35 Burst results for "Charles Darwin"

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

02:51 min | 2 weeks ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Chapter five part. Two of the voyage of the beagle. This is a libra. Vox recording. I'll libra vox. Recordings are in the public domain recording by roger. Turn ou- the voyage of the beagle by charles. Darwin chapter five part to buy up lanka during my stay at by blanca. While waiting for the beagle the place was in a constant state of excitement. From rumors of wars and victories between the troops of russia's and the wild indians one day and account came that a small party forming one of the posters on the line to whereas iras had been found all murdered the next day. Three hundred men arrived from the colorado under the command of commandant. Onda a large portion of these men were indians sauce or tame belonging to the tribe of the cacique brunen tio. They passed the night here and it was impossible to conceive anything more wild and savage than the scene of their bivouac. Some drank till they were intoxicated. Others swallowed the steaming blood of the cattle slaughtered for their suppers. And then being sick from drunkenness. They cast it up again and were besmeared. With filth and gore nam symbol expertise. Dabbous vigneault quick sepulveda's service inflexible puzzle. It jesuit quaid per antrim immense sanam. Eric don's a krista crew enta- per some mixture merrill. In the morning they started for the scene of the murder with orders to follow the rostro or track even if it led them to chile. We subsequently heard that the wild indians had escaped into the great pompous and from some caused the track had been missed. One glance at the rostro tells these people a whole history. Supposing they examine the track of thousand horses that will soon guessed the number of mounted ones by seeing. How many have cantered by the depth of the other impressions whether any horses were loaded with cargoes by the irregularity of the footsteps. How far tired by the manner in which the food has been cooked whether the pursued traveled in haste by the general appearance how long it has been since they passed. They consider a rostro of ten days or fortnight. Quite recent enough to be hunted out. We also heard that miranda struck from the west end of the sierra fontana in a direct line to the island of chile shell situated seventy lease up the rio negro. This is a distance of between two and three hundred miles through a country completely. Unknown.

jesuit quaid per antrim immens Eric don blanca iras Darwin wild indians lanka roger charles sepulveda russia colorado gore merrill chile sierra fontana miranda rio negro
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

03:41 min | Last month

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Belonging to a distinct group and thus have caused its extermination if many allied forms developed from the successful intruder. Many will have to yield their places in. It will generally be the allied forms which will suffer from some inherited inferiority in common but whether it be species belonging to the same or two distinct class which have yielded their places to other modified improve species. A few of the sufferers may often be preserved for a long time from being fitted to some peculiar line of life or from inhabiting some distant in isolated station where they will have escaped severe competition for instance some species of tra- goania a great genus of shells in the secondary formations survive in the australian sees. And if you members of the great and almost extinct group of gannett fishes still inhabit our freshwater's therefore the other extinction of a group is generally as we have seen a slower process than its production with respect to the apparently sudden extermination of whole families or orders as of trillo bites at the close of the paleozoic period and of ammonites at the close of the secondary period we must remember what has been said already on the probable wide intervals of time between consecutive formations and in these intervals. There may have been much slow extermination. Moreover when by sudden immigration or by unusually rapid development many species of new group have taken possession of an area. Many of the older species will have been exterminated in a correspondingly rapid manner and the forms which does yield their places will commonly be allied for. They will partake same inferiority in common thus as it seems to me the manner in which single species and whole groups of species become extinct accords. Well with the theory of natural selection we need not marvel at extinction if we must marvel. Let it be at our presumption in imagining for a moment that we understand. The many complex contingencies on which the existence of each species depends if we forget for instance that each species tends to increase inordinately and that some check is always in action yet seldom perceived by us the whole economy of nature will be utterly obscured whenever we can precisely say why this species is more abundant in individuals than that. Why this species and not another can be naturalized in a given country then and not until then we may justly feel surprise why we cannot account for the extinction of any particular species or group of species recorded by denis sayers modesto california winter two thousand and six..

trillo gannett denis sayers modesto california
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

04:14 min | Last month

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Extermination from the greater amount of food before man inhabited india or africa. Some 'cause must have checked to continued increase of the existing elephant a highly capable judge. Dr falconer believes that it is chiefly insects which from incessantly harassing in weakening. The elephant in india checked it's increase and this was bruce's conclusion with respect to the african elephant in amazonia it is certain that insects and bloodsucking bets determined. The existence of the larger naturalized quadrupeds in several parts of south america. We see in many cases in the more recent tertiary formations that rarity precedes extinction. And we know that this has been the progress of events with those animals which have been exterminated either either locally or holy through man's agency. I may repeat what i published in eighteen. Forty five namely that to admit that species generally become rare before they become extinct to feel no surprise at the rarity of species and yet tomorrow greatly when the species ceases to exist is much the same as to admit that sickness in the individual is the forerunner of death to feel no surprise at sickness but when the sick man dies to wonder and to suspect that he died by some dida violence. The theory of natural selection is grounded on the belief that each new variety and ultimately each species is produced and maintained by having some advantage over those with which it comes into competition and the consequent extinction of less favoured forms almost inevitably follows. It is the same with our domestic productions when a new and slightly improved variety has been raised it at first supplants the less less improve varieties in the same neighborhood when much improved it is transported far and near like our shorthorn cattle and takes the place of other breeds in other countries thus the appearance of new forms and the disappearance of old forms both those naturally and artificially produced are bound together in flourishing groups. The number of new specific forms which have been produced within a given time has said some periods probably been greater than the number of the old specific forms which have been exterminated but we know that species have not gone on indefinitely increasing at least during the later geological epochs so that looking to later times we may believe that the production of new forms has caused the extinction of about the same number of old forms. The competition will generally be most severe as formerly explained and illustrated examples between the forms. Which are most like each other in all respects hence the improved and modified descendants of species will generally cause the extermination of the parent species and if many new forms have been developed from any one species the nearest of that species. That is the species of the same. Genus will be the most liable to extermination. Thus is i believe. A number of new species descended from one species that is a new. Genus comes to supplant in old genus belonging to the same family. But it must often have happened that a new species belonging to someone group has seized on the place occupied by species.

Dr falconer india amazonia south america bruce africa
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

03:59 min | Last month

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Some cases however the extermination of whole groups as of emanates. Toward the close of the secondary period has been wonderfully sudden the extinction of species has been involved in the most gratuitous mystery some authors. Have even supposed that. As the individual has a definite length of life so have species indefinite duration. No one can have marveled. More than i have done at the extinction of species when i found in la plata the tooth of horse embedded with the remains of mastodon mega therion toxin done in other extinct munster's which all coexisted with still living shells at very late geological period. I was filled with astonishment for seeing that the horse since its introduction by the spaniards into south america has run wild over the whole country and has increased in numbers at an unparalleled rate. I asked myself what could so recently have. Exterminated the former horse under conditions of life apparently so favorable but my astonishment was groundless professor owen soon perceived that the tooth though so like that of the existing horse belonged to an extinct species. Had this horse been still living. But in some degree rare no naturalist would have felt delete. Surprise at. It's rarity for a rarity is the attribute of a vast number of species of all classes in all countries. If we ask ourselves why this or that species rare we answer that something is unfavorable in its conditions of life but what that something is we can hardly ever tell on. The supposition of the fossil horse still existing as a rare species. We might have felt certain from the analogy of all other mammals even of the slow breeding elephant and from the history of the naturalization of the domestic horse in south america that under more favorable conditions it would in a very few years have stopped the whole continent but we could not have told what the unfavorable conditions were which checked it's increase whether some one or several contingencies and at what period of horses life and in what degree they severally acted if two conditions had gone on however slowly becoming less and less favorable we assuredly would not have perceived the fact yet the fossil horse would certainly have become rarer and rarer and finally extinct. Its place being seized on by some more successful competitor. It is most difficult always to remember that the increase of every living creature is constantly being checked by unperceived hostile agencies and that these same unperceived agencies are amply sufficient to cause rarity and finally extinction. So little is the subject understood that i have heard surprise repeatedly expressed at such great munster's as the mastodon and the more ancient donna saurian having become extinct as if mere bodily strength gave victory in the battle of life mere size on the contrary would in some cases determine as has been remarked by owen.

la plata south america owen donna saurian
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

02:59 min | Last month

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"This is a libra vox. Recording ali provokes recordings are in the public domain the origin of the species by natural selection or the preservation of favored races in the struggle for life. Sixth london edition by charles. Darwin chapter eleven on the geological succession of organic beans on extinction. We have as yet only spoken. Incidentally of the disappearance of species of groups of species on the theory of natural selection the extinction of old forms into production of new and improved forms are intimately connected together. The old notion of all the inhabitants of the earth being swept away by catastrophes at successive periods is very generally given up even by those geologists as ellie de beaumont. Richardson baronne etc. Who's general views would naturally lead them to this conclusion. On the contrary we have every reason to believe from the study of the tertiary formations that species and groups of species gradually disappear one after another. I from one spot than from another. And finally from the world in some few cases however as by the breaking of an isthmus and the consequent eruption of a multitude of new inhabitants into an adjoining or by the final subsistence of an island. The process of extinction may have been rapid both single species and whole groups of species last for very unequal periods. Some groups says we have seen have endured from the earliest known dawn of life. To the present day some have disappeared before the close of the paleozoic period mill fits law seems to determine the length of time during which any single species or any single genus endures. There is reason to believe that the extinction of a whole group of species is generally a slower process than their production if their appearance and disappearance be represented as before by vertical line of varying thickness. The line is found to taper more gradually at its upper end which marks the progress of extermination then and it's lower end which marks the first appearance and the early increase in number of the species.

ellie de beaumont Richardson baronne ali Darwin charles london
Darwin Used Charm to Blunt Academic Attacks on Natural Selection

The Eric Metaxas Show

02:05 min | 2 months ago

Darwin Used Charm to Blunt Academic Attacks on Natural Selection

"Darwin we if you look at the sepia tinted photographs of darwin. You see him as a roberson victorian gentleman that you would have to watch appeasement jews with in reality. He seems to be a very sociable probable person. He seems to inspire an. I don't use this word like he. Did he inspired a lot of brotherly love from his surra surrounding. And i feel that they did not want to tread on his toes. By saying we think you'll theory of natural selection will not fly. They try to trim their responses to him because they love in a fraternal sense. And they want. They wanted to help him And this is surprising. I wish i could inspire so much lovers. Charles darwin it would. It would help me a lot socially and professionally my life but anyway he. He extorted extent he made people blunck's their attacks on him because he was such a job when fellow. I think so you think that I mean in the book. You say beware. You've been fooled. In other words that that darwin through his social graces and and through his the way he wrote He basically as i think you said dulled the criticisms and enable this theory which as far as you're concerned has no actual scientific backing enable it to go forward through the decades so that those opposed to stump theistic solution grabbed it and said we have to make this work even though it has problems. There's nothing better and then you say that. What does it matter whether there's any thing better. Either this works or

Darwin Roberson Blunck Charles Darwin
What Do You Know About the Galapagos Islands?

Ghost Town

01:49 min | 3 months ago

What Do You Know About the Galapagos Islands?

"Do you know about the galapagos islands. Probably that it's a remote island in the pacific ocean but it played a hand in the works of charles. Darwin the theory of evolution. But that's not all that makes the island unique it's the backdrop for one of the most bizarre murder mysteries which includes poly-amorous fake teeth. Giant tortoises and murder. Today we're gonna talk about the galapagos affair so the human history of the glucose islands doesn't begin with charles darwin really though his visit in eighteen. Thirty five definitely. Put the islands on the map will literally put it on the map. Us whalers and pirates were already. they're hunting giant galapagos tortoises. These tortoises were actually very humongous. Very slow think like thousands of pounds and could live for years in the hold of a ship providing fresh meat on long. Voyages flurry an island in the galapagos. Has the most human activity and it's the only island with a fresh water supply in eighteen twenty. All the giant tortoises were killed on the island. When crew members of the ill fading whaling vessel essex torched it for no apparent reason after the essex left a sperm whale sunk their ship. So there you go for months. The sailors drifted helplessly in lifeboats sunburn. Starving before turning to cannibalism to survive. They drew straws to see who became food for the rest and then they do another straw to decide who would kill that person of the twenty crew. Only eight survived. They were found off the coast of south america. Insane and knowing that human bones their story inspired herman melville's novel moby dick. You may have heard of it all this to say that there is a what is thought of as an island curse the curse of the giant tortoise a creature that back when they were still around could according to those who interacted with it. Read the dirty secrets of the minds of visitors to the

Galapagos Islands Pacific Ocean Charles Darwin Darwin Charles Essex United States Herman Melville Moby Dick South America
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

03:32 min | 3 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"The struggle for life by charles darwin unhistorical sketch of the progress of opinion on the origin of species previously to the publication of the first edition of this work. I will hear give a brief sketch. The progress of opinion on the origin of species until recently the great majority of naturalists believed that species where immutable productions and had been separately created. This view has been ugly maintained by many authors. Some few naturalists on the other hand not believed at species undergo modification and that the existing forms of life or the descendents by true generation of pre existing forms passing over allusions to the subject in the classical writers after remarking that rain does not fall in order to make the corn grow any more than it falls to spoil the farmers corn when thrashed out of doors applies the same argument to organization and add quote. So what hinders the different parts of the body. From having this merely accidental relation in nature as the teeth for example grow by necessity the front ones sharp adopted for dividing and the grinders flat and serviceable for masticate. The food since they were not made for the sake of this but it was the result of accident and in like manner as to other parts in which there appears to exist an adaptation to an end where so ever therefore all things together that is all the parts of one hall happened like as if they were made for the sake of something the were preserved having been appropriately constituted by an internal entity and whatsoever things were not close constituted parish and still parish and quote we see here the principle of natural selection shadowed for but how little aristotle fully comprehended the principle is shown by his remarks on the formation of the teeth the first author who in modern times has treated it in a scientific spirit was proof wrong but as his opinions fluctuated greatly at different periods and as he does not enter on the causes or means of transformation of species. I need not here and turn on details. Lamarque was the first man whose conclusions on the subject excited much attention. This justly celebrated naturalist. I publishes views in eighteen one. He much arched them in eighteen nine emit his philosophies low chic and subsequently eighteen fifteen in the introduction to his east story not you aren't down amuse all vertebral in these works he upholds the doctrine that all species including men are descended from other species. I did the eminent service of arousing attention to the probability of all change in the organic. That's why must have the inorganic world. Being the result of law and not of miraculous interposition..

