25 Burst results for "Brookings Cafeteria"

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

01:30 min | 10 months ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Of them into the world trade center towers in manhattan and one into the pentagon arlington county virginia brave passengers on the fourth plane with knowledge of the horror unfolding. That morning temperature take control of their aircraft causing it to crash your shanksville pennsylvania. Nearly three thousand people from all walks of life and scores of countries including office building workers pilots passengers firefighters. Police and military personnel died in the attacks and their aftermath in october president. George w bush announced the start of the military campaign to oust the taliban regime in afghanistan. That had harboured al-qaeda leader osama bin laden. Who planned the attack now. Twenty years after that terrible day six brookings scholars reflect on their personal experience of nine eleven and offer expert insights into how nine eleven change policy. And what the anniversary suggests policy moving forward. I'm fred deuce. And this is a special edition of the brookings cafeteria. Podcast Bruce ridell senior. Solomon the center for middle east policy at brookings who prior to joining. Brookings spent thirty years in the cia including postings overseas working on the national security council in the white house. He was explaining the opening of this episode. What he experienced at the white house on the morning of nine eleven during the weekly senior staff meeting during which he happened to be seated next to condoleeza rice.

arlington county pentagon manhattan George w bush fred deuce virginia Bruce ridell pennsylvania center for middle east policy osama bin laden qaeda taliban afghanistan al Solomon national security council white house cia condoleeza rice
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

06:46 min | 1 year ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Have all but purged their ranks of anti-trumpers making them eager to defend the president senate. Republicans have not torn themselves apart on this question. They preferred to sweep that challenge at least for now under the rug. You can find more additions of what's happening in congress from both sarah bender. An molly reynolds on the brookings. Sound thou- janelle soundcloud dot com slash brookings hyphen institution. And now here's my interview with analysts. Go on transforming labor and education digital systems analyst. Least welcome back to the brookings cafeteria podcasts constraint. To confess on so. We're here to talk today. About a new report that you've co authored with janey mcdermot and it has to do with the ecosystem of digital technologies around delivery of services like unemployment insurance education benefits through states federal government. That kind of thing. I wonder if we could start off with you. Just giving us a really high level a review of what this report is. The main goal of this report is to really take what i think has become painfully obvious about the way in. Which congress has this quake generous package for unemployment insurance in the midst of the lockdowns following the who've nineteen public health crisis but the states really struggled to get that money out quickly and effectively to the right people in order to provide relief to those who lost their jobs because of the lockdown in the goal. This report is to take opportunity where people are made aware of the struggle set the stage for having and use that opportunity to do a broader reset around how we think about data systems right custody our labor in education systems not just for delivery life clement insurance benefits but for all the other programs and services that are connected to that system that are also suffering from a lot of same problem. So i wanted to broaden the discussion beyond simply unemployment insurance. Julie make people more aware that these are really seeming problems in the ecosystem and we need to shift from periodic wholesale tax to upgrade which have generally not work gaffer. Well to something where we have more internal capacity states to continue seen proof them. That's something i found really fascinating about this report is. It's not so much about the service that's being delivered itself. It's about the systems that are at play in trying to deliver services through technology mostly to people throughout this country. I think you use the number fifty three states and territories so i want to focus on that unemployment insurance issue in kind of set the context back in the onset of the pandemic in twenty twenty be had public health lockdowns. We had a wave of workers applying for unemployment insurance. Can you talk about what happened next. Sure and is a great place to start as you know. When the lockout started omarosa overnight restaurants bars anything where people were directly interfacing with the public most of the jobs that messier essential his completely went away overnight and so no fault of their own than you have these unprecedented surge of people that would qualify for unemployment insurance and on top of that. Because actually a lot of those people wouldn't qualify for regular Is gonna stop wrong key but if you earn a certain amount if you're on working part time for example if you are a new entrant like you're just getting a first job and you have working very long. There are various cameras people. That wouldn't normally off i from employment insurance and so congress has cares which created three whole new programs to make sure that all those people that were impacted could be caught in his safety net. You have a great attention there. But the problem is that you're asking states that are already dealing with is massive with people hitting their system that isn't prepared to create three new programs in master those on top of that and so from a state administration point of view. That's just a tremendous tremendous amount of effort. It's almost impossible to think about how you can make that kind of pivot so quickly. What was asking them an from a user point of view. Let's say you're worker. Many of these workers are at restaurants in hospitality. Generally are younger. Historically are office spend in manufacturing tend to be a little bit older so a lot of these percent never applied for planning insurance four to their awareness generally was lower than that because those Changing in the way that states who qualify how much they already access. All those details were quite hard to find because of changing almost every day. Everything was changing as here's atms being implemented as guidance who's coming out and still there's just a loud confusion both for people that lost their job at pretty employers that were trying to figure out who's legally allowed to collect these benefits new rules related to copay about who qualify. If they didn't have child care things like that so it was just a big chaotic wave of things that even if you the best technology the best processes ways in detecting fraud these like that it would be hard but we have systems at that time that had been basically eroded for about thirty to forty years of cuts and lower staff. In fact i think the unemployment staffing levels were around historic lows at that time and so it was really hard for states to get people trained up to get into the call center. What happens generally in fraud. He is that it will check your identity and other things than what we saw was also they were cashing people who should have been eligible under the fraud. Line a lot. Wait line to get through the be manually process and in a lot of organized fraud was getting past successes fraud detection so on multiple levels. It's just been really challenging for everyone. While i think it bears emphasizing. That unemployment insurance is a federal.

sarah bender molly reynolds janey mcdermot congress omarosa janelle senate federal government messier Julie confusion
Unpacking Inequities in Unemployment and Economic Recovery

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:37 min | 1 year ago

Unpacking Inequities in Unemployment and Economic Recovery

"I am marcellus co bari. A senior fellow in the global economy and development program here with a sustainable development spotlight as part of the greater recovery from cove nineteen. The biden administration has an opportunity to tackle three into related challenges facing the american economy. The first one is unemployment. Even as unemployment rates have gradually fallen. Since last april the labor force was a whole has shrunk. We still have ten million fewer workers employed today than before the pandemic and because covid nineteen proportionately disrupted sectors like cleaning hospitality and food services high contact sector that also typically pay low wages. The workers most affected are more likely to be black hispanic female anion second even before the pandemic made things worse the. Us labor market was incredibly precarious. Almost half of the american workforce some fifty. Three million people were working in low wage jobs. Earning on average eighteen thousand dollars a year. These workers also see very little upward mobility looking at the transition of some twenty million workers in the lowest paid jobs. We found the low wage workers sticky for every two years or worker remains in lower work their chances of escaping get cut in half and third. The us just doesn't invest enough in infrastructure. We spent just over. Two percent of gdp on infrastructure while european country spend five percent on average in china around eight percent this lack of investment hamper productivity in long-term growth by looking at new infrastructure proposals to a workforce lands. The administration has the opportunity to address the precarious low wage labor market and speed up reemployment while providing much needed infrastructure like broadband. Roads and bridges. Should be the primary goal. We think that the jobs that go into it can make all the difference to workers hit hardest in this crisis in a new policy. Brief we provide an example. What this analysis might look like we use data from hundreds of thousands of real occupational transitions in the last twenty years to answer some questions. That may help policymakers prioritize and adapt projects to maximize their workforce in impact. I absorption how many what kind of workers will new projects employees each will require a unique occupational mix and occupations employed different kinds of workers take broadband an eighty billion dollar investment. The amount proposed in clyburn. Bill would enjoy about two hundred thousand workers over the course of a year in occupations like telecom line installers electronics engineers. Most of them eighty five percent can be sourced from currently unemployed and underemployed people from the telecom construction industries. These workers tend to be older wider in mail. So policymakers might consider a diversity inclusion strategy when hiring for infrastructure projects second. How good will be the recovery from the two thousand and eight recession left too. Many workers behind the quality of jobs created and who has access to them matters if we want to make sure the recovery for the economy also means recovery workers given the urgency to accelerate. Reemployment policymakers may favor investments that create jobs with low natural barriers to entry and that provide living wage basic labor protections instability here infrastructure. Jobs to well. They generally pay more than the national medium offer opportunities for upward mobility and are accessible to workers without a college degree. Third what specific reskilling may be required if we assume that the two hundred thousand jobs in broadband are created in year. One we find there are not currently enough unemployed and underemployed workers to fill about fifteen percent of the jobs created. The potential shortages aren't highly technical jobs specialized telecom industry. These jobs pay well and many workers would benefit from the opportunity to learn the skills needed to fill up. This type of analysis can help maximize the long term impact of these investments on the workforce and informed local reskilling efforts. They can help follows. He makers prioritize projects that can absorb locally displaced workers plugging abandoned oils for instance not only can reduce harmful methane emissions but maybe helpful to workers in places like pennsylvania transitioning from fossil fuels. There are precedents for programs like this. During the great depression federally funded infrastructure investments amounted to six point seven percent of gdp at speak it provided paid work for up to forty percent of unemployed americans equivalent to about four million jobs today. So what we're thinking about the great new bridges and broadband will end up with. We also need to be considering the people who build them and how. This is a massive opportunity to really break ground on both our economic recovery and to reconcile with labor markets card by equity and lack of opportunity.

