20 Episode results for "British Army"

Revisionist History Presents:  The Limits of Power

Revisionist History

44:23 min | 3 months ago

Revisionist History Presents: The Limits of Power

"Hello There Malcolm global here. Many people have spoken up over the last few days very eloquently about the tragic death of George, Floyd at the hands of a police officer Minneapolis. It, says something about the country we live in the most powerful things I've heard of come from mayors and preachers and rappers and talk show hosts and countless ordinary people on twitter while the white. House turned off its lights. And the president hidden in an underground bunker. Sometimes words fail me. As those of you who followed my career now I've been writing in thinking about race and policing for a very long time, the final chapter up my second book blink was about the forty one shots fired at a young, African immigrant named Ahmadou Diallo by New York City police officers in one, thousand, nine, hundred nine. As he stood on his front. Porch. and reach for his wallet to show them as ID. My latest book, talking to strangers starts and ends with the tragic encounter between a young African American woman Santa. Plan and a highway patrolman on the streets of Prairie View Texas. So I wanted to add my voice to the chorus, and share some of that work, and what I decided on a portion of the audiobook version of my book, David and Goliath. It was published in two thousand thirteen. And this chapter is about a riot that took place in Belfast in Northern Ireland. It's about a situation from miles away and many years ago, and about the divisions of religion in class, and not the division of race. But sometimes I. Think it's useful to take a step back and consider policing in a broader context. What happened in northern, Ireland fifty years ago and what's happening now on the streets of the United States are not all that different. The core question in both is if you have power. What does it mean to use it wisely? And what are the consequences if you don't? So here, we go from David and Goliath chapter. Seven Rosemary lawler. When the troubles began in Northern Ireland, Rosemary lawler was a newlywed. She and her husband had just bought a house in Belfast. Baby. It was summer of Nineteen, sixty nine and Catholics and Protestants the two religious communities that have lived uneasily alongside each other throughout the country's history. Already should his throat. There were bombings and riots. Gangs of Protestant militants loyalists as they were called. Roam the streets burning down houses. The lawler's were Catholic and Catholics have always been a minority in Northern Ireland! Every day they grew more frightened. I come home at night. Lauder said and they would be writing on the door. Tags out. Tags is a derogatory word for an Irish Catholic or no pope here. Other night we were there. We were very lucky. A bomb came into the backyard in didn't explode. When Day went to knock on my neighbor's door and I realized she was gone. I found out that day that a lot of people are gone, so my husband Terry came home from work is Terry. What's going on here? And he said where endanger. We left the home that night. We had no phone. You remember this isn't the days before mobiles. We walked out. The fear was in me. I put my son in his pram, I gathered up, could pieces of clothes for him and ourselves the tray at the bottom of the parameter. We stuff them on the tray and Terry says to me right Rosie. We're GONNA. Walk Straight out here. We're to smile at everybody. Of his trembling. Teenage, mom, a teenage girl who got married nineteen married new baby, new world, new life taken away from like that you know and I have no power to stop it. Fears awful thing. I remember being really really scared. The safest place they knew was the all Catholic neighborhood of Ballymurphy in west Belfast where lawler's parents lived, but they had no car and with Belfast in turmoil, no taxi, wanting to venture into a Catholic neighborhood. Finally trick to cabin to stopping by saying they're baby was sick and needed to get to a hospital. They shut the car door and Terry told the driver I want you to take us to Bella Murphy. The driver said No. I'm not doing that, but Tara had a poker a took it out, and he placed the point against the back of the driver's neck and said you're going to take us. The cab driver drove them to the edge of ballymurphy and stopped. I don't care if you stick that in me. He said I'm not going any further. The lawler's gathered up their baby and their worldly possessions. And ran for their lives. At the beginning of nineteen seventy things got worse that Easter there was a ride in ballymurphy. British army was called in a fleet of armored cars with barbed wire on their bumpers patrolled the streets. lawler would push her pram pass. Soldiers with automatic rifles and tear gas creates. One weekend in June. There was a gun battle in the bordering neighborhood. A group of Catholic gunman stepped into the middle of the road and opened fire on a group of Protestant bystanders. In Response Protestant loyalists tried to burn down a Catholic Church near the docks. For five hours, the two sides fought blocked and deadly gunbattle. Hundreds of fires burned across the city. By the end of the weekend, six people dead and more than two hundred injured. The British Home Secretary responsible for Northern Ireland flew up from London, surveyed the chaos and ran back to his plane for God's sake. Bring me a large Scotch. Burying his head in his hands. What a bloody awful country! A week later, a woman came through ballymurphy. Her name was Harry. Carson She was famous for hitting Maggie. Thatcher over the head with a handbag hall, Lawler said I knew her growing up Harry was coming around with two leads pots, and she was banging them together, and she was shouting. Come on, come out, come out. The people in the lower falls are getting murdered. She was shouting it up and I went up to the door. My family was all there and she was shouting. They're locked in their houses. Their children can't get milk and they haven't got anything for a cup of tea, and there's no bread and come out. Come out. We need to do something. The lower falls in all. Catholic neighborhood just down the hill from Bella Murphy. Lawler gone to school in lower falls her uncle of their as countless cousins, she knew as many people in the lower falls. She did Ambala Murphy. The British Army had put the entire neighborhood under curfew. Researched for illegal weapons. I didn't know what curfew meant. lawler said hadn't a clue. I say to somebody what does that mean. She said they're not allowed out of their houses I said. How can they do that? I was totally stunned stunned. What do you mean? The people are locked in their houses. They can't get out for bread or milk. While the Brits British Army were kicking in doors in Iraq in ruining in searching I was what? The biggest thought in everybody's mind was there are people locked in their houses and his children. You have to remember. Some houses had twelve fifteen kids in them. Do you know that's the way it was? What do you mean they can't get out of their houses? They were angry. Rosemary lawler is now in her sixties, a sturdily built woman with ruddy cheeks in short, white blonde hair swept to the side. She was a seamstress by trade, and she was dressed with flair, a bright floral blouse and white crop pants. She was talking about things that happened half a lifetime ago, but you remember every moment. My father said the Brits they'll turn on us. They'll say they're in here to protect us. They'll turn on US you agency. And he was one hundred percent right. They turned on us and the curfew was the start of it. The same year that northern. Ireland descended into chaos to economists. Nathan Ladies and Charles Wolf Junior wrote a report about how to deal with insurgencies. Ladies and Wolf worked for the rand, Corporation. The prestigious tanks started after the Second World War by the Pentagon. Their report was called rebellion and authority. In those years when the world was exploding in violence, everyone read leads and Wolf. Rebellion and authority became the blueprint for the war in Vietnam, and for how police departments dealt with civil unrest, and for how governments cope with terrorism. It's conclusion was simple. Fundamental to our analysis is the assumption that the population as individuals or groups behaves rationally. That it calculates costs and benefits to the extent that they can be related to different courses of action and makes choices accordingly. Consequently influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism, but rather a better understanding of what costs and benefits the individual or the group is concerned with and how they are calculated. In other words, getting insurgents to behave is fundamentally a math problem. If. There are riots in the streets of Belfast. It's because the cost to riders of burning houses and smashing windows are high enough. And when leaders in Wolf said that influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism what they meant. Was it nothing mattered, but that calculation? Few were in a position of power. You didn't have to worry about how lawbreakers felt about what you're doing. You just had to be tough enough to make them think twice. The general in charge of British forces. In Northern, Ireland was a man straight out of the pages of rebellion authority. His name was Ian Freeland. Served with distinction in Normandy during the Second World. War and later fought insurgencies in Cyprus and Zanzibar he was trim and forthright with a straight back, and a square jaw and a firm hand. He conveyed the correct impression of a man who knew what needed to be done and would do it. When he arrived in northern, Ireland, he made it plain. That is patients was limited. He was not afraid to use force. He had his orders from the prime minister. The British army should deal toughly and be seen to deal toughly with thugs and gunman. On June thirtieth nineteen seventy, the British army received a tip. There were explosives and weapons hidden in a house. Four Bucks Street in the lower falls. They were told. Freeland immediately dispatched five armored cars filled with soldiers and police officers. A search of the House turned up a cache of guns and ammunition. Outside a crowd gathered, someone started throwing stones. Stones turned into petrol bombs. A riot started by ten PM the British had had enough. An army helicopter armed with loudspeakers circle, the lower falls demanding that all residents stay inside their homes or face arrest. As the streets cleared, the army launched a massive house to house search disobedience was met with firm and immediate punishment. The next morning a triumphant freeland took to Protestant government officials and a pack of journalists on a two of the neighborhood in the back of an open flatbed truck. Surveying the deserted streets like as one soldier later put it the British Raj on a tiger hunt. British army went to northern, Ireland with the best of intentions. The local police force was overwhelmed and they were there simply to help. To serve as a peacekeeper between northern. Ireland's two warring populations. This was not some distant and foreign land. They were dealing with their own country, their own language and their own culture, they had resources and weapons and soldiers and experience that dwarf those of the insurgent elements they were trying to contain. When Phelan toured, the empty streets of the lower falls that morning, he believed that he and his men would be back home in England by the end of the summer. But? That's not what happened. Instead. What should have been a difficult? Few months turned into thirty years of bloodshed and mayhem. In Northern Ireland. The British made a simple mistake. They fell into the trap of believing that because they had resources, weapons, soldiers and experience that dwarfed those of the insurgent elements they were trying to contain. It did not matter what the people of Northern Ireland thought of them. General, freeland believed lease Wolf when they said that influencing poplar behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. And Ladies and Wolf. Or wrong. It has been said that most revolutions are not caused by revolutionaries in the first place, but by the stupidity and brutality of Governments Sean Mc Stephan. The Provisional IRA's first chief-of-staff once said looking back on those early years. Well, you had that to start with in northern, Ireland, alright. The simplest way to understand the British mistake in northern. Ireland is to picture a classroom. It's a kindergarten class. A room with colored walls covered in children's drawings. Let's call the teacher Stella. The classroom was videotaped as part of a project at the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia, and there is more than enough footage to provide a good sense of the kind of teacher. Stella is and the kind of classroom she has. Even after a few minutes. It is abundantly clear that things aren't going well. Stella is in a chair at the front of the room. She's reading out loud from a book that she's holding up to one side seven slices of tomatoes, a juicy olives, nine chunks of cheese. A girl is standing in front of her reading along and all around her. The class is in chaos, a mini version of Belfast in the summer of nineteen seventy. A little girl is doing cartwheels across the room. A little boys making faces much as a class seems to be paying no attention at all. Some of the students have actually turned themselves entirely around, so they have their backs to Stella. If you were to walk on Stella's class. What would you think? I'm guessing your first reaction would be that. She has a group of unruly children. Maybe she teaches in a school in a poor neighborhood and students come from troubled families. Maybe her students come to school without any real respect for authority or learning. Ladies and Wolf would say that she really needs to use some discipline. Children like that need a firm hand. They need rules if there is no order in the classroom, how can any learning take place? The truth is though that Stella School isn't in some terrible neighborhood. Her students aren't particularly or unusually unruly. When the class begins, they are perfectly well behaved and attentive, eager and ready to learn. They don't seem like bad apples at all the only start to misbehave well into the lesson, an only in response to the way Stella is behaving. Stella causes the crisis. How so by doing an appalling job of teaching the lesson? Tell had the girl from the class reading alongside her as a way of engaging arrest of the students, but the pacing of the back, and forth between the two of them was excruciatingly slow and wooden. Look at her body language one of Jin researchers. Bridget Hamry said as we watch Stella. Right now she's just talking to this one kid and no one else's getting in. Her colleague Rubber Peon to added. There's no rhythm no pace. This is going nowhere. There's no value in what she's doing. Only then did the class begin to deteriorate. The little boy started making faces when the child started doing cartwheels tell a missed it entirely three or four students to the immediate right of the teacher, which still gamely trying to follow along, but still it was so locked onto the book that she wasn't giving them any encouragement. Meanwhile to Stella's left five or six children had turned themselves around, but that was because they were bewildered, not because they were disobedient, their view of the book was completely blocked by the little girl standing in front, of Stella, they had no way of follow along. We often think of authority as a response to disobedience. A child acts up so a teacher cracks down. Stella's classroom however suggests something quite different disobedience can also be a response to authority. If, the teacher doesn't do her job properly. Then the child will become disobedient. With classrooms like this, one, people will call what's happening a behavioral issue. Henry said we were watching one of Stella's kids, wiggling and squirming and contorted her face, and altogether doing whatever she could to avoid her teacher. But one of the things we find is that this sort of thing is more often and engagement problem than a behavioral problem. If a teacher is actually doing something interesting. These kids are quite capable of being engaged instead of responding in a let me control your behavior way. The teacher needs to think. How can I do something interesting? That will prevent you from misbehaving in the first place. The next video peonies and ham replayed was a third grade teacher giving homework to her students. Each student was given a copy of the assignment and the teacher in the class. Read the instructions allowed together. Piano was aghast. Just the idea that you would coral reading a set of instructions to a bunch of eight-year-old is almost disrespectful. He said I mean. Why is there any instructional purpose? They know how to read cycle waiter in a restaurant, giving the menu, and then proceeding to read every item to you just as it appears on the page. A boy sitting next to the teacher raises his hand midway through the reading, and without looking at him, the teacher reaches out grabs his wrist and pushes his hand down. Another child starts to actually do the assignment. An entirely logical action given the pointlessness of what the teacher is doing. The teacher addresses him sharply. Sweetie this homework. It was a moment of discipline. The child had broken the rules. The teacher had responded firmly and immediately. If you a watch that moment with the sound turned off, you would think of it as ladies and Wolf perfectly applied. But if he were to listen to what the teacher was saying things about the incident from the child's perspective, it would become clear that it is having anything but its intended effect. A little boy isn't going to come away with a renewed appreciation of the importance of following the rules. He's GonNa come away, angry and disillusioned. Why because the punishment is completely arbitrary, he can't speak up and give his own side of the story and he wants to learn. If that little boy became defiant. It was because his teacher made him that way. Just as Stella, turned an eager, an attentive student into someone who did cartwheels across the floor. When people in authority want the rest of us to behave, it matters first and foremost how they behave. This is called the principle of legitimacy and the genesis based on three things, first of all the people who are asked to obey authority have to feel like they have a voice that they speak up. They will be heard. Second the law has to be predictable. There has to be a reasonable expectation that the rules tomorrow going to be roughly the same as the rules today. And third, the authority has to be fair. It can't treat one group. From another. All good parents understand these three principles implicitly, if you WANNA stop little johnny from hitting his sister, you can't look away one time and scream at him another. You can't treat his sister differently when she hits him, and if he says he really didn't hit his sister, you have to give them a chance to explain himself. How you punish is as important as the act of punishing itself. Nor is the story of Stella all that surprising anyone who has ever said in a classroom knows that it is important for teachers to earn the respect of their students. What is harder to understand however is the importance of these same principles when it comes to law and order. We know our parents and our teachers, so it makes sense. Legitimacy should matter a lot inside the home or the school. But the decision about whether to rob a bank or shoot. Someone seems like it belongs to a very different category, doesn't it? That's what leads in Wolf meant when they said that fighting criminals and insurgents requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. They were saying that at that level that decision to obey the law is a function of a rational calculation of risks and benefits. It isn't personal. But that's precisely where they went wrong. Because getting criminals and insurgents to behave, turns out to be as dependent on legitimacy, getting children to behave in the classroom. When ladies and Wolf wrote that influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. They meant that the power of the state was without limits. If you wanted to impose order, you didn't have to worry about what those whom you are ordering about. Thought of you, you're above that. But ladies in Wolf had it backwards. That was the mistake General Freeland made in the lower falls. He didn't look what was happening to the is it people like Rosemary Lawler? He thought he'd ended the insurgency. You wrote around the hush streets. The lower falls like a British Raj on a tiger hunt. had. He bothered to drive up the street to ballymurphy where Harriet Carson was banging. Pots and saying come on come out, come out to people in the lower falls are getting murdered. He would have realized the insurgency was just beginning. July in Northern Ireland is the height of what is known as marching season. When the country's Protestant loyalists Organiz parades to commemorate their long ago. Over the country's Catholic minority. There are church parades arch. Banner and hall parades. Commemorative Band parades and blood and thunder, and kicked the Pope Flute Band Parades There are parades with full silver bands, parades with bagpipes, parades with accordions and parades with marchers, wearing sashes in dark suits and bowler hats. There are hundreds of parades in all involving tens of thousands of people culminating every year in a massive march on the twelfth of July, Moxie anniversary of the victory by William of Orange in the battle of the Boyne in sixteen ninety, when Protestant control over Northern Ireland was established once and for all. The night before the twelfth as it is known marches around the country, hold street parties and build enormous bonfires. When the fire is at its height, the group is a symbol to burn. In past years, it has often been an effigy, the Pope or some hated local Catholic official. Here's how one old twelfth did. He Goes Sung to the of CLEMENTINE. Build a bonfire build a bonfire. Stick a Catholic on the top. Put the pope right in the middle and burn the fucking lot. Northern Ireland is not a large country. It cities are dense and compact, and as the loyalists marched by summer in Bowler hats and sashes with flutes, they inevitably pass by the neighborhoods of the people who defeat. They're celebrating. The central artery of Catholic West. Belfast is in places no more than a few minutes walk from the street that runs through the heart of Protestant west Belfast. There are places in Belfast where the houses of Catholics back directly onto the backyards of Protestants in such close proximity that each house has a giant metal great over its backyard to protect the inhabitants against debris or petrol bombs thrown by their neighbors. On the night before the twelfth, when loyalists lit bonfires around the city, people in Catholic neighborhoods would smell the smoke and hear the chance and see their flag going up in flames. In marching season violence always erupts in northern, Ireland. One of the instance that began the troubles was in nineteen, sixty nine, after two days of riots broke out when a parade pass through a Catholic neighborhood. When the marchers went home, they went on a rampage. The streets of west Belfast burning down scores of homes. The gun battles the following summer. That's so tried freelance patients also happened during Protestant marches. Imagine that every summer US army veterans from the northern states paraded through the streets of Atlanta and Richmond to commemorate their long ago victory in the American civil war. In the dark years of Northern Ireland when Catholic and Protestant were at each other's throat. That's what marching season felt like. When the residents of the lower falls, looked up that afternoon, and saw the British army descend on their neighborhood. Then they were as desperate as anyone to see law and order enforced in Belfast. But they were equally anxious about how law would be enforced. Their world did not seem fair. The twelfth when either their flag or their pope would be burned in giant bonfires was only days away. These institutions charged with keeping both sides apart during marching season was the police force the Royal Ulster Constabulary. But the are you see was almost entirely Protestant. It belonged to the other side. The I had done almost nothing to try and stop the riots the previous summer. A tribunal convened by the British. Government concluded after the Protestant loyalists had torched houses that the RUC officers had failed to take effective action. Journalists at the scene reported loyalists going up to police officers and asking them if they could borrow their weapons. One of the reasons, the British army had been brought into Northern Ireland was to serve as an impartial referee between Protestant and Catholic. But England was an overwhelmingly Protestant country, so it seemed only natural to Northern Ireland's beleaguered Catholics that the sympathies of the soldiers would ultimately lie with Protestants. When a big loyalist march had run through ballymurphy in the Easter before the lower falls curfew. British soldiers had stood between the marchers and the residents extensively to act as a buffer. But the troops faced the Catholics on the sidewalk, and stood with their backs to the loyalists as if they saw their job is to protect loyalist from the Catholics, but not the Catholics from the loyalist. General Freeman was trying to enforce the law in Belfast, but he needed to. I ask himself if he had the legitimacy to enforce the law. And the truth is he didn't. He was in charge of an institution that the Catholics of Northern. Ireland believed with good reason was thoroughly sympathetic to the very people who burned down the houses of their friends and relatives the previous summer. And when the law is applied in the absence of legitimacy, it does not produce a it's. It produces the opposite. It leads to backlash. The great puzzle of Northern Ireland is why it took to British so long to understand this. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty nine, the troubles resulted in thirteen deaths, seventy three shootings and eight bombings. In one, thousand, nine, hundred seventy freeland decided to get tough with dogs and gunman wanting that anyone caught throwing gasoline bombs was liable to be shot. What happened. The historian Desmond Hamill writes the IRA retired. By saying that they would shoot soldiers if Irishmen were shot. The Protestant Ulster Volunteer Force, an extreme and illegal para-military unit quickly joined in offering to shoot a Catholic in return for every soldier shot by the IRA. The. Times quoted a Belfast citizen. Saying anyone who isn't confused. Here doesn't really understand what is going on. That year they were twenty five deaths, two hundred and thirteen shootings, and one hundred and fifty five bombings. To British stood firm. They crack down even harder and in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy one, there were one hundred eighty four deaths, one thousand and twenty bombings, and one, thousand, seven, hundred and fifty six shootings. Then, the British drew a line in the sand. The army instituted a policy known as internment. Civil Rights in Northern Ireland were suspended, the country was flooded with troops, and the army declared that anyone suspected of terrorist activities would be arrested and held in prison indefinitely without charges or trial. So, many young Catholic men were rounded up during tournament that in a neighborhood like ballymurphy, everyone had a brother or father or a cousin in prison. If that many people in your life have served time behind bars. Does the law seem fair anymore? Does it seem predictable. Does it seem like you can speak up and be heard? Things got even worse. In Nineteen, seventy two, there were one thousand four hundred ninety five shootings, five, hundred, thirty, one armed robberies, one, thousand, nine, hundred, thirty one bombings and four hundred ninety seven people killed. One of those four hundred ninety seven was a seventeen year old boy named Amen. Amen, was Rosemary lawler's little brother? Aiman appeared at my door. Lawler said he said to me I'd love to stay here for a day or two and I said why don't you? He said Ma would have a fit. She would go ballistic. That, he confided in myself and my husband that he was getting her. Asked by the British. Army. Every time he was out every corner. He turned everywhere. He went. They were stopping him and they threatened him. Was He, actually working with the IRA. She didn't know and she said it didn't matter. We were all suspects in there. Is She went on? That's the way it was. A! Name was shot shot by British soldier. Him another fellow were having a smoke and one shot rang out an aim and got it. He lived for eleven weeks. He died on the sixteenth of January at Seventeen and a half years of age. She began to tear up. My father never worked again at the dock. My mother was destroyed heartbroken. It's forty years ago this year. It's still rough. Lawler was a young wife and mother living. What she had expected would be normal life in modern Belfast, but then she lost her home. She was threatened and harassed her relatives down. The Hill were imprisoned in their homes. Her brother was shot and killed. She never wanted any of it nor ask for any of it, nor could even make sense of what happened. That was my life, my whole new life, she said. And then this was forced upon me. And I go, this is not right to you know. Here are my people. I grew up with in school, being burnt out of their houses. The British army that came in to protect us has now turned on us and his racket in ruining. I became hooked. I. Don't mean that flippantly either came that way. Because I can't sit in the house while this is going on. I can't be a nine to five mother. People call it the troubles. She continued it was war. Two British army was out there with armored cars and weapons, and you name it. That's a war zone we lived in. The British army came in here with every means they had available to put us down and we were like rubber dolls. We'd just bounce back up again. Don't get me wrong. We got hurt on the way down. A lot of people had heartache I suffered from anger for a long long time and I've apologized to my children for that. But the circumstances dictated that. It wasn't how it was I wasn't born that way? This was forced upon me. General freons men descended on the lower falls the first thing. The neighbors did was to run to saint. Peter's Cathedral the local Catholic Church just a few blocks away. The defining feature of the lower falls like so many other Catholic neighborhoods of west Belfast was. It's religiosity. Saint Peter's was the heart of the neighborhood. Four hundred people would attend mass at Saint Peter's on a typical weekday. The most important man in the community was the local priest. He came running. He went up to the soldiers. The raid must be done quickly. He warned them or they would be trouble. Forty five minutes past and soldiers emerged with their hall, Fifteen pistols, a rifle, a Schnauzer, submachine gun and a cache of explosives munition. The patrol packed up and left turn onto a side street. That would take them out of the lower falls. In the interim, however, a small crowd gathered at as the armored cars turned the corner, a number of young men ran forward and started throwing stones at the soldiers. To patrol stopped, the crowd grew angry. The soldiers responded with. Tear, gas. The crowd grew angrier. Stones turned petrol bombs and petrol bombs to bullets. A taxi driver said he'd seen someone carrying a submachine gun heading for Balkan Street. The riders set up roadblocks to slow the army's advance. A truck was set ablaze one block away block in the end of the street. The soldiers fired even more tear-gas until the wind had carried it clear across the lower falls. The crowd grew angrier still. Why did the patrol stop? Why didn't they just keep going? Lingering in the neighborhood is exactly what the priests told them not to do. The price went back to the soldiers and pleaded with them again if they stopped the tear gas, he said he would get the crowd to stop throwing stones. The soldiers didn't listen. Their instructions were to get tough and be seen to get tough with thugs and gunmen. The priest turn back towards the crowd as he did. The soldiers fired off another round of tear gas. The canisters fell two feet of the priest, and he staggered across the street, leaning on a window sill as he gasped for air. In a neighborhood so devout that four hundred people would show promise on a typical weekday. The British army gas the priest. That was when the riot started. Freeman called in reinforcements to subdue a community of eight thousand people packed into tiny houses along narrow streets, the British brought in three thousand troops, and not just any troops to a fiercely Catholic neighborhood. Freeland brought in soldiers from the Royal Scots one of the most obviously and self consciously Protestant requirements in the entire army. Army helicopters circled overhead, ordering the residents by megaphone to stay inside their homes. Roadblocks replaced at every exit. A curfew was declared and a systematic house by house search began. Twenty and twenty one year old soldiers, still smarting from the indignity of being pelted with stones and petrol bombs forced their way into home after home, punching holes in walls and ceilings, ransacking bedrooms listen to one of those British soldiers looking back on what happened that night? A guy still in his pajamas came out cursing, wielding a lamp and Wax Stan across the head, Stan Dodge the next one and the bloke with his rifle, but. I knew full well that a lot of the lads were taking this opportunity to vent their anger over things already done. Heads were being cracked and houses trash from top to bottom. Everything in the houses became a massive rubble, but out of the Blur, little sharp details still cut through. School Photos Smiley family pictures cracked, trinkets and crucifixes is stamped kids crying, crunching on the glass of the pope's picture, unfinished meals and bad wallpaper, colored toys and TV. Noise and radio crackle. Painted plates shoes Abbadi in the hall. Flatten against the wall. This is when I did feel like we invaded. Three hundred and thirty seven people were arrested at night. Sixty were injured. Charles O'Neill a disabled air veteran was run over and killed by a British armored car. As his body lay on the ground. One of the soldiers poked a bystander with a ton, and said move on you Irish bastard, there are not enough of you dead. A man named Thomas Burns, was shot by a soldier on the falls road at eight PM as he stood with a friend who was boarding up the windows of his store. When his sister came to pick up his body. She was told he had no business being on the street at that time. At Eleven PM. An elderly man named Patrick Element thinking the worst was over went out his bedrooms. The present shirtsleeves for a pre bedtime stroll. He died in a burst of army gunfire. One of the neighborhood. Accounts of the curfew says of elements death. That night. British troops actually entered and quoted themselves in the shot man's home. The distraught sister having been moved to the other butters up the street. This tasteless intrusion into the abandoned home was discovered. The next afternoon joined the interval and the curfew. The brother with his daughter and son-in-law went down to the house, and found the door broken down a window, broken kit, lying on the floor, shading, tackle the city and used cups scullery. Neighbors inform them. The soldiers had dust down in the upstairs rooms as well. A door broken down. A window broken. And dirty dishes left to sink. Ladies Wolf believed that all the counts are rules and rational principles. But what actually matters of the hundreds of small things at the powerful? do or don't do to establish delegitimacy. Like sleeping in the bed of innocent man, you just shot accidentally and scattering your belongings around his house. By Sunday morning, the situation inside the lower falls was growing desperate. The lower falls was not a wealthy neighborhood. Many of the adults were employed or if they were not relied on piece work. The streets were crowded, and the homes were narrow, cheaply built nineteenth century, terraced red brick row houses with one room to a floor and bathrooms in the backyard. Very few houses had a refrigerator. They were dark and damp. People bought Brad daily because it grew moldy otherwise. But the curfew was now thirty six hours old, and there was no bread left. The Catholic neighborhoods of West. Belfast are packed so tightly together and linked by so many ties of marriage and blood that word spread quickly from one to the next about the plight of the lower falls. Harriet Carson walked through ballymurphy. Banging together the lids of pots. Next came a woman named Mary Drum. She had bullhorn. She began walking to the streets. Shouting out to the women. Come Out, fill your prams, bread and milk. The children haven't gotten any food. The women's started to gathering groups of two and four and ten and twenty until they numbered in the thousands. Some people still had their rollers in their hair and their scarves over their head, lawler remembers we linked arms and sang. We shall overcome. We shall overcome someday. We got down to the bottom of the hill. She went on the atmosphere was electric. The Brits were standing with their helmets and their guns already. There, batons were out. We turned and went down the Grosvenor road, singing and shouting. I think the Brits were all the couldn't believe that. These women with prams were coming down to take them on. Our remember seeing one Brit. Standing there scratching his head going. What do we do with all these women? Do we go into riot situation here? Then we turned onto slate street with school was my school. And the Brits were there. They come flying out of the school. And there was hand to hand fighting got the hair pulled out of us. The Brits just grabbed us through us up against the walls. Oh I! They beat us like and if you fail, you'd to get up very quickly because you didn't WanNa. Get trampled. They came out with brutality. Are member standing up on top of a car and having a look at what was going on the front then I saw a man with shaving cream on his face and putting his braces on. An all of a sudden, the soldiers stop beating us. The man putting his braces on was the commanding officer of the Slate Street checkpoint. He might have been the only voice of Sanity on the British side that day, the only one who understood the full dimensions of the catastrophe unfolding. A heavily-armed group of soldiers was beating up a group of Pram, pushing women coming to feed the children of the lower falls. He told his men to stop. You have to understand. The march was still coming down the road, and the people back hadn't a clue what was going on at the front. Lawler went on. They kept coming. Women were crying. People started coming out of their houses, pulling people in because there were so many injured once all the people started coming out of their houses. The Brits Lost Control. Everyone came out on the streets, hundreds and hundreds of people. It was like a domino effect. One St come out next thing you know. Doors are opening on another street, another street and another street. The Brits gave up. They had their hands up. The women forced and we forced him. We forced until we got in a Magadan and we broke the curfew. I've often thought about it God. It was like everybody was jubilant. It was like we did it. I remember coming home and suddenly felt very shaky and upset and nervous about the whole episode. Do you know? I remember speaking to my father about it afterward I, said daddy you. Words came true. They turned on us. And, he said True British Army. That's what they do. He was right. The turned on us. and. That was the start of it.