charles darwin Lamarque
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

04:36 min | 8 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"By means of natural selection by charles darwin. This is a liberal. Vox recording i'll liberal. Vox recordings are in the public domain reader. Michael armenta slave making instinct. This remarkable instinct was first discovered in the formica pollyannas roof essence by pierre. Huber a better observer. Even venice celebrated father. This aunt his absolutely dependent on its slaves without their aid. The species. what's certainly become extinct in a single year. The mail santa fertile females do not work of any kind and the workers or sterile females though most energetic and courageous and capturing slaves do no other work. They are incapable of making their own nests feeding their own larva when the old nest is found inconvenient and they have to migrate it is the slaves which determine the migration and actually carry their masters in their jaws so utterly helpless are the masters. That's when hooper shut up thirty them without a slave but with plenty of the food which they like best with their larva and pupa to stimulate them to work. They did nothing. They could not even feed themselves and many perished of hunger. Hooper then introduced a single slave f- few ska and she instantly set to work fed and saved. The survivors made some cells intended to the locker and to put all to rights but can be more extraordinary than these well as certaines fats. If we at nas known of any other slave making hand it would have been hopeless to speculate how so wonderful and instinct could have been perfected another species for mike sanguinetti was likewise i discovered by p hooper to be a slave making and this species is found in the southern parts of england. And it's habits have been attended to by f smith of the british museum to whom i am much indebted for information on this and other subjects although fully trusting to the statements of uber at mr smith i tried to approach the subject in skeptical frame of mind as anyone may well be excused for doubting the existence of so extraordinary instinct as out of making slaves hence i will give the observations which i made in some little detail. I opened fourteen. Nests of f. sanguine unto found a few slaves all bailed and fertile females of the slave species f. Few scott are found only in their own proper communities and have never been observed in the nests of f. sanguinetti the slaves are black and not above half the size of their read masters. So that's the contrast in their appearance is great when the nesta's slightly disturbed the slaves occasionally come out and like their masters are much agitated and defend the nest when the nest is much disturbed and the larva pupa. The slaves work energetically together with their masters in carrying them away to a place of safety hence it has cleared that the slaves light at home. During the months of june and july on three successive years. I watched for many hours. Several nests and surrey and six and never saw a slave either leave or enter nest as during these months. The slaves are very few in number. I thought that they might behave differently. When more numerous but mr smith informs me that he has watched the nests at various hours during may june and august both in surrey and hampshire and has never seen the slaves though present in large numbers in august. Either leave or enter the nest. Hence he considers them s strictly household slaves the masters on the other hand maybe constantly seen bringing in materials for the nest and food of all kinds during the year eighteen sixty however in the month of july. I came across a community with.

charles darwin mike sanguinetti six Michael pierre august first Hooper uber hampshire may june thirty july Vox Huber three successive years fourteen june both f smith
"charles darwin" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime

Boring Books for Bedtime

04:50 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime

"The heart sees rose pillar go neom dahlia and other plants. When compared with the older varieties or with their parents stocks no one would ever expect to get a first rate heart disease or dahlia from the seed of a wild plant. No one would expect to raise a first rate melting pair from the seed of a wild pair though he might succeed from poor seedling. Growing wild if it had come from a garden stock the pair cultivated in classical times appears from please description to have been a fruit very inferior quality. I have seen great surprise. Expressed in horticultural works at the wonderful skill of gardeners in having produced such splendid results from such poor metals. But the art. I cannot doubt has been simple. And as far as the final result is concerned has been followed almost unconsciously. It has consisted in always cultivating best known variety sewing its seeds and when a slightly better variety has chance to appear selecting it and so on words but the gardeners of the classical period who cultivated the best pair. They could procure never thought what splendid fruit. We should eat though. We owe our excellent fruit in some small degree to. They're having naturally chosen and preserved the best varieties they could anywhere. Find a large amount of change. in our cultivated plants. The slowly and unconsciously accumulated explains as i believe the well known fact that in a vast number of cases we cannot recognize is and therefore do not know the wild parents stocks of the plans which have been longest cultivated in our flower and kitchen garden if it has taken centuries or thousands of years to improve or modify most of our plants up to their present standard of usefulness to man. We can understand how it is that neither australia. The cape of good hope nor any other region inhabited by quite uncivilized man has afforded us a single plant worth culture. It is not that these countries so rich in species do not buy strange chance possessed the aboriginal stocks of any useful plants but that the native plants have not been improved by continued selection up to a standard of perfection comparable with that given to the plants. In countries anciently civilized in regard to the domestic animals kept by uncivilized man. It should not be over loved that they almost always have to struggle for their own food. At least during certain seasons and in two countries very differently circumstance te individuals of the same species having slightly different constitutions or structure would succeed better in the one country than in the other and thus by a process of natural selection as will hereafter be more fully explained to sub breeds might be formed and with that tantalizing hint of science to come. I think we'll end this evening's reading from on the origin of species by means of natural selection by charles darwin if like most people. You've never read this work for yourself no judgment..

charles darwin two countries australia this evening first rate thousands of years centuries single plant one country
"charles darwin" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime

Boring Books for Bedtime

05:23 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Boring Books for Bedtime

"The common rock pigeon which has the same habits with the domestic breeds has not been exterminated even on several of the smaller british islets or on the shores of the mediterranean hence. The supposed extermination of so many species. Having similar habits with the rock pigeon seems to me a very rash assumption. Moreover the several above named domesticated breeds have been transported to all parts of the world and therefore some of them must have been carried back again into their native country but not one has ever become wild or farrel those the dovecote packaging. Which is the rock pigeon in. A ferry slightly altered state has become farrell in several places again. All recent experience shows that it is most difficult to get any wild animal to breathe freely under domestication yet on the hypothesis of the multiple origin of our pigeons. It must be assumed that at least seven or eight species were so thoroughly domesticated in ancient times by a half civilized man as to be quite prolific under confinement. An argument as it seems to me of great weight and applicable in several other cases. Is that the above specified breeds though agreeing generally in constitution habits voice coloring and in most parts of their structure with the wild rock pigeon yet are certainly highly abnormal in other parts of their structure. We may look in vain throughout the whole great family of columbus day for beak like that of the english carrier or that of the short faced. Tumbler or barb firm reversed feathers like those of the jacob. Been for a crop like that of the powder for tail feathers. Like those of the fantail hence it must be assumed not only that half civilized man succeeded in thoroughly domesticating several species but that he intentionally or by chance picked out extraordinarily abnormal species and further that these very species have since all become extinct or unknown. So many strange contingencies seemed to me improbable in the highest degree. Some facts in regard to the coloring of pigeons. Well deserved consideration. The rock pigeon is of a slate blue and has a white rump. The indian subspecies. Columba intermedia of strickland. Having to bluish the tail has a terminal dark bar with the basis of the outer feathers externally edged with white the wings have two black bars some semi domestic breeds and some apparently truly wild breeds have besides the two black bars the wings checkered with black. These several marks do not occur together in any other species of the whole family now in every one of the domestic breeds taking thoroughly. Well bred birds all the above marks even to the white edging of the outer tail feathers sometimes concur perfectly developed moreover went to birds belonging to two distinct breeds or crossed neither of which is blue or has any of the above specified marks..

eight species two distinct breeds two black bars mediterranean columbus day indian many species english at least seven one
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

02:48 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"How naturally in a race a little more advanced in culture the elements would become personified. The bad wild men were has always appeared to me. Most mysterious from what york said when we found the place like the form of a hair where a single man had slept the night before have thought that they were steve's who had been driven from their tribes but other obscure speeches made doubt this. i have sometimes imagined. The most probable explanation was that they were insane. The different tribes have no government. Chief yet each is surrounded by other hostile tribes speaking different dialects and separated from each other only by deserted border or neutral territory. The cause of their warfare appears to be the means of subsistence. Their country is a broken massive wild rocks lofty hills and useless forests and these are viewed through myths and endless storms. The habitable land is reduced to the stones on the beach in search of food. They are compelled unceasingly wander from spot to spot and so steep is the coast that they can only move about in their wretched canoes. They cannot know the feeling of having a home and still less that of domestic infection for the husband is to the wife a brutal master to a laborious slave was a more horrid deed ever perpetrated then that witnessed on the west coast by byron who saw a wretched mother pickup bleeding dying infant boy whom her husband had mercilessly dashed on the stones for dropping a basket of eggs. How little can the higher powers of the mind be brought into play. What is there for imagination. Picture for reason to compare or judgment to decide upon to knock olympic from the rock does not require even cutting that lowest power of the mind. Their skill in some respects may be compared to the instinct of animals for is not improved by experience the canoe their most ingenious work poor as it is has remained the same as we know from drake for the last two hundred and fifty years whilst beholding these savages. One asks when said they come. What could have tempted. and what. Change compelled to tribe of men to leave the fine regions of the north to travel down the cordillera or backbone of america to invent and build canoes. Which are not used by the tribes of chile peru and brazil and then to enter on one of the most inhospitable countries within the limits of the globe. Although such reflections must at first sees on the mind yet we may feel sure that they are partly rone's. There's no reason to believe that. The foyer gains decrease in number therefore we must suppose that they enjoy a sufficient share of happiness of whatever kind may be to render life worth having nature by making habit omnipotent and it's affects hereditary has fitted the foggin to the climate and the production of his miserable country..

brazil america each chile peru drake byron one single man two hundred and fifty years first
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

05:06 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"A recently born child came one day alongside the vessel and remained there out of mere curiosity whilst the sleet fell and thought under naked bosom and on the skin of her naked baby these poor wretches were stunted in their growth. Their hideous faces bobbed daubed with white paint their skins filthy and greasy their hair entangled their voices discordant and their gestures violent. Viewing such men. One can hardly make oneself believe that they are fellow creatures and inhabitants of the same world. It is a common subject of conjecture. What pleasure in life. Some of the lower animals can enjoy. How much more reasonably the same question may be asked with respect to these barbarians at night five or six human beings naked and scarcely protected from the wind and rain of this tempestuous climate sleep on the wet ground coiled up like animals whenever it is low water winter or summer night or day they must rise to pick shellfish from the rocks and the women either dived to collect or sit patiently in their canoes and with abated hairline without any hook jerk out little fish if seal is carried or the floating carcass putrid whale is discovered it is a feast and such miserable food is assisted by a few tasteless berries and fungi. They often suffer from famine. I heard mr low. A ceiling master intimately acquainted with the natives of this country. Give a curious account of the state of a party of one hundred fifty natives on the west coast who were very thin and in great distress. A succession of gales prevented the women from getting shellfish on the rocks and they could not go out in their canoes to catch seal. A small party of these men one morning set out and the other indians explained to him that they were going. Four days journey for food on their return low went to meet them and he found them excessively tired each man carrying a great square piece of putrid whale's blubber with a hole in the middle through which they put their heads like the gauchos do through their punch cloaks as soon as the blubber was brought into a wigwam. An old man cut off thin slices and muttering over them. Brian them for a minute and then distributed them to the families party who during this time preserved profound silence. Mr low believes that whenever a whale is cast on shore the natives buried large pieces of it in the sand as a resource in time of famine and a native boy whom he had on board once found a stock thus buried the different tribes when at war are cannibals from the concurrent but quite independent evidence of the boy taken by mr low and of jimmy button it is certainly true that when pressed in winter by hunger kill and devour their old women before they killed their dogs..

each man Four days one morning five one hundred fifty natives one day six human beings low indians a minute
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

05:49 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Chief inducement captain fitzroy to undertake present voyage and before the admiralty had resolved to send out this expedition. Captain fitzroy had generously chartered a vessel and would himself have taken the back. The natives were accompanied by missionary are matthews of whom and of the natives. Captain fitzroy has published a full and excellent account. Two men one of them died in england of the smallpox. A boy and a little girl were taken and we had now onboard york minster jemmy button whose name expresses his purchase money and foggy basket. York minster was a full grown short thick powerful man. His disposition was reserved taciturn morose and when excited violently passionate his affections were very strong towards a few friends on board his intellect. Good jemmy button was a universal favourite but likewise passionate. The expression of his face at one showed his nice disposition. He was mary and often laughed and was remarkably sympathetic with anyone in pain. When the water was rough. I was often little seasick. And he used to come to me and say plaintive voice poor poor fellow but the notion after his aquatic life of a man being seasick was too ludicrous and he was generally obliged to turn on one side to hide smile or laugh and then would repeat his poor poor fellow. He was a patriotic disposition. And he liked to praise his own tribe and country in which he truly said they were quote plenty of trees and he abused all of the other tribes he. Stoutly declared that there was no devil in his land. Jimmy was short thick and fat but vain of his personal appearance. He used to wear gloves. His hair was neatly cut and he was distressed. His well-polished dirtied he was fond of admiring himself in a looking glass and faced little indian boy from the rio negro whom we had for some months on board soon perceive this and use to mocking jemmy. Who was always rather jealous of the attention paid. This little boy did not at all like this and used to say with a rather contemptuous. Twist of his head too much skylark. It seems yet. Wonderful to me when i think over all his many good qualities that he should have been of the same race and doubtless partaken of the same character with the miserable degraded savages when we first met here. Lastly foggia basket was a nice modest reserved young girl with a rather pleasing but sometimes sell expression and very quick learning anything especially languages this. She showed in picking up some portuguese and spanish. When left shore for only a short time at rio de janeiro monte video and inter knowledge of english york minster was very jealous of any attention paid to her for it was clear. He determined to marry her as soon as they settled onshore. Although all three could both speak and understand a good deal of english it was singularly difficult to obtain much information from them. Concerning the habits of their countrymen this was partly owing to their apparent difficulty in understanding the simplest alternative. Everyone accustomed to very young. Children knows how seldom one can get an answer. Even so simple a question as whether thing is black or white the idea of black or white seems ultimately to fill their minds so it was.

england Jimmy one Two men both english fitzroy portuguese Captain indian York one side first york de three friends rio spanish janeiro monte video
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

03:31 min | 9 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Man had affiliate of white feathers tied around his head which partly can find his black course and entangled hair. His face was crossed by two broad. Transverse bars one painted bright red reached from ear to ear and included the upper lip the other white like chalk extended above and parallel to the first so that even his eyelids were thus colored the other two men were ornamented by streaks of black powder made of the party altogether closely resembled the devils which come on the stage in plays like defra shirts. They're very attitudes. Were abject and the expression of their countenances distrustful surprised in startled after we had presented them with some scarlet cloth which they immediately tied round their necks. They became good friends. This was shown by the old man patting our breasts and making kind of chuckling noise as people do when feeding chickens. I walked with the old man and this demonstration of friendships was repeated. Several times it was concluded by three hard slaps which were given me on the breast and back at the same time. He then bared his bosom for me to return the compliment wits being done. He seemed highly pleased. The language of these people according to our notions scarcely deserves to be called articulate. Captain cook has converted to a man clearing his throat but certainly no european ever cleared his throat with so many hoarse. Guttural clicking sounds they are excellent mimics as often as we coughed or yawned are made any odd motion. They immediately imitated s. Some of our party began to squint and look awry. But one of the young wiggins whose whole face was painted black accepting a white band across his eyes succeeded in making far more hideous grimaces they could repeat with perfect correctness. Each word in any sentence we address them and they remembered such words for some time yet we europeans. I'll know how difficult it is to distinguish apart. The sounds in a foreign language which of us for instance could follow an american indian through a sentence of more than three words. I'll savages appear to possess to an uncommon degree. This power of mimicry. I was told almost in the same words of the same ludicrous habit among the cafes. The australians likewise have long been for being able to imitate and describe the gate of any man so that he may be recognized. How can this faculty be explained. Is it a consequence of the more practiced habits perception and keener senses. Come into all men in a savage state as compared with those long civilized one. A song was struck by our party. If wiggins would have fallen down with astonishment with equal surprised they viewed are dancing. But one of the young men when asked had no objection to a little waltzing little accustomed to europeans as they appear to be yet they knew and derided are firearms. Nothing would tempt them to take a gun in their hands. They begged for knives calling them. By the spanish word cuccia. The explained also what they wanted by acting as if they had a piece of blubber in their mouths and then pretending to cut. Instead of terret i have not as yet noticed the freudians who we had on board during the former voyage of the adventure and beagle in eighteen. Twenty six to eighteen thirty captain fitzroy seized on party of natives as hostages for the loss of a boat which had been stolen the great jeopardy of party employed on the survey and some of these natives as well as a child who bought for pearl button he took with him to england determining to educate them and instruct them in religion at his own expense to settle these natives in their own country..

