3 Episode results for "Caroline Burns"
The Great Santini Goes to Disneyland
"Hello and welcome to. Daddy never cried. A podcast dedicated to sharing stories of our fathers. I'm gary best. Did i'm joined by dr cindy carter. Our next guest is caroline burns. This show comes from ventura. California and caroline's the artistic director of the rubicon theatre company in ventura california and welcome caroline. Thank you thank you nice to be with you show. How are you guys holding up over there with the all the fun stuff going on in the world. Well it's a little lonely. We miss seeing people in the lobby and in the theater but it's But we're doing fine. You know. I mean we're we're blessed are all healthy and we've been able to continue to do some streaming theater and to offer podcasts and that type of entertainment but we're really looking forward to getting back to live theater. Yes indeed we all are so we're going to hear about you and your father today. I'm going to turn this over to carter little here about your father caroline. Thanks so much for joining us today. Pleasure so we're going to hear a story that already has a title. Would you tell us the title. Yes while the tidal is the great santini goes to disneyland and a little bit about that raynal. That's so intriguing. Well my my father. When i was growing up and when siblings and i were growing up was very strict and he had been a marine captain. he was still in the reserves much of our childhood and he was I think he'd live probably sort of wild childhood a lot on his own but i think he wanted to make sure that his children did not use very strict about you know when we could start dating when we could drive a car when we could even go to the movies with friends and their parents driving so he was always very strict with us and he was also strict about exercise and when i saw the movie the great santini with robert duvall m my father's bald and he looks a little like robert duvall really like a cross between robert duvall and rainy I think and You know he was very athletic. And kind of have marine captains build but Because of how disciplined taff he was with us when we were growing up. When i saw the movie the great santini. I think i cried buckets and Thought of my father. At least at that time and i li- as as being similar to that character and the story is about. Am my father coming to california and taking me to disneyland as an adult. Oh the opposites of a great santini. Taking child's at disneyland in this case the great santini taking an adult daughter to disneyland. Right right right yeah. He had so. He had been very strict. As i mentioned and i was the first child to leave the nest. I was the oldest. So i knew to california because i wanted to become an actor and i was living in pasadena on my own in a little studio apartment. So my father when we were young. We gotta family circle magazine at sometime with a picture. Nikki mouse and characters from disneyland. In france of the big castle and of course on sunday evenings we all watched the wonderful war. One was called them. A wonderful wonderful world of disney was wonderful world of disney. It's hard to say yes so we would all watch the wonderful world of disney on sunday nights and had this picture from the cover of family circle magazine and during that period my father was still in the reserves but he was a biology teacher and trying to raise four kids and we didn't have a lot of money and we didn't really go on vacations but my siblings and i so desperately wanted to go to disneyland and we kept talking about disneyland. This was our our big fantasy that we really wanted to go there and my father as a biology teacher went to a convention that was in anaheim and he got to go to disneyland and when he came back he brought my sister. And me each a madam alexander doll after having gone on the. It's a small world ride and we were the disneyland fans. Thought that was the greatest gift ever and it was very unlike my father really to bias gifts to especially not at a holiday or not on our birthday so they were our big treasures. Anyway years later. I've moved to los angeles i'm living in pasadena and my father calls. And he is at that time a vice president of an insurance company financial company and Says that he has to go to a meeting. And he has a layover in los angeles. And i say wild dad. That's great. you know. I just moved here. And it's going to be over thanksgiving and my father is gonna be here on thanksgiving day for the layover and i say will wear is your conference. And he says it's in florida events. I grew up in kids city. So the likelihood of a layover in los angeles on your way to florida seemed pretty unlikely. But i just said crate. And when he arrived and pick you up. So i go and i pick up my father and turns out his layovers two days strangely and So he says what you wanna do. And i said while i always wanted to go to disneyland so my father takes to disneyland and the first thing you have to know too that he wouldn't look at a map about how to get there having ever been to los angeles. He thinks we're going to stop at gas stations and ask them how to get to disneyland anyway but we get to disneyland and and we you know are there for the day and he takes me on the. It's a small world ride which as an adult probably not the most exciting ride but I say let's go on it again that so we go on the sec while world ride again and then later it's time to go home and You know my father hadn't been able to say. I miss you and i wanna come. See you and be with you for thanksgiving. It's your first year way. I want to make sure you're okay. See where you couldn't say any of those things and as we are leaving disneyland. Are i what i. What would you saying dad. What and he said. I said dad. I'm sorry i don't understand what you're saying. Not like my father and all and that's all the time and he said. Do you wanna mickey mouse. Or not dammit. Yes yes. I want mickey mouse. So my father bought me a mickey mouse and we went home and the next day he flew somewhere. Don't really think it was probably florida. I'm went home and you know we had thanksgiving together so My story about you know. A man growing who growing up didn't really have a strong. A father influence loving father influence. And so what. He knew was disciplined and new kind of military behavior. But he didn't know how to express affection. And but as i got older he was very expressive very subtle and very loving. But i think of that as a turning point he he saved it out. Yeah you did it up for that moment and i. I almost the three of you on that trip. To disneyland your father little caroline and grownup caroline there. Were three of you on hat ride to. It's a small world. And the cape you mickey mouse dammit. I know where was your mother. She was home their three younger siblings. And we're kind of in two sets. My and i are eleven months apart and then we have a eight nine year younger than us sister and a brother who are also eleven months apart of kids so she was on with the younger kids. So your father was a military man. A i come from the midwest so i i don't think he was particularly unusual for the the mid western the prototype of a father. But how did you feel when you tell him. You wanted to be an actor. You know really. Surprisingly my parents were both very supportive and supportive of me. Moving away from home which i would not have expected when i told them i thought they would be very concerned if they were they hit it and were entirely supportive. But i had been. I think an actor released from childhood. My mother tells a story about you know she thinks my first words were judy. Judy judy after watching some heretic grant from. She said i crawled to a mere. That was on the floor and looked in the mirror at myself. And said jude. Judy and i was the kid organizing. All of the other kids in the neighborhood to do plays in the basement. Our form of play was puppet shows in the doghouse or Plays in the basement or In the backyard for other neighborhood. Kids and i was really doing that. From the time i could speak so i think they. They weren't surprised. But i don't know that i thought they would be approving but they came to every show i did growing up and You know every coral event every play every musical and they said go with our blessing. I have a feeling you know done some acting and one time my parents came out to see a play. I was in and they It was in santa. paula and frank was being anyway. The director came over. And i had every the cast. Everybody come over to my house after for a get together a meal and drank and and my dad was similar to. Your dad wasn't a to Over giving with his compliments or his Hugs or his. I love used or any of those kind of things and So i'm fixing someone a drink in the kitchen. I hear my dad talking to the director in the living room. And he's bragging about stuff. When i did when i was a kid that i had no idea had. He had any awareness Like gary used to do this and do that will would have been nice for you to tell me that you so it's i occurs to me that we're lucky if we reach that point where you get to go disneyland with your your father and you can sort of somehow. It's easier when you get to a certain point in life in the your father can sort of adjust and cope with you as an older person. Yeah yeah the thing you were saying. You know if. I didn't get straight as in school. I definitely felt my father's lack of approval. If i didn't get if i didn't score the winning rent on the softball team or if i i definitely felt like he He didn't strongly express disapproval but he withheld approval thing and can be devastating to those of us. Who really want approval. Yeah yeah but not. When i was older. I mean he. My father died this summer and in his latter years. He the same thing. I would hear him speak to others about things. He regarded as accomplishments and with great pride and also though he was very expressive of love and affection and pride in the latter part of his life. So how fortunate ed's that you are able to know him during those years when accessing and sharing those feelings was possible for him were so many still waters. We know they're deep. We just don't know what's under there unless there's that opportunity to share so how That you were there and that he was there for you. Yeah yeah he he really was. He definitely is a a looms. Large as a you know in my life in many respects this is a a sort of a recurring theme. We've interviewed a few people. There seems to be like a play. Different acts to fatherhood and sometimes Siblings yet different. Fathers because you say a pretty big gap between new in two of your younger siblings and and you had act one of your father when you're a child and then act to is a shakespearean you know you get the the age where you are an adult and your father looks at you. Differently looks at himself differently. And and so. Hopefully you have an x three where you're loving and And that's a it's a now. The title of our our show is dead. He never cried. Remember any instance. That made your cry. Well yes was just a moment of a physical pain but I don't remember him crying and still these older years you know his older years. I remember not this most recent christmas but the christmas before when all of the kids and grandkids everybody was there and he and my mother kept saying you know this is the best christmas ever and he was very happy about it and maybe in some part of himself he knew this would be the last christmas together. I don't know when whenever knows that he You know he was very nostalgic. I think in his last years and I would seem quiet movie. Even we were watching a modern version of any and he was crying so i think he Access those emotions later in life but you know he grew up with a you know. He was a high achiever in his life but he He grew up very poor with an alcoholic and abusive father. He who Was abusive to my father and is mother and to his sister until my dad got big enough to stop him and so. My dad was very successful athlete. Very young. and he His coaches who again were probably a source of discipline where his true mentors in life and his examples in life. But my dad got big fast as just a form of self protection and he was You know he. He didn't allow his emotions to show. And but you got football scholarships. He held college football records Through college on a on a football scholarship. He was an ace student. He was in a student body. President he won many awards and then he was a great achiever and at some point in midlife. He went through mid life crisis as many children of alcoholics. Do and You know left my mother for a time and so that second set of kids and he was always there for the sister. Who's close in age to me merida. He coached our teams. He was there for every event He was a part of our childhood. So although i feel like. He withheld approval if we weren't perfect to if we didn't meet that perfect standard that he had sat which is now read books since a no is typical of you know adult children of alcoholics. There's usually one that tries to kind of even altogether by being perfect. And i think that was him and i think he wanted his children and his wife to be perfect and then hit this moment. Midlife where that didn't happen. And he kind of left the family in any way so my younger brother and sister didn't didn't have the physical and attention and the presence of my father. And so you were talking about acts in a way. I think you know the first act was the father who was there in action and there in presence but was not there emotionally and then the second act for my younger siblings. I think he was not there in either way and then the third act was really wanting to be there for. All of us He it's when he was In the final phases of this disease that took him this summer. And he they. I don't think he even knew. He was on an antidepressant and he kept talking about wanting our childhood home to be how excited and happy he was that he'd been able to fix it up and pay it off and then it would be a sanctuary for all of us and you know just that sense of wanting to know we were all okay and all taken care of and you know so much love and also every time he could say just thanking my mother for taking him back in and allowing him to move back home and one sister. My youngest sister still lives at home. And you know they hosted a reunion. I don't know what year it was. All of their high school friends those were still living. of course. they're older and they all came over to our home and everyone went around and said you know something about their lives and my father again just talked about how grateful he was to be welcomed back into the family and i think he really felt as close to unconditional love as he could feel not having had that himself as a child and i think as much as he could give it he wanted to give a moment in this life and in these last years of his life. So i'm curious. What trade of your fathers are you. Perhaps most thankful that you you inherited from your father or a trade. Maybe not so so jerry. I both her easy. I think i think determination and work ethic. I think by father really you know modeled. A great work ethic and determination to succeed not give up. So i'm grateful for that and probably the flip side of that is stubbornness it's it's the dark side of determination right. Yeah south same. Well so i think. I can be i. I'm thankful for the determination ending reading theater company. For twenty plus years there are so many moments. Where if you make one small different choice. I mean it's easier to give up so many times and it would be easier to be more comfortable. It would be less stressful if you went home instead of making one more phone call to the to raise the money to take delivery of the lighting system or whatever it is you know Or give up when there's a naysayer board who You know becomes either frustrated or worried and wants to move it backwards or shut it down so it would be very easy to give up and my father. Someone who did not give up and You know why But my husband would tell you that i can be stubborn. Book caroline told such a beautiful story of a man who pit is first resilience and god bless the mentors who helped him believe in himself and step outside those bounds of abuse that he was raised in and then following resilience reconciliation. I with himself with his own life and where he came from and then with his family in a way that open to him to loving you in what sounds like really beautiful. Way beautifully caroline. Thank you so much for being with us. You are a wonderful asset and give to this community and I can testify to your your work ethic and your determination and and i have some little idea of how what it must be like to to you. Do all the time and Where thankful for you and thankful that you joined us today and told us your story making caroline. Thank you and remember. We're looking for your story. This go to our website at daddy never cried dot com. And you'll find the instructions on how to submit your story and we'll see you next time on. Daddy never cried daddy. Never cry. never shed a had trouble show love. Forget about whatever paid.
Live at the NCC: Policing, Protests, and the Constitution Part 1