Belfast Rosemary lawler British army Ireland Northern Ireland Ballymurphy General Freeland army Stella Wolf United States British Raj Terry twitter Stones David Brits British Army
How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

Cautionary Tales

39:55 min | 10 months ago

How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

"There's another podcast. We think you'll enjoy. Ted Talks daily every weekday. You'll hear new ideas on every topic imaginable. Recent talks include entrepreneur and security expert Bright Simons on the innovative solutions Africans using to deal with counterfeit goods off ooh writer and historian Edward Tenor on. How our obsession with efficiency can actually make us less efficient plus a lot more including adding water to talks by me subscribed to Ted talks daily? Where have you listened as the night draws in and the fire blazes on behalf? We warn the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the path but my stories for the education of the grownups and my nice stories are all true on Tim. Harford Gavin close and listen to my cautionary tales So August nineteen sixteen gene the western front in the first world war the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five hundred miles across France rounds and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side to advance the Noble Cavalry Long. The most celebrated force in the army were utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers that brought picnics. And we're waiting patiently for a demonstration of remarkable invention. It was a pleasantly warm day and a quiet spot if you tuned even down to the artillery of the Psalm battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon. Then another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon not in an armor plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting. When slowly came into sight the first tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful designs lozenge shaped but with two clumsy-looking wheels behind it? That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in our story. He's thirty seven a small man with a neatly trimmed moustache moustache his hairline retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his head he could pass for Buckler in a costume drama but beneath eighth the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago. He'd been friends with the notorious occultist alister alice to Crowley Crowley called himself a wizard. One newspaper called him the wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed blamed warlocks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest thing about the life On the fate of Jesse Fuller Fuller sees instantly that this new machine. The tank tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war but how to cross mark and trenches and barbed wire against a storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas but the tank will do the job and J F C. The fuller can see that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people to see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem. You're listening nick. To another cautionary tale. The British officer class simply adored and more traditional way of waging war one involving stirrups Jason swords and big beautiful horses. Here's one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank. Look into the face ace of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine. You will see in the letter what I might almost call a lack of intelligence elegance. You keep up the high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse. If major fuller was going to to persuade the British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle. At least he managed to get himself in the right place. He applied to transfer to the newly-formed formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper and ordered to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines that that was the easy bit fuller soon? Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line. New Fast tanks were being designed they could roll across the trenches and be on on the German command posts in our full as attack would come from nowhere as support would disrupt German road and rail travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in a single battle thing but the war ended. Anyway before fuller's astonishing idea could be tested it. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much much of Europe in a matter of weeks. J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army had wasted his idea tin. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes of it have been repeated again I and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in nineteen seventy the photocopying giant Xerox folks established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox Parc then developed the modern personal computer an achievement which Bill Gates Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in one thousand nine hundred seventy five a twenty four year old engineer named Steve Sampson built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy three Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What strange is Steve? Sassan was working for Kodak in Nineteen Ninety Nine. Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman. c'mon brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to celine. Dion Ole succeeded in doing was paving being the way for apple's ipod and back in nineteen eighteen the British at the best tanks in the world a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The British had conceded technical Cole and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so often you have to ask yourself? If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer digital camera the ipod. Why do some ideas at slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of up stocks J F C fuller once began an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you're in a leading position race whole sees? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory. They slow down and allow others to overtake them. For a glimpse of what fuller was up against. Consider the battle of Cambrai by late in one thousand nine hundred seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks to lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour but that was fast enough they swept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches. Amish gene guns fired incessantly and guys don't connect fires added but he Z.. Must admit all our efforts to stop tanks ineffective. They can't do nothing against him without exaggeration. Some of the German infantry it seemed to be off their heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea of the situation. There was no chain of command and no orders. mm-hmm it was a stunning tactical success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened. It should be exploited. I cavalry a great deal of clattering galloping and shouting and a lot of our medieval hall. Soldiers came charging charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault the opportunity was wasted and not just the the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it's so nearly achieved? Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank at the right time at the right I place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before the gunsmoke could cleared did he was scribbling away furiously his desk tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be done next. Those scribblings would over the following months become plan. Nineteen nineteen thousand. He understood that the success at Cambrai was just a glimpse temps of what might be possible. The British High Command did not there several explanations for these missed opportunities entities. But most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people edits Lau can get back to some veal soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle had been a frivolous distraction hyphen from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year after the war had ended fuller's essay the one that begins with reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think-tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. Whatever you dumb next year? He wrote another strategically visionary. SL This time overturning. The ideas of naval warfare and and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing as a soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. I'll those were not amused first. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The army also blocked publication occasion of fullest books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and is a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Montgomerie massing bird. They didn't read Fuller's most celebrated book. It would only annoy me. He responded to the threat of Nazi militarization by increasing the amount spent on. Hey and other food for horses. By a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Officers would get a horse to as I say people idiots and it's not just the British army who seem guilty of idiocy. When Steve Job visited Xerox Parc in Nineteen seventy-nine? He couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface for the first time. Why aren't you doing doing anything with this? This is the greatest thing this is revolutionary. If jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars he might well have said the same the thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. How is it does it? co-operation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was Kodak really run by idiots idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties now. These organizations stumbled for a reason management theorists have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they referred for to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful that shorter fail. But why don't organizations adapt after all they usually have the resources the experience and the reputation to outpace any upstarts. It's Kodak did so Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more losses more. Hey We've already explored the idiot hypothesis but there is a different theory of what goes wrong. Hits a famous theory. Too in management management circles it comes from Clayton Christianson of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators dilemma. It told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are flawed or underdeveloped. At I said they don't appeal failed to existing customers but they find niches and slowly. They improve while the incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day the new technology elegy is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants Christianson disruption theory is an elegant one but there are plenty of examples that just don't fit think about why Xerox didn't exploit that cutting edge research at Xerox PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface low end competitor to the photocopier. They owned from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below and Kodak not totally developed the digital camera and made a good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations weren't slow to see the change coming. They often saw earlier. Elliot than anyone else. What lay ahead yet? They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank thank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British army hadn't noticed the tank. Thank the British. Were well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we won't understand why the British army lost its advantage in tank warfare. Cautionary Tale needs a new hearing. Hiring is but there's one place you can go where hiring simple fast and smart with Ziprecruiter. The cruiser growing businesses can connect to qualified candidates. Kotal co-founder Gretchen. heppner experienced how challenging hiring can be after struggling to find a new Game Art Education Tech Company but then she switched to Ziprecruiter and everything changed. Your experience of hiring will be smooth smooth and simple after you sign up free at Ziprecruiter DOT com slash tales. Ziprecruiter doesn't depend on candidates finding you. It finds them foyer. And by using ziprecruiter screening questions to fill. Two candidates Gretchen found it easier to focus on the best ones. Then find the right one. In fact after posting the position on Ziprecruiter Gretchen. said she was honestly surprised. She found qualified applicants so quickly and hired a new game artists in less than two weeks with results like that. It's no wonder four out of five. Employers who post on Ziprecruiter quality candidates first day Ziprecruiter the smartest way to hire see why ziprecruiter effective for businesses of all sizes. Try ziprecruiter free. At how how web address ziprecruiter dot com slash tales at ziprecruiter dot com slash T. A. L. Tails and now a word from our sponsor. Let's let's talk about transfer wise the one stop shop for sending spending and receiving money internationally. Picture it your brothers in Brussels cels to buy antique books and he asked you to send him a bit more cash or your sisters in Singapore studying psychology and she needs money. You Do Goatee Obama and Co pay pound right gone. Your Bank probably won't give you the real exchange rates. They'll likely mark up the right on top talk on the fees that means more cash for them but less your sibling instead. Send money brewed with transfer wise transfer. Wise gives you the real exchange rate for a laughably low fee every time they also have a debit card. That's great for traveling internationally. Transfer Wise Debit Mastercard. Gives you the real rate when you spend overseas so you don't have to wonder what your mess travelcard is. Which is Handy Drinking Fountain in a desert the card links to a free free account that lets you hold over forty currencies and convert between them? That's foreign exchange freedom. Transfer wise has over six million customers always looking for more join folks in seventy countries already saving testimony for free transfer Wise Dot com slash. PODCAST Komo download the APP again. That's transfer wise dot com slash. PODCAST in one thousand nine hundred ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published an article that presented a different view of why. It's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that those organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well a different type of organization nation? No matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that already exists the dominant organization of yesterday has a good chance of being the dominant organization of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. IBM The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. IBM Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those decades. Everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties But then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough cheap enough that that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists and even parents now. IBM faced a very different challenge. They had a corporate army ready to negotiate. multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What were they supposed to do when a computer became a household appliance something more like a blender IBM Did create a strong business in personal computers. But that business was openly aggravating the rest of the organization bypassing IBM's distribution division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit what had flummoxed. IBM was not the pace of technological. Change it had been dealing with technological change just fine for more than half a century. IBM's problem was that that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca Henderson calls this sort. AWW technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation too MOMS and new organizational structure which means is that old organizations face an uphill struggle. Those organizations may have changed the world that when they're forced to change themselves. That's a harder challenge before the first World War. r-miss had been organized for centuries around Cavalry Cavalry and infantry the mounted troops offered mobility the foot soldiers strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively hm three new technologies artillery barbed wire and the machine gun shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything getting everything that is except the way armies were organized and that was because the army's didn't need change barbed wire eh machine guns were used to reinforce infantry positions the big gums the artillery could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. It's the old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument documents like whether a tomatoes vegetable or fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened and again and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane. Should it be run by the Air Force is more of a navy thing or is its role to support pulled tanks. Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem like silly questions but they aren't. They're fundamental the mental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone. Someone in the organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank warfare has been grafted onto to assist them. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities. It should be in a new kind of unit. Infantry we're become I a subsidiary and later a useless on all ground over which tanks can move. The army of the last war was parts. It's buried and be brained that was J.. AFC Fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as a grab for power and resources within the army and you tank regiment would would have no allies and no historical tradition. So an alternative was to place the tanks with cavalry regiments as the modern mobile oil strikeforce. That made some sense to and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around around the concept of mobility they were organized around Horses Cavalry Officer Loved His horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and in caring for the horses. Why should he welcomed the usurper tank? It's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons in their big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses. But the more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really fundamental Xerox Parc developed or assembled most of the features which is a user friendly personal computer but Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market such a computer xerox. Folks did much better when park develop the laser printer. The laser printer was off tillery or the machine gun for Xerox. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. One challenge could easily be met. The author Autho was in Simone Table The politics politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a painful organizational. Overhaul it's a task that needs skillful. Skillful Diplomacy J F C fuller was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers. Since before the tank existed for example at the start of the Great War British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counter attacks would be hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England and he told major fuller to sort it out some signs stating she must not use this road sir. What the less? Well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too fond of his own cleverness remember it was fuller who had clearly clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks for lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had worn a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays but his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army's commanders. Once he testified in front of a committee of senior officers how many hours a day can attack rum. Thus far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet without a sturdy opposition it is most difficult to explode deep-rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue the stupid person was to tell him to his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right liked about that. People could see that fuller was smart creative perhaps even brilliant but nobody had a higher opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. I told you hit being disciple of the country's most infamous magician Shen Alistair Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic. He was such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album after a while he and fuller fell out. But you can still hear. Echoes of the strange spiritualist beliefs in full as arguments. Even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare of the future I saw a fleet operating against a fleet not see but on land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and and I noticed that it is in difficulty it cannot see there appears an aeroplane and gives it site. Hello my astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force. It's in December nineteen twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison that would mean taking responsibility for managing in people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any architectural innovation. He walked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for mechanized warfare. Eventually Fuller threatened to resign. The position was awarded to someone someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like hard work even even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see fuller's petulance was to cost him and the British army Dearly this has in a story about how J F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Full as part in it will soon be coming to a painful end but there is another side to this tragic tale. A story of how other organizations seemed to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman digital camera and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg. It's Creagh if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony. Kodak found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals Seemed to find it so easy. The answer is that it sometimes easier to build an organization from the ground up then to disassemble and reassemble reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the First World War all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than in a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks. Were strictly forbidden. The British army had been victorious. And it's it's hard to reorganize victorious organization. The Germans had no organization to get in the way no status quo to defend German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts were writing they also closely watched British experiments armaments with the tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in Nineteen thirty-three and dramatically expanded the German army secretly? At first I he encountered a German military. That had been preparing for tank warfare for forty years early in one thousand nine hundred thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday with a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see the three hours a completely mechanized and motorized armie roared past the fear. Yes J F C Fuller. was there. Indeed he was guest of honour. At Hitler's Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army and bitterness and frustration hit turned to fascism supporting authoritarian. Tehran antisemitic parties both in Britain and overseas and of course he felt that there was worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That of Adolf Hitler after the Parade Major General Role Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. The fuhrer grasped fuller's hand offer offer Salvadoran Mitt. AIDEN kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Your Excellency they have grown up so quickly clear that I no longer recognize them in one thousand nine hundred seventeen. Fila had been planning the defeat of the German army in nineteen thirty nine and he was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail of history. O on that piece of flattery that fuller fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore wasn't really true. Was it had been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Poland and France. A French pilot called salt. Exupery flew over the battlefield. If you recognize the name then yes it's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery. Describe what happened to the French. And British armies czyz armored lados bling repairable consequences is territory. They have blitzed and knocked me. Miss Tila pugh intact but it does seem used to be a nominee who will once it was an organism nauseous Muliro quantity of disconnected sales. COMPARE THAT IT TO J F C Fuller explanation without an active and directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands and just forty six days sending their batted said British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. AFC Fuller's earth that brilliant bitter strange little man had seen. It's all coming. You've been listening to incautiously tails and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies have written an entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Harford our producers are Ryan Deli and Marilyn rust the sound designer and mixer was Pasqua wise who also composed the amazing music. Starring in. This season are Allen Coming Archie. penjab Toby Stevens and Russell Tovey alongside Enzo Chile at Gahan. Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus right and introducing Malcolm blackmail. Thanks to the team at Pushkin Industries Julia Baton Heather Fain Meal Abell Camilleri Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm Dodwell. Thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times

Jesse Fuller Fuller British army army Xerox Kodak Adolf Hitler German army IBM gold medal tank corps officer French army Xerox Parc Infantry Sony British Army Field
Broken Record Presents:  The Limits of Power