Marcellus Co Bari Biden Administration Clyburn United States China Bill Pennsylvania Depression
The Global Challenge of Political Polarization

The Brookings Cafeteria

05:49 min | 2 years ago

The Global Challenge of Political Polarization

Fed's Barkin says it's time to let rate cuts work through economy

The Brookings Cafeteria

00:54 sec | 2 years ago

Fed's Barkin says it's time to let rate cuts work through economy

"You might sort of say if interest rates rates are low. This is a great time to be doing some investments. And that's going to bring us right back to the bad news story that we talked about these structural issues right so we. We have structural problems. Were doing well on average but not everybody in the economy is doing well and this is a good time to be investing in our people and trying to do some policies that might help address. Those for the long run might be the best way to ensure future living standards remain healthy as opposed to sort of cutting the debt. I think that's right that with interest rates low some of the negative consequences that this might have for the country for individual families. It's just not a parent and so it really could be a an opportunity for us to make some investments that would in the long run boost productivity raise education could be a time to make investment in our physical in human capital that would boost productivity going

Reshaping the health care debate to focus on what's making costs so expensive

The Brookings Cafeteria

02:47 min | 2 years ago

Reshaping the health care debate to focus on what's making costs so expensive

"This is a major issue in. US politics right now and also in our healthcare system so surprise medical bills arise is when you receive care from an out of network healthcare provider under situations that you can't reasonably control. You were not able to choose which to provide you're seeing and so you're seeing an out of network doctor in a way that you couldn't avoid a common situation is emergency care where you may not have a choice over which hospital you're take into or you may go to network hospital that see particular clinicians within that hospital that are out of network another type of example and in some ways the most egregious kinds of examples arise when people go for scheduled procedure at an in network hospital so they schedule a surgery or they scheduled to deliver their baby at an in network hospital. They're seeing an in network primary surgeon or an in-network OBGYN but it turns out that some of the other doctors that get involved in delivering their care are out of network. UNBEKNOWNST to them their there anesthesiologist radiologist or consulting surgeon is out of network and again. The patient had no ability to choose specialists. They couldn't say I'm sorry I'd like like a different anesthesiologists or I wanna run across town to find an in network anesthesiologist. That's not an option at all for these folks you're stuck with the anesthesiologist at the hospital. Present you with this. This is fundamentally a market failure. There's a group of providers that are exploiting the fact that you can't choose which doctor you're going to see and these circumstance says to get the higher payment that they can receive by delivering out of Network Care. It's actually fairly common about twenty percent of emergency department. Admissions and ten percent of impatience days involve some sort of care that could potentially lead to a surprise out of Network Bill. Half to two thirds of ambulance rides are out of networks so this is really widespread in pockets of the healthcare system. It's useful to understand that the dynamic of surprised billing effects costs in two ways. It's really expensive. For the people who get those surprise bills they are hundreds or thousands or tens of thousands of dollars in situations that again consumers just aren't predicting and didn't choose so it's very very expensive expensive for the households that have to confront this but it also leads to higher premiums for everybody else. Because the group of specialties and providers that are involved in these his potential out of network billing situations leverage the fact that they can threaten to send the surprise out of network bills to demand higher payment rates even when they do go in network work and so that means all of us pay higher premiums because these providers can credibly threaten to stay out of network and surprise bill people. So policymakers automakers have a bunch of options to end this market failure and make it impossible for providers to threaten to send surprise bills and to send those bills when patients get care out of

Network Care United States
Why the World Bank and other multilateral organizations engage with China

The Brookings Cafeteria

01:31 min | 3 years ago

Why the World Bank and other multilateral organizations engage with China

"So china has now more in common i would say with the rest of the world from that people centered point of view than is often commonly thought and one reason why organizations like the world bank and many other multilateral organizations continue to engage with china china is because china's a very large and very heterogeneous country so at the same time as people think of it as being really successful. That's true along the coast. It's not so true and the interior provinces and so people say well. The integration sometimes happens more between big cities than between countries. That's absolutely true. It's the shanghai's the river delta and other places in china for integrated with the rest of the world but the interior of china still is not integrated grated even within the chinese economy and so many of the projects that are being done by international development agencies are designed to build the level of connectivity the highest standards in terms of <hes> governance and government capabilities of some of those poorer provinces dances in the region and with that. I think that there's a hope that the benefits of <hes> chinese growth will be <hes> more evenly shared across cross this very large landmass and this place where the standards of living of people differ so <hes> massively depending on where you what happened to be born

China
Morocco, Saudi Arabia And Tunisia discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

03:38 min | 3 years ago

Morocco, Saudi Arabia And Tunisia discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Do you see as the primary signals that these Arab spring movements and protests sent to autocrats in the region about the dangers? Democratic movements posed to their own stability and rule. So when the uprising in Tunisia succeeded ousted Zena, Lebanon, Bonelli Tunisian, President it sent a message to protesters around the region that maybe this is possible in our countries to. But as you mentioned also sent a message to autocrats around the region that we need to figure out a way to avoid collapse. And so some autocrats learned how to weather the storm. And so you saw for instance, in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf monarchies that they were able to draw upon their oil wealth and provide economic concessions very quickly and large enough to satisfy the protesters. So you saw Saudi Arabia, for instance, allocate some ten billion salary increases and subsidy increases other monarchs such as in Morocco in Jordan couldn't rely on their oil wealth as they did not have any so they had to rely instead on political concessions. So you saw in Morocco in Jordan that they learned to get ahead of the protests by initiating constitutional reforms to. Hold relatively competitive elections. And even in Morocco. Those elections led to an opposition party coming to power an Islamist party informing the government. So those monarchs were able to survive through that combination of oil wealth and structural advantage of being able to even allow an opposition party to come to power in a monarchy in a way that didn't threaten the king as he didn't have a ruling party that he needed to continue winning could allow an opposition party to win the republic's on the other hand didn't have either of those oil wealth or that monarchic advantage. So they had to learn in a different way, which was for the most part to rely on repression as opposed to concessions, so for instance, in Syria and button, and you saw the autocrats instead turn to their militaries to try to repression crust these protesters you saw similar attempts in Libya and Yemen. But in those cases, those military's fractured leading more to civil war than to audit critic survival as in Syria and Baden, an Egypt and Tunisia the concessions were not great enough. And. Military sided with the protesters in the end ultimately dooming, those dictators there remember at the time. A big part of these protests was the use of technology is considered the Facebook inspired revolutions everyone on the streets was on their cell phones. Coordinating meeting points at the time technology is seen as advancing. The will of the people. Do you see technology as playing and enhancing role of the power of the autocratic regimes in the region as well? Absolutely. I mean, the autocrats also learned to use social media to their advantage right on the one hand, it sends a message also to the autocrats where the protests are going to be on the other hand leads Sada Kratz to repress right to censor Facebook, Twitter and social media, generally. So I mean, the autocrats were able also to learn that we need to do something about social media in a way that they hadn't before. So to flash forward to present day. Skip ahead. Eight years it has been eight years since the Arab spring movements rocked the Middle East and the Arab world. And there is a narrative which says that the Arab spring was a time of euphoria and hope a time when leaders such as President Obama said the Arab spring was a moment when the people have spoken their voices have been heard other commentators said Egypt will never be the same. And in the years since this hope has a road into a reality of cynicism and disappointment parts of the region are in a seemingly. Endless state of evil and turmoil.