"I'm Jeffrey Rosen President and CEO of the. National Constitution Center and welcome to we, the people a weekly show of constitutional debate. The National Constitution Center is a nonpartisan nonprofit chartered by Congress to increase awareness and understanding of the constitution among the American people. During these challenging times increasing awareness and understanding of the constitution is more urgently important than ever so that we can learn together in order to form a more perfect union. It is central to the National Constitution Center's mission to convene discussions like the one we held last Friday a national town hall discussion about pleasing protests and the constitution. We'll share that townhall today with you in two parts. Part one is my conversation with former chief judge Theodore McKee of the US Court of Appeals for the third circuit. Part two features some of America's most distinguished scholars on policing protests and the constitution. Professor Monica Bell of Yale Law School. David French, the writer and constitutional lawyer. Janine Elson of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund. and professor. Of the University of North Carolina. The Constitution Centre will be convening more of these townhall discussions in the weeks ahead. Thank you for learning with us. And for tuning into we, the people and our companion podcast live at the National Constitution Center to learn more in the weeks ahead. Is My great honor to introduce Judge Theodore McGee. He has been a judge on the US Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit since nineteen, ninety four, and he served as chief judge from two thousand and ten to two thousand sixteen, before being appointed to the federal bench. Trial judge. He chaired the Pennsylvania sentencing. Commission and he was an assistant us attorney in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania and deputies city solicitor for the city of Philadelphia. He's a great judge and a great friend of the National Constitution Center. Judge McGee. Thank you so much for joining today. There's so much for us to discuss. But I wanted to begin with some moving words from you in a reflection celebrating your quarter century on the bench. You wrote that you grew up in Rochester New York in a small town near Scottsville, nineteen forty seven, and you said I still have vivid enough of firehoses, being turned on the peaceful marchers in Birmingham and of college students, sitting in segregated lunch counters and getting catch a port over them and be insulted just because they were demanding the right to eat in public accommodations. And you went on in subsequent writings to talk about I. think that says something about how deep racism is ingrained in all of us in Nelson Mandela can have that thought upon seeing a pilot, I would submit to you that none of us is beyond the destructive and poisonous reach racism judge mckean light of the extraordinary events than have convulsed. For weeks. What are your reflections about who we are and the future of the American idea? Was If you remarks are incredibly cheap apropos, and your reference to Nelson Mandela's Pasadena's book, we talked about the fear that overtook him upon seeing a black pilot, and then at that moment realizing how he had internalized the racist messages that he grew up around I really think that is something we must address if we're ever really solve this problem. I, don't have a lot of hope I'm more hopeful lately. Because of the diverse nature of the people who are taken to the streets in peaceful protests to demonstrate and ask for redress, but I'm still not hopeful. I think. We can't really make progress and to come to grips with. We are and in that is. Responsive to your question or read from tour at a tutorial communist, we'll have groups before last week in the Philadelphia Inquirer column. Wish said this is not who we are upon reading that I thought to myself I'm not so sure about that. This country was born. In Save you, a sponsor funded upon the institution of slavery. The institution of slavery greatly funded primarily funded the American revolution. The United, states constitution where some people referred to as a separate document deals with slavery by perpetuating the slave trade, guaranteeing the federal government can interfere the slave trade for twenty years after the best of the Constitution. What we're saying today I. Think is direct result of a lot of governmental policies as well as social boss is, there's a concept called shooters bias and I think in order to really understand what's going on with excessive force. It's something that people need to understand. They can just do Google searches shooters bias in will get the research. It'll come right up. But many many studies have shown that police officers a much more Klein to shoot. Unarmed black men than they are. Armed white males, and this is because of the imprinting of the by Subliminal bias that you referred to. The starts teaching us from the bravery beginning when we're born. The black people somehow to be feared. and that our rights are not as worthy of protection as as white. Folks are. This wonderful book called the Color Overall by Richard Rothstein where he traces he segregating of America not by living patterns, people moving to better school districts, the by deliberate government attempts rising after. The Second World War. Extend the first war in housing policies, housing funding posses who got funded to own homes that Pasi continued going back before that once they've was ended, the country went to a system that at least necessitates of Of slave. Of Convict Leasing, which was really just a metamorphosis slave system which had receded. Until we realize that is not only a large part of who we are, but also the supplemental bias. The you referred to that it is isn't all of us. That has got to be taking us where we are. The statement was once made many years ago. that a black person then I think the term was negroes have no rights that are white person bond respect that was not made by a member of the clan, only may been members go scan was made by the then chief justice of the United States court, and the opinion, which he wrote that statement Tread Scott which joined by six justices so the United States. Supreme Court speaking to seven justices of it by a single justice made the proclamation that black folks have no rights that are white prisoners bond respect. The kerner commission years later talked about a A society that we're evolving into a two societies separate increasingly unequal when back to the language of bursts Ferguson. In the late eighteen hundreds that is who we are, and until we come to grips with that fundamental racist boogeyman that has infected us some verb beginning, so what some have referred to as original sin. We're not going to be able to get a handle on this because we're not going to be able to honestly confront whereas really at the root of it, there are laws which are put in place, which are very noble. In there Very in their noble and their idealism, but those laws are not consistent with what a lot of people in this society are experiencing, and we starting to get into the laws to protect people assembling it also protects police officers from several lawsuits, but until we really come to grips as I said with who we are. The police officers are responding in large to what they've been taught subconsciously I. Don't I'm not saying you are racist but I. do think each one of US including black folks. Nelson Mandela pointed out. Has that grain? been imprinted in them from society that there's something inherently uniquely different about black folks that sets us apart from some white folks we. We've got to realize that. Thank you judge for those extraordinarily moving and important opening thoughts for recalling the words of Chief Justice Tawny and recalling the heroes who opposed him including John Brown in Frederick Douglass all of whom are described in the exhibit on the civil war and reconstruction, which is in the building behind me and which I can't wait to welcome everyone to. We can open again. You mentioned too large topics of police immunity in the rights of. Of protesters, we already have lots of questions from our friends who are watching and many of them do please immunity Donna Ferrari asks until recently. I didn't know there was pleased immunity where that concept come from, so tell us about the inside of police are qualified immunity where it come from, and then tell us about how when you work USA. You had trouble getting convictions of some officers, because of this notion of please immunity. Into a little bit different qualified immunity as it's called refers to. Protection from civil lawsuit and it says that in order for a police officer found liable in a suit for restive excessive force or something of that sort of constitutional toward a regulatory. That the officer has violated, clearly established constitutional statutory right, and a reasonable officer in that officer's position should have known that he or she was violating a clearly established her clipped by living. Because WHO's your principal? When we talk about what is it clearly established constitutional right gets it's real easy. Where everybody knows the righteous base rate to assemble the right to petition for redress, those clarity established right. That's the easy part. The difficult part is trying to prove that an officer should have known that the conduct and this the conduct that they're engaging in was such as as to. To have violated that clearly established right, so they have to really get into the weeds of the individuals conduct. The focus of the land is not at the level of the bill of rights has had the level of what was going on at the moment, the contract which gave rise to lawsuit occurred, would someone in that situation had reason to know that we're? A cody constitution or equity established right that usually requires a supreme court case or a circuit court, case or statute, which would specifically told the officer that their conduct was improper. It is there because we don't want situations where an officer as the second guessing hesitated their conduct when they're affecting illegal rest so that if every time an officer used excessive for it that was found to be accessible by the coordinator on their reliable that would not be a good state of affairs and so qualified immunity arose in order to protect the reasonable officer in the word reasonable. There is really crucial the reasonable officer going about his or her duties. I can respond to the second part. Is You wanted to in terms of my own prosecutions that that would be great because the story of your prosecution is really interesting. This was many years ago to one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy, seven, seventy eight, or isn't involved, was resistant. He was the trinity with violating with with prosecuting police officers who had engaged and used excessive force using the federal civil rights statutes like can't get too much into the specific details of my case because of grandeur material, but it was an attorney's dream case, it was A. A white defendant were set upon by a I'm sorry was white. Defendant, said bond by a police dog control by white officer. It was in the middle of the afternoon, so we don't get into the issue of What were they doing out there? In the middle of the night up to no good, that kind of argument from defense counsel was taken off the table the. Victim did not have a record, so that was taken off the table it was really the perfect record I had a expert witness from the foot of these was giving me incredibly strong testimony that eliminated the only problem on the case, and that was whether or not the dog simply didn't obey a command My expert took care of that. The grand jury did not indict in the hinted back the unsigned. True Bills Scarlet. I asked. And I said well. You didn't sign the indictment thinking you just forgot type now tonight. And he said to me no I didn't forget his sign the indictment we decided not to indict and I asked. Can I ask why they said well? You can't tie the hands up officers. You're going around here with this and you're GONNA tie the hands of police. Police officers prevent them from doing their job. I asked him what the vote was, and it was about two-thirds, not two hundred, eight, hundred to invite which I was flabbergasted than the person who was then us attorney Jerkily told me that even though any assistant us attorney could get an night, but against the Hamburger Somehow mceachern get a nightmare against the. Police officer when his main witness was an expert. From. The department is very very difficult to do when you add into that the subliminal messages of. it becomes even more difficult the fact that we've been defined by folks as somehow being more dangerous than white folks. is easy for jury to relate to an office. WHO SAYS I was concerns? My own safety I thought it had us that level of force to protect myself and to dissuade jurors from that. By proof, which meets the burden for criminal conviction him on civil here. which is proof beyond reasonable doubt is extraordinarily difficult in the of circumstances, civilized abilities, not he's aid. Because of the doctrine of qualified mini that we just discussed, but that is a court created doctrine. It's not an statutes it's not in the constitution is a creature of the courts with an expert. Panelists will delve into the point that you just made judge. which is that the original statue the? The ku-klux-klan to the reconstruction period did it was based on federal common line, was the supreme court willingly recently that created this doctrine of qualified immunity and their bills, pending in Congress to change it, and we'll talk more about those in a moment first of all I'm just blown away with the rigor and magnitude of the questions from our friends. They're fifty seven so far and they're really good. I suppose hurt. In Lyndon. Johnson writes just looking at judgment keys bio and discovered the today's his birthday happy birthday. I'm glad to celebrate with you educating the public about the constitution. Way to spend your birthday. There are a whole bunch of questions about the balance between the rights of protesters and the need to maintain public order crystal. Gaskin asks wire. The rights of protesters repeatedly being denied their first amendment rights nationwide. Can you give us a broad sense of what the law of protests is broadly we? I think we all know that the readers in the First Amendment of the rights protected there. Their others is right of assembly you have. Have a right to assemble to peacefully assemble The government can play certain regulations that they can make. They can regulate the time the place and the manner of the of the assembly as long as they do so in a manner, which is content neutral. For example they can have one set of regulations in time place or manner for folks, espousing point of view that the government might favor and another set of regulations which are more onerous for folks heard. Advocating, point of view, the government disfavors within that. Basically, the right of assembly is protected. We'll go one step further and the note that in terms of civil suit in this came up in the. Mr Baptists case that many people familiar with. In terms of civil liability right of assembly also there, but they're the writer. Semblance really deals with a matter of public concern. If folks going on the street because they're concerned for example, large family is concerned that uncle. Johnny gave on Monaco. The T sat nicer garden at you. Organize for around that. That is not the kind of assembly. The First Amendment extends to. Very interesting and without commenting on particular cases when Ken, the please shut. Peaceful protests in order to protect the public safety of public officials, let's basically a Wendy purchased against conduct trace, a clear and present danger of a substantial evils of the government's entitled to guard against then the government can step in and. Do what they have to do to eliminate or minimize that danger again it has to be in a way which is content neutral, so if they're armed folks on one side of the street that are identified as being left wing, and our own folks on the right side of the street that are identifies being right way and just. Tension going back and forth in conflict, and it looks like fistfights. We're GONNA break out. The police can step in and stop that they can't stop it by simply restraining the people on the left side of the street. They have to also restrained people outside of the street or pose various whether they can't get to one another, which would probably be the better way to do it? That's very important, but there does as you said have to be a clear and present danger on the standard test for restricting speech from the Brandenburg cases there has to be. Imminent risk of substantial evil and the speech has to be both intended to unlikely to produce that imminent rescue. You can't step in without an actual threat of disruption of. We'll add to that the fact that piece speech assembly, which is otherwise lawful. May Have the effect of creating anger or stability were provoking people that does not remove the cloak of protection from that speech. A police need to do what they have to to protect speakers situations. That is the Westminster Baptist. Church case It is not the fact that people are offended by the speech at how onerous the speeches! Provocative. It might be in fact in that. Jason I can't remember who voted I think she says she says Roberts said. In fact, the most effective speeches, oftentimes the most provocative speech, so we don't have what's called the Heckler's veto. The person hearing space cannot intercede or be aroused and become a in their by but most of these were gag on the people who are otherwise peacefully assembling. James Kline asks does one have a right to peaceably assemble if it would violate a curfew? If it's generalized Griffey actually publisher to get into that because we have a curfew in