Broken Record

52:01 min | 3 months ago

Broken Record Presents: The Limits of Power

"If, you like me during these quarantine times looking for distractions so last weekend. What did I do? Put on the nineties, disaster, classic twister both kids in the house. It's nearly impossible to escape. There were screaming like they're in the move. Then, I had an idea. Grab my bow seven hundred over your heads. These headphones really deliver when it's time to enjoy entertainment from home whether music, your favorite podcast or drowning out the sounds of your home while you're working or watching twister. Yeah! We ever in your headphones for the car and out of the House, but in the comfort of your own home you deserve a comfortable pair of headphones that still deliver great sap, and for me. Those are my bow seven hundred. With these headphones. Bose has improved on what they're most known for. You can now personalize your environment with eleven different levels of noise cancellation. You can create an immersive. Listen and experience at any volume, but signature active Eq- an impressive bass response whether you're listening at low volumes are really want to crank it up your podcast. Music movies work calls all sound just like they should. To learn more visit bows dot. com that's B.. Dot Com. Hey everyone, this is Justin Richmond. We were all set to bring you a conversation between Rick Rubin and Richard Today that we take a couple of weeks ago. But in light of the heaviness of the last week, and what's going on this week? We figured it'd be best to hold that loose until next week. the music industry is doing something called blackout Tuesday where a lot of people are refusing to do business as a symbol of not wanting to go on with business as usual and. Even though the podcast were only really music, adjacent risks involved in the music industry, of course in ours. We have honor involved. We? Just figured it'd be better. Take a week off and do some deep thinking. We did think instead of just not running something We would bring you something from our other host Malcolm. Glad well. Who's written about policing a lot throughout his career and He had a chapter in his book, David and Goliath. That, he really wanted to share with you guys and We hope that you get a chance to listen and makes you think. Whatever you think you know? That are just maybe. ADDS to the dialogue. That's going on right now and we'll be back with. The Mood Tang next week. Talking to Rick and we hope you guys stay safe in the meantime and we appreciate you guys and. Yeah, we'll be back next week. Enjoy this chapter from Malcolm's book, David and Goliath. Here's Malcolm Hello There Malcolm global here. Many people have spoken up over the last few days very eloquently about the tragic death of floyd at the hands of a police officer in Minneapolis. It says something about the country we live in the most powerful things I've heard of come from mayors and preachers and rappers and talk show hosts and countless ordinary people on twitter while the White House turned off its lights. And the president hid in an underground bunker. Sometimes fail failing. As those of you who have followed by career now I've been writing thinking about race and policing for a very long time, the final chapter up my second book blink was about the forty one shots fired at a young African immigrant named Amadeo by New York, city police officers in one, thousand, nine, hundred nine. As he stood on his front porch. and reach for his wallet to show them as ID. My latest book talking to strangers starts and ends with the tragic encounter between a young african-american Woman Sandra planned, and a highway patrolman on the streets purview Texas. So I wanted to add my voice to the chorus and share some of that work and what I decided on is a portion of the audiobook version of my book, David and Goliath. It was published in two thousand thirteen. This chapter is about a riot took place in Belfast in Northern Ireland. It's about a situation from miles away and many years ago. About the divisions of religion and class, not the division of race. But sometimes I think it's useful to take a step back and consider policing in a broader context. What? Happened in northern, Ireland fifty years ago and what is happening now on the streets of the United States are not all that different. The core question in both is if you have power. What does it mean to use it wisely? And what are the consequences if you don't? So, here we go from David and Goliath Chapter Seven Rosemary lawler. When the troubles began in Northern Ireland. Rosemary lawler was a newlywed. She and her husband had just bought a house in Belfast. They had a baby. It was the summer of nineteen sixty nine and Catholics and Protestants the two religious communities that have lived uneasily alongside each other throughout the country's history or at each other's throat. There were bombings and riots. Gangs of Protestant militants loyalist. They were called. Roam the streets burning down houses. The lawler's were Catholic, and Catholics have always been a minority in Northern Ireland. Every day they grew more frightened. I come home at night. Lauder said and they would be riding on the door. Tags out. Tags is a derogatory word for an Irish Catholic or no pope here. Other night, we were there. We were very lucky. A bomb came into the backyard didn't explode. When day I went to knock my neighbor's door and I realized she was gone. I found out that day. A lot of people are gun. So in my husband Terry came home from work I. said Terry. What's going on here and he said were endanger. We left the home that night. We had no phone. You remember this is in the days before mobiles. We walked out. The fear was in me. I put my son in his pram I got it up best. We could pieces of clothes for him and ourselves those a tray at the bottom of the Prima. We stuffed them on the tray, and Terry says to me right Rosie. WE'RE GONNA walk straight out of here. We're GONNA smile everybody. was trembling. I was a teenage mom, a teenage girl who got married nineteen married new baby new world new life taken away from. You like that you know, and I have no power to stop it. Fears an awful thing. I remember being really really scared. The safest place they knew was the all Catholic neighborhood of Ballymurphy in west Belfast where lawler's parents lived, but they had no car, and with Belfast in turmoil, no taxi wanting to venture into a Catholic neighborhood. Finally they trick to cabin to stopping by saying. They're baby was sick and needed to get to a hospital. They shut the car door and Terry. told the driver I want you to take us to Bella Murphy. The driver, said Oh. No I'm not doing that, but Tara had a poker, and he took it out, and he placed the point against the back of the driver's neck and said you're going to take us. The cab driver drove to the edge of ballymurphy and stopped I. Don't care if you stick that in me. He said I'm not going any further. The lawler's gathered up the baby and their worldly possessions. And ran for their lives. At the beginning of Nineteen, seventy things got worse that Easter. There was a riot and ballymurphy. British army was called in a fleet of armored cars with barbed wire on their bumpers patrol the streets. lawler would push her pram past soldiers with automatic rifles and tear gas grenades. One, weekend in June, there was a gun battle in the bordering neighborhood. A group of Catholic. Gunman stepped into the middle of the road and opened fire on a group of Protestant bystanders. In Response Protestant. Loyalists tried to burn down a Catholic Church near the docks. For five hours the two sides fought locked in deadly gunbattle. Hundreds of fires burned across the city. By the end of the weekend, six people were dead and more than two hundred injured. The British home. Secretary responsible for northern. Ireland flew up from. London surveyed the chaos and ran back to his plane for God's sake. Bring me a large Scotch. He said burying his head in his hands would a bloody awful country. A week later, a woman came through ballymurphy. Her name was Harry Carson. She was famous for hitting Maggie Thatcher over the head with a handbag at City Hall, Lawler said I knew her growing up Harriet was coming around with two kids of pots, and she was banging them together, and she was shouting. Come on, come out, come out. The people in the lower falls getting murdered. She was shouting it up and I went up to the door. My family was all there and she was shouting. They're locked in their houses. Their children can't get milk and they haven't got anything for a cup of tea, and there's no bread and come out. Come out. We need to do something. The lower falls all Catholic neighborhood just down the hill from ballymurphy. lawler gone to school in the lower falls her uncle of there as countless cousins, she knew as many people in lower falls. She did Ambala Murphy. The British Army had put the entire neighborhood under curfew while they searched for illegal weapons. I didn't know what curfew meant. lawler said hadn't a clue. I decided to somebody. What does that mean? She said they're not allowed out of their houses I said. How can they do that I was totally stunned stunned. What do you mean? The people are locked in their houses. That can't get out for bread or milk. While the Brits British Army were kicking in doors in Iraq and ruining and searching I was what? The biggest thought and everybody's mind. was there are people locked in their houses and his children? You have to remember. Some houses had twelve fifteen kids in them. Do you know that's the way it was? What do you mean they can't get out of their houses? They were angry. Rose Miller is now in her sixties. A sturdily built woman with ruddy cheeks and short white blonde hair swept to the side. She was a seamstress by trade, and she was dressed with flair, a bright floral blouse and white crop pants. She was talking about things that had happened half a lifetime ago, but she remembered every moment. My father, said the Brits. They'll turn on us. They'll say they're in here to protect us. They'll turn on us. You wait and see. And he was one hundred percent right. They turned on us. And the curfew was the start of it. The same year that northern. Ireland descended into chaos to economists, Nathan Ladies and Charles Wolf Junior, running port about how to deal with insurgencies. Ladies and Wolf worked for the Rand Corporation. The prestigious think started after the Second World War by the Pentagon. The report was called rebellion and authority. In those years when the world was exploding in. Everyone read ladies and Wolf. Rebellion and authority became the blueprint for the war in Vietnam, and for how police departments dealt with civil unrest, and for how governments cope with terrorism. It's conclusion was simple. Fundamental to our analysis is the assumption that the population as individuals or groups behaves rationally. That calculates costs and benefits to the extent. They can be related to different causes of action and makes choices accordingly. Consequently, influencing, popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism, but rather a better understanding of what costs and benefits the individual or the group is concerned with and how they are calculated. In other words getting insurgents to behave is fundamentally a math problem. If there are riots in the streets of Belfast, it's because the cost to riders of burning houses and smashing windows are high enough. And when ladies and Wolf said that influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism what they meant, was it nothing mattered, but that calculation? If you were in a position of power? You didn't have to worry about how lawbreakers felt about what you were doing. You just had to be tough enough to make them think twice. The general in charge of the British forces in Northern Ireland was a man straight out of the pages of rebellion authority. His name was in Freeland. He'd served with distinction in Normandy during the Second World War and later fought insurgencies in Cyprus Zanzibar. He was trim and forthright with a straight back at square jaw and a firm hand. He conveyed the correct impression of a man who knew what needed to be done and would do it. When. He arrived in northern, Ireland. He made it plain that his patients was limited. He was not afraid to use force. He had his orders from the prime minister. The British army should deal toughly and be seen to deal toughly with thugs and gunman. On June thirtieth nineteen seventy, the British army received a tip. There were explosives and weapons hidden house at Twenty Four Vulcan. Street in the lower falls, they were told. Freedland immediately dispatched five armored cars filled with soldiers and police officers. A search of the House turned up a cache of guns and ammunition. Outside a crowd gathered, someone started throwing stones, stones and petrol bombs. A riot started by ten PM that British had had enough. An army helicopter armed with loudspeakers circled the lower falls demanding that all residents stay inside their homes or face arrest. As the streets cleared, the army launched a massive house to house search disobedience was met with firm and immediate punishment. The next morning. A triumphant freeland took to Protestant government officials and a pack of journalists on a two of the neighborhood in the back of an open flatbed truck. Surveying the deserted streets like as one soldier later put it the British Raj on a tiger hunt. To British army went to Northern Ireland with the best of intentions. The local police force was overwhelmed and they were there simply to help. To serve as a peacekeeper between Northern Ireland's two warring populations. This was not some distant and foreign land. They were dealing with their own country, their own language and their own culture, they had resources and weapons and soldiers and experience that dwarf those of the insurgent elements they were to contain. When Phelan toured the empty streets of the lower falls that morning, he believed that he and his men would be back home in England by the end of the summer. But that's not what happened. Instead. What should have been a difficult? Few months turned into thirty years of bloodshed and mayhem. In Northern Ireland. The British made a simple mistake. They fell into the trap of believing that because they had resources, weapons, soldiers and experience that dwarfed those of the insurgent elements they were trying to contain. It did not matter what the people of Northern Ireland thought of them. General Freeland believed ladies and Wolf when they said that influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. And Ladies and Wolf. Or wrong. It's been said that most revolutions are not caused by revolutionaries in the first place, but by this to. And brutality of governments SEAN MC Stephan the Provisional IRA's first chief of staff went, said looking back on those early years. Well, you had that to start with in northern, Ireland alright. The simplest way to understand the British mistake in Northern Ireland is to picture a classroom. It's a kindergarten class. A room with brightly colored walls covered in children's drawings. Let's call the teacher Stella. The classroom was videotaped as part of a project at the Curry School of Education at the University of Virginia and there is more than enough footage to provide a good sense of the kind of teacher Stella is and the kind of classroom she has. Even after a few minutes, it is abundantly clear that things aren't going well. Stella is sitting in a chair at the front of the room. She's reading out loud from a book that she's holding up to one side seven slices of tomatoes, eight juicy olives, nine of cheese. A girl is standing in front of her reading along and all around her. The class is in chaos, a mini version of Belfast in the summer of nineteen seventy. A little girl is doing cartwheels across the room. A little boys making faces much as class seems to be paying no attention at all. Some of the students have actually turned themselves entirely around, so they have their backs to Stella. If you were to walk in Stella's class. What would you think? I'm guessing your first reaction would be that. She has a group of unruly children. Maybe she teaches in a school in a poor neighborhood and our students come from troubled families. Maybe, students come to school without any real respect for authority are learning. Ladies Wolf would say that she really needs to use some discipline. Children like that a firm hand. They need rules if there is no order in the classroom, how can any learning take place? The truth is though that. Stella's school isn't in some terrible neighborhood. Her students aren't particularly or unusually unruly. When the class begins. They are perfectly well behaved and attentive, eager and ready to learn. They don't seem like bad apples at all the only start to misbehave well into the lesson. An only in response to the way still is behaving. Stella causes the crisis. How so by doing an appalling job of teaching the lesson? From the class alongside her as a way of engaging arrested the students, but the pacing back and forth between the two of them was excruciatingly slow and wooden. Look at her body language. One of the Virginia. Researchers Project Hamry said as we watch Stella Right now. She's just talking to this one kid and no one else's getting in. Her colleague Robert Peon to. There's no rhythm no pace. This is going nowhere. There's no value in what she's doing. Only then did the class begin to deteriorate. The little boy started making faces when the child started doing cartwheels. Still a missed it entirely three or four students to the immediate right of the teacher was still gamely trying to follow along, but Stella was so locked onto the book that she wasn't giving them any encouragement. Meanwhile to Stella's left, five or six children had turned. Around, but that was because they were bewildered, not because they were disobedient, their view of the book was completely blocked by the little girl standing in front of Stella. They had no way of following along. We often think of authority as a response to disobedience. A child acts up so a teacher cracks down. Stella's classroom however suggests something quite different disobedience can also be a response to authority. If, the teacher doesn't do her job properly. Then the child will become disobedient. With classrooms like this one people will call what is happening a behavioral issue Henry said. Were watching one of Stella's kids, wiggling, squirming and contorted her face, an altogether doing whatever she could to avoid her teacher. But. One of the things we find is that this sort of thing is more often an engagement problem that a behavioral problem. If a teacher is actually doing something interesting. These kids are quite capable of being engaged instead of responding in a let me control your behavior way. The teacher needs to think. How can I do something interesting? That will prevent you from misbehaving in the first place. The next video peoria and Ham played was of a third grade teacher, giving homework to her students. Each student was given a copy of the assignment and the teacher in the class. Read the instructions allowed together. Piontek aghast just the idea that you would be coral reading a set of instructions to a bunch of eight year. Olds is almost disrespectful. He said I mean. Why is there any instructional purpose? They know how to read cycle waiter in a restaurant giving you the menu and then proceeding to read every item to you just as it appears on the page. A boy sitting next to the teacher raises his hand midway through the reading, and without looking at him, the teacher reaches out grabs his wrist and pushes his hand down. Another child starts to actually do the assignment. An entirely logical action given the pointlessness of what the teacher is doing. The teacher addresses him sharply. Sweetie this homework. It was a moment of discipline. The child had broken the rules. The teacher had responded firmly and immediately. If you were to watch that moment with the sound turned off, you would think of it as leaders and wolf perfectly applied. But if he were to listen to, the teacher was saying and think about the incident from the child's perspective, it would become clear that it is having anything but its intended effect. The little boy is going to come away with a renewed appreciation of the importance of following the rules. He's GonNa. Come away, angry and disillusioned. Why because the punishment is completely arbitrary, he can't speak up and give his own side of the story and he wants to learn. If that'll boy defiant. It was because his teacher made him that way. Just as Stella turned an eager, an attentive student into someone who did cartwheels across the floor. When people authority want the rest of us to behave, it matters first and foremost how they behave. This is called the principle of legitimacy and the demand is based on three things. First of all the people who are asked to obey authority have to feel like they have a voice. If they speak up, they will be heard second. The law has to be predictable. There has to be a reasonable expectation that the rules tomorrow a going to be roughly the same as the rules today. And third, the Authority has to be fair can't treat one group differently from another. All good parents understand these three principles implicitly. If you WANNA, stop little johnny from hitting his sister. You can't look away one time and scream at him another. You can't treat his sister differently when she hits him, and if he says he really didn't hit his sister, you have to give him a chance to explain himself. How you punish is as important as the act of punishing itself. Nor is the story of Stella. All that surprising anyone who has ever sat in a classroom knows that it is important for teachers to earn the respect of their students. What is harder to understand, however is the importance of these same principles when it comes to law and order. We know our parents and our teachers, so it makes sense. Legitimacy should matter a lot inside the home or the school. But the decision about whether to rob a bank or shoots, someone seems like it belongs to a very different category, doesn't it? That's what ladies and Wolf meant when I said that fighting criminals and insurgents requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. They were saying that at that level the decision to obey the law is a function of a rational calculation of risks and benefits. It isn't personal. But that's precisely where they went wrong. Because getting criminals and insurgents to behave, turns out to be as dependent on legitimacy as getting children to behave in the classroom. Back with more of Malcolm's reading from his book, David and Goliath. Between, tour cancellations lost creative gigs and shrinking ad revenue, the covert nineteen crisis is making it clear that the system supporting creative people needs fix. It puts algorithms over idealize quantity over quality. What's easy to sell over what's good? Money brands just about everything else over the people who actually make the things that inspire us. But Patriot offers a better way. To help creators make up for recent revenue losses and building more sustainable income source by offering a monthly membership to their fans. It gives them the freedom to do their best work and stability. They need to build an independent creative career. Their fans get access to premium content and the chance to become active participants in the work. So if you're a podcast, youtuber musician writer illustrator. If you're a creative person of any kind or simply love one now is the time to check out patriotic DOT COM. We'll be joining millions of fans and creators who together are changing the way our his value. If. You've ever heard of Colin Chapman, but if you're a carnet like I am is gone seriously. He's the guy who founded the legendary performance car. Company loaded maybe the greatest automotive engineer ever, and he had a famous philosophy when it came to designing sports cars simplify then add lights. You know what I've been thinking of Colin Chapman because I've been riding around my neighborhood on my brand new augie model one electric scooter now I can think of. This is like something Colin Chapman with design simple, elegant, beautifully made carbon-fiber Magnesium, massive. Fifty Mile Range and Light Omega Twenty six pounds with one fold. You can whiz wherever you want to go. Then Tuck it under your arm and you get their. Model. One Electric Scooter simplify than headlines. You can get yours today at unagi scooters, dot, com, that's you AGI SCOOTERS DOT com. You can act now with a discount code broken record for one hundred and fifty dollars off the Noggin five hundred. Somewhere call chat. You, smiling. Back with more Malcolm's reading of David and Goliath. When ladies. Wolf wrote that influencing popular behavior requires neither sympathy nor mysticism. They meant that the power state was without limits. If you wanted to impose order, you didn't have to worry about what those whom you are ordering about. Thought of you, you are above that. But. Ladies and Wolf had it backwards. That was the mistake. General Freeland made in the lower falls. He didn't look what was happening to the is it people like Rosemary Lawler? He thought he'd ended the insurgency when he wrote around the hush streets of the lower falls like a British Raj on a tiger hunt. had. He bothered to drive up the street to ballymurphy where Harriet Carson, was banging the lids of pots, and saying come on come out, come out the people in the lower falls or getting murdered, he would have realized the insurgency was just beginning. July in Northern, Ireland is the height of what is known as marching season. When the country's Protestant loyalists organized parades to commemorate their long ago, victories over the country's Catholic minority. There are Church Parades Arch Banner and Hall Parades Commemorative Band Parades, and blood and thunder, and kick the Pope Flute Band Parades. There are parades with full silver bands, parades with bagpipes, parades with accordions and parades, with marches, wearing sashes and dark suits and bowler hats. There are hundreds of parades all involving tens of thousands of people culminating every year in a massive march on the twelfth of July marks the anniversary of the victory by William of Orange in the battle of the Boyne in sixteen, Ninety when Protestant control over northern. Ireland was established once and for all. The night before the twelfth, as it is known marches around the country, hold street parties and build enormous bonfires. When the fire is at its height. The group chooses a symbol to burn. In past years it has often been an effigy of the Pope or some hated local Catholic official. Here's how one old twelfth ditty goes sung to the tune of Clementine. Build a bonfire build on fire. Stick a Catholic on the top. Put the pope right in the middle and burn the fucking lot. Northern Ireland is not a large country. It cities are dense and compact, and as loyalists marched by summer in their bowler-hats sashes with flutes. They inevitably pass by the neighborhoods of the people whose defeat they're celebrating. The central artery of Catholic West, Belfast his in places. No more than a few minutes walk from the street that runs to the heart of Protestant was Belfast. There are places in Belfast, where the houses of Catholics back directly onto the backyards of Protestants in such close proximity that each house has a giant metal great over its backyard to protect the inhabitants against debris or petrol bombs thrown by their neighbors. On the night before the twelfth when Lois lit bonfires around the city, people in Catholic neighborhoods would smell the smoke and hear the chance and see their flag going up in flames. In marching season, violence always erupts in Northern Ireland. One of the instance that began the troubles was in one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty, nine, after two days of riots broke out when a parade pass through a Catholic neighborhood. When the marchers went home, they went on a rampage. The streets of west Belfast burning down scores of homes. The gun battles the following summer that so tried freelance patients also happened during Protestant marches. Imagine that every summer US army veterans from the northern states paraded through the streets of Atlanta and Richmond to commemorate their long ago victory in the American civil war. In, the dark years of Northern, Ireland, when Catholic and Protestant were at each other's throat. That's what marching season felt like. When the residents of the lower falls, looked up that afternoon, and saw the British army descend on their neighborhood. Then they were as desperate as anyone to see. Law and order enforced in Belfast. But they were equally anxious about how law notre would be enforced. Their world did not seem fair. The twelfth when either their flag or their pope would be burned in giant bonfires was only days away. The institution charged with keeping both sides apart during marching season was the police force the Royal Ulster Constabulary. But the are you see was almost entirely Protestant. It belonged to the other side. The I. U. C. had done almost nothing to try and stop the riots the previous summer. A tribunal convened by the British government concluded after the Protestant loyalists had torched houses that the. Officers had failed to take effective action. Journalists at the scene reported loyalists going up to police officers and asking them if they could borrow their weapons. One of the reasons, the British army had been brought into northern. Ireland was to serve as an impartial referee between Protestant and Catholic. But England was an overwhelmingly Protestant country, so it seemed only natural to know. The islands beleaguered Catholics that the sympathies of the soldiers would ultimately lie with the Protestants. When a big loyalist march had run through ballymurphy in the Easter before the lower falls curfew British soldiers had stood between the marchers and the residents extensively to act as a buffer. But the troops faced the Catholics on the sidewalk and stood with their backs to the lawless as if they saw their job as to protect loyalist from the Catholics, but not the Catholics from the loyalist. General Freeland was trying to enforce the law in Belfast, but he needed to I. Ask himself if he had the legitimacy to enforce the law and the truth is he didn't. He was in charge of institution that the Catholics of Northern Ireland believed with good reason was thoroughly sympathetic to the very people who had burned down the houses of their friends and relatives the previous summer. I won the law is applied in the absence of legitimacy. It does not produce `obedient, it produces the opposite. It leads to backlash. The great puzzle of Northern Ireland is why it took the British so long to understand this. In one, thousand, nine, hundred, sixty nine, the troubles resulted in thirteen deaths, seventy-three shootings and eight bombings. In one thousand, nine, hundred seventy freeland decided to get tough with thugs and gunman warning that anyone caught throwing gasoline bombs was liable to be shot. What happened. Historian Desmond Hamill writes the IRA retaliated by saying that they would shoot soldiers if Irishmen were shot. The Protestant Ulster Volunteer Force an extreme illegal paramilitary unit, quickly joined in offering to shoot a Catholic in return for every soldier shot by the IRA The Times quoted a Belfast citizen saying anyone who is confused here. Really understand what is going on. That year they were twenty five deaths, two hundred and thirteen shootings and one hundred fifty five bombings. To British stood firm. They crack down even harder and in one, thousand, nine, hundred, seventy one, there were one hundred eighty four deaths, one thousand and twenty bombings, and one, thousand, seven, hundred and fifty six shootings. then. The British drew a line in the sand. The army instituted a policy known as internment. Civil Rights in Northern Ireland were suspended. The country was flooded with troops, and the army declared that anyone suspected of terrorist activities would be arrested and held in prison indefinitely without charges or trial. So many young Catholic men were rounded up during a tournament that in a neighborhood like ballymurphy everyone had a brother or a father or a cousin in prison. If that many people in your life have served time behind bars. Does the law seem fair anymore? Does it seem predictable. Does it seem like you can speak up and be heard? Things got even worse. In nineteen seventy two, they were one thousand, four, hundred ninety five shootings, five, hundred, thirty, one armed robberies, one, thousand, nine, hundred, thirty one bombings and four hundred ninety seven people killed. One of those four, hundred, ninety seven was a seventeen year old boy named. Ayman was rosemary lawler's little brother. Aiman appeared at my door. Lawler said he said to me I'd love to stay here for a day or two and I said why don't you? He said? Ma would have a fit. She would go ballistic. then. He confided in myself and my husband that he was getting her asked by the British army. Every time he was out every corner. He turned everywhere. He went. They were stopping him and they threatened him. Was He actually working with the IRA? She didn't know and she said it didn't matter. We were all suspects in there? Is She went on? That's the way it was. And Amen was shot shot by a British soldier. Him another fellow were having a smoke and one shot rang. Aim and got it. He lived for eleven weeks. He died on the sixteenth of January at Seventeen and a half years of age. She began to tear up. My father never worked again at the dock. My mother was destroyed heartbroken. It's forty years ago this year. It's still rough. Lawler was a young wife and mother living, what she had expected would be a normal life in modern Belfast, but then she lost her home. She was threatened and harassed her relatives down. The Hill were imprisoned in their homes. Her brother was shot and killed. She never wanted any of it, nor asked for any of it, nor could even make sense of what happened. That was my life, my whole new life, she said. Then, this was forced upon me. And I go! This is not right. Do you know? Here my people. I grew up with in school, being burnt out of their houses. The British army the came in to protect us, has now turned on us and his reckoning ruining. I became hooked. I don't mean that flippantly. I became that way because I can't sit in the house while this is going on, I can't be a nine to five mother. People call the troubles. She continued it was war. Two British army was out there with armored cars and weapons, and you name it. That's a war zone we lived in. The British army came in here with every means that they had available to put us down and we were like rubber dolls. We'd just bounced back up again. Get me wrong. We got hurt on the way down. A lot of people had heartache I suffered from anger for a long long time and I've apologized to my children for that. But the circumstances dictated dictated that. It wasn't how I was. I wasn't born now way. This was forced upon me. Malcolm will finish reading from this chapter of his book. David and Goliath when we come back. Hey these are crazy. Times were in. Parents are stuck inside trying to work. Kids are stuck inside with us. Luckily in my household got shipment of Kiwi Co toys in the mail, right? It's California got the orders to stay inside. I've never seen something. This cool for kids think it's impossible to get a kid to put down the cellphone video game and do something that's good for the brain. Your Roth. It's possible with toys from key Lico. It's a science and art subscription box for kids tested by kids, and it's more fun than any game that can play my three. Your daughter got a wind powered car called the Kuala crate assembling it brought us together as a family, and on top of that my little girl got learn all about wind and its effects on the natural world. The case you don't believe me, let's dollar up. You hear directly from her. Hey So do you remember that drummer that wind powered car that we got in the mail? Whole life. Well? So it's got the popsicle stick hold up the sale and it has wheels on it on the under the car under the crate. And then you have the fan, you use the fan to create wind to blow the car and moved the car forward right awesome, and do you want more toys like that? Right from the Horse's mouth. Do your part to encourage children to be innovative and creative thinkers. They won't believe what can build an accomplished with Kiko, and when they're finished, watch their confidence be as big as their smile Kiwi. Rico was redefining play with hands on projects that build confidence, creativity and critical thinking skills. There's something for every kid or kid it hard at Kiwi Co.. Get your first month. Three on select crates at Kiwi Co Dot Com. Slash Brooklyn record that's K. I W I C O dot com slash broken record. We're back with the rest of Malcolm's chapter from David and Goliath. When general freelance men descended on the lower falls the first thing. The neighbors did was to run to Saint Peter's Cathedral. The local Catholic Church just a few blocks away. The. Defining feature of the lower falls like so many of the other Catholic. Of? West Belfast was it's religiosity. Saint Peter's was the heart of the neighborhood. Four hundred people would attend mass at Saint. Peter's on a typical weekday. The most important man in the community was the local priest. He came running. He went up to the soldiers. The raid must be done quickly. He warned them or they would be trouble. forty-five minutes past and soldiers emerged with their hall, Fifteen pistols a rifle. A schnauzer submachine gun had a cache of explosives munition. The patrol packed up and left turning onto a side street that would take them out of the lower falls. In the interim, however, a small crowd gathered at as the armored cars turned the corner, a number of young men ran forward and started throwing stones at the soldiers. To patrol stopped. The crowd grew angry. The soldiers responded with tear gas. The crowd grew angrier. Stones turn to petrol bombs and petrol bombs to bullets. A taxi driver said he'd seen someone carrying a submachine gun heading for Balkan Street. The riders set up roadblocks to slow the army's advance. A truck was set ablaze one block away block in the end of the street. The soldiers fired even more tear gas until the wind had carried it clear across lower falls. The crowd grew angrier still. Why did the patrol stop? Why didn't they just keep going? Lingering in the neighborhood is exactly what the priest told them not to do. The price went back to the soldiers and pleaded with them again if they stopped the tear gas, he said he would get the crowd to stop throwing stones. The soldiers didn't listen. Their instructions were to get tough and be seen to get tough with thugs in gunman. The priest turned back towards the crowd as he did. The soldiers fired off another round of tear gas. The canisters felt the feet of the priest, and he staggered across the street, leaning on a window sill as he gasped for air. In a neighborhood, so devout that four hundred people would show for mass on a typical weekday. The British army gas the priest. That was when the riot started. Freeman called in reinforcements to subdue a community of eight thousand people packed into tiny houses along narrow streets, the British brought in three thousand troops, and not just any troops to a fiercely Catholic neighborhood. Freeman brought in soldiers from the Royal Scots one of the most obviously and self consciously Protestant regiments in the entire Army. Army helicopters circled overhead, ordering the residents by megaphone to stay inside their homes. roablocks replaced at every exit. A curfew was declared an systematic house by house search began. Twenty and twenty one year old soldiers, still smarting from the indignity of being pelted with stones and petrol bombs forced their way into home after home, punching holes in walls and ceilings, ransacking bedrooms listen to honor those British soldiers looking back on what happened that night? A guy still in his pajamas came out cursing willing a lamp, and Wax Stan across the head. Stan Dodge next one and deck the bloke with his rifle, but I knew full well that a lot of the lads were taking this opportunity to vent their anger over things already done. Heads were being cracked and houses trash from top to bottom. Everything houses became a mass of rubble, but out of the Blur, little sharp details still cut through. School Photos Smiley family pictures cracked trinkets and crucifix, stamped kids crying, crunching on the glass of the pope's picture, unfinished meals and bad wallpaper, colored toys and TV. Noise and radio crackle. Painted plates shoes a body in the hall flattened against the wall. This is when I did feel like we invaded. Three hundred and thirty seven people were arrested that night. Sixty were injured. Charles O'Neill a disabled air force. Veteran was run over and killed by British armored, car. As his body lay on the ground, one of the soldiers poked a bystander with baton, and said move on you Irish. Bastard, there are not enough of you dead. A man named Thomas Burns was shot by a soldier on the falls road at eight. PM, as he stood with a friend who was boarding up the windows of his store. When his sister came to pick up his body. She was told he had no business being on the street at that time. At Eleven PM. An elderly man named Patrick Elleman. thinking the worst was over went out at his bedrooms. The present shirtsleeves for pre bedtime stroll. He died in a burst of army gunfire. One of the neighborhood accounts of the curfew says of elements death. That very night British troops. Entered and quoted themselves in the shot man's home, the distraught sister having been moved to the other butters up the street. This tasteless intrusion into the abandoned was discovered the next afternoon during the interval and the curfew. When the brother with his daughter and son-in-law went down to the house, and found the door broken down a window, broken kit, lying on the floor, shading tackle on the city and used cups scullery. Neighbors inform them. The soldiers had dust down in the upstairs rooms as well. Adore broken down. A window broken. And dirty dishes left to sink. Ladies and Wolf believed that all the counts are rules and rational principles. But what actually matters of the hundreds of small things at the powerful do or don't do to establish the legitimacy. Like sleeping in the bed of innocent man, you just shot accidentally and scattering your belongings around his house. By Sunday morning. The situation inside the lower falls was growing desperate. The lower falls was not a wealthy neighborhood. Many of the adults were unemployed or if they were not relied on piece work. The streets were crowded, and the homes were narrow, cheaply built nineteenth century, terraced red brick row houses with one room to a floor and bathrooms in the backyard. Very few houses had a refrigerator. They were dark and damp. People bought Brad daily because it grew moly otherwise. But the curfew was now thirty six hours old, and there was no bread left. The Catholic neighborhoods of west Belfast are packed so tightly together and linked by so many ties of marriage in blood that word spread quickly from one to the next about the plight of the lower falls. Harriet Carson walked through ballymurphy. Banging together the lids pots. Next came a woman named Mary Drum. She had a bullhorn. She began walking to the streets. Shouting out to the women. Come Out, fill your programs with bread and milk. The children haven't gotten any food. The women's started to gathering groups of two and four and ten and twenty until they numbered in the thousands. Some people still had their roles in their hair, and their scarves over their head, lawler remembers we linked arms and sang. We shall overcome. We shall overcome someday. We got down to the bottom of the hill she went on the atmosphere was electric. The Brits were standing with their helmets and their guns already. Debutants batons were out, we turned went down the Grosvenor road, singing and shouting, I think the Brits were in awe. They couldn't believe that these women with prams were coming down to take them on. I remember seeing one, but standing there scratching his head going. What do we do with all these women? Do we go into riots situation here? Then, we turned onto slate street with a school was my school. And the Brits were there. They come flying out of the school and there was hand to hand fighting. We got the hair pull out of us. The Brits grabbed us through us up against the walls. Oh I, they beat us like and if you fell you to get up very quickly because you didn't want to get trampled. They came out with brutality. Are member standing on top of a car and having a look at what was going on in the front, then I saw a man with shaving cream on his face and putting his braces on. An all of a sudden, the soldiers stop beating us. The man putting his braces on was the commanding officer of the Slate Street checkpoint. Might have been the only voice of Sanity on the British side that day, the only one who understood the full dimensions of the catastrophe unfolding. A heavily-armed group of soldiers was beating up a group of Pram pushing women coming to feed the children of the lower, falls. He told his men to stop. You have to understand. The march was still coming down the road and the people. The back hadn't a clue what was going on at the front. Lawler went on. They kept coming. Women were crying. People started coming out of their houses, pulling people in because there were so many injured once all the people started coming out of their houses. The Brits Loss Control. Everyone came out on the streets, hundreds and hundreds of people. It was like a domino effect. One St that come out next thing you know. Doors are opening on another street, another street and another street. The Brits gave up. They had their hands up. The women forced and we forced him. We forced until we got in a Magadan and we broke the curfew. I've often thought about God. It was like everybody was jubilant. It was like we did it. I remember coming home, and suddenly felt very shaky and upset and nervous about the whole episode. Do you know? I remember speaking to my father about it afterward. I said Daddy your words came true. They turned on us and he said True British Army. That's what they do. He was right. They turned on us. And that was the start of it.

