5 Burst results for "Chandra Gupta"
"chandra gupta" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
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Adobe sign as we said before the break are sent away spent most of her childhood and youth alexandria. her brothers and half brothers were educated. Through tutors. and it's possible that she and her sister and her half sisters shared in that education as well. But we don't really know for sure really. We know almost nothing as childhood or upbringing. But we do know that her family's position at court was not all that secure as we said earlier. There was a lot of jockeying among the king's wives and as they tried to establish a line of succession among all of those assorted marriages and families while our sit away was in alexandria her mother bear. Itchy wasn't at the top of this hierarchy. Instead ptolemy the first favourite his first wife eurydice and her son ptolemy care knows was as a consequence the presumed successor to the throne another source of instability in our cinemas childhood would have been the ongoing warfare among the data guy in three zero one bc e ptolemy united with simas salukis. The first nike. Under and cassandra against antagonise the i and his son dimitrius the first antagonists and dimitrius ruled western asia. The battle between all these forces took place at epsom and ptolemy and his allies were victorious. Thanks in part to elephants that were contributed by marin emperor chandra gupta we talked about gender group does alliance with lucas and our episode on a shoka the righteous back in may of two thousand twenty. This victory led to a whole string of marriages. Among the four victorious data kyw and their relatives this included arsenio as marriage to licensed in about three hundred bc e licentious was king of thrace and he also took control of what had been antigone his territory after the battle of emphasis are was probably in her teens. When this marriage took place and lie semicos` was in his fifties or sixties and although it was pretty common for men so mary younger women. This age difference was a lot more dramatic than usual and that led to a lot of really derisive jokes and unflattering depictions of both of them basically with her being branded as gold digging schemer and him as a doddering old man even though really he was still pretty spry. He was an active military leader. When they got married arsenio a moved to the capital of license on the peninsula. In what is now turkey. She in syndicates had three sons over the next six years ptolemy born around two ninety nine. bc e. license. Circus round to ninety-seven seven and philip. Born around two ninety four moving away from her father's court and her mother's subordinate position. There did not free our sin away from the kind of rivalries and infighting that she had grown up in though my stomach is already had at least three other wives sia a masters and a persian woman whose name is not recorded that last marriage had taken place during a mass wedding that alexander the great arranged in susa in three twenty four bc e this is marriage of eighty high ranking greek men to persian noble women and it was meant to symbolically unify greece and persia and to create a generation of at least hypothetically loyal offspring from these marriages. Children would be considered both greek and persian ptolemy. The i had also married his wife. Arctic sony although she started out in a more subordinate position or status during her marriage to lie. Simas icus rose. Thanks to some events that happened back in egypt. One was that her brother. Ptolemy the second was named ptolemy the first co monarch in two thousand five e c e there are also records of bernie cheese chariot team winning at the olympic games. And if this was arsenio as mother she would have shared in the glorious. Well it is however not one hundred percent clear which bear ichi. This was or exactly when it happened there at a whole paper locally which h. e. one at the olympic games. It sounds like a very weird setup for a sitcom regardless of weather that really was her mother. Arsenio as name comes up and accounts of less emphasis deeds king and the names of his other wives. Don't buy some icus. Renamed cities after himself and his family including are sent away. He also gave her control of cassandra in northern greece as well as three other smaller cities that were all along the black sea in two eighty four bc. Eli simancas oldest son. I guess oakley's son mnisi was accused of treason accounts of what happened. Contradict each other pretty dramatically in some are sent away manipulated leisa mikus into suspecting his son of plotting against him something that she could have done to try to secure a future for her own sons but in some accounts are sin away was infatuated with episodes lease and he rejected her and thus she plotted against him to get revenge. There's no actual documentation of that but it kind of ties into the whole idea that there was this gigantic age difference between her and her husband. And what if she may be like this younger closer to her own age man at court other sources do not involve arsenal in this at all. Though they describe life is coming to the suspicion on his own but then kind of filtering his response through our sent away to distance himself from it or instill other accounts agathocleus really was plotting against his father trying to guarantee his own position as the future king and then that plot was discovered lots of different options here regardless of what actually happened. Agathocleus was tried and executed. Here's a moment where the convoluted ptolemaic family really comes into play so just brace agatha. Cleese's widow was arsenio as half sister. Lie sandra daughter of ptolemy the i and eurydice and to recap ptolemy rita see son ptolemy karen moss had been ptolemies presumed successor before he named arsenio as full brother ptolemy the second as his co. ruler into eighty five. It is possible that this entire accusation against folk lease was precipitated by karen joining his sister at liceu accuses court after having been displaced from the court of ptolemy. The i if so this whole incident may have been connected to the rivalry between ptolemies wives. Barron itchy and you're it ac- and by extension their children after agatha cleese's death la- sandra and karen hughes who were just gonna call karen us because there are too many ptolemies. They've went to salukis the first night cater for aid. And that leads you a war between race and the solution empire although semi kiss and taking control of territory and western after the battle of abscess a lot of the political leaders and people they're sited with lucas. The war between life micheals and salukis finally ended with the battle of corp idiom in eighty one. We see this is actually the last battle in the worst of the data. Kyw and micheals who at this point was almost eighty was killed in battle. Arsenio way was about thirty five at this point and she had accompanied by syndicates to war but not to the actual battle. She stayed behind an emphasis but that city's residents wound up siding with the solutions and the gate for the saluted army arsenio as described as escaping the city disguised in rags while one of her attendants put on her royal garments and acted as a decoy. In some accounts this decoy was killed but in other she survived. Since our sin away had been given control of cass andrea and still had supporters there. She fled to that city and went into hiding. This is already south so much drama. But then ptolemy care knows turned on salukis. They had been in the process of conquering what was left of arsenault. As late husband's kingdom. They had crossed the hill spot. Which is now known as the dardanelles into threes when karen stabbed salukis to death may actually be what earned him the nickname karen house. Which means thunderbolt then ptolemy carreno turned his attention to his half sister our sin away. We're going to get into that. 