we prevent if we developed a vaccine sooner? For example, in a typical clinical trial thousands of people are injected with a test vaccine and sent out into the world to see if they still get infected naturally that's happening now with several corona virus vaccine candidates, but Andrew Catchpole. The, chief scientific officer at H., Vivo the company launching this human challenge trial says that takes time normal traditional trials involve many thousands of subjects take many many months to complete in human challenge trials, which HP VO has been running for decades. A small number of healthy volunteers would be intentionally infected with the coronavirus after getting jabbed with a trial vaccine to see if it works. What happens is because everybody is given the disease, you're able to determine efficacy in a matter of weeks. These types of tiles have been used for centuries and in the recent past have. Sped up the development of typhoid and cholera vaccines. The agreement announced by the UK government today is just for the first step of this contract to manufacture and test Raina the virus to use in trials it still has to be approved by regulators and an ethics panel. If it is between thirty and ninety volunteers could start being injected with just the test virus, not yet any vaccine as soon as the beginning of next year so far nearly three thousand people in the UK have signed up to volunteer for a challenge trial. One of them is allaster frazier ORCA. White indefinite convinced. The Human Josh all has essential to advising Ovalles, scenes, population way more quickly lift on them on opinion the risk is small enough to travel participants that we need to take that risk frazier ORCA put off going to university for a year to work with one day sooner, a nonprofit group advocating for human challenge trials and signing up volunteers. He says the Tom Channel some of the fear of living through a pandemic into something that feels productive grandma custos. My Dodd might catch his out his risk. So kind of on a personal level the. Volunteer volunteers will be paid somewhere around five thousand dollars insurance cover healthcare costs. For any complications they will quarantine in a special nineteen dead unit at the Royal Free, hospital in London for an expected two weeks after virus exposure. Again, Andrew Catch Paul from h Vivo. A first priority was doing these studies is the safety of the volunteers. So for that reason, we go very strict criteria about those who. Will be eligible to participate. Volunteers must be between eighteen and thirty healthy with no pre existing conditions. But there's a more controversial criteria that scientists are wrestling with right now whether to exclude volunteers of color because there is data suggest that there is a potential for increased risk. The UN says Kobe nineteen is disproportionately affecting racial and ethnic minorities around the globe including in Brazil the UK and the US. K. Government figures, black men in England and Wales are more than two and a half times more likely to die of cope in nineteen than white men. Some of that is explained by socioeconomic status in pre existing conditions. But Dhillon David Kumar, a physician and professor at University College London says it's more than that. They're also other underlying causes racism discrimination for example, being an underlying cause which are not easy to count foreign. Announces such as this Dave Qamar said, he's the health impacts of racism and xenophobia. He says, well, it's important to note that raises a social construct, not biological. The effects of racism in tells in ways that can be hard to identify. So you can't hold constant the discrimination someone's face throughout their life. You can't hold constant the environment someone grownup in the levels of air pollution kinds of housing that they've lifting throughout their life. So. There are differences in outcomes amongst racial groups. David Kamar isn't familiar with this specifics of this study proposal, but he says he can understand the reason for picking volunteers who are at the lowest possible risk for getting really sick. Charles cordray chief officer for the Caribbean and African Health Network sees it differently. It's really disappointing people of Color. In clinical trials that's partly due to legacy of racist medical experiments. By white doctors and kwok-wah dray says the idea of excluding people of color from this trial would add to the distrust mistrust and the lack of trust has come about as a result of decades of sometimes how we need to respond so quickly but what is meant is that there's a whole section of people. Fair much. whose voices are not being head HBO is still making a decision about whether and how to include people of Color in the first phase of this trial when they're testing out the safest way to infect people with the actual virus the company hasn't designed protocols yet for the actual vaccine-testing in hopes quickly follows the volunteer criteria for this stage of the study will be finalized and handed over to UK regulators and an ethics panel by
These doctors got COVID-19, now they're suffering the serious, mysterious symptoms of 'long COVID'
"Hi It's Natasha. Mitchell with science friction. I'll be the first admit that as a GP price all of I was pretty skeptical of things. I certainly had sympathy for for conditions like FIBROMYALGIA. But I didn't have the empathy that I have now. I didn't understand it I. Really didn't get it. And Gosh if I could go back and speak to myself as a GP prior to all of this, I know that I would have been much better doctor then and I will hopefully be a much stop to now. As Corona virus cases explode again in the you kind across Europe today three doctors from the UK share confronting personal experiences of what's being called long covert. I have seen too many cases on nine of people not being heard not being Nessin to. That symptoms and their concerns not being validated. I've seen heartbreaking stories of people just being dismissed of seeing heartbreaking stories of people losing their jobs. And I am very lucky that I have a platform where I can speak up and try and get long covert recognizes melnace. The term long covert is being used to describe a whole cluster of symptoms and afflictions many extremely disturbing and disabling that lingering on some people after they've been infected with the SARS Cov to virus thousands across the world are now finding solidarity on social media and in virtual support groups that are popping up and long covert. To not discriminate healthy people young people, people who apparently had a mild case of covid nineteen. And every system in their bodies can be affected up until the last a week or two. The concept of long caved has been dismissed by quite a lot of people even in the medical sphere many my colleagues have been unwell since March and have really struggled to get any kind of medical inputs until the last couple of months those weren't hospitalized with the illness would just sort of left to get on with it. It's the classic thing a suspect. It might even be a bloke thing do not for long enough it will go away. Yeah. Diminish it ignore it hope it's not their. Own I another thing to worry about uh, suspect always going through people's minds and that will include medics politicians policies such as civil servants, everybody. But they will be left with the long term consequences and in terms of the total health burden that will weigh exceed whatever acute covid to us by the time of comes on. So we facing another pandemic this one silent confusing and hard to diagnose knows a pandemic of long coverted. I'm Dr Amy Small I'm thirty nine and I'm Jay P in Lothian in Scotland a gorgeous part of the world in the Scottish lowlands and before the pandemic Dr smalls life was a when I think back it was busy and chaotic and getting up at six thirty every morning and out house by seventh day and yet as a family, we were very active and very busy but it work back in February and March. I'm in colleagues were on high alert the sense of impending doom that we felt on those first few weeks moore seeing reports of huge numbers of people dying in. Italy. In just thinking gosh you know. Is that coming away at it was just really really scary I'm Dr Natalie Mcdermott I'm an academic clinical electra at King's College London and she specializes in Pediatric Infectious Diseases Dr McDermott is no stranger to deadly infections Ebola cholera now coronavirus she's been on the front line of the Mall I was working in Liberia in in the capital Monrovia in July twenty fourteen as as cases of started spread very rapidly our more queseda flowing because we had so many dead bodies but we didn't have sevices coming to pick them up so the burial teams weren't Well. They were trying their best, but they were limited as well at during that time two of my colleagues one of whom was on medical director for treatment facility they became infected with. I saw a space about thirty percent of my patients that died in those first few weeks. I was in Liberia that he percent of them were health coworkers what Natalie witnessed firsthand was hellish but going is her as a doctor she went on to do a PhD, investigating the genetics of asa sipped ability to a bowl avars disease. And when Covid nineteen heat I was working in Pediatric Infectious Diseases at Great Ormond Street Hospital. When we started to see a surge of cases of what we now who multi-system inflammatory syndrome children previously healthy children started falling very ill they come in generally unwell but looking okay and then within a few hours sometimes but maybe you set me within twenty four hours. Many of them would suddenly drop their blood pressure and they and become very touchy. It said it heart rate would become very fast at that stage it was thought children were only mildly affected by. Covid nineteen and on the whole, it seems they are but the Natalie and colleagues found all lot of them did test positive in terms of the throat swaps full cave nineteen they tested positive for antibodies to cave in nineteen either actually at the beginning of that onus or at some point Jerry net illness doctrine failing on consulting genetic pathologists to Saint Mark's hospital in Harrow in London and Sinn. Vincent's Hospital in Dublin Ireland in filing is a practicing doctor and later in the genetics of bail and related cancers collaborating with colleagues around the world including here in Australia. At the beginning of the pandemic back in March whiles looked pretty safe or think. To identify, cases in Wales. H. One about forty kilometers outside of me. So eastern West. So you get the impression whereas almost none of it about. So the odds of you catching, it must be next to nothing.
The iPhones 12
"Mike, yes Lauren Mike, are you going to upgrade your iphone? Well have an iphone. But it has five gene. Yeah, who cares? Let's see if we can answer that on this week's show. Hi Everyone. Welcome to gadget lab. I'm lauren good. I'm a senior writer at wired and I'm joined remotely by my Co host wired senior editor Michael Cholerae. He who does not have an iphone hello from Pixel land. And we're also joined by wired senior associate editor. Julian Chicago to who has like seventeen different phones on him right now. Hey Julie in below my desk has like six phones on right now so. So today we are talking about yet another apple event this week apple announced a new iphone twelve, actually four of them and a tiny smart speaker, and these are the first iphones with five G. which matters doesn't matter doesn't matter yet. We're GONNA talk about five G. later on in the show what you need to know about it the challenges and rolling it out across the US and whether you'll even be able to connect to five G. With the new IPHONE are calling. We'll night is going to join us later on for that but first, let's talk about the phones themselves. Jillian. Phone has championed edges. Let's get that out of the way. That's probably the most important thing here, right? Okay. But obviously, there's more than that what stood out to you most about the new iphones twelve as someone who takes a lot of photos and tests the cameras on phones a lot. A. Lot of their camera upgrades. We're the most exciting thing for me and and I really like how a lot of those camera upgrades are kind of for the most part. All across the entire lineup from the 699 iphone twelve mini, you're getting the same main camera that they improve the aperture on as the iphone twelve pro. But for the most part that iphone twelve pro, you get these new features like pro raw, which gives you the ability to edit. Raw photos and also get the benefits of apples, computational photography, and that is just someone something that's really exciting for someone who takes a lot of raw photos with my camera just gives you more granular control over photo editing and also the other thing is they're bringing night mode to every single lens that's on this phone. So finally, you can take a Selfie, at night and not have to worry about it being too terrible, looking or grainy. So overall I think the entire suite of camera features on the entire range is pretty exciting and pretty dramatically better than what you had last year on the iphone eleven. And tell us about some of the video improvements to yes. For the improvements, they added the ability to shoot HDR with Dolby Vision, which is you know apparently the only phone that can do this and basically lets you get this program cinematic looking effector or look. You could say with all of your videos at ten bits of it's like super high quality. It just looks really good. With the option to edit the colors and have really good cinematic looking video as well with the iphone twelve pro you there have this improved stabilization system that moves the sensor itself. So basically, in fact, you're getting something that feels and looks much more high quality than ever before, and again, this is somewhere where apple leads compared to every other phone manufacturer except maybe Samsung is pretty close. No one else does the ability to shoot video quality this well, and it's just every year. It just seems to be getting further and further away from other companies even like you. Google. Pixel phones that take really great photos Mike what did you make the event? You know my favorite thing that I saw this week was the mini, the small phone small phones in general are exciting to me. Our colleague Brian Barrett wrote this week that the arrival of the iphone twelve mini is a harbinger of good for the small phone community I think you know fabulous when they came out what was it like eight years ago or so we started seeing these gigantic phones and then. People really liked them and they started them in huge numbers. So phones just kept getting bigger and bigger and bigger. We've all been waiting for phones to get small again, phones have gotten smaller, but they haven't really gotten small enough, and now this year I think phones are starting to get just about small enough to satisfy the people who are looking for small phone I was out last week two weeks ago at A. Socially distanced event and I saw a guy with a Sony experience x to compact, which is like a really tiny. It's even smaller than the iphone mini android phone and I asked him about it. I went over to him six feet away and I said, Hey, what is that and he started going on and on about it and the way that he was talking about it was so passionate and I realize that. Like okay. You know what? There is a huge market. People are really really passionate about smartphones and people are GonNa flip when they see the mini I think coming until November So I, think for people who really want it. They're going to have to resist clicking that buy button for a couple of weeks
Where's Everyone Moving To?