Belfast Rosemary lawler British army Northern Ireland Wolf Ireland David Ballymurphy Malcolm Stella army General Freeland officer Ireland British Raj Harriet Carson United States
Introducing Cautionary Tales

The Secret History of the Future

37:09 min | 9 months ago

Introducing Cautionary Tales

"Hey secret history fans this is Stevenson with an episode. We think you might like learning from our mistakes can be hard learning from other people's mistakes. Well that's a a lot more fun. In cautionary tales from Pushkin Industries economist and journalist. Tim Harford retails true. Stories of unexpected outcomes from the development of tanks in modern warfare to the accidental crowning of lowland at the two thousand Seventeen Oscars. Some of these tales are tragic some comic but like the Great Fables and parables. Each has immoral. Tim Takes you aboard. Doomed airship sits you on a concert stage in front of a broken piano and puts you in a room with cult members counting down the final seconds before the end the world a cast of actors joins him and telling me stories. You'll hear the famous Alan Cumming Archie Punjabi who won an Emmy Award for the good wife and Russell tovy from the history. Boys Cautionary Tales from Pushkin Industries. Subscribe wherever you get your podcasts. Trust be it would be a mistake not to as the night draws in and the fire blazes on behalf. We Will the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the path but my stories for the education of the GROWNUPS. GROWNUPS and my story is all true. Tim Harford Gavitt close. And listen to my cautionary tales angles along August Grist nineteen sixteen the Western Front. In the first World War the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five five hundred miles across France and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine. Guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side side to advance the Noble Cavalry long the most celebrated force in the army utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers. That brought picnics. Emma waiting patiently for a demonstration of Agra marketable invention it was pleasantly warm day and a quiet quiet spot if you tuned out the artillery of the Psalm battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon then. Another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon armour-plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting when slowly came into sight. The first I tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful lines lozenge shaped but with too clumsy looking wheels behind it. That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in our story. He's thirty seven a small roll man with a neatly trimmed moustache. His hairline is retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his hand. He could pass for a Buckler in a costume. Assume drama but beneath the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago he'd been friends with the notorious. Torius occultist Alister Crowley Crowley called himself. A wizard one newspaper called him. The wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed walks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest first thing about the life and the fate of J F C Fuller Fuller sees instantly this new machine. The tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war of how to cross MoD and trenches and barbed wire against Storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas. But the tank will do the job. Bob And J. F C fuller concede that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown x in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people to see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem problem. You're listening to another cautionary tale The British officer class simply adored and more traditional way of waging war one involving stirrups and swords and big beautiful horses. He is one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank. Thank look into the face of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine you will see in the letter or I might almost cooler lack of intelligence you keep up the high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse. If major fuller was going to persuade the British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle. At least he managed to get himself in the right place. He applied applied to transfer to the newly formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper? An order to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines. Sheen's that was the easy bit fuller soon. Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line new faster tanks were being designed they could roll all across the trenches and be on the German command posts in an hour. Full as attack would come from nowhere. `support would disrupt German road and rail title travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in a single battle but the war ended. Anyway before fuller's astonishing idea. It could be tested. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much of Europe. In a matter of weeks J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army. Me had wasted his idea. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes hose of it have been repeated again and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in one thousand nine hundred. Seventy the the photocopying giant Xerox established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox. Parc developed the modern personal computer an achievement. Steve -ment which Bill Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in nineteen seventy five a twenty four year. Old Engineer named Steve Sassan built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What's strange is that Steve Sassan was working for Kodak in Nineteen Ninety nine? Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to Celine Dion Ole succeeded needed in doing was paving the way for apple's ipod and back in one thousand nine hundred eighteen. The British had the best tanks in the world hold a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The the British had conceded technical and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so so often you have to ask yourself? If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer the digital camera the ipod. Why why do some ideas slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of upstarts J F C Fuller wants began on an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you in a leading position racehorses? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations stations. Do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory they slow down and allow others to overtake them. A glimpse of what fuller was up against consider. Take the battle of Cambrai late in nineteen seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks into lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour but that was fast enough. They swept wept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches on chignons fi incessantly guys phone connected it. Fires added but he must meet all efforts to stop six tanks ineffective. They can't do nothing against him without exaggeration and some of the German infantry seem to be off the heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea. The situation there was no chain of command and no orders. It was a stunning TAXCO success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened should be exploited. The cavalry a great deal of clattering galloping and shouting and a lot of our medieval able whole soldiers came charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault the opportunity was wasted and not just the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of with the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it so nearly been achieved? Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank think at the right time at the right place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before before the gun smoke had cleared. He was scribbling away furiously his desk at tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be don next. Those scribblings would over the following months become plan nineteen nineteen. He understood that the success at Cambrai Cambrai was just a glimpse of what might be possible. The British High Command did not. There were several explanations. The Nation's for these missed opportunities but most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people idiots Lau can get back to some veal L. soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle. Gell had been a frivolous distraction from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year. After the war had ended fuller's essay. Say the one that begins with a reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. What have you done next year? He wrote another strategically Visionary Essay. This time overturning. The ideas as of naval warfare and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing as a soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. Aw Alvarez were not amused. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The the army also blocked publication of full as books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Old Montgomery massing bird didn't read full as most celebrated book only annoy me he was spotted to the threat of Nazi militarization by by increasing the amount spent on Hay and other food for horses by a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Offices says would get a horse to as I say people idiots and it's not just the British army who seemed guilty of idiocy. When Steve Jobs visited Xerox Parc in Nineteen seventy-nine he couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface? For the first. This time. Why aren't you doing this? This is the greatest thing. This is revolutionary if jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars. He might well have said the same thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. Look how is it. There's a corporation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was is Kodak. Really run by idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties now. These organizations stumbled for for a reason management theorists. Have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they refer to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful shorter fail but why don't organizations adapt after all they usually have the resources the experience and the reputation to Outpace any upstarts Kodak did so did Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more horses more. Hey We've already explored the idiot hypothesis but there is a different theory of what goes wrong. Hits it's a famous theory too. In management circles. It comes from Clayton Christensen of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators. Innovators Dilemma told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are floored or underdeveloped up to I said they don't appeal to existing customers but they find niches and slowly they improve while incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day. The new technology is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants. Christians disruption theory is an elegant one but there are plenty of examples. That just don't fit think about why Xerox didn't exploit that cutting edge research xerox PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface or a low end competitor to the photocopier. They aren't that from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below. Hello and Kodak not only developed the digital camera and made a good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations were slow to see the change coming thing they often saw earlier than anyone else. What lay ahead yet? They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British Army Army hadn't noticed the tank. The British were well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's his theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we want to understand why the British army lost its advantage contigent tank warfare cautionary tale needs a new hearing in nineteen ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published. An article let presented a different view of why it's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring one organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that these organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well at a different type of organization? No matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that already exists the dominant organization of. Yesterday has a good chums of being the dominant organization. Shen of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. IBM The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. IBM Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those his decades everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room. uh-huh sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical Hanikos tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties but then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough and cheap enough. That that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists and even parents now. IBM faced very different challenge. They had a corporate corporate army ready to negotiate. multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What are they supposed to do when a computer became Amo household appliance something more like a blender? IBM Did create a strong business in personal computers. But the business was openly aggravating the rest of the organization bypassing IBM's Distribution Division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit and what had flummoxed IBM was not the pace of technological change it had been dealing with technological change just fine and for more than half a century. IBM's problem was that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca Henderson calls this sort of technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation Russian demands and new organizational structure which means that old organizations face an up hill struggle. Those organizations may have have changed the world but when they're forced to change themselves. That's a hard challenge before the first world. War Armies had been organized for centuries around cavalry and infantry the mounted troops offered mobility the foot soldiers this strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively three new technologies artillery barbed wire and the machine gun shaped shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything everything that is except the way armies were organized and that that was because the army's didn't need to change barbed wire and machine. Gums were used to reinforce. Infantry positions the big guns of the Artillery Lori could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. The old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks wchs clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability not to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability not entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument like whether a tomato is a vegetable or a fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened again and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane. Should it be run by. The air. Force is immoral navy thing or is its role to support the tanks. Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem seem like silly questions. But they aren't that fundamental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone someone in the organization organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank. Warfare has been grafted onto a system. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities it should be in a new kind of unit. Infantry will become I a subsidiary and later useless arm on all ground over which tanks thanks can move. The army of the last war was pot bellied and pay brained that was J.. AFC Fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as grab for Power Howie and resources within the Army a new tank regiment would have no allies and no historical tradition so an alternative was was to place. The tanks with cavalry regiments as the Modern Mobile Strike Force. That made some sense to and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around the concept of mobility. They were organized around horses. The Cavalry Officer loved his horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and caring for the horses. Why should he welcome the usurper tank? It's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons and they're big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses. But the more more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really fundamental Xerox Parc developed over assembled most of the features of a user friendly personal computer that Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market such a computer. Xerox did much better. When Park? Developed the laser printer the laser printer was like artillery. The machine gun PHYSI- rocks. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. Hank one challenge could easily be met. The other was insurmountable the politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a a painful organizational overhaul. It's a task that needs skillful. Diplomacy J F C fuller was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers since before. The tank existed for example at the start of the Great War. A British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counterattacks hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England. He told major fuller to sort it out for some sign stating sheep. It must not use this road sir. What if the less well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too phone foam of his own cleverness? Remember it was fuller who had clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks for lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had worn a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays but his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army's commanders. Well he testified in front of a committee of senior officers. How many hours a day can attend run? Thus far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet. Without a sturdy opposition it is most host difficult to explode deep-rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue with a stupid person was to tell him into his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right about that. People could see that full is smart creative. Perhaps even brilliant plant but nobody had a higher opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. I told you hit being a disciple of the country's most infamous magician alister Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic he was. It's such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album. After a while he and fuller fell out they can still hear. Echoes of the strange spiritualist beliefs in full as arguments even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare with the future. I saw a fleet operating against fleet not at sea land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and I notice that is in difficulty. It cannot see there appears. Here's an aeroplane and gives site astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force in December nineteen. Twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison awesome that would mean taking responsibility for managing people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any architectural innovation he balked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other all the duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for mechanized warfare eventually fuller threatened and to resign. The position was awarded to someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like hard work even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see furloughs petulance was to cost him and the British army dearly. This has been a story. About how J. F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Full is part in. It will soon be coming to a painful end but there is another side to this tragic tale. A story of how other organizations seem to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman the Digital Camera Hamra and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony Kodak found found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals seem to find it so easy? The answer is that it sometimes easier to to build an organization from the ground up than to disassemble and reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the first world. War All all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks were strictly forbidden and the British army had been victorious. And it's hard to really organize a victorious organization. The Germans had no organization organization to get in the way no status quo to defend. German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts asked were writing they also closely watched British experiments with the tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in nineteen thirty three and dramatically expanded the German army secretly at first he encountered a German military? That had been preparing for tank warfare for fourteen years early in nineteen thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday. With a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see for three hours a completely mechanized and motorized army raw past the fewer. Yes J F C Fuller. was there. Indeed he was a guest of honor at Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army bitterness and frustration station it turned to fascism supporting authoritarian antisemitic parties both in Britain and overseas. And of course he felt that there was worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That of Adolf Hitler After the parade Major General Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. Uh The fuhrer grasped fuller's hand Eric Hoffer Savon Mitt. AIDEN kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Different Your Excellency. They have grown up so quickly that I no longer recognize them. In one thousand nine hundred seventeen fuller had been planning planning the defeat of the German army in one thousand nine hundred eighty nine. He was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail L. of history. Oh and that piece of flattery that fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore. It wasn't really true was it. He'd been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Holland France. A French pilot called Sant Exupery flew over the battlefield title field. If you recognize the name then yes it's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery. Describe what happened to the French. French and British armies czyz Hamad Lados bling accountable consequences. Ease Taylor crazy. have blitzed anatomy Ms Stihler intact but he does cease to be an will once. It was an organism nauseous meal. Niu New quantity of disconnected cells. COMPARE THAT TO J F C fuller explanation without an active and directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands Evelyn's and just forty six days sending their battered British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. AFC Fuller that brilliant bitter strange little man seen it all coming. You've been listening to cautionary tales and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies a have witnessed entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Tim Halford. Our producers are Ryan Dilly and Marilyn Rust. The sound design and mixer was Pascal Wise. who also composed the amazing music? Starring in this season are Allen. Coming Archie penjab Toby Stevens and Russell tovy alongside. Enzo Chilean at Gordon. Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus right and introducing Malcolm blackmail. Thanks to the team. At Pushkin Industry's Julia Baton Have Fain Mia Lebel Collie me Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm Rodwell and thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times.

Fuller Fuller British army army Xerox German army Adolf Hitler IBM tank corps Infantry British Army Army French army Eastman Kodak Sony gold medal Xerox Parc J F C Tim Tim Halford
#50 The best street camera? Really?

Photography Daily

15:44 min | Last month

#50 The best street camera? Really?

"Photography daily today we do a little Kit Talkin, Gary Tyson former British army photographer suggest something wasn't quite expecting for street photography. Best camera you can buy. into our people's a Fujian stacks. Then you can give them an image directly. So you actually not just taking taking you give them an image. Hello, how are you? This Monday, hello, to friends of all genres, professional and amateur like if you were shooting this weekend, let me know where you were. And what was before your eye piece? A thank you to the stores. Feedback in the conversation. Starters you being any into the show which we've been using the Friday photo walks of course so all your photo experiences are really appreciated. Please keep sending them into studio at Photography daily Dot Show. This one arrived too late for the photo will but I did want to include it seeing it refers to something I'm about to mention. Hulo nil I've just started listening to the podcast and wanted to share an anxiety have getting back into work I'm a portrait photographer and this week sees the restart of my business taking headshots. It's hand sanitizer Mark Etiquette. How many assistance in room and cleaning down of Chas between shoots? Nobody's mentioned anything about the actual photography. In terms of what's creatively needed, it's Solis and I find that a bit of a challenge regards Roja made Balraj. Balraj between you and I I'm doing a little nervy. Come down actually I, have a wedding the weekend, and is not that I feel rusty in any way, but not do feel a tad well well, not anxious, not in terms of my ability to make two graphs short, nearly nine hundred of them so light riding a bike I'll be back in the saddle. No need for stabilizes, but my do fill a little on edge. There's A. A whole set of rules of know how to work with before. Let's take the church. I write an article for Photography magazine a good few years back and I titled It, Everyone's welcome in the house of the nude. Except the photographer one nail thought to the photographer, and though I, congratulated myself as such a witty truism, it was a facet of shooting weddings that stated constant show you meet. Ministers are only too happy to help on. On one or two, even positively encourage photography, but not many for the most, it was the almighty, clatter of the shutterbugs mechanism that was the perfect excuse not to have you anywhere near the action either Vattel they fear being some been biomet hammerhead flash gum, so nope pictures sunny go instead of the church out one point two piece, then high India's laws came along, and you could shoot with a damp and shuttle mechanism practically the dog. So. What was the next excuse? People are looking at you. Mr Photographer, not the couple as much as Daphne and Roger. The questions yeah. I thought so. No No, no, you're cameras to large. Yes, you look professional. Yeah, that's the idea. NOPE judge, please to one to the judge, and then the door of the small meritless, all excuses gone, and I promised a crouch behind a large floral display. Lucky. Ninja. You won't see me Vika Alison. You suddenly want him. tool that seemed to work until covid. This coming Saturday a new excuse, but it is for once I guess legal or moral one. At least you can't be because you'll taking the place of a guest make your shot then go and sit in a graveyard three two to the church with deep into extra time, and it looks like it's game over. What can you do on the other photography podcast I present which is out today so if you haven't heard it. It after this feel free to go. Look up the Fuji Cost Cross promotion lives there, too. We clearly have well not so much an agenda, but a propensity of course talk about a certain flavor of Kit meritless Kit Kit. The starts with the letter F and today's guest is now a murals Fuji shooter. Though that's a coincidence, knew of him through a good friend. This is a catch up really about his photography business in. And chew the fat as they say about kids and a few other areas Gary Tyson's a commercial photographer based in Manila Liza camera brand ambassador, which by Quirk Boundaries, and despite his Philippines, fulltime address is tied to a Hong Kong office. He runs workshops for photographers wishing to travel to that photo rich exciting continent, though it's of course closed business right now. He was an army photographer and a very good one, and since we've been talking kids. I'm intrigued to know what the British Army Photographic Lee considered standard issue. What did Casket Gresham? What? What did you use in the army? which brand because I know the army nickel they is? Is it only con in the Army I? Think still is now and when I was in the army was all Nikon still. And for video I was actually season cannon when I was doing some of the jobs. It's I think it's still nickel lamented like any photographer there probably tied in with all the lenses right the. But. Lenses Don and that was why I was intrigued. Because you learn with the army's, it's a trustee kitten. Difficult places pretty pretty hard on kit. Some of these places you've been to as well a those on imagine changing. You were working wasn't a flippant decision. Yeah, so when I I'm a gear head to be honest so when I when I first moved to Hong Kong that point the cannon fight. The was the only full frame digital camera so I'd been used in the Nikon d two x I think. I think D to x unfamiliar. Crop sensibilities. Yes, it was yeah. I was using that so anyway. Tom Call over, say to handle that kid back much to my dismay. No freebies so when I got home. Call, I bought a full cannon, a suite of equipment, and also doing the video works in the Canon five days and successes were quite useful for that they were the main ones that portal to the four then I. go into I used Fuji for a while because the street photography so start to use the smaller food for that have been less in your face. Kinda thing I got into like for a while while for many years until I run out of money. Spend everything on like an old lenses and just horrible addiction that was and then I went back to Fuji spent another couple of years shooting on phase one which. was very expensive to a high high end medium format and then. I ended up with G affects somewhere down the line, and that's how I got involved with the Fuji Guys in Hong Kong. So I kind of exclusively used food, G. Four, my travel and portraiture, and then for my sports work I use all Sony War absolutely is we've talked with army photographers before one, and the the sometimes that quite loath to describe themselves as combat photographers. They say well just to be a photographer INA combat zone, but but you very much described as a combat photographer is. Is there a difference Gary? NY! Let I think so. It's like most most good photographers I've met like who and not military, wherever the quite humble not a big Fan of talk. I would like to play the trumpet too much and just be like Oh look at myself. summating I find that really repulsive, and I find when I speak to people about military photography. The first thing everyone asks is oh. How many people did you kill? or how many photos of dead people did you take all this kind of stuff? We've been to a lot of places and seen many bad things, and all the rest of it, but asto see as a just a photographer who's in the army working in those combat camera, and it's called the Combat Cameron, which sounds great is GonNa yes nice win in the pop and you call it. That sounds great, but it's not something. We really glamorize too much something slim if that makes sense from understanding really with combat crews, and you have to be exceptionally good, an exceptionally good people person. You almost turned. Turned into a into a PR photographer in some respects note you'll take images that are going to be used for L. Pepsi's, but but you very much face oviously of the army food even meet the army sometimes. Yeah I I think that's a that's a trait that goes along with any photographer who works in industry, or in news or journalism, or if you're a people, Talk I. Mean My my favorite thing to photograph as people portraiture, you know when I go back to the workshops when we teach that style of photography. Photography? I, tell people it's a five percent of their is about how you communicate with people how you interact with people how you present yourself to gain their trust and I think that applies whether you're in the military in the middle of Afghanistan or Iraq some somewhere or whether you're in the streets of Manila talking to strangers or wherever you are in the mid London. Say how you approach people and how you'll perceived is going to either give you access. We'll get you in trouble so I think you know being A. A good people, person or trying to have empathy with your subjects is very important skill trying to get some people just don't don't have it. Some people can't get it. You know took photography workshops are Amazing Wildlife Talkfest for example, absolutely amazing, but they really don't enjoy interacting with people, and that's no big thing. It's just like okay, so you're more into this. What nuts you recognize that you've tried it and you more into that, so that's fine, but you can't force it nephew not if you're not a good at. With people might have some issues in any industry where you have to deal with people, I think I good street photography is not necessarily about standing and somehow snapping a picture without people being aware often, you are actually interacting with people whilst you take the shots I saw a wonderful thing of dome McCowan doing just exactly that that he would he would, he would actually meet their I on the it almost beckon some permission, sometimes and he was extremely humble about that. It's it's a whole of you could talk for hours about these. purists say what street photography is, and isn't and all the rest of it and I've had countless arguments and discussions about what isn't wasn't and people were saying to me Oh? You took a poll trade. The guys looking at the camera. You know that's not streep taller whatever it's like I'm very choke the sometimes I like. Like to go out and just take very candidate stuff and I love looking at that stuff is wow, it's gray, and especially, when it's humorous aspect, but I'm very much into the whole thing of interacting as well when trying to get behind that mask and trying to get the permission, and all the rest of it so for me, it's not really photography street. Is this photography right? and. It might very much depend on my mood. If I'm in a grumpy mood, I'll just go out and take stuff without permission quietly from bit more a distance of the days all engaged people and taking a very different style, sometimes leaving, take lights and South Lights, and do portrait industry with lights like make it like a studio to. Just dependence does that draw people into you then. That's sort of human. Intrigue what's going on there? I WANNA be a pound of that very much, so yeah I mean we used to do a lot in Hong Kong for Halloween. Because they're big street politics, so we would take a lie in the backdrop the police I like what you did. And once they saw it would get pictures with a place. An left it, and we always have the Fujian stacks. Probably I always joked people. It's the people say to me I'll use the big expensive cameras and right now the best camera you can buy a few one inter. Our people's Fuji Instincts his. Then you can give them an image directly, so you're actually not just taking taking you give them an image, and then that keeps you access, 'cause you're giving back a physical thing. and I find no matter where I my insects goes everywhere and that I find is better than trying to buy permission or is really cool thing to do, so we do that with the. The Lights, and then we give them that, and it's like friends for life and I've met people go to Cambodia three years later, and somebody comes running out of a little hot in the middle of the countryside with this picture of gave him years before pressed against that chest, shutting it in pristine condition and traffic is almost brings you to tears. It's I really really love it so I think that's a probably topped anyone doing travelers get yourself in stacks. Give people prints. Are you talking about the tax printer or the actual camera? I mean I've got the little prince not take around with me. Sometimes I have. Either all I have. I have one of the insects cameras where you can select which ones you print. Common name of it, so the old the old ones everything was printed. So you Kinda get a lot of wastage. The newer ones you can select which wants to print, you can even edit them on the back in the screen before you print them, which is pretty much the same as the little printed us. What a great bit of advice I'm just finally. We've been talking a lot about this assumes on the. The show of late where photographers Gary May need to think about embracing more than just one genre to pull themselves out of this drought world your. Commercial, your sport your Portray Street travel your event I mean I've see weddings in there as well. How important do you think it is? Is that that breadth of work to a photographer now to to move forward? Yeah, I think everybody's got to remain flexible. Open minded. We cover like you said a lot stronger of subject matter from sports and allow bake. PA, the money I earn is also through video, editing and video shooting, and luckily I have a network of guys based in Hong here in the Philippines and back in the UK, where I can get people to go and shoot events and do the edits myself. So in I'm actually doing a big project at the moment for little from Hong Kong Singapore and Germany where I'm editing the video here at home, which works perfect. So yeah, we all need to really think very long and hard about how we come out this. People who won't ponies have just you know just one thing they do weddings. For example, the might struggle I guess in the immediate future. At least who knows cemented we just nobody knows is really scary time for all of us. It is. It's interesting that you're actually editing work for other people that you you've you've. Have you commissioner these or or actually? They've already been commissioned, but your freelance editor instead of such data matter massive strength Boettger. Isn't it yeah I? Mean some projects are like that? I just did one a few days ago. For IBM which walls. They just asked me to edit some. Some video messages that shot four Kobe nineteen for the staff so I get to it. Put make it a little bit more sexy so that they can publish shale near service, so that was where I just at somebody, else's work Gary Tyson in Manila Mall. It's only Monday, but I want to mention this Saturday's access Larry's interview with Daniel. Milner Dan to his photographic friends. It said. Isn't it that there's a book in every one of us so many of our cases that may well be a photographic book. Some thrilled that we have done to guide us through some creative ideas about that book. That's the so called book evangelist for Blurb Books Accompanying. I've used many times for work on personal projects. He's well placed to talk on the subject of self publishing. Though equally, he's a photographer. Many years experience in photo journalism. Seems Book publishing came along just the right time. Though is it was a direction a career? He was about to leave. Dan's Photography Story Journalism Story Publishing Story and personal story this weekend. If you'd like to hear that and support the growth of this bold daily photography pocus projects then join us by visiting the website www dot photography daily dot show forward slash more, and that's it for Monday. Keep sending in your questions or feedback on any of the episode so I can read an inspired during the Friday photo conditions send to studio photography daily Dot Show be! Be Sure to visit the website for links on what you hear, and if you can help, share the show as podcast play reviews of very helpful as are all share Z., making social media like twitter music in the show from outlets dot I, O on it for to photograph in with you hearing from you and talking with you tomorrow. Photography daily is a loading zone production.

Hong Kong army Gary Tyson British army Balraj Fuji Manila Photography magazine Fujian Mr Photographer Nikon Philippines Milner Dan India NY Solis Roja Gary May Vika Alison
ARP160 Paoli Massacre & Fall of Philadelphia