Philadelphia and I can see those cases coming to me, so let me leave that one alone, okay? Beth George are pleased permitted to use force of peaceful protesters are protesting after the time of curfew in new. York and seeing the different demographic neighborhoods are being treated differently more harshly, the Bronx versus those in downtown Manhattan. But when you get into differential treatments, there, you do have a problem. And the state has a problem. They can't differentially people if they have to exercise force to enforce a curfew, I don't know what you mean by force whether it's a escorting the person off the street if it's like up them. I don't know that gets very murky area. They can't enforce curfew again. They've got to do it in a new way. That doesn't mean that the curfew is are enforcing the black and Puerto. Rican, neighborhoods not enforced in the white neighborhoods that would be motion for a for an injunction to stop back. dualistic behavior, and give us a broad sense of what the Fourth Amendment Law excessive force is. How does the Constitution the please base? That's reasonable. Reasonable in the context of the circumstances and the officer. In in that takes in all of the considerations. It can fact you're in. Her boy says the crowd is how many people were around. A physical positioning is officer position where the back is to the war, the backstroke vehicle and they can't safely pull out of Bataan or can't get to the pepper spray or the freight. If they beat for the pepper spray, there's going to be attacked, but it's got a reasonable can't be based upon sphere. Let's say irrational, but that kind. Kind of contradicts by said at the beginning. Because when you start from the assumption of the level of which we're all trained to view black folks, that's more dangerous. Then argue that directing reasonably when they act too quickly to use force becomes successive. That's not what I'm talking about by the officer I can reasonably I'm talking about an objective kind of reasonable this not a subjective kind of reasonable this. There is the famous case of excessive force Tennessee. Garner case, which says that it's not reasonable to use deadly force to stop someone who's fleeing. Tell us more about that was exactly. Someone is running the wedding way. It's no wonder the reason for using for would be to protect oneself possibly to affect your weight illegal arrest. Someone is running away. There's no need to act to protect yourself of your an officer against probably a little bit trickier. When you get into or night, you can do that, too. Effects Rate RASP. I think loss pretty clear that you can't do it through other means by what you've gotta try to affect rate that arrest. You can't just. 'cause a body of rock when you get into fleeing felons, and they sent you which you can use deadly force at brand of fleeing felon. That is again something that I just A. Gordon I probably should should not get into that. Series of questions about your really powerful comments about unconscious bias, Caroline Burns says I believe are taught, not imprinted since birth. Give us a sense of your thoughts about how best to combat the conscious by. Is that you describe but I think I. We have to be worried that their and when I say imprinted I would view imprinting as a kind of teaching, so I don't mean teaching in terms of from us. Is Imprinting, call that. Teaching is kind of collective social teaching, but we unless we recognize that there. We can't fight them. The studies that I talked about with shooters bias have also shown many of them that when officers are shown, they sent the worst. They're more apt to shoot an unarmed black person than armed white person. They will then take measures to reduce that level of irrational impulsive reaction. I don't know of any studies been. It's been conducted a long term. Follow up studies that I'm from my whizbang conducted with one set of imprinting your or conditioner, the officer measuring the response, and then doing with the officers responses showing their bias, and then testing again I'm not sure I know there's some scholars in this area and who say you can't fix that. You just can't fix. It can fix it for a day or a week or even a month, but long term. term the messages just to ingrain just cannot fix it. It's a complicated problem because you don't want officers to have to hesitate for too long the street, so you don't want them kind of going through a whole kind of sociological anthropological analysis before they use deadly force if they reasonably believe, they have to use deadly force necessary to protect themselves, but also don't want officers assuming that a situation involving a black person robot folks for has backed table. This is rises to the level of justify deadly force were they wouldn't in a white neighborhood or white person or a more fluent? I I should mention also. It's not just about race. That's a huge part of it I think it's class as well as cast race. I would put in the cast basket. I think it's also a class. Of extended someone appears to be disadvantaged poor. I don't think they'd catch the same. Kind of held a black folks cash, if it's about Portas dependence, white person, but this certainly not immune from the kind of disfavored social views and disfavored social treatment. Fascinating the questions are coming so powerfully and I think it's time for your closing thoughts before we bring in the rest of the panel, but we're getting several questions from our friends asking about whether or not you think that the constitution is still serving people in the twenty first century, so your thoughts on that in any other final wisdom that you'd like to leave our audience with would be great. Getting always served people. As I mentioned from the beginning. Of people who are importing slaves for twenty years to protect the right to import slaves. It's always serve tables. The question is, does it serve everybody the same way and I don't know a not I'm a little more hopeful now as I said earlier because they see the heterogeneity of the people who are out there peacefully or just saw one shot. The other gathering in Washington of a must have been about fifty five people peacefully, kneeling to commemorate the memory of George Floyd. And I made it a point to count I. Think I, kind of be black faces identifiably block in. That crowd may have been others that I couldn't identify as black in that sense I'm hopeful, but I've been hopeful before. I was hopeful when they had the march across the summer bridge, the second March across the bridge I was hopeful when the Kerner Commission Kmart after Bj appointed a commission to look into the reasons for civil unrest and try to do something about it. But the statement from the Kerner Commission that I mentioned earlier is no less chew today than it was back in sixty eight. The kerner commission came out and said that we're a society. Increasingly divided increasingly unequal in terms of our maternal death rates and think if you look at this does not sound as far as field. It's not as far as as it may sound the maternity of birth rate death rate in the united. States I think the first or second. If you only look at the maternal death rate, the survival rate of babies of black and Puerto Rican, folk thirteenth fourteen. Now that's the stick was several. Several years ago. I doubt we've gotten any better. The mayor, the Governor of Minneapolis Given beautiful speech the other day, where he talked about how many apple with secondly to Hawaii on a happiness index how Minneapolis residents were riding in terms of education and safety and well being, but then he said that that's if you're white. If you look at how black folks her favouring is a very different story in that's that's a national scenario. So in terms of the Constitution, serving people certainly protects fundamental freedoms. I'd like to think we're moving to a point. Where protects the fundamental freedoms of everybody the same? That's the principal would try to get there. That's a large part of what courts therefore where we'll get there not. I just don't Knows Kamala justice system. Something needs to be worked on, and some of your panelists may well be able to address that. I think that's. The biggest inequities in terms of how the constitution protects different people in different ways. Thank you so much judge McKie for expiring conversation so meaningful that you took time as a representative of the Federal Judiciary in these anxious times to educate our fellow citizens about the constitution, and your words of caution, and your words of hope are very very meaningful, so. EPIC. Super hopeful, but as my game of us to say and I think it's a saying of religious domination as bedroom light when Kendra Linda curse the darkness. Around Christmas darkest, so this is my Kendall for the day and appreciate being asked, thank you. Thank you for spreading light, and we're happy to give a candle for your birthday as well. Fact. Today's show was engineered by the national constitution centers, AV, team and produced by Jackie McDermott research was provided by Maggie Gillespie. Oric and the constitutional content team. This week's episode is a crossover with our companion podcast. Live at the National Constitution, center. All of us at the NC are here to learn with you by continuing to convene these urgently important constitutional conversations, the weeks months and years ahead. You can find these conversations every week on we, the people and you can also find them on live at the NC. Which is the audio feed of all the public programs we host here on constitutional topics, so the homework of the week for are we? The people friends please subscribe to live at the National Constitution Center so that you can educate yourself as deeply as possible about the constitutional issues confronting America. There is so much for us to learn about together. And always remember the National Constitution Center is a private nonprofit. Rely on the generosity of people from across the country who are inspired by our nonpartisan mission of constitutional, education and debate. You can support the mission by becoming a member at Constitution Center Dot Org Ford Slash membership. Or give a donation of any amount to support our work including this podcast at Constitution Center. Dot Org forward slash, donate. On behalf of the National Constitution Center. I'm Jeffrey Rosen.
The Skeptics Guide #757 - Jan 11 2020
"You're listening to the skeptics guide to the universe your escape to reality hello and welcome to the skeptics guide to the universe. Today is Wednesday January eighth twenty twenty and this is your host Steven Novella Jordan. This week. Are Bob Novella everybody. Cara Era Santamaria. Jay Novella Hey guys and Evan Bernstein. Welcome to the new decade. Yes a third decade. Is the issue spell though. We're getting emails even arguing about that. Oh we got those ten years ago by this issue not the next decade until twenty twenty one. It's completely unresolvable controversy. I mean yeah. You could make an argument either. Way But colloquially decades are like the twenties and thirties the forties it starts with the number so that to me that overrides everything people were. And that's what it is. Also you're alive from the years zero to one so that first year of your life you consider part of the first decade of your life absolute back to go back to the fact that there was no ad Zeros right it was minus one BC and then one ad get with the toe so they say since since that year that didn't exist in the decade ended with year eleven and continues through. But so what in way is that. Actually this is like don't want my jackal experience. Bob Like I have no idea. There was no years ear zero zero. Oh Jeez right time to argue about things like this. We live good lives. Yeah I mean. We're not struggling for rain water. But we should also go back out of zero because honestly anything pre zero's kind of an approximation summation right. Well I think so as well. It's also a year who cares. Look when when the when the clock turned to the year two thousand that first second people said Oh just one year ago till the new Millennia and they waited in two thousand one. Of course they didn't so boring. That's it whatever. Hey guys still forget the concept. The entire concept of zero itself was created around that time. So it's true right yeah we just forgot to implemented implemented as a more importantly every year we record this show. I'm sick every year. Is the season I went back and listen because you know. We're doing the predictions this year. And some of you might know. I'm not a big fan of the psychic predictions. I just don't like psychics. Even if we're joking about it they make you uncomfortable. What Am I? It's it's psychic show two thousand nine hundred. I'm sick the Mike. Let me go back to two thousand eighteen. I'm sick I'm sick every Goddamn time and we do this. Do you go back and listen to the recording. Every time I do just because I want to hear what everyone I want to hear everyone in what they say I do. I do write it down but I always lose it somewhere in my heart. I started writing down on the Internet and now I can find it right exactly the cloud. The cloud drivers all all one hundred twenty though. What a cool sounding and looking year I just aesthetically? It's very pleasing to me. It is but I mean I know this is an ultra ultra paranoid thing to do. But we're so used to being like one three. Yes sorry here in the US we do dates weird but like one eight nine thousand nine hundred eighteen and now that it's one eight twenty. I feel like you have to almost right twenty twenty because otherwise it could be anything. Yeah Oh by the way thing going around to people. I don't Sign to Donald Twenty as the year make out the whole year. Twenty twenty because someone gets a hold of something they'll turn that twenty into whatever they need to twenty seventeen twenty eighteen eighteen all year undo paranoia though going around like writing on do people still use cheques. They do you care. Hey discreet careful you know you can. It's very easy to get hacked and get socially engineered and you just never know when someone's going to try to take advantage you know like don't don't live your life freaking out. Just just be smart. That's it is be smart philosophy. Just be smart shot. `smart what's that from Buyer beware so the idea the psychic predictions as we track the predictions made by psychics for the year. and see how they did. They always do terribly ripley but they also like to point out the strategies that they use basically psychics. Who are we always alleged psychics? They're all fake psychics. There are no real psychics picks. They use the technique for promotion. Right they'll make a bunch of predictions there there for entertainment purposes and then they'll claim victory whenever they make a vague prediction that they could ma- match or they make a high probability prediction. That can't be wrong or they just make a million predictions and then they'll only tell the ones that that they can say they got correct and not track all the ones that they got wrong. And it's kind of a win win for them and they use that to promote themselves right. It's part of the business but but it is fun to go back and see like how horribly they did. You know if you think you know you could go online and say they published in two thousand nineteen and then we also make our own predictions and then compare. How do to the seconds? So we're going to start with by each each of us just going to pick on one psychic and then see how they did. WHO WANTS TO GO I? I'll go first. Yeah so what I did. was I found a panel of psychics. This was this was a panel from. Yeah this was a panel final from a convention in Nashville Tennessee. Instead of it being one psychic it's a bunch of predictions from the panel. What's recall when a gaggle of SAKIC's get togethers like a psychic psycho of psychics? How about that? Yeah Scam Scam Scandal. Ask Your Job Okay. So this was the two thousand nineteen insight prediction panel. And here's here's what they had to say a leader emerges who is exactly what he says he is kind and cares about this country in the world he gives people hope the way John Kennedy did very progressive. He wins the seat. He is running for he is. The northern is northeast part of the country a woman who has practical down to earth emerges as a leader. She is a by the Book Person Realistic in her approach. She will be mocked and ridiculed but she will not give up. That's a pretty. That's a pretty detailed prediction. Especially for psychic they tend to go more generic than that. I think again sounds more specific than actually is. Yeah as usual. Here's another one and you hear. This is something that so many psychic said. President trump will be having health issues in July. Yeah they specify July yes. He went to the hospital in October November. The president trump has health officio every day. No the more vague. You are the greater your chance of success so that an older president it you know trump is is not young and he's definitely not a healthy man. You know what I mean like. He's you know he's overweight. And everything it's really not that much of a prediction this next. What is what is a typical? Like just let me just paint the canvas white and see what sticks to the world will continue to feel like it is speeding up and things will continue to be a big mess for most of two thousand nineteen. That's about as vague as it gets stressful happening in two thousand and nine thousand nine. I thought this this next was like wow really. The Psychic said the way we approach farming is going to change radically whether