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Agatha cleese's widow was arsenault as half sister sandra and after the execution she and her brother ptolemy carreno sweat to salukis the first night cater for aid salukis went to war against our as licentious who was killed in battle but then ptolemy karen house turned against salukis and killed him meanwile away fled to cass andrea which her late husband had given to her earlier on in that marriage. That is where we left off. Although ptolemy carry knows and salukis had taken a lot of the territory that lie simic has had previously held. There were still people who were loyal to our sin away and her late husband carey knows probably wanted to protect himself from those people as well as from anyone who had been loyal to salukis he probably also wanted cass andrea itself. But whatever his exact reasons were. He lay siege to that city offering to marry. His half sister are sent away and adopt her children as his own. He said he would take no other wives and have no other children. Her sons would be. His ears are sent away and ptolemy. Karen were both in their mid thirties. At this point arsenio a really had no reason to trust her half brother. Her full brother ptolemy the second had displaced him as the presumed heir to the ptolemaic kingdom he and his allies salukis had gone to war with and killed her husband. He was also literally besieging the city where she had taken refuge. That's how you wou- gal didn't you know but at the same time here's the thing. She really did not have many other options. If she and her sons managed to escape concentra there was no guarantee that they would be able to make it all the way to alexandria and to her brother's protection there before being apprehended. If she married someone with enough military and political power she might be able to defend herself against karen knows but although high ranking women in this era weren't generally forced to marry without their consent they also were not people who negotiated these unions. Their male relatives did that. You could argue. That karen knows kind of did an end. Run around that whole thing right slide. Go she aiding a marriage with his half sister himself but regardless our sin away agreed to marry ptolemy care knows she did the one thing that she really could to try to protect herself in this situation. Which was that. She demanded that the marriage ceremony be conducted in public. Karen o's agreed but then immediately afterward he murdered her two young sons leisa. Marcus and philip. Her oldest son ptolemy escaped. It's possible he just was not there when his younger brothers were murdered He was the only one of her sons who had reached adulthood by this point and there is some suggestion that he and his mother were estranged in some way our sin away was forced to flee once again this time. Taking refuge in cemeteries accounts are pretty contradictory about what karen osas. Motivations were in killing his nephews whether that really had been his plan from the beginning whatever it was though he did not wind up remaining king of all this territory for long he married our sin away in about two eighty we see e and the following year has taken was attacked by the gauls and he was killed in battle eventually. Sometime between two eighty to seventy six p. c. e. r. sin away return to egypt from cemeteries possibly taking her son ptolemy with her. It had been at least twenty years at that point since sent away had been in alexandria her brother ptolemy the second was now the king and his court had been through. Its own allegations of treachery. His first wife. Arsenio way. The i just to keep it. Confusing had been exiled under suspicion of plotting against him are sent away. The i was the daughter of our sin away. The seconds has been licensed and although it is not clear which of his wives was arsenio way the first mother she was much younger than our sin. Away the second and it's possible that elder are sent away even helped raise her. This timeline is really really fuzzy. But it seems that are sent away the first suspicion and exile happened before our sent away the second return to alexandria although some sources still trying to pin the whole thing on sin way the second a few years after returning to egypt in about two seventy three. Bc e. r. Sent away the second married. Her brother ptolemy the second and the details of this marriage aren't really noon. They had no children together. Although sent away the second did adopt arsenio way. The first children as her own ptolemy did not take any other wives after marrying his sister although he did have several concubines are sent away and ptolemy were both given the moniker philadel- or sibling loving arsenis earlier. Marriage to her half brother. Tommy karen moss had been unusual in the greek world. Such a marriage was totally unheard of and it was legally permitted in some places but marrying her full brother ptolemy. The second would have been far more unusual among the greeks. It wasn't really unusual in the egyptian society. The ptolemies were ruling though at least not for egyptian royalty. We talked about this in our episode on sep shit back in two thousand nineteen in addition king often took a sister or half sister as his great royal wife with that pairing echoing back to egyptian story in that story. The got a tomb had no partner and created a pair of sibling. Deities who in turn created another pair of sibling deities their descendants continuing that line in pairs. It doesn't seem like this brother. Sister marriage was asked taboo in the ancient greek world. It would be in the west today. And there's really almost no surviving account of the actual greek response to it. At the time. Arsenault way ptolemy did take some steps to try to normalize it including comparing themselves to the greek deities zeus and hera who were also married siblings. They also made the comparison to egyptian deities isis who were descendants of that chain of egyptian sibling partners although this was really one of the few ways that they tried to frame themselves as addition at all we have no documentation of their thought process or reasoning for this marriage. It's possible that they just wanted to consolidate some of their political power or that. They thought they'd be a little more protected. In a world of perpetual dynastic rivalries and infighting are sin. Away may have thought that marrying her brother was her last chance to secure a political future for her one surviving son. There are several references to various ptolomies in the historical record. That may have been him. Meaning that sun but it is not one hundred percent clear where he wound up. It was not in the primary ptolemaic line of succession though cults were a huge part of the religious and political structure of the hellenistic world with rulers being deified and worshipped sometimes during their lifetimes. And this also had some roots in the egyptian tradition of defying royalty. Our sin away and ptolemy established the the'll adele foy or the cult of the royal couple are sent away herself was also deified individually probably while she was still living sin away also established an annual festival that was held in alexandria that honored donnas with ptolemy appearing in the role of adana and herself appearing in the role of aphrodite. Eighty arsenio way became highly influential in ptolemies government. She appeared on its coins both alone and with him on some of these coins she appears to be in full veronica regalia suggesting that she was regarded not just as the king's wife but also as a pharaoh herself this includes wearing the your aus or royal cobra and arsenio as cartoonish also included a thrown described her as king of upper and lower egypt. But it is not clear if that's an honorific from her lifetime or something that was bestowed on her later as a more honorary title are also became a popular public figure. During her reign she accompanied ptolemy on a tour of the egyptian border and its defenses making public appearances along the way and one year. It's not clear which she won a clean sweep of the equestrian events at the olympic games. Although her father telling me the i was the one who started the construction of the library and museum at alexandria thumbs sources credit arsenio way the second with actually finishing that she also seems to have influenced foreign policy advocating for an alliance with greek city states. The protected their freedom from encroachment by macedonia. This