Morocco Saudi Arabia Tunisia Facebook Egypt Bonelli Tunisian Jordan Syria President Trump President Obama Middle East Zena Lebanon Libya Gulf Sada Kratz Baden
Immigrants role in economic growth

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:02 min | 3 years ago

Immigrants role in economic growth

"The US Europe, China and Japan have lots of differences, but one common problem each of their populations is aging each faces a future with shortage of young workers. But the US has one big advantage immigrants. You've probably heard a lot about the graying of America. The retirement of the baby boom but much of the rest of the world is aging faster than the US. According to projections by the population research bureau in twenty fifty thirty years from now twenty two percent of the US will be over sixty five but twenty six percent and China thirty one percent, Germany, thirty six percent in Japan longevity is of course, generally a good thing. But the economics of this are straightforward a growing number of retirees for each working age person to support for instance, with higher taxes to pay for their retirement and health benefits. So what a count for the US advantage one. Although for tillage in the US than. Number of children born to each woman has fallen lately historic lows the fertility rate in the US is significantly higher than the ones in Germany, Italy, China or Japan and two we attract a lot more immigrants. If you can't grow your own. You can import them immigrants are usually younger than the people already here. More likely to be workers than retirees and immigrant women tend to have more kids than their native counterparts. Pew Research Center estimates that more than half the population growth in the US since nineteen sixty five has come from immigrants their kids and grandkids looking ahead to twenty fifty pew says that without immigrants the US population wouldn't be growing at all deaths would equal the number of births. Now, you hear a lot today about the overall rate of growth in the economy, and in general, the faster the population, the faster, the workforce grows, the faster, the economy grows, but what matters to living standards, isn't that top line GDP growth number? It's GDP per person. So Nigeria's population is growing two point. Six percent. A year just to deliver the same amount of goods and services to each person on average. It's a Konomi has to grow faster than two point six percent year. But our population is going much more slowly less than one percent a year. So we can deliver more stuff per person with a much slower economic growth rate, but it's not only the number of people that matters. It's their age the more working age people the easier it'll be to care for the large and growing number of retirees the more people paying taxes to keep social security and Medicare going in the more people available to care for the elderly, and that's where immigration plays a very important role. Of course, immigrants get old and retire and go on Medicare to a national academies of science panel. A few years ago examined all the economic aspects of immigration just looking at the impact on government budgets. Here's what they found one immigrants are generally a plus for the federal government budget. But because they tend to have more kids that. More spending at the state and local level on the other hand, those kids the second generation of immigrants tend to pay more in taxes than either their parents did or the rest of the native born population. More broadly. We know there are all sorts of other economic aspects of immigration in some patients and some communities immigrants do compete with workers who are already here, which is one big economic reason to make sure immigrants both legal and illegal aren't exploited by their employers. We also know that immigrants tend to be more likely to be entrepreneurs than others, and that the immigration of talented and hardworking people has been a huge boost to the US Konami over the decades thirty three of the eighty five American winners of the Nobel prize since two thousand have been immigrants in about one fourth of all technology, and engineering companies started in the United States between two thousand and six and two thousand twelve had at least one immigrant co founder. So when you hear about immigration, remember that the economic. Immigration are complicated. But on balance they're good for the US in part because we're an aging society, and we need more work.

United States Japan China Germany Pew Research Center Europe America Nigeria Nobel Prize Konami Medicare Co Founder Italy Twenty Fifty Thirty Years Thirty One Percent Thirty Six Percent Twenty Six Percent Twenty Two Percent Six Percent
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:23 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Your state of economic update. I'm David Wessel. And this is my economic update. There was a time when American politicians regularly profess great alarm at the large and growing federal budget deficit not so much today. Even though the congressional budget office's new projections, so the deficit at nine hundred billion dollars this year and topping one trillion and just a few years that sounds big. And it is the best way to measure deficits is to compare them to the size of the economy. The gross domestic product CBO's expects deficits, that's the difference between the revenues coming in. And the spending going out will substantially exceed four percent of GDP year for the rest of the decade. Even if the economy does okay, and we avoid a recession that compares to an average deficit of two point nine percent of GDP over the past fifty years period. That includes the big deficits run up to fight the great recession. And of course, persistent and growing budget deficits mean the total federal debt will keep right. Ising to the highest levels in history unless congress raises taxes or cut spending or both. So the economy doing pretty well on employment at a fifty year low and all that why does CBO project growing deficits and rising debt for starters. The government is not collecting enough in taxes today to cover what we're spending today. But more importantly looking ahead. The nation has made promises to pay retirement and health benefits, especially to the elderly that exceed the revenues that today's tax code is likely to bring in congress cut taxes substantially in two thousand seventeen and the CBO director says those tax cuts are not paying for themselves in added economic growth, and we're an aging society, which means more people be collecting social security and relying on Medicare and other government health programs the cost of which are rising faster than the other parts of the budget. All this is well known even to members of congress, but they're not doing much about it. How come one there's very little public pressure to do anything about? This you see anybody out on the Washington Mall carrying assigned saying raise, my taxes, cut my social security there, certainly no leadership from the White House on this front either to there's very little pressure from financial markets. Big borrowing is supposed to lead to higher interest rates, and it probably will someday. But for now, the bond market is shrugging off the growing federal debt interest rates remain at historically, low levels, three many Democrats protests that Republicans cut taxes and run up the deficit, and then put pressure on Democrats to be fiscally responsible. They point to Ronald Reagan, the first George Bush and now President Trump. So now, the Democrats have a little more clout with control of the house of representatives. They figure why should we be responsible? We like to spend more particularly on public investment of all sorts and let the Republicans raise taxes when the time comes for them to be in charge and for a number of prominent communists, Olivier blonde chard Larry Summers Jason Furman are making. The case that with interest rates so low and likely to remain low for a long time, they're simply less urgency about reducing the federal debt that we've built over the years. Even though even they say, today's large deficits are unwise, so how worried should you be about all this? Well, there's no obvious reason to worry about today's deficits the US government is borrowing hundreds of billions of dollars much of it from abroad and historically low interest rates. It's the future. That's the problem or the potential problem overtime, federal borrowing reduces national savings, and that means the nation's total stock of capital be smaller. And that means productivity wages and living standards will be lower in the future than they might. Otherwise, be also the bigger the federal debt the less flexibility. The government has if it wants to borrow heavily in a crisis say we have another deep recession or financial crisis or have to fight a war. And finally, we can't count on interest rates being low forever. And when they. Is the weight of all this debt service will be much heavier than it is today as in so many things are current political system doesn't seem to be able to address problems that aren't causing pain today, but are likely to cause problems in the future. The Brookings cafeteria