two men england Each word first one more than three words Twenty six american three hard slaps spanish fitzroy two broad eighteen one painted times europeans thirty indian australians european
Birding with Dr Meredith Williams

PODSHIP EARTH

09:33 min | 9 months ago

Birding with Dr Meredith Williams

"Berta. Volt from more than one. Hundred and fifty million years ago and then explosively diversified culminating in more than ten thousand species distributed worldwide. Today are human. Relationship to beds is complex to seen as spirit messengers of the gods and at the same time. We took the wild red jungle fowl. From india and selectively bred into domesticated chickens the now farmed in cages feathers have been used for thousands of years and indigenous headpieces and at the same time but has like parrots and parakeets a kept as pets bird poop called guana was used as the first fertilize of modern agriculture. And charles darwin study of galapagos finches was to the formulation of evolution. Buds are all around us. We are closer to bed than any other wild animals birds. I literally and figuratively are canaries in the coal mine. Their wellbeing is our wellbeing threats to buds range from habitat loss including logging climate change industrial farming with pesticides invasive species and even cats. These will had a devastating impact on the bird populations of the us and canada. Which in just the last fifty years have declined by. Three billion birds danton insane. Thirty percent of all birds gone. Three billion pez of wings have vanished ever across our continent from sea to shining sea. Luckily birds have strong allies in their corner. There an estimated sixty million active bird watches in the us alone and with the pandemic shutting down so much of our country. We have flocking to bird watching like never before everything from bird feeders. To binoculars have been in short supply and this year the birding app e bird collected more sightings in a single day the was admitted during the first two and a half years of the apps existence. I must admit coming late to the bird-watching pardee. But thanks to dr meredith williams. That's about to change. I'm lucky enough to work with meredith every day in her role. Running one of the most important and complex agencies in california governor. The department of toxic substance control. Dr williams received two undergraduate degree from yale and a doctorate in physics from north carolina. State university meredith then worked and silicon valley fortune. Five hundred companies in the technology consumer product and chemical sectors meredith left the private sector to follow her passion for wetlands and birds and led the san francisco estuary institute as we'll hear. Meredith journey is about so much more than her resume. Meredith nine meet apt get ready for my maiden watching invention merit so we're about to go hopefully bed watching what. What do we need to bring with us while like what. What's what's in the bird watching backpack almost nothing. Which is great binoculars. Of course are your starting point. So i hope you have some inaugurals. I know you were looking for some recently. You gave me some good advice. But i get any but we all kind of professional but what just like you would have an extra pair. Do thought so. It's in the office but we could stop on the way out of town. Not of that sound. No we should. We should yeah. You just kind of out now. Okay okay so you got the binoculars. How do you if you're starting out. It's surprising how good have gotten very affordable these days so i mean it's still a lot to invest but ask a bird watcher. They might have an extra pair. That's the first place you might wanna try like them. What do you well. first of. All there are lots of different kinds of birdwatchers in terms of some people. Want to count every burden get really long list. And they track every single birthday they see. It's about the numbers of the that very unique bird and they chase vagrant birds that fly in unusually and they're rushing off to see that bird so there those kind of bird watchers I'm a bird watcher. Just watch one bird for a long time. I liked bird behavior. just i'm just fascinated by them. And i think they're beautiful so i could just end up watching one bird for for quite a while you can just take it. In at whatever level you want in terms of the variety birds that you could see and how you would just experience them and enjoy them. So and i think the only way to find that out is to bert. Watch a little and see what grabs you What you do sounds really peaceful. The first thing that sounds the first thing sounds more. Like in england as a whole breed of people go train spotters and i always kind of identified them with bird watchers. Like it's really about. How many things. You've you've been able to capture and less about the bird the thing that you'll doing just sounds like being a peaceful will watching another animal even the people who are energized. That way unless they're doing a big day which would be a day when they map it out to see as many birds as they can. In a single day they're not necessarily rushing around even they are going to have moments of really enjoying a bird and even somebody like me chased around golden gate park looking for a rare warbler. That's very rarely in san francisco. There's an amiability amongst birdwatchers is really camaraderie. People are so nice. There's always somebody better in terms of being a better bird watcher. Meaning they either can identify birds better or you know they just have a lot of experience for the a little bit about. The ecology and people are so happy to share their information. That it's really wonderful. That's one of the things i like about it. And it tends to be every now and then you get into group and there'll be somebody who's a little loud but by and large the the folks are really kind of it's easy to get in a groove with with birdwatchers and settled and gopher along stroll and see some great birds. But what's there everywhere that it's a it's a big i mean like it huge movement and it's growing apparently it's one of the fastest growing outdoor activities. There is it's it is just kind of crazy places where i been going for ten years and cues to be just me and five or six friends maybe and now parking lot and i think the pandemic has made it even more so where a lot of people. That's how they wanna get outdoors or they've they've just kind of discovering it because they know it is one of the only ways to be outdoors so i think it's going to continue to grow which i think is great because then more people are connected to the natural world which obviously makes them care about it more. How did you get into meredith like what. What was your journey into bed watching. I mean i liked birds always in the yard growing up in ohio. You know the robbins and the blue jays. There was a hill in town. And i used to ride my bike up in the hill early in the morning and i would always see birdwatchers and i said when i'm old air quotes. I'm going to bird watch. And i kind of that seed was planted but i didn't really bird-watching until my three say in my thirties. I started volunteering for the san francisco. Bay national wildlife refuges. That you know are on the perimeter of the bay. You know them well getting restored a lot of them Back to title harsh. And i when i volunteered i would be doing everything from pulling out. Invasive plants to building shells but there are always birds around and i just became more and more and more fascinated with the birds invested in binoculars and just started creeping in. You join the audubon society and suddenly you're getting news about different outings and the next thing you know you're you're pretty far in foreign now. I'm foreign. I'm not pretty far and have taken a couple bird vacations. Which i think says that. I'm pretty far in. But what do those entail. The longest trip i took was to go to brazil to the pantanal. Which is a very large wetland like the mecca of bud watching their many mecca. It is a mecca over the course of two weeks. We just went out every morning. We get up before sunrise. Be moving by six o'clock at the latest. Usually more like five thirty and we went to a place that's called the parrot crater a giant sinkhole. And it's all a lot of parents live down in the sinkhole. And so you look down. A new parrots lying around in a simple it was tremendous and we ended up seen two hundred different species of birds there along with some giant giant eaters river otter is and it was quite a trip but the birds were spectacular.

Guana Meredith Dr Meredith Williams Department Of Toxic Substance Dr Williams San Francisco Estuary Institut Meredith Journey Berta Danton Charles Darwin Pardee United States India State University North Carolina Canada Bert Golden Gate Park
"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

Science Friction

04:44 min | 10 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

"Yes sir dra okay. All over the world spotted another one. Sorry wearies leash. She'll need gone. I have devoted much time to a class of plants that seem to have reversed the regular order of nature and like avengers of kingdom have turned upon animals incarcerating and finally killing them whether the plants are really hungry and entrapped the animals for food or whether it is only an example of the wanton destructiveness of nature. I leave the reader to judge. Mary treat eighteen eighty five throughout history. The gripe botanical artists have often been women but were many of them infect scientists to just without the endorsement of the botanical establishment which often shunned or ignored them. The paintbrush deemed more appropriate tool for a lady than a microscope. I guess botany has always been an interesting one. Because i suppose that the study of flowers and plants historically was maybe seen as a bit more of a suitable pursuit for the women feminine because of flowers and that sort of thing but still it still also quite mild eliminated. I guess in terms of the scholars in that field throughout history. Well one determined woman on a farm in weight belt western. Australia defied the odds and changed. How the world sore australia's incredible carnivorous plants and listen to artists. So with laura skates of botanical scientist doing her phd on carnivorous plants. Right now i am taking you down a bush trial in pursuit of his story. Oh is that it. Oh cute so this is actually one of the climbing ones. That i was just talking about so you sixty centimeters long and it's just spreading out of an embankment. He and a lot more of them seem to have caught prey on this one. I think it might be dresser. Menzies the i ultra ceramic grant though draw sarah makram throw or the bridal rainbow with its little sunlight sticky leaves hence the name sanju. It was a man. English naturalist biologist charles darwin n-i-l-l-a-s who is a first credited with helping us understand that coniferous plants lived off flesh. Here's particularly interested in dresser. There's a european species coatdress harare folio which he did a lot of his experiments on so he would put different things on the leaves like for example. He would put a piece of sand orbit of gloss and not really see any reaction. But if you put something like little piece of aig or some meat juices suddenly the plant would have reaction to that and the tentacles would start to wrap around. So what he basically showed is that these plants are reacting to substances that have not to general protein in them so so the plants i almost instantaneously they know not that'd be the descend concrete that <hes>. Cheese like an eight that. Yeah exactly so you know. They don't waste any energy wrapping around something. That's not going to be nutritious. They instead wraparound when it's going to be something that will give them a good boost. Trajan i mean even in my phd. Thesis i go right back to dahlan's original studies and some of his original thoughts and ideas of things that with testing to this day and so he really liked the groundwork for the foundation. Full kind of verse plant research but one american woman was on the case of carnivorous plants. Around the same time as darwin. I will give you my observations on draw surra which seemed to have escaped the notice of botanists and she's struck up a correspondence with darwin in a series of letters from eighteen. Seventy one four years before he got to publishing his influential book on insect diverse plants. I had two or three species of these pretty plants growing for window ornaments and soon saw the deal on. The folio was a fly trap of considerable power when it comes to congress plants. One of the women that i kind of came across in my studies was married trait and i came across her. Because he in allen's book insectivores plants. There was a little footnote. That talked about what mary trait had done to contribute to that particular chapter and i thought wow. Who's mrs trait. I want to find out more about him.

sir dra sarah makram dahlan charles darwin australia darwin mary trait Diem adam Menzies Mary curbs laura harare Trajan Professor gray aig Mrs mary Mary bush congress
The carnivorous woman  a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia

Science Friction

04:44 min | 10 months ago

The carnivorous woman a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia

"Yes sir dra okay. All over the world spotted another one. Sorry wearies leash. She'll need gone. I have devoted much time to a class of plants that seem to have reversed the regular order of nature and like avengers of kingdom have turned upon animals incarcerating and finally killing them whether the plants are really hungry and entrapped the animals for food or whether it is only an example of the wanton destructiveness of nature. I leave the reader to judge. Mary treat eighteen eighty five throughout history. The gripe botanical artists have often been women but were many of them infect scientists to just without the endorsement of the botanical establishment which often shunned or ignored them. The paintbrush deemed more appropriate tool for a lady than a microscope. I guess botany has always been an interesting one. Because i suppose that the study of flowers and plants historically was maybe seen as a bit more of a suitable pursuit for the women feminine because of flowers and that sort of thing but still it still also quite mild eliminated. I guess in terms of the scholars in that field throughout history. Well one determined woman on a farm in weight belt western. Australia defied the odds and changed. How the world sore australia's incredible carnivorous plants and listen to artists. So with laura skates of botanical scientist doing her phd on carnivorous plants. Right now i am taking you down a bush trial in pursuit of his story. Oh is that it. Oh cute so this is actually one of the climbing ones. That i was just talking about so you sixty centimeters long and it's just spreading out of an embankment. He and a lot more of them seem to have caught prey on this one. I think it might be dresser. Menzies the i ultra ceramic grant though draw sarah makram throw or the bridal rainbow with its little sunlight sticky leaves hence the name sanju. It was a man. English naturalist biologist charles darwin n-i-l-l-a-s who is a first credited with helping us understand that coniferous plants lived off flesh. Here's particularly interested in dresser. There's a european species coatdress harare folio which he did a lot of his experiments on so he would put different things on the leaves like for example. He would put a piece of sand orbit of gloss and not really see any reaction. But if you put something like little piece of aig or some meat juices suddenly the plant would have reaction to that and the tentacles would start to wrap around. So what he basically showed is that these plants are reacting to substances that have not to general protein in them so so the plants i almost instantaneously they know not that'd be the descend concrete that Cheese like an eight that. Yeah exactly so you know. They don't waste any energy wrapping around something. That's not going to be nutritious. They instead wraparound when it's going to be something that will give them a good boost. Trajan i mean even in my phd. Thesis i go right back to dahlan's original studies and some of his original thoughts and ideas of things that with testing to this day and so he really liked the groundwork for the foundation. Full kind of verse plant research but one american woman was on the case of carnivorous plants. Around the same time as darwin. I will give you my observations on draw surra which seemed to have escaped the notice of botanists and she's struck up a correspondence with darwin in a series of letters from eighteen. Seventy one four years before he got to publishing his influential book on insect diverse plants. I had two or three species of these pretty plants growing for window ornaments and soon saw the deal on. The folio was a fly trap of considerable power when it comes to congress plants. One of the women that i kind of came across in my studies was married trait and i came across her. Because he in allen's book insectivores plants. There was a little footnote. That talked about what mary trait had done to contribute to that particular chapter and i thought wow. Who's mrs trait. I want to find out more about him.

Sir Dra Sarah Makram Australia Menzies Mary Charles Darwin Dahlan Laura Harare Bush AIG Trajan Darwin Mary Trait Congress Allen
A wild and whimsical world of flesh-eating plants

Science Friction

05:11 min | 10 months ago

A wild and whimsical world of flesh-eating plants

"Pretty much up ended all of our lives before covid nineteen. I got to travel to the perth hills in search of some beautiful flesh-eating beings so it's a warm dry day in calamander national park with bright blue sky above yellow worth crunchy underfoot the yellowish shrub. Whole yes we go. Yes laura and i are looking for something special in the bush it's tiny but shawnee and so it should catch season dawn. These the ninetieth be baltimore. Rare impression. s- potential specimens not. Oh that's a tremendous one. So this is Dresser a guy again tia and it's named because it's pretty giant. He's that's about fifty sixty centimeters high. Yeah and it's like a little mini. trae it is. Yeah like these are. Actually the leaves the plan. Yeah so the the flowers are up the very top here. Just in bad i think at the moment but the leaves are they do look like a flower bill. Little son to me and so it's a little pad that is surrounded by sticky hairs and what you'll notice it on some of them. The sticky has wrapped around into the center and now Can you see the little sort of bug remains in the middle there and then others are out ready to catch something new so hi. My name's lois gates. And i'm a botanist from western australia. And i'm doing my phd on plants but this young botanist has an alter-ego floor escapes. Yes so that's my twitter and instagram. Flora 'cause laura and i'm all about plants so more than that laura aka florus gates is all about plots that ate flesh. We always tend to kind of chris. Plante picked it up these sort of managing monsters aliens from outer space it. It goes out. If got dave the little shop of horrors that sort of thing or a new car and killed but it even goes back much earlier than that. It's not for the greater glory of science. I just want us to survive. Even a botanist said there was the story of a gemini explorer in the madagascan john. Google is it a plant coming across this atrocious cannibal tree central nervous system which had these serpent like branches which captured a woman and coiled. Its branches around and around. There is actually the atrocious kind of betray or if anyone's going to find it maybe that just not come back all that don't usually pull themselves out of the ground chase you. He sees the depiction of this atrocious tree. It looks so much like a dresser in the way that it's those separate like branches the sticky glands dresser and the way that they wrap around and coil around the pool. Woman is the same way that these dresser wrap around the insect pry. But yeah they. They always get painted as these vicious preaches. I do tend to notice that. A lot of the time the victims in these stories Women don't like that aspect. Yeah there's a whole gender story to be talked about here. I think definitely. And i mean often when we talk about verse plants. We often hear about charles. Darwin because dow indeed right the first scientific book all about kind of verse. Plants gave the first scientific evidence that they are actually able to capture and digest insect prey. But there's been a lot of amazing women who have also contributed to converse plant science and our understanding of ecology throughout history and. I'm really interested in their stories as well. And so am i this week. We are in wnba which incredibly is home to up to a third of the world's converse plant species. I wanna find out why that eason have. I've managed to survive in such an intense environment and knicks. Week got totally caught up in a saga full of twists and turns and tendrils about the life of just one congresswoman. We're gonna venture from hilltop home of an internationally renowned joola share. He wanted the all the glory for himself. I really can't go into the mind of charles gardner but he said he did. Not mother might lot very difficult for him. We'll head deep into the heart of a magnificent end museum for plants. So we're entering a quarantined area. Okay hidden on stays now.