influence continued after her death. Toll me the second outlived her. And he allied with several greek city states against macedonia in the criminality in war arsenio as memory became sort of a recruitment and public relations tool to rally support for egypt's involvement in that war arsenal away became the standard for future ptolemaic queens to follow and her marriage to her brother also became a template for later marriages in the ptolemaic dynasty as we said although the ptolemies ruled egypt they never really became egyptian. They kept their power to themselves and in the hands of greek people. Most of the dynasty's marriages after our snowy and ptolemy were between siblings half siblings or cousins and this actually seems to have influenced culture in egypt after the end of the ptolemaic dynasty as well there are sibling marriages that are recorded in roman census records and egypt after the end of this dynasty at least to rotunda 's were built in our center as honor one alexandria and the other in samuth race. The rotunda in samothrace was built in her lifetime and it was dedicated by her but the inscription detailing who her husband was at the time has not survived. So it's possible that it was built during the reign of symtas to commemorate the alliance between the ptolemaic dynasty in threes or during the reign of ptolemy to commemorate sabbath race having sheltered arsenio away after she had to flee from her half brother. There are also a lot of coins that bear her image as well as carving statues statuettes and other depictions that are either of her or believed to be of her the date of arson way. The second death is uncertain. One st lists it as in the fifteenth year of ptolemy the second rain which would have been to seventy c. e but other sources say it was in the seventeenth year or two sixty eight so she would have been in her mid forties both her cults and the cult of the royal couple continued to worship her after her death. Her brother also named streets in alexandria after her and renamed the city of volume and its surrounding district for her as well are also became a popular name for daughters of priestly egyptian families but after the end of the ptolemaic dynasty are sent away. The second mostly vanished from literature and art instead. Cleopatra sister are sent away became the more well known woman with that. Name that you can Accidentally get a whole bunch of stuff that you bookmark that turns out to be about. Cleopatra's sitter and not podcast. They're wrong our sin away. We will end this with a quote from elizabeth donnelly carney from introduction to arsenio way of egypt and macedonia royal life. This is really the only modern english language biography of her. It's from an academic press but it's pretty accessible and also quite short because there's not a lot that we actually know about our sent away. She wrote quote looking at arsenault as life is a bit like trying to meet someone at a big party but somehow always missing them though perhaps getting a whiff of their perfume and hearing a lot of stories about them in a sense our sin away is always in the other room. I really liked that quote it up. Some of my challenges researching this episode. Do you have less challenging listener. Mail i do so. This isn't male posed. A question. And i don't know that we'll ever tackle the topic that suggested but it was an interesting enough questions to me that i wanted to read it. And it is from eva. Eva says hi holly and tracy. I'm a few months late or very early. Sending this idea for a holiday episode. Here it is bear with me. Every time i watched that scene in a christmas story when the father breaks out a hammer and pry bar to open the giant wooden crate containing the infamous leg lamp. I think to myself. I have never in my life received a delivery in a wooden crate. Not at christmas not in a year of pandemic lifestyle supply delivery not ever. Why is this presumably. The answer is corrugated cardboard boxes. And then i wonder weren't corrugated. Cardboard boxes around in the nineteen sixties in. This movie was set to which the answer is. I have no idea. It seems like a simple low tech technology that you'd expect to have been around for a long time. And then i go to the liquor store to get boxes for moving my books like you do and i see ten dollars bottles of wine and i wonder how much that same bottle cost back in the day whenever it was with the extra cost of shipping it around and wooden crates presumably built into the cost and then i get into the mental exercise of comparing the environmental impact of wooden crates versus cardboard boxes. Extra fuel and exhaust ship when crates versus the disposable nature of the cardboard boxes. And i get stuck. Because he can't reuse cardboard boxes over and over until they wear out or get damaged people just don't reuse the much because there were so wonderfully light and cheap that we take them utterly for granted but if a christmas story is to be believed they've only been introduced in my bosses lifetime so their impact so invisible to us our corrugated cardboard boxes a classic textbook case study that all the materials scientists know about and no one else does like three. M scotch tape is a classic case. Study in business circles and the snow slash whitehead. Cholera outbreak is the progenitor of infographics. Or is it like the happy birthday song where it so elegantly simple that everyone assumes that sprang forth from the primordial news fully formed and ready to ship. Enquiring minds. Want to do so. That's my holiday episode suggestion the history of corrugated cardboard boxes. But you have to have time to answer the question. I'm going to stop it there. So thank you either for this email. I actually have gotten things shipped in boxes like that one of them. It was from one of those places. Where you you open your mail. And there's a surprising and strange thing there that's part of a mystery and as you solve the mystery and the end you get something special. That's like the the sort of capstone peace to this mysterious thing that you have unfolded through your through the things you've gotten in the mail and the final thing that we got was was in a wooden crate very like that Also when i was a child my brother and i desperately wanted a playhouse. Playhouses are very expensive. What my father did was cut adore into a shipping crate that had been used for refrigerator and that became our playhouse. So neither of those things. What i call a normal shipping circumstance. What i really think is happening in a christmas story is the shipping crate. Which looks like like a museum shipping crate. That's part of joke but that is like here. Is your box of very carefully packed leg lamp. What in the world. Because it is a precious artifact tracy that's why yeah it's it's incredibly important. It looks a lot more like you would see a like an antiquity shipped to a collector. Then yeah an ordinary thing that you would have shipped to your home. Cardboard however very briefly Cardboard was developed in the mid nineteenth century and by the early twentieth century. Cardboard boxes were coming into common use. So by the time this this film takes place. There were plenty of cardboard boxes. I really do think it is. That is for comedic effect to hype up. What is the magical wonder that is in this box. And it is Leg lamp leg. I don't know if you had something you wanted to add with that. Holly no i'm suddenly thinking about how many When she mentioned shipping alcohol how many places. We're really just making alcohol for local consumption for a long time being shipped around that idea of like sourcing alcohol from different magical places as it is a little modern but not entirely. Yeah that would be an interesting and fun. Study rabbit hole to go down. Yeah well that that made me think about like the way. Less happy sounding like the The rum trade and how that was connected to both sugar and slavery but that was also like a you know eighteenth and nineteenth century shipping things along way on a boat right not quite the kind of direct to consumer package thinking not in the hall although also often distilled locally so that people that landed on those islands oh yeah had been at sea would have it as part of their healthy regimen..