CBO US government congress White House David Wessel Larry Summers Ronald Reagan Washington Mall Jason Furman director Medicare George Bush President Trump
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:09 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"The subcontractor for Iranian goals because they've got the capacity. We've also seen many allegations lots of evidence of Iran carrying out terrorist actions outside of the middle. Least the Israeli the Jewish center in Argentina in the nineties two thousand twelve attack on a tourist bus carrying Railly's in Bulgaria. So there's an element of Hezbollah carrying out activties outside of the Middle East presumably at the Iranian request Tehran maintains a strong interest in has bullet even today even Hezbollah has acquired its own financial resources. No longer so dependent on Tehran subsidies as they once were because it allows Tehran to play a deep role in Arab politics, and it allows them to maintain a front against Israel, ideologically has is the one example of successful expert of the revolution that Tehran point too. But it's also a manifestation of the Iranian revolutionary obsession with Israel the two thousand. Six war between Lebanon and Israel. Iran wasn't hurt. But thousands of rockets were fired into northern Israel, another Lebanon. Israel war would probably result in greater pain against Israel. These are in Iran's advantage. You can show the validity of your anti-israeli theology ideology via has Bulla without incurring much pain yourself for doing. So the other part that's worth noting Syria has below has acted in Syria as the protector less on. And the combination of the JC trainers has Bulloch fighters and has trainers and Russian airpower has turned the battle decidedly in Bouchara leci- favor. Sharla survival was a key interest of Tehran because of the whole nexus via Damascus to Mediterranean, and then to the front with Israel and has. Bolo wasn't essential player in that survival of Charlotte. Here's Suzanne Maloney with the final word on Ron's contemporary perspective on its revolution and its role in the Middle East and the world. From the Iranian perspective. The two thousand eleven uprisings in other parts of the world were seen very much is in a Slavic movement and an echo effect of the Iranian revolution. And even though in most cases, those uprisings did not produce either Muslim governments or long standing change in the fundamental pro-western authoritarian system that dominates much of the world. The perception on the part of the Iranians is that there is a general trend in history that is leading toward some kind of triumph for Islam. That is of course, the perception of the government and yet at the same time, Iranian leaders have always proved themselves pragmatic enough to work with non Muslim powers and to manage their relations in such a way that they put Iran and interests ahead of the interests of the Islamic world. The early revolution remains, I think sort of the primary frame through. Which its leadership understands the world. They see themselves as embattled on the international stage. They believe that there is a conspiracy led by the United States perpetuated and propagated by their neighbors and America's pro western allies in the region to try to eliminate these Republican reduces influence the ideology of the revolution. And the state structure that was created in the aftermath of the revolution. In many ways continues to dictate the way that Iran engages with the rest of the world. The experience of the revolution is still kind of formative myth for country. Most of whose population were too young.

Israel Iran Tehran Middle East Hezbollah Lebanon Syria Bulla Argentina Railly Bulgaria JC Suzanne Maloney Bolo Damascus Bouchara leci United States Charlotte Ron Mediterranean
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:29 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"What are years ago, this January and February the unrest in Iran that had ruled the country for over a year came to a boil when Shaw Muhammed razor palavi left the country and revolutionary cleric. I told her Ruhollah Khomeini returned from exile. In the ensuing months. The Ayatollah consolidated the rule of clerics attempted to export the revolution and allowed students to seize the US embassy, and it staff what are the continuing and lasting effects of the Iranian revolution. Today, both from the US domestic and foreign policy perspective and for Ron it self. Here's KMart with the revolutions impacts on. How Americans see around. Americans harbor deep wells of suspicion about Islamic countries in the Middle East, and I would say that by this time the effect of the hostage-taking may have worn off. We're at not for nine eleven and repeated terrorism that is linked to radical Islam. And so you can definitely say it started with the Iranian revolution. And remembered the Iranian revolution. Also, and the hostage taking introduced us to something that was kind of knew this was terror for the sake of terror as opposed to use asymmetric warfare and trying to get something. In return, the students just wanted to take down the evil America. And it's kind of different than trying to take hostages and getting something in return and. Grew into and we saw this, of course, in some of the terrorist attempts leading up to nine eleven violence for the sake of violence as opposed to violence for the sake of a political objective, and that's been very hard for the US government to deal with and it's made Americans very suspicious of a whole class of people. But the fact of the matter is that the country has starting with the Iranian revolution and the hostage crisis and going right up through nine eleven lot of American see is Lomb and Muslims with great suspicion. And of course, President Trump plays that up all the time. He basically equates Muslims with terrorism. President Bush to his credit who was in office nine eleven remember that right after nine eleven President Bush went to a mosque. Okay. So President Bush tried to push against this. Stereotyping of Islam and most presidents have tried to do that. Then, of course, Trump actually goes right into it, and engages and enhances the stereotyping then by an explains how Iran's foreign policy especially its support of what he calls violent substate groups has been met by US cla Matic and military policymakers. Iran has over the last forty years been cemented as one of the bogeyman of US foreign policy, and this is true, both Republican and democratic administrations. So the image of Iran after the hostage crisis of this. Fanatical Revolutionary Movement is still alive, and well, even though in reality around foreign policy has become less ideological. It's still very ruthless. And they still have used a lot of these violent substate groups that have killed Americans. So this is often considered an terrorism context, but around supported a number of local groups in Iraq that were responsible for the deaths of hundreds of Americans, and this sort of activity is something that has led to still towards Ron nachos. Among the American public. But among a lot of military leaders or others who have had to deal with day-to-day of US policy in these countries under very trying conditions and Rana seen as strongly opposed to the United States. And there's a sense. Among American leaders that negotiations are not. Likely to work that these were tried under Clinton briefly, they were tried briefly under Bush, and that Arana's pushback now, the Runyan's probably a very different view things. But this is rare area of bipartisan consensus in Washington. Which is that there's a limit to how much you could work with Ron and even President Obama who did successful nuclear deal. He couched it in the language of suspicion that we don't trust the Iranians and that the deal is designed to detect they're cheating, not as designed to open up new era of brotherhood. And the Trump administration has decided that the deal, isn't worthwhile. Because we can't trust rod..