Perth Hills Calamander National Park Lois Gates Laura Aka Florus Gates Laura Trae Dresser Plante Baltimore Instagram Western Australia Bush Dave Twitter Chris Google John Darwin DOW
Wednesday 23 December

Monocle 24: The Briefing

07:48 min | 10 months ago

Wednesday 23 December

"Later today lufthansa cargo flight from frankfurt will touchdown doncaster sheffield airport bringing of food supplies to forestall shortages caused by the recent severing of land and sea trade routes between the uk and europe with jew recognition that this is more to do with covid nineteen than brexit. There is something piquant about britain entering the last week of its transition period reliance on a reverse of the berlin airlift. The uk's present difficulties due to a new and highly infectious variant of covid nineteen heavily concentrated in london and the southeast on joined with more by monaco. Twenty fours health and science correspondent dr. Chris chris this or something like to be expected because all viruses mutate. Don't they indeed covid nineteen already has once or twice at least before andrew say actually the uk's victim of its own success in this because we do as jones san accurately said have a world class in fact one of the best in the world screening systems set up to detect precisely this sort of thing. It's called coke. Uk their job is to scrutinize genomes of corona viruses collected from patients who are diagnosed with the disease so far. They've looked through the genetic codes of more than one hundred and sixty thousand viral sequences. They're all being to find things precisely like this and of course then we. We say we found one this and then the whole world says we don't want you of course they don't want us all the all the virus but not surprisingly just to cautionary stage but yes It it's likely that this sort of thing is a bit of an inevitability and it may well be it's farther afield. Things like farther afield than anyone knows yet because they just haven't detected e. Yeah so what do we know about this mutation will. It's not a single mutation. It's a variant the calling it variant because rather than just a mutant which is one genetic change. This one's actually got a constellation of genetic changes there are seventeen independent genetic differences in this new variant that seems to confer opponent the ability to spread a bit better and they're peppered throughout the genetic code of the virus they affect v aspects of how the virus works but there's a big cluster of these changes all centered on what's called the essel spike protein. Which is the key part of the virus. That's all of these out coats that it uses to infect ourselves and so this is why researchers think that it may be more transmissible. Something has changed in the way the virus behaves in terms of its its ability to engage with our cells its ability to penetrate and jack cells and then cause disease and then spread to another person We don't know exactly how it's doing that yet. And we don't know for sure that it really is more transmissible but based on the numbers that we're seeing the the epidemiology the pattern of spread. It seems like a likely reasonable supposition. Is it possible that this variation is a response to the measures that we have undertaken to defeat it is is the virus adapting to survive ovar adapt to survive. And that's really what charles darwin point out. And that was his big breakthrough his grand unified theory of biology. If you like that everything responds in a dynamic way. All the time to pressure applied from its environment and where we think. This may have arisen. This new variant is actually in the blood of an individual or individuals with poorly functioning immune systems because individuals. Who don't have a good immune response to the virus. Tend to hang onto the virus fa- longer. They have a chronic infection with the virus. And this means that as their immune system limps along trying to control it the virus is getting a chance to see inner workings of the immune response and it can see where the chinks in our alma and therefore it can adapt and shift in that direction a bid to take advantage of those changes to cling onto survival in that person. Now if that person then transmits a virus which has adapted in this way it's basically passing on a more weaponized or more tooled up version of the virus. The reason that such as a putting forward this hypothesis is because when we have treated patients and documented what happens in them when they have an impaired immune system for various reasons. Were genetic reasons. There are also acquired reasons why people's immune systems might not work very. Well they've seen very similar changes happening in the viruses in those people to this variant that circulating suggesting that it may will be homegrown as it were and borne out of the fact that some people can't can't fight it off as well as efficiently giving the varsity insight into how our immune system works and enabling it to adapt accordingly. I mean we have talked before about the fact that it's not in the interests of viruses whose only interest eads the perpetuation replication. It's not necessarily in the interest of any virus. To kill its hosts. Is it possible that viruses variation to become more transmissible but perhaps less deadly. Well we don't know at the moment and That's one of the key questions that people are going to want to be asking. It's a relatively new discovery first appeared as a blip on the radar of kochi uk. The consortium that founded back in september and the cases them were just a few and far between become a lot more common sense obviously rising to one in four cases in november perhaps as many as sixty percent of cases in december in some parts of the country that means that we've now got the chance to see firsthand in greater detail in greater numbers. What is impact on people is and so people will be asking this very question this thing if it does transmit more efficiently which it appears it does does it as we believe not cause such severe disease or cause any more severe disease than the standard parent from which its rose the moment it doesn't look like it translates into getting more severe disease. It doesn't look like it's currently beyond the reach of the protection conferred by the immune response In response to the vaccine but we don't know that crucial question has it surrendered some of its violence. In order to optimize. In this way time will tell you partially answered what. I'm sure is now the key question because the the glimmer of optimism in which we have all been basking these last few weeks is the approval and roll out of the vaccine. Several hundred thousand people here in the uk have already received at least the first injection. Is it possible that nineteen could mutate or very this quickly Out of the reach of the vaccine. Matt hancock rishaad everybody when he made the announcement last week about the discovery of this new variant. That it didn't look like it would be able to sidestep the immune response conferred by the vaccine the experiments to prove that that is the case. Though are still ongoing. Thankfully they're very easy experiments to do. And that's what porton down will currently be investigating. And i would hope that they will provide that reassurance. Quite soon the way you go about this is you. Grow the virus in the lab and that's actually very easy to do and you add to it samples of the antibodies that a person makes when they're vaccinated and if the antibodies still work against the variant. And you do this with samples across the country. Then you can say these neutralize this virus even though it's the variant and therefore these people will be protected if they have the vaccine. So that's that's kind of what we're waiting for now to to see that data. It's very easy the experiments to go to do them properly though. That will give us reassurance to answer that question what the future holds. Though we don't know and that's why some researches saying this could be a stepping stone on the part of the virus towards a more comprehensive ability to sidestep our immune response including the response to the vaccine and for that. It's a sort of shot across out immunological bowels. We have to keep it onto surveillance. Keep searchlight trained upon it so that we can see where it's moving anticipate is next. Move and try to head off

UK Doncaster Sheffield Airport Chris Chris Jones San Lufthansa Frankfurt Monaco Coke Berlin Britain Charles Darwin Andrew Europe London Kochi Matt Hancock Porton
"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

Harvard Classics

03:29 min | 11 months ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Harvard Classics

"Charles. Robert darwin worn at shrewsbury england on february twelfth. Eighteen nine came of a family of remarkable intellectual distinction which is still sustained in the present generation. His father was a successful physician with remarkable powers of observation and his grandfather was a rasmin darwin. The well known author of the botanic garden. He went to school at shows berry where he failed to profit from the strict classical curriculum there enforce nor did the regular professional courses at edinburgh university where he spent two years studying medicine six seed in rousing his interest in eighteen twenty seven. He was entered at christ's college cambridge to study for the a degree preparatory to entering the church but while there his friendship with him. Slow the professor of botany led to his enlarging his general scientific knowledge and finally to his joining the expedition of the beagle in the capacity of naturalist from this darwin returned after a voyage of five years with a vast firsthand knowledge of geology and zoology asian as successful collector and most important of all with the german ideas of his theory of evolution. The next few years were spent in working up the materials he had collected but his health gave signs of breaking and for the rest of his life he suffered constantly but without complaint with extraordinary courage and endurance took up a life of seclusion and methodical regularity and accomplished his colossal results in spite of the most severe physical handicap nine and three years later he withdrew from london to the little village of down about sixteen miles out where he spent the rest of his life. His custom which was almost a method was to work till he was on the verge of complete collapse and then to take a holiday just sufficient to restore him to working condition as early as eighteen. Forty two dollars and had thrown into rough form the outlines of his theory of evolution but the enormous extent of the investigations. He engaged in for the purpose of testing. It led to a constant postponing publication. Finally in june eighteen fifty eight air wallace sent him manuscript containing a statement of an identical theory of the origin of species which had been arrived at entirely independently. On the advice of lyle. The geologist and hooker the botanist wallace's paper and the letter of darwin's of the previous year in which he had outlined his theory to gray read together on july first eighteen. Fifty eight and published by the land society in november of the following year the origin of species was published and the great battle was begun between the old science and the new. This work was followed in eighteen. Sixty eight by his variation of animals and plants under domestication that intern by the descent of man in eighteen. Seventy one and that again by the expression of the emotions in man and animals each of these books was the elaboration or complement of a section of its predecessor. The later years of darwin's life were chiefly devoted to botanical research and resulted in a series of treatises of the highest scientific value. He died at down on april nineteenth. Eighteen eighty two and is buried in westminster abbey the idea of the evolution of organisms so far from originating with darwin. A very old one glimpses of it appear in the ancient greek philosophers especially in pedigrees and aristotle.

Charles. Robert darwin wallace lyle shrewsbury england westminster abbey edinburgh university professor of botany berry london intern geologist
Darwin notebooks reported stolen from Cambridge library

BBC Newshour

03:59 min | 11 months ago

Darwin notebooks reported stolen from Cambridge library

"Of two of Charles Darwin's notebooks to police 20 years after they went missing. One of them contains his famous tree of life sketch, which demonstrated part of his thinking on the origin of species. Curator is now believe they were stolen. I've been speaking to Dr Jessica Gardner. She's university's library. And she told me first more about the notebooks. Well, these over really precious that the handwritten notebooks assed part of a much bigger archive. The university likely of Cambridge, holds the largest archive, the child, stolen manuscripts and books anywhere in the world. These two notebooks are part of sequence. That were written in 18 37 18 38 after Darwin had returned from Voyager's Neech, Miss people, then known as the transmutation of books, and they're part of his developing ideas, which lead 20 years later to the publication upon the origin of species on what's really significant about one of these two notebooks is that contains a seminal sketch. It's probably just about two inches tall, absolutely tiny doughnuts, The tree of life and this is the first sketch. But Darwin then went on to rework another sketches and writing as part is thinking, too. Warts on the speed on the origin of species s. So I'm looking at the picture of it s so it is just very small with the tree of life picture and then just some writing on the side, and I suppose it's also just the writing his own handwriting that is also so powerful. It really is. I mean, it's magical life. I've worked my whole career in the preservation of cultural heritage and Coming to Cambridge working the Darwin papers that was, you know, really a combination of a career for me, so I am absolutely devastated by what has happened. It's really, really special to see his handwriting. We hold over 1000 letters to and from Darwin and many other notebooks, drafts all of his of his books. But these two notebooks are very special. We have published the digital versions fully online, the Web site so anyone can see what is in contained in his own handwriting online, But we know that's not the same. Missy ritual objects, and that's what we want to cover for the world. I understand that you want your focus to be on recovering these items, but it will strike people as strange that for 20 years you were just relying on them. Not you personally, but Cambridge University was relying on them just to turn up. Well, today of you very clear. Our protocols are absolutely clear. That if anything like this happened again, and I've taken considerable measures to help ensure that it does not. We would report to the police immediately, as well as juniors wide scale searches. Left hadn't been ruled in as a possibility at the outset, and I don't want to apportion blame to my predecessors. But I do take responsibility today and that responsibility has led me to report to the police and to Move as openly as possible who his public appeal, which is wider possibles audience to reach the recovery. I mean, these note pads are worth millions of dollars, aren't they? So so that the likelihood off somebody coming forward would really be dependent on somebody being interested in restoring them to their original place? But you can argue, and you can imagine, can't you that there are going to be people who if they do have it and no now what? They're worse that it could go in a different direction. Well, there isn't No way These notebooks could be sold on the open market. And that's bean one of the ways in which we have spent time listening and gaining expertise. My colleagues in the international book Trade, So You know this is where there are examples where consciences of pricked or just some information that leads to the next bit of fact that we hope will lead to the recovery. They can't be sold on the open market there too well known their provinces to unknown. Darwin is highly collectible. We know that But I also travel hopefully, in the goodness that someone will hear this and think I know something. Let's try and return. That's the world could benefit from it in the public domain. Not Jessica Gardner, the librarian at Cambridge University.

Darwin Dr Jessica Gardner Cambridge Charles Darwin Missy Cambridge University Jessica Gardner
Fluttering Feathers Could Spawn New Species

60-Second Science

02:07 min | 1 year ago

Fluttering Feathers Could Spawn New Species

"Charles Darwin is most famous for his finches from WHO speaks he gleaned the idea that a single species might radiate into many but he studied other attributes of birds to like the rhythmic sounds some species made during courtship by fluttering, shaking or rattling their feathers together. Seen Star Wing there has been this fact that birds produce sounds with wings and tails or flight feathers. So there are species of mannequins that that do the sounds and there's hummingbird sent the sound Valentina Gomez Bauman is an evolutionary biologist and ornithologist at the field museum in Chicago she and her team have now observed that non vocal sound production phenomenon in another type of bird, the fork tailed flycatcher the researchers studied two groups of the birds in South America and recorded the birds making these fluttering sounds with their wings during morning courtship rituals. Ending combat between males. One of the two flycatcher subspecies is migratory the other stays put, and by carefully measuring the bird's feathers, the research team found that the migratory birds had longer thinner feathers presumably for some aerodynamic advantage. But that altered feather shape also meant the birds fluttering produced a different frequency, compare the migratory birds flutter. To the stationary birds. So basically, what we think is that because of loss of migration pressures for flight may influence the shape of the individual feathers to the point where the sound quality changes as well. The details are in the Journal, Integrative and comparative biology. Gomez bomb on says they're still not certain what role the sounds play in day to day flycatcher life. If the birds do indeed even pay attention to them, but she suspects the sounds may have some cultural importance to the birds in which case she says, the communication differences between the migratory and non migratory birds could further divide the two types of birds or in other words, give rise to the origin of species.