it will impact people all all over the world and then here and then you're rounding it off you know. Here's this an emotional prediction. We will begin to realize power and greed are the issues not money how we look at money changes. It's also this like weird thing where they feel like they can speak for the collective consciousness of all people. Speaking from all of spirituality addity to each other differently like by whom farming damage farming is going to change change radically going to plan things upside down. Okay well I just something a little different sly looked at the predictions of gentleman who claims to be a time traveler from the future. Awesome now if anyone knows is what's GonNa Happen in two thousand nineteen. It's Mr Time traveler twenty right but if he ever stop in twenty nine thousand nine hundred he says that he it was a time traveler from the year. Twenty thirty okay right and this is now a few years ago. He made predictions about two thousand nineteen. He had apparently early comeback in like seen or sixteen or something and he made his predictions. Okay Twenty thirty. He could have just googled things that happened in twenty nine. which if you're a time travel that really prediction that's most like post diction rather than a pretext? He's not predicting just telling. Say this is what happened in two thousand nineteen busy right back and forth. Steve can he go back to the future so I don't know what he says is that that time travel will will come into existence in two thousand twenty eight eight years. We'll be able to time travel. Cool okay so that would be devastating so this is what this is. Apparently what happened in two thousand nineteen at least one in yeah in two thousand nineteen so of course we encountered aliens. You guys remember when that happened right. Yes check would alienate nighttime reptilian aliens. Horse the ripped on God's and they made it with humans and made a half alien half human hybrid DNA compatible it was Taurus chorus. DNA compatible and of course these hybrid creatures are midnight us with the aliens so we get along now because we have children with them so that worked out well. It's like when the French and the British royalties used to intermarry to keep the kind of the kingdom's stuff the name of the planet. The aliens come from was Lewis. Thirty three thirty three or at least that's how English speaking people would say right but it scientific name is three six nine. I've no idea what this guy's talking about multiples of three. Apparently we went to war with North Korea in two thousand and one thousand nine miss that some threats and this is something that you predicted that we humans plug into computers like the Matrix thing we as sort of a little more. The feasible by common core education was replaced by personalized education. Augmented reality supposed to be a big thing in two thousand nineteen still waiting. It will though I know it's coming. Once we encountered the aliens is all of the governments of the world united into one giant country. I'll I missed that when I sleep at night for the white flag as their the way. Now there's aliens soon. The white flag you miss miss the first hybrid about three times. We moved over to one global currency when that happens yeah. It's called the coin. Yeah it's called the crap lock global warming will be a huge Christ in two thousand nine huge huge huge. Humans will live on Mars. Roy Royal Mars Mars. You know what is out is parallel universe parallel universes. Yeah yeah or or potentially play that his time traveling itself change things like climate change. Yeah dench countered delayed all progress. Basically all is all. I'll go off on Psychic Nikki Nikki. She had a few gems. The first one. I'll say that she predicted was in the category of like no other is going Wendy be lots of protests worldwide over really the. US government will be one of the big stories know the stock market's going up and down sideways. I'm down of course of course she's kicking yourself that she didn't predict like an impeachment. You know you would. Actually I think somebody probably did because because you know. Hey you know seems like a reasonable thing to predict so but but psychic Nikki did not predict that she totally missed the boat and then she makes predictions like She has she's chuck full of these surveys. Just alone has to watch himself. As does Arnold Schwarzenegger he has to watch himself for sure. And Selena Gomez she has to watch. I'm a little worried. What about her? Well being Oh what a prediction. Wow Amazing and say she not even a prediction. It's he was kind of right on one of them though. Let's see you're going to hear more more voices coming from outer space. Not that one we're going to see more. UFO's coming to Earth actually Some evidence for that but but the other one. I wouldn't be surprised. Surprised if a spaceship landed by the end of Twenty Nine Thousand Nine hundred twenty twenty for sure so. It's major this year to year. This one will be interesting this year. The bridge prediction so. ABC News reported that the from the National UFO reporting center they apparently track calls and messages from around around The Americas about strange sightings and they reported receiving fifty nine hundred seventy one in twenty nineteen which is up from thirty-three ninety-five in twenty eighteen. Whoa Nice when there's Psychic Nikki? So she got that one right so whatever sometimes what these psychics will do who also is. They will put out literally five hundred predictions literally shining. You know four five will hip just because of random chance. And then that's it the glomming onto that for future promotion saying totally right in two thousand eighteen with these ads or they'll they'll pick up on a trend that's just starting. And then they'll make that prediction for the following year like something's UFO sightings are already on the upswing and then they say there'll be more say as if they kind of did that for one of mine. Yeah it's a good strategy everybody got yep our good friend the ASPERA Mansor is back. Jemima packing attend. She Devine's using asparagus. How all right man She takes the ASPARAGUS. She like throws it on the ground. And depending on which way things are pointing thinks she makes up whatever comes into her head. Devine's the future through the power of ASPARAGUS. And she's been doing this for many many many years. Good for her are you know. At least. She's she's different. Okay so I give her credit for that originality point. She's got it as opposed to whatever psychic Nikki and whatever else. She made ten predictions in two thousand nineteen. Let's see how she did fears over. BREXIT will prove largely unfounded number two the trade war between China and the US will end but there will be a recession in the US that will affect the world that did not happen in two thousand nineteen number. Three exciting new technology will be launched. That's it there's your shot. There was no new technology. So that's a total hit right. There were orthite at me so number. Four England's Women's football team that means soccer will win the World Cup in France. nope United States women's Toyota. Voyager one makeup number five. TV's big brother will return to our screens. Now it's a British popular show from way back when and it didn't it was often eighteen eighteen but it did not come back in nineteen. She was also popular American show. She was referring to the British ones specifically number. Six extremes of temperature become the norm at doesn't even really make sense. Does it extremes of temperature will become the norm. It's like the most common psychic prediction and it's because that was is also happening in two thousand eighteen. Global temperatures are rising. Okay I find it's not really a prediction but whatever. Okay well we'll give we'll give her that one number seven. US romantic musical. A star is born will win an Oscar. Yes it did win an Oscar for best song I believe but nothing else remember eight household British businesses will fold. That's all she has to say about that so I don't even know what that means. We'll long on that one. Like small business shutdown than businesses right. I mean or at least you because it's businesses right. Then she wins. uh-huh she wins. The winning number nine England's cricketers and rugby team will enjoy success again totally generic. Who knows? How's that doesn't mean anything? That's out and number ten ASPARAGUS. We'll see an all time. High in Sales Erica Lavi. Oh yeah she's Big Barroga's so what did she do she oil it up and slap in the face with it like what happens here. I wish because that would at least be a little no more interesting. Nope she she takes it and she throws it in the air and it lands on the ground and that's it remember in that movie willow. They WanNa remember the movie when when when when the mystic consulted the bones and he just on show chicken bones and threw him on the ground. And that's the same idea and people read tea leaves and things things like that. It's just like looking at shapes. I guess I don't know. Yeah okay must dumb I I checked out old. Moore's ALMANAC DOC have you guys heard of this big deal so it's the genuinely Irish old Moore's Almanac I read a little bit about history. It was founded as a publication Asian in seventeen sixty four or almanacs. Were a big deal in the seventeen hundreds or a lot of them. Yes it was a dude named Moore who people I thought was Like a diviner something I guess. He was an astrologer the the publication was originally called the Irish Merlin. That was his nickname. And then eventually scholley it changed. Its name is a bunch of times. It's still being published. I think every year November and they do psychic predictions. Of course I accessed it online and I couldn't find there's there's an editor of this publication and there's a quote prophet of this publication could not find the prophets name and of course the byline on the on. The website website is Admin so here are admins predictions for twenty mateen. Antarctic will be in the news all year. Oh light coin will spike in value. I don't know yeah. It's a type of cryptocurrency this person's really into cryptocurrency. There's a of cryptocurrency articles on the site. All right. I love this though retail will fail malls will be redesigned as food entertainment spaces slow laterally slowly share here but just fail like there's still plenty of malls. It still exists some scientific discoveries about the sun and how it works. We'll boggle our mines in with the bottle. We launched to the Sun. So that was kind of the thing amazingly earth-shattering. She's implying no no sexual. Misconduct cases will be huge in two thousand nine hundred. We don't know Admin is we'll say they they were huge but there were also huge in two thousand eighteen. North Korea will head for democracy. Oh yeah why would you put your nickel down on that because if it happened. At trump controversy will continue but he'll dodge impeachment impeachments. NOPE and continue to be popular. Oprah will go into politics. Oh here you go. Evan record colds and heats are coming. Hey every yeah predictions if you didn't have something about the weather in their exact temperatures global migration slows down nope. I don't think so. A nuclear accident is on the cards. What does that even mean? It's on the cards like it might happen as in the cards. That's a common prediction because nuclear accidents happen every single year. That's exactly like saying earthquakes will happen you. They'll because they happen every single year without specifying how severe it is or anything more specific. It's meaningless satellites and other their cosmic items will hit the earth. Love this guy or girl you mean like like the sky is falling and don't things come down periodic. Torino's it. Yeah exactly. Spain's economy will struggle to new planets will be discovered that could immediately support human life way. What Yeah but how we gonNA ask what exactly? I don't think that is feasible. At all a three hundred thousand years. The Canadian dollar will fall fall and Canadians will emigrate to Europe. I don't know if the dollar fell but did a bunch of Canadians Immigration Europe in mass and finally African migrants will head for New Zealand. He's a very specific young but also just big. I guess that's the other strategy. You talk about Steve Right which is like if at least one of them hits than everybody goes. Oh my God how did they possibly know that. That's true because doesn't psychic John or Jon. Love that New York Psychic. Doesn't he constantly advertise that he got nine eleven correct. He successfully predicted that. And he's like been using that ever since his act so you need one. If you get one big thing that you can claim victory on you can use that for lots career career of a promotion of self promotion. You gotTA keep in mind. It's the sensationalizing of of the future right entertainment value of the things that they're saying it's not the accuracy of the predictions. It's it's really selling that as a product I am making these fun and outlandish predictions of the future so accuracy has nothing to do with it. Yeah it's actually pretty boring if they're all things where you're like well yeah. Obviously that's going to happen. Yep We're better predictors. They are records who wants to go first. Go ahead and review your predictions for last year and then make your new predictions for twenty twenty. I here I go. I think that apple will come out out with a new device that we don't need did it. Now I mean it depends on who you are but to me. This happened several times. Whatever I mean you know what I'm I'm getting that here but apple did come out with a whole bunch of products? I checked it out not too long ago. They came out with a ton of stuff. It's all basically iterations of previous products like the the newest versions of pretty much. Everything I need them all J I know you do you know. I'm looking at the Apple. Watch I hear people enjoy that. Might get one. I don't know I I said that's not a new product. Two thousand nine hundred nine specific. That's probably a new version diversions though yeah five G. Networks will start to be deployed and no one will know. There's someone new. They're starting to be deployed by point with that one was basically that the rollout will be slow and it was won't be like event we are. There's no fanfare like we are now five G. World. No I mean I went to New York City and I got five G. Five G. on my phone and I'm like Oh cool most phones. I can't even do that phone. The one good thing about chase. He couldn't make a phone call. Audie saw five gene. Got A new phone. That's why we have to say that. I love that. You put the qualifier on on your prediction and no one will know because right there with almost any prediction if you just say and no one will know whether or not you can be like nobody. No you're take care my escape so I had a few more. A bad. Cyber attack will happen. It will cause a death. I was wrong major breakthrough in artificial intelligence and machine learning. We had a couple of good things happen. Nothing no major breakthroughs embargo. Yeah right minor breakthrough. I can't help myself and my favorite one from last year battery. Boston dynamics will put a mouth on one of their robots and something bad will happen. That's one prediction. I wish had come. I looked I looked. It didn't have that weird head thing that can open doors. I wanted I so much wanted them to put a God damn mouth one of their robots on one of those big big dog things that does backflips. Yep All right my twenty twenty predictions guys since we had such a heavy political year. I focused my inner minds eye on the future of politics and this is what I think is going to happen the. US government will begin a fake news tax on social media sites. But does that mean. It's that that they're going to tax people for publishing fake news that's GonNa get complicated and litigation. You're right but I love it. Mark Zuckerberg Berg will be called in front of Congress again and it will be revealed that he was actually lip synching the whole time. Baby because there's something there's something nothing like uncanny valley about that guy can't even the Boston Dynamics robot for Donald Trump will come out with a new slogan for his reelection bid it will be called make America eight again eight year G. H. T. it just it's a typo tickets typo. But he's going with it. I Hey I I I I. China's growth will get so profound that Chinese companies will start to outsource factory work to the. US It's going to happen. It'll come back predictions. Jd Crash back. I know they don't take plastic anymore. But but it's going to get to the point where they're gonna they're just literally going to start like outsourcing to us because the US has fallen so so mightily Italy. Let's go for some serious predictions showy. Let's see so. I have predicted that I will do far worse than twenty one thousand nine that I did in two thousand eighteen and I totally killed that one. Oh On and science fiction no just these. Fictions generally predictions. So I when my first prediction was that there would be evidence of new dimensions. I wanted that so bad. But no no no good evidence prediction to mid sized black hole discovery using. Eli Go more that the the discovery of mid sized black holes using LEGO will lead to theories about how they're formed because we're kind of not sure. How holidays middleweight black holes? Come about and that didn't happen. During nineteen scientists were for some reason still concerned with proving that they actually even exist. And I thought I kinda thought Lago kind of really showed that. But they're