US Iran President Trump President Bush Ron nachos President Ruhollah Khomeini Shaw Muhammed Trump administration Middle East KMart America Revolutionary Movement Obama Washington Iraq Clinton Runyan
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:56 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"But as Jeff Feldman US ambassador to Beirut from twenty four to twenty eight as mentioned earlier Lebanon appeared to be fertile spot for Iran to gain a foothold Feldman explains. How disaffected and politically weak Shia population of Lebanon was a ripe target for Tehran. Feldman reminds us that the Iranian revolution occurred in the midst of civil war that have been racking Lebanon off and on since nineteen seventy five the liberties of war provided an opportunity for Iran to show that its owner the Lucien its own she Slavic fervor could be exported. It's revolutionary Islam could be exported further in nineteen eighty two the Israelis invaded Lebanon. Not for the first time for significant time. With the Israeli invasion. Thousands of residents thousands of farmers peasants in southern Lebanon fled northward, the vast majority of these eleven Shia the Lebanese Shia had been a despised disenfranchised part of Lebanese society, the Maronite Christian elite the SUNY elite tended to look down your nose at the Shia. And then you have the Shia are being displaced by the Israelis. The Shia themselves had suffered during the time of the Pilo the Palestine Liberation Organisation's. Basically occupation of southern Lebanon Hilo was firing missiles trying to tack Israel from southern Lebanon that affected the freedom of movement of the Shia population. So the Shia were full of grievances by nineteen eighty two the Israelis the previous problems from the Palestinians. The fact that their own government their own the lead had basically ignored them kept them sort of a futile like serfdom. So they were right for exploitation. The Iranians realize this when the writings, of course, are Shia as well. So you start to see signs in the early eighties of the Iranians trying to build a constituency inside Lebanon for this sort of revolutionary. She is Lomb the rumors are that they were thousand fifteen hundred of the Iranian Revolutionary Guards who were doing training getting financing to build. She a movement inside Lebanon using the Shia majority areas of Lebanon such as southern Beirut, south Lebanon, and the northern Bekaa valley hair malaria and the world I notice this with the suicide bombings things like the spring nineteen Ninety-three bombing the US embassy inveigh route the autumn nineteen eighty three bombing of the marine barracks. Turned forty one marines killed the Italians the French were attack the US embassy. Annex temporary embassy was attacked the following year. This obviously caught the world's attention to what was happening where revolutionary. Iran was building a movement inside Lebanon that could show that this was not a Persian or Farsi only phenomenon that this could affect the population as well, the airbrushed as well, and it was sort of an anti imperial anti-occupation movement. But what's important to realize is that it was the disenfranchisement? It was the futile status of the Shia population in Lebanon, how much they had suffered that opened the door to the Runyon money. The Iranian Revolutionary Guard influence the type of services has those able to provide the local population the Shia population because the Shia had been despised by their own elite for decades. Expands on the rise of Hezbollah to Lebanon in the nineteen eighties. A consequence partly Veron's post revolution involvement in that country. What created Hezbollah was the status of the Shia population inside Lebanon prior to the involvement of Iran after the revolution. The fact that the she attended to be uneducated tended to be at the bottom of the class structure in Lebanon. The fact that the Shia had no outlets for their own political aspirations earlier there had been a very charismatic cleric who had Iran Iraq, Lebanon combinations. As many that she do in mine was Iman Mussa cider was the first to really try to build a political movement for the Lebanese Shia to assert their rights as equal partners in this Lebanese political and social system that has seventeen recognized confessions religious confession in it on Mussa solder started this movement. It became the Amel movement the movement still exists, but it's moved into much more secular movement. But it was the Isreaeli invasion in eighty two along with the military, deployment of the Americans, the French at cetera that I think inspired Iran say, hey, we can go in there, and we can take this over the.

Lebanon Iran Lebanon Hilo Iranian Revolutionary Guards Israel Jeff Feldman Veron Beirut Tehran Hezbollah Palestine Liberation Organisat Maronite Christian elite US Lucien Lomb Bekaa valley marine barracks Mussa
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

05:12 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"December nineteen seventy eight millions of Iranians marched throughout the country to demand the step down. And I told return just days before the Shah and his family left, Iran. Egypt on January sixteenth. He appointed a new prime minister. But the I the rejected any compromise and quickly appointed his own government when the Shah's government collapsed. The deposed monarch was by then in Morocco. And the I told the had made a triumphal return from exile and begun consolidating his rule. Throughout the spring and summer of nineteen seventy nine the I told her deployed his influence to undermine the transitional government, establishing the Islamic revolution. Guard corps and pushing for a new constitution than enshrine clerical rule. Meanwhile, with his health worsening the Shaw sought to come to America for treatment. Here's Suzanne Maloney again on the outlook of the toll and his supporters as they cemented their power throughout the country. And why the revolution quickly assumed an anti American cast? Well, the group that came to power in Iran in the aftermath of the revolution was United by very little other than their opposition to the Shah post revolutionary coalition. Of course was led by the charismatic figure of IOT all Khomeini. But it incorporated a wide range of political philosophies, including a large component of groups and individuals whose world views were shaped by anti-imperialism, and the Marxist ideologies that were in fact, quite prevalent during the time as a result, the new world view of the leadership of these Lama Republic in its earliest days was implacably anti-american was determined to oppose what it perceived as backward and western dominated governments along its borders and so sought through ways both explicit and implicit to cultivate, revolutionary mobilization across the region to inspire. Fire and in fact to provoke opposition to the pro western monarchies in the Gulf to make common cause with militants in Lebanon in the Palestinian, territories and elsewhere across the region and to generally, promote destabilization of its neighbors. And this is of course, a policy that has evolved over time. But in generally, Ron and the Islamic Republic, the post revolutionary government of Iran has found itself at odds with both the United States and US allies across the region baloney explains further why the leadership was so implacably anti-american from the start. Well, it was one of the few elements of the ideology across disparate elements of the post revolutionary coalition. That was a common thread America had only begun to play significant role in Iran beginning in the nineteen fifties with the US role in helping to facilitate a coup that ousted Iran's prime minister, nationalist popular, prime minister who had in fact, been responsible for trying to nationalize Iran's oil industry from then on the US took a larger and larger role in Iran more prominent in its support for the Shah more direct in terms of its presence on the ground in a way that caused many Iranians to resent the United States this combined with some of the kind of anti-imperialist rhetoric of the time led those who were opposing the shod perceive that somehow the United States was attempting to keep him on the throne. There were many for many months in the aftermath. Math of his departure who antiquated in fact that Washington when engineer some kind of a coup just as of course elements of the US government had done in nineteen fifty three to return the shot of the throne. And so this sense of paranoia the sense of conviction. In fact, that the United States would do everything to remove the Islamic Republic led to sort of self-fulfilment prophecy where Iranian policies that were designed to ille- in the United States provoked, of course, counter responses from Washington, and the best example of that, of course, is the seizure of the US embassy in November of nineteen Seventy-nine in the aftermath of contacts between some elements of the new government in Iran and US officials and the admission of the Shaw to the United States for medical treatment. There was again, a growing concern that the United States would somehow try to remove the Islamic Republic and the seizure of the embassy. Was used by the more radical factions of the revolutionary leadership to gain the upper hand, oust moderates and to thoroughly and the US relationship with Iran, you'll hear more about the US embassy takeover hostage crisis in a minute. But first, Dan Byman describes some of the revolutions initial impacts on the region, and how some governments particularly Saudi Arabia reacted. So after the nineteen seventy nine revolution around looked around the region and saw regimes that had viewed as illegitimate it's all this week..

Iran Shah United States prime minister America Shaw Morocco Egypt Gulf Suzanne Maloney Dan Byman Khomeini Washington Saudi Arabia Lebanon Ron engineer
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

02:01 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"And the firestorm of sectarianism that we see in gulping the Middle East today really hose, it's hard back to this period. Logically has is the one example of successful expert, the revolution that Tehran can point to. But it's also a manifestation of the Iranian revolutionary obsession with Israel. The public really had very little interest or knowledge of this until the hostages were taken. Now, once the hostages were taken this became an enormous. Enormous enormous issue. Welcome to the Brookings cafeteria. The podcast about ideas, and the experts who have I'm Fred do's and early nineteen Seventy-nine Shaw, Muhammed razor pilot Veron and his family left the country and never returned. Just weeks later, I told overhaul Khameini returned to Iran from exile. After more than fifteen years declaring that he would appoint the government, thus culminated year of unrest, protests violence throughout Iran and on April. First nineteen Seventy-nine the Islamic Republic of Iran was established in this special episode of the Brookings cafeteria podcast five experts look back on the Iranian revolution. Forty years later from the revolutionary regimes early goals to the US embassy hostage crisis to Iran, supportive extremist groups in the region to contemporary US, Orion and relations, these experts reflect on what happened and how those events continue to reverberate and regional and global politics today. The Brookings cafeteria pod. Gassed is part of the Brookings podcast network. To get the latest information about all of our shows, including.