American Revolution Podcast

29:44 min | Last month

ARP160 Paoli Massacre & Fall of Philadelphia

"Thank you for joining the American Revolution Today episode one, Sixty, the Paoli massacre and the fall of Philadelphia. Last week follow the Continental Army as it crosses the Schuylkill River and deployed along what was then the eastern border of Philadelphia awaiting the British Army's final push to take the city the British General Howe had defeated general Washington at Brandy wine and after the rain out battle of the clouds, how faced virtually no military opposition as his army advanced on Philadelphia. General although seemed in no particular hurry to enter the city. After the battle of brandy wine, the bulk of his army remained in camp for five days. After learning that the continentals were advancing toward him how finally marched out his army to do battle only to see the continentals withdraw under a heavy thunderstorm. The. British. Then advanced northward but made no attempt to cross the Schuylkill River and enter the city. On September Eighteenth Colonel Hamilton warned Congress that the British could be in Philadelphia that very night. Hamilton's letter and the warnings of other officers set off a panic within the city. The President of the Continental Congress John Hancock reportedly passed along the alarm to the rest of Congress. Then loaded everything he could into a collection of wagons and carriages. Ed left the city at three. AM The next morning. Most other delegates did much the same. Two days later, the expected arrival of the British army in Philadelphia was still well, just an expectation. The British army camped patiently along the West Bank of the Schuylkill River. On September twenty first John Adams, who had fled to Trenton New Jersey. wrote in his diary. It was a false alarm which occasioned our flight from Philadelphia. Not, a soldier of House has crossed the Schuylkill. Adams went onto to speculate that general. How would wait for his brother Admiral Richard How to sail the British navy up the Delaware River before entering the city Instead the British were moving further upstream along the Schuylkill in an apparent attempt to flank the continentals as they had done on the brandy wine. Washington also moved his army further upstream to contest any crossing and prevent just such a flanking maneuver. To further vexed the British Washington deployed divisions of soldiers on the West Bank and behind enemy lines. One division was a force of about fifteen hundred soldiers under the command of general. Anthony Wayne. General William Maxwell commanded a second force working in cooperation with Pennsylvania Militia General James Potts. The goal of these units was to keep a low profile in the enemy's rear. Then harass and attack the enemy when the opportunity presented itself. General Washington also ordered General William Smallwood to bring his Maryland regiments and attack the enemy rear well. Smallwood had been in Baltimore when the British landed in. Northern Maryland. In the following weeks, he had mustard more Maryland soldiers and marched them north toward the rear of House army. A Washington anticipated that these actions would be similar to the hit and run raids of the forage war that they had conducted New Jersey, the previous winter, and spring. Those actions had left the British frustrated and distracted. It also had kept the British army pretty well isolated in New York City. Washington hoped these new groups of opportunistic hit and run raiders would similarly leave the British army frustrated and distracted and hopefully isolated. Even if they took Philadelphia. Each of these divisions had a large contingent of fifteen hundred, two thousand soldiers as well as a few cannons. Small Woods Division had marched to Salads Berry township which was probably still about a day's march from the main British force. Generals Maxwell and pots had deployed out near Valley forge north of the main British force and ready to pounce on the British left flank if it tried to cross the Schuylkill. General Wayne deployed near Paoli tavern just a few miles south of the main British army and was prepared to tack the British Right. Flank. Unsustainable. Nineteenth British outposts at valley forge came under attack from General Maxwell soldiers. How sent General Cornwallis with two Grenadier Battalions and a Light Infantry Battalion to engage the enemy and reinforced the outpost at Valley Forge. By the time Cornwallis arrived there were no enemy soldiers to engage. He did report that he could see elements of Washington's army across the. Schuylkill. River. In the hills dotting the eastern bank of the river. Maxwell's and potters men had been tasked with harassing the enemy but avoiding a large direct engagement. As during the forage war, they would attack outposts when they had the opportunity, but then fade away when the larger armies marched out to engage them. To the South General. Wayne saw Cornwallis troops on the march toward valley forge and thought that the British might have been alerted to his presence. He moved his soldiers a few miles away into some hills that provided more protection. The British had detected the American movements and received intelligence from local Tories that these men were under the command of General Wayne. General Wayne. Of course was born and raised in Chester County and was well known to the locals. The British deployed a brigade of light infantry along with Ferguson's riflemen to launch a surprise raid. However, Wayne's pickets learned the main force to the British approach. The continentals retreated before the British could engage them and the British did not want to pursue them into the hills. The following day, the British intercepted a letter from. Washington to Wayne confirming that Wayne was in command of a force in their rear. Wayne was staying a few miles from the British. Camp close enough to keep tabs on them but able to slip away again if the British attacked in force. Wayne's hope was the general woods. Marylanders would link up with his force and that a combined force of about thirty five hundred good attacked the British rear when they tried to cross the river and advance on Philadelphia. The British army opted to dispatch Wayne's small and isolated force before it could become a bigger problem for them. How tasked Major General, Charles Grey to lead the attack. General Cray deserves a brief introduction here. He was born in seventeen twenty, nine to the first baronet of Hardwick. Because Charles was the fourth son he was not in line to inherit lands or title. So Dad thought he should have a career in the military. At Age Fourteen his family purchased an instance commission for him in the regular. Army. Young Charles then travelled to Scotland in time to be part of the British massacre of the Scots at Colloton as one of his earliest military experiences. During the seven years' war gray served as an aide to the Duke of Brunswick. He was wounded at the battle of Mendon and again in another battle a few months later. He continued in active service though. Participating in several more European battles as well as the invasion of Cuba. By the end of the war he had risen to lieutenant colonel. The end of the seven years' war also saw the end of active service for Colonel Gray who had to go on half pay. Fortunately, family money and connections kept him living the life of a proper English gentleman. A few years later in seventeen, seventy two, he received a promotion to full colonel and served as a decamp to King George the third. When the king sent general how to capture New York in Seventeen, seventy six. Gray went along and within a year had risen to the rank of major general, most recently serving as brigade commander at the battle of Brandy wine? For, the present mission General Grey had to dispatch the American forces in the British rear. Otherwise General, how could not cross the Schuylkill without fear of an attack from both sides. In order to surprise the Americans who seem to run away whenever they saw the British advancing on their position gray ordered his forces that were camped at different to march out for a nighttime raid. After dark on the twentieth. Twelve, hundred men from the Second Light Infantry Brigade along with two regiments of regulars and Ferguson's rifles marched out of camp in search of the enemy. Geno gray however was not interested in rifle-fire or musket fire. For that matter he ordered all of his soldiers to keep their guns unloaded and were actually ordered them to remove the flints to prevent any firing. He wanted a silent attack and the use of the bayonet against. Enemy. Grey's Brigade. Moved out into the night knowing that Wayne's force was in the area but not knowing their exact position. As they got closer, grey's officers were able to compel a local to give up Wayne's location nearby. Sometime shortly after midnight, the British ran into continental camp pickets and dispatch them with their bayonets. The pickets however did have time to alert the camp which began to form into lines. Before. They could get organized the British Light Infantry charged into the camps and bayoneted everyone they could find. A some Americans tried to mount a brief defence officers attempted to form their men into lines, but the British light infantry was on top of them before most could properly react. Without sufficient time to. A defense, the surviving Americans fled into the woods. The, British set the cap on fire again bayoneted any soldier that tried to escape from burning ten. The same darkness that gave the British cover in their advance also gave the Americans cover in their retreat. Wayne was able to escape and bring with him the artillery and some of his wagons. Several others however fell into enemy hands. American accounts of the attack said that British soldiers mercilessly ban at an. Added and those trying to surrender. In truth though the British did capture at least seventy or eighty prisoners. About half of whom were seriously wounded. Estimates of Americans killed range from about fifty three to one hundred twenty. Although that higher estimate, almost certainly include some wounded who died after the fact. The burnish reported only five killed and seven wounded among the attackers. During the attack on Wayne's division general. Two Thousand Marylanders were camped only about a mile away. They heard the battle as it erupted. Had they marched to the aid of Wayne's brigade? They would have outnumbered the British considerably. However. These were mostly inexperienced newly recruited soldiers. Instead of organizing a counterattack, most of them fled into the woods themselves never engaging with the enemy. Half of small woods forced deserted that night and returned home to Maryland the British considered the raid a great victory. General Grey got the nickname, Charles no flint's gray for his command to remove the flints from their guns before the battle. He would continue on in the war with his reputation enhanced and we'll hear more about his later exploits in future episodes. A, most of the surviving continentals were able to cross the river and join up with the rest of Washington's main force. General Wayne took much the blame for the loss. Several accusers including some of Wayne's officers accused Wayne. Deploy sufficient camp guards to warn of the attack. There was no time to hear these accusations for the next few weeks. But in October the army assembled a court martial to question whether Wayne was guilty of neglect of duty. Wayne's defense laid out that he was well aware of the possibility of an attack based on a civilian tip. He had increased pickets and taken other precautions. Wayne intern than accused of his subordinates and accusers, Colonel Richard Hampton of failing to react quickly enough to the attack and mount a proper defense. In the end, the court martial acquitted General Wayne and did not seek to pin blame for the success of the attack on anyone else. Having, dispatched the enemy in their rear the British prepared to advance once again. How move various divisions further up the Schuylkill river toward reading. From that movement, he could either attack the depot at reading or across the river further upstream and then descend on Washington's flag just as he had done at brandy wine. Washington was determined not to let that happen. He kept his own army moving upstream to confront the British wherever they attempted to cross. As Washington moved upstream to block house next movement. I'll simply turned his army around slipped back downstream and crossed the river at the fords that Washington had just abandoned. Only a few local militia. Fords. And they turned and ran at the first sight of the British advance. With the continentals out of position, there was nothing to prevent the British from. Philadelphia. How crossed his army on the night of September twenty second and the morning of September twenty third. He marched his army to a camp in Norristown. which is a little less than twenty miles north west of Philadelphia. He was now between the continental army and the city. How spent the next day in camp neither attacking Washington's continentals nor into the city His army plundered and burned the homes of known rebels. Many locals fled with whatever they could carry but other locals greeted the army as liberators. A great number of area loyalists had remained silent for years for fear of incurring the wrath of Patriots. These families. Saw The British a saviors returning law and order to the region. The next day. The British marched to Germantown which is today part of the city of Philadelphia. But at the time was still a few miles outside the city limits. As you might guess from the name, most of the population of this area were German speaking colonists. Even. So the German speaking Hessian, soldiers found the local population rather hostile to them. Most of the inhabitants were members of a pacifist religious sect that had immigrated from the Palatine region of what is today Germany. They had hoped to escape the continual warfare of many of their neighbors including Hesse. Many of them saw this as a return of the military oppression that they had tried to leave behind in Europe. Because they were pacifists and most of them did not take up arms against the occupiers. But they also did not see them as liberators and met them with a cold hostility. General Hell Pause to see if the continentals would attempt some sort of desperate counter-attack to defend the city. When that did not happen how left the bulk of his army in Germantown about ten thousand soldiers. And deployed General Cornwallis to March into Philadelphia with about thirty five hundred men. On the morning of September twenty six Philadelphians saw the redcoats marched through their streets taking control of the city. Cornwallis. Led a triumphal march down second street turning West to March. Through town. Past Independence Hall where the rebels had declared independence just a year earlier. By his side was general Earth Sky along with several leading loyalists from the city. Joseph Galloway and two of the Allen Brothers from the family for whom Allentown is named. Governor John Penn probably would have liked to have joined them, but he was being held prisoner by the Patriots in New Jersey the conquering army received a rather muted response. The majority of Philadelphians had fled the city. A few weeks earlier the town how population of about forty thousand? As cornwallis entered the city, an estimated ten thousand remained. Congress had ended it session and moved to Lancaster eight days earlier. Patriots had taken the State House Bell. What we today call the Liberty Bell out of the city to be hidden in Allentown. Thousands of Patriot refugees, many families of men who were fighting with the continentals had fled the city with what they could carry. Those two remained did not know what to expect. Even loyalists had their concerns. Those with finer homes might find them confiscated for use as officers residences. Many remembered a year earlier when British, occupied New York and half the city was burned in order to deny it to the enemy. Despite capturing. Philadelphia the British still had not opened up the Delaware River. The British were without access to food and supplies. There was a possibility that the Patriots might besiege the city an attempt to starve out the occupants. So no one was quite sure what the next step was going to be. There were a few in the British leadership who believed that the capture Philadelphia was the decisive victory that they had long sought. Traditionally the capture of an enemy capital markets surrender and into the war. It had been just over a month since the British had landed at head of Elk Maryland. The British army had overcome every obstacle in its path with relative ease. General how had taken his time? Avoiding any sorts of ambushes or traps that could surprise his army His faith in the professionalism of his officers and soldiers against an ill-trained rebel army seemed well-founded at the moment. For the Patriots of course, the loss of Philadelphia was a setback but not a fatal one. As Thomas Paine had written a couple of weeks earlier they were fighting for a cause for a couple of acres of ground. Although. Philadelphia had been the seat of Congress. It was not the home of some single leader who could offer surrender. Congress could simply move to another town and continue its business as it had a year earlier when it moved to Baltimore. When Benjamin Franklin received the news in Paris a few weeks later that Philadelphia had fallen he rhetorically asked. Hal Captured Philadelphia or Has Philadelphia captured how? One could easily dismiss this as Franklin's attempt to spin some very bad news. But. His point was that house capture of the city had not ended anything. How was now stuck in this inland area and forced to defend it against attack and unable to move his armies elsewhere. This had immediate consequences. Remember London. Had hoped that how would capture Philadelphia early in the summer recruit some local Tories to garrison the city and then moved the bulk of his army north to assist with General Burgoyne marched through the Hudson Valley. By time how finally took Philadelphia, it was practically October. He still was not in any position to redeploy has soldiers northward to New York. Shortly after taking Philadelphia he received word that General Burgoyne had suffered a setback and that his army could be in real trouble. Next week, we'll look at for going trouble in New York as we cover the battle of Freeman's farm. Hi, thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. Thanks always to train aunts and George Davis for their support of the podcast at the Alexander Hamilton Club. level. I really am grateful for supporters like this who have become major sponsors of this podcast. Their help to defray my expenses for a podcast that has grown far larger than I ever expected as been a great help I appreciate everyone, of course, who has made an ongoing commitment to the show on. On for as little as two dollars a month. Also, thanks to Brenda Richmond who made a generous one time contribution via pay POW anyone can support the show by making a one time payment via pay Pao then Moselle or pop money feed the links that you can find on my website blog. Oh. That helps me to keep the show available for free for those who cannot afford to support it financially. As I noted last week, I've been making the show for three years straight and have yet to miss a single weekly release of the show. Researching writing, recording and editing show each and every week by myself without any help has been a real time commitment. Part of what keeps me going is the support that I hear from you the listeners. Who've told me either through direct communications, online reviews or financial support that you find this podcast worthwhile. This week I covered the Paoli massacre. Even, before release, I've heard complaints from some who say it should be called the Paoli battle rather than the Paoli massacre because those killed were soldiers and not unarmed civilians. They argued that the use of the word massacre imply some moral judgment against the British. My view on this is that a massacre is a one-sided event where many are killed just on one side and none or very few other. Will you charge into a camp at night and kill men just rolling out of bed? You are likely to get that sort of one sided outcome. I really try to go out of my way to let the facts speak for themselves. I suppose I have some bias in that I grew up not too far from Paoli and have always heard the event called the Paoli massacre that is the way the locals remember it. And that is what I've always remembered calling at myself. I'm really not trying to ascribe any moral judgment by using that word. War is in fact about killing the enemy and not getting too many of your own men killed. That is what the British set out to do that night and they succeeded. As an officer of later war said, war is hell. I also wanted to say a few more words about General Charles no flint's gray. The commander of the British forces at Paoli. Gray would return to Britain in seventeen, seventy eight but continued his military career in the war with France. The king would grant him a knighthood in the exclusive order of the bath and promoted him to lieutenant. General. Shortly, after the battle of Yorktown, Ray would receive a commission to become commander in Chief of North America. However because major combat operations ceased after Yorktown, he never actually took that command. Gray would continue to serve the British empire in the ongoing disputes with Revolutionary France. Because, he was not the first born he did not inherit his father's title. However, the king did grant him his own title as Baron Grey of. Hardwick. This gave gray peerage and a seat in the House of Lords. A. Few years later, the king bestowed upon him another title as the First Earl Grey. His son was also named Charles Gray and inherited the first earls wealth and title to become the second earl grey after the general's death in eighteen o seven. The second earl grey would go on to become prime minister of Great Britain. And not just any prime minister during his tenure he passed through format of eighteen, thirty two which reformed British electoral policies and greatly expanded the franchise within Britain. This act was largely credited with keeping Victorian England path of peace and prosperity during an era went democratic revolutions popped up all over the rest of Europe. Not, content with that single act grey also saw passage of the Slavery Abolition Act of Eighteen thirty, three ending slavery within the British Empire. For these and other accomplishments, earl grey is considered one of Britain's greatest prime ministers. Many of you probably know him best because he had a form of t that was named after him earl, grey. So. Whatever you think of General Gray's actions at the Paoli massacre, his family did go on to do some pretty amazing things. The PAOLI massacre though would always be general gray's legacy among the continentals and particularly General Anthony Wayne who really struggled to get over what happened that night. My Book Recommendation. This week is the battle of Paoli by Thomas Maguire. As you might guess from the title, The book focuses on the battle of Paoli itself. It's not a terribly long book at under three hundred pages total but gets into good coverage of the battle, and if you want those details which I admittedly never have enough time to cover in my podcast episodes, you WanNa read the book. I've recommended to other books that Maguire wrote one was called stop the revolution and another one just a few weeks ago called the Philadelphia. Campaign. His book about Paoli. His earlier books first published in two thousand. Maguire lives in the Philadelphia Area and teaches history. is as I said, if you want to read more about the Paoli massacre, you WanNa get Maguire's book the Battle of Paoli. If a book on the topic is too much. My online recommendation. This week is shorter article called the massacre of Paoli which was written for the battle centennial back in eighteen seventy seven. The article covers the battle in a fairly descriptive way in about twenty five pages. The remainder of the article is primary source letters and other documents about the battle. The article was first published in the Pennsylvania magazine of history biography. You can read it on Jay store although you have to register you read the whole article there. There's also a copy of it on. Archive Dot Org. which you can read without any registration requirements. I've added links to both versions of the article on my blog, which you can read it blog dot Amr podcast dot com. Well. That's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

General Anthony Wayne Philadelphia British army Army Washington General Cornwallis Paoli Colonel Gray Schuylkill Continental Army General Charles Charles Grey Schuylkill River New York City General Wayne British Washington British navy British Empire Philadelphia Congress
boycott

Merriam-Webster's Word of the Day

02:16 min | 1 year ago

boycott

"Merriam Webster's word of the day for January twelfth. Today's podcast is supported by the slowdown. A new daily poetry podcast hosted by US poet laureate. Tracy case Smith, the slowdown is a brief shot of insight that you can start your mornings with and that you'll still be thinking about when the day ends listened to the slowdown every weekday wherever you get your podcasts. Today's word is boycott spelled B O Y C O T T boycott is a verb that means to engage in a concerted refusal to have dealings with a person a store organization at cetera usually to express disapproval or to force acceptance of certain conditions. Here's the word used in a sentence from the spectator by Benjamin Markovits, Saul bellow showed up at president Johnson's White House festival of the arts in the summer of nineteen sixty five which other writers such as Philip Roth, a friend and follower and Robert Lowell boycott. To protests against the war in Vietnam. In the eighteen seventies. Irish farmers faced an agricultural crisis. That threatened to result in a repeat of the terrible famine and mass evictions of the eighteen forties. Anticipating financial ruin they formed a land league to campaign against the rent increases and divisions landlords were imposing as a result of the crisis retired British army, captain Charles boycott, had the misfortune to be acting as an agent for an absentee landlord at the time. And when he tried to evict tenant farmers for refusing to pay their rent, he was ostracized by the league and community his laborers and servants quit and his crops began to rot boycotts. Fate was soon. Well known and his name became a by word for that particular protest strategy with your word of the day. I'm Peter Sokolow s-k-y. Visit Marian Webster dot com today for definitions wordplay and trending word look ups.

captain Charles boycott Merriam Webster Marian Webster Peter Sokolow Saul bellow Philip Roth British army Robert Lowell US Benjamin Markovits Tracy Vietnam White House president Johnson Smith
Episode 109 Great Fire of NY & Hanging Nathan Hale

American Revolution Podcast

27:08 min | 1 year ago

Episode 109 Great Fire of NY & Hanging Nathan Hale

"Thank you for joining the american revolution today episode one zero nine the great fire of new york and nathan hale by september seventeen seventy six the continental army held onto harlem heights at the northern tip of manhattan and fort washington along the hudson and river the british controlled the remainder of the island general lord percy who you may remember from his dramatic rescue of the british army lexington antony commanded a force posted just north of the city on the east side of the island general cornwallis who had sailed to america cut only to fail miserably under general clinton at fort sullivan in south carolina still served under general clinton after his success at the battle of block island how posted both generals with the command of the front lines just south of harlem heights but with strict instructions to stay put and not <hes> advance on the enemy general how settled himself into a comfortable estate at mount pleasant north of kipps bay but still well oh back from the front lines there. He wrote dispatches to lord germain others in london about the successful campaign to capture new york once again following his victory. How would pause for several weeks giving the enemy time to regroup and plan their next steps on september nineteenth eighteenth seventeen seventy six general how issued another decree to the public urging the american people to return to their old allegiance to the king and bring all this violence to an end the proclamation got relatively little attention since only a few loyalist newspapers in new york new jersey published it some americans in the region who are now under direct occupation of the british army swore allegiance but mostly because any patriots living in those areas had already fled the house somehow seem convinced that they could get the patriots to lay down their arms without a long and terrible blood-letting but as we all know that was not going to be the case the proclamation much like others before it and after it went largely ignored this is not to say that no one flocked to the tory 'cause with greater new york city area now firmly under the british army control local tories began began to recruit locals to join tory militia units to assist the british in retaking the colonies for the king militia general oliver lancy raised a brigade of about fifteen hundred men on long island major robert rogers raised the provincial core of tories known as rogers rangers resurrecting a name that he had used during the french and indian war while much quieter now though some local new yorkers remained loyal to the patriot cause and were willing to cause trouble for the occupying army just after midnight on september twenty firth seventeen seventy six alarm began cantu spreads through new york that the city was on fire there were no alarm bells since the continentals had taken all the bells before leaving the city word spread by shouts that much of the city was engulfed in flames civilians and soldiers worked through the night to control the fire and extinguished the flames they tore down several houses as firebreaks to keep the fire from spreading and formed bucket brigades tempering water to the burning buildings actually actually most of the military men working to extinguish the fire or marines from the navy. Some soldiers may have acted independently for general how did not deploy roy any soldiers until the following day instead how kept his soldiers on alert all night just in case the fire was an attempt to distract him as part out of a daring night invasion that of course never happened some thought the arson attacks specifically targeted the church of england. Much of the area burned was the area around trinity church including the church itself. The area was mostly residences as well as the holy ground area where prostitution and nightlife was most active. The commercial areas in dockyards mostly survived intact. Though many had already fled the city before the british army arrived. The army's arrival had created a major housing shortage. The loss of so many buildings left many families homeless with with nowhere to go. No one seems certain hell. The fire actually started of course rumors shot around probably correctly that this was the work of patriots apertures. The fire seems to have started in several places at once and spread very rapidly. Thanks to a strong wind blowing north general well house reports indicate that several arsonists were caught and killed on the spot but gives little detail other counts give gruesome stories stories of arsonists being pinta walls with bayonets hanged from lamp posts. One report even says that a soldier caught an arsonist in the act picked him up and threw him into the burning building that he had just set on fire and burned him alive. Some patriots accused the occupying army mostly the hessian of starting the fire in order to cover their looting of the city. There were some accusations of soldiers looting burning buildings but the notion that the british british or hessian started. The fire seems to be propaganda with no factual basis. Whatever the accuracy of any of these stories. It's clear that the british believed the fire was a deliberate act of sabotage tin anti them use of the city. The fire ended up earning about one thousand buildings more than a fourth of the city. Only shift in winds prevented it from destroy much more. There is no evidence that washington had anything to do with the fire congress had instructed him not to destroy the city and washington was not the type of man to defy congress even when he thought privately that its decisions asians were foolish. The majority of congress seem to think that patriots would retake the city and that it would be a waste to destroy it washington wrote to congress congress the following day to report the fire which he described as an accident again it will be highly out of character for washington to lie in a report to congress however in his private correspondence washington did make clear that he certainly wasn't sorry about the fire he wrote his cousin that if he had been allowed allowed to use his own judgement he would burn the city to the ground before leaving it he also commended quote providence or some good honest fellow has done more for us than we were disposed to do for ourselves and quote by starting the fire following the fire. The british increased vigilance to prevent prevent any further cases of arson. How decided to keep the city under martial law rather than returning governor tryon and mayor david matthews to power instead of returning the king's peace to the city. It remained an armed camp under military control. The british army also went to great efforts wjr to find the culprits responsible for setting the fire. They rounded up in question over two hundred suspects one reason to question the rumors of unnamed saboteurs being killed during the fire is that no one was caught in the act and arrested. If several people were captured one would think thank all of them would be killed and that some would have been arrested. The two hundred suspects were arrested in the following day's and faced questioning and were eventually eventually released. The british never found enough evidence to bring anyone to trial one unlucky victim of the fire though was continental army me captain nathan hale a few weeks earlier before the british has even invaded manhattan washington had asked for volunteers to cross over to long island and gather intelligence on the enemy captain hale volunteered for the mission as a former schoolteacher from connecticut he you decided his best cover would be to play a schoolteacher from connecticut looking for work before the beginning of the school year somewhere on long island he had to go back to connecticut and take a boat across to the northeastern part of long island on september twelfth about three days before the british landed at kipp spe l. made his way across long island down toward new york city fang attention to the enemies troop deployments and numbers he took detailed notes andrew sketches to record what he found sadly for captain hale he had missed some critically important spying on a one classes he wrote down lots of notes but did not bother to use any sort of code or invisible ink both in common use by other spies during this period he did not have any local contacts or safehouses along the way nor anyone local that he could trust. He also had no way to get the information back to the american lines. It's unless he returned with the information himself. We don't know exactly what information held discovered because he never returned any reports to the americans americans he wandered across long island while the british cross the east river at kipp spe captured the city and set up defenses against the americans at harlem heights some hello hell made his way across the river into new york city. He was there on september twenty first. When the fire swept across the island the morning after the fire he made his way north toward the front lines is hail waited on the coast. The british ship halifax came ashore sure hail apparently approached the landing party thinking they might be americans. Aware of the fire and seeing hale was nervous. The the british crew arrested him thinking he might be one of the arsonists they found his notes and sketches in his clothing and took him to general how as a suspected affected by under questioning hale admitted being continental officer since he was caught behind enemy lines and out of uniform how how ca- treat him as a spy rather than a prisoner of war he could be hanged immediately and without trial although there does not appear to be any reason into believe that hale was involved in the new york fire how was in no mood to offer clemency although not required accused spies normally would at least receive a court martial having spent the whole night prior dealing with the fire and hunting for a suspected arsonists how ordered hail hanged as a spy without trial how how turned over hail to the provost marshal william cunningham a tory who had fled boston a year earlier and who had been a victim of patriot patriot mob attacks in new york before the british arrived cunningham was in no mood to show any kindness sympathy to any rebel who fell into his hands. He's scheduled to hanging for the following morning. He also denied hail his last requests. Having a clergyman present or access to a bible the the next morning during a delays they prepared the gallows the chief engineer john mantra sewer took hale into his tent and had a short conversation he also provided hail with paper and ink so that he could write to final letters one to his brother and the other to his commanding officer once the gallows were ready. Guards lead hale to his execution. Mantra sir recorded hale's famous last words. I only regret that. I have but one life life to give for my country. The phrase came from a popular play of the day kato by joseph addison. It was about a roman politician. Shen who committed suicide rather than living under a tyrannical emperor another officer named mackenzie also present at the execution noted that hale showed bravery and commented that it was the duty of every soldier to obey the orders of his commander but did not record hail supposed posed famous last words his failure to note them as led to some debate as to whether haile actually uttered that phrase for which he is remembered on september twenty second seventeen seventy six at around eleven a._m. The british hanged captain hale and buried his body. Mantra entre turned over the two letters he had written to the provost who promptly destroyed them later that evening. Mantra sir went over to the american lines at harlem heights. It's under a flag of truce to discuss a prisoner exchange while there he revealed to the americans that the british had hanged hail as a spy that morning and pass along his famous last words word of hale's last words circulated among the army but washington did not choose to publicize sized the matter at the time washington may have been embarrassed at the great risk and lack of support to which he subjected hail he may also have been concerned concerned about the publicizing of his use of spies at all washington was already preparing to send other spies though with greater protection and trading reports of hale's famous words did not appear newspapers until months later now the same day that the british hang hail the continental army prepared repaired execution of its own epa knees are laughing well. During the battle of harlem heights colonel joseph freed encountered laughing. Well headed away away from the front. Lines rethought living well was deserting and confronted him. Now i have mentioned joseph read in passing a few times but he is important in several future events so it might be worth a little more background now. Colonel read was a philadelphia lawyer who had accompanied washington from. I'm philadelphia back to cambridge. In seventeen seventy five when washington i took up command of the continental army re had not intended to follow washington all the way but he got swept up in the moment and found himself in cambridge with the army he provided some clerical assistance to the new commander but then insisted that he needed to return home and resume his legal practice washington begged him to return and claimed he could not function without him. Read became washington's first agenda and remained close to the commander washington was always very closed and private man but did it seemed open up to a very small number of trusted associates read apparently became one of those trusted confidence during the war and while we'll see later read with confidence and trust at this time the to remain very close and read carried the confidence of washington and his authority authority in matters of command so on september sixteenth colonel read was on his horse delivering orders for washington during the battle when he encountered encountered laughing well according to read laughing well was clearly afraid and running away from battle read ordered laughing well to return to the front lines but soon found him doubling back and running in the other direction read road after the soldier and confronted him once again at that time laughing well points a gun at read and pulled the trigger the gun either misfired or wasn't loaded read then attempted to shoot laughing well on the spot but could not fire are his gun either he slashed it laughing well with his sword injuring the soldier but not seriously after that encounter readhead laughing well arrested on charges of desertion and mutiny laughing well however told a very different story at trial he said that he was following the orders commanding officer to go from the front lines to the rear to get more ammunition while on that mission colonel read confronted him and and ordered him to return to the front lines luffing well said that he informed read that he was under orders to obtain more ammunition but that re- did not believe him re drew his sword and threatened to kill him unless he immediately returned to the front lines fearing for his life left-wing well cock his gun and pointed edited at read on september nineteenth three days after the encounter a court martial found laughing well guilty and sentenced him to be shot by firing squad in washington eager to enforce discipline against deserters approved the sentence to be carried out on september twenty second much of the army however however was greatly upset at this decision on the morning of the execution a firing squad led laughing well in front of the assembled army the firing squad lined up and pointed their guns at the condemned prisoner at the last minute a chaplain announced that washington had reprieved laughing wells life and that he was spared washington had hoped to make an example by shooting deserter conventional wisdom of the time was that such examples help keep the the troops in line during battle but it seems washington wisely listened to the grumbling of his soldiers on this day the army seemed deeply against the execution execution and carrying it out might only have the effect of harming morale and increasing the number of desertions so washington spared laughing laughing well hoping to avoid this there is also some evidence. That colonel read lobbied washington for clemency at the last minute though it's not clear if this was for humanitarian or practical reasons. I should probably also mentioned that much of what we know of. This incident comes from joseph plumb martin. I'm a soldier who was fighting with the continental army during this time. Martin was a connecticut soldier who joined the continental army during the call for volunteers. Just before the british invasion of new york martin joined the army as a private eventually rising to sergeant and serving through the remainder of the war he he never became an officer though he appears to a fought honorably and remained with the army for almost the entire war. There's nothing in particular that stands out about about martin service that would not apply to thousands of other soldiers during the war. What makes martin note worthy of special interest history is that after after he survived the war returned home and grew into old age. Martin wrote an account of his participation in the war in eighteen thirty he he published a book called a narrative of some of the adventures dangers and sufferings of a revolutionary soldier. The book provides a unique perspective perspective into the life of an enlisted man during the war while there exist many common soldier books from later wars. This is really the only one from from the revolution that covers more than a very short period of time. The book never really got much attention from historians until they rediscovered it in the late late twentieth century because of its unique perspective focusing on the lives of enlisted men rather than generals. It has become an important source for anyone learning about the revolution. If you are so inclined you might want to give it a read so next week while we wait for how to give washington another nudge. We're going to check back in with generals carlton and burgoyne is they finally make their boo from canada into lake champlain ten their push toward albany new york work. Hey thanks for joining the american revolution podcast after show this week. I want to thank my robert. Morris circle patriots. Hey trans supporter. Dave salvatori. Dave runs his own revolution podcast today in american revolution history. He publishes a short the episode under five minutes almost every day. It's a great way to get your daily fix on the revolution. You can sign up for e mail delivery of tex dispersion of his podcast as well like me. Dave gives a book recommendation at the end of each episode so it's another great resource for further reading. Dave also has a new merchandise store. If you're jonesing for some podcast today t shirts or mugs you can learn more by going to his website. I am rev today dot com this week. New york city burned about a quarter of the city was destroyed since the british had a combined bind army and navy of over forty thousand in a city that had a prewar population of only twenty five thousand finding shelter for all was already going need to be difficult without the loss of so many houses. No one ever discovered for sure who started the fire. Although i've always thought billy joel's denials were a little you too extreme the very likely culprits were patriots who were not acting under any specific orders from the continental army but acted on their own to deny the enemy the use of the city we also covered today. The hanging of captain nathan hale for espionage american revolution spying has been been of particular interest in recent years. Thanks largely to the t._v. Channel a._m._c. which had a show called turn covering the cul perspiring hang on long island. The copa ring came after multiple other attempts to gain intelligence from behind british lines in new york failed nathan entail was one of those many failures as the americans learned the art of espionage through experience. The copa ring only began in seventeen seventeen seventy eight and that of course is something i will cover more detail when we get to that time period but for now poor captain hale had to give his is one life for his country as a tough lesson for the americans in how not to conduct espionage today's episode also saw the almost execution of a deserter such executions were seen as an absolute necessity in european armies to prevent desertion but in the american volunteer army of the early revolution the practice was much more controversial later in the war washington would go through with many such executions a great many though involved more than just running away. They also involved firing on officers or others. There's trying to prevent desertions again. I'll talk more about those in future episodes dealing with a events later in the war. I've already recommended ended a number of books that talk specifically about new york's role in the revolution rather than throw another one on the pile. I'm going to recommend come into more general book this week. I recently finished the british are coming the war for america lexington to princeton seventeen in seventy five to seventeen seventy seven by rick atkinson as you might guess from the title it covers the first few years of the war from from the first battle in april seventeen seventy five through the battle of princeton which took place in january seventeen seventy seven atkinson isn't promises that this is the first book in a planned trilogy that will cover the entire war. The book was just released a few months ago in may but has gotten some well-deserved critical acclaim. The book is a little more general than a book that you would find on specific battle but at eight hundred pages it gives a pretty good coverage of the first two years of the war before tackling this project atkinson wrote a number of other books mostly about world war two but he does seem to know his stuff about the revolution and has an enjoyable narrative style. There reminds me of shelby foots trilogy asia about the civil war. If you have not gotten this book already i recommend it. I look forward to the next two volumes in coming years. The british are coming is available everywhere in both paper and electronic formats for my online recommendation this week. I wanna recommend ajay store dot org. That's j. s. t. o. R. dot org the site was built for academic papers and unfortunately has has a crazy expensive pay wall for standard use by the public i could go into a lengthy rant about how ridiculous this is that they profit off the free papers that were written by academics who were not compensated for their content but what's the point. The site does have access to lots of wonderful. Well researched articles articles on a wide range of both interesting and obscure topics for documents that are old enough to be in the public domain. You are usually able to get a free downloadable version of the document for most newer documents. If you sign up for an account you are allowed to access and read it online but without being able to download or copy them. It's not ideal but the detailed content is hard to find anywhere else online of course worse. If you're associated with a university you may be able to get full access through that. You can also buy an annual subscription but again. That's crazy expensive offensive. Some libraries may offer better access as well despite the annoying paywall j. store dot org is a great resource for lots of detailed information information on many different historical topics as well as a whole bunch of other topics so if you're so inclined. Please check it out well. That's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another american revolution podcast.