still try to put that final nail in the coffin to show that yes they totally exist. And then they'll presumably Zuma beach move onto solid theories about how they're created and then the third prediction which I really liked supernote they will be a Supernova within ten thousand lightyears which would be fantastic? There hasn't been one that close well within our galaxy In so long that would have just been awesome. I mean I want I need need to see a sunlit sky that you could still see a supernova. It's so bright you could see during the day so you know not too close though but Ten thousand light years is plenty. Plenty far away so So I totally. Didn't you know I I. I swore for the fences and and it was fun. Mold let's see so for twenty twenty. I predict Jay. We'll be sick. I gravitate is. That's my easy one. Also twenty twenty. We will confirm that dark energy does not exist. There's some there's there's some there's some inkling you know there's some little Rumblings about that. I'm now but it's still needs to be vetted and I will probably be talking talking about this in the future show so I won't go into too much detail see prediction to there will be a major deep fake political scandal. That's kind of a no brainer. Yeah you know. Deep fakes are going to become so much more sophisticated and prevalent as the year winds through so I think by towards the end of the year. I think we could see some deep fakes. That are just like Whoa. And then let's say Prediction three we will find solid evidence. Indirect evidence of extraterrestrial technology analogy in space. You know based on you know seeing things that that some technology would have needed to create something. That's not natural like a screwdriver floating around and out there that some alien ship dropped by the but yeah all right here were my predictions for two thousand nineteen number one there. There will be a photograph of a black hole. Hey nowhere happen. There was a Finnish author. What that was one of three? Yes photo now all right so guys as what you okay. Shave reveal all my years. This stuff I mean you know. If you've talked to a sign as I said like some of the laziest people on the planet that with a little Internet sleuthing you can go ahead and see kind of what events might be scheduled to kind of becoming up in the coming year and make pretty reasonable predictions. That the photo of the black hole is something's been they've been working on it for years like since two thousand seventeen. It's been a work in progress. And they kind of knew that the culmination of that would take place sometime within two two thousand nine thousand nine hundred and if they were going to get a picture that would be the time in which they would get a picture and they did get. The picture of the project turned out to be a successful what they had designed but it took a few years to implement because it took a lot of telescopes from around the planet to all get synchronized all shoot the same a black hole at you know as as as the Earth turns and one telescope loses its field the other telescope that's starting to come around is picks it picks up the image and I think they need like eight or it doesn't telescopes in order to do this to get the image and they finally got it and yeah and it was big and we talked about it on. The show's very very cool. So I'll take that as a hit. Even though it was out there to be found a all you had to do was look as was Vertu as was number. Two universal flu flu vaccine ready for testing. That was also something that was being bantered about in late two thousand eighteen and yes that did happen the first clinical trial. All of an innovative universal influenza vaccine candidate is taking place With the ID National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. And when did that happen in April. Roughly how did it go. Don't trial phase. Yeah Yep there's still still testing I did not see the results of such but the testing is occurring and they'll crack it someday. I think someday we'll we'll we'll be talking about that on the show a universal flu vaccine hopefully in the very near future so that was number two so that one was correct but also I did a little research on that one now. The third third one did not took. I did do some research. But it is an actual prediction. That I made a real one not based on anything really all that solid. I said thanks to years worth of underestimated demands for super high definition digital media flowing breakneck internet speeds. Two thousand nine hundred and will be the year where we crossed the Yada Bite Barrier Woo Jatta bite of digital data will find its way around the earth by the end of the year. Well there was more data certainly out there in two thousand nineteen than any year prior. Of course it's going up a crazy crazy speed. But we're not at the fight. Yet we got to about Sporty Zada Bites. You need a thousands Outta had a bites to get to a yacht Abidin so so we got to. They estimate we got to forty. Is that a bites and they think at this pace. It's probably going to be about twenty twenty three or so before we hit the autobytel yet. Baby Zeros well let me put it to you like this. Here's an example. This is a good example which put a twenty four Zeros. Yes ten to the twenty you for ten to the twenty four in two thousand ten. It was estimated that storing Yada Bite on terabyte sized disc disc- drives would require one million city block sized is data centers. And that would be as big as the state of Delaware and Rhode Island combined by late. Two Thousand Sixteen memory density at increased to the point where a Yod autobytel could be stored on. SSD cards occupying twice. The size of the Hindenburg. So in two thousand ten the technology was such you needed states in order to have enough physical storage for Yada Bite. Two Thousand Sixteen. You just needed to him to books. Big Balloons balloons. That's that's an incredible thought that then that's how far we're coming and we're making that progress so if you think about that by twenty twenty three weeks it'll continue to crunch down at this pace and we'll probably fifty not generating it and being able to store. It fit in to blood cells. Wouldn't that be cool. So those are my two thousand nineteen predictions. I was good on two out of three and again only because I cheated onto now here my twenty twenty here we go all right and I'll I'll preface this by saying I did not do any sort of have a research future research into these. These are predicted to be by anyone or any technology center. These are purely purely psychic predictions. Here we go number one and earthquake will occur. During the Olympic Games in Japan Summer Olympics. They will be limited loss of life but damage will have an impact on the venues canceling some events so so beware Japan in August Two thousand twenty number two cyber crime of the century as Louisa Mastercard and or American Express will get hacked compromising data for over one billion one billion or more users. Here's worldwide too good prediction. That's that's prediction number. Two prediction number three three major heads of state will resign in twenty twenty. That's three country leaders. You know prime ministers presidents. What have you but none of them will be donald trump but three others will they will resign for whatever reason and those are my three reproductions good all right? Tha Venting nineteen predictions. A pharmaceutical company will begin production of universal flu. VACCINE ACCEDE TO BE administered in the two thousand nine hundred twenty twenty flu season yeah. Obviously I didn't do my research like urban nude all right. Yeah I'll just keep that one of my back pocket and bring it out in a few years. Okay what else did I do. American astronauts will stop using the Russian Soyuz capsule to travel to the instead. Relying on SPACEX. Dragon Capsule and Boeing start later. Okay same not yet. We're getting there though. We're getting there. A major data data breach of an influential government agency will threaten public trust. I don't know the probably happen somewhere. I'M GONNA give it to her. Yeah sounds good okay. The first this is one that Steve referenced. Previously the first brain computer interface for individuals with amputated limbs will become commercially available. I don't think I don't think like that happened. But in terms of like research we did see some good advances. We covered it a few times on the show last year. I think news. Yeah all right so you greg on you know commercial. Yeah nothing commercially available yet. But I feel like I don't know it may be one of those things where they're always going to be a little bit more custom I mean yes S. I guess commercially available has appeared definition. But I don't think we're going to see these like off the shelf on Amazon ever these are going to be. Things are physician. Dan is going to prescribe Google brain. Yeah there you go oh man all right so twenty twenty psychic predictions all right the pound will spike and then plummet after brexit interesting A gene drive will successfully be implemented in the wild and and when I say successfully maybe I should put a point here. It doesn't mean the outcome will be successful successfully destroyed. Yeah it just means it will Happen like it will actually be implemented into the wild and then finally more species will go extinct than any previous recorded years. That's going to be sadly true. It's kind of like the it's going to be hotter July. Tell me all right here. My predictions number. The two thousand nine hundred number one in astronomical phenomenon will be discovered that some will speculate might be related to Elian Technology. That happened happened in January. Where either scientists we're talking about? FRB's and how they might be Alien Tech Yup true. Good Jobs Steve. Well Yeah I guess yes. Technically technically number to the trump presidency will not survive twenty nineteen. That's wrong that's wrong. He wasn't peach but he did survive. He did serve. Yeah life support. You might argue but I think we won't know until a few months from now. Yeah that was kind of like all right. There's maybe a five percent chance that will happen but if it does happen it'll be really impressive you've got you can be impressive. Continue partial credit for that because he got impeach our number three I totally nailed one hundred percent correct. Atlantis will Not Be discovered in two thousand nineteen when you said that last year like no way anything out of three almost got the third one alright for twenty twenty. The one one is kind of an obvious one but somebody needs to say twenty twenty twenty. We'll be the hottest year on record. Okay but that's not a guarantee strategy five weren't incremental skipped around. Two Thousand Sixteen was the hottest. You're on record so if the last five years have been like the last five the five hottest years on record. Yeah so we all depend on whether or not twenty twenty is an El Nino. Oh Year or not number two sometime in twenty twenty. I will be accused of being a schill. Simply for expressing the consensus of scientific opinion. That will definitely happen. Okay okay I could see that. Does that happen every year. Yeah pretty much. And I never three prediction over three a breakthrough. VR Game will be release. That will significantly affect demand for the technology. ooh Do you have an idea of kind of the genre or the if I had to guess I would say it was fantasy roleplaying But it could be could be Sifi first person shooter could be virtual selling be could be those who are predictions. We'll see how we do. Well everywhere we gotta take a quick break from our show to talk about one of our sponsors this week. Bomba socks guys. I think I have the absolute best endorsement. I can give his socks and I'm going to give it to you right now now on an airplane flying to Australia and I made a mistake. I was wearing a pair of socks that were supposed to be like airplane socks. I I had to take them off. I had I had some fresh underwear and socks in my in my backpack because I was on the airplane for sixteen hours. I put on my Baba's socks because the other ones weren't comfortable comfortable. Not only were the other ones comfortable. I just wanted to wear the other socks they are. You know I love that. Yeah I mean I have Bumba socks for all sorts of occasions Asians like you said you could wear them on the airplane. You can wear them as like your everyday socks because they come in a bunch of styles. I really like wearing my mom when I work out there. My favorite workout hiking running running socks because they have that like super super cushioning goodness and the arch support and they also keep my feet dry which is very important. And for every pair you by Obama's donates a pair to someone in need go to Bomba's dot com slash skeptics today and get twenty percent off your first purchase that's below M. B. A. S. dot com slash skeptics for twenty percent off. All right guys. Let's get back to the show all right now we're going to move to some actual will science news items. I one of the twenty twenty year. Bob You're going to go first and tell us about virtual humans so you guys answer where This week was the twenty twenty consumer electronics show in Vegas and one of the more interesting products that was announced Has To do with a new type type of artificial intelligence called NEON Let's see if the hype was justified. So this was announced by subsidiary of the Titan Samsung It's called Star Labs and they are pretty much on their own tax. Samsung does not oversee anything. So they're kind of really on their own which is kind of interesting but what they created what they described as an artificial human claiming that it's able to converse and sympathize. And this is more you know digital avatar guitar not not android artificial human so the new tech supposed to create a customized digital person for displays video games with the potential for a uses what they say is TV anchors spokespeople movie Actors Bankers Yoga instructors or even companions and friends Bernabei. Mystery is a chief executive of the lab. He said some good work is young. Guys that got the late twenties very smart guy. He said that neons will be our our friends. Collaborators and companions continually learning evolving informing memories from their interactions. See when discussing the nuts and bolts of what you know. What's what's going on behind? The scenes accompanied describes neural networks and other AI techniques kind of woven into into a proprietary technology platform called core are three free are three stands for reality real time and responsive. Okay the idea. I guess is that the system would be trained by exposure to help people look and behave and interact and they claim that the result could be so lifelike that quote it's beyond normal perception to distinguish if you look at some of the promotional videos that were created for this it does look at one hundred percent active and they're moving their expressing. It looked impressive. But but these were they were pre made The real test is when you're interactive live and. They actually did did that this week so they could be trained by observing people so the goal is to not just mimic what they record but to And I quote again. Each neon on has his or her own unique personality and can show new expression movements and dialogues. So for example they on how this could could be used There's lots of ways this could potentially be used and a lot of ways. We probably can't even imagine right now but one way that they explain in the video was video games so a lot of video games. If you've got these these these of really important scenes within the video like specifically I guess cut scenes and stuff. They they do what they do. Motion capture option. They they hire somebody they have the motion capture rig all over their body or face. And they're they're emoting talking and expressing and just accumulating and And that's what they capture for the video and it looks. It looks very very good. No question about it because you're a human who's actually doing that but the but there's lots of others Characters actors in the video games that that there's so many of them that you can't motion capture all of it And they they still for those scenes they typically will have just like an AI. Have have the characters speak the words and if you look at those characters. They're clearly the emotions just not. They're not really as nearly as a live. When you're using motion capture so the idea would be to use these neons to create this interaction and emotion and liveliness that that you won't see with typical. Ai Generated characters. Like say for Video Games. So so. That's pretty much the hype. It's a pretty good overview of the hype that was coming out very recently before. CAS really took off so now keep in mind now. These aren't even into Beta stage at this is very early technology. It's not ready for primetime at all So that said the Demo I saw sucked pretty hard about about it was it. It was a journalist interviewing one of the neon characters just interactive asking questions. So the answer's came slowly and robotically and you know that's kind of okay because they never really stressed any real artificial intelligence breakthroughs with their system. They did focus a lot on the realistic appearance and and the emotional interaction of their digital avatars that was what they were really stressing that the convincingly express movement and emotion and like you've never seen before in a completely created from scratch character So the the appearance was fine. It was very realistic but the Neon Leon I saw interacting with a journalist was