Brookings cafeteria Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Middle East Khameini US Tehran Israel Veron fifteen years Forty years
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

02:24 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"So I like to joke that I always look at the dark side of things. And the title of my first book was actually dark side of European integration. And I think now tracked it to tack from this particular point of view from this particular lands because I think we need to understand the negative implications. Whereas the positive transformative implications of the new digital space that we find ourselves in. So in terms of books, I have to confess that I try to read a lot of fiction. I try to stay away for pleasure anyways from reading what I work on all the time. But I think if I could recommend to books one in the nonfiction space one in the fun fiction space. I think the nonfiction space one book, I always go back to an think of Farley might surprise people. It's called the civilizing process by elitists Norbert, and some book iron graduate school that is really about. How culture transforms itself through the constant conflict and competition between social classes, I think this obstinately fascinating nothing to do it and working out. Now, I find absolutely fascinating. And then I think in the fiction space, I really enjoyed a trilogy by Ghosh is an Indian British author believe the first book in the trilogy is call sea of poppies and its historical fiction. But he himself is an anthropologist and use a lot of original, text and. Original documents from the time period, he writes about and there's three books in the series. Sea of poppies is the first one, and I really enjoyed reading it. It's about the emerging opium trade in India and opium wars take place later between the Brits. And the Chinese Hong Kong. And I think he actually prize love interesting stalk context for what we see happening today in part of the world. The Brookings cafeteria podcast is the product of the amazing team of colleagues, including audio engineer producer gas on Riverina with assistance from Arkansas. The producers are Chris McKenna and Brennan Hohmann Bill, fining, director of.

Ghosh opium Chris McKenna Chinese Hong Kong Farley Norbert India Arkansas engineer director producer
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:56 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"And I think for my reading. Of the new addition to names up for me that help explain his Paul Manafort and rents Priebus. Yes. Well, I am sympathetic to chairman Priebus on this. Because here's what's going on. He sees Donald Trump amassing delegates throughout the spring of two thousand sixteen and he sees a lot of brand new voters coming into the Republican party. And that's of course, you know, catnip for any party chairman, the news people were attracted to the party by by Donald Trump. Yeah, they're not traditional Republican primary voters, and he's got a kind of Sophie's choice here. He can go with Donald Trump who everyone at the Republican convention or lots of people say the Republican venture in new was not quite ready for prime time in terms of being president. And there are a lot of doubts about Trump or he could irritate and lose all those new. People that Trump was bringing into the Republican party. So at some point before the convention, he basically cuts the deal with Manafort, and the deal is that the apparatus of the Republican party is going to be on Donald Trump's side at the convention. What this means is that they used some pretty strong arm tactics to basically break the back of the stop Trump movement. So that's the first part of that story that I tell in the book the second part of the story is that the irony is and we've just saw it in the race for speaker in the house. You can't beat someone with no one. So the logical person to challenge. Trump at the convention was Ted Cruz. He had the next highest block of delegates and yet Ted Cruz was not at all a beloved person within the Republican party. It was very interesting the hostility towards Ted Cruz. So crews was. Never able to take advantage of all the doubts about Trump and move that to his own advantage. So between pre-bus cutting the deal with Trump, and with Manafort, and of course, now against the revelations coming out about Russia. The most significant part of that deal was removing from the Republican party platform. Strong language favoring sanctions on Russia. Do you think that if the old school party nominating convention had been in play in two thousand sixteen for the Republicans that Donald Trump would not have been even never never ever? And the reason is that the old school convention certainly had its downsides. Right. But in the old school convention. There was an element of what we call peer review, so senators and congressmen and governors generally controlled blocks of delegates and they engaged in negotiation with presidential candidates. And they wanted to see a couple of things about the candidates could they win and could they govern, you know, were they serious person? And I'm not saying that governors and senators are necessarily all goody two shoes. But they wanna be able to know can they work with this person if they become president. There is no way that Donald Trump would have passed that muster. He knew nothing. It was clear and one of the debates jaws dropped when it was clear he didn't know what the nuclear triad was. And while most Americans don't know what the nuclear triad is. That's not important. What is important is that it's the backbone of American defense and the president of the United States ought to know, it is so Trump would never passed muster. He would have never gotten taken seriously in the old system because the provided a vetting. Yeah. It was vetting. And you know, it wasn't vetting on issues so much it was vetting on sort of seriousness of the person and their political capacity to win now in the old system. Primaries did play a role because there were times when primaries could tell the party bosses how a candidate did. Or is this going to inject using the example, John Kennedy, and how that worked was suburban illustrating nuts. Janeth Kennedy's perfect. John Kennedy had to run in a couple of primaries. Not because the delegates were bound from those primaries, they were not in those days, the delegates didn't necessarily go with the results of the primary. He had to run because he had to show party leaders that as a Catholic he could win Protestant votes. The first place he tried to demonstrate this was Wisconsin. And while he won the Wisconsin primary. The party leaders. No fools looked into the voting data and said, yeah, you won this..

Donald Trump Republican party president Paul Manafort Janeth Kennedy Ted Cruz chairman Priebus Wisconsin Wisconsin primary Russia Sophie United States
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

03:30 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Hello. Thanks for coming by. Hello. Thank you. The newest addition of your book primary politics is about how Americans end up with their presidential candidates, and you just issued a third edition of it. This newest version explains how in November twenty sixteen the choice for American voters democratic and Republican parties where respectively Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump the greater question. Most people's minds loosened mine will be why Donald Trump the Republicans? But let's start with Hillary Clinton. How does she end up getting the democratic nomination? And what does it tell us about the primary system we have in place? But actually, in fact, maybe I a brief history of how the system came into being didn't always used to be this way. Now. In fact, the modern nomination system is just about fifty years old, and it came into being between nineteen sixty eight and nineteen seventy two as a result of antiwar protesters within the Democratic Party who were very unhappy at being cut out of the nineteen sixty eight democrat. Attic convention, as you may remember some people will remember and others will have to go to YouTube to see the sixty eight convention was pretty riotous inside the hall and outside the hall and one of the results of that was a reform commission. Now, the interesting thing, and it's an interesting thing that happens all the time in history is no one really understood at the time what the reform commission was doing. But essentially, what happened is the reform commission took the nomination system which used to be a system that went on inside a political party and made it a system that was open to the public. That's something that theme that runs through the book, the idea that the nominating process used to be within the party, and then it became more democratic which it is. But at the same time took away the political parties role in naming candidates, both political. Parties have basically abdicated their role of choosing their candidates, and this is unique among the western democracies in most of the other western democracies? It is party members in some way party leaders particularly that choose the candidate. This could be either the president or their prime minister, the United States has gone further than any place else in making this a wide open system. So just curious going back to sixty eight in Chicago, not succeed in Chicago was the violence. We saw there was a result of the parties having control over the nomination process. And was a really natural nude for opening up to more people that primaries were a proper response than well. What happened in nineteen sixty eight is that the party leaders made a very faulty judgment about the level of antagonism towards the war towards Lyndon Johnson towards his successor, Hubert Humphrey, and. And they ignored the new energy that was coming into the party and they suffered greatly for it. They suffered greatly. They lost in nineteen sixty eight. They lost again in nineteen seventy two on the other hand. There were some good things that happened. I mean, this coincided with African Americans and women demanding their rights within the political party which had not really happened before. And so it was kind of a revolution on many many levels in many dimensions. And at the time..

Democratic Party Hillary Clinton Republicans Donald Trump Chicago YouTube Lyndon Johnson Hubert Humphrey United States president prime minister fifty years
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

02:19 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"You know, trying to carve out a new regional at least if not globe. Oh role for themselves. What's been interesting to observe about Indonesia in recent years is that there's been sort of an inversion of how Indonesia has dealt with. It's almost hesitate to call this. But it's lung baggage right for a long time, the Indonesians I think felt like that sort of a chip on their shoulder at the far periphery of the Muslim world and idea that quote, unquote, offensive Islam realism is something that's in the Middle East. The herbs have it. And so in order to get the real thing they need to go and learn from scholars in Cairo. How you had for the last century large Indonesian population Medina in Saudi Arabia where again, you have large cluster of Indonesian scholars, but this idea that the Indonesians were not sort of confident in their own Muslim nece in more recent years. However, they've kind of turned that model on its head and have sought to kind of try and position themselves globally as the embodiment of certain. Kind of Islam. And so you'll hear the Indonesian President today as well as one of the country's largest mass religious movements that Allama which has something like thirty five million members large organization, you'll hear them talking today about what they term east Lomb Newson Tara, which translates roughly as Islam of the archipelago the idea that far from the law of Indonesia and Malaysia and the archipelago of southeast Asia being somehow enough entity or second or third rate Islam that it's there, and they want to take ownership of it, and it has specific characteristics and they're good characteristics. That should be offered the world in terms of being not just moderate in the sense of rejecting violence, but pluralistic in the sense of being capable of combining influences from other religious traditions, namely Hinduism and bosom which were present in southeast Asia for centuries before Islam rive Christianity. And the idea that Indonesia could be a model for the world to follow in terms of a pluralistic and tolerant Islam, and they wanna kind of offer this as part of their broader branding package, their broader brandy question as an emerging power..