Valentina Gomez Bauman Charles Darwin Journal, Integrative And Compa Field Museum South America Chicago
Ross and Carrie are Falsifiable

Oh No Ross and Carrie

05:30 min | 1 year ago

Ross and Carrie are Falsifiable

"Hello and welcome to Oh no Ross and Carrie the show where we don't just report on for in science rally and claims of the paranormal, but take part ourselves. Yup, and they make the claims we show on to carry poppy and I'm raw spot sure, and this is a little updates and corrections episode. We've been meaning to do that for a long time because it's been a while since we've Enron, we've updated ourselves in corrected ourselves. Well. We do that off and on anyway, so we've released lots of little mini corrections along the way, because whenever relevant and not to off-topic. We like to let you know when we messed up. Set things wrong or just update every body. Right? 'cause there's all. All these little things that continually happened after investigations they never fully leave us. We are left with newsletters. We are left with new bell respondents video obsessions right yet new subscriptions to youtube channels. That's kind of the danger of the show in our format is we cover so many topics and we try to stay kind of tapped into all of them. That's at ten on the danger rating is. Youtube Rabbit Hole! Danger Ratings from all the investigations. Just add them up. You'll probably notice when we get to corrections that a lot of these corrections are like. When did they ever even talk about that bright? I don't remember that it's not important to me well. It was important to someone who emailed us a lot of the Times. It'll be something that we sort of tangents. Head tangent all. The most dangerous territory when I remember hearing about this thing Blah Blah well anyway. Moving on that's when I get things wrong than when we hear about him, but this is good. We WanNA. Know when we're wrong. There's nothing wrong with being wrong. We're always going to be wrong. Everybody's wrong about things all the time and the way you find out to to get them right in change, you know sometimes people right and say well. You got this thing wrong here you. Are you getting mad? Mad, at other people for getting things wrong. Yeah, the this fine people get things wrong. There's a difference when you're making a claim. That's part of Your Business. Your Job Your profession, your promoting Brung ideas, and there's also another thing where you know you learn, and you stop saying things and say Oh. Sorry, oops! I was wrong about that. I won't get that wrong again. I think. How central is that thing to your point? The theme of whatever you're doing. Quite a bit his. Your whole thing is that you're the world's most supported medical medium. Most supported most backed by the scientific establishment I. Don't know. Maybe you should know what a double blind study is. It's that whole maximum of extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence. There's kind of a similar scale there. Where there's a level of importance to the thing you're saying. Yeah, and how much rides on you getting correct anyways. We want to clear the air when we get things wrong so mostly people write very nicely. Yes, that's when we really appreciate that all right anyway. I update and or correction So, we cured cove Ed. That's what my notes say. Okay, so this is in relation to our recent homeopathy for covid nineteen class that we took. Yeah, so we offhandedly asked what hydrotherapy is because she kind of went quickly passed that I guess in a slide and we were like what's bad. Things with water. Is that drinking water? What is that? We're going to be bothered? Yeah, there is I mean so much flies by in that class. It's wild, but a few people wrote in or tweeted. Let us know what it is, so we're right. It's using water for pretty much anything. It's a big catch all term for some things varying levels of repute. Yeah, so that's one of the problems is that it's so widely applied that. Up Studies about like a hundred therapies real. Does it work including like using an ice pack? You know like on a sprained ankle as an example of water therapy. Therapy. Okay that works saying well yeah yeah. Agree Fun of the thing that comes to my mind is Charles. Darwin had a water cure that he was really into and Thurston is run. A good cure for Thursday's to drink water. Yes, very good Charles Darwin I didn't find out about this until I saw the two thousand nine film creation with Paul Bet knee playing Charles. Darwin and there was this whole scene where he takes his daughter to this practitioner, and they dumped just tons of water on him, and I'm watching the movie thinking he didn't do that. That's crazy. Turns out he did. He had a series of terrible complaints of all kinds of things going wrong with his body. Body he was vomiting, he had nausea. He had I think headaches and eggs, Emma and just everything was wrong with Charles. Darwin Poor Guy People now think it was maybe some problem with his autonomic nervous system. That's like the system that runs all of your unconscious functioning of your body so newest poor guy. He was miserable all the time, and so he would have like water dumped on him and Yeah, he had a doctor trying out the on, and he didn't buy into that so much. Charles Darwin because it was pretty new at the time. anyways. That's what I think. When I think of water therapy, you were saying. Well we've also of course heard. It applied to colonic hydrotherapy, which is right, shooting water up here, but for various reasons, and that's definitely on the less supported by the evidence

Charles Darwin Enron Youtube Ross Carrie Emma Thurston Paul Bet
"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

Science Friction

06:25 min | 1 year ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

"They gleason gleason and and CREPE CREPE and and climb climb and and snap snap end. end. They They feed feed off off flesh. flesh. Flies Flies Matz Matz any any culinary culinary delight delight by intrepid? by intrepid? Natasha Natasha Mitchell Mitchell back back in the in world's the world's hotspot hotspot for for carnivorous carnivorous plants plants or Western or Western Australia Australia last last week. Show week. Show sit sit sane. sane. Well Well today. today. It's a It's tile a tile full full of twists of twists and and tendrils. tendrils. Yes Yes Trust Trust Sarah. Sarah. I can I all can over all the over world. the world. I just bought I just another bought another one. Sorry one. Sorry wearies wearies Navan. Navan. I I have devoted have devoted much much time time to a to class a class of plants of plants that seemed that seemed to have to reversed have reversed regular regular order order of nature of nature and and like avengers like avengers of of Kingdom Kingdom have turned have turned upon upon animals animals incarcerating incarcerating and finally and finally killing killing them them whether whether the plants the plants are really are really hungry hungry and entrapped and entrapped the animals the animals for food for food or whether or whether it is only it is only an example an example of the of wanton the wanton destructiveness destructiveness of nature. of nature. I leave I leave the Rita the Rita to judge. to judge. Mary Mary treat treat eighteen eighteen eighty eighty five five throughout throughout history. history. The great The great botanical botanical artists artists have have often often been been women women but but many many of them of them infect infect scientists scientists to to just just without without the endorsement the endorsement of of the botanical the botanical establishment establishment which which often often shunned shunned or or ignored ignored them. them. The pint The pint brush brush deemed deemed more more appropriate appropriate tool tool for for lady lady than a than microscope. a microscope. I guess I botany guess botany has always has always being being an interesting an interesting one one because because I suppose I suppose that that the study the study of of flowers flowers and plants and plants historically historically was was maybe maybe seen seen in a bit in more a bit more of a of a suitable suitable for for for women for women feminine feminine because because of flowers of flowers and that and sort that of sort thing of thing but still but still it it it was it still was still also also quite quite male dominated. male dominated. I guess I in guess terms in terms of the of the scholars scholars in that in field that field throughout throughout history. history. Well Well one one determined determined woman woman on a farm on a farm in in way way belt Western. belt Western. Australia Australia defied defied the the odds odds and changed and changed the world the world sore. sore. Australia's Australia's incredible incredible carnivorous carnivorous plants plants and and listened listened to artists to artists so so with Laura with Laura Skates Skates botanical botanical scientists scientists doing doing her PhD her PhD on canvas on canvas plants. plants. Right Right now now I am I taking am taking you down. you down. Bush Bush trial trial in in pursuit pursuit of her of story. her story. Oh Oh is that is that it. it. Yup Yup Oh Oh cute cute so this so is this actually is actually one of one the climbing of the climbing ones ones that I was that just I was talking just talking about about so so new new sixty sixty centimeters centimeters long long and it's and just it's just spreading spreading out of out embankment. of embankment. He He and a and lot more a lot of more them of them seem seem to have to caught have caught prey prey on this on one. this I one. think I think it might it be might dresser. be dresser. A Men's A Men's Eli Eli address address or or Krant Krant though. though. Draw Draw ceramic ceramic cram cram throw throw or or the bridal the bridal rainbow rainbow with its with little its little sunlight sunlight sticky sticky leaves leaves hence hence the name. the Sanju name. Sanju it it was a man was a man English English naturalist naturalist and Biologist and Biologist Charles Charles Darwin Darwin nonetheless nonetheless who is who a first is a first credited credited with helping with helping us understand us understand that that coniferous coniferous plants plants lived lived off off flesh. flesh. His His particularly particularly interested interested in in is a is a European European species. species. Coatdress Coatdress ERA ERA TON. Two TON. folio Two folio which which he did he a lot did of a lot his of experiments his experiments on on so he so would he put would different put different things things on the on leaves the leaves like like for example for example he would he put would put a a piece of piece sand of sand orbit orbit of gloss of gloss and not and really not really see see any any reaction reaction but if but you put if you something put something like like little little piece piece of EG of EG or or some some meat meat juices juices suddenly suddenly the plant the plant would have would reaction have reaction to that to that and and the tentacles the tentacles would start would start to wrap to around wrap around so so what he what basically he basically showed. showed. Is that Is these that plants these plants are reacting are reacting to to is that is that have have not not gene or gene protein or protein in in them them so so the plants. the plants. I I almost almost instantaneously. instantaneously. They know They know not. not. That's a That's be the a sand be the sand economy economy that that cheese. cheese. I I eight that eight that yeah yeah exactly exactly so so you know. you They know. don't They don't waste waste any energy any energy wrapping wrapping around around something. something. That's not That's going not to be going nutritious to be nutritious day instead. day instead. Wraparound Wraparound when when it's going it's to be going something to be something that will give that will give them them a good a good boost boost of nitrogen. of nitrogen. I mean I even mean in even my in my PhD PhD thesis. thesis. I I go go back back to to Dahlan's Dahlan's original original studies studies and and some of some his of original his original thoughts thoughts and ideas and ideas things things that that with with testing testing to this to day this day and and so he so really he really liked the liked groundwork the groundwork for for set the set foundation the foundation full full of Verse of Plant Verse Plant Research Research But one But American one American woman woman was on was the on case the case of carnivorous of carnivorous plants. plants. Around Around the same the time same time as Darwin. as Darwin. I will I give will you give my you observations my observations on draw. on draw. Sarah Sarah would would have escaped have escaped the notice the notice of botanists of botanists and she and she struck struck up a up correspondence a correspondence with Darwin with Darwin in a in series a series of letters of letters from from eighteen. eighteen. Seventy Seventy one one four four years years before before he got he to got publishing to publishing his his influential influential on on insect insect diverse diverse plants. plants. I had I two had two or three or three species species of of plants plants growing growing window window ornaments ornaments and soon and soon saw saw the deal the deal on the on folio the folio was a was flytrap a flytrap of considerable. of considerable. Palo Palo when it comes when it to comes to reverse reverse plants plants one of the one best of the women best women that I that I kind kind of came of came across across in my in my studies studies was was Mary Mary trait trait and I and came I across came across her her because because he he in Child in Child Allen's Allen's book book insectivores insectivores plants. plants. There was There a little was a foot little foot art art that talked that talked about about what what Mary Mary Trait Trait had done had done to to contribute contribute to to that particular that particular chapter chapter and I and thought I thought wow. wow. Who's Who's Mrs Mrs Trait? Trait? I WANNA I find WANNA find out more out about more about her her de Madame. de Madame. Your observations Your observations and experiments and experiments on the on sexes the sexes of butterflies. of butterflies. Far Far the best the best as far as far as known as known to me to me which which have have ever ever been been made made said. There's said. a great There's a great letter. letter. Where Where don don thanks? thanks? Mary Mary trait trait for some for some observations observations on dresser. on dresser. I am I glad am glad to hear to hear your observations. your observations. On Dresser On Dresser will will be be published. The unlucky fly a common housefly. Would no sooner be caught by the sticky? Glands of it would've once commenced to fold about its victims. It folded from the apex to the stem of the lake. After the manner of its nation closer and closer it held the poor flying embrace until it ceased its struggles when it soon became partly absorbed by the plant. Professor Gray will give my observations on this planned in his new edition of how plants grow was most respectfully Mrs Mary. Treat New Jersey December. Twenty eight hundred seventy one. I have attended to this subject during several years and have almost manuscript enough to make a volume but have never yet found time to publish. I am very much obliged. You'RE COURTEOUS LEGEND AND REMAIN DIM Adam yours faithfully. Charles Darwin January five eighteen seventy two.

Mary Trait Charles Darwin Australia Sarah Mrs Trait Rita Perth Botanical Filippini Kalinski Verse Plant Research Bush Rica Erickson Fredrika Rica Laura Eli Dodd Erickson Dahlan Krant
The carnivorous woman  a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia (Part 2)

Science Friction

06:25 min | 1 year ago

The carnivorous woman a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia (Part 2)