totally devoid of emotion. Any movements at all. It was embarrassing. It was horrible double. I can't believe they even allow this to be demo because the difference the contrast between what they were hyping and the promotional videos goes to what to what I saw was stark contrast was huge. And so so I think this is an example. Definitely definitely over hyped aft based on what I saw and and sure I. I think it's an interesting concept. I think it could potentially have some some a lot of utility in the future. You created the plan that they want is to not just create a digital advertise. They WanNa have something that could learn from interactions and and become better veteran veteran eventually eventually indistinguishable and they make. They make some breakthroughs with this with this new platform. They have but you know based on this release I would be. I'd be a little bit skeptical and I really think they should should've waited a year before they did this. But you know they want to have input. It's kind of open source that they want to. They want to get other people excited so maybe they kind of really had to do it. Now but but I think they shouldn't have hyped it as much but who knows what's going to come from it but I was when I saw it I was like I. I was actually embarrassed. I actually stopped the video before Ford ended because I was just like. Wow I was embarrassed for this. Kitty and to hear the journalist at the end of that video at the end of his interaction Shen. He said he was sceptical. which was good and he said we may see some good stuff from this company? And that's fine but he was trying to put a positive spin on it. That was like dude. Come on call a spade a spade this this was not good But at there it is. That's all I got to say about it. It was an interesting story I had. I had some hopes but when I saw it just a few hours ago I was like ooh okay. ooh Well I saw some of this to Bob and I mean I hear what you're saying you know I I don't really care like it's early technology I like that. They're working on it. I mean he's reveal it a little early but whatever you know it's cool it. We know if they ever could roll this out into video games or they have such a hyper realistic character that you're going to interact with them and I'm just looking at like them folding listen to Vr. Sure you're going to be walking around. And interacting with with AVATARS that look and act human. That's going to be fantastic. Yeah that'd be great in the fact that they don't have to record a you know a person to And have it perfectly matched you know. Whatever ever they record it the the fact that they could maybe record somebody and then from there you know create like deep fake essentially really is a deep fake? That's something something you can have a say or do anything extremely convincing manner. That's wonderful for a lot of things. But of course the whole the whole deep. Fake the deep fake angle is a little scary as well. But it's it's necessarily tied to that but But still I mean we're going to see a lot of this clearly. We're GONNA see a lot of this in the future in lots of different venues and it's just going to get better and better and better to say you know who's GonNa who's GonNa come out with it first and who's GonNa do it best and it'll be interesting to see how it progresses through through this decade. I mean this is kind kind of a non news item because the concept isn't new and we're not really any farther along than we thought we were like. What makes it a news? Item is that basically they're like we're far a long look over and that's my biggest complaint. Fine you're working on it. You're developing it and you've got you've made some progress and you've got an interesting concept the great don't over hype it at. CBS because that just left a sour taste in my mouth Yeah wasted Bob Time. All right Keira yes. Tell us about genetically modified trees is going to be a thing in the future. Yeah so there's this really cool study between German and scientists. That was done over the course of I think three years where these researchers decided that they wanted to huge genetically modify hybrid poplar trees. Yes it's a hybrid and twenty. How often that word comes right? Oh my gosh yeah. I was reading the Wikipedia for the specific specific type type of poplar that they used in this and they say hybrid like Fifty Times. I did you guys know this. That when you look at the scientific name the genus species he sees in Latin so genus is capital species lower case when it's a hybrid. There's an ex in between the two so this is a it's populace ex. Yes I don't even know the right way to save the notation. I don't know if it's populace cross Kennison's or populace X. hybridize essence so. It's across the grey poplar as it's commonly known is a cross between populous Alba which is white poplar and populist Tremolo. The Common Aspen So that's the tree that these researchers I used because apparently plantations of hybrid poplars specifically these gray poplars are used for all sorts of different things for manufacturing for. Are you know making snowboards for making drums and electric guitars and all sorts of stuff. But it's also used to produce energy and fuel so good word for burning yeah Yeah would for burning to help with the energy. So it's like a complicated thing. But they they grow on the short rotation systems they can yield all this all this would and then they can burn that would and then also yeah for fuel for the same purposes. The problem is when they grow. These plantations of quick growing poplar. Not necessarily the burning but just the living the production of the poplar itself there are a lot of emissions and so I know it's kind of a weird thing to think of the word emissions but emissions literally just means something is omitted by the tree. It's not considered pollution per se. But there's something called Eissa preen that these trees is produced and I was reading up a little bit more on Ice Supreme. And so don't come at me with your emails chemists or maybe do if I get something really wrong here but try and keep it short and simple I supreme emission actually affects aerosols. And when we think about aerosols I'm talking about like Hayes like misty water. Droplets the aerosol formation. Then it seems to be a function of the ice cream. That's given off by these by these trees mixing with the nitric oxide. Their nitric oxides that are produced by industrial activities. And so when those two things come together you see this haze that actually forms his own in the troposphere now the troposphere is the lower atmosphere so it's different than the ozone layer that's actually in the stratosphere but it is a it's a huge air pollutant probably one of the biggest in some places so even though the industrial activities putting off the nitric acid or sorry the nitric oxide is a big part of the problem the supreme I don't help so these researchers were like well. Let's see what happens if we basically genetically modified these trees to produce less ice appre. The problem that they were worried about is that ice supreme seems to be a product. That's produced to help these trees deal with spikes in temperature like climatic hi Matt Climatic Stress and so they were like if we produce these trees to not produce this is a pre are they going to endanger whenever there's like a high level of temperature in them and what they found was no they were able to produce these trees. The trees put out less ice supreme. And they they've seemed to be just fine. They maintain their productivity. They did not have any sort of ill effects. They weren't like less efficient in photosynthesis emphasizing or in producing the actual would the biomass. They're able to make fuel no problem and they actually planted these. These plantations both in Arizona Zona and Oregon so they figured let's put some in a hot area and some in a colder area and see if the production is different once we minimize their capability to make ice cream and they they produce just the same in both areas so they think that it's because there are other compensatory compounds at the tree is producing that are maybe less pollutant less pollutive. I don't know if that's a word. pollutive share Y- polluting less polluting. Yeah I think you're right that put off your pollutants then I supreme and so that may be a way that the plants are overcoming this genetic modification they also think that most of the production and the trees actually happens before the heat sets in earlier in the growing season so that might be a protective mechanism as well. But it's really cool like it. The the the data seemed to show that this is going to be a use full strain of this organism that could go into industrial purposes. If they can get it. I don't even know if it would be as hard. What do you think in terms of regulatory guillot purposes to get? This passed because we're not worried about consumption. And that seems to be where the sticking point is for a lot of people who don't really fully understand the science since I don't know if doing it as an industrial product people might be kind of less weird about genetically modifying and industrial product. And all. They did is they use this. This aren a interference technique which the authors describe it as kind of like vaccinating the tree. I mean I know that's like a really simple way to put it. But they are to actually actually transmit a protein that tells it to suppress this target the which is the production of ice cream and then the tree doesn't produce the supreme and it seems in store. It's pretty cool. I mean it just shows you how blurry the lines are with what is considered a GMO adding anything silencing gene basically basically yeah and it really when you compare this to public perception of GMO there are shades. Like you said it's new to some people are like oh turning off returning on the genus fine so long as you're not putting in a gene from a different organism and then other people are like no doing anything in the lab isn't okay you should only be crossing seeing them naturally. Whatever the hell that means and so it's kind of all over the place like we sometimes like to say that genetic modification is any agricultural organism baroque modified through crossbreeding over the years? But I think the kind of quote unquote legal definition or at least the most accepted definition by researchers usually involves transgenics right it involves actually somehow transferring genes. And so yeah. It's it's sort of in the middle. It's a wiggly area but maybe because of that it'll be easier to get this moving and the reason that this is actually a big deal which I kind of forgot to mention at the beginning. Is that the biomass production of poplar. Trees is like a massive like when you add it all up. It's the size of Hungary. Really point four million hectares I. It's a massive crop. So yeah it's going to be putting off a bunch of ozone basically we should be trying to any place where we can cut down on emissions it also produce. I mean I. Supreme in and of itself is a greenhouse gas and it tends to be competitive at the level of methane like the amount of ice supreme. That's put off is about the same amount of methane and that's a big deal like we're pretty worried about methane right so this would be a good place to be able to cut down on those emission. Yeah yeah all right thanks. Kara J.. Get us up to date on these Australian bushfires F awful. What the hell man? Yeah we were there and You know we were talking talking to a bunch of our friends that live in Australia about the fires and the smoke and it really was very depressing talking to them and seeing. We're going back a month now and the fires are still going. You know mentioned that raging down there and it's just getting worse in the fires are so bad that two thousand kilometers away New Zealand is is considered to be significantly impacted by just a smoke. Yeah not even the fires when we were in New Zealand. We were driving up a mountain and there was snow in the mountain and there was the snow was kind of like Greyish Brown and the driver told Elissa. DC that's because the smoke has collected in the snow the snow the fine particles Wasn't there wasn't there like a recent news article that they were able to look at satellite footage and they saw that some of this physical smoke is actually reaching South America. Yeah Yeah Yeah Ball. You should go online if you haven't yet and really take a look at the images. We have satellite images and they have overlays with it can show you You know we're the fires burning how far the smoke is moving. It's really astounding I. It's like you know. Part of our planet is on fire. Guys it's bad so fifteen million acres over six million hectares. This is over seven times worse than the California fires in two thousand eighteen and that was a massive fire fire. Oh Gosh that's my paradise. California was was burnt to the ground. The whole town and if you look at a map where the fires have been in where they currently currently are. It's really shocking. To see you know just how much ground it's already covered in the east coast of Australia is completely gutted with fire locations and when they they show show you like a dot on these maps. That's the size of the fire. That's the size of the area that's been burned or is currently burning like it's a massive the amount of acreage just just to clarify though. If you're gonNA bring this up Jay a lot of the maps that are circulating or cumulative meaning that they're showing where the fire has been over the last month month everything that's burning right now. Oh Yeah. It's passed burned or currently burning salt lake. The whole country is on fire. But it's definitely covered more Orlando area than when you look at it. You're like really like is that even possible. Yeh unfortunately it is and what we're seeing is that you know we have the perfect conditions here for the fires to continue. It's been very hot. It's been very very dry and add to that. It's been windy. When you add into that equation you have like this? The Unbelievable oiled machine of spreading fire And it's it's you know. And you need all of these conditions in order for a fire to be this big. Burn this long and hit that much. Acreage in the conditions are not getting better. You know last year. Australia experienced the hottest driest conditions ever recorded as as the climate warms. Australia is reaching temperatures at increase. The evaporation and worse than the existing drought. Some areas of Australia have been forecasted said to have less rainfall due to global temperature rising. You know in December eighteenth of two thousand nineteen. So you know just a month ago. Australia experience experience. It's hottest day on record and guess what the day before that was the previous. Stay right about that. It reached over one hundred and seven degrees Fahrenheit or forty two degrees Celsius. That's hot and they were saying that. They're these conditions are like early in the warming like we're going to see a lot hotter than one hundred Jordan seven degrees in Australia. There are several factors that can contribute to these fire friendly conditions. And what we have is you have in the Indian Ocean. We have a die. I Pol has been particularly strong recently with that. What a Dipoto is this? Means that during a normal normal life of temperature of seawater it oscillates between green warm and colder hot and cold depending on where temperature you WANNA call. What but the the? The ocean temperature changes when the hot phase is hotter water than normal which it has been That means that the colder waters are farther to the east and because that colder water is pushed away from the warm water. It pushes the rainy weather away from Australia. So this normal die. Poll situation that we have going on in the Indian Ocean that that affects Australia's weather so tremendously is been. Just you know the heat has literally been turned up on it and it's changing the way that the weather moves and we're we're we're finding rain so so a second unusual pattern that's also emerges at the Antarctic stratosphere That has resulted in clear skies over Australia's so we have this different pattern of weather going on up there as well and this is also created a strong westerly wind. That brings dry air to Victoria. New South Wales. So you know. We're seeing like the the ocean temperatures change. We're seeing weather up in the stratosphere change or what's happening up in the stratosphere Instead of the win moving in a circle around the Antarctic it's not. It's just not moving in the same way as did even a decade ago. The good news is the monsoon season is supposed to becoming and basically that means rain. And it's GonNa end the fires for now. We have to wait it out. There isn't any real predictions going on that I've read and I've read a ton but everything is very loose. It's GonNa be it's GonNa they get worse guys. It's GONNA get worse we're GONNA see fires and places that you know right right now when you think. Oh yeah fires. California and Australia seems to make sense. You'll hot hot hot dry Not Incredible amounts of rain. But we're going to start having fires and places that people are going to be very shocked so to all of my friends in Australia. Oh God I emailed a few people that are that are living in Sydney and telling them that you know you can come here if you need a place to live like whatever like. I'll do anything to help them them. But I'm legitimately concerned. The health effects of smoke are very bad. Insists very very bad to live in a smokey environment you have asthma it can be shuttling. Yeah we always point out. You can't