"Murray Pitino from Bloomberg City lab so much joining us. You recently wrote an article kind of looking at a bunch of the the moving data because we've. We've definitely been hearing a lot of things about this great migration and all these people moving from covert and you kind of. Took a dive into this question. Exactly, we've seen a lot of anecdotal evidence about a so-called urban exotic. So we thought that it'd be interesting to try to do a summary of the interesting data points. We could get our hands on. Yeah. Where did you look at this data because I really into data at the indicator I don't know it just. It's it's a really good point. So. We do get a fair amount of research coming from moving companies real estate aggregate, or is like Zillow and We did find a quite more nuanced story. What did you find I? Mean I feel like the the story has been at least the anecdotal story has been like people are fleeing cities they're moving to the country and sort of settling down like there's this excess and so what did you find when you actually looked at actual data? What story did tell? Yeah. So we found that over all it seems like people actually during the during the stay at home order is between March and June. People moved away less than they usually do, and that's what the the moving data told us. But overall, we also saw really interesting regional nuances. We have seen a lot of people moving out of especially Manhattan. But also a lot of people moving in San Francisco and we're going it's kind of a story about civil thing. But what we've seen is that a fair amount of people who move out of San Francisco in New York City tend to go to actually also pretty big cities like Los, Angeles Chicago Atlanta also Seattle, and so it seems like people are moving from the what Los Angeles is a bigger city I don't know 'cause I. Yeah. The it was like not the story that. I expected because I, was like Oh they're moving from the biggest cities to smaller cities. Blessed Angeles isn't a smaller city I think in Los Angeles people can have a little more space. It seems like people are maybe not necessarily leaving urban places but going to urban places where they can maybe have more space or something like that. Yeah. That is definitely interesting and We have data from a real estate consultant and the that in Manhattan whom sales had dropped by fifty six percents year-over-year. But in suburban counties around the city the had increased by actually forty four percent. Your of a year the other thing that I really loved in your article was that you took a look at history. which I thought was such a fascinating perspective. You kind of look back in time a little bit at past. Pandemics and sort of big issues in in big cities in the US would you find? While a thing we did see out in previous pandemic mentioned the Spanish flu but also the cholera cities have always been historically resilient. And have managed to kind of recover from all the hardship that has happened because you looked at I think in London back in eighteen, forty nine, they had ten thousand people die of cholera within a few months and then a huge fire destroyed a lot of the city. But right after that, the city's role as sort of the world's leading financial center at that time. Actually grew. So few experts we've talked to. Kind of expect the same thing to happen with the the current pandemic even though pretty big shift that has happened in maybe was there before is the whole working from home. Movement that is happening Sarah. It kind of depends how what the norms regarding this. Turn up to to be you know like people return to the office or will people who can stay working from home right? So this time might be a little different because we are establishing a protocol now where. We don't need to necessarily be at work. So we all still might be working jobs that are technically based in New, York or San Francisco but we could be living elsewhere yet and I think another important thing is that a there was an overall trend of population in dense urban city centers growing less fast than than people in suburban areas. So this is this is a trend that we that was already happened. Basically, it may have been accelerated. So you're based out of London from what I understand is that right? Exactly. Yeah. What's happening in London are people leaving London is at the same thing as New Yorker people saying like London is over. Notice definitely a good question. I. I. Live in London and Rents has dropped quite a lot recently is your rent dropped. It has actually buy a lot or just like a little bit or a by a fair amount because I feel like people are people tend to. At least from what? I see a b. kind of leaving the. The center. So yeah, I. Guess we'll have to see.
Sudan declares state of emergency over deadly floods
"Sudan has declared a three month state of emergency after unusually heavy seasonal rains that have led to flooding and loss of life and left tens of thousands of people homeless. Tenaga Chip Coto is deputy director of the UN's humanitarian agency Gauche in the Sudanese capital Khartoum. They're flooding has affected over half a million people and then houses that have been totally partially damaged or collapse was over 100,000. So you can you can tell this quite big is affecting the whole country. But it hasn't to say this is the flood period for her, too, But they say it has been way above the norm. So that's why I'm having this impact currently, and it's the flooding caused by hours of torrential rain or or the flooding of the river Nile. It's both. It's both. So if you look at the western parts of the country that's been affected is more your your flash flooding and you get rain's coming incident but also upstream and when the action for blue now is utopia so intimate, so Pia impacting us quite a lot. AM River Banks being briefed, for instance, the Luminal midst the wet now, which is in factual, that area is overflowing and affecting a large area in hunting itself. And those people who have lost their homes, both local residents, and of course, I would imagine lots of refugees and internally displaced people who've lost their shelter. What provisions is being made for them. So before the rains is mentioned, we have joined season so every year we prepared beforehand we preposition our stocks in strategic areas. So areas where you have your displaced people. As you know, Sudan is about more troubling people at this place because ofthe conflict we have drifted. Jesus. Well, bumping one million refugees in Sudan is well and also in certain areas where we know that flood in the regular basis. So the stocks have them The only challenge you having these days that the rains have been way more. Then we expected so as a result, this talk that we had preposition now running law. We all scores a second. And imagine the health system mistress as well. When you have your reins, people need your your medical medical support, but also looking at issues around your your cholera. When there's rain get cholera. You also have your malaria. Making sure people get water to drink is also a big issue in some areas that are flooded. Schools have been flooded and Children to go back to school. So there are a lot of things that are going on most people who are affected along the river. Now they're seeking shelter with strangers, relatives and then is only the ones that do not money to go to friend's urges, or we're friends relate to that as well. Those are the ones that have been sheltered, using tense or you know the concrete buildings. Is there? Um, any silver lining to this particular dark cloud all the rains welcoming away after a period all the drought. The rain's always always bring in good myself. Agriculture. And also for animals. It means that I wasn't able to have grazing land. But right now we don't know what's more. Is it away the stage where it has caused a lot of damage for the compliments because there are some crops that underwater so The impact is yet to assist. As you can imagine. The focus right now is to measure that lives are saved. But that said, I think this is all happened in a country where the economy is that performing too well. It's been in decline for quite a while. We have coffee like any other country. There's competition in the cases of over there around 13,000 cases and slept over 800. Kids were also having a not breaking polio, so a lot of things that are going on and this is adding a layer off neat. We have not seen the end of the rings, so we expect more flooding for the next two or three weeks. Soldiers stop point is really required.
Wi-Fi Hot Spots, 100 GB Data To Help Low Income Students In Colorado With Remote Learning
"Today, governor Polish announced a partnership with T Mobile to provide 34,000 students from low income households in Colorado free WiFi hot spots and 100 gigabytes of data per year for free. No matter where you live in rural Colorado insurance school district anywhere in our state, we need to make sure that that access peace at home Is there and in place of study, the spring found 65,000 cholera. All students didn't have access access to to the the Internet. Internet.
TikTok sues Trump administration over ban
"Is waging a legal fight against the Trump administration's efforts to ban the popular Chinese own service over national security concerns. The Trump administration also denying that Mark Zuckerberg used a private meeting to bend the president's ear against Tic Tac, which of course, is owned by China's bite dancer. Might dance, insisting it's not a national security threat and that the government is acting without evidence or due process at China Hawk and trade advisor to President Trump Peter Navarro. What the president is doing is not really about Tic tac. It's about Tic tac, and we chat and all of these other Chinese software companies that are able to collect data on American citizens, ship it over the Chinese servers and then shared with the Communist Party and the People's Liberation Army. So I you know, I I'm always amazed how some of these stories Pop up, but that one for me has zero credibility because I know that he had nothing to do with anything that happened here in the White House. Can you give us some cholera on where the tic tac negotiation stand? We understand. By the way, the Tic Tac is going to be filing a lawsuit today against the U. S government, But I really want to understand whether you think it's a Microsoft or an Oracle or whether you think there's any other real bidders out there and how quickly this can come together. Given the timeline that the administration has put on this, I'm not and I'm not really deeply involved in the actual of sale negotiations. I can't say that I was, I think encouraging to have Oracle step in. I think I expressed some concerns. Previously with you guys on CNBC about Microsoft and its ties. To Communist China or Cole is one of the toughest smartest companies on the planet. And they've been absolutely meticulous about making sure that the Chinese Communist Party has zero influence over them, but But let's see, as president loves to say, Let's see how it pans out. But the bigger issue here really is protecting its candlelight. The joke I made about that Which is too serious. You know, It's like 8 30 in the morning. Uh do the mothers and fathers of America know where the kids are to the Chinese Communist Party? No, no. That's a problem. Navarro, making those comments to CNBC President Trump issuing an executive order in August that imposed a sweeping but unspecified ban on any transaction with by dance.