new york captain hale british army washington army nathan hale harlem heights washington long island officer washington hale washington Dave salvatori arson connecticut manhattan joseph plumb martin america london
Gregor MacGregor Pt. 1: Poyais

Con Artists

47:40 min | 5 months ago

Gregor MacGregor Pt. 1: Poyais

"In September of eighteen seventeen the sun rose. Amelia Island located in the northeast corner of the Florida Peninsula. From the outside looking in it was a tropical paradise a tiny settlement surrounded by peaceful waves and palm trees within the makeshift huts. However the atmosphere was entirely different the island was populated by pirates and American sailors all itching to charge the Florida mainland and kick out the Spanish Amis but they come onto a Scottish soldier with a formidable reputation. Seemed to have no plans on moving anytime soon. Instead of preparing for Battle Gregor Macgregor spent his days lounging around and dreaming of power and Fain. When they first arrived he had established a brand new government for the island positioning himself as the leader. He even paid his soldiers in Amelia dollars. A new currency he'd created but while the Scotsman idled the Spanish forces were massing on the mainland directly opposite Amelia Island. They had come to take the land back. The soldiers prepare themselves to fight. Now is the time to finally -CCOMPLISH their mission but as the troops ready their arms Gregor Macgregor readied his luggage. He announced to his men that he was leaving blaming his allies in the United States for their precarious situation then without another word he sailed away leaving the army to fend for themselves. Welcome to con artists podcast original. I'm Alyssa murden. Every week. We peel back. The layers of history's greatest deceptions and tell the stories of the hustlers swindlers and fraudsters. That ochestrated them. I'll dive into their psychology breakdown that tricks and explain why anyone might full. For Con- you can find episodes of Cornutus and all other podcast originals for free on spotify or wherever you listen to podcasts to stream. Cornutus for free on spotify. Just open the APP and type in the search bar at podcast with grateful for you listeners. You allow us to do what we love. Let us know how would doing reach out on and Instagram? At podcast and twitter at podcast network. This week we're discussing Gregor Macgregor a Scottish con artist who started as a military man in the British army. We'll learn what led him to join the rebel cause in South America and see how his desperation caused him to pull off his first unintentional scam. Next week we'll learn about Greg. Mcgregor's most famous Khan the poise scheme. We'll see how he came up with the idea why it became so popular. And what happened to Greg and his Victims Greg? Mcgregor is one of history's earliest known con artists and also one of the most ambitious after a career in the British Army Greg sort fame and fortune overseas in the eighteen. Hundreds hoping to make a name for himself in the Venezuelan war of independence but his aspirations were far greater than his abilities and a series of military failures drove him back to the UK. In London Grega hatched the scheme much like the disastrous contemporary fire. Festival Gregor enchanted his marks with tales of a tropical paradise. In this case a new country he convinced rich bankers to invest in its government and allowed adventurous men and women to move to the settlement which was no more than an undeveloped dangerous territory. In South America Grega was never sentence for his crimes and spent the rest of his life in Venezuela where he died at the age of fifty eight for much of his life. Gregor Macgregor exaggerated the circumstances of his childhood and the importance of his family. He gave the McGregor clan more legitimacy by claiming they were related to distant dukes and barons. He alleged that his family was based in Edinburgh. The capital of Scotland in reality Grega was born in Stirlingshire. A small area in the Scottish highlands in seventeen eighty six. His father. Daniel McGregor was an east India company. Sea Captain Whose Adventures Likely inspired the Young Gregor in his future travels. Sadly Gregor had very little time with his father. Daniel died in seventeen ninety four when Gregor was just seven years old Gregor and his two sisters were raised by their mother and with the occasional help of other members of the clan contrary to the aristocratic blood and wealth. That Gregor would later claim the McGregor's with far from noble in fact the McGregor surname had been officially abolished in England from sixteen o one to sixteen sixty one and sixteen ninety three to seventeen eighty four after a bitterly violence conflict with another. Scottish family as a result many McGregor's in Scotland and the UK change their last names to avoid any association with the forsaken clan but the surname still had some legitimacy Gregor's. Great great-uncle rob. Roy was a key. Revolutionary and the Jacobite rebellion and internal British conflict over the rightful heir. To the Throne Roy. Later became the subject of popular novel written by author and Poet. So Walter Scott restoring honor the McGregor name off to rob Roy's death. Greg's paternal grandfather secured his own reputation as a respected military man. Famously known as Grega the beautiful throughout Scotland but despite these connections Grega himself grew up in relative obscurity. Little is known of his childhood other than the fact that he received a good education. He ended the school system when he was just five years old and claimed to have begun studies at the University of Edinburgh at fifteen. This was not an uncommon age to attend college at the time but shortly after his sixteenth birthday Gregor abandoned his higher education for a more lucrative career the military in eight prolific eighteen o three sixteen year old Gregor enrolled in the Scottish army as an end sign or a junior officer thanks to a commission purchased by his mother for what would be just under sixty thousand dollars today at the time the military was seen as an opportunity for advancement and families who could afford it often paid to secure high ranking positions for their sons. Greg family however wasn't particularly wealthy so as soon as he assumed his role as a junior officer. He resolved not to squander his chance. He was determined to make a name for himself and his family. Greg first assignment coincided with the beginning of the Napoleonic wars and as a result he saw action rights away during the course of this conflict he quickly rose through the ranks of the infantry by February of eighteen four less than a year after he joined the army. Greg was promoted to lieutenant a prestigious position that usually took three years to earn during these glory. Months he also met his future wife. Maria bowater Maria was the daughter of late Royal Navy Admiral and relates it to two retired generals but not only was Maria well-connected she also had large dowry all of these very advantageous qualities captured. Gregor's undivided attention and in June of eighteen. O Five the young couple was married. Eighteen-year-old Grega and Maria moved into Marie as aunt's house in London and embarked on a new life together in a new city. Greg had taken a break from the army after the wedding but soon marital bliss proved stifling and Greg was itching to relive his glory days. After a few months he reenlisted in the army and was immediately promoted to captain. Normally it would have taken greg seven years to earn the ranking on his own. But he didn't have that kind of patience instead. He had something better. A wealthy wife and by Scottish law. Marie is money was now his so with his newfound wealth. Greg simply bought the title. For what would amount to nearly one hundred thousand dollars today. This impatient ambition became a defining factor in Greg's life and drove his future cons but it may also reveal a lot about his underlying character in two thousand sixteen a study conducted by western Sydney University and Queensland University of Technology analysed individuals who cut corners to accomplish a task research has discovered that people who took shortcuts like Gregor. We're more likely to be less conscientious. And less honest they ranked higher in psychopathy narcissism and Machiavelli Anisim than their fellow peers. These three traits also disproportionately found in con artists but young. Greg was only dipping his toe into the territory of scams griffiths and fraudulent schemes. For now he was content with buying his way into getting what he wanted rather than cheating after eighteen year olds. Grega was promoted to captain his regiment moved to Gibraltar an overseas British territory. Spain the squad settled there for four years from eighteen. O five to eighteen o nine from the outside looking in Greg. His life seemed to be falling into place. He had a happy marriage. Plenty of money and an enviable status. In the army. Greg's success wasn't altogether surprising. He was witty charming when he wants it to be a sharp dresser who's fashioned sense exuded wealth and status but he also had a strong personality that led him to frequently butt heads with colleagues in the army and in his first four years as captain he made many enemies within his own troupe because of his meteoric rise through the Military Greg had little leadership experience he was known for Selfish Behavior. Not befit a captain and made poor decisions based on his own vanity and obsession with rank for instance. Gregor or did every soldier and his command to wear the full dress uniform at all times. Regardless of the occasion it was a superficial and impractical requirement. That made him highly unpopular with his own troupe. In the summer of eighteen nine Gregor's fifty seven th regiment was sent to Portugal and his problems in the military only escalated eventually an arguments with one of his superiors finally forced the military to take action though. The nature of the conflict is unknown. That's October twenty. Two year old Gregg was transferred to the Eighth Line Battalion in the Portuguese army. A less prestigious division it was a mess slap on the wrist as a courtesy to greg as high ranking and to soften the blow his superiors even promoted him to major but even still Gregor's ego was bruised less than a year later in May of eighteen ten. He decided he'd had his fill of army life and officially resigned after handing in his notice the military returned all of the money he paid towards his promotions an amount totaling nearly one hundred forty thousand dollars today and with that Greg was officially discharged from the military with on us as Greg left army life behind. He most likely FELTON ABJECT FAILURE. He'd come from a line of Scottish military man and married into a highly decorated family. His career in the army was no doubt an enormous disappointment but nonetheless. Greatest ambition drove him forward with his reimbursed commission. Money in hand and a whole lot of charisma. He set his sights on reinventing himself entirely after leaving the army and his post in Portugal twenty-three-year-old Gregor and his wife. Maria moved back to Scotland to Edinburgh. Then Greg has started calling himself. Colonel a higher rank than he was ever awarded and fashioned himself as a member of Scottish high-society he rented an expensive carriage and dressed in the most stylish clothing perfectly tailored waistcoats and find top hats but despite his efforts Gregor never felt accepted. By the CRENDALL creme of Edinburgh perhaps his curse surname left a bad taste in the mouth of his fellow. Scots but either way Gregor was far from discouraged. He relocated his small family to London. Where once again? He reinvented himself this time. He went by Sir Gregor Macgregor and told everyone he met that he was the new chieftain of the McGregor clan. It was a bold lie but in England no one was the wiser and as he rubbed elbows with. London's wealthy elites he would often refer to his many noble relatives old barons Dukes and earls from days past. None of these relatives actually existed. Of course but greg believed that just the mention of old money and power would help him break into these highfalutin social circles and it worked until tragedy struck in December eighteen. Eleven Greg's wife. Maria died. The circumstances have had death are unclear but it was a huge blow to Grega. Maria was his wife of course but she was also his main source of income and linked to London's wealthy social circles his key to high society and his meal ticket but Gregor was as tenacious as he was ambitious and soon his quest for fame and fortune will take him to the other side of the world coming up next. Grega looks for opportunity in the Venezuelan rebellion. Mindlessness the launch von New Park. Our series supernatural with Ashley. Flowers has been a great success. We've received some incredible feedback and car. Thank you enough for tuning in if you haven't had a chance to listen yet. I strongly urge you to head over to the supernatural with Ashley. Flowers feed and subscribe today every Wednesday. Ashley Flowers takes on a different crime or mystery. Where the most fitting theory isn't always the most conventional here are some of the episodes. You can catch up on worthy. The deaths of two Brazilian men a result of making contact with spirits on Mars. Get closer to the truth than ever. Before regarding the mystifying lead mosques case who and wants were responsible for the unexplained death of Australia's Somerton man dig deeper into the peculiar details and poetry involved in the case and my favorite so far did four friends have a highly unusual encounter during a camping trip in Maine saw through the out of this world circumstances surrounding the allegations incident. Each week Ashley takes on the strange and surreal to explain some of the world's most bizarre true crime occurrences. It's a fantastic ride that I hope you enjoy. Follow supernatural with Ashley. Flowers free on spotify. Or wherever you get your podcasts. Now back to the story in eighteen eleven the life of Prestige that twenty five year old Gregor Macgregor had so carefully built was crumbling after his fall from grace in the military. Gregg has set his sights on London where he reinvented himself into a wealthy aristocrats but when his young wife Maria died his best laid. Plans were obliterated. Meritas wealth had been Greg as entry into London's High Society and his main source of income. He'd grown accustomed to a certain standard of living during his marriage with his wife's money. He could afford stylish clothing expensive housing and every level of comfort on his own however he could no longer maintain the same sumptuous lifestyle and finding a new source of income was difficult. Greg couldn't return to the British army off to his somewhat disgraceful exit and he wasn't able to marry another wealthy heiress without angering London society but as he languished in the UK watching his money dwindle Grega had an unconventional idea. While Greg was ingratiated in London's aristocratic circles a common topic of conversation was Latin. America's uprisings against the Spanish crown specifically Venezuela's at the time Venezuela was a hotbed for revolution seven. Ten major districts rebelled against the Spanish in eighteen eleven kicking off the Venezuelan War of independence. But Greg is interest went beyond international politics shortly before the war broke out. He had heard rumors about General Francisco de Miranda one of the revolutions famous leaders. Miranda had recently visited London where he'd become the talk of the town everyone it seemed at Miot and respected the general and the city's elite practically four to one another to host him at their homes or dinner parties. Grega watched on enviously as Miranda was praised for his bravery and welcomed with open arms into the very circles. Gregor longed to join Miranda. Didn't stay in London long but his short visit made an invaluable impression on Grega. He was inspired as the Scotsman faced the prospect of losing his wealth and his status in London his thoughts return to the General Miranda was a military man like Gregor but his exploits in Venezuela made him a hero in the eyes of British High Society. Grega realized that perhaps if he fought in the Venezuelan rebellion he too would be admired and praised Of course Greg I had no interest in the cause itself and had never been to South America but he figured that an army was an army no matter where in the world it was. How different could it be so in early? Eighteen twelve twenty six year old. Greg sold the Scottish estate he inherited from his father and set sail for the new world. Greg's voyage Venezuela took four long arduous months with a short stop in Kingston. He spent most of the time in his cabin dreaming of the new life. He would build himself and all the ways in which South America would bring him. Glory but when. He finally stepped off the ship in the capital city of Caracas in April eighteen twelve. He was immediately disappointed. Caracas had been devastated by an earthquake and the disaster had set the rebellion. Back by the time Graeca arrived. Large areas of the country had been reclaimed by the Spanish. But Gregor was far from deterred he had come to fight for Venezuela after all and is seen they needed him more than ever soon he found General Miranda himself and offered his services Gregor boasted to Miranda about his past conquests playing up his accomplishments in the British military. Miranda took the bait and immediately promoted Gregor to colonel. Things were going even better than he dreamed. Gregor was immediately popular as a Scotsman. He was considered almost exotic and his European military training invaluable in no time he was a regular fixture in influential social circles where he quickly found a new wife. Dona Ho surfer host. Safer was the of a prominent family in Caracas. And the cousin of Simone Believer the Feigns South American revolutionary. The young couple married on June tenth. Eighteen twelve just a few months after. Gregor. I arrived around the same time. Greco was promoted yet again to brigadier general but even though he was finding success in Venezuela the revolutionary cause was failing. Just one month after Greg. Wedding and Promotion General Miranda was captured Gregor and the remaining soldiers retreated to the neighboring island of cure. So with Miranda imprisoned CMO Bolivar took over the rebel cause wary of their vulnerable position or Leva commanded the army. Wait on cure so until they found the right time to strike but Gregor grew impatient with believers tactics. The only way that he would get the fame and recognition he wanted was by being on the front lines of a battle. So Gregor took matters into his own hands. He slipped away from curious. Oh and joined more radical rebel group in new Granada in what now? Modern Day Colombia Venezuela and Ecuador their Greco once again played up his military prowess and European training to secure a new commission. The soldiers under his command were less than impressed. They described Greg. As a Don Quixote character. He may have talked to be game but performed so poorly on the battlefield that he may as well have been fighting. Windmills for there wasn't much time to complain about Greg's leadership skills and the face of a rebellion the Spanish for advancing and before long they had forced Gregor's regiment to Cartagena a port city on Colombia's western border by late eighteen fifteen. The new Granada forces were completely surrounded. And just a few hundred rebel soldiers were left in the city. Greg was one of three commanding officers. Charged with getting everyone out of Katerina's safely and somehow against all odds they succeeded. It's unclear whether Gregor had a large hand in planning the operation but when it turned out to be a resounding success he claimed credit for the victory or the same and over the next year. Twenty nine year old Greg. Military campaigns proved enormously successful mostly because he was single minded when it came to pursuing a victory when his soldiers were outnumbered and outgunned. Grega kept pushing food ignoring the odds stacked against them. This mindset was instrumental in keeping the Spanish army from advancing and earn Gregor accolades for his bravery but also demonstrated a lack of empathetic leadership. According to Research James Anger leaders can often be divided into two categories. Those who are results focused and those who show exceptional social skills such as strong communication or empathy individuals who are more results focused were found to frequently reach their goals at the expense of those that were underneath them. For Gregor the stakes couldn't have been higher running into battle. Despite being outmanned often meant that he was putting his soldiers lives in danger. He'd lose dozens of men if not hundreds all for the glory of a battlefield victory and this understandably bread contempt among his troops. Despite the fact that Greg had simone boulevards personal gratitude. He often clashed with his commander in charge and found himself. Losing control of his men just like in Europe Grega had failed to gain the respect of his regiment so he did what he did best and simply moved on in October eighteen. Sixteen twenty nine year old Greg. I left new Granada for Margarita Island. Just off the coast of Venezuela. There he found a new commission. Under General John. Podesta Arizmendi are as Mendis. Goal was to take Florida from the Spanish and he put Grega in charge of the mission. It was right up. Drako's Ali Florida could be a huge asset for South America and as the sole commander of the operation he would naturally receive all the accolades to prepare for the Operation Gregor his wife and a group of top ranking officials sale to the United States in March of eighteen seventeen. They knew that without American support it would be nearly impossible to take Florida back from the Spanish. So Gregor turned on the charm. He promised his potential investors huge returns on their donations off a piece of property in Florida. It was never clear whether or not he had the authority to fulfill these promises but in three months he managed to raise what would amount to nearly three and a half million dollars today. Gregor also recruited several hundred American men to help fight for the cause and on June twenty-ninth eighteen seventeen Grega and eighty soldiers sailed to Amelia island off the coast of the Florida peninsula. The perfect location to launch their attack. But Gregor didn't wait to conquer Florida before staking his claim as soon as they dropped anchor. Greg declared Amelia Island. As the capital of the new of the Florida's he even created a new flag for the state and started paying his soldiers in an invented currency that he called Amelia bills but his men were less than pleased. They didn't want to use the phone. Currency they wanted to loot the island but Gregor had forbidden it and if his soldiers happened to get their hands on any treasure that the island's resident pirates left behind he. Tax THEM FOR THE VALUABLES. But perhaps what irritated and the most was the fact that Gregor refuse to mount his attack. The soldiers sat on Amelia Island itching to go to battle but Gregor insisted they lay low and wait for the rest of his recruits. He explained that without their full numbers. It would be impossible to take Florida so they waited as the weeks dragged into months. The supplies inevitably dwindled. The Amelia bills were spent too quickly and soon greg was forced to stop paying the soldiers all together but in September of eighteen. Seventeen when the Spanish forces started assembling to attack the island. Gregor's men had had enough. The Spanish army gathered slowly giving Greg as men plenty of time to prepare and yet Gregor did nothing. They were sitting ducks going against orders. His men rush to arm themselves against the coming attack. But Gregor simply gave up. He knew he lacked the skills to defeat the Spanish with such few men so he pushed the blame on the Americans. He announced that his so-called supporters had cheated him and sabotage they 'cause then with that Gregor boarded his ship taking his high ranking offices with him. They set sail towards the Bahamas and left them men to fight off the Spanish on their own. Amelia Island was Greg McGregor's first. Ob Unintentional financial con. His American investors never got their money back and the Spanish were easily able to overcome his remaining men on the island but the experience Greco some valuable lessons. Another man might have vowed to brush up on his military tactics but Gregor focused on a new skill. After Amelia Island he realized just how easy it was for him to convince people to follow his lead with the right combination of words and empty promises and as he contemplated leaving the army yet again. Grega started to wonder how else he might put those abilities to good use coming up next. Grega figures out how to turn a profit in the military now to the story in eighteen seventeen thirty rolled Grega McGregor completed his first obvious unintentional con after to promising investors huge returns and SP ruling property and spanish-owned Florida Greg secured thousands of dollars and dozens of men for the Venezuelan rebellion against Spain but for months Grega dragged his feet instead of mobilizing his troops to take over Florida and when the Spanish finally came to them Gregor simply fled abandoning his men to fight the Spanish on their own as he sailed away from Amelia Island. Greg believed he was ready to walk away from the military entirely instead of returning to Venezuela he and his second wife who suffer set course for the Bahamas two months later in November eighteen seventeen. She gave birth to a baby boy. They named him Gregorio. The small family spent months in the Bahamas enjoying the sunshine. As the baby grew older. During that time Greg and his family were well provided for by supporters of the Venezuelan rebellion to them Greco was a revolutionary hero and they had no reason believe otherwise despite all the evidence to the contrary Gregor only ever spoke of Amelia Island as a total success and no one except the men. He'd abandoned knew how much of a disaster the operation actually was and so he simply soaked up this special treatment but often nearly a year in the Bahamas. His ambitions were getting the best of him. He was dreaming about fame and glory once again in eighteen eighteen. Greg word that the South American rebels were trying to recruit British soldiers for the revolution. It seemed like the perfect opportunity. A way to use his expertise for the cause without actually risking his neck. He jumped on it. Not September Gregor Assefa and their baby boy sale from the Bahamas to Europe where Venezuelan envoy agreed to employ greg a recruiter. They handed him a starting fund of a thousand pounds about one hundred twelve thousand dollars today to bring British troops to South America once. He had it in hand. Gregor's greed overwhelmed his good intentions. He started spending the money on himself using it to buy the finest clothing and expensive dinners creating the luxurious lifestyle. He'd always longed for and before he knew it. All one thousand pounds had disappeared. Grega panicked he hadn't even started his mission yet and he had zero funds. He was sure that when the envoy found out what he done he denounced Greco to both English high society and his comrades back in South America but he got lucky miraculously an old friend. Thomas Newt A and a staunch supporter of the rebels Hud Grega was recruiting troops and offered to fund his cause. His only condition was that the troops be taken to new Granada instead of Venezuela Gregor couldn't believe his luck he took the bailouts without any arguments after all as long as the troops made it to South America. The envoy would be happy and it made little difference to him using Thomas News. Donation Gregor enlisted fifty officers and five hundred soldiers to the fight but his recruitment methods were highly suspect. Grega offered lower commissions for purchase than other troops. This made recruitment easy but it also meant that his regiment amassed a smaller budget for food and supplies and to strain the few funds they had left. Grega also promised any soldier who came on board a huge salary so on November eighteenth eighteen eighteen the Motley crue set sail for South America in high spirits. But it wouldn lost it took. Gregor and his soldiers three months to reach OCHIA located in Modern Day Haiti that they made a stop to stock up on supplies before continuing their journey or once they landed in the small port town. The soldiers almost rebelled. They had yet to see a penny of the huge salaries cracker promised and some were quickly realizing that as a commander Grega was entirely incompetent his second in command. Colonel William Ratna managed to keep the men from revolting and Grega promised them their money as soon as they docked in South America but there was just one problem. They didn't leave port. Greg stalled on the island for a whole month once again. He seem to actively avoid combat for as long as possible. He enjoyed being the company leader. Except when that company had to march into battle for weeks the troops languished on Kaya waiting for their commander to make a move finally after a month the soldiers demanded to leave port and Gregor realizing he couldn't store forever acquiesced on April Tenth Eighteen Nineteen. The troops landed in Portabella Panama yet. Another stop on their way to new Granada but this one was occupied by Spanish Forces Gregor and his men dropped anchor just off the city shores and road towards land guns at the ready. Colonel William Ratna. Greg trusted second in command led the troops from the front. He paused scrutinizing the horizon for the enemy then on his signal. The British army charged toward the beach in just a couple of hours. The Spanish Forces Important Bello were defeated. Greg soldiers celebrated but no-one was louder or more boisterous than Gregor who credited his military prowess for success in the throes of battle. Few of the soldiers wondered why they hadn't seen that brave and fearless leader on shore. If they had they much realized that Gregor hadn't taken part in the fighting at all in fact he had been back on the ship the entire time waiting for rattener to give the all clear to come ashore. Then he'd rowed ashore just in time to claim the victory the men who'd actually done the work still celebrating their triumphant battle. Grega decided to ignore Ratner's advice to keep the troops moving in favor of settling in Portobello. Grega wanted to relax and enjoy the riches left behind by the Spanish so for three weeks he and his soldiers took advantage of everything. Portobello to offer. They slept in comfortable accommodations. A good food and drank decadent wine but in the early morning hours of April thirtieth eighteen nineteen Gregor soldiers was sleeping off the alcohol from the night before when the Spanish troops crept through their encampment. As the Sun. Rose Gregor's soldiers finally awoke to realize they were under attack by then. It was too late. The Spanish had them cornered. The army looked in vain for their fearless leader. That Gregor was already long gone. As soon as he woke into the commotion he had hoped out of his window and made for the ships docked off shore. The Spanish victory over the British was quick and easy. And while the soldiers he'd recruited were being captured by the enemy. Grega commanded his remaining men to sail him to safety much. Like on Amelia Island. Grega gave no thought to the men. He'd abandoned and many of them were killed in Spanish custody including Greg's far more competent secondhand William Ratna. Portobello was a disaster from start to finish but soon enough. Grega pulled an almost identical stunt in a northern city of new Granada called Rio de la Hoya. Most of the soldiers he leads into the city ended up. Never coming home again and again Gregor made the same mistakes recruiting troops stalling the mature for far too long and then abandoning them to their deaths. Just as the enemy was swooping in but rather than learning from his blunders. Greg had a tendency to shrug them off past the blame to someone else and do it all again. This habits of shifting the blame may be exactly the reason why Gregor kept falling into the same pitfalls in a two thousand fourteen study observing felony convex researchers found that most criminals could be sold it into two categories those who felt guilty for their actions and those who felt shame while these may sound similar there is one key difference between the two those who feel guilty blame themselves for their actions while those who fell shame tried to blame others for their mistakes over a period of time researchers found the criminals who felt shame had a higher chance of committing the same crime than those who felt guilty. This was because the guilty convicts but more likely to correct own behavior while the shameful ones never bothered to reflect on how they needed to change. Greg is actions indicate the he was in the same category and this may explain why he kept repeating the same disastrous behavior but though he never held himself accountable others certainly did word got out. After these military disasters and soon breath found himself shunned by comrades and even close friends Simone Believer who had given him special commendations or more than one occasion charged. Grega with treason. He put out orders to hang the scotsman if he ever returned to the South American continent. Greg was devastated. He tried to blame the failures on anyone. But himself assuring the rebels that he was a victim of circumstance but it was too late past the provider and the false charm. Everyone could see Greco for the fraud. He truly was fearing for his life. Greg and his wife disappeared for several months in his mind. The military have become far more trouble than it was worth. He could now see that it wouldn't get him to where he wanted to go but his recent experiences did give him some new ideas. Greg learned that the British were especially susceptible to the idea of adventuring to exotic South America. This meant that there was money to be made in sending Europeans overseas. What happens to them off? Though wasn't his concern but perhaps the most valuable lesson of all was that he realized he didn't need to be a decorated army man to gain the recognition he desired. All he had to do was at the pump long enough to earn people's confidence with this in mind. Greg set about putting together something truly brazen. He invented an entirely new country. Thanks for listening to Cardis. We'll be back next week with two of Greco McGregor's story. We'll learn how he put together. His most audacious con yet and in the process created a fictitious country. We'll also see how he convinced people to move to this undiscovered territory. And what happened? Once he was outed as a fraud for more information on Grega McGregor amongst the many sources we used we found the book the land that never was by David Sinclair extremely helpful to our research. You can find all episodes of con artists and all other podcast originals for free on spotify not only does spotify already have or your favorite music but now spotify is making it easy for you to enjoy. All of your favorite podcast originals. Like Catis the free from your phone desktop or small speaker to string con artist on spotify. Just open the APP and type con artists in the search bar and don't forget to follow us on facebook and Instagram. At podcast and twitter at podcast network. I'll see you. Next time con artist was created Max Cutler and is a Parka studios original. It is executive produced by Max Cutler. Sound design by one border with production assistance by. Ross Perot Kelly and Aaron Larson. This episode of Con Artists was written by list or a Vegan with writing assistance by Abigail Cannon. I'm Alison murden highlights. Don't forget to check out the incredible new podcast original series supernatural with Ashley Flowers every Wednesday. Take a deep dive into the strange and surreal to find the truth behind some of the world's most bizarre true crime occurrences. I've had a chance to listen to some episodes and they are fantastic. Search for supernatural with Ashley Flowers in the spotify APP. And listen free today.