"They gleason gleason and and CREPE CREPE and and climb climb and and snap snap end. end. They They feed feed off off flesh. flesh. Flies Flies Matz Matz any any culinary culinary delight delight by intrepid? by intrepid? Natasha Natasha Mitchell Mitchell back back in the in world's the world's hotspot hotspot for for carnivorous carnivorous plants plants or Western or Western Australia Australia last last week. Show week. Show sit sit sane. sane. Well Well today. today. It's a It's tile a tile full full of twists of twists and and tendrils. tendrils. Yes Yes Trust Trust Sarah. Sarah. I can I all can over all the over world. the world. I just bought I just another bought another one. Sorry one. Sorry wearies wearies Navan. Navan. I I have devoted have devoted much much time time to a to class a class of plants of plants that seemed that seemed to have to reversed have reversed regular regular order order of nature of nature and and like avengers like avengers of of Kingdom Kingdom have turned have turned upon upon animals animals incarcerating incarcerating and finally and finally killing killing them them whether whether the plants the plants are really are really hungry hungry and entrapped and entrapped the animals the animals for food for food or whether or whether it is only it is only an example an example of the of wanton the wanton destructiveness destructiveness of nature. of nature. I leave I leave the Rita the Rita to judge. to judge. Mary Mary treat treat eighteen eighteen eighty eighty five five throughout throughout history. history. The great The great botanical botanical artists artists have have often often been been women women but but many many of them of them infect infect scientists scientists to to just just without without the endorsement the endorsement of of the botanical the botanical establishment establishment which which often often shunned shunned or or ignored ignored them. them. The pint The pint brush brush deemed deemed more more appropriate appropriate tool tool for for lady lady than a than microscope. a microscope. I guess I botany guess botany has always has always being being an interesting an interesting one one because because I suppose I suppose that that the study the study of of flowers flowers and plants and plants historically historically was was maybe maybe seen seen in a bit in more a bit more of a of a suitable suitable for for for women for women feminine feminine because because of flowers of flowers and that and sort that of sort thing of thing but still but still it it it was it still was still also also quite quite male dominated. male dominated. I guess I in guess terms in terms of the of the scholars scholars in that in field that field throughout throughout history. history. Well Well one one determined determined woman woman on a farm on a farm in in way way belt Western. belt Western. Australia Australia defied defied the the odds odds and changed and changed the world the world sore. sore. Australia's Australia's incredible incredible carnivorous carnivorous plants plants and and listened listened to artists to artists so so with Laura with Laura Skates Skates botanical botanical scientists scientists doing doing her PhD her PhD on canvas on canvas plants. plants. Right Right now now I am I taking am taking you down. you down. Bush Bush trial trial in in pursuit pursuit of her of story. her story. Oh Oh is that is that it. it. Yup Yup Oh Oh cute cute so this so is this actually is actually one of one the climbing of the climbing ones ones that I was that just I was talking just talking about about so so new new sixty sixty centimeters centimeters long long and it's and just it's just spreading spreading out of out embankment. of embankment. He He and a and lot more a lot of more them of them seem seem to have to caught have caught prey prey on this on one. this I one. think I think it might it be might dresser. be dresser. A Men's A Men's Eli Eli address address or or Krant Krant though. though. Draw Draw ceramic ceramic cram cram throw throw or or the bridal the bridal rainbow rainbow with its with little its little sunlight sunlight sticky sticky leaves leaves hence hence the name. the Sanju name. Sanju it it was a man was a man English English naturalist naturalist and Biologist and Biologist Charles Charles Darwin Darwin nonetheless nonetheless who is who a first is a first credited credited with helping with helping us understand us understand that that coniferous coniferous plants plants lived lived off off flesh. flesh. His His particularly particularly interested interested in in is a is a European European species. species. Coatdress Coatdress ERA ERA TON. Two TON. folio Two folio which which he did he a lot did of a lot his of experiments his experiments on on so he so would he put would different put different things things on the on leaves the leaves like like for example for example he would he put would put a a piece of piece sand of sand orbit orbit of gloss of gloss and not and really not really see see any any reaction reaction but if but you put if you something put something like like little little piece piece of EG of EG or or some some meat meat juices juices suddenly suddenly the plant the plant would have would reaction have reaction to that to that and and the tentacles the tentacles would start would start to wrap to around wrap around so so what he what basically he basically showed. showed. Is that Is these that plants these plants are reacting are reacting to to is that is that have have not not gene or gene protein or protein in in them them so so the plants. the plants. I I almost almost instantaneously. instantaneously. They know They know not. not. That's a That's be the a sand be the sand economy economy that that cheese. cheese. I I eight that eight that yeah yeah exactly exactly so so you know. you They know. don't They don't waste waste any energy any energy wrapping wrapping around around something. something. That's not That's going not to be going nutritious to be nutritious day instead. day instead. Wraparound Wraparound when when it's going it's to be going something to be something that will give that will give them them a good a good boost boost of nitrogen. of nitrogen. I mean I even mean in even my in my PhD PhD thesis. thesis. I I go go back back to to Dahlan's Dahlan's original original studies studies and and some of some his of original his original thoughts thoughts and ideas and ideas things things that that with with testing testing to this to day this day and and so he so really he really liked the liked groundwork the groundwork for for set the set foundation the foundation full full of Verse of Plant Verse Plant Research Research But one But American one American woman woman was on was the on case the case of carnivorous of carnivorous plants. plants. Around Around the same the time same time as Darwin. as Darwin. I will I give will you give my you observations my observations on draw. on draw. Sarah Sarah would would have escaped have escaped the notice the notice of botanists of botanists and she and she struck struck up a up correspondence a correspondence with Darwin with Darwin in a in series a series of letters of letters from from eighteen. eighteen. Seventy Seventy one one four four years years before before he got he to got publishing to publishing his his influential influential on on insect insect diverse diverse plants. plants. I had I two had two or three or three species species of of plants plants growing growing window window ornaments ornaments and soon and soon saw saw the deal the deal on the on folio the folio was a was flytrap a flytrap of considerable. of considerable. Palo Palo when it comes when it to comes to reverse reverse plants plants one of the one best of the women best women that I that I kind kind of came of came across across in my in my studies studies was was Mary Mary trait trait and I and came I across came across her her because because he he in Child in Child Allen's Allen's book book insectivores insectivores plants. plants. There was There a little was a foot little foot art art that talked that talked about about what what Mary Mary Trait Trait had done had done to to contribute contribute to to that particular that particular chapter chapter and I and thought I thought wow. wow. Who's Who's Mrs Mrs Trait? Trait? I WANNA I find WANNA find out more out about more about her her de Madame. de Madame. Your observations Your observations and experiments and experiments on the on sexes the sexes of butterflies. of butterflies. Far Far the best the best as far as far as known as known to me to me which which have have ever ever been been made made said. There's said. a great There's a great letter. letter. Where Where don don thanks? thanks? Mary Mary trait trait for some for some observations observations on dresser. on dresser. I am I glad am glad to hear to hear your observations. your observations. On Dresser On Dresser will will be be published. The unlucky fly a common housefly. Would no sooner be caught by the sticky? Glands of it would've once commenced to fold about its victims. It folded from the apex to the stem of the lake. After the manner of its nation closer and closer it held the poor flying embrace until it ceased its struggles when it soon became partly absorbed by the plant. Professor Gray will give my observations on this planned in his new edition of how plants grow was most respectfully Mrs Mary. Treat New Jersey December. Twenty eight hundred seventy one. I have attended to this subject during several years and have almost manuscript enough to make a volume but have never yet found time to publish. I am very much obliged. You'RE COURTEOUS LEGEND AND REMAIN DIM Adam yours faithfully. Charles Darwin January five eighteen seventy two.

Mary Mary Australia Sarah Sarah Charles Charles Darwin Darwin Dresser On Dresser Mrs Mrs Trait Natasha Natasha Mitchell Mitch Charles Darwin Matz Matz Western Australia Australia Sanju Eli Eli Bush Bush Kingdom Kingdom Dahlan Krant Krant Palo Palo
"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

Science Friction

05:35 min | 1 year ago

"charles darwin" Discussed on Science Friction

"They gleason and CREPE and climb and snap end. They feed off flesh. Flies Matz any culinary delight by intrepid? Natasha Mitchell back in the world's hotspot for carnivorous plants or Western Australia last week. Show sit sane. Well today. It's a tile full of twists and tendrils. Yes Trust Sarah. I can all over the world. I just bought another one. Sorry wearies Navan. I have devoted much time to a class of plants that seemed to have reversed regular order of nature and like avengers of Kingdom have turned upon animals incarcerating and finally killing them whether the plants are really hungry and entrapped the animals for food or whether it is only an example of the wanton destructiveness of nature. I leave the Rita to judge. Mary treat eighteen eighty five throughout history. The great botanical artists have often been women but many of them infect scientists to just without the endorsement of the botanical establishment which often shunned or ignored them. The pint brush deemed more appropriate tool for lady than a microscope. I guess botany has always being an interesting one because I suppose that the study of flowers and plants historically was maybe seen in a bit more of a suitable for for women feminine because of flowers and that sort of thing but still it it was still also quite male dominated. I guess in terms of the scholars in that field throughout history. Well one determined woman on a farm in way belt Western. Australia defied the odds and changed the world sore. Australia's incredible carnivorous plants and listened to artists so with Laura Skates botanical scientists doing her PhD on canvas plants. Right now I am taking you down. Bush trial in pursuit of her story. Oh is that it. Yup Oh cute so this is actually one of the climbing ones that I was just talking about so new sixty centimeters long and it's just spreading out of embankment. He and a lot more of them seem to have caught prey on this one. I think it might be dresser. A Men's Eli address or Krant though. Draw ceramic cram throw or the bridal rainbow with its little sunlight sticky leaves hence the name. Sanju it was a man English naturalist and Biologist Charles Darwin nonetheless who is a first credited with helping us understand that coniferous plants lived off flesh. His particularly interested in is a European species. Coatdress ERA TON. Two folio which he did a lot of his experiments on so he would put different things on the leaves like for example he would put a piece of sand orbit of gloss and not really see any reaction but if you put something like little piece of EG or some meat juices suddenly the plant would have reaction to that and the tentacles would start to wrap around so what he basically showed. Is that these plants are reacting to is that have not gene or protein in them so the plants. I almost instantaneously. They know not. That's a be the sand economy that cheese. I eight that yeah exactly so you know. They don't waste any energy wrapping around something. That's not going to be nutritious day instead. Wraparound when it's going to be something that will give them a good boost of nitrogen. I mean even in my PhD thesis. I go back to Dahlan's original studies and some of his original thoughts and ideas things that with testing to this day and so he really liked the groundwork for set the foundation full of Verse Plant Research But one American woman was on the case of carnivorous plants. Around the same time as Darwin. I will give you my observations on draw. Sarah would have escaped the notice of botanists and she struck up a correspondence with Darwin in a series of letters from eighteen. Seventy one four years before he got to publishing his influential on insect diverse plants. I had two or three species of plants growing window ornaments and soon saw the deal on the folio was a flytrap of considerable. Palo when it comes to reverse plants one of the best women that I kind of came across in my studies was Mary trait and I came across her because he in Child Allen's book insectivores plants. There was a little foot art that talked about what Mary Trait had done to contribute to that particular chapter and I thought wow. Who's Mrs Trait? I WANNA find out more about her de Madame. Your observations and experiments on the sexes of butterflies. Far the best as far as known to me which have ever been made said. There's a great letter. Where don thanks? Mary trait for some observations on dresser. I am glad to hear your observations. On Dresser will be

Mary Trait Charles Darwin Australia Sarah Mrs Trait Rita Perth Botanical Filippini Kalinski Verse Plant Research Bush Rica Erickson Fredrika Rica Laura Eli Dodd Erickson Dahlan Krant
The carnivorous woman  a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia (Part 2)

Science Friction

05:35 min | 1 year ago

The carnivorous woman a saga from Charles Darwin to Wheatbelt Western Australia (Part 2)

"They gleason and CREPE and climb and snap end. They feed off flesh. Flies Matz any culinary delight by intrepid? Natasha Mitchell back in the world's hotspot for carnivorous plants or Western Australia last week. Show sit sane. Well today. It's a tile full of twists and tendrils. Yes Trust Sarah. I can all over the world. I just bought another one. Sorry wearies Navan. I have devoted much time to a class of plants that seemed to have reversed regular order of nature and like avengers of Kingdom have turned upon animals incarcerating and finally killing them whether the plants are really hungry and entrapped the animals for food or whether it is only an example of the wanton destructiveness of nature. I leave the Rita to judge. Mary treat eighteen eighty five throughout history. The great botanical artists have often been women but many of them infect scientists to just without the endorsement of the botanical establishment which often shunned or ignored them. The pint brush deemed more appropriate tool for lady than a microscope. I guess botany has always being an interesting one because I suppose that the study of flowers and plants historically was maybe seen in a bit more of a suitable for for women feminine because of flowers and that sort of thing but still it it was still also quite male dominated. I guess in terms of the scholars in that field throughout history. Well one determined woman on a farm in way belt Western. Australia defied the odds and changed the world sore. Australia's incredible carnivorous plants and listened to artists so with Laura Skates botanical scientists doing her PhD on canvas plants. Right now I am taking you down. Bush trial in pursuit of her story. Oh is that it. Yup Oh cute so this is actually one of the climbing ones that I was just talking about so new sixty centimeters long and it's just spreading out of embankment. He and a lot more of them seem to have caught prey on this one. I think it might be dresser. A Men's Eli address or Krant though. Draw ceramic cram throw or the bridal rainbow with its little sunlight sticky leaves hence the name. Sanju it was a man English naturalist and Biologist Charles Darwin nonetheless who is a first credited with helping us understand that coniferous plants lived off flesh. His particularly interested in is a European species. Coatdress ERA TON. Two folio which he did a lot of his experiments on so he would put different things on the leaves like for example he would put a piece of sand orbit of gloss and not really see any reaction but if you put something like little piece of EG or some meat juices suddenly the plant would have reaction to that and the tentacles would start to wrap around so what he basically showed. Is that these plants are reacting to is that have not gene or protein in them so the plants. I almost instantaneously. They know not. That's a be the sand economy that cheese. I eight that yeah exactly so you know. They don't waste any energy wrapping around something. That's not going to be nutritious day instead. Wraparound when it's going to be something that will give them a good boost of nitrogen. I mean even in my PhD thesis. I go back to Dahlan's original studies and some of his original thoughts and ideas things that with testing to this day and so he really liked the groundwork for set the foundation full of Verse Plant Research But one American woman was on the case of carnivorous plants. Around the same time as Darwin. I will give you my observations on draw. Sarah would have escaped the notice of botanists and she struck up a correspondence with Darwin in a series of letters from eighteen. Seventy one four years before he got to publishing his influential on insect diverse plants. I had two or three species of plants growing window ornaments and soon saw the deal on the folio was a flytrap of considerable. Palo when it comes to reverse plants one of the best women that I kind of came across in my studies was Mary trait and I came across her because he in Child Allen's book insectivores plants. There was a little foot art that talked about what Mary Trait had done to contribute to that particular chapter and I thought wow. Who's Mrs Trait? I WANNA find out more about her de Madame. Your observations and experiments on the sexes of butterflies. Far the best as far as known to me which have ever been made said. There's a great letter. Where don thanks? Mary trait for some observations on dresser. I am glad to hear your observations. On Dresser will be

Mary Trait Charles Darwin Australia Sarah Western Australia Natasha Mitchell Gleason Matz Rita Bush ELI DON Dahlan Verse Plant Research Krant Palo Child Allen
Author Michael Murphy on 'Golf in the Kingdom'

GOLF.com Podcast

14:12 min | 1 year ago

Author Michael Murphy on 'Golf in the Kingdom'