Belarus Opposition, In Exile, Appeals To U.S. Not To Recognize Contested Election
"Of Belarus is Democratic Opposition to President Alexander Lukashenko has been Svetlana Tohno scare a political novice running in the place of her imprisoned husband. She drew huge, enthusiastic crowds as she campaigned around the country. After Lukashenko claimed have 1 80% of the vote Sunday, She accused him of massive vote rigging and suddenly went missing. She reappeared in neighboring Lithuania, leaving a cryptic emotional video message was nature. Yeah, to say the companion, you know, she said, I thought this campaign and make me tough enough to withstand anything. But I've had to make a very difficult decision. Svetlana can not speak at this particular moment. Sins. Her husband is kept in prison, and probably they told before that he would not to survive the prison in case Svetlana would start to speak. Openly against this regimen would start to call people to the streets. That's hilarious Step cholera when, if taken Oscar's political allies, he too, is an exile. NPR reached him by Skype while he was in a taxi in neighboring Ukraine. Szukala on T entrepreneur and former Bella, Russian ambassador to the U. S. Was one of the main presidential contenders against Lukashenko. But like Tino Oscar's husband, Sergei, Color was denied registration is a candidate. He fled Belarus was his two Children amid pressure from authorities. His wife, Veronica, stayed behind to work on his campaign but has now also left Belarus. We expect that we will be united. They're very soon in one or two days, this political campaign brought duster different country sent to different places, and finally, we will be able to be together Psychologist now trying to get support from the European Union and the US The leaders of China and many former Soviet Republics were quick to recognise Lukashenko's reelection, including Russian President Vladimir Putin. We are very upset. We are very disappointed on the fact that Putin congratulated. You know Lukashenko with the results off the presidential campaign, we should be to be completely false. Candidates of collar was seen as a favorite with his diplomatic and business experience. Video on our website chasing Carla and his wife meeting voters during an opposition protest in downtown Minsk. The summer, Lukashenko figured that by barring Tikal and others from the election, you could afford to let one Oscar run and humiliate the opposition. Yeah. General soon. Practice can show you the one. I swear, I hardly think about, Schenkel said in a TV interview before the election calluses after his violent crackdown on the opposition this week. Lukashenko has blood on his hands. We would like the U. S. Government support Belarus people. And recognize Svetlana as the only legitimate leader in the Republic of Miller's planet taken Oscar's from's toehold, New free and Fair elections if she takes office. Valerie. It's of color has not given up his ambition to become the president of a Democratic Belarus. Lucien
Why Is HBO Max Still Not on Roku or Amazon Fire TV?
"One of the major problems with HBO. Max's launch isn't necessarily the content although we talked about why that may also be a problem area. It's that most of the country can't get it because Warner has not been able to work out carriage agreements with Roku or Amazon their fire products like fire stick. So if YOU WATCH TV Either of those places which are many many millions of people, Roku is just really flexing its muscle ought recently, you cannot watch HBO Maximus. Things. And in fact, they were so petty that when they sunset at HBO, they just deleted it like, yeah you could get hbo on your fire stick or even other gone and I delete peacock is the same situation but the deals just have not been worked out and so. You yes. You could make the counterargument that. The fact that people can't see it is just temporarily delaying the fact that people might not want to see what they can see wants to get it but short term, this is a major issue. Yes. So explain this to me like essentially the only people who can get it are those who have access to what Apple TV. You can watch it on your browser correct lake you can. Write. But if you're using primarily a fire sticker, a Roku to watch watch all your APPs, you just can't get HBO Max. It's not available through stores. Yes and I think that the line Amazon is drawing his interesting I don't have any opinions not nearly informed enough as to its legality or it's Best. Practices goods or tape or whatever. But it seems like HBO wants a little at Button to just be there whereas Amazon wants to put it inside of its channels choice. So basically, you're it's silo further away You could argue that that's because they want people to watch their prime video content instead but anyway, all of this is is ongoing in and. Jason Cholera who is now in charge Warner media made this big centerpieces conversations with the press after the firings the other day like they have to get it in front of people peacock is facing the same situation to and it reminds me once again that for as. Industry focuses we are, and like I watch TV through an apple TV and you might as well. This idea that we were pushing for a while that may be apple just kind of wanted to be the portal they wanted to be the thing that you used to watch your TV. Maybe. That's still the case but a lot more people watch TV through other devices. Than, they watch it through Apple TV in that's having a major effect
Mass starvation predicted due to economic effects of pandemic
"While the Global Cova, death toll tonight tops, hundred, fifty, thousand, what's coming could be far worse. The World Food Program and three other UN agencies predict mass starvation because of covid disastrous economic impact. The UN agencies say the hundred, forty, million people around the world on the brink of starvation. Now could rise to a staggering two, hundred, seventy, million this year. If we don't get a social safety net program out there immediately in providing food, you will see mass starvation famines of Biblical proportions David Beasley the director of the world. Food Program says children are the hardest hit with. Ten, thousand more dying every month in many countries, no school means no food leaving kids with weakened immune systems, which is to be vulnerable not just a covert malaria diptheria cholera and the crisis will spread beyond the developing. The UN, warns as hungry people move to survive. Do you think Kobe will lead to a new wave of mass migration coming toward the United? States there's no question in my mind you will see migration heading toward the US border the World Food Program is urgently calling for four point nine billion dollars to stop covert related hunger and
'What You Focus On Grows' - with Russell Leak
"I'm dedicated to helping others release tension and stress to create space for natural creativity. Uncovering the true essence finding. They're in a guy the teacher inside his. Got Your back at your own. Best friend really. You can check out my free resources. On the FACEBOOK GROUP. Cheer up your week and online elemental courses and weekly zooms on a cholera. Apollo DOT COM. So teatime is all about time to relax. Take a big breath out. Settle in an open to receiving the gift of communing with your energy right here right. Now we have inspiring conversations soundtracks of healing frequency. Music like this beautiful vagabond track by BEFFA dopson leaks ter- and indeed the leaks ter- in today at the towards the end of the show talking to us about his collaboration with barefoot doctor barefoot doctor is being with me throughout all of my Chico training talking about the message of the Taoist philosophy of nature and that we really know this. We understand this deep within ourselves and to me looking at the air element also brings in the awareness of the space around us as well as what we're breathing in what we're receiving an how the air moves as we breathe and speak and how the. Sans we create reverberate into the the around us. Creating ripples of sonic wave particles and and this is then received by other people's is. I remember seeker. That multi instrumentalist Didgeridoo player and Florida. That was saying that. It's so great to not just have ear buds for your whole body to receive the vibration of sound that your bones need this reverberation as well as your ears in your mind to receive the sonic frequency. So I love that. I mean the something to be said for like the binomial beats that really do need to be listened to in your in your ear bud to be able to play with either side of your brain but back into the air because the moment you know the elements got a bit bad pressed with pictures of people wearing masks being worried about catching you know. Droplets of virus and things which is understandable but when now beginning to uncover conflicting evidence and it does feel to me that we don't know what to believe and so we need to because across reference. Not just look at the mainstream media. That's coming in but also look what's going on. On the periphery you know. We are so blessed to have streams and streams of information coming in. But how do we know what the truth is? Well we coming back into this way of building truth and trust within ourselves so that we know what feels right so we know how it feels to feel safe in our bodies we can do and this is where the she really helps me. It's helped me Radi get won't my relationship is with the earth and last weekend. I ran off to the new forest. It's where I'm from in the UK. Here I had to convene with the trees. I had to go lean against the grandmother tree and feel her wisdom. Uis into my back and really get how she is always supported by that deep deep tap root and all the other routes around there but she's constantly plugged into the resource of the earth. A my goodness that shows the strength of her trunk on the Plethora of delightful greenery that she bequeaths love that synergy that exchange of air that we have with the trees the it was honestly you can get it. Lean against a tree. I know talk about tree hugging. But what about tree leaning this phrase leaning in well how about we lean into the trees and we lean in let ourselves feel held by the Earth beneath us. The Earth is always there and we send our roots down. We get a feeling of what that's like to really sense. The support as a as a child of the earth. The support of the earth is always there for us so that we can feel safe in our bodies and this sort of San something that barefoot talk about. When he spoke about his earliest recollection of what just the cosmic cosmic arm that it reverberated up through him. And we've got an example of this coming up later in the show when Russell League charts to us about his collaboration with barefoot doctor on his what you focus on grows album but this alm sense is feeling of a reverberation of the earth coming up through an into us to me. We can absorb the sense that coming into our bones that we feel the frequency the earth being received into a so that we can settle in we can feel nurtured and taken care of and can feel east and safety and our bodies because if we feel safer now bodies we're going to be able to trust ourselves more so we can land in the stillness at the center and it's this sort of stuff that we explore in my she going sessions online on the Thursday night on zoom. So I'd love to invite you over there or come over to also to the Chia your week facebook page. And we're looking at some other ways of interacting off that platform was world. But I'll I will keep you posted
"cholera" Discussed on Ideas
"<Music> <Music> a <Music> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Music> <Speech_Music_Female> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> final takeaway. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Dear Leader. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Is that once <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> again. Diseases <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> changing <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> the course of history <Speech_Female> <SpeakerChange> power <Speech_Female> to those <Music> can adapt. <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> Thank you very much <Speech_Male> for your insights. <SpeakerChange> Really <Speech_Music_Male> appreciate it. <Speech_Female> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> Take care of yourself <Speech_Music_Male> <Advertisement> up YouTube <Music> <Advertisement> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> <SpeakerChange> <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> sir. Richard Evans <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> prolific <Speech_Female> author historian <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> of Modern Europe <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> and distinguished <Speech_Female> fellow of the <Speech_Female> Munk School at the University <Speech_Female> of Toronto <Speech_Female> and provost <Speech_Female> of Gresham <Speech_Female> College London. <Speech_Female> An academic institution <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> providing <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> free public lectures <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> since fifteen <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> ninety-seven <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> this episode <Speech_Female> included excerpts <Speech_Female> of a series <Speech_Female> of six. Gresham <Speech_Female> College. Lectures <Speech_Female> delivered by Sir <Speech_Female> Richard Evans <Speech_Female> titled <Speech_Female> The Great Plagues <Speech_Female> Epidemics <Speech_Female> in history from <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> the Middle Ages. To the <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> present day. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Please visit our <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> website. Cbc <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> DOT CA slash <Speech_Music_Female> ideas <Speech_Music_Female> for link to those lectures <Speech_Music_Female> and <Speech_Female> for information <Speech_Music_Female> about Sir Richard Evans <Speech_Female> Book titled <Speech_Music_Female> <Advertisement> Death In <Speech_Music_Female> Hamburg Society <Speech_Female> and politics <Speech_Female> in Colorado Years <Speech_Female> <Speech_Female> Special. Thanks to <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Sir Richard Evans. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Gresham college <Speech_Female> an Lucia graves <Speech_Female> for facilitating <Speech_Female> access to the lectures. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> <Speech_Female> If you'd like to share <Speech_Female> anything with us about <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> this episode <Speech_Female> or any other <Speech_Female> you can reach us <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> on facebook and twitter <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> or our <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> website again <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> that CBC dot <Speech_Female> ca slash ideas. <Speech_Female> Please <Speech_Female> take a moment to review <Speech_Female> our podcast on <Speech_Female> itunes. Or <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> wherever you get <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> your podcast. <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> Technical <Speech_Female> Production Danielle <Speech_Female> Vile and Austin <Speech_Female> Pomeroy <Speech_Female> web producer. <Speech_Female> Is Lisa I you <Speech_Female> so our <Speech_Female> senior producer <Speech_Female> is Nikola. Look <Speech_Female> the executive <Speech_Female> producer <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> of IDEAS IS <Speech_Female> <Advertisement> GREG. Kelly <Speech_Music_Female> and I'm Nola Iot <Music>
"cholera" Discussed on Ideas
"We're GONNA check in now with norm. Hi Norm I'm pretty good. You top-drawer today top today okay. What was first off. I would like to all my fellow Canadians. I'm sorry for all your loss. Is there so you're going to get away word a bit although shuttle it's GonNa get better out there. I'd also like to say that our our governments are actually doing a great job I mean Ole Doug Ford very kind of pissed me off at the beginning of with all the cuts. He's doing but he's actually going pretty good job same with our federal government. I mean we're having some good leadership now. You don't hear that kind of emotional reverence for governments too often but these are exceptional times around. The world polls showed government popularity at all time highs just like George Bush's for example after the September eleventh attacks. Historically wh what impact do you think pandemics have on on the legitimacy of government that had to basically oversee and survive the deaths of thousands and thousands of? It's very difficult to generalize. It depends what kind of system of government you have. Who's in power all kinds of other cool reasons? At the moment I think was saying tendency. The societies have to gather round the government and supported in times of deep crisis. So whatever the problems of the handling of the virus epidemic. Donald Trump and Boris Johnson. Not really lost in support nationally. Even if people think they're not handling it very well they think this is not actually the time to Attack the government one. It's it's it's responsible for all our lives the longer term. It's more difficult to generalize and of course it depends on other factors for example. Who's going to replace the government neither Democrats in the US North Labor Party in the UK at the moment look poised to provide an affective alternative? So it's the same. Many other factors are involved. It's very difficult to say. Well as a massive epidemic and government has angela very well and so the government will be got rid of the next election so it isn't straightforward. But it did cause some significant political upheaval in nineteenth century Hamburg. It's remarkable in eighteen. Ninety two that ordinary people in Hamburg raised no junctions to the measures taken by at least forty thousand. People fled the city. Reports of mass drunkenness. The church is a crowded with unusually large numbers of people praying for deliverance. But the working classes in the city as a big industrial and trading city overwhelmingly supported and Social Democratic Party Marxist party which is Progressive Progressive Political Movement believed in modern medical science and cooperated fully with the authorities in combating the epidemic Kach had particularly high prestige of course because of the publicity given to discoveries by the national and international press the political effects of the epidemic were found not in protests against medical intervention. But in the Social Democrats used to the disaster to pillory the State Administration for serving the interests of a rich minority merchants and neglecting the health and safety of ordinary people in the eighteen ninety three national elections. All of the Reichstag seats in the city fell to the Social Democrats. They made such gains in local elections. In Ninety six. The ruling Senate changed the voting qualifications to make the chances of social democatic. Take cover more remote. The wasn't Hamburg very complicated. Elaborate electoral system which ensured thoughts the propertied classes. The well-off had more voting power than the working masses that ensured intern the dominance of the mercantile interest in rolling cities affairs and sort of Democrats pushed successfully for a broadening out of voting rights. So there's a greater working class representation because they said the epidemic half because nobody paid any attention in the Senate. He's much attention to the causes. Epidemic angle the needs of the ordinary people But Histories Nova straightforward. Doesn't move in a straight line so thought reform let in too many Social Democrats into the city's parliament and the result was that the reform was rolled back in about ten years after that so It it it has a big effect. On the city's government. Major one was introduction of a paint professional civil service on Prussian lines The end of amateurism in the city government and became much more efficient more effective. But it didn't in the end become much more democratic..
"cholera" Discussed on Ideas
"And you're listening to ideas on. Cbc Radio One in Canada on Sirius Xm in North America on our end in Australia and around the world at CBC DOT CA slash ideas. You could also hear ideas on the CBC. Listen Up. And wherever you get your podcasts. I I'm Keith. Macarthur unlocking bryson's brain is a podcast about my son. The rare disease that keeps him from walking or talking. He bryson's perfect. His life is really hard and our families. Search for a cure. Oh My Gosh. Maybe science is ready for this. It's part memoir part medical mystery. We can do just about anything modifying DNA heart in my throughout his controversial unlocking. Bryson's brain subscribe wherever you get your podcasts bleeding in the time of covert nineteen is to lead. WanNa viruses calling the shots time when leaders own health is at its mercy first of all in my own case on getting better and I've done my seven days violation. Still have one of the students of the minded symptom of temperature upon my doctor's recommendation. I will remain in self-isolation for fourteen days. What does it take to lead effectively at a time when parliaments are shuttered and millions are out of work? I'm in conversation with Sir. Richard Provost of Gresham College London and author of death in Hamburg Society and politics in the cholera years. The Hamburg outbreak was a unique moment in history. The only major city effected that year in all of Western Europe when the merchant elite ran it as a city state within the German Empire. Their belief in outdated explanations of disease transmission allowed Colorado to run rampant killing nearly ten thousand of about six hundred thousand residents within six weeks until Berlin sent. Its leading physician. Microbiologist and Nobel Prize winner. Robert Call. It was an early lesson in the power of science to get popular bion to government measures which is crucial to navigating health crisis. We start with an extra from Richard Evans. Gresham college lecture on caller fighting nine t cox views had conquered the imperial health office in Berlin reflecting the turn of the German government from eighteen. Seventy nine onwards to greater invention intervention economy and society violin. Put in place plans for quarantine. Disinfection should the disease breakout anywhere in Germany but the powers of central government over the Federated States in the new German and Bob Limited Berlin could not force Hamburg to acceptance views at the height of the outbreak. Around a thousand cases. Were being reported each day but when Berlin dispatched physician and scientist Robert Cock to staunch the rampant outbreak. The fact was immediate and the people got on board what happened in the end with the color outbreak in Hamburg in terms of how the government handled it. Berlin got involved yes Robert Cock had huge prestigious. Discover of course a number of major diseases and he was put in charge of the Imperial Health Office. And the government's the author authorities simply sent him in with a hit squad to how to take over fighting epidemic because people medical authorities in the Senate approved capable of doing it. He set up all kinds of schemes free distribution of clean water Squads going around people's houses and apartments disinfecting whether it been cholera victims. Taking away of victims to the colour of barracks building actually special hospital tents a field hospital from the PRUSSIAN army cold in He really organized the whole fight against it was 'cause basically rather too late because nearly all the victims had been infected already through the Minnesota water supply but he managed to get it a lot of control and then of course pushed for a number of major reforms. It wasn't just the filtration of drinking water which happened the following year. Three but also a lot of other measures were were undertaken which I think the municipal government would not have considered without the epidemic so Lost Social Welfare measures example Housing reform. Housing Inspectorate Hygienic Institute. In health. Inspectorate was setup. Will College of things. At what point in history do we start to see a sort of a clear way for governments and the power as you as you say to conduct themselves during a pandemic kind of like today's playbook Corentin shutting down borders halting travel limiting freedom of movement? You've got to be certain I gotta be right. Indeed about how disease spreads before you can introduce effective measures to combat it and this doctrine of Asthma Chisholm. Which I've talked about is actually a way of preventing that it's not going to be very effective if you fumigate the air Because it's got to me as Mnuchin you need to break it up some house. It's quite common. In cholera epidemics early cholera epidemics and earlier wants to to ring the bells for example. So the noise somehow would break up to the MEAZZA You know Visconti's film death in Venice which has bogue. Auden it playing Bach and it's held in the sex in the middle of a cholera epidemic in In Venice and as Ashley birks stagger around the town you conceive fires everywhere being lit with smoke from aromatic herbs. Going up the fumigation of the air charter purify the air was not really very effective. A toll What is effective? As Robert Coke discovered is Oscillation Victims. Disinfection killing the bacillus ensuring clean water supplies so day. Minnesota policy in Hamburg distributed free water from tank. Free pure water from tankers parked in the main squares in one thousand nine hundred two once. It was instructed to do so by calling on his team. You've got to be certain about how cold batch epidemic and how to stop it spreading before you can actually do anything effective. It's very interesting that today the tens to be in this country in the UK and many other countries a demand from the public for tougher measures for more isolationist for more social distancing for the government to more spend more An historically that's fairly fairly new. I would say what do you think is going to be the main legacy of pandemic where governments are concerned. One very interesting thing. That has happened. Is this government has gone for listening to the medical experts. It's not only doned is actually had press conferences where the chief medical of England Kris which has been present and other medical offices of been that you've scientists. I think that recognizing the the Gypsy of scientific expertise has been something that is. I think really important and I certainly hope it will last not so long ago. You had government ministers in this country saying the public had enough of experts with names like CD. Cbi and another organizations. I don't think you could possibly side now. I think the view that experts are kind of self interested has and maybe don't understand water issues. I think that the US being completely discredited.
"cholera" Discussed on Ideas
"Epidemic the takeaway here denied. Eliza is costly and its most dangerous when it comes from the top..