Gregor Greg Hud Grega army Gregor Macgregor Grega McGregor Venezuela Amelia Island Grega Sir Gregor Macgregor South America Grega British army London Grega Greco London spotify Florida Rose Gregor Maria bowater Maria
How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

Cautionary Tales

37:37 min | 10 months ago

How Britain Invented, Then Ignored, Blitzkrieg

"As the night draws in and the fire blazes on the half we warn the children by telling them stories. The hobbit teaches them not to leave the PAF. But my stories for the education of the grown-ups is all true on Tim. Harford gathered close and listen to my cautionary tales. August nineteen sixteen the Western Front. In the first World War the opposing armies had dug into entrenched positions stretching five hundred miles across France and Belgium from the mountains to the sea barbed wire and machine. Guns meant that it was all but impossible for either side to advance the Noble Cavalry Long. The most celebrated force in the army were utterly useless. It was a murderous stalemate but a few miles behind the allied lines. Hundreds of people both civilians and British and French army officers that brought picnics a waiting patiently for a demonstration of commendable invention. It was pleasantly warm day and a quiet spot if you tuned out the tillery of the Psalm. Battlefield thundering away beyond the horizon. Then another noise began to cut across that distant rumbling the Chug of a powerful engine the relentless metallic clattering of Caterpillar tracks carrying twenty eight tons of cannon an armor plating to walking pace. Everyone was talking and chatting. When slowly came into sight the first tank I ever saw not a monster but very graceful machine with beautiful lines lozenge shaped but with too clumsy looking wheels behind it. That's major J F C fuller. He's the central figure in story. He's thirty seven a small man with a neatly trimmed moustache. His hairline is retreating over his crown and beginning to March down the back of his head. He could pass for a Buckler in a costume drama. The beneath the surface of J F C fuller is an inner radicalism. Not long ago. He'd been friends with the notorious occultist Alister Crowley. Crowley called himself. A wizard one newspaper called him. The wickedest man in the world cavorting with self proclaimed walks is not the typical social pastime of a British army officer. But as we'll see that isn't even the strangest thing about the life and the fate of J F C Fuller Fuller sees instantly that this new machine. The tank is the solution to the basic tactical problem of the war. But how to cross mud and trenches and barbed wire against a storm of bullets. Nothing else has worked not even the novel atrocity of poison gas but the tank will do the job and J. F C fuller concede that with absolute clarity. The tank is the unknown x in the equation of victory. All that is necessary is to get the people's see the problem but getting other people to see the problem was well. Perhaps that was the problem. You're listening to another cautionary tale. The British officer class simply adored and more traditional of waging war one involving stirrups and swords and big beautiful horses. Here's one general explaining what he regarded as the obvious disadvantage of the tank look into the face of individuals who deal with the holes and the faces of the men who deal with the machine you will see in the letter or I might almost colon lack of intelligence. You keep up. The high standard of intelligence in the man from his association with the Horse if major fuller was going to persuade British army to embrace the tank it would be a long struggle at least managed to get himself in the right place. He applied to transfer to the newly formed tank corps. When he got there he was given a blank sheet of paper and ordered to think through what might be done with these new fangled machines. That was the easy bit fuller soon. Formed a clear strategic vision for tank warfare. He proposed that tanks could attack the German armies brain the string of German headquarters miles behind the front line. New Faster tanks were being designed they could roll across the trenches and be on the German command posts in an hour. Full as attack would come from nowhere. `support would disrupt. German road and rail travel bad news. Confuses confusion stimulates panic. His idea was dubbed plan. Nineteen nineteen by striking suddenly at the German Command Plan. Nineteen nineteen would cause the German army to disintegrate. It would be the winning of the war in single battle but the war ended anyway. Before Fuller's astonishing idea could be tested. It became the most famous unused plan in military history. According to his biographer. Brian Holden read. But it's not entirely true to say that it was unused. It was used to great effect. Twenty years later by the Germans in a lightning war occupying much of Europe. In a matter of weeks J F C Fuller had invented blitzkrieg and the British army had wasted his idea. If the spirit of this story feels faintly familiar there's a reason echoes of it. Been repeated again and again since the British army stuffed fullest plans for Blitzkrieg into a desk drawer in one thousand nine hundred seventy the photocopying giant Xerox established the Palo Alto Research Center or Park Xerox Parc than developed the modern personal computer and Achievement Twitch Bill Gates of Microsoft and Steve Jobs of apple observed with great interest Xerox still makes photocopiers in nineteen seventy five a twenty four year. Old Engineer named Steve. Sassan built the world's first digital camera the invention that was to destroy Eastman Kodak the photography giant. What'S STRANGE IS THAT STEVE. Sassan was working for Kodak in one thousand nine thousand nine. Sony launched one of the world's first digital music players the memory stick Walkman. Sony was armed with the iconic Walkman brand the world's best digital engineers and Sony Music Stars from Bob Dylan to Celine Dion Ole succeeded in doing was paving the way for apple's ipod and back in one thousand nine hundred eighteen the British at the best tanks in the world a clear vision of how to use them and in fuller one of the world's best military strategists yet by the late nineteen thirties. The British had conceded technical and tactical superiority to Adolf Hitler's new army. When this sort of thing happens so often you have to ask yourself. If it's really a coincidence. The tank the personal computer that digital camera the ipod. Why do some ideas slip out of the grasp of incumbents then thrive in the hands of J F C Fuller wants began an essay with an aphorism about pressing ahead when you in a leading position racehorses? Don't pull up the winning post. Perhaps that's true but organizations do pull up at the winning post within touching distance of victory. They slow down and allow others to overtake them. For Glimpse of what fuller was up against. Consider the battle of Cambrai late in nineteen seventeen. The British army had finally decided crowded on by fuller to US four hundred tanks to lumber across German lines. The tanks could only reach a top speed of four miles per hour. That was fast enough. They swept aside the barbed wire shrugged off the machine gunfire and bridged the chairman trenches. I'll guns fi incessantly unseen guys on connect Fires Edit but you must admit all efforts to stop tanks ineffective can do nothing against him without exaggeration. Some of the German infantry seemed to be off the heads with fright it was impossible to obtain any care idea of the situation. There was no chain of command and no orders. It was a stunning TAXCO success. But the success was squandered. The British High Command decided that the gap that the tanks had opened should be exploited. The cavalry a great deal of CLATTERING GALLOPING. Shouting and a lot of medieval whole soldiers came charging down the street. The Germans eventually regrouped and drove back the British assault. The opportunity was wasted and not just the tactical opportunity of that day at Cambrai but the strategic opportunity to reshape warfare itself some of the infantry. Who'd been there understood what it so nearly been achieved. Some of US had lost faith in the tanks but we would be in their new that one tank at the right time at the right place could have avoided the slaughter of two or three hundred men on that dump chilly morning fuller understood to before the gunsmoke could cleared. He was scribbling away furiously at his desk. Tank Corps headquarters sketching out what had been discovered. And what should be done next? Those scribblings would over the following months become plan nineteen nineteen. He understood that the success at Cambrai was just a glimpse of what might be possible. The British High Command did not. There were several explanations for these missed opportunities but most of us don't get past the first and most obvious people at idiots now we can get back to some veal soldiering so remarked one senior officer to fuller at the end of the first world war as though defending Britain in an existential struggle had been frivolous distraction from tending to noble horses. Bright Buckles and shiny boots a year. After the war had ended fuller's essay the woman that begins with a reference to racehorses won the gold medal from a prestigious think-tank the Royal United Services Institute. A general burst into his office. What have you done next year? He wrote another strategically essay. This time overturning. The ideas of naval warfare and he won a second gold medal. It is rather amusing soldier having beaten the sailor at his own job. Alba's were not amused. The top brass complained fuller never received his second gold medal and was forbidden from publishing his second essay. The army also blocked publication of full as books for several years. They were regarded as annoying and insubordinate. The most brilliant ideas from the most brilliant strategist was seen as less an opportunity and as a threat. The top man in the British Army Field Marshals Archibald Montgomerie massing bird didn't read Fuller's as most celebrated book it would only annoy me. He responded to the threat of Nazi militarization by increasing the amount spent on. Hey and other food for horses. By a factor of ten cavalry officers would be provided with a second horse tank. Officers would get a horse to as I say. People Are Idiots and it's not just the British army who seem guilty of idiocy. When Steve Jobs visited XEROX PARC in Nineteen seventy-nine? He couldn't contain himself when he saw a windows and mouse interface for the first time. Why aren't you doing anything with this? This is the greatest thing. This is revolutionary. It jobs had been teleported into the British war office between the wars. He might well have said the same thing but there is something about the idiot theory. That feels too glib considered Xerox Park. How is it? There's a corporation could be smart enough to establish such a superb research center but then fail to take advantage was Kodak. Really run by idiots in the nineteen seventies was Sony in the nineteen nineties. No these organizations stumbled for a reason management theorists have a word for the phenomenon they call it disruption by disruption they refer to an innovation that changes the world in such a way that if successful organisations keep on doing what made them successful. The shorter fail. But why don't organizations adapt after all? They usually have the resources. The experience and the reputation to outpace any upstarts. Kodak did so did Xerox. So did Sony and so did the British army but for some reason they get stuck more horses more. Hey We've already explored idiot hypothesis but there's a different theory of what goes wrong. It's a famous theory too. In management circles it comes from Clayton Christianson of Harvard Business School more than twenty years ago. Christianson published the innovators dilemma told a compelling story about how new technologies creep up from below. These technologies are flawed or underdeveloped. At I said they don't appeal to existing customers but they find niches and slowly they improve while incumbents and looking elsewhere and one day. The new technology is good enough to destroy the business of the old giants. Christensen's disruption theory is an elegant one. But there are plenty of examples. That just don't fit. Think about why. Xerox didn't exploited that cutting EDGE RESEARCH AT XEROX PARC. Not because the mouse and the graphic user interface or a low end competitor to the photocopier. They aren't f from a different universe. The IPOD didn't sneak up on Sony from below and Kodak Not only developed the digital camera and made good income from the digital camera patents. These organizations were slow to see the change coming. They often saw earlier than anyone else. What lay ahead yet. They were unable to put together the right response so it was a century ago with a tank nobody could seriously call tank a low end competitor to the horse and nobody could claim that the British army hadn't noticed the tank. The British will well ahead of their rivals. So we've set aside the idiot hypothesis and we've examined Clayton Christensen's theory of disruption. It's one of the most celebrated ideas in management but if we want to understand why the British army lost its advantage in tank warfare. Are Cautionary Tale. Needs a new hearing. This episode is brought to you by the new podcast. Go and see hosted by our very own Malcolm Dodwell produced by the team behind revisionist history go and see is a six part series focused on Alexis philosophy of Ganci again Woodson. Which means Heath yourself an idea that stems from the belief that if you experience something yourself you have a better understanding people how to create something for them in the series. Lexus INVITES MALCOLM'S TO JAPAN. Discover that unconventional thinking and processes. I find out how a Japanese tea ceremony influenced the engineering of the car window. How the sound of an engine is cute. Like a musical composition realistic certain emotions. How undestanding Samurai Warrior led to a suspension innovation? Malcolm learns that no detail is left behind and that car company can learn more about my studying people go inside lexuses headquarters in Japan. Ride along on a top secret test track with a master a SIP in the expertly designed seat that actually lowest to welcome you into the vehicle. Follow Malcolm on his journey starting March the fifth or have you like to listen? Lexus DOT COM SLASH CURIOSITY. Eight for more stories like these in one thousand nine hundred ninety. A young economist named Rebecca Henderson published an article that presented a different view. Y It's hard to do new things in old organizations. The relevant word is the boring one organizations. What Rebecca Henderson pointed out was that these organizations don't stumble because a new technology is radical they stumble if it requires well at a different type of organization no matter how brilliant and how new an innovation is if it slips snugly into the organizational chart that all ready exists the dominant organization of yesterday has a good chance of being the dominant organization of tomorrow. Let me give you an example. Ibm The giant of old fashioned mainframe corporate computing. Ibm Mrs Survivor. It was top dog from the age of the punch card machine all the way through to the nineteen eighties. Everything changed in computing over those decades. Everything except the fact that IBM was in charge. This was because the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mainframe computer to a bank in the nineteen. Seventies wasn't very different from the organizational challenge of making and selling a room sized mechanical tabulating machine to a bank in the nineteen thirties but then computers crossed a threshold. They became small enough and cheap. Enough that'd be bought by small businesses and hobbyists even parents now. Ibm faced a very different challenge. They had a corporate army ready to negotiate. Multi-million dollar contracts with multinational procurement departments. What were they supposed to do when a computer became a household appliance? Something more like a blender. Ibm Did create a strong business in personal computers. But that business was openly aggravating. The rest of the organization bypassing IBM's Distribution Division and cutting IBM's components division out of the loop in the end IBM's internal politics asserted itself and the personal computer. Division was sold off. It just didn't fit what had flummoxed. Ibm was not the pace of technological. Change it's been dealing with technology change just fine for more than half a century. Ibm's problem was that it's old organizational structures and systems had become a liability not an advantage. Rebecca handwritten calls this sort of technological change an architectural innovation and an architectural innovation too MOMS and new organizational structure which means that old organizations face an uphill struggle. Those organizations may have changed the world that when that forced to change themselves. That's a hard challenge before the first world. War Armies had been organized for centuries around cavalry and infantry. The mounted troops offered mobility the soldiers strength in numbers and the ability to dig in defensively three new technologies artillery barbed wire in the machine gun shaped the battlefield of the First World War. They changed everything everything that is except the way armies were organized and that was because the army's didn't need change barbed wire and machine guns were used to reinforce infantry positions the big guns of the artillery could support either cavalry or infantry from a distance. The old hierarchies were preserved but then the tanks clanked slowly interview and the tanks were different in some ways they were like cavalry because their strength lay partly in their ability to move quickly in other ways they fitted with the infantry fighting alongside footsoldiers or perhaps tanks were a new kind of military capability entirely. This isn't some weird philosophical argument like whether a tomatoes a vegetable or a fruit. It's very practical. I spoke to a modern day. General about this. He told me that the tank problem has happened and again after the tank it was the helicopter. Was it a kind of plane? Should it be run by the Air Force is more of a navy thing or is its role to support the tanks? Now the same sort of question is a rising about drones. These seem like silly questions. They aren't there. Fundamental from the tank to the helicopter to the drone. Someone in the organization actually needs to own the new technology otherwise it will fail so where to put the tank tank. Warfare has been grafted onto a system. It is intended to destroy one possibility. Was that because the tank offered new capabilities it should be in a new kind of unit infantry will become I a subsidiary and later a useless arm on all ground over which tanks and move the Army of the last war was pot bellied and be brained that was J. AFC fuller's view. You can just imagine the reception. He got for that. The problem with setting up new specialized tank units was that those units would be seen as grab for power and resources within the army. A new tank regiment would have no allies and no historical tradition. So an alternative was to place the tanks with cavalry regiments as the Modern Mobile Strike Force. That made some sense. To and eventually tanks did end up in the old cavalry regiments but the cavalry whenever really organized around. The concept of mobility were organized around horses. The Cavalry Officer loved his horse. His regiment was devoted to feeding and caring for the horses. Why should he welcomed the u? Serpa tank it's easy to laugh at these hidebound officers with their shiny buttons and they're big moustaches rejecting the tank in favor of their beloved horses but the more you examine the difficulty of embracing architectural innovation. The more the problem looks like something really. Fundamental Xerox Parc developed or assembled must the features of a user friendly personal computer but Xerox didn't have the organizational architecture to manufacture and market. Such a computer zero. Did much better when park develop the LASER PRINTER. The laser printer was like artillery. Or the machine. Gun vizier rocks. It was an exciting new technology but it wasn't a challenge to the organization's architecture. The personal computer was like tank. One challenge could easily be met. The other was insurmountable the politics of change and never easy. Since an architectural innovation requires a painful organizational over whole. It's a task that needs skillful diplomacy J. F. C. Fulla was no diplomat. He'd been annoying senior officers. Since before the tank existed for example that the start of the Great War British general had been concerned that if the Germans invaded British counterattacks would be hampered by all the sheep on the roads of rural England. He told major fuller to sort it out. Some sign stating sheep must not use this road sir. What of less. Well educated sheep are unable to read them fully was just a little too fond of his own cleverness remember it was fuller who had clearly sketched out a vision for using tanks lightning attacks on the enemy's command structure it was fuller who had won a pair of gold medals for his strategic essays. But his prize. Winning writing was also dotted with spiky critiques of the Army Commanders. Well he testified in front of a committee of senior officers. How many hours a day can attack run the far we have never exceeded twenty four for fuller. This was part of the game. He reflected I knew I should create enemies yet without a sturdy opposition it is most difficult to explode deep rooted absurdities in other words full of thought that the best way to argue with a stupid person was to tell him to his face that he was stupid. The not sure he was quite right about that. People could see that fuller was smart creative. Perhaps even brilliant but nobody had a high opinion of him that he did of himself. And let's be honest fuller. Could be pretty weird. 'cause I told you hit being a disciple of the country's most infamous magician alister Crowley Crowley was into dark rituals and sex magic. He was such a cult figure that his image later ended up on the cover of the Beatles. Sergeant pepper album. After a while he and fuller fell out. You can still hear. Echoes of the Strange Spiritual Listrik beliefs in full as arguments. Even when he was lecturing informal settings about the warfare of the future I saw a fleet operating against a fleet not at see but on land cruisers and battleships and destroyers. My astral form follows one side and I notice that it is in difficulty. It cannot see there appears an aeroplane and gives. It's my astral form. What's he talking about yet? Despite the Hocus pocus fuller was handed a unique opportunity to advance the cause of tanks in the British army he was appointed commander of a new experimental mechanized force in December nineteen. Twenty six. There was just one problem. He would have to step away from his single-minded focus on the tank and also take command of an infantry brigade and a garrison that would mean taking responsibility for managing people as well as creating ideas in short fuller would have to get into the organizational headaches that surround any textual innovation he balked and wrote to the head of the army demanding that these other duties be carried out by someone else so that he could focus on developing tactics for Mechanized Warfare. Eventually Fuller threatened to resign. The position was awarded to someone else. Fullest career never recovered architectural. Innovations can seem too much like work even for those most committed to seeing them succeed and as we'll see fuller's petulance was to cost him and the British army dearly. A this has been a story. About how j? F C Fuller failed to persuade the British army to reorganize itself around the tank. Phone as part in it will soon becoming to painful end but there is another side to this. Tragic Tale story of how other organizations seemed to find it so easy to take and use these ideas the personal computer the memory stick Walkman the digital camera and of course the tank and the idea of blitzkrieg if the inventors of these ideas Xerox Sony Kodak found it so hard to use them. Why did their rivals seem to find it so easy? The answer is that it sometimes. Easier to build an organization from the ground up than to disassemble and reassemble. What's already there? The treaty signed after the First World War all but abolished the German army. It was scarcely more than a collection of offices ahead without a body and tanks was strictly forbidden. The British army had been victorious. And it's hard to reorganize a victorious organization. The Germans had no organization to get in the way no status quo to defend. German officers. Paid close attention to what fuller and his fellow tank enthusiasts were writing they also closely watched British experiments with tank. When Adolf Hitler came to power in nineteen thirty three and dramatically expanded? The German army secretly I he encountered a German military that had been preparing for tank warfare for fourteen years early in nineteen thirty nine. Hitler celebrated his Fiftieth Birthday. With a parade of Germany's newly reconstructed army through the streets of Berlin. One Englishman was there to see the three hours a completely mechanized and motorized army roared past the fuhrer yes. J F C Fuller. Was there. Indeed. He was a guest of honor. Hitler's birthday celebrations after quitting the British army. Bitterness and frustration hit turned to fascism supporting authoritarian anti Semitic parties both in Britain and overseas. And of course. He felt that their walls worn army that had really understood and embraced his ideas. That Adolf Hitler after the Parade Major General Fuller met Hitler himself in a receiving line at the chancellery. The fuhrer grasped fillers hand. Offer Savar and MIT aiden Kinser Faden. I hope you're pleased with your children. Your Excellency they have grown up so quickly that I no longer recognize them. In one thousand nine hundred seventeen fuller had been planning the defeat of the German army in one thousand nine thirty nine. He was schmoozing with Adolf Hitler himself. It's an awful little detail of history. Oh and that piece of flattery that fuller didn't recognize the tanks anymore wasn't really true. Was it had been describing. The war of the future for two decades and the war of the future was about to arrive thirteen months later. On Adolf Hitler's orders German tanks rolled through Belgium Holland and France. A French pilot called. Saint Exupery flew over the battlefield. If you recognize the name then yes. It's the same guy who wrote the little prince sounds exupery described. What happened to the French and British armies? This armored lados bling repairable consequences easily territory. They have blitzed an army. Misdealing view talked but it seems to be an me who will once. It was an organism nause's meal quantity of disconnected sales. Compare THAT TO J F C Fuller explanation without an active directive brain. An army is reduced to a mob. Germany defeated France Belgium and the Netherlands and just forty six days sending their battered British allies scrambling back across the English Channel. Blitzkrieg had worked exactly as fuller had described. His superiors may not have wanted to listen Jay. Afc Fuller that brilliant bitter strange little man seen it all coming. You've been listening to cautionary tales and if you want to know more about what I think about. New Technologies have written an entire book fifty inventions that shaped the modern economy. You might like it. Cautionary Tales is written and presented by me. Tim Harford our producers arm Ryan Deli and Marilyn Rust. The sound designer and mixer was Pascal is who also composed the amazing music starring in this season. Are Alan Cumming Archie? Pange rb Toby Stevens and Russell Tovey alongside Enzo Chilean at Gahan Melanie Gutteridge Messiah Monroe and Rufus. Right and introducing Malcolm Gladman. Thanks to the team at Pushkin Industries. Julia Barton had a fame meal. Lebel Colleen Yori Jacob Weisberg and of course the mighty Malcolm God well and thanks to my colleagues at the Financial Times.