"chandra gupta" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"First marriage she was probably born in memphis but would have still been a child when ptolemy moved the family to alexandria that happened around three eleven. Vce and we're going to get to her life but first we're gonna pause for a sponsor break support for this. Podcast comes from paypal. Small business owners. Turn your smartphone into a cash register pay pal. Qr codes or the safe and easy way to get paid in store and deliver the same security and trust. Pay pal is known for online in person. Even if you're a cash only business with pay pal. Qr codes you can accept credit or debit with everyday low fees. there's no additional hardware or software needed generate your unique qr code from the paypal app and display it on your device or print it to display in store customers. Scan your code with their pay pal app. You only need your smartphone. Learn more at paypal dot com slash. Us slash get qr code support for this. Podcast comes from cdw. And adobe cdw we get the people to need to sign here always here tell me about it. I'm always chasing down signatures. I go through pens and shoes like chewing gum. Sounds like you need. Adobe sign orchestrated by cdw to securely automate e signatures and workflows across devices from anywhere integrating with existing tools. Sign can save organization. Time money and miles. Thank goodness i can finally take shoes off no back on back on. It orchestration by cdw people who get it find more at cdw dot com slash. Adobe sign as we said before the break are sent away spent most of her childhood and youth alexandria. her brothers and half brothers were educated. Through tutors. and it's possible that she and her sister and her half sisters shared in that education as well. But we don't really know for sure really. We know almost nothing as childhood or upbringing. But we do know that her family's position at court was not all that secure as we said earlier. There was a lot of jockeying among the king's wives and as they tried to establish a line of succession among all of those assorted marriages and families while our sit away was in alexandria her mother bear. Itchy wasn't at the top of this hierarchy. Instead ptolemy the first favourite his first wife eurydice and her son ptolemy care knows was as a consequence the presumed successor to the throne another source of instability in our cinemas childhood would have been the ongoing warfare among the data guy in three zero one bc e ptolemy united with simas salukis. The first nike. Under and cassandra against antagonise the i and his son dimitrius the first antagonists and dimitrius ruled western asia. The battle between all these forces took place at epsom and ptolemy and his allies were victorious. Thanks in part to elephants that were contributed by marin emperor chandra gupta we talked about gender group does alliance with lucas and our episode on a shoka the righteous back in may of two thousand twenty. This victory led to a whole string of marriages. Among the four victorious data kyw and their relatives this included arsenio as marriage to licensed in about three hundred bc e licentious was king of thrace and he also took control of what had been antigone his territory after the battle of emphasis are was probably in her teens. When this marriage took place and lie semicos` was in his fifties or sixties and although it was pretty common for men so mary younger women. This age difference was a lot more dramatic than usual and that led to a lot of really derisive jokes and unflattering depictions of both of them basically with her being branded as gold digging schemer and him as a doddering old man even though really he was still pretty spry. He was an active military leader. When they got married arsenio a moved to the capital of license on the peninsula. In what is now turkey. She in syndicates had three sons over the next six years ptolemy born around two ninety nine. bc e. license. Circus round to ninety-seven seven and philip. Born around two ninety four moving away from her father's court and her mother's subordinate position. There did not free our sin away from the kind of rivalries and infighting that she had grown up in though my stomach is already had at least three other wives sia a masters and a persian woman whose name is not recorded that last marriage had taken place during a mass wedding that alexander the great arranged in susa in three twenty four bc e this is marriage of eighty high ranking greek men to persian noble women and it was meant to symbolically unify greece and persia and to create a generation of at least hypothetically loyal offspring from these marriages. Children would be considered both greek and persian ptolemy. The i had also married his wife. Arctic sony although she started out in a more subordinate position or status during her marriage to lie. Simas icus rose. Thanks to some events that happened back in egypt. One was that her brother. Ptolemy the second was named ptolemy the first co monarch in two thousand five e c e there are also records of bernie cheese chariot team winning at the olympic games. And if this was arsenio as mother she would have shared in the glorious. Well it is however not one hundred percent clear which bear ichi. This was or exactly when it happened there at a whole paper locally which h. e. one at the olympic games. It sounds like a very weird setup for a sitcom regardless of weather that really was her mother. Arsenio as name comes up and accounts of less emphasis deeds king and the names of his other wives. Don't buy some icus. Renamed cities after himself and his family including are sent away. He also gave her control of cassandra in northern greece as well as three other smaller cities that were all along the black sea in two eighty four bc. Eli simancas oldest son. I guess oakley's son mnisi was accused of treason accounts of what happened. Contradict each other pretty dramatically in some are sent away manipulated leisa mikus into suspecting his son of plotting against him something that she could have done to try to secure a future for her own sons but in some accounts are sin away was infatuated with episodes lease and he rejected her and thus she plotted against him to get revenge. There's no actual documentation of that but it kind of ties into the whole idea that there was this gigantic age difference between her and her husband. And what if she may be like this younger closer to her own age man at court other sources do not involve arsenal in this at all. Though they describe life is coming to the suspicion on his own but then kind of filtering his response through our sent away to distance himself from it or instill other accounts agathocleus really was plotting against his father trying to guarantee his own position as the future king and then that plot was discovered lots of different options here regardless of what actually happened. Agathocleus was tried and executed. Here's a moment where the convoluted ptolemaic family really comes into play so just brace agatha. Cleese's widow was arsenio as half sister. Lie sandra daughter of ptolemy the i and eurydice and to recap ptolemy rita see son ptolemy karen moss had been ptolemies presumed successor before he named arsenio as full brother ptolemy the second as his co. ruler into eighty five. It is possible that this entire accusation against folk lease was precipitated by karen joining his sister at liceu accuses court after having been displaced from the court of ptolemy. The i if.