"cholera" Discussed on Ideas
"The takeaway. Denial is futile infectious disease. Inevitably has a way of making its presence known and there is a second closely linked lesson. There's denial and then there's just plain old disregard for established scientific fact we only have eleven cases and they're all getting almost everybody that we see is getting better now. The Democrats are politicizing the parole virus and this is their new hoax in Hamburg. It meant that despite growing evidence otherwise the authorities held onto the belief that Colorado's spread through my asthma or bad air. It was a better fit for their obsession with the health of the economy but their failure to act was catastrophic for the health of their pupil. Sir Richard Evans Reaches into the nearer passed for an even Starker Cautionary Tale on denial ISM in the republic begun to the population in this one is about HIV and AIDS in South Africa. Where under apartheid even healthcare was political at this point. The White Minority Afrikaner government practicing the system of racial separation apotex still in power. On the African National Congress the outlawed on is ation representing the majority of the population condemned AIDS as the product of a plan by the white supremacist. South African government to reduce the number of the black majority population in very obvious parallel to the suspicions articulated in nineteenth century colourants in various parts of Europe especially the lack of any effective treatment at the time and the widespread publicity given to a small number of medical scientists to deny the connection between HIV AIDS. Allowed these suspicions hot into a political decision by the hand see to reject the first effective therapy A. Z. T. Made available not ninety eight as an expensive confidence trick by drunk companies and agents of Western neo-colonialists match once Nelson Mandela was replaced by Talbot Mbeki as president and leader the icy the Ansi governments identification with AIDS autism. Became complete with the health. Minister Advocating these garlic beetroot and lemon juice treatment and encouraging a wide variety of. Oh tentative therapies. Mbeki claimed that is e. T is a poison that caused deformities and babies and he refused to allow distribution. He called together instead. A scientific advisory panel on AIDS consisting almost exclusively of hardline analysts. Including some who actually find. Act CAUSED AIDS for Mbeki on his deported. Audience as was spread by sexual contact was an expression of western. Stereotypes about Africans Humanity but his dismissal of Western medical signs as he called. It was not backed by many of the answers. Supporters Try powerful trade union movement in South Africa and it was widely ridiculed in the press particularly after the south. African delegates. Attempted to justify the government's position to World AIDS Conference Mckee stance with not just ideological. I think by this time had a great deal to do with his reluctance to lose prestige by admitting he'd been wrong. So there's wars that age spread on chapters of Africa until in two thousand seven the number South Africans with AIDS rich an estimated five million seven hundred thousand twelve percent of the population the largest number of any country in the world with the next five highest incidences of HIV AIDS all being in countries in South Africa as well more than three hundred thousand people were dying of AIDS each year in the mid to late two thousand while in Kwazulu Natal Province Rachel infection of women who attended antenatal clinics was forty percent massive pressure by the international medical community. Did Succeed in persuading the cabinet to transfer responsibility for the issue from Becky to the deputy president's while the health ministers through illness put unknown Delilah Deputy in charge resulting the new plan to take effective action proportion of South Africans with advanced HIV AIDS who received antiretroviral treatment increased from four percent in two thousand and four to twenty eight percent four years later yet. When the health minister returned her. Deputy was sacked. The plan was put into reverse had was only with the defeat of Mbeki in two thousand eight election on the replacement of his health minister. That the government's position began to check so once more particular political circumstances work in determining reactions to a major.
How Infectious Disease Shaped American Bathroom Design
"The next time you go to take a trip to the loo look around because Elizabeth. Yuko bioethicist journalist. Wants you to know that. A lot of the things in our bathrooms are designed the way they are in part because of infectious disease the sink the toilet the bathtub. The toothbrush holder didn't expect that one towel racks the floor. I have white tile floor and White House in the wall so pretty much. You're telling me like almost all of the above. Yes Elizabeth wrote about this story for city lap to Bricusse cholera. The flu as our understanding of these diseases evolved how they spread the role hygiene plays and preventing them. So did the American bathroom and when we realized that built architecture and design could have some sort of influence on our health that became something that people wanted to adopt within their own homes today on the show. We present a brief toilet timeline and talk about how the current pandemic could bring about a new wave of bathroom. Related Innovation Now I think I'm going to be thinking about the bathrooms a lot more than usual. You're welcome we're talking with Elizabeth. Yuko about how infectious disease influenced the American bathroom. So let's start in the mid to late. Eighteen hundreds when Elizabeth says we started seeing the first sanitation and sewer networks in urban centers around the country. This made indoor plumbing possible so if you were wealthy there might be a small sink in the corner of your bedroom but it did take folks awhile to come around to the indoor toilet the toilets at this point. We're still outdoors even though while your families could put them in the house. There was this idea that sewer gases asthma's were coming up through the toilet and could make you sick so they were still using chamber pots in the House. And then having an outhouse to go outside so These chamber pots. If a you know wanting to spruce place up a bit had a wooden box that went over it and they were pretty looking sometimes. Intricately carved wooden boxes to stop. Hide the fact that it's a pot that you go to the bathroom and in your home. I wasn't sure you were going to send a theater so I'm going out together. It was a journey. So yes once that became a fixture then when bathrooms themselves sorted springing up and bathtubs became the norm and indoor plumbing became more prominent the fixtures. The bathroom work typically covered in would not the insides but the exterior parts of the toilet. The bathtub sink anything to make them look like real furniture and not part of a bathroom. Because at this point we still don't want we don't think about what we do in the bathroom and you know anything could make it look than that was was seen as a good idea in that changed right like in the Early Twentieth Century Nineteen early nineteen hundreds Kinda shifted away from would. Why was that so would was dark and porous and at this point we realized that germ theory was a thing and do that. These little crevices could house dirt and germs and dust and so the idea was to make everything as clean as possible and as easy to clean as possible so would really was not a great option. Especially this like intricately carved Victorian patterned would that they had all over their bathrooms and then also Taurean bathrooms. You had heavy drapery around the windows wallpaper. Sometimes rugs carpeting so it was a very kind of ornate plush kind of fuzzy set up in these Victorian bathrooms and that will change. Thank God essentially medical folks were able to convince people that indoor toilets connected to a public sewer system were better at stopping the spread of infectious disease. Also around this time. Elizabeth says there was a quote sanitation craze. Which meant goodbye. Would Hello Enamel. So a lot of brands would use sanitation as kind of marketing technique. Like we're the most sanitary restaurant or something like that. So this was something that was catching on and colour pre you probably know from toilets and bathtubs they pay your type of enamel that went over cast iron for bathtubs which then became our became used in the rest of the bathroom as well and that was marketed. As being sanitary hygienic right in in like someone around that time there was like a huge amount of curriculum in these communities and tuberculosis actually played a role in our bathroom design. Right yes because in the time before antibiotics rest sunlight and fresh air were the best known cures treatments for circular and when people got sick they if they had the opportunity went to a to Burkina Sanatorium to cure and these were purpose built. Buildings really had a big windows. Make sure there's enough and elation and sunlight air everything inside was white and easily cleaned and this idea of having the sterile white healing environment caught on for sin hospitals but then also when people's homes. Yeah so what about influenza? How did that shape things in in bathrooms back then so after the in one thousand nine hundred eighteen flu epidemic which also coincided with high levels of October Kilo says? There is an idea of having a second bathroom on the ground floor of your home. And this is in wealthier homes where you had an indoor bathroom little onto and yet here was that because we're getting daily deliveries things like ice and coal. You had this delivery person who was traipsing around your neighborhood. Going into all of your neighbor's homes picking up. Who knows what type of diseases and then coming into your home. So this person to wash their hands or use the restroom. While they're in your home they could do so right on the ground floor without having to go up the stairs and use the family's personal bathroom and spread germs up there which is so brilliant. I mean it's like it makes so much intuitive sense to me and I guess I never really thought about like the powder room being a bathroom for the stranger. I thought about it in like weird. I don't know what kind of Weird Puritan things are going on my mind but it was like away so you don't have use my bathroom in. I don't have to be embarrassed but it makes way more sense that it's like a bathroom that keeps people from coming all the way into your house. Yeah Brilliant Brilliant. Bathroom stuff okay. So can I just ask about one? Specific thing short is going on with like the fuzzy rugs and like the Fuzzy toilet seat covers. Why Elizabeth tell me why those exist. I wish I had better answers but once we got to a point where we understood germ theory. We had antibiotics. We're pretty confident. In our ability to cure ourselves of a lot of these illnesses. We got a little lazy when it came to decoration. Although lazy is not really the word. It's less focused on sanitation and hygiene and we had a vacuum cleaner and a washing machine. Just tossed that thing in the Washer and everything would be fine so we stopped thinking as much about how easy things to wipe or clean. And that's when stuff like. That came into bathrooms. So how do you think you know? It's it's it's hard to talk about this without thinking about the fact obviously that we are in the middle of a pandemic that might shape. You know or probably will shape us in a lot of different ways. Do you think bathrooms are going to change now after this virus outbreak? I don't know if they're gonNA change but one thing that I did write about was Lloyd alter one of the people interviewed from the Ryerson School of Interior Design He predicted that. We'll see a rise of vestibules and sink specifically end vestibules. So since they will you encounter as soon as you walk into. Someone's home so you could wash your hands right away And I think that absolutely makes sense. Yeah I I've started coming in my house through the back door because my kitchen sink is right there just to like wash my hands immediately when I come in the house if I leave. Yes we think that will be moving forward. That will be a focus and think any design is really going to be made with. What if we have to self isolate for months at a time again? We might have a day for example. Because you know that's not something that is common in America as it is in other parts of the world but now as people running at toilet paper. They're seeing that. It's actually a pretty great invention you know. I know that as journalists were not supposed to be political. But I'll just say I'm prob- A day and I just keep thinking about how much toilet paper I wouldn't need right now if I had one. Yeah I I'm pro day as well and And a user as well so it's yes I'm a fan and I'm glad that I mean I wish it didn't go pandemic for us to realize this is a useful thing but I'm I'm glad we're there. Yeah so you wrote about how overtime humans kind of went back and forth between responding to you know like trauma that comes along with massive infectious disease by trying to make ourselves feel a little bit more comfortable or by implementing design features that make our homes and bodies easier to clean. And I just think it's going to be kind of interesting. You know what combination of those things happen with corona virus. Have you thought about that? Yes I think? A lot of people probably have even if they haven't realized it because the past few weeks we've been spending almost all of time in our own homes staring at the walls of our house or apartment in ways that we probably never had before. And so whether we're in the bathroom washing our hands for twenty second intervals or for sitting in the kitchen or living room looking at how we've decorated moving forward. Republicans take this pandemic and this time you've spent at home into consideration when making design choices right and I think there's going to be like kind of a renewed focus about even just like thinking of those spaces because you know I didn't think about the fact that I needed to come in and wash my hands as soon as I came from the outside until this and so now I know this seems silly but like I enter my house differently now. It's not silly. It's I mean. We have to adapt changes because of public health situations all the time and this is just another example of that okay. Elizabeth honestly thank you so much for this piece so so interesting. Thank you so much. Glad someone else's enthusiastic about bathrooms. Also I mean yes I mean seriously though. I will not think of a bathroom the same way when I enter it now. And that's on you. I'm touched
"cholera" Discussed on KCBS All News
"Trends of the time most recently with the cholera epidemic we are looking at a time even before we had central way systems or any sort of meaningful waste removal impart the cholera outbreaks were caused by this sort of you know rotting waste material sitting on the streets and so when a lot of our American cities at the mid to late nineteenth century started to install the sanitary systems that completely reshaped our street you know are the streets in many cities but it's such an imperative go became straighter they became wider so we could install of the street those pipes underground the pavement became more smooth so we could you wash the streets down and then you know as we progress from the caller to the flu pandemics personal sanitation became a lot more important and so this is when we really see an increase and indoor bathrooms people talking about the importance of bathing and washing their hands inside which is you know quite relevant to what we're going through today what do you think we're going to see going forward in terms of urban planning and how spaces are going to be designed well I think of it you know ironically we haven't really spot of we've sort of taken sanitation for granted I sent those early epidemics and so I think you know Sir the most immediate changes are going to see is probably an increase in thinking about touchless technologies in buildings such as how we access public transportation how we use elevators you know even in our own home in the long term I think the big question right now is because so many people have shifted to working at home and are maybe seeing the you will be seeing him by media arise and and telecommuting and in the long term I think as more people start to realize that you know certain tests to be done at home and commuting becomes less of a concern that's probably what's going to reshape our built environment the most in the future are there any existing styles in any crowded cities that do cater to social distancing I mean the only one I could think about the top of my head was Salt Lake City which has immensely wide streets and its downtown area but that's also a product of its population density which isn't like a services co Chicago LA New York type scene yeah well it's interesting I mean you have the case you know right there in the bay area in Oakland where the city has shut down I think it's like seventy four miles of streets just to give people more space and I mean this is really how urban planning and urban layouts change over time if you have a temporary measure that becomes a more prominent in the coming years and so we may see wider streets I think the other big thing is people are seeing the importance of park and public spaces and thinking about distributing them more throughout cities and making them larger so people can keep that social distancing when walking and going outside is probably one of the only allowed activities that we have right now Serik car she's a professor of landscape human health urban ecology and.