attribute any one specific event to global warming. But you have to look at the big picture the frequency and the and the greenness of the events that are happening. Statistically this is this is a change. Well everyone we're gonNA take a little break from our show to talk about one of our sponsors this week the great courses plus plus guys. You need to listen to the great courses plus because you can learn about things you are interested in. You can learn about things that you probably should know about and you don't. It's true. The great courses plus is this really amazing streaming service where you can look up virtually any topic and there are these courses that are taught by renowned to professors. Now you can either watch them or you can consume using the audio version kind of like a podcast and you can do it from any device anywhere so it's super super convenient and it's a way to really learn something new without you know formerly going back to school this week. We're going to talk about the theory of everything. The quest to explain all reality reality not a small task. You might say you don't have to completely understand physics. I certainly don't but you could still appreciate it. Theories they're beautiful and the course appeals back the many different layers that these theories have and did the greatest ones like Einstein's theory of relativity the Big Bang and more the so many fascinating theories that you learned learned about so sign up for the great courses plus today and get a free trial of unlimited access to the entire library at the great courses plus dot com Slash skeptics aric is. Let's get back to the show. All right I'm going to do a quick neuroscience thing this is Kinda cool you guys ever heard the term end Graham. Yeah yes the N. G. R. A. M. didn't I hear that Star Trek when when you guys think of when you hear the term Ingram I think of think of scientology and I think it's bullshit I think star Trek so okay law I that's why we're skeptics. So the term and grams actually I coined about a century ago over central go by neuroscientist Richard. Semin Who He introduced the term and grim and he thought that that was the fundamental unit of memory in the brain? Oh that's cool so quick overview our understanding of how memory works you know as evolving for a couple thous in years Actually Greek philosophers Thought that that memories and cognition may have something to do with the brain but throughout the ancient times and Medieval Times. It was pretty much taken for granted that cognition was a function of the soul. Yeah especially dual ISM was the you know. The the order of the day and that The sole interface with the physical universe in some way and that that they started figuring out pretty early that was happening through the brain although at the time of Galen Guys Remember Gallon Right yes medieval position he the the debate was between the Cardio centric view and the encephalitis centric view. So essentially is our ares. Yeah heart or the brain and Galen Ellen and others at the time thought that L. The brain does the things like memory and thinking but the heart is where we have like emotions and feelings. And what's interesting. Is that that. Think about it that notion that the heart is related to feeling still exist today. Oh Yeah it's in our culture to in the early nineteenth century eighteenth century. There was the debate about whether or not the brain was compartmentalized or one big mishmash. and Oh aw yeah if you remember the it was actually putting for knowledge you know hoover say that no it's compartmentalized different parts of the brains of the brain. Do Different things and they they were right about that although they were wrong about everything else and so by the by the early twentieth century that was kind of where we were that we. Okay the brain is where all of this stuff is happening. In terms of thinking everything different parts of the brain do different things and so if the brains were memory or stored or what is a biological fundamental unit of memory. And that's where you know. Seventeen containment said okay. There was this probably this some pattern of brain cells. That is a specific memory. The end he called that Ingram he tried to find and where that was in the brain. But of course we didn't have the technology back then and the idea scientifically was in limbo for one hundred the years because you couldn't really prove it right or wrong. It just wasn't really getting US anywhere. Couldn't have the technology to really address it but in the last ten years last twelve l.. Ten twelve years researchers finally really have the tools needed to start doing research that is you know addressing. The question of aren't real. Is there this actually unit of memory. And so I just recently published a review of basically the last twelve years of researching what experiments Tapie been done. And what do we know. The other paper is memory end grams recalling past and imagining the future by Dr Sheena Jocelyn and Suma Suma Twenty gala so in one study they a- bladed which is basically killed a subset of neurons in the lateral amid lap so so these are neurons that are allocated to a putative and Graham they would essentially allow you to access right that memory three so when those cells were killed in mice they lost the ability. They lost that memory right. That was a way of destroying the the memory. Marie by just a blading cells lateral are they ended in a second study where they were able to stimulate a different set of cells in the hippocampus the campus and this was able to activate a memory a previous learned experience right so they were able to essentially destroy a memory in in one experiment and they were able to activate a memory in another experiment. But I think the more the more interesting one is the hypothesis was well if if you you know there's this collection this network of neurons and that that network is the memory and but you need to be able to access it somehow and you could sort of externally finally stimulated to activate them emory. Is it possible that there are silent and grams in the brain. meaning that there's a pattern of neurons. That exists enough that is still encoding the memory but it just can't be activated by other networks right so the idea. Is that like when you think of when you recall. Recall a memory. That Ingram is being activated by overlapping and Grimm's that are being activated by other things right. So it's this constant endless loop of of memories. Activating other memories right kind of feels right. I think that's kind of how we experienced things. What if there are silent and grim that our old memories that have faded and and that you just cannot access because you can't stimulate them but what if we externally stimulate them could we resurrect silent end GRIMM's but doesn't that sometimes happen in neurosurgery? Yeah Forgotten Memories. Yeah that's that's that's sounds like it's the same thing it's cool. They were able to do that. They were able to activate silent uh-huh grams artificially. That could not be naturally naturally activated law. Here's the other thing. They were also able to artificially implant memories reason mice. Wow now what would they like. Oh it's always things like learning how to run a maze. Things like that so it seems like it's still early days right. This is really just be the last twelve years that we've been resurrecting this notion of grams and then doing studies specifically designed to say does this way of understanding memory on a biological the fundamental level makes sense and so far. The studies are consistent with that. I mean it's a long way away from proving that this is actually how the brain works but it does seem Consistent with everything we know both from psychology and now from neuroscience so I thought it was interesting for a couple of reasons. Obviously I that that term was stolen and by scientology and now scientists taking it back but also that a scientific idea could be essentially correct or at least be useful but sit in limbo for one hundred years until we develop the technology to really study it. You know but that you would think oh this is. This idea has been sitting around for one hundred years. It's never been proven that that would be an argument against it but it really isn't it. That's not necessarily the case. If the reason that it it hasn't been demonstrated is because we really don't have the technology to test something we haven't been able to to look where we need to look for whatever reason that's not at the same thing as as evidence at theory is incorrect right. I do think it's better to consider it being in limbo I consider like a lot of theoretical physics. That way string theory that these are interesting ideas but we just kind of in limbo though until we figure out how to test them in Deca. A potentially falsify them and see that a lot with cognitive psychology as it is because cog psych is this weird field that sort of like halfway between neuroscience of science and pure psychology. So it's trying to figure out how the mind works. Basically and what we know about neuroscience is often implemented into into it but a lot of cognitive psychologists have have these theories of like. You know you've got this Schema and then you're like you're going to select. They use all these words that are like not neuroscience words words in order to describe almost like metaphorically. What's happening in your mind because we don't know yet at that level how these things work and so? It's like a good way to approximate. How a lot of things are working when we think it's right? It's just a construct. It's totally a contractor often the typical construct and up until we have something neuro anatomical. We often use metaphor to describe what's happening because we're just don't know if there's Ingraham's is a metaphor or really onto something fundamental. It's like it's early on. I think there's some encouraging studies here but it's going to take decades. I predict decades before we really get a handle on whether or not this is describing something real in the brain. Yes but speaking of angers me remember I said it reminded me of Star Trek well of force. It did. The ultimate computer with Richard Daydream played by the Awesome William Marshall. He said that he imprinted human end. GRIMM's onto the M five circuits. which which of course we're his and GRIMM's so yes? Oh yes five nine. You're angry were approving. Yes Evan tell tell us do have puff ans joined to the world of tool using critters well star trek less S.. Jeff Sorry Porguese Prince porks they use you know a baby puffins is called a puff ling acute that but Regarding tools. Well yes if us if you believe. Leave this paper that was published. The last week of December it showed up in the proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Right care. They presented video footage taken by a camera trap of an itchy. Puffins who is making a burgling. MM sound and scratching its chest with a sharp end of TWIG. This is the first on camera evidence of this behavior in puffins 's okay. So this was not suspected but not known certainly not captured proven before but now they have two cases in which there has been documented. Evidence of puffiness silliness One of one puffins was examined in Wales and England and the other in Iceland which is about seventeen hundred kilometers away from each other. So you've got puff ans and one part of the North Atlantic and poppins on the other part of the North Atlantic and they're both exhibiting the same behavior of your so that is pretty darn cool. They say the importance of these observations is threefold first. So far they had there had only a been a single form of body care related tool use recorded in wild birds which is known as an tting. I don't know if we've talked about that. Steve on on the show before. Have you heard of answering by birds. So apparently birds will find an ant nest replace rivers several aunts and they'll get the ants to crawl on them and it's a it's a skin conditioning or a feather conditioning procedure that they go through. It's they think perhaps it it. The ants consume parasites. And then they take you know they. So they're using the ants as a tool to keep their feathers clean and their skin clean. So that's that's fascinating anything. I had not known that before. So here's the here's now the second case in which they're showing a wild avian using a tool or something very very specific now you know. They talked about. Well how do they. How do you know that okay? So the puffins which is an amazing bird. By the way Steve. I don't know if you've ever ever seen one no pictures of them. But you haven't checked one often your bird book nope we have two more northerly. Think that I think a hybrid of Penguin and parrot. Nice Big Orange Parrot beak peaks florescent. Yes yes they do. Oh and they change color depending on the seasons as well So yeah they're a little more dormant in the winter but in spring and the summer they go full all color Orange cars. It's very cool. So they they'll pick up the stick and they'll use it to reach a part of their you know body down near their belly where they in other words can't reach now they're using these sticks for that purpose and then they're putting the stick down and they're not using it for any other purpose whereas you see the puffins using collecting collecting things with its beak like Straw or feathers or other things that are softer. And they'll take those materials and bring them back to their nests to line to line their nests. They won't do that with the sticks apparently so they'll just pick it up. Use it and drop it where it is and that's where the stick hangs around so that indicates tool use use that. It's not the other you know. That's not for some other related purpose that they just happened to be lining their nests or creating a nest with twig and they decide to scratch themselves on the way to doing it it seems they specifically picked it up in their beak for this specific purpose. So that's neat. And then they also said secondly the breadth of tool use to include another group of birds seabirds so this the first seabird That has been seen using tools. So that's cool. And they said the third significant fact is the distanced. Seventeen hundred kilometers apart. Suggesting occasional tool use may be widespread among the group and that physical cognition may have been underestimated previously. So that is cool stuff now crows was. We've talked I think we've talked about on the show before crows of used hook sticks to catch grubbs. Who so the fact that you know? The birds are using the tools while this is another example of that this adds to the to the evidence. There are animals considered chill users other in humans including crows. And I think our eleven but there's also chimpanzees of course orangutans and gorillas so the the big primates not a surprise but also elephants Dolphins Sea Otters Sea otters. Yep Octopus O.. Wonder what Oh. Aw Macaques some rodents neat all right J. It's been a long time since you've had who's that noisy all all right guys. Last week I played this noisy. We think of that nobody needs a tune-up does sound like something that needs a tune-up rollercoaster. Wow Wow interesting that you say that because Caroline Burns also agrees she she said Hey guys. This week's noisy sounds very much like an old fashioned wooden roller coaster climbing a hill She says that she remembers her and her sister being traumatized by the Yankee cannonball at Kenobi Lake Park because it rattled so much she's thought it was gonNA fall apart. We still have an operational wooden roller coaster here in Connecticut at Eh compounds that's right. I wrote it a few years ago. It's it's a fast and furious. It is and there's a couple of times during that that ride where you're like I'm GONNA get killed. Yeah wouldn't coach Yes so Caroline Burns represents about one hundred people who route it was roller coaster. It does sound like one and you know. Look as I say with. WHO's that noisy? It's remarkable how many things sound like other things. The context is pretty much everything in other guests. Extra an Zana Regret Zan von Ackermann. Yeah because usually short for Zander Mandar. Yeah that's a cool name says greeting skeptics. Lots of clunking some humming and such. I'm guessing this is a winch of someone for something like an anchor on a ship or raising a bridge as a side. No I agree that you are indeed a bastard of the tricky variety. Okay well thanks Dan. I am a tricky bastard. Note this is not Winch raising a bridge or an anchor to a ship. But I would love to hear those noises and I bet you they sound exactly like a roller coaster gone bench like like sound and I almost gave up. I'm like I don't even know if I'm going to go through all these emails because they're all exactly the same and then like Hans. John's Golden God. I love this man because he figured it out high Jay. This sounds like a a windmilling jet engine. And that's what it is he. I said I love you guys my girlfriend and we always listen to the show together. As soon as it comes out best regards from Amsterdam Hans von Golden. This guy was like a ray of sunshine. They see of. WHO's that noisy wrong guesses? Thank God and so this guys is this was sent in by a listener named Craig Jacobson. This noise is This was from the person who sent it. And this is the sound of wind blowing through a cold jet engine. The engine is wind milling. The clicking noise is the loose fitting from turbine blades rattling around the engine center shaft. The blades when cold are designed to have a lot of play when cold. That's the way he wrote it where they mount onto the