"chandra gupta" Discussed on Museum Archipelago
"Welcome to museum archipelago. I'm Ian Elsner. Museum archipelago guides you through the rocky landscape of museums each episode. He's never longer than fifteen minutes. So let's get started. There's a way to look at history that focuses on the events themselves. And then there's a way to look a history that focuses on the fallout in the Fourth Century. Bc. E So Lucas. Who's one of Alexander the great successors and Chandra Gupta who is the first Moyen Emperor in northern India met for the first time by the banks of the River Indus and there they had some kind of military encounter? What kind of military encounter? Well we don't really know what we do know is that following the encounter. Greek ambassador megacity was sent to the Indian Interior for the first time and he wrote an ethnographic cool the indicate and it described India for Greek Odeon based on personal observation. But also that you need this. Lots of strange storytelling as well. And this particular tax reform the foundation of Western knowledge of India for generations. And you can just imagine that. Soldiers and British soldiers in the nineteenth century took translations of this particular taxed with them to north west of India when they were exploring. So it's a very long life and it's particularly that that continues to resonate. This is Dr Shushma John. Sorry Tabor Foundation Curator of South Asia at the British Museum. I'm talk to central Michigan. Sorry on the Table Foundation Creator South Asia at the British Museum. And when I'm not at work I welcome my podcast which is very much a passion project and this is called the Wander House will get to the wonder house in a minute because it's an excellent podcast but I a doctorate at University College London. Jane sorry studied this ancient encounter of which only Greek descriptions survive. That moment of meeting in connection has been completely transformed it was transformed cleaner period by British and Indian scholars have precious scholars saying. Oh you know so. Give Woman's warned. He defeated this Indian general whereas the Indian scholars right the the complete opposite that take gender. Gupta defeated this incoming European and he became a great leader and ruler. So actually I think because of this uncertainty. I think it tells us a lot about the time we live in right now. And how may have been transformed in the past so that Doesn't it doesn't bother me in the sense that we will never have this Tonic truth because you know we're never going to get that what we can study is the fallout. How people interpret these historic events and how that reflects on the moment. They're living in now and of course what better way to see in the form of a building how people interpret historic events than a museum itself. This is why the whole idea of decolonizing museums and collections is so important. Because I think up. Till now we've all been complicit in telling partial stories under the guise of trying to be neutral and as we know that neutrality is quite problematic and it tells very very partial truth or partial version of a story. Museums are great way to see what historic events meant to the museum. Builders and I can think of no clearer example than the British Museum. We have reading credible exhibitions on. Say you know when you're thinking of ancient South Asia? They're often on Buddhism or Hinduism organism. So they have a very close religious fakers but will they don't tend to address very rarely that I've ever seen anyway is today's collections. Arrive here. What was the clinical interest in that material? How has it been interrupted? How's it been presented at also? Why why Nice particular ways? How how has that changed over the last century or so it? It's too easy to present a cycle neutral view the ancient Pau of ancient religions. But I I don't think that's particularly ethical. I think if you're going to be doing that you need to be telling that full story in episode thirty nine of this show. We examined Hand Sloan and the origins of the British Museum. Funded in large part by his marriage into the enslaving plan Takeuchi of Jamaica and aided by Britain's rising colonial power global reach. Sloan assembled an encyclopedic collection of specimens and objects from all around the world that became the basis for the world's first public museum the British Museum. A place where anyone could freely enter to see the glory of the British Empire the empire and fuses pretty much every aspect of life life in the UK. Whether we're all aware of it will not in a weather. It's the names of the streets. We walked down the the museums that were founded the collections. They hold the structures. We still all inhabit when you look around at the museum's mice museums I'd say UK. They hold the contents of empire objects collected around the world by client officials by soldiers by Salas people. Working Abroad Uber. Count disentangle the two. When you are telling a story you need to be honest. And tell the whole story or at least as much of it as you can possibly share. Because otherwise you're telling a very very partial one. That often overlooks the violence of an object's collection and the situation and circumstances it was created taken purchased and brought him to the UK to be held in a museum today. Sorry is the first curator of Indian descent of the South Asia collection at the British Museum. In the past Tracy Tell Dighton. Do you think about it very much. I think he's signing when I look at my couture practice and how I approach my role. The collections who. I want to work with and how I realized that actually there is a difference between what I do. And what's other people in a whole range of institutions? Bring Two zero and at first. I was really uncomfortable about that. I thought my goodness unit is it. Just because of who I am and what I am. What about you know? My academic side Olifants might use skills knowledge but actually. I think it's my ability to do my job. Is it somehow rich? I bring a slight different perspectives. We'll say in how I do it. The South Asia collection at