The Medical World Of The Flu Epidemic of 1918
"We start though we should talk a little bit about what the world of medicine and what public health were like in nineteen eighteen. So in many parts of the world nations hadn't really standardized or regulated what was required for persons who call themselves a doctor so people practice medicine with all kinds of different credentials or with no credentials and patent medicines. Which really didn't have any medical value and were mostly alcohol and laudanum. Most of the time. We're still pretty prevalent. There was a lot of stuff floating around that was just not legitimate for treating anything and at this point. Alexander Fleming had not yet discovered penicillin. That was still a decade away in its use as a drug was even further out than land so penicillin wouldn't have helped the flu since influenza is a virus and penicillin kills bacteria but it might have helped some of the people who wound up with bacterial pneumonia after contracting the flu. And this is more just to sort of point out a milestone of where we were in medicine when this flu epidemic was happening. Yep So in spite of some of these things that we think of as basics today like requiring people to be trained to call themselves doctors and antibiotics and things like that things had really advanced a lot in the world of medicine over the past century before the epidemic started most parts of the industrialized world at this point had understood and accepted the germ theory of disease. So at this point pretty much everyone was on the same page in most places that germs cause disease and doctors had also figured out exactly which germs caused a number of diseases including Turkey losses. Malaria and cholera the idea of a reportable disease or one. So dangerous that all cases of it needed to be reported to government authorities also existed but even though there had been another serious flu epidemic a couple of decades before influenza wasn't really reportable in most places until this particular epidemic had gotten dyer and at that point it was too late for warning the government to do really any good. Yeah what they already knew. There was a big problem by the time people were able to start saying. Hey there is a big problem. Vaccines also existed. There was a vaccine for smallpox. There is a vaccine for rabies vaccines. Were also in the works and people really thought as the as the epidemic going a vaccine for the flu was just around the corner as we talked about in the encephalitis lethargic episode. Though figuring out how to make a vaccine for a disease when you don't know what's causing the disease is really hard and not only. The doctors not know what was causing the flu. They also had it pinned on a completely different germ. They thought it had a totally different. 'cause than it really did. Have so at the start of the epidemic the purported culprit for the flu was a bacterium that had been named Pfeiffer SPEC syllabus after its discoverer who was a German scientist named Robert Friedrich Pfeiffer and he made the connection between his back Sylla's and the flu but he hadn't really proved this connection and as the epidemic wore on it became abundantly clear that pfeiffer was wrong the back Sylla's he discovered was not present insect patient's and deliberately exposing people to it didn't give them the flu so even though an international team was dedicated to trying to create a vaccine none of their work proved effective and it I They were after the wrong germ and then they didn't have a good starting point. So all of this together combines to mean that when the flu turn really deadly in nineteen eighteen. There was not much that legitimate doctors could do for their patients besides to keep them in bed and keep them as sped hydrated and comfortable as possible the most most of the things that have any efficacy at all where about prevention which basically involved keeping the sick people quarantined and trying to educate people about how to keep themselves from being exposed and doctors knew that the flu has spread by coughing and sneezing so they gave the common sense advice about covering your nose and mouth and staying away from people who were coughing and sneezing. Oh and also telling people not to spit on the ground. So don't spit on the ground. Please you know their debates over whether that's a civil way to behave in general but Sick people don't know spitting it's gross and spreads illness so they're also a lot of public health campaigns that we're trying to get people who were sick to stay at home which probably sounds kind of familiar to win. There's a big flu outbreak today. They especially. We're trying to educate people who were sick to get them to stay away from crowds and businesses. Got It on the deal to try and to warn people who were ill to go home so assigned at one theater in Chicago. Red Influenza frequently complicated with pneumonia is prevalent at this time throughout America. This theater is cooperating with the Department of Health. You must do the same if you have a cold and are coughing and sneezing. Do not enter this theater and then in all capital letters go home and go to bed until you are well. That seems wise. Not all of the advice on prevention with sound though many people in public health recommended that people wear masks and some places even required that mask be worn by law. But this was in fact not effective. Your masks are kind of effective when there's bacteria involved but when it's a virus the viruses are just too
"cholera" Discussed on Talking Politics
"Far More important than it is now but you get the riots An accusations of the government will medical men are trying to dispose of the the unwanted I think they're not. They're not the poorest class society who are rioting above that nevertheless I mean this idea of government is conspiracy theory of governments trying to dispose of people who they don't that one. I think you could see a certain amount of parallel there. You talked about the impact in Hamburg. It was effectively transformational in the extent. To which it drove far greater intervention and control and investment on the part of the local authorities. So we're now living through an epidemic which in order to be controlled and we do have examples of states have successfully controlled it. South Korea Taiwan. We're seeing it in Israel letting people spend enough about that and of course famously in China and it is using forms of Social Control. That draw new technology tracing and tracking. And so on from what you've said I sent thirty two ways. You can tell the nineteenth century story the earlier version where you you got quite significant changes but they tended to fool away after the epidemic was dealt with waiting for the next damage to kick back in and then towards the end of the century something more like structural change where actually the effect epidemic was to change the way in which local and then national governments went about that business. If you look at the current one which which do you have any sense? Which way would going? I mean is it likely to be closer to the end of the nineteenth century that we're actually going to emerge into the societies where we just have to accept radically more invasive forms of surveillance and control. I think the pressure and in most countries if you've bracket out China of the pressure for greater state control is going to it's going to fade away seemingly got over this this epidemic Then I think they'll be in huge demand to return to more democratic forms. Seen this in the debates over the government's current measures which the political world is very insistent. Should have a sunset clauses. I cool it so only valid for six months and then you can see what's happening net installed to dismantle them But what I will say. Is that one author. Main reasons for really serious. Epidemics is a breakdown of state completely. You can see in Haiti in the in the early twenty tens. You've got a very poor society with a barely functioning state hit by Hurricane. Hit by earthquake hit by cholera. And thus the most recent example of a massive color epidemic including a riots and attacks on Nepalese United Nations troops had been brought in to trial establish some kind of order where ordinary people blamed them for bringing the color quite correctly as it turned out. The Steiner Colored Haiti was the same strain as as it was in the poll And also blame them for being too much in cahoots with the was of the Haiti government. So it's a breakdown of a state you can see that everywhere were a major epidemic really occurs on get Selva plenty of other examples of disorganization of a Peruvian state bit a bit earlier with Shining Path. Kabila's example driving refugees down. Today the seashore where lived in Burien sanitary conditions was civil strife. All of that kind of thing encourages disease because the State Kante imposed preventive measures in Con- actually than deal with the retiring. What happens another major difference? I think now however is medicine is much better at developing ways of limiting epidemics and ways of curing preventing disease. Saw Century is quite good at discovering. Why diseases happened but wasn't very good. At actually curing them or developing any kind of prophylactic so this of a medical kind confidently expecting a vaccine within months within a year. Maybe it took decades to find a preventative measures of a medical kind. That would stop Diseases very very common diseases locked. For example lie. My uncle died of tuberculosis And and that's now not a a major threat where the state can get. Get Vaccines to people. Lost One comes out what you just said so. We're absolutely not seeing the kind of disease in that. For the kind of reaction to that disease enrich medical professionals are the target of popular anger quite the reverse. The the medical profession will say than just everyone who works in cash. They are the heroes of this story and yet we haven't heard about the United States particularly but in some of the rhetoric coming out of the trump administration some of the things that you're hearing governors and other politicians in the south say I would notice again. Faint echoes of the Nineteenth Century. Color stories that don't trump has recently said. If you left up to doctors they would shut down everything and the economy would die on many more. People by implication would die that if you put these decisions in the hands of medical professionals the twenty first century version of the argument is they have such different risk profile than the ones that politicians have to use that you you run risks the other way now. We haven't had any we see any of that in the UK at but it's noticeable in the United States some of those nineteenth century arguments about the the doctors versus the traders. Does that ring any Bellevue? What do you think it's a my stretching again? That's right I mean I think in Donald trump is up for reelection. In a month's time Hayes banked everything on the bang a booming economy this is going to wreak havoc with the economy. And so he's at the moment so I think trying to decide whether it's in his interest and he always thinks of himself US afraid to dismantle precautions taken to limit the spread of the virus on run rampant across the country. And if you want me to come out with a conspiracy theory David. It's because the corona virus is mainly hitting the big cities which all Democratic voters at not hitting the countryside nearly as much the midwest that's where trump supporters are yup. That's what I say. Although as I think you said to me in the past. And where's the conspiracy house explanation of politics in the White House? That's what I've seen anyway. We will tweet links at people on the school to Richard's writing on this subject his classic book about the Cholera Epidemic in Hamburg and also an article in which he tells the story of cholera through the nineteenth century. We have got another extra episode coming up with Tara West Dover. We're going to be replaying our interview with her about her book educated and she's going to be telling us how she feels now about kids not going to school. My Name is David Johnson. And we've been talking policies..