engine center shaft as the engine starts the centrifugal force throws the blades out and they can self centered and self balanced the shaft and blades also heat up rapidly expand and they lock the locks them into place very cool. Never even heard of it windmilling. If I heard any plane that I got into do do any of this before I knew what it was I would have been very very upset and probably walking off of that plane. I have a new noisy for you guys though alright right proven. This noisy was sent in by a listener named Michael Schmidt. And before I play the noisy I want to tell people that I endeavour in two thousand twenty to warn you if a noisy is going to be you screechy or irritating in any way if I forget or I don't agree that this particular noisy is he needs a warning. I'm very sorry but I will try to give people a heads up next time because sometimes people say hey it would have been nice if you said something like hey watch out. This noisy is about to screw you out of a your driver's seat. You know what I mean like I gotta remember that people are driving and doing all sorts of different stuff. Yeah your driver got so anyway. This next noisy is is not a bad boys two really cool noisy and my only hint. This which won't help much but that this this noisy goes on for minutes a morning they play about thirty seconds of it but it keeps doing the same thing that it's doing here which is basically a varying degree of the same team ready inheritance. The wow cool just keeps it's it's it's a pretty cool noisy. I'm really excited to tell you guys about it when we get there that was sent and again by Michael Schmidt and it's really really cool. I think you'll like it. I think it's a good way to start off the year now. Another good way to start your year off. I'm sure you all agree is that the issue has some seriously really cool events coming up. We do a show called the skeptical extravaganza. This show is a is a stage. Show it's an Improv show. It's a show where we teach you or show you we demonstrate to you how bad your perception of reality is to the point where we are going to. You will not believe. Leave the things that we pull off in front of you okay. That's what I'm going to put that flag into Sandra here at the end by the end of the show you're going to sit there and your mind will be blown own about what we do in front of you and how we have completely fooled your mind into believing other things Evan is it true that the last show that it was so oh good that even you your mind got blown totally blown and I'm still looking for pieces of okay. I think I I think if you haven't seen the show you should come out and check it out because it's a lot of fun if you have seen it. We have significantly updated it enhanced it and brought it to a level that it deserved this. This show is a ton of fun to do. It's hosted by George Rob. It's a comedy Improv. Science experiment and it is definitely something that you're going to see. Because is it's coming to a city near you. Yes we got Pittsburgh. Pennsylvania January thirty first Philadelphia Pennsylvania February first. I and Brooklyn New York on February second. Yes we are aware that. That's the Super Bowl. But here's the thing the pats are not in it so who here nor are any New York teams. Yeah that's right so forget about it and we are to enhance. It's The Philadelphia experience. Of course you could come to this. If you're in any of these events you could make the trip to Philadelphia. We're going to do a private show in NJ. Give us the details. What this is? We do a live recording of the chew in front of a live audience. We do take questions. It's not uncommon and these shows those are typically a little bit more fun and a little bit more loose especially for the live audience. You know we do edit it pretty significantly to put it on air but you're going to see a version Donovan that you haven't seen in hero say lots of things that you haven't heard before era ton of fun. They're very personal. George has been known very often to make people cry during needs us in a good way. Yeah and George of course will be with us at this particular private show because we're going on the tour to to do the extravaganza so he will be joining us now. If you want to get the tickets for this show you could go to skeptics guide dot event bright dot com and you will see that private show there and and And also you can keep keep checking their because more private shows will be coming up. We're going to be doing a private show in Seattle which that's a new event added to our calendar February February fifteenth Saturday February Fifteenth At two PM we're doing private show. I will give you the details on that when when that's been confirmed firm schedule there and seven. PM They'll be an extravaganza in Seattle. The does tickets are not yet available. They will be very soon as soon as they are will. Put it up on our website and we'll announce it on the show will spread out through the social media universe so that's the next extravaganza Seattle Washington February fifteenth. Just have the evening. I will be doing a private show that same day. Somewhere in Seattle. All right guys. Let's go on with science fiction. It's time for science science fiction. Each week I come up with three sites news items. Were facts to real one fake child my panelists to tell me which one is the so. This is the first science fiction were recording in twenty twenty twenty. Although last week show which was in twenty twenty and we'll count on twenty. Twenty statistics was the L. A.. Private show and we all swift Bob on that one. So we're all at one hundred percent except Bob now who has no science. This is your BOPs I but the rest of us have one under our belt ready. I number one. Researchers have successfully developed a universal flu vaccine which when tested in mice protected against six different influenza strains interesting that you guys both to predicted this but it actually happened. I'd never to a new study. Finds that injuries from east scooters have a higher rate of head injuries stories than from bicycles and number three. The first ever F- rb Fast Radio burst located within the Milky Way Galaxy has been confirmed so Keira era. I want you to go I well. We know that researchers have successfully developed universal flu vaccine. Because it's in phase one clinical trial. But we don't know if it's it's the same one you're talking about that when tested on mice protect against six different influenza strains I mean the whole point of being universal is that it protects against most of the flu strains strands right but I guess just to clarify what I'm saying there. That's the sixty today. Basically picked six one is a great on the spectrum and they did it to all the ones tested which was six. So it's still universal but test every single strain Gotcha and then a new study finds it. Injuries from e scooters have a higher rate of of head injuries than from bicycles. That's rough I just when you say a higher rate you mean like the percentage like you're talking talking about compared because not an absolute number you're talking about the compare. Okay good yes yes. Yeah right them as ICICLES. Yeah Yeah exactly. So those people who were injured all the people who are a higher percentage of them have head injuries and the percentage of people who were injured with price of bicycles news. I mean I'll tell you that from my experience living in L. A. Because e scooters everywhere in L. A.. They're all over the place. I never see people wearing helmet. I've never I don't know if I've ever seen a single person. Where helmet when they're on an e scooter? Because I think the point of East gutters is that they are like convenient. They're just randomly throughout the sitting. Somebody Goes I. Don't WANNA walk. I'll just jump on that. They don't have a helmet on them because it's not their main means of transportation so that one actually wouldn't surprise me because I think a fair amount on a bicycle. Riders like are hip to the fact that they need to wear a helmet and strap it to their bicycle when it's not being ridden and the first ever fast radio Bursa located within the Milky Galaxy has been confirmed. Well I guess this is hard. I would think that that one has to be the fiction by default fault unless there's something about the universal flu vaccine one that maybe they must have tested in animals before became before they started testing people but six versus sixty. I don't know what you could have changed in that one to make it the fiction so I guess I'll say the F. RPM Okay Jay the one about the The injuries from east scooters. Yeah absolutely this study finds injuries from scooters or higher rate have a higher rate of head injuries than from bicycles. I mean I've written East gutters quite a bit. I haven't taken a header yet. I've seen people take headers on them. Yeah I I don't know I mean the the tricky part about this one care since you answer it. I'm GonNa Kinda Talk to you about the tricky part about this one is your your body is in a different position when you're on the East scooter than on a bike. You're sitting or standing in a different orientation. I'm questioning the head injury thing. It might might have something to do with the people riding the east scooters on sidewalks and there's more there's more stuff in the way but I could see how this might not be be true as well but I'm leaning towards that when being science since the first ever F. R. B. located within the Milky Way Galaxy has been confirmed yet. I think this one is science as well. So we're GONNA look at this first one here her The researchers that they successfully developed the universal flu vaccine. Yeah I don't get it because I I. I agree with care that I thought that this was in pretrial right now as well. Yeah I mean I guess I'm GonNa I'm GonNa say that the one about the the east scooters is fiction just because it was the only one that the seem like. There was a wrinkle in there. Okay Evan of these three. I think the one that I'm most familiar with as the fast radio bursts I've covered them a few times on the show increasing frequency of detection Finding better methods of detecting them and also looking for the repeaters Some of them apparently do repeat and these things are just fascinating and maybe one day. I wasn't bold enough to make a psychic prediction about. FRB's this year here but maybe in the coming year. So I'll do that. We'll figure out what the heck they are. But the problem here is within the Milky Way Galaxy being confirmed my understanding these these. FRB's emanate from very far distances. Away millions if not billions of light years and they put out a tremendous tremendous ended amount of energy all at once. I think I reported once that enough rb can have is pack as much energy as the son. Our Son produces one hundred years so if you had something of that magnitude happening in the Milky Way Galaxy I mean. I don't know that that would just kind of slipped by the new cycle four. I think it would be a much more significant event than just kind of meal. I learning about here in science fiction so for that reason. I'M GONNA to say that that one is the fiction. Okay okay so I won universal flu vaccine. Yeah what everyone's saying. That makes a lot of sense. That sounds totally totally right. I mean we all agree that they're the studies happening but I don't think any of US really know except for Steve What what the results are So it just makes sense that it was. You know that it's doing very well. I totally buy into that. The e scooters gay. I've got a lot good points made here as well we used these scooters in New Zealand it was a they are blessed total blast so much fun but cares whereas right. nope is bringing Dan Helmets for that stuff and they are precarious. You're driving that thing at a good speed like Jay said on sidewalks lots of obstacles scary stuff I also I also did bike riding and it was actually an e bike so it gave you a give you assistance and that was much much less dangerous feeling even with the boost than the scooter scooters man. I did many times where I'm like holy crap. I almost killed myself. I was just happy I was happy. We survived it was so damn man. Because you know you fast. So I'm buying that a two and then the radio burst. Yeah ever made a really good point. This these are so crazy powerful we would have heard about. It would have been right at least didn't have in radio waves So I don't think that's up I'M GONNA call bullshit on that one that's fiction. Let's go to number one that you all agree on that one. Researchers have successfully developed a universal flu vaccine which was when tested in mice protected protected against six different influenza strains you all think that one is science and that one is science. Yeah Hey this is a nail one thing soon not different from the previous ones. Oh cool. This is using nanoparticles then against the protein to echo domain and the neuro amenities so these are parts of the flu vaccine of the flu. Virus that evolved berry slowly and so. They're they're pretty much the same among all the various strains and so if you could target that both of those with the same vaccine it should cover pretty much any flu. Which of course is a huge advantage of the big problem with the flu vaccine is that you say J. covered three maybe four? If you get the quadrivalent quadrivalent different strains in the flu but there's dozens or sixty more plus strains out there and the revolving all the time and so we're always playing playing catch-up you know we're always trying to treat the one that we think is going around but by the time we get the vaccine out there it may have changed a bit and so you know. The efficacy is decreased because of the matches. Not Always Great. But imagine if you can get one flu vaccine and then you covered for ten years against every possible flu strain you know we we we need it. Yeah so maybe a few more years to get the clinical approval but these vaccines are coming all right. Let's go to number two and you study finds that injuries from east groups have a higher rate of head injuries. The from Bicycles Jay. This what is the fiction because of the nature of scooters. Everyone else thinks this one is science and this one is science. Sorry Day so studies couple. Studies have come out recently showing that the number of injuries due to east scooters is spiking liking big time the last few years with with their use. So we've all experienced these beat. The percentage grew between two thousand fourteen in two thousand eighteen by two hundred and twenty two percent more than thirty nine thousand injuries With three hundred and the number of hospital admissions increased despite three hundred sixty five percent to nearly three thousand three hundred us of these injuries. The rate of the rate of Henry Andrews actually greater than for bicycle riders and carry a right. Nobody is wearing a helmet when they write these. The actual research shows between two and five percent of people wear helmets. Not that much. Yeah Yeah so you know. Two to five percents mostly. Nobody I did though in one location where we were at the east. Scooters had helmets helmets attached to them. Yes I'd never saw that. I saw them of course how. How much would be an extremely effective way to reduce these head injuries? So I think our AH wouldn't surprise me if we're going to start seeing some helmet laws for short these injuries start to spike makes sense all right that means means that the first ever. FRB fastidious located within the Milky Way Galaxy has been. Confirmed is complete and total bollocks 'cause Bob and Evan are correct. These things are massively powerful What the research that I found showed was that the second confirmed repeating? FRB's RB's location was pinpointed pinpointed and he comes from a galaxy. Five hundred million light years away pretty far away. They're pretty far. But how powerful really Jamie Farr. So yeah so that was. I don't think that's going to happen. We don't really know what they are. It's not like they can't be galaxy. I guess we don't. We can't really say that until we know what they actually are. They're getting better at detecting them though. So yeah yeah the detecting more and more and more crack at someday soon. Hopefully alright so everyone's at one hundred percent except Jason who was fifty percent now j zero. I'm with J retired. You're one for one you didn't miss. We lose one you gave the scientists fiction. Yeah you're the one I gave. I thought it was the one that I okay. Okay Gotcha Gotcha I feel better J.. Feel as feeling right okay. Ede's all right. All right this quote I quote of the new score was suggested by listener. Louis Goldberg. Thank thank you Louis. I like this one because it's our friend. Douglas Adams who once said I'd take the understanding over the of ignorance any day. Hell Yeah Yeah. That's a good plan to marry confirmed very straightforward but. Yeah absolutely DNA. That's right. There were his initials DNA. Douglas Nucleic Atoms. All right guys will thanks for joining. Join me for the first episode of decades that we're recording right. Yeah Hill next just one week to our next year until next week this is your skeptics guide to the universe skeptics guide to the universe is produced by FDU productions dedicated to quoting science and critical thinking. Samore information visit us at the skeptic skied dot org send send your questions to Info at the skeptics Guy Dot Org and if you would like to support the show and all the work that we do go to patriotdepot dot com slash skeptics skied and consider becoming a patron and becoming part of the community. Our listeners and supporters are what make possible sir.