the British Museum is so enormous that it can capture the sweep of history of South Asia from the Paleolithic period. To the present day. The gallery opened in two thousand seventeen before that it was last refurbished in nineteen ninety. Two it just happens to be the largest gathering the museum so hey no pressure looking say. Try Not to fail on your first go. It was it was really tricky. We started by thinking about who actually comes to the museum and seventy percent of our audience comes from outside the U. K. And if those people a huge proportion than not very well versed in the history cultures religions of South Asia. So how'd you present your collections in a way that shares this really incredible to the world with people who'd About it and so. We decided to have a chronic thematic kind of approach. We started with the Paleolithic. She's about one and a half million years ago and ended at the present day and the encyclopedic collections at the museum permits us to be able to do something like that. As part of that isolated wet on the ancient to medieval sections. Which is the collections? I cover along with the bulk of the anthropological collections. And also the textiles it. It's got a mammoth collection. The Dakota but as Powell fat I was very keen to introduce moments were slightly unexpected stories and people what presented so for example in the main oil. You walk down. One of the first sculptures you encounter is the modern line capital which takes about the first century day and it was actually excavated and request to the museum by South Asian Collector Pokharel Energy on. I put a portrait of him on that label as well as little bit attacks expanding it because I wanted people to be confronted by South Asians in South Asia Gallery. It's not enough to display their culture of their collections in their history. I think it has to be a shared enterprise and an in another section for example in the Janus in western India the Medieval section I included fate graphs of the Jane Temple from less. Which is where I'm from in the UK who wanted to show you know the sculptures on display. They are just as much positive. British culture as it was back then in the medieval period. It's not just a alien religion in Asian culture. It's our shed culture now. I think it's really important to connect the dots so you do. Share this broad sweep of history and culture but then you want to intersperse it with these other reading important moments linking in a WHO and what you might see around you as you get your everyday life in the UK linking it with with the pastas. Well I asked John. Sorry if she's noticed changes in who visits the gallery and how much time they spend there since the update very interesting. Hughes how they engaged with different displays how it can sort of tweak them to make more engaging annoy definitely notice that there are more South Asians in the gallery space the South Asia section. Anyway this is a really tricky one because I hope that a museum is for everybody. The reality is that as you say. A lot of people don't feel that the museum is for them and it's it's terrible because obviously the museum is for everybody but once again when you have very neutral displays and people aren't addressed people aren't consulted people you want working with members of the community. I think understand why they might feel somehow excluded from these spaces and we've all had moments have been chatting to people may assume that museum is not for them it somehow seen as a very different other ring space. A when you see the workforce inside the museum also predominantly white and. There are very few members of your black and minority ethnic stuff in the museum's once again. What sort of message are you trying to share with everybody else? You're saying hey come come to a museum but you can't work How how'd you change that? And I think it's not just one not tweets. I think it's a fundamental reimagining of what exactly a museum is exactly. This museum is full. I'm not sure that we have these answers. But what I think is really really important. Is that we start having these conversations. Are We start experimenting? And this is one of the reasons why John. Sorry started the wonder House podcast. The podcast which is completely independent of the British Museum is away again. Sorry to share the most innovative contemporary approaches to decolonization and so I got in touch with some people whose work I really respect and I asked them if they were willing to talk about their work what they learn what they what they thought didn't work quite so well and share their stories and experiments with decolonizing where they love about. The wonder house is being able to listen in on these conversations. That might not be happening in museums themselves but are happening at coffee houses and pubs nearby and the show explores the scale to you here. John Sorry who works at one of the largest institutions in the world in conversations with people who might be their museums only curators. I worry that the decolonizing museums incredible energy that it has right now. It's quite easy for that. To evaporate every single a movement has its moment and unless we embed this kind of knowledge and approaches it's it's going to evaporate and that that's one of the things that worries me. Most I not just the collections but also you know the the simple fact that many of us who work in museums you often one of the one or two Black Amano. She ethic people in an entire institution. That's not easy. Sorry studies the ancient world. But now she is at the forefront of modern museum interpretation printing not just the event but also how the event ripped through history remember the story about Salukis and Chandra Gupta from the beginning of the episode. The Indian interpretation of that moment has worn out. And actually if you read historical novels modern comics if you watch Indian films and in TV series. That's exactly the vision of John. Goto that we have now and you know what it's evolving over time you know days of being shaped and reshaped day by day at the moment and I think that's.