"cholera" Discussed on Important, Not Important
"Still trying to figure out how we can use that to our advantage is that we start off with the stage product and really start building up the space manufacturing distribution of actual community and ecosystem where is can be distributed like antibiotics so that if we have a stable stage, tablet, a can be given over the counter on. So that's something we're trying to work out and figure out what is the best way to actually get into the hands of the people in a safe manner. Geopolitically the biggest problem areas right now. Wait a start. I s I the places where it'll be hard to cholera prevention places that have war though, I mentioned Yemen, but the Democratic Republic of Congo actually has just like a steady state of high cholera cases because of what's going on there. And when people are dying it's really hard to say like, no, you can't use anti -biotics. No you like, they don't it. Doesn't matter to them the global trend antibiotic resistance, right? So hard to stay to them. No. I know you have this medicine in your hand that you believe that is going to work, but I don't want to take it. Or I don't want the government to distribute it a terms of navigating the how do we tell ministries of health? For instance, we need to start looking for other alternatives. Are you need to start distributing this other alternatives that we think is going to be successful? But there's no test case for right now navigating that and getting people to adopt to that I think is going to be quite difficult, especially in the face of civil war refugee camps. There is so much need. Recognize your your. I mean, you guys are just you're so far from this. You're just coming out of animal trials right now, which is great. But, you know, existing things like the vaccine, and such or or just. Treatments. Facing looking countries like him in which are just destroyed in so many ways how do they break down their efforts as opposed to maybe just trying to help somewhere that's a little bit easier? I or what like how do they approach a situation like that? How how is that being handled? I been talking to a few people about this for the oral cholera vaccine the way that it's distributed. It's really dependent on people on the ground organizations working on the ground so staff any local organization that really know the area on the content. You have to kind on them and trust in your local partners to distribute and understand all of the complications. That would come with that in that setting. And I would say that. We're still figuring out like the goal health committee is still figuring out obviously since cholera is still around. And it's been around like these that's the what? Or something. And you know, the best case is really during a whole infrastructure overhaul. But a lot of the government's simply don't have the money. Like if you look at Haiti for instance, new n when they finally admitted O R bad. All right. The colorado. I mean, would I just did not get a couple of years ago now, but oh my God. Yeah. And also, it has gone the number of people I talked to about this years later, and they don't know anything about it. They. Recap that super-quick until everybody would like you said it not being as big issue here. I think a lot of people just have no idea. Yeah. So quake struck Haiti in two thousand ten devastated the whole area. And then that meant a lot of service people were coming in to help out, and that's great. But as part of it when the UN workers from Nepal K men, unfortunately there wasn't enough screening. There wasn't enough training as to how human waste should be handled while they're in the country and someone had cholera and it went into the water the water because of the flooding in the area it just spread throughout the country. So quickly. Right now, it's kind of bad. So the caller pedantic is slowing down in Haiti not because there's been really any changes to the infrastructure the prevention impart because so many people in Haiti have gotten cholera. And survive that their immune to it. So one of the factors in the app idem exploring down is that previous exposure. It's so interesting because it is an effect an island, and it's so curious what that's going to do to the the survival rate there, and now collar stuck there like in the water and unless sanitation infrastructure that gets put in place for it..
"cholera" Discussed on Important, Not Important
"On the one scenario that could think of in recent years, where the cholera vaccine has really been given proactively is when the Kinga refugees went into Bangladesh onto the cough is our and the the diarrheal center mentioned previously in Dhaka Bangladesh. They the people they are really. Where had a lot of foresight in that they went to the WHO asks for the number of doses to prevent cholera in the refugee population to prevent an cholera outbreak from starting there. So that I think is an outlier in terms of how were usually responding to humanitarian crises like these. So if you look at Yemen, there's been a million cases Colorado already analysist in the last year, or so, and that's far surpassed the number of cases that happened in Haiti in seven years eight years on the caller apathetic broke out. So. Even though the oral caller vaccine is out there. Still a lot of logistical issues of supply and demand issues that need to be addressed. And of course, we're thinking about those for our product as well, how do we go about bypassing them? Or what can we do? At the beginning stations were fortunate enough to learn from the lessons from before. How can we make our product more easily distributed and more stable? How can we really get it to the population that need it the most without running into all of these complications? What form does your treatment? Take sounds like those. Choose the destroyer. I'm sorry again. We're just trying to paint a picture is it a pill is shut is it a patch. And so the animal models. We did it as a liquid formulation on that is subject to a lot of stability issues. So there's a lot of countries that have caller that are hot humid climates, so the coaching. It's not particularly functional shinning in these countries. So ideally, where working right now, I'm making it into a tablet formulation. So we it doesn't have to be stored up for degree celsius. So that if it gets laughed somewhere outside for a week. It's still stable the family members can still take it on. But that's something. We're working on right now. Did you have a shelf life can people just buy it ahead of time and not have to worry about that window fit? You know, you get sick. You just open medicine cabinet take the treatment. And you're good. No clinic. Yeah. Ideally, some there's a couple of issues that so with the caller vaccine. Gene on the shelf life for that having it's on the nineteenth years on behalf to be at four degrees celsius and the WHO stockpiles two million doses per year, which is not a lot. So in order to even be a pod to be distributed in that type of infrastructure. We have to have a shelf life of two years at least f-. Yes. Would if you can get it to be the pill. I think we could go for much longer at a hot and humid, like forty degrees celsius type of weather, and what's interesting then with your question of whether you can buy it before then it comes into how're pharmaceuticals moved around in global health like in a lot of countries, the informa- healthcare system is what people turn to they don't go to the clinic they go to someone local or they go to someone who has a lot of medicines. That are are normally highly regulated in the US antibiotics happens to be one of those things that is kinda just given out sometimes without any soy prescription. It's for us..
"cholera" Discussed on Important, Not Important
"Bring it back to the hassle to everyone in that household is protected also during this. Risk window, disrupt. The household transmission? And hopefully, disrupt community transmission as well. So it's working to protect everyone mmediately. So I'm gonna I'm gonna try to pick some questions out from in. There turned imagine this scenario little bit. So let's say Brian teddy, and I share a house small room. Like we are right now. Brian gets it. Well, maybe you got it. Let's go back. What is my first? Let's start again. Let's we try to go back to like outta make peanut butter jelly here. What is the what's Brian's first symptom? Heath Lena start by Ryan. No, it's fine. I'm used to it with cholera. What happens is that? Basically that that curium releases a toxin intestine all of the body's water is going to start flooding into the small intestine and come out how okay. So that's when my window. That's when my clock starts ticking. So how long is my window where your your your treatment is affected like how long do I have to go get that treatment before it doesn't count? Or is it just a decreasing level of effectiveness? Can you explain that a little bit partly two days? The studies have shown. Hey this price. It sounds days into. That's that's very white people troubles. In places where it's hard to get to healthcare clinics. We have two different model. Those people. But in the best case scenario where there is infrastructure for diarrheal diseases like in Bangladesh. For instance, there's this whole center on they really done a good job in trying to reduce number diarrheal disease deaths there he would go into the clinic with your with the person who's sick. And then ideally, we would give the product. So that during that today window that you came in you would be protected before experiencing the symptoms yourself. Interesting sort of backup good you say forty percent of people who get cholera getting get it. Get it from a family member or somebody close to them. That's the constantly. Yeah. It's a lot. It's on something that wasn't as recognized before. And even that forty percent. It's everyone in the global health field understands that surveillance is lacking data's lacking. Sure percent with a grain of salt, but it's still a huge percentage. And if we could really despite that transition, we could probably make a huge impact on the disease burden. Then how does it get transfer between people just in the air? Now, it's on. It's the oral fecal out. We'll be back here for reason. So unfortunately with Colorado because of the rapid nature of the disease. Your fluids are just gonna come rapidly your body. So there's a lot in that household that's being spied around. Unusually children are really affected by it. So if you ever try taking care of a child diarrhea, you know, it's not going to be sanitary, of course. So, unfortunately, that's how the family members are going to be exposed to it just by the sheer amount that's around. Okay. I just want to again, dial it back a little bit and build something eventually here. So there's no vaccine for cholera, right? The prevention is sanitation safe drinking water is that right? This box seen there's oil cholera vaccine that's been developed and actually is recommended by the deputy L, and that side of things has been interesting in terms that the way that style bed in case there will call her vaccine requires two doses in ministered by a health care worker and take the first dose and then a week later. You take the second dose, and they'll be clearer after that. That's when the early onset of protection really is. There are some studies that are trying to show that cassia just that single at the beginning and any case because back scenes depend on the immune system in order to not protection that protection not going to be fast enough within those two days where these family numbers, I really at risk. So that the niche that were trying to protect if best-case scenario. You have a family member. You get that seen the first on days here, you still have to wait. And by that time, it's too late. Is that is that vaccine that will vaccine out there that available or distributed? It is distributed. So interesting what was going on with a Maine's? Yeah. So I think in a lot of cases, we aren't proactive enough in global health. So..
"cholera" Discussed on Important, Not Important
"Is big range, of course, depending on on the pandemic upper thirty thousand to one hundred fifty thousand deaths year, we've had seven or so pandemics over the last two hundred years is that about right? My end the longest running one, the, oh, that's great news while I bought my notes, an mostly comes from as I understand it unsafe water and sometimes food like seafood far as I understand only humans are affected by it. And it seems like in a lot of things we talked about Brian rising sea levels and flooding should make it even more prevalent. Shocker shocker that. Everything is connected. Yup. We know it goes back as far as fifth century BC. Somebody founded written in sanskrit, which is great thing. We haven't fixed and as with everything else in about resistance is growing. Look, it's Bob way. Or I mean Yemen the disease is very very real very dangerous in a lot of places where sanitation is not up to snuff. So on that note, maybe is gonna tell us how she's gonna fix it. Like, so many diseases were were facing we've talked about especially 'Bacterial stuff. Our best methods are seemed to be starting to come apart at the same starting to fail as as one of our previous episodes. Dr got him dont taught us affectively bacteria has been around a hell of a lot longer than us. And it's a hell of a lot smarter than us and anything we've succeeded at seems to be the low hanging fruit that they've let us succeed at so Mimi talk to us again. Now, what exactly you're working on where it came from? And how this applies to the current situation show are so like you said cholera is transmitted through the water primarily it's in places that really don't have functioning water and sanitation infrastructure, but we're increasingly starting to recognize that forty percent of the cases are actually due to household transmission as while. So when someone in a house. Gets cholera, unfortunately because of the disease, it's spread everywhere. And the family members I immediately at risk. So basically there's this two day window after the first patient comes down with cholera that the family members actually start to experience color symptoms themselves, and what were specifically doing with our intervention in disrupting that transmission cycle. So what our pod act dies? It's faked base at eases pages that I specifically targeted towards the bacteria that causes cholera. And we want family members to take it when they're on the sick person comes down the caller symptoms. So that they can protect themselves with a net high risk window to take left one. I don't mean to interrupt there. So you're saying you the sick person takes or the family takes it preventative measure, the family takes a preventative matcher interesting. Yeah. So with any sort of diarrheal disease in Gola health, really the best solution is while rehydration salts math solution side, and regardless of what the ideology of that disease. Alas Willie is the way to go because it's cheap. It saves. A lot of lives, and you don't have to diagnose which bacterium caused it. And we're not using betas as a therapy for that reason. We don't think it's feasible acid therapy in this particular case, but at the intervention when family in the best case scenario when family members bringing their sick loved one into the clinic, it they came get our product and.