Indonesia Lomb Newson Tara Asia Middle East Saudi Arabia Cairo President Malaysia
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

03:42 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"I mean, we saw the decline of pan-arab nationalism liberalism doesn't have a strong popular constituency in much of the Middle East. So. Islamism natural contender then and other contender. We do talk about this a little bit is nationalism. But nationalism by definition is something that is going to be less appealing to be blue aren't up your nation. So if you're doing Saudi nationalism that's not gonna appeal much to an gyp shin. Right. I want to encourage listeners if they wanna deeper dive into Islamism and Muslim Brotherhood and those kinds of us to not only go and look for your paper shoddy. But also listen to podcasts interviews that. We've gather on the Brookings cafeteria. So I want to dive into the spirit case studies that y'all discuss in the paper in a minute, but just to keep our lens broad for a couple of minutes. Here is religion a soft power only seen in Muslim-majority countries. Or is this phenomenon that we might also see in majority Christian countries like the United States or Britain or Canada in other non-muslim states. It's certainly not a phenomenon limited to the Muslim world. We happen to both be scholars whose work primarily focuses on the Muslim world. So. We naturally gravitate towards those cases, but this idea of governments incorporating religion into their foreign policy is not something that's exclusive or unique to Islam. There are other governments today that do this in various ways one things for example, Russia under Putin and putting has certainly tried to leverage the Russian Orthodox church as part of that country's geo-strategic outreach. One things today, for example, of the whole discussion and controversy around Ukraine and the independence of the Ukrainian Orthodox church as one of those issues India is well under the ruling BJP party, which certainly emphasizes it's Hindu identity and is incorporated various forms of outreach to Hindu communities around the world as part of the work that it does Israel also quite aside from the obvious kind of Jewish identity of Israel as a country and as a homeland for the world's Jews and its outreach to Jewish. Communities around the world. Israel has also reached out to conservative evangelical communities in the United States who support for Israel. They want to shore up by emphasizing the kind of historical affinities between Israel and the centrality. Israel is a concept in even Jellicoe fought when it comes to the United States, however, and this country using religion, it gets a little more complicated because the US constitution in the establishment clause of the first amendment specifically prescribes the federal government from endorsing providing funding for any particular former interpretation of religion, which means that the US government has not directly incorporated religion into the way that it has foreign policy that said over the years, the United States government has certainly looked positively on a range of private actors in the United States, including certain missionary organizations and the work that they've done in various countries, particularly in the Cold War where the United States. Saw religion as a useful antidote to the spread of communism. So the United States was very open to Christian missionary organizations from this country and elsewhere doing work around the world. And indeed and -portant part of the story is the fact that the United States, even though week sometimes think today of Islam as a sort of source of risk and object of concern for US foreign policy makers during the Cold War American policymakers saw slobbery differently. They saw a slum as a useful counterbalance to the spread of communism..

United States Israel Middle East Brookings cafeteria Russia BJP Ukraine Putin Russian Orthodox church Ukrainian Orthodox church Jellicoe India Canada Britain
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

04:28 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Find on our website on apple podcasts or wherever you like to get podcasts. And now on with the interview shoddy and Peter welcome to the Brookings cafeteria. Thank you. Thanks for. Let's start off with this concept or religious soft power. It's instrumental to the paper tell us about what soft power is more generally in. Why you think it's -nificant highlight its religious aspects, maybe Peter we can start with you. Sure. So this concept of soft power has been part of the lexicon of international relations for years now decades dating back to nineteen ninety when the prominent scholar Joe Nye for coined the term, and what nine meant by soft power is the idea that states have the ability to influence. And convince other countries to do what they want not by using force or by money, but through the appeal of their ideas, and their values and norms and knife, I had in mind when he coined this term, the context of the end of the Cold War, and this idea that was in the air at the time and embodied by famous writings such as Francis Fukuyama and history essay, the idea that we were entering an era where American values and liberalism or generally seem to have universal appeal that people's all around the world would be Dopp being to and behaving. According to the norms and values associated with this country. We want to bring renewed attention to soft power in the very different global context that we see today some people characterize it as opposed western or a post liberal context in which the appeal of liberalism and American influence may be on the decline, and we think that in such an environment. It becomes relevant again to pay attention to ideas and the way that they circulate around. The world and get traction and hold appeal and we've noticed that there are a number of governments around the world, particularly in the Middle East, but not exclusively in that region that are actually using religion and religious ideas as part of their conduct of foreign policy. So did ni- contemplate or not contemplate the aspect of religion in his soft power idea. If you read the book that Nairobi about soft power some years after coining the term there are a few nods to the idea of religion. But he really firmly associates the term with more secular values and more specifically ideas about the most effective ways to organize governments or economies so ideology, more broadly argument is that in today's world, you need to pay attention to all sources of ideas, including religious sources shadow may ask you this question. I think a lot of Americans would connect Islam and foreign policy religion in foreign policy with support from. Militants and satellite view. Or is that unfounded also some of the countries that we look at in our report do or have offered support to various militant groups that's not the focus of our paper, though, we wanted to that does get a lot of attention. And we, unfortunately, I would say tend to see the Middle East primarily in counter-terrorism terms. We wanted to broaden the lens a little bit and talk about as Peter said, the soft part of power, which does not include the use of force or terrorism, and so on and to say like this is not only there's not a single major Muslim majority country that does not feature Islam as an important element in its foreign policy. So this isn't just one or two states. This is a pretty universal phenomenon. And we also wanted to question or challenge. This idea that only Islamists are the ones who mix religion and foreign policy, and what we see here. Is that many many countries some of whom try to portray themselves as more secularly oriented or progressive or reformist or even anti Islam as all of them do a lot of religion in their foreign policy. Now, you might ask. Well, why number one Islamism affective Islam works as ninety logical currency and part of that has to do with the fact that Islam is simply resonant among publics in the Middle East and south and southeast Asia that in countries where say ninety percent of the population is Muslim and most people identifies Muslim and most people have various levels of practice. Islam is going to connect with them. And now if you look at some of the alternatives like why couldn't there be another ideology that you could use and you go through the list, and they're just simply not as compelling..