"This is Alan ship. I am delighted to be joined by Michael Murphy author of Golf in the Kingdom still going strong eighty nine Michael. Thank you for doing this well. It's a pleasure. You have such a unique place in the game Euro Golfing Kindo as in your early forties. I'M NOT GONNA say it was a Lark but it was a you're not you're not a Gulf writer. You're not a novelist it just emerged from you in ever. Since you've been this Oracle you've been this grand old man of letters in the game you you tell shape how think about it. So are you still tickled that all these years later people are still finding this novel enjoying it? Well I I love it. I could say channel that because it was not only the first book I wrote the First Book I never tried to ride and I started it as I was turning forty and it was published in one thousand nine hundred ninety two forty seven years ago so when I was forty one so here we are now forty eight years later and it has. His Life Taught Me. I could ride so that in itself was an enormous pleasure and a big force to shape by subsequent life. I never thought of myself as a writer. My brother Was the designated writer in our family might and he had been a successful novelist and my grandfather had delivered John. Steinbeck and Salinas or you and I were both born and You know rules can get us. Signed the kids growing up and I was supposed to be a doctor and Than the more for me Thought I'd be a psychiatrist. And then got to Stanford and found myself in class on comparative religions of that led me to the philosophy and the way of life that shaped me ever since when I was nineteen and twenty but never along the way there was thought. Start writing books so anyway. When I sat down to write this book really did come in a flood. And it's Been living in me ever since I've written eight books now but that one If it were to be one of my children Children it would be among my books. It was my first child by far the most successful and I would say influential. Books are mysterious things. I like to say sometimes. Ufo's identified writing objects you W os or you are os. Son identified reading objects that can open worlds to people. And that's what's actually happened with this book with golf in the Kingdom one of the things about our shared hometown of Salinas which is just a dusty little farming community in the Central Valley known to John. Steinbeck doesn't have that much else to recommend it. It's not that far from pebble. Beach Golf links which figures prominently in my life story and and was important part of Gulf education. So tell us about your early days of playing pebble with with your brother and of course guys would haunt the Cosby Klanbake back. When he was really a big deal with Hogan snead Nelson and Bing crosby's the star in the world so is important from Stamford but it starts with your golf education before that while. That's right I mean we've had very fortunate childhoods you and I and my brother and Yes we would there be there at the crosby so I get to follow Ben Hogan around and watched him up close and personal before and after his accident. Which was in I guess January of Nineteen forty-nine so he missed that whole year in the hospital but he used to partner with Bing crosby and that was fun and Johnny Weissmuller who was the Great Olympic champion of became Tarzan. And the movies anyway. It was those great events and of course plane pebble which to this day remains by far my favorite course and it has to be. I mean there's of course in the world I think more beautiful than pebble. There are others that when you look at them would be beautiful. But to match the incredible range of moods it gets into with the shifting light the shifting fog the filaments of fog that cut across the fairways and all but anyway quyen pebble seen Some of the players in particular Hogan up close definitely was an influence on on golfing. The King wrote about it will hoge himself makes a handful of cameos in the text. Including what was it? The moved you so much about him well his magnetism on the course then he won eight out of eleven majors. He played over that period from forty eight to fifty through fifty three and he After the accident he paid just eighteen tournaments through fifty-three thickening one ten of them. He won virtually every major so he was the top of the game. He was to golf then way. Tiger Woods has been also the quality of his presence and when he would crack this out Just by the second hole at pebble for those who have been developed. Now it's then built up but there was a big field of practice in the pros as well as the onlookers. Got To sit down and watch him. Maybe there'd be hundred. Fifty people big big arena there watching him practice and it was a sight to behold because he had an immense repertoire of shots to fade to draw low high and the silence and that meant a huge impression on me and. I'm sure that as I sat down to write though I didn't plot the book or shape the book deliberately around him that influence. I'm sure was like an acorn growing into this conscious. Us of what the game could be as a kind of If you WANNA call it Yogi you can call it contemporary. You can call Chamonix even exercise golf itself is what in the eastern martial arts. Would you could call a Kata which is a series of movements. That trigger it is said are esoteric anatomy that is the complete person we are both in the flesh and in our soul are in the consciousness itself and golf swing. You could argue is an unnatural. Act It's not like running or throwing which are species learn to do and could do To survive. But you don't take a tee up a ball and hit it at the on charging tiger you know as a member of the tribe so it's an acquired skill that requires the most gypsum concentration and commitment to play it. Well and for this reason he and other reasons it evokes corresponding states of mind which can be interfered with with strong emotions whether rage or grief or sorrow which can produce by this fiendish challenge to get this small ball into this tiny hole and to go after four five hours over the course of four miles. You know. It's on the face of an absurdity. A why are we doing this? And that can occur to while playing. Why am I doing this but you do it? And you have these incredible pleasures and experiences and then as I've discovered through Responding to the book experience you have to call super-normal Mr Cool or cold. In other words the game can do that and It helps to be in a beautiful place like Pebble Beach. The you bring to this conversation. Just leaps off the page. I mean that's I think why the book is in bird because as you say it's this pursuit of ours is is maddening. It makes no sense but we do it anyway. And we were able to put a voice to having a correspondent. Brad faxon about the book and he said what I love about it is it made it okay to to speak of these things and you gave us in vocabulary to this experience at the golfers of had. But I you can get those tools so you matriculate to Stanford and as a fellow Salinas Person. I know it's not the most open minded place to Nag towns little conservative. But you have sort of a life altering experience stafford and what exactly happened well. I was so inspired by this professor. Frederic Spiegelberg he them a born and raised in Germany and Taught was teaching Stanford Comparative Religions so I got exposed to eastern philosophy and meditation contemplation than and particularly the world view of Indian philosopher. A named Sheera window who had been educated in England very elite education. His family had instructed his patrons in England never to let him speak any Indian language so he wanted to English but he was a philosopher and writer kind of a renaissance figure and developed a worldview. That's been the most basic influence on me. There are many influences of prompted me to do what I've done and of course the mystery is. Why chose this story? I could have gotten so many other directions but I consider myself very lucky. A Norman Mailer. The writer argued that every aspiring writer is given one free one by God and that was my free one and it was the first one and it in turn golf in the kingdom has shown me that this birth of new capacities is much more common than most people realize because immediately upon publication people started letting me know about their mystical experiences called experiences on golf courses. I wrote the book on some inspiration but I if you had asked me then that people would be having experiences you know immediately lawyer. New York wrote to me and was just couldn't get over this book. It helped him understand that. How on this particular occasion he'd been standing on the T. of four hundred yard and there were no players between him and his forces have been the green said he could see clear. A ball marker the size of a dime on this whole quarter of a mile away. Two of his playing partner couldn't even see the green. I got it was there. So he wondered. Is this the sort of thing you're talking about or a woman rights to me right away and says the yearbook helped me in? Because not long ago I was playing the eighteenth hole of at my Country Club as the sun was setting and when we got to the green the sun had set but it was still shining through the green and I felt that maybe this was some after glow on my is some retinal shock or something but when they went into the clubhouse who shining through the walls and it shown like that for three days and I was in an exaltation and thank you for writing the book because I found author who bite understand this experience so when you then I started getting these things. It pushed me in the direction of seeing the genius of sport to elicit this experience but not reported by sportswriters very often. You know there've been a few writers who have glimpsed this John Updike. He recognized this and Bernard Darwin. You know the great writer grandson. Charles Darwin he read the links of either down one of his short stories. I mean he certainly could see it. The mystery of golf by Arnold Hall Taint. So there's been a vein of golf writing that shows this power of the game not only to enchant but to reveal these capacities so that in turn has led me into other sports. And so I've been out to meet with coaches and players of ever since about what you would call the inner game of Sport and that Inter has led me to appreciate how prevalent it is in everyday life but not commonly discussed and recognized until recently. Thank you God for giving me go for the Kingdom as my first book.

Golf Writer John Updike Salinas Steinbeck Bing Crosby Michael Murphy Partner Ben Hogan Pebble Beach Oracle Alan Bernard Darwin Tiger Woods Charles Darwin Country Club Brad Faxon Stanford Johnny Weissmuller Cosby Klanbake
BrainStuff Classics: Are Plants Conscious?

BrainStuff

05:13 min | 2 years ago

BrainStuff Classics: Are Plants Conscious?

"Hey rain stuff. I'm more in Vogel bomb and this is another a classic episode from our former host This one deals with the question to which the answer may seem obvious but research has made more complicated. Our plants unconscious Abe rain stuff. It's Christian Sager. So there's this old episode of Star Trek called Wink of even I. You may have seen it. There's this race of aliens that live in hyper sped up acceleration so when the crew of the enterprise appears to meet up with with them they seem so slow that they're unable to move. Now imagine that scenario if you were the aliens wouldn't you assume humans humans were unhurt objects with no consciousness. Now let's take this and apply it to our relationship with plants. When we watched videos of plant life sped up we see their lively movement but even though plants move and respond to stimuli? They're not conscious right otherwise. Every time time we ate vegetables we'd be causing them pain. Wait wait a minute Kim. Plants feel pain. Well okay there is. This guy wants his name was Charles. Charles Darwin you might have heard of him and he wants proposed. Something called the root brain hypothesis. He proposed that the tip of a plant's root could act like a brain does in some animals receiving sensory input and directing movement in the years since Darwin made this proposal. There's been a growing movement in science called plant neurobiology and it debates the way we think about plants and consciousness justness other scientists hate this term but who cares because here some of the things we know about plants because of this really unusual research research. Let's start with plant senses. We know that plants have a variety of sense. Some that can actually act as analogues is to our sight smell touch taste and hearing in fact. There's evidence that when plants here the sound of a caterpillar chewing on a leaf life. They respond defensively by producing chemicals. Like mustard oil. This happens even if the sound is a recording and nothing is eating the plant creepy right. Plants can also communicate sometimes plant. Chemical production is like a method of communicating communicating with other plants. So here's an example that smell of freshly cut grass that we all know that's actually a distress call to warn other plants chance of danger. It's true in gardens. No one can hear you scream now. When this distress call reaches other plants they will also emit the chemicals to warn their neighbors as well and these calls can even work on different species of plant? For instance a sage plant can signal a tobacco acco plant to emit an odor that's noxious to animals. That are eating the sage all right. So you hear the term plant neurobiology and you say but plants plants. Don't have brains. Well one of the reasons why many scientists hate that term is because plants don't have neurons but they do produce neuro active chemicals that act like those in the human brain glutamate receptors form memories in humans and they're also also found in plants and some hormones are transported around plants similar to how neurotransmitters move through animal brains likewise some plants are vulnerable to drugs that disrupt neuro transmitters in the human brain like PROZAC or methamphetamines. Peta means they even produced their own ethylene which is possibly used as an anesthetic. When they're stressed out? Plants even have a kind of nervous system in that may allow information to travel around the plant via electrical signals. So if plants have sort of brains brain's do they remember stuff. Well yeah plants also have their own kind of memory. In fact there's a plant called the Mosa Deka plant in closes its leaflets immediately after their touched but because this requires energy. The plant won't do it if it's unnecessary. However when researchers dropped potted mimosas fifteen

Charles Darwin Vogel Bomb Christian Sager Mosa Deka KIM Prozac Peta
What Is Agnosticism?

BrainStuff

06:30 min | 2 years ago

What Is Agnosticism?

"Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Bogle bomb here. It's called the rise of the nuns, the rapid increase in the number of Americans who claim to have no religious beliefs that has taken place in the last decade, or so when pews religious landscape study came out in two thousand fifteen it showed that the percentage of atheists in America had doubled from one point six two thousand seven to three point one in two thousand fourteen. Meanwhile, the percentage of agnostics had just about doubled from two point four to four point. Oh, but these terms agnostic an atheist are often confused. Let's unpack them people choose to identify as religiously agnostic for a variety of personal reasons philosophical, psychological, theological or even political, but it's not that agnostics are spiritual fence sitters unwilling to state whether they believe in God or don't true it necessarily. It turns out has nothing to do with belief at all. The term agnostic system was first coined by English biologist Thomas, Henry Huxley who lived in the mid to late eighteen hundreds. He was a fierce defender of Charles Darwin against religious critics who accused him of denying God's role in creation as a scientist Huxley didn't concern himself with beliefs he sought after facts, and the fact of any proposition, for example, that God created the vast diversity of nature or that evolved from natural selection. Could only be proven by the evidence Huxley stated that narcissism itself wasn't a creed or set of beliefs, but a principle namely, quote that it is wrong for man to say he is certain of the objective truth of a proposition unless he can produce evidence which logically justifies that certainty. The word itself was a combination of the prefix a meaning against or opposite and NAS Decem which comes from a Greek word meaning knowledge necessary. I'm was a religious movement that flourished in the first and second centuries, CE and held that among other things the spirit world was good and the material world was evil. And although the principle of agnostic system doesn't exclusively apply to the question of God's existence. You can be agnostic about any proposition. It's been wrapped up in religion. Since the beginning Huxley wrote, a friend in eighteen sixty I neither affirm nor deny that immortality of men. I see no reason for believing it. But on the other hand, I have no means of disproving it gives me such evidence. As would justify me in believing anything else, and I will believe that. So that's awesome. But what about atheism, atheism? According to its classical definition is the lack of belief in God or that God is the biblical Judeo Christian God or some other higher power is separate issue. The opposite of atheism is theism the belief that God exists, atheism. And theism are thus both metaphysical claims because they assert an answer to a question about the nature of reality. Agnostic system on the other hand doesn't take a position on whether God exists. Instead, it takes a position on whether or not we can know if God exists. This is thus a physical or pissed him logical question this democracy being these study of knowledge at NAS to some claims that we cannot know if God does or does not exist because there's no compelling evidence that either proposition is true. At least not yet. You might think that agnostics as them is nothing more than a handy way to dodge the question of whether you believe in God instead of saying, yes, or no the agnostic chooses a third position neither. But this is where things can get Harry. We spoke with Paul Draper, a professor at Purdue University who specializes in the philosophy of religion. He's witnessed his fair share of arguments between atheists agnostics he said people get so angry about this. The eighth will say you call yourself at agnostic, but you're really an atheist and you can see the eighth yeasts point at face value. It seems there's a razor thin line between saying. I don't see any evidence that got exists. And I don't believe the God exists. But the difference is that you can be an agnostic and atheist just as you can be an agnostic to believe in Christian or Buddhist or Muslim that's because agnostic schism at its core is separate and unrelated to questions of faith. Let's explain agnostics are nearly always lumped together with atheists as a type of non believer the Pew Research Center defined religious nuns as being either atheists agnostics or not affiliated with any particular religion. But it must isn't itself. A belief system. One could believe on face the God exists, but still ascribed the agnostic position that God's existence cannot be proven by physical evidence or rational arguments such a person would be an agnostic theorist. There's even a school of theology called apathetic theology. The claims that God is inherently unknowable. Thomas Aquinas, the thirteenth century philosopher and the Logan wrote. Now, we cannot know what God is. But only what God is not we must therefore consider the ways in which God does not exist rather than the ways in which God does according to seventy two percent of religious nuns. The group that does include easiest and agnostics do believe in a higher power. However, while it's technically true that you can be both an agnostic and faithful believer, it's perhaps more common for agnostics to doubt the existence of God is such Bertrand. Russell the British floss for it mathematician wrote a treatise on Augusta schism in which he explained why the agnostic and atheist positions often overlap. He said the agnostic suspends judgment saying that there are not sufficient grounds either for African nation or for denial at the same time at agnostic may hold the existence of God, though, not impossible is very improbable. He may even hold it. So improbable that it's not worth considering in practice in that case he is not far removed from atheism. His attitude. Maybe that would careful philosopher would have towards the gods of agent, Greece. If I were asked to prove that Zeus Poseidon inherit and the rest of the Olympics, do not exist. I should be at a loss to find conclusive arguments. An agnostic may think the Christian God as improbable as the Olympia ins in that case, he is for practical purposes at one with atheists. As we said at the beginning. The reasons for identifying as agnostic are myriad and different for every person Draper who has participated in high profile debates with Christian philosophers calls himself, a local eighth easiest and global agnostic. He explained I'm an atheist about the all powerful all knowing all good God, I'm agnostic about God. In a broader sense. Is there some being the qualifies for the title? God. There could be such a

Henry Huxley Paul Draper Thomas Aquinas Lauren Bogle America Charles Darwin Pew Research Center Greece Purdue University Harry Scientist Olympics Augusta Russell Professor Logan Seventy Two Percent
What Is the Humboldt Ocean Current?

BrainStuff

06:03 min | 2 years ago

What Is the Humboldt Ocean Current?