"chandra gupta" Discussed on Stuff You Missed in History Class
"Hello and welcome to the PODCAST. I'm Tracy will fit and I'm holly fry with things being as they are currently. I just wanted to work on something that felt at least overall kind of positive and I also wanted to get a little outside of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries because I had done some things in that timespan right before I went on vacation and then I came back from vacation to a pandemic and did some more and it started to feel like a lot. So I said let's try to find something totally different and that finally led me to Shoka who ruled the Marin Empire on the Indian subcontinent the third century BC. So a very different time a place. A SHOKA was a real person and also a legendary figure within Buddhism and for centuries Buddhist legends and stories were the primary source of information about his life and rule both within and outside of South Asia. So today we are going to talk about what we know about this man in the empire and how that story grew in importance within Buddhism and as just a note a lot of the chronology that we're talking about today is a little bit fuzzy as is often the case and we're talking about something so long ago. A lot of the dates that are documented aren't specific calendar dates there things like in the Eighth Year of a showcase rain Some years were also marked from the birth of the Buddha and there are different opinions on that date as well like there's some religiously significant dates and the other like Archaeological efforts to go back in like pinpoint a specific calendar date. They don't always agree. We are not going to take off every proposed date for all the things that are going to happen because that would be a little confusing and kind of annoying to just have a list of dates every time one comes up so just reading up on his show a you might find some variants in the years. A show cause grandfather SCHINDER GUPTA. Maurya lived in the fourth century BC. Before that point the Indian subcontinent was home to at least Sixteen Kingdoms and there was a much. Larger number of tribes sex and subgroups within those kingdoms a caste system was developing involving a hierarchy of social classes. That weren't allowed to intermarry although that was still in its early stages and the most widely practiced religions were vet ISM which was a precursor to Hinduism and Jane Ism. This was after the had lived but Buddhism wasn't as widely practiced yet gender Gupta lived in the Maganga kingdom and what's now northern India. And when he was born it was being ruled by the Nanda Dynasty Chandra Gupta took part in an uprising against that dynasty and then ultimately ascended to the throne at about three twenty five BC from their Chandra Gupta started consolidating his power in the northern part of the Indian Subcontinent. Both through diplomacy and through military conquest. What had been the Mugabe Kingdom expanded into the Marine Empire and this is the first time that all of this territory had been under the control of central imperial government although it's not entirely clear whether all the tribes within that territory really recognized gender Gupta's leadership after Alexander the Great died and three twenty three B C e Chandra Gupta took over the territory that had been controlled by Alexander's Representatives. Alexander died without naming a successor afterward. A collection of generals and friends and other powerful people known as the Diet Coke went on went to war over how to divide the kingdom one of these was Lucas Nike under who tried to invade. Chandra Gupta Kingdom in thirty five BC e China Gupta's forces repelled. This invasion and ultimately formed an alliance with so Lucas is representative to Chandra Gupta. Court was a man named megacity knees. He was also a historian. Magazines went on to write a four volume history of the region known as the INDIKA which became the Greek world primary source of information about the Indian subcontinent other Greek ambassadors were sent to the Marine Corps at the capital of Potala Putra as well later on in Chandra Gupta's rain he converted to Judaism and about two ninety seven BC. He relinquished the throne to his son. Janusz sage had foretold famine and when Chandra Gupta wasn't able to prevent it. He left his throne to spend the rest of his life devoted to religious piety and in service to this sage ultimately. He started a religious fast that he continued until he died of starvation. Boondi SARS rain isn't as well documented as his father's but he did continue to expand the Maurienne Empire before his desk. His death led to some kind of struggle within the line of succession but the details on. What exactly was going on. There are pretty murky. Polygamy was normal at this point especially among royal families and been disarmed definitely had multiple sons. Who were jockeying for the throne? But how many half brothers there were and what happened. Among them really varies based on what accounts. You're reading in Buddhist accounts of a show cause life. He's depicted as starting out very cruel and Taran ICAL. Before converting to Buddhism and leading the empire according to Buddhist principles several of these accounts start out by describing one of a show cause past lives when he was a boy named J. who met the Buddha and then through dust or dirt into the Buddhist begging bowl the consequence of doing that a Shoko was then born with some kind of a disorder that made his skin. Look like dry dirt. He was considered to be unattractive with a large head and Ponti Body. There was paper published in Two Thousand Fifteen in the Indian Journal of Psychiatry. That speculates that he may have had neurofibromatosis type one. According to some accounts as father just did not want his so-called ugly son to follow him on the throne. Buddhist accounts of a showcase ascension to the throne are unquestionably exaggerated. They described him as ruthlessly killing ninety nine. Half Brothers to get them out of his way before. Starting his rule is a vicious leader torturing prisoners executing an entire Harem after someone insulted him and killing advisers who failed a loyalty test and this earned him. The nickname Shoka the ferocious secular accounts. They're not nearly as dramatic though. They acknowledged that Shoka was not his father's oldest son or the first one in line for the throne but been disarmed has chosen successor so. Shima was tasked with dealing with an uprising. He handled it badly. That caused him to lose the confidence of advisers. So either a Shoka played a part in Sushi MS execution and took his place or been disarmed as advisors simply disregarded the emperor's wishes and put a show onto the throat instead of his older brother either way after ascending to the throne around to seventy BC E. A. Shoka seems to have spent the first few years of his rule simply solidifying his political position. He built alliances and relationships among other powerful people in his court in in the rest of the empire and he also tried to create an efficient and organized political administration then about eight years into his rain. Once thrown seemed secure a showcase decided to do what his father and grandfather had both also done which was to try to expand the empire. The Kingdom of Kalinga in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent would give the empire control of important ports that would allow them better access to trade along the Indian Ocean. So a SHOKA. I demanded that the Kalinga Kingdom agreed to be annexed into the marine empire. The kingdom refused so shock invaded once he had conquered the Kalinga Kingdom. The Marian Empire stretched across nearly the entire Indian subcontinent from what's now Afghanistan in the east to Pakistan in the West including parts of Nepal. And nearly all of India only the very tip of the subcontinent remained part of the Dynasty this was the first time in history that so much of the Indian subcontinent had been united as one empire however as was true with his grandfather's establishment of that empire in the first place. It's not entirely clear. How much influence really extended throughout all of that territory. Sometimes you'll see maps that have like the entirety the subcontinent shaded in one color saying this was all of his territory. And sometimes you'll see when that has like more Blanche's in the more central areas that are like maybe not here. Though according to a showcase account the war was devastating for the Kalinga Kingdom. His army killed one hundred thousand local people and removed one hundred. Fifty thousand more and that word removed could've meant that they were deported or enslaved. It's not entirely clear. Rather than reveling in his victory when he saw what he and his army had done. Shoka was distraught. He decided to completely change the way he governed. In the words of H G wells the outline of history published in nineteen twenty. The expedition was successful but he was disgusted by what he saw of the cruelties. And horrors of war. He declared in certain inscriptions that still exists that he would no longer seek conquest by war but by religion and the rest of his life was devoted to the spreading of Buddhism throughout the world. This is when he was more nicknamed ashore the righteous and we will talk about a new way of ruling and those certain inscriptions after we pause for a little sponsor break..