Middle East Peter Joe Nye Brookings cafeteria Francis Fukuyama Nairobi Dopp southeast Asia ninety percent
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

03:47 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"The house also turned to its so called opening day rules package which sets the rules of the chamber for the next two years. This is an important day one activity because the rules of the previous session of the house. Do not carry over to the next one the Senate on the other hand the continuing body with two thirds of its members and its rules persisting session to session. The Democrats rules package makes a number of important procedural changes for the new congress. Some like the elimination of Republican created rule. Limiting the number of terms that a member can share house committee have the potential to create more effective committees others such as the creation of a new consensus calendar and a change making it slightly easier to force bills to the floor using the discharge petition are intended to give rank and file members more influence in the chamber those unclear how big a fact they will actually have so others involved the budget to budgetary rules changes that have received particular intention involve the return of rules. The house has used before one the pig. Oh rule. Pre. Event certain legistlation from increasing the deficit and strong objections from some Democrats who argue that will make it more difficult for congress who major progressive priorities like Medicare for all the end of the day. However, the pay go rule included in the rules package easily wave -able a separate similar rule in trying to law and thus outside the reach of Democrats first-day rules package is a bigger constraint on potential deficit increasing legislation. The second major change to budget. Rules involves the Gephardt rule which last the house upon completion of some other specified budgetary action to automatically send the Senate measure to raise the debt limit that taking a separate vote to do. So this slightly smooth the path to avoiding default on the federal debt by providing legislators away to raise the debt ceiling without having to cast a specific potentially politically difficult. Democrats final major action of the day was to pass to measures designed to reopen. The parts of the federal government that have been shuttered since December twenty second one. Refund. The vast majority of shuttered federal agencies, including the agriculture, transportation, interior and housing and urban development departments and the PA through the end of September at levels negotiated on a bipartisan basis in the Senate last year. The second would fund the department of homeland security current levels through February eighth giving congress and the president additional time to negotiate over controversial funding for a border wall Democrats were joined by handful of Republicans largely for moderate districts in approving both bills both measures have now been sent to the other side of the capitol were action on them remains unlikely for now a Senate majority leader Mitch McConnell has stated repeatedly that he will not bring up any measures to end the partial shutdown unless President Trump has indicated that he will sign them the White House for its part said it would veto both bills leaving congress and the president no closer to resolving their disagreements beyond the opening the government. The house was plenty of work ahead in the weeks to come a number of new committee chairs have begun to announce. Upcoming hearings on issues like health care climate change and the Trump administration's family, separation policy Democrats first major legislative priority. The Bill numbered HR one deals with campaign finance reform voting rights gerrymandering and strengthening ethics laws while the Senate is unlikely to even consider it as a full comprehensive package, the choice by Democrats to tackle these issues as their first initiative signals their importance to the party, indeed with divided control Washington. This kind of messing likely to be much of what's happening in congress. The Brookings cafeteria podcast is the product of an amazing team of colleagues. Reading audio engineer and producer Gaston river, ADA assistance for Markle's producers. Brennan Hoven and Chris McKenna Bill fining, director of the Brookings

White House Senate congress federal government president Mitch McConnell Chris McKenna Bill fining Brennan Hoven Trump administration Medicare Trump Washington Markle PA department of homeland engineer director
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

02:30 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Now, here's Molly rentals following governance. Studies with a look at what's happening in congress. I'm Molly Reynolds, a senior fellow in governance studies at the Brookings Institution. The hundred sixteenth congress officially convened this week bringing the first democratic majority in the house twenty ten and a slightly larger by two seats Republican majority in the Senate a record number of women will serve in the new congress, though, it nearly a quarter of its voting membership that figure still lag significantly behind the over all share of women in the US population. The hundred and sixteenth congress will also see a number of demographic firsts including the first Muslim women to serve in the house. And the first Latino women from Texas State with a large Hispanic population. The first day of new congress runs, according to a set order of business in the house. The first major activity is the selection of the speaker a race won by Nancy Pelosi, but only after several weeks of post-election uncertainty and dealmaking central tour efforts to sell up sufficient support was a deal to limit top leaders in the House Democratic caucus, the speaker, the majority leader and the majority whip to three terms of service in those positions a fourth term. Could be sought but would require the support of two thirds of the democratic caucus that proposal will come before the democratic caucus for vote in the coming weeks, but striking it was enough to Pelosi the votes that she needed in the end fifteen Democrats did not support Polisi with some voting present and others casting votes for a number of alternative candidates, including Representative Sherry buse and send their Tammy Duckworth. The speaker after all does not need to be a member of the house at self. When the house votes on the speaker, it was one vote shy. It's full membership with only four hundred thirty four members. That's because one final house race remains uncalled North Carolina's ninth district the Republican in that race. Mark Harris leads current vote tally but allegations of absentee ballot fraud perpetrated by political operative with connections to Harris's campaign have led to an ongoing investigation by the North Carolina State board of elections. The board however was forced by three judge panel to disband late December for reasons unrelated to the allegations in the ninth district as a result the resolution of the race, including whether new primary and general elections for the seat will be held will drag on for at least several more..

House Democratic caucus congress Nancy Pelosi Molly Reynolds Mark Harris North Carolina Brookings Institution North Carolina State Senate Texas US senior fellow Tammy Duckworth Sherry buse fraud Polisi Representative
"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

03:23 min | 3 years ago

"brookings cafeteria" Discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Find it on our website on apple podcasts or wherever you like to get podcasts. And now on with the interview. David welcome back to the Brookings cafeteria. Thank you good to be with you. Fred. So glad to see you here for the first episode of twenty nineteen. So as we get the year started. How would you characterize the state of the US economy? The state of the US economy is pretty darn good. Unemployment's at a fifty year, low inflation is pretty close to the feds target the economy seems to have a lot of momentum. It took a long time for the recovery after the great recession to get going. But it seems to be doing pretty well the risk. Of course, is that this might not continue. There are a number of storm clouds on the horizon, and I'm gonna get to those storm clouds in the minute. Let's stay on the unemployment rate as you said, it's a fifty year low there's another measure of the labor force, which is the labor force participation rate. Can you talk about that? And maybe some other indicators of the. Workforce. Sure. So the first thing to note is there's lots of ways to measure, the strength of the labor force. You mentioned the labor force participation rate. That's the fraction of adults who are working or looking for work. There's the fraction of people who are working part time. But tell the government they really really would prefer fulltime job and so forth. Every measure the labor market is getting better. They're not all great. But they're getting better the one that's quite concerning is they're still seem to be a lot of people in what a condom is called the prime ages twenty five to fifty four. Although as sixty four year old, I'm not real happy with that label, and they're still a large fraction of people men and women in that age bracket who aren't working and a lot of them are not looking for work. And so on one hand, that's unfortunate. It means that they probably don't have the income that they could have the economy doesn't have their potential, but. Also, one of the reasons why people think the economy might be able to go on for a while. Because there are these workers on the sideline. So we could pull in what does it have to say, then about productivity wage growth. Some of those other indicators that we talk about a lot one of the biggest mysteries of the US Konami right now is why wages aren't rising faster. Given how tight the labor market seems to be if you look at surveys of employers if you walk down the street, and many major cities you see help wanted signs. We know that it's getting easier and easier for people to quit their Java. Find another one you would expect at a time like this wages would be going up much faster than they are. And we really don't know whether that's because the economy has fundamentally changed that is that employers have more power and workers have less because of the decline of unions, the rise of the gig economy, and all those things or is it our wage increases just around the corner. But one factor that you mentioned which is relevant is the pace. Of productivity growth productivity, which is the amount of stuff. We make for every hour of work is the reason we have more stuff than our grandparents. Even though we don't work more hours. Productivity growth has been distressingly slow for the last several years. And that may be one reason that wages are rising faster. So the tax cuts and jobs act passed just over a year ago at the end of twenty seventeen you think it's been good for the economy..

US Brookings cafeteria Fred David Konami fifty year sixty four year one hand
Brookings Cafeteria, Brookings and US discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

The Brookings Cafeteria

00:19 sec | 4 years ago

Brookings Cafeteria, Brookings and US discussed on The Brookings Cafeteria

"Ten years ago, global financial services firm, Lehman Brothers declared bankruptcy. It was the fourth largest investment Bank in America, but it's a lapse was doing large part to its involvement in subprime mortgages. It stands as the largest bankruptcy filing in US history, and as part of the US global financial recession that began a decade ago.

Brookings Cafeteria Brookings United States Lehman Lehman Brothers Molly Reynolds Congress Brad Kavanagh David Emerson Assistant Professor Of Economi Fred University Of Illinois Chicago America Assistant Professor David M Rubenstein