"Today's episode is brought to you by gravity blankets. They make weighted blankets these blankets that contain fine grade glass. Beads to weigh them down when you curl up under one it's supposed to simulate the feeling of being gently held her hugged. They sent me want to try out. And I genuinely love this thing it is so comforting and relaxing. It puts me in the mood to sleep right away. The microphone duvet cover is incredibly soft, and has these ingenious little internal clasps to keep it in place if you'd like to try a gravity blanket for yourself. Let them know that we sent you and get fifteen percent off your order by entering the code brain stuff at checkout. It's one word. That's gravity. Blankets dot com. Promo code brain stuff. Welcome to brain stuff. A production of I heart radio. Hey, brain stuff, Lauren Vogel bomb here in December eighteen o two small sailing. Ship called the casino set sail from Peru northward along the South American coastline toward Gua quill in present-day Ecuador, a trip of about seven hundred miles or about one thousand one hundred kilometers one of the ship's. Passengers was thirty three year old Prussian aristocrat Alexander von Humboldt. A mining engineer by training Humboldt had an insatiable curiosity about nature that led him to roam the planet studying plants and animals as well as phenomena ranging from magnetic rocks to river systems in ocean currents fresh from studying the value of bat guano as minority because y'all humble used the sailing trip to investigate a powerful cold current that flowed from the tip of Chile to northern Peru ranging from just offshore to about six hundred miles off the coast. That's just under a thousand kilometers the current existence had been known for centuries to sailors and fishermen, but no scientists had ever systematically studied the flow Humboldt carefully measured the water temperature. The speed and continued on his journey, which eventually would lead him to Mexico. Humbles work was the beginning of scientific understanding of what's now known as the Humboldt current or the Peru current the current helps hold warm moist air off the coast keeping the climate cool. It also pulls plankton rich water from deep in the Pacific to the surface. Feeding a vast number and variety efficient birds and creating the richest marine ecosystem on the planet. It's fishing grounds. Provide about six percent of the world's catch and the Humboldt Kerns nutrients support the marine food chain of the Galapagos islands and influence its climate as well, it has helped make possible the archipelago's incredible bio-diversity in that sense. The Humboldt current also helped shape the development of evolutionary theory, the Galapagos provided the living laboratory for another nineteenth century scientist, Charles Darwin, who's paradigm shift and work on the origin of the species was published in eighteen fifty nine the year of humbled death. Darwin himself was inspired by the work of Humboldt who might be the most important scientists that we don't care much about the early to mid eighteen hundreds though, he might have been the most renowned researcher on the planet. I'm what was the first to investigate the relationship between mean temperature in elevating and came up with the concept of maps with isotherm aligns the delineate areas with the same temperature at a given time he did important early work on the origin of tropical storms. Most importantly Humboldt altered the way that scientists see the natural world by finding interconnections. This scientists invented the concept of a web of life. What he called this great chain of causes and effects some consider him to be the first to college issed. He was a head of the curve on understanding environmental problems such as deforestation and its effect upon climate, which he I observed around lake Lancia in Venezuela back in eighteen hundred Humboldt was also predecessor to Albert Einstein as a scientist with a strong interest in social Justice. He was a critic of colonialism and supported revolution. Mary movements in South America. And also criticized the US a country, he otherwise admired for its institution of slavery. We spoke by Email with Aaron Sachs history, professor at Cornell University and author of the Humboldt current nineteenth century exploration. And the roots of American environmentalism he thinks that rather than focusing on humbled scientific discoveries. It's more important to look the insights and approaches to the work that we're based upon his research and observations he said to me his version of ecology was significant not just because he stressed interconnection. But because he combined it with a social and ethical perspective. The fact of interconnection had certain implications with regard to human responsibilities toward each other and the environment. It was a cosmopolitan open minded ecology. Today's episode was written by Patrick j tiger and participate. Tyler claim brain stuff is production of iheartradio's. How stuff works for more on this and lots of other interconnected, topics? Visit our home planet has stuff works dot com. In for more podcast, my heart radio, I heart radio app, apple podcasts, or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Hi there. It's me Josh Clark. And if you love the beautiful musical score that point Lobo created for the end of the world of Josh Clark. Then you can rejoice. It's now available as the original soundtrack album sixteen tracks selected and remastered by point logo capture the highs the imagination and the far out of the series, and they all come together to make really great album. It's like the spirit of the series now in a convenient capsule. You can get the end of the world with Josh Clark original soundtrack album everywhere. You get music online apple music, I tunes iheartradio Spotify. Amazon everywhere. Could check it out today.

Humboldt Scientist Alexander Von Humboldt Humboldt Kerns Josh Clark Peru Iheartradio Galapagos Apple Lauren Vogel South America Ecuador Charles Darwin United States Aaron Sachs Gua Quill Mexico
17 Inspiring Life Quotes

The Digital Vibe

03:37 min | 2 years ago

17 Inspiring Life Quotes

"Successful life. Because everybody experiences this thing. But it's how we handle it how we manage it. How we approach it. And some suffer more than others some suffer very little and some not at all. So. Seventeen quotes. Let's go number one. I think being in love with life is the key to return youth. Doug hutchinson? Number two, you only for short. Visit don't hurry. Don't worry and be sure to smell the flowers along the way. Walter hagen. Number three. A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discover the true value of life. Charles darwin. If life were predictable would cease to be life. And be without flavor. Eleanor roosevelt. Gosh. So true. Number five all life is an experiment. The more experiments you make the better Ralph WALDO Emerson. Number six all of life is peaks and valleys, don't let the peaks get too high and the valleys too low John wooden. Number seven find ecstasy in life. Find your joy, find your sweet spot. The mayor sense of living is joy enough. Emily Dickenson number eight my mission in life is not milita survive. But the thrive and to do so with some passion, some compassion some humor and some style. My Angelo number nine, however, difficult life may seem. There was always something you can do and succeed at Stephen Hawkin number ten. Life is like riding a bicycle to keep your balance. You must keep moving Albert Einstein. Number eleven the more you praise and celebrate your life. The more there is in life. To celebrate Oprah Winfrey. Number twelve. The most important thing is to enjoy your life to be happy. It's all that matters. Audrey hepburn. Number thirteen. I enjoyed life. When things are happening. I don't care if it's good things or bad things. That means you're live Joan rivers. Fourteen life is short and is up to you to make it sweet, Sarah, Louise, Delaney. Number fifteen life, doesn't require that. We'd be the best only that we try best. H Jackson Browne junior number sixteen. I always like to look at Optima side of life. But I'm realistic enough to know that life is complex. No matter mall Disney. Number seventeen the truth. Is you don't know what is going to happen? Tomorrow. Life is a crazy ride and nothing's guaranteed Eminem.

Ralph Waldo Emerson Emily Dickenson Oprah Winfrey Eleanor Roosevelt Audrey Hepburn Charles Darwin Doug Hutchinson Walter Hagen Albert Einstein Optima Stephen Hawkin Jackson Browne John Wooden Disney Joan Rivers Angelo Sarah Delaney Louise One Hour
Andros Unexplored Blue Holes

Curiosity Daily

03:04 min | 3 years ago

Andros Unexplored Blue Holes

"You've probably heard of the Galapagos islands. That's where Charles Darwin was inspired to develop the theory of evolution. And it's home to a huge number of species that you won't find anywhere else on earth. What you may not know is there's a spot in the Bahamas that may also have a startling variety of life. But we don't know because we've barely scratched the surface exploring it. I'm talking about Andros the largest island in the Bahamas. You one. Listen up if you like diving or snorkeling snorkeling is really cool. Actually, I went snorkeling and believes for the first time a few months ago, and I was really surprised how much I loved it. I've never done it. That sounds great. It's like you're spying on another universe. All the life down there and millions of little fishes, and you're just like. Wow, too big world awesome. Yeah. So underwater adventures listen up the thing about Andrews is that it's home to more than two hundred blue holes there underwater, cave systems that go as deep as almost a thousand feet. Blue holes are home to ancient limestone, caves carved into the ocean floor during the ice ages glacial runoff a road the limestone earth in that formed elaborate cave systems once the glaciers melted. The sea levels rose and the caves flooded. And that's what created the mysterious. Blue sinkholes that exist today when these blue holes are found out in the oceans their appropriately named for their indigo centers and light blue perimeters. They follow the rules of the ocean. Subject to tides and home to the same species found in the surrounding area. But while these offshore blue holes are visually. The most familiar Andrews has more than one hundred seventy five inland. Blue holes there tucked away in wooded parts of the island, and they're very different from offshore blue holes, and quite frankly anything else on earth. They look black. Thanks to the accumulation of dead bacteria from fallen trees and leaves from the surface. They look just like swamps. But what lies beneath is incredible see because of the reduced title flow. These blue holes are sharply stratified by a thin layer of freshwater on the surface that stops oxygen from reaching the dense saltwater below the result is an ecological anomaly, you end up with an underwater world of prehistoric species that are still capable of surviving in an oxygen free environment. Like that of early earth instead of oxygen the wa. Is chock full of another gas called hydrogen sulfide, which potentially fatal to humans until recently. Very few people have dived in these dangerous inland blue holes, but as of late scientists have started investigating just how other-worldly they actually are in twenty eleven biologists performed DNA analyses of microbes across five different Bahamian, blue holes and found absolutely no shared species, thousands of experienced divers flock to Andrews every year to get a taste for these underwater Marvel's, but snorkeling the surface is also a popular activity dive in and you may find some clues to the

Andrews Bahamas Charles Darwin Andros Thousand Feet
Messy Office Traits

Curiosity Daily

04:38 min | 3 years ago

Messy Office Traits

"It It you you need need help help getting getting organized, organized, then then you've you've come come to to the the right right place. place. We've We've got got a a special special offer offer for for curiosity curiosity daily daily listeners. listeners. From From today's today's sponsor sponsor skill skill share share skill skill share share is is an an online online learning learning community community for for creators creators with with more more than than twenty twenty five five thousand thousand classes, classes, and and design design business business and and more. more. You'll You'll discover discover countless countless ways ways to to fuel fuel your your curiosity curiosity and and creativity creativity and and career career you you can can take take classes classes and and social social media media marketing marketing mobile mobile photography, photography, creative creative writing. writing. Or Or even even illustration illustration skill skill shares shares there there to to keep keep you you learning learning thriving thriving in in reaching reaching your your goals goals for for the the new new year. year. Whether Whether you're you're looking looking to to discover discover a a new new passion passion start start a a side side hustle hustle or or gain gain new new professional professional skills. skills. I'm I'm not not really really big big on on New New Year's Year's resolutions. resolutions. But But I I have have been been wanting wanting to to set set some some goals goals this this year year and and get get my my life life a a little little more more organized. organized. Thankfully, Thankfully, there's there's a a class class for for that that called called setting setting goals goals and and getting getting organized organized it's it's taught taught by by Chris Chris Croft Croft who who is is the the author author of of several several books books and and one one of of the the UK UK is is leading leading trainers. trainers. Chris Chris isn't isn't the the only only pro pro on on the the site. site. In In fact, fact, skill skill Shas Shas classes classes are are all all taught taught by by real real experts experts in in their their field field or or public public motivational motivational speakers. speakers. And And today today you you can can join join the the millions millions of of students students already already learning learning on on skill skill share share with with a a special special offer offer just just for for curiosity curiosity daily daily listeners. listeners. Get Get two two months months of of skill skill share share for for free. free. That's That's right right skill skill share share is is offering offering curiosity curiosity daily daily listeners listeners two two months months of of unlimited unlimited access access to to over over twenty twenty five five thousand thousand classes classes for for free free to to sign sign up. up. Go Go to to skill skill show show dot dot com com slash slash curiosity. curiosity. Again. Again. Go Go to to skill skill share share dot dot com com slash slash curiosity curiosity to to start start your your two two months months now now when when we're we're time time that that skill skill shot shot dot dot com com slash slash curiosity. curiosity. Here's Here's a a weird weird idea. idea. Humans Humans have have made made friends friends with with lots lots of of different different animals, animals, we've we've domesticated domesticated dogs dogs cats cats horses horses and and even even cows. cows. But But a a lot lot of of scientists scientists say say we we humans humans show show all all the the same same signs signs of of being being domesticated domesticated as as those those animals animals do do so so today today in in things things you you might might have have talked talked about about late late at at night night near near college. college. Dorm Dorm room room we we ask ask who who exactly exactly domesticated domesticated us. us. Trust Trust me, me, when when I I say, say, you you probably probably won't won't guess, guess, let let me me guess guess is. is. It It the the same same things things that that built built the the pyramids pyramids and and Stonehenge. Stonehenge. It's It's not not aliens. aliens. I I didn't. didn't. Specifically. Specifically. Well, Well, humans humans built built those those things. things. So So humans humans didn't didn't domesticate domesticate humans humans or or did. did. They. They. I'll I'll let let you you tell tell me. me. All All right. right. Well, Well, scientists scientists aren't aren't exactly exactly sure sure why why some some animals animals are are able able to to be be domesticated domesticated and and some some art art wolves wolves turned turned into into dogs. dogs. But But most most FOX's FOX's were were never never tamed tamed and and horses horses are are one one of of the the most most successful successful domesticated domesticated animals animals in in history. history. But But zebras zebras are are almost almost impossible impossible to to tame. tame. We We also also know know that that lots lots of of mammals mammals take take on on certain certain traits traits as as they they grow grow more, more, domesticated. domesticated. Not Not just just behavioral behavioral things things but but physical physical stuff stuff to to like like smaller smaller teeth teeth shorter shorter face face and and floppy floppy ears. ears. Charles Charles Darwin Darwin called called this this domestication domestication syndrome, syndrome, and and humans humans exhibit exhibit those those qualities qualities too. too. I I mean, mean, just just look look at at how how small small our our teeth teeth are are compared compared to to chimpanzees, chimpanzees, for for example. example. So So a a few few men's men's exhibit exhibit physical physical and and social social traits traits of of many many domesticated domesticated species, species, then then who who domesticated domesticated us us the the obvious obvious answer answer is is that that we we domesticated domesticated ourselves. ourselves. So So we we could could live live in in peace peace in in large large communities communities that that there's there's another another theory. theory. Get Get ready ready for for this this one. one. Maybe Maybe we we were were domesticated domesticated by by weet. weet. Yes, Yes, we we eat. eat. The The plant plant weed weed is is a a grass grass that that originated originated in in the. the. Middle Middle East, East, and and it it takes takes a a lot lot of of work work to to grow grow before. before. We We started started growing growing wheat. wheat. We We were were doing doing just just fine fine as as hunter hunter gatherers, gatherers, but but then then we'd we'd came came along along and and gave gave us us a a delicious delicious nutritious nutritious and and easy easy to to store store food food source. source. So So human human started started clearing clearing rocks rocks from from field. field. So So it it could could spread spread and and spending spending days days in in the the hot hot sun, sun, pulling pulling up up weeds weeds that that might might compete compete with with it it for for nutrients nutrients and and coming coming up up with with techniques techniques like like irrigation irrigation and and fertilizer fertilizer to to make make sure sure it it could could thrive. thrive. It's It's a a pretty pretty convincing convincing case. case. And And it's it's got got to to seeing seeing the the gluten gluten free free movement movement in in a a whole whole new new light. light. Don't Don't forget forget that that this this week week Ashley, Ashley, and and I I are are going going to to be be on on the the ground ground at at C C E E S, S, the the Consumer Consumer Electronics Electronics Show Show in in Las Las Vegas, Vegas, and and you you can can watch watch us us podcast podcast from from CAS CAS live live on on Facebook. Facebook. That's That's right. right. We'll We'll be be talking talking to to experts experts about about the the latest latest and and greatest greatest technology technology and and the the science science behind behind your your gadgets gadgets and and devices devices keep keep an an eye eye on on our our Facebook Facebook page page this this Thursday, Thursday, January January tenth tenth and and Friday. Friday. January January eleventh eleventh you'll you'll also also be be able able to to catch catch the the replay replay on on our our Facebook Facebook page page if if you you miss miss it it live live or or super super excited excited to to be be CAS CAS in in cooperation cooperation with with EMT EMT performance performance materials materials of of business business of of Merck. Merck. Aga. Aga. Doc, Doc, Germany, Germany, and and if if you're you're not not on on Facebook, Facebook, then then just just keep keep listening listening to to podcast podcast because because we'll we'll be be bringing bringing you you special special Saturday Saturday editions editions if if our our show show in in few few weeks weeks to to share share what what we we learned learned it. it. See See yes yes to to make make sure sure you you don't don't miss miss out out on on the the excitement excitement to to stay stay subscribed subscribed to to curiosity curiosity daily daily on on your your favorite favorite podcast podcast app. app. Or Or visit visit our our Facebook Facebook page page at at Facebook Facebook dot dot com com slash slash curiosity curiosity dot dot com. com. All All spelled spelled out out again. again. We'll We'll be be live live January January tenth tenth and and eleventh. eleventh. We We hope hope to to see see you you there. there. Join Join us us again again tomorrow tomorrow for for the the award award winning winning curiosity curiosity daily. daily. And And learn learn something something new new in in just just a a few few minutes. minutes. I'm I'm Cody Cody gov, gov, and and I'm I'm Ashley Ashley gamer, gamer, stay stay curious. curious. On On the the Westwood Westwood One One podcast podcast network. network.

Facebook Ashley Ashley AGA Chris Chris Croft Croft Chris Chris Middle East Charles Charles Darwin Darwin UK Westwood Westwood Cody Cody Merck FOX Germany Vegas C C E E S Las Las Vegas