"chandra gupta" Discussed on Ridiculous History
"What's up everybody, I'm Jackie's Nealon call, Dr. And I'm Edgar Mobil's here and we are the host of a brand new podcast on how stuff works, call the culture Kings coach cases a show about the culture for the culture. And by the culture Carl was culture. The culture is very explicit language. So please, if you got a young years, If he got fresh years, don't listen to this show. But if you wanna learn some stuff, do listen to it Agar we can find us. You find us on Apple podcast there any wherever you get your podcasts by. Uh, uh, uh, uh, uh. Call in the world of business self improvement and management courses, there's several books that you will continually encounter things like, you know, uh, the art of war by sons, zoo, or perhaps a justice. Famously The prince spite Niccolo Machiavelli. My name is been My name is no one Ben, Your Machiavelli an accent Ilhwa's on point two. Uh, thank you very much tunnel. Thank you so much. When you and I have done Italian accents in the past, we have endeavoured not to go too far into a cartoon land. So it's it's been a day by day thing for both of us, or maybe I was just trying to employ flattery to get you to do what I want, how Maquiavelian indeed. And how could we mention Machiavelli and the prince without of course, mentioning our own a mentor in the lawful evil alignment, super producer, Casey peg room. Uh, but he seems so nice that So it's it's a delightful Souna. How can you be such a monster? Well, what is what is a monster really? That depends on perspective. What is a person? What is a question? We could go, we could go down this rabbit a whole, but instead, let's talk about Mikey Valley just a little bit. This this author of The prince has become in many ways synonymous with unethical dealing Right? A wherein all actions are rated as good if they benefit the person, committing those actions double-dealing treachery scheme arri Deceit indeed. So we you'll find things like this, uh, the prince's publish and 15th 32 and you'll find quotes in their such as a prince never lacks good reasons to break his promise. Um. Mm, what to do? I don't know. I don't I don't know if we should be so quick. The judge I'm I'm on the fence about it because you can see the utility of the book. I I had to read it in grad school Actually. I'm sure you studied international affairs and this is something that would certainly come into play with things like diplomacy. I mean, a little healthy subterfuge can go a long way or a little bit of a healthy flattery. Could maybe get someone to do exactly what you want without having to strong-arm that make it seem like it was their idea to sort of in CEPT the as it were. And you and I in the course of preparing for this episode discovered that may be the prince is not as original as we once thought a what SEI. Yes, you've arrived the topic of today's episode. We'll see if I can get this pronunciation right? It's a little book, a little known book Kanana known in generally little known, certainly known to some called The. Arthur Shostak. Well done, nor did I get it? I think you did. I think you did the Arthur Shostak. What's this book about? Well, this book was actually very recently discovered in only the early 1900s. It had been transcribed from an original copy onto I wanna say palm-leaf for a series of palm leaves, Isn't that right? Ben? In this book, The Arthur Shostak was most likely written by a group of authors. But his typically credited to a man named could tell ya who served as an advisor to Chandra Gupta, who was the ruler of the Iron Age civilization of the Maurienne empire, which was a vast section of northern India. Um, and it was actually one of the earliest ruling societies in the continent of India. Yes, in a could to yo We believe now was the pen name for. A minister named Tanaka But as as no points out, this probably wasn't just one person writing. The text itself is divided into fifteen books that a function as a primer for King's right. A covers a military subjects, political economic subjects that the name Arthur Shostak cut. The concept translates to like means of life or worldly success through tip. If you run it through your google translate, it will tell you the translation is economics and have also seen it written as science of politics or the science of political economy. Those are also pretty commonly accepted translations. But the reason that this gets lumped in with Machiavelli who is much more well-known comparatively is that it also dealt with a lot of that kind of shady subterfuge E manipulative tech. Niks that Machiavelli dealt with in writings liked the prince, In addition to things like how to set up a ring of spies and manage your secret agents. It gives suggestions. Lake, a king should fake divine miracles in order to impart a sense of almost, uh, God like power to is to his subjects, not just credibility, but they get into the brass tacks of it, And they see should go to state temples, fake a miracle. So you increase revenue from pilgrimages. So people will get taxed to go see that part where you know you made a statue cry milk or something. And this is fascinating because the book itself predates the prince by about one thousand eight hundred years or so. And I believe that the a copy we found in the early 1900s we being human civilization, not just Casey Nola myself. This was a copy of a copy Right. It had already existed in some other form, So we know that this book was valuable enough to be transcribed, and it's a really unsentimental read. You can find free translations of it online. You can download the PDF in and check it out first hand. But in this in the Arthur Shostak Kotil yet openly writes about stuff like assasinations When you should kill your family members. And as null said, how to manage secret agents also, when is it useful to violated tree now, any time it suits you? Right, Right. A vis This draws comparisons, of course to the prince because it is seen as intensely a moral, right, lacking morals and it. It makes me think of. You're familiar with D, right? Dungeons drag shirts. So there's this concept of alignments. They go either from good to evil or lawful to K. Arctic, Um, and this counts as a lawful, evil, which also, you know, I think is the alignment of the quiz twer how he Africa who also is in real life actual facts Dungeon master easy. I could see it to me, has a Dungeon, a master of it. That's where he dwells Oh man, he might be in. He might be in the studio now. We don't know. He is such a creature. Was he will? He will eventually return If this is your first time tuning in in your thinking, Ben nor super producer, Casey, who is the square Street talked about? Just sticker. Stick around in one episode or another. It'll be time. Josh affiliate may be worse. I know were sir whistling in a graveyard here, The me by talking about it. He won't show up this absurd.