"cholera" Discussed on Important, Not Important
"Welcome to important. Not important mine. Aim is credit and I'm Brian Colbert. Kennedy and there's teddy Ted. Smashed face. You've been napping. Hey, today's topic. Brian outsmarting cholera. Yep. Yep. Here's the thing. Cholera still around. I thought it was dead and still really sucks, but there's hope on the treatment side at least. And what's that hopes name Brian that that hopes name is Dr minion? Yeah. That's right. Dr Yan is a CEO of her medical startup phase pro where she's developed viruses to target cholera bacteria because. And every. Our final losing battle. She's got a PHD molecular microbiology from Tufts University and she started her own lab because bang. That's how she rolls. Why wait around for stuff when you can do it yourself? This is another one of those really fun ones where I feel like we should develop a small segment in the in the middle of the podcast where we just say Brian. How would you develop virus today? That's what we should do literally. What is the first step? I have no idea by microscope microscope. Right. I think it's I it's don't be me be a whole different person. How many different choices different? Very smart. And she's like literally just getting started. Yeah. I love talking to these folks who are going to be going to be world changers. Yeah. Pretty pretty awesome stuff. Awesome. All right. Let's get into it. Let's do it. Soccer yen rock and roll. Our guest today's Mimi yen and together, we're going to talk about outsmarting cholera Mamie. Welcome. Yeah. Thank you. Then diets pleasure to be here. Well, you say that now given an hour. We're very happy to have you. Okay. So Mimi just tell us real bik who you are. And what you do share on. So right now, I am currently the CEO affairs pro and where Abatovic startup that uses stages or viruses that specifically target and killed bacteria and order to on alleviate the diseases in global health. So specifically looking at collar right now, very good. First question age, Brian too quick. Two stages. They have been known about nineteen twenties, and they end maybe. There viruses that just like we have an while viruses that go after our human saws bacteria also have irises specifically target and kill bacteria. Only college bacteria ages are Phages for short. And so they were discovered in the nineteen twenties and looked at for a long time for therapeutic applications, especially for anti microbial purposes. But then antibiotics came along in nineteen forties. The US and most of western Europe, really focus all of their time antibiotics because this natural bullet. Whereas eastern Europe. Interestingly enough because they're like we don't want to be like the west. We're going to not focus on the antibiotics and focus on developing these stages further so actually right now and the Republic of Georgia, but they have set up is like a center that you go in and if you have a bacterial infection, they have this whole library Phages that they screen to tailor the age their pay for your particular bacterial infection. So that's pretty cool. Wow. Brian's going to have a lot of questions. Get the answers to them though. The answer. That's why you're here. So poets. All right. So let's we'll get a conversation going here. We are big believers in questions that elicit action answers. So we're going to talk about a cholera, and how you're going to defeat it yourself, and what we can do to help you along the way that sounds. All. Right. Sounds great. All right. She was she just went along. Yeah. All right. Not so many. We have one important question. We like to start with if you actually did listen to some of the other episodes, you might know what it is. Instead of saying tell us your whole life story. I am curious. How you got where you are? We'd like to ask me, why are you vital to the survival of the species? I did hear this question. And our my God. I ask Brian every morning when he walks in. He's still not answering me. I will get it one day. I don't know about me. I do think that the stage research community as a whole can provide an alternative as we're searching for solutions to the rise of the antibiotic resistance around the world and the way that I got started with this is that when I was doing my college undergrad, also like all about global house, and engineering solutions, by related know, what action to take that on site decide to go to grad school, and.
"cholera" Discussed on You Are Not So Smart
"And many other things that we've tried a different points have had such secondary consequences while also having their primary consequence so for example we figured out that cholera was being spread by bad sanitation and we took actions to improve sanitation and indeed we ended the major cholera epidemic that had been plaguing europe and we kept working on sanitation and the entire or tally rate dropped and dropped and the disease rate dropped in dropped and then we had the polio epidemic because polio was made stronger by sanitation which is because we hadn't understood that some diseases work some ways and others work other ways and that polio would in fact become worse not better with sanitation because polio requires the child to be exposed to the virus while still nursing from the mother and if you're exposed while still nursing you share your mother's antibodies have become immune to polio but if you're not exposed that young if sanitation is too good so you're not exposed until player six then you get polio so before sanitation when we were all facing cholera everyone was immune to polio aura because we all got it is infants but when we created sanitation we solved cholera and the week caused the polio epidemic but then we studied polio and we figured out treatments and vaccines and now we're defeating polio too so did the push toward defeating cholera succeed yes didn't have a giant negative consequence yes are we also now solving that giant negative consequence yes because we continue to study and get better at these things over time so we're never or not for a very long time going to hit a point where there aren't secondary consequences that we can't anticipate but we're getting better and better over time at dealing with those secondary consequences anticipating though secondary consequences and the primary goals are still worth trying to achieve and we can achieve those.
"cholera" Discussed on This Podcast Will Kill You
"So can i tell you about the history then oh i cannot forking weights okay it's a good one good i mean they're all good will the at but this is a good one it's an it's up i think as we are both epidemiologists this is especially close to our heart mi rightly yeah because you can't really talk about the history of cholera without talking about the birth of epidemiology as a field day the struggle for german theory to prevail over my as mrs them which is okay this word is m i a s m a t ism i'm not saying my asthma just a half why not my ads might yet and uh also the role that modern sanitation practices have played and continue to play in reducing disease burdens yet definitely huge the let's start a little more simply than that let's start with what we know about the origins of the bacterium itself since cholera doesn't leave any physical mark on the body that would remain after death you can't really detected in skeletal remains the way that researchers have been able to with like leprosy and smallpox else we've mentioned i never thought about that yeah that is so interesting it's really cool to look at how you can trace the physical evidence yeah of certain bacteria because this means that we have to rely more on ancient texts and writings which may or may not refer to the same disease ray that we call caller today oh that's so interesting yeah makes the history of cholera a little murky oh do just like array letters water.
"cholera" Discussed on The FRONTLINE Dispatch
"The rains came washing through the garbage bacteria carried into the water supply people drinking bad water and they were hit by a cholera epidemic cholera simply dehydrates you quickly so that anything you ingest any water you drink or food you we just completely passes through your system and you get no nutrients out of it the hospital we visited they were already beyond capacity wonders that i was talking to talked about how she was coming to see one or for patients on her morning rounds the the beds were all full there was some tubing going down past the patients was seeing and she didn't know where it was gone she looked and she saw that under the bed was another patient a cholera case lying under the vet the world health organisation is saying that they expect more than seven hundred thousand cases of cholera in the twenty one hundred people have died most of those are children the nurses and doctors were suffering from a lack of medicines and equipment and they were there working in spite of the fact that they haven't been paid one nurse told me it was her duty to provide health care is a nurse if i wouldn't work then then they'll die olympic between i have difficult nobody when steam people often ask why the saudis are bombing young it's a question for the saudis they'll tell you that the who 'these are a proxy of their archrival iran.
"cholera" Discussed on KQED Radio
"The take away i todd's wellek let's go to yemen now where the civil war between the government and hutu rebels his killed at least five thousand civilians so far with thousands more dead from a massive cholera epidemic and almost twenty million people on the brink of famine takrit's turbah is former presidents have done doctors without borders in germany and he's currently on the organizations international board of directors doctors turbah has just returned from yemen where he spent a month working as an er doctor in hospitals and clinics around the country the situation is pretty bad in yemen today we see basically three big challenges one is the war and sort of on the lane is the cholera epidemic which is now close to eight hundred thousand people infected it's spreading all over the country and greece e of close warwounded more effective people and reseal its load of monitors children and and these combined to medical challenges of just too big to stem in a failing health structure where less than half of all the hospitals are still working you mentioned the triple problem war any injuries for more cholera and hunger famine which we've reported on here on the away though second to problems cholera and famine are they a result of the first yes they are of goes says yemen has been a pool country before the war broke out but what we see now is that the people are so poor they can't even afford lord to buy food to sometimes they are too poor to afford the transportation to the hospital views small example a family and the mother was severely seek with cholera and she came to the hospital and she was very very seeker sunken is the pods we conomos poll paid so we really had to put our own iv fluids immediately to save a life and then she was pregnant and the next day she had instead of crimes and the baby was born premature little ali was very small a and we had to ventilate him for more than half an hour and he wasn't a very unstable condition and he took a few days before we could unite mother and child again and that was a progressive family um the a father was very caring for the family but they just living in a.
"cholera" Discussed on PRI's The World
"And then you get into town and you see what looks like you know a very poor city but you see bustling you see people about you see markets open but you see a lot of garbage and it's the garbage that has been the problem causing the cholera epidemic this is interesting because i mean not getting a garbage collected that's a just a function of government kind of in collapse but this is connected to salaries not being paid and as you say you connect that of cholera outbreak just connect the dots force and does a science bear this out yes it absolutely does so you have garbage piling up on the streets and then you have the reins coming the rains wash through the garbage and you get a bacteria into the water supply or kids will play in and around the garbage and infect themselves by touching bacteria so it starts to spread and as long as people in the senate titian department are being paid the garbage doesn't get picked up and you have a spread of the epidemic and with hospitals damage to how are the people who have colorado who have gotten sick our they coping well it's a problem it's a problem mostly outside of the capital you see more hospitals that have been destroyed outside the capitol than you do in saana itself but we were in hospital and sonnen on one of our first days there and they were absolutely packed they were having to release patients before they were really healthy because they had to make room for those that were in worse condition.