British army Fuller Fuller army fuller Xerox German army Eastman Kodak Adolf Hitler gold medal Sony tank corps French army Ibm J F C Steve Jobs Tim Harford
Episode 49: George Washington and Americas Christmas Miracle

Newt's World

33:11 min | 9 months ago

Episode 49: George Washington and Americas Christmas Miracle

"Hits the season of giving we're celebrating friends and family at my inner circle Joy Newton Circle Today and get twenty percents off your one or two year membership. appre- you and yet another membership to give you a friend at another twenty percent off. That's to inner circle memberships for twenty percent off the featured Richard Price and you'll receive a special gift when you subscribe celebrate the holidays by signing up for my inner circle today at new inner circle Dot Com use code new twenty at checkout this up sort of newsworld. I want to talk about what I think is the greatest single miracle to occur for America on Christmas Day in fact such improbable achievement. That general Washington would say many years later anybody who thought that achieve this without the hand of Divine Providence. Silence simply did not understand what happened and when we talk about is December twenty fifth seventeen seventy six and the following Hyundai December. Twenty six seventeen seventy six. The entire revolution hung in the balance. It is conceivable who would have collapsed in a brief period and the achievement. Turn everything around so let me pay a little bit of the story voicing understand why hey this should become such a remarkable moment. Washington had been picked to head up the continental alarming because the original forces were all in New England and they were all surrounding Boston and the Continental Congress knew they needed a Virginian- Virginia was is the biggest colony needed. Somebody from the south. She unify the effort and to make it a national effort and not just a New England. Effort Washington had been at the Continental Congress wearing his uniform as a member of the Virginia militia. The only uniform person the continental Congress Congress and when he is asked if he'd be willing to go to New England to take over the army he worries about it. He's not sure he can do it but that he will serve as the Patriot and do it. If called upon the up to understand how really different this was people who were small farmers and free holders and in many many ways came. Out of a puritan background in New England were really different from Virginia's. Here's Washington who probably has the largest landholder in the colonies. who was clearly an Aristocrat? He's physically huge for his time. If you'RE GONNA play Washington today you'd probably get a NFL offensive tackle. WHO's that much bigger than people around you? And they get used to each other and they begin to realize this is a serious man. Samana great honor his enormous courage and he really knows a lot about leadership. They gradually forced the British to leave Boston. Cost of a huge victory for them because they had taken over Dorchester Heights and the British recognized the ships would not survive. If the Americans would cannon up on the heights it's and they had found a bunch of cannon over in Vermont and we're bringing him back across to Boston literally drive the British out so the Royal Navy Leaves Leaves Boston. It's a great moment. People feel good about themselves but across all of the colonies. There's the sense of we can stand up to the British in Washington. Thanks so I will. They go next because he knows they're not done. And he knows with the Royal Navy. They have enormous mobility and so he figures out correctly correctly that their next stop will be to go to New York so Washington marches his army down to New York and sides that they will fight on long island does a huge huge problem now Washington at one victory and fixed defenses against the British army because if they were attacking against Americans Americans who were dug in the Americans could keep reloading and shooting. But they didn't have to worry about standing under combat. Now on Long Island is going to be room for for the British to maneuver. And the Americans aren't trained enough to fight against an army that can maneuver and an army of professionals so Washington gets gets beaten they ultimately end up in one of the first grade. Miracles of the American revolution that is as they're about to be crushed by the British. An an enormous fog comes in the Royal Navy is sitting in the East River prepared to destroy the Americans if they tried to retreat from long long island but when the fog comes in the Royal Navy can't see what the Americans are doing and because they have a group of boatmen from New England particularly the marblehead fishermen. They're able to row across all night long. Gradually taking most of the army off of Long Island where the time the fog lifts it's about ninety percent of the army's gotten across including Washington. So what could have been a total disaster. Milly becomes a defeat they're then driven north. arth along Manhattan. Remember back then. The actual area was inhabited. It was very small and at the tip. Down Around Wall Street is the rest of the place was basically farmland homeland and so the Royal Navy keeps moving up and one of the things to remember about. This is if you are close to the ocean the British dominate a British mich- ship of the line which has shipped the could stand in the line and fight other big ships could have up to one hundred and forty four guns. That's more cannon than the entire Tara American army and so when you got five or six or seven of these ships together. There's no way any American unit could stand up till so they gradually drive. Washington north worth to Washington heights and ultimately across the Bronx Up to White Plains in the process some of Washington's guys come up with a clever idea area to put three thousand men and afford which then GonNa Call Fort Washington faced with that the British simply take the forty three thousand Americans surrender her. It's a double embarrassment because named Fort Washington. There's a real sense of despair in the army. There then chased all the way down across just above New York City down across the Palisades New Jersey across the state of New Jersey and they finally end up near Philadelphia. Now they go from an army of about thirty thousand regulars who are capable of fighting in early September in New York and they gradually between defeat. Desertion and people who had relatively short time and listeners people were very contract oriented if they signed up for six months at at the end of six months. They had the right to go home so Washington's watching his army melt away and he sits down with his generals and basically come up with the idea. What if we we would? Across the Delaware surprise the British unit this in Trenton which actually was a group of Russians who were first class page soldiers soldiers about eight hundred of them and what if we could surprise them and capture them and that would end send out a signal that the revolution was still so live for group. People been getting beaten for six months and who really demoralized. After the declaration dependence has been signed July they went from. It's great sense of exuberance to a sense of despair and Washington who understood as Napoleon did that morale is really important portent pullin once said that morale is physical power with three as to one. Meaning that you get three times as much power of high morale as you do out of sheer numbers and Washington understood. This understood the importance of psychology and so several weeks before Christmas he had turned to Thomas Paine who who was the great pamphleteer English a radical. I had written common sense which was widely read across. All of the colonies. Hit turned learned a pain who is serving as a rifleman said. Look I don't need you carrying a gun. I need you writing. This is not working. It's not happening the way we thought it would see. You've got to explain. Explain to us where we are and what it means so pain goes to Philadelphia ahead of the army sits down and writes an extraordinary. Mary pamphlet called the crisis. Which begins these are the Times that try men's souls and he says basically you know the summer patriots will go home the those who have courage those who understand that to tear freedom away from the devil means taking on hell itself you get to decide died? Are you a summer soldier or are you somebody WHO's prepared to stand up and do what is necessary for America and for freedom. Well it's a remarkable marketable obligation and it's just barely coming out on the twenty fifth of December so washing. Actually it's copies from the printer and and when they decide to cross the river. He has the officers reading the opening chapters of the crisis to the men to remind them that. This is a moral. 'cause this is about patriotism they represent freedom and that they have to be prepared to die for freedom so wash is a clear sense of the importance of psychology and importance of leadership. And here's the proposition. He makes to his generals. We have to have a victory shortly after the first of the year. We're the majority of the men who are still left and they were down by the way from thirty thousand to twenty five hundred less than ten percent of the size of the force that they'd had back at Long Island is left there also people are second invalid over half of them. We're going to have their contracts come up in January and if they go home we won't have a big enough army to fight so we have to gamble. We'll have to decide. This is the moment though her lay it donald line and either freedoms going to win or freedoms GONNA lose. But we're GONNA do everything we can win. Risk our lives well. His generals who are normal rational people people all thought this was crazy to cross the Delaware at night to march in a middle of winter to try to surprise the Hessian troops to end up potentially with eight hundred first rate professional soldiers in the field defeating the American army which would then be trapped on the New Jersey side of the river and would be subject to being totally destroyed as they all made their arguments and Washington basically said look if if the army collapses the British will of one the revolution will be over one the British Wim. They're going to hang every one of us in this realm Tom. Because we're the leaders of the revolution. So you have nothing to risk. I mean the worst case is you're going to die fighting. The best case is you're GONNA win but if you don't risk dying you know risk winning you are going to be hung. So since you have nothing to lose why not take the gamble and Washington's very calm courage is a key part of this and I think goes back all the way back to braddock expedition expedition when Washington was an American adviser to the British General Braddock and they were ambushed by the French and the Indians and radicals killed very early in the fight and Washington ended up out of necessity taking over reorganizing. The army getting it back back out of the ambush saving it from being totally destroyed. Washington remember is huge guy physically and his on big horses because you had to have a big horse because little horses couldn't have carried him. He has two horses shot out from under him. He has four bullet holes in his coat. Ten years later he runs into an Indian chief of the ETA Powell and the chief says you know there must be some greater purpose to your life because all of us were shooting at. She said I personally shot thirteen times. And and I couldn't hit you so part of what Washington's generals are dealing with is a man who does believe that he's a man of destiny in who does believe the taking really big gambles as okay. Okay that is in fact how you change history coming up General George. Washington was determined across the Delaware. But would he have the support of his men on this cold winter night. It's the holiday season and what better time to give the now. You know you can't take your money with you go to Delta rescued dot org slash newt and learn more about how you can support Delta rescue through estate planning this holiday Delta Rescue is celebrating forty years and is the only no kill care for life home for more than fifteen hundred dogs cats and horses that have all been abandoned in the wilderness. It is a mountaintop ranch in Los Angeles beautifully we landscaped and surrounded by rolling hills the perfect sanctuary for our lost furry friends. You know how I feel about animals. They're pure souls who only want to give the of love and get love unconditionally. What founder Leo Grillo is doing? A Delta rescue is amazing helping to save and care for these innocent creatures so so they can live safely and in peace for more information go directly to Delta rescue dot org slash newt and asks for Free Estate Package and and since it's the holiday season enjoy the movie magic right there on the website. Free it's a heartwarming story of a dog. That is an angel played by Christopher. Lloyd Loyd go to Delta rescued dot Org Slash Newt Watch this holiday family movie and request. Newt's free estate planning package again. My package is only available on a rescue dot org slash newt. He had a real feeling about where they were at. On December. The twenty fifth in a diary entry from an officer on Washington's staff who wrote quote Christmas morning. They make a great deal of Christmas Germany and no doubt the Hashes will drink a great deal a beer and have a dance tonight. They'll be sleepy tomorrow morning. Washington were set the tune for them. About daybreak the rations or cooked new new. Flint's in ammunition had been distributed. Colonel Glover's fishermen from Arwa had massachusets are to manage the boats just as they did and the retreat from Long Island. So here you are at the beginning of the day leaning forward preparing and getting ready for this great adventure and the scrape gamble remember says the middle of the winner. There's actually a huge snowstorm coming. There's ice flows in the river. It's very daunting to be doing this. Remember that of the twenty five five hundred. who were left about? A third of them did not have shoes. They were marching and burlap bags. If you're not a farm boy who's been running around barefoot for your entire life your features could cut up and you bleed. Here's this army crossing at night in a snowstorm and the conditions are terrible. They're crossing over and they carry with them the fate of the United States if they had lost that night the odds are even money that we would not have become a country Washington would have been totally discredited. Half right now has six months of defeat and this final Donald Defeat might have led them to get rid of him if he had not been killed in the fight and Washington head of very ferocious temper when he was fighting so the odds are pretty good did he would risk being killed. Tried to achieve victory so now they cared and they're running late. Getting across as often happens washed. I WANNA three different columns Nick Ross. The other two didn't make it at all says only one column getting across his Washington's the only have a handful of cannon but they also also discover a couple of really frightening things there are more ravines between where they crossed and Trenton thought they were so when you have a ravine with this is kind of army you have to remember this ravine and mid winner in a snowstorm with probably ice on the little creek at the bottom of the ravine she got to take. Make your cannon down one side across the creek pull it back up the other side and all. This is taking a lot more time than they expected. Finally Washington runs runs into a small group of American soldiers from Virginia. who are out on their own? And who had actually shot up Trenton. From a distance that just just stayed out in the woods and further rifles and Washington was furious. He said you've probably destroy the whole expedition. The Russians are now going to be alert for. We're going to be running into people who are Prepared to fight us. We've lost the element of surprise. Well it turns out he was exactly wrong. There were two things happening. They were amazing. The I was the snowstorm snowstorm. It was an enormous mid winter storm coming from the north which meant it was coming from their back but it was coming into the face of the Hashes Russians now. The hashes are all European and so the hash attitude is nobody is going to be out on a storm like this so they all went into these nice warm houses us not because they were drunk. which sort of anti-american Canard that some of the progressive historians put about because they wanted to minimize this achievement? And they want to and while these guys were all drunken one really big deal. It's not true. The hashes were fully professional. They were fully prepared to fight but they also had ground-rule they're Europeans. No no European army would fight in the middle of the snowstor- it made no sense and what they didn't realize is the army. They were up against. We're all deer hunters these raw. The people who had been able to keep living in part by going out and finding deer in the middle of the winner and killing them for meat and so most of the Americans just thought this was just normal. They didn't think this was something terrible. Now they were cold. They were miserable but they were used to being cold and miserable so the Hashes are one staying inside the house else. Second when Virginian shoot up the place briefly and then run the Hashes all go to their weapons out. They all go to stand to. They're all out there getting getting chilled and they realize that was just probably a bunch of guys running by not a serious force. This is not something we have to worry about. Let's go back to bed so so in a funny way. The VIRGINIANS are meaning to had actually triggered for the hashes totally false information. And so the Hashes Russians went back to sleep. General Washington soldiers survived the crossing the Delaware. They survived the cold night next. Can they face the Hessian soldiers in Trenton I. I was delighted. When the first sponsor of Newt's world was Oxford Goal Group I love entrepreneurial startups of people who are eager willing to go out and do new in different things and as a historian I know that having a balanced portfolio is a very important thing and they offer financial information nations and background information that I think is very helpful so whatever you decide to do in the end? I think you'll find the information. They have is really really worthwhile. And that's why I'm delighted to introduce you to the Oxford Gold Group. Most of US still remember what happened to our 401K's in Iras back in two thousand eight. During the financial crash. In a FLASH MILLIONS OF HARDWORKING AMERICANS LOST more than half of their retirement savings. Many of US still haven't recovered those losses even as the stock stock market reached record highs. Did you know that while the stock market crashed the price of gold and silver skyrocketed in fact investors who had the foresight to diversify a portion of their retirement and savings before the two thousand eight meltdown watched as the price of golden silver. Went up over three hundred percent. While millions of Americans lost their nest stags in the stock market many others were able to make gains. Most people had never seen before. Call the Oxford Gold Group today at one eight three three three two seven nine four seven two or visit Oxford Gold Group DOT com slash Newt's world and request your free investor's guide investing in precious metals with the Oxford gold. Group is safe and secure we tailor investment packages to suit any portfolio. Don't risk the future of your. IRA 401K or savings savings on paper. Investments protect your retirement and savings with physical assets gold and silver. Nobody knows when the next financial crisis will happen. Get prepared by talking to the Oxford Gold Group by calling one eight three three three two seven nine four seven two or by visiting Oxford Gold Group DOT com slash. First news world. Financial security is just a phone. Call Away we're very fortunate to have a number of entries from the diary those kept by an officer in Washington staff staff on Christmas at six. PM Staff Officer Rhode Quote The regiments have had their evening parade but instead of returning to their quarters marching toward the ferry it is fearfully cold and raw and a snowstorm setting in the winds northeast and beats in the faces of the men. It'll be a terrible night for the soldiers who have no ships. Some of them have tied old rags around their feet. Others are barefoot but I have not heard a man complain plane. They are ready to suffer any hardship and die rather than give up their liberty. I've just copied the order for marching. Both divisions are go from the ferry varied bear tavern two miles away. They will separate their Washington will accompany Greene's division with a part of the artillery. Down the Pennington Road Sullivan. The rest of the artillery will take the river road. A man came with a message from General Sullivan that the storm was wedding. The muskets in rang them on fit for service. Tell General Sullivan said Washington. To use the bayonet I am resolved to take Trenton. It was broad daylight when we came to a house remain remain was chopping wood. His very much surprised when he saw us. Can you tell us what the Hessian pick it is. Washing asked the man hesitated. But I said you will not be frightened general Washington. Who asked the question? His face brightened and he pointed to the House of Mr Hallam. He was just eight o'clock. Aw looking down the road. I saw Hessian running out from the house. He yelled in Dutch and swung his arms three or four others came out with their guns. Two of them fair to us but the boss was sort over our heads. Some general Stevens man rush forward and captured to the others took to their heels running towards Mr Sir cow. Hoon's house where the pick guard was stationed about twenty men under captain. Walter broke him. They came running out of the house. The captain flourished his sword and tried to form his men. Some of them fired at us. Others ran toward the village. The next moment we heard drums beat and a bugle sound and then from the West came the boom of a cannon general Washington's face lighted up instantly for he knew. Oh there was one of Sullivan's guns. We could see a Great Commotion Down Toward The meeting. House men running here and there officers swinging their swords artilleryman harnessing racing their horses. We saw come riding up the street from his headquarters we could hear him shouting and Dutch. My brave soldiers advance. His men were frightened and and confused for our men were firing upon them from fences and houses and they were falling fast. Instead of dancing they ran into an apple orchard. The officers has tried to rally them but are men kept advancing. Picking off the officers who was not long before a raw tumbled from his horse and his soldiers to down their guns and and gave themselves up as prisoners. Eight hundred German mercenaries surrender to wash in his army. Washington is one man. Yeah and then he does something very sensible. He runs like crazy because he knows that. Not Very many miles down. The road is the main British army and if the main British army armie catches him they'll destroy him so he takes. The Hashem prisoners goes back across the river where he's now safe because the British not gonNA cross the river in the middle of the winter. Morale this is an army of about twenty. Five hundred effect is on Christmas Day with about a third to half of them. Having their term expired in the beginning of January word spreads Washington's just won a great victory within a few weeks. There are thirteen thousand volunteers showing up because people like winning and and all of a sudden the revolution has been saved. Were goes out across the country. Washington beaten a British army and had surrendered to him. He reestablished published moral authority. The Americas began to feel like you know it may take a while but we can win. This thing now have always thought this was such a miracle had every stage it could have gone wrong. Washington could've lacked the courage to overrule his generals. They could have decided just to sit. There gradually shrink until they. We're down to five or six or seven hundred. WHO which point? They would have no longer been an army and the revolution will gradually died. They could have crossed over and ahead. The Haitian surprise there were so many things that could have gone wrong and they would have in so many ways neither ended the revolution or made a dramatically horror at a minimum he would've ended Washington's role and I do think because of his courage because of his integrity goodie because he was the person on whom you could build an entire republic that the loss of Washington would have been just catastrophic. Perfect for the future of the United States is a free country coming up in eighteen. Fifty one a German born painter immortalized dramatic Christmas night crossing crossing and his classic Washington crossing the Delaware Painting and has become a symbol of American patriots. Hi This is Newt Gingrich. After I served as speaker of the House I opened my own business. US Gingrich three sixty as a business owner. If you don't know your numbers you don't Know Your Business. That is what net suite by Oracle his set out to solve because most companies companies don't have a clear picture of their finances and that is why many businesses fail questioned. Any business owner out. There is are you confident the at the right numbers at your fingertips tips serious entrepreneurs and finance teams run on net suite by Oracle the world's number one cloud business system net. Sweet offers a full picture of all your refinances all in one place and real time right from your phone or your desktop. No more guessing no more worried than what you don't know could kill your company. That's why net sweet customers grow three times faster than the S. and p. five hundred and you can to schedule your free demo right now and received their free guide seven key strategies to grow your profits at sweet dot com slash. Newt set up your Free Demo and get your free guide. I today and net sweet dot com slash. Newt that's net sweet dot com slash. Newt because it's so much a part of American history let me mention a german-born painter Emanuel Loyd says his famous painting he immortalized the dramatic Christmas Night River crossing and classic named Washington crossing the Delaware. Who's done in eighteen? Fifty one hit became a symbol of American patriotism and one of the most popular and widely reproduced images of anti American historical event. The pain is also famous in many inaccuracies. The flag is inaccurate. The boats are not large enough. The time of day is wrong and it is doubtful. The Washington could across the river in the standing manner present but sometimes as they said at the end of the man is shot liberty valance if you have to choose between the fact and the legend print the legend and the legend John. Was the painting believe that Christmas much day seventeen seventy six was a miracle and etta was the most amazing miracle with had so far in American history and Christmas Day and I hope you'll think about the courage that these men had their willingness to risk everything for freedom their willingness to cross in the middle of a snowstorm for freedom their willingness to march for miles in terrible condition for freedom their willingness take on first-class European professional soldiers for freedom. How they did this because they believed in the cause go read Thomas? Pain read his commitment both in the original common sense describing the declaration of independence and then in the crisis describing the difficult cold war that we were caught up in and realize it pains. Writing is astonishingly idealistic definition of a kind of country. In in which everyday folks could have a real future remember. He's writing at a time when you had British aristocrats and French aristocrats and Russian aristocrats and is describing a country which is being worn out of the hard work of everyday folks a country which is built around the concept of freedom and in which people are willing to die for the right to be free. So I would just suggest you the next time you think about Christmas Day. Miracles take a little part of the time time. Think about George Washington the Americans who were around him and the miracle of winning at Trenton and as remember the miracle of Christmas nights seventeen eighteen seventy six. Please allow me to say. Merry Christmas to you can read more about George Washington Christmas night crossing the Delaware including an expert on my novel to try. Men's souls on our show page at neutral dot. COM neutral is produced by Westwood. One are executive producers Debbie Meyers and our producers Garnsey. Slow our editors Rubber Borowski and researchers. Rachel Peterson our guestbook. Her her is Tamra Coleman. The artwork for the show was created by Steve. The music was composed by joy savvy. Special thanks that again which we sixty sixty. Please email me with your comments at NEWT NEUTRAL DOT COM if you've been enjoying neutral I hope you'll go to apple podcast. And both with raiders with five stars and give us a review. SWATTERS can learn what it's all about them on the next episode of mutual as the year. Two Thousand Nineteen comes to a close. I've been thinking about and discussing the year ahead a presidential election year and while we are focused on the lead up to the election hobby devoted an episode to what other significant issues five things to watch in two thousand twenty. He should keep an eye on. I'm Newt Gingrich. This is new twirl in the Westwood. One podcast network.

Washington army Washington George Washington Newt Gingrich Trenton Times Delaware officer Long Island British army Washington Americas United States Royal Navy Fort Washington Pain New England New England
Suffering Leads to Liberation | AjahnBrahm | 12 May 2020

Buddhist Society of Western Australia

32:06 min | 4 months ago

Suffering Leads to Liberation | AjahnBrahm | 12 May 2020

"Good so good morning good afternoon. Good evening everyone. Wherever in the world you happen to be right now. This is Jon. Rahm giving another little talk and guided meditation and on Tuesday. The eleventh of May as well. I am and also to apologize for lost weeks. Talk a meditation which is getting into the meditation just really just getting peaceful about to get out but then but then they electricity supplies stopped and we were disconnected for how many hours I can. It was mar interfered and stop. Many people get enlightened but today today I'm sure that the power be on an average single run smoothly perhaps because futures always uncertain. And the thing is we can't control the future we have just adapts to what happens and to make the best of it and I know that I've often been rated on the times when things were going so well. In my life I went fit and healthy and happy and living with really great teachers Chow ascertains and these amongst would really inspire me and can be so much happiness inside. And it's True Nathan. Put set it when the mind is happy and inspired so easy to meditate. You can't have that every day. Recently I was hiding out of digital book which the disciples over in Indonesia. I HATE PASOK foundation. They manage to to To put together and Princeton English and in Indonesian. And it's cold happy every day. And some people ask me. How can you be happy everyday? And of course was well this honey. Happy every time you can be simple but no I meant is happy everyday. Twenty four hours. And how can you do that? And the answer is When life is differ because when it's suffering when it doesn't go the way you wanted to when its problems difficulties and even physical pain then you're happy to have that misery you embrace everything can life not just side but even the problematic side. The happy times of our life is where we can relax and enjoy. Enjoy the all the good comma which we have created when it gets difficult time to roll up our sleeves as I say and get to work making more good comma so whether it's having a happy time or unhappy time is always something we wonder. They reminded me as I was walking in here to give this talk meditation today but even when there is suffering the Buddha said even wenders suffering to that can be a cause for deep. Meditation for an even. Lighten -ment if you're having a very difficult time in your life and nothing seems to be going well and there's always problems being appreciated and people being critical view. Things aren't going. Well you may even be sake even hospitalized. Trust your body. The body is sick. Never means the mind has to be sick. Spotless suffering are we can add to that with I'm Otieno suffering on. This happened to me. Why is it always me? That has to ensure all these people think like that for when there is such a queer suffering offices if it weren't can to alleviate Celeste Cement fine sometimes you get these parts is nothing really we can do in a difficult situation and it said all similarly we didn't intend to say the similarly here it comes of that Gentlemen who is a federal schoolteacher when I taught children and He said he was in the British army during the Second World War in Burma just a small group of soldiers and so did by enemy soldiers. Totally surrounded totally outnumbered and it was a wall awarded. His Captain. Order him to the the rest of the soldier's. Id six or seven of them facing hundreds and hundreds of heavily armed enemy troops. The captain said sit down. Do I tried to escape. Sit Down and have a cup of tea. British army competency well worthwhile to try and while they're having a cup of tea just relaxing making no noise no confronting. The enemy. Scouts came back and said away through. I found in the scapegoat and of course I already skype. That's why he could tell me the story. That's a wonderful little method when this suffering around here and there's no possibility no hope his size a being captured of prisoner of war camps which were very very harsh all dying but that third option his captain realized sit down and do nothing to relax and make peace be still and that's one of the reasons why when life is suffering and some new different areas of our life. It can be an encouragement. Is nothing else to be reasonable? Illogical except a sit down enclosure is being this moment and this moment is not a problem. All problems and difficulties ore about the past your experience on pricing experienced this all popped Wabi for the future and sometimes you look at that future and there's no solution so why why when Wabi to perform any function but it does not help you all if wiry confined solution that it may have some purpose. Most of the time worrying just ties you out to train. All your energy makes you. Negative and solutions just cannot be found so we come into the present moment. Come into the now meditate suffering. But there's nothing we can do. All the things are going wrong when our life is falling apart. I want the best times to sit down and just be here and you'll find amazing. Solutions is a lot of times his spike went. I'm trying to think somebody's name. Hardwood trying to think of the nine along takes me to remember it and I just really relax and the name POPs up so shouldn't when you wabi neutron finally try and force them that never found when you're still in peaceful solutions come to you make good solutions as well. It's one of the reasons why when is suffering and difficulties things which I have to solve in my life in the monastery or in other people on my disciples and all the other things I get involved with in my life is a senior mark when ever any problems and I look at them icon. Find a solution. I pulled him aside and meditate. Not the meditation so amazing. Just how many solutions come up. Good ones to workable. So I use meditation Ephron when I have not suffering you live to be honest but when there is any type of suffering I encourage people. Don't think about it. Why are your parts? It don't complain about blame. Others is put aside for awhile and go for refuge inside in Buddha. Dharma Sangha Gopher refuge in silence in peace. Install nece and that refugee find. No matter what suffering you can always find some pace some freed some wister which is one of the reasons why any time you have difficulty is settled trying to get rid of the difficulty instead of trying to escape from it. Maybe try and find a third option discarding inside being peaceful being still and so this is the way that we can meet. Its Hands Indus. How to that guy of the world outside with economic problems with health problems disharmony problems that lives in the world. Outside is not rejecting. The existence is putting in perspective to our world inside where we can without a bitter training find so much peace and freedom and happiness and Soya coupon repeating my old. My own personal stories that time so many years ago inside. I must've been up. Forty five forty four years ago now when I had a scrub typhus route. Three or four weeks of nothing was working to try and heal me and fitting so weak and ITCHY. It's called whole body and then another attack of fever. I decided instead of complaining instead of just ensuring to go inside a medicine find. You could do that. You go deep inside your mind to where you could not feel. Your Body analysis of blissful showed me the day from outside to suffering the mind is anita suffer. Mike can be blissed out so much freedom so much piece. That's what we learn. We these other ways of dealing with problems and it was a suffering which motivated me which forced me. There's nothing else to do. There's nowhere else to car so you had to go inside. What a wonderful thing that was so anyway. This is why that when you are suffering on comprising it's another opportunity is a motivation incentive to get in here become still so that's through. Meditation have united to sit down on the seats. Laid out on your bed or whatever you push to his list or you're comfortable and if you are ill or sick in hospital if you are depressed because things aren't going in your life if you are really old and tired or grieving someone who's Pasta Way. Close Your Eyes Anyway. When you close your eyes let your mind wander off to the poss consents. Where the suffering is. Sometimes I remember going barefoot through the jungle pals in Thailand because it didn't have any Sandoz and sometimes you would see where the ads lift. It would never walk on the palace where the ants because I would buy and they would sting and it was very painful other pas whether we're now at it's so you don't go to those pasta moments whether suffering lies does experiences in the past by to encourage you suffering leave us alone going. Otherwi- not otherwise present moment. Just now just being here. Yeah instead of being in the past is the training is something we learn something worth learning is signature and the school or university. You forget some of the Yes. Otherwise cemented science income in the present moment. You Never Forget. You'll be able to do that even your loss days a matter. How old you So in this moment you can feel your body sitting here. How are you links? This is my usual practice. Which many of you would know by now if you've heard me before. I just asked my like I'm greeting them. How are you good morning to you? Are you comfortable sitting there when I ask a question? It's like paying attention can feel my lex. Tell me. They're pretty comfortable this morning. If the answer was that they were uncomfortable. Of course I would move straightaway my awesome. I bought our you last Saturday. I was a little bit too confidence and I put my bottom in an uncomfortable. Position the big into meditation which are taught in Nollamara Temple Maloka. But I had to move in the middle of the meditation so it's really painful so I learned from mistakes become pets being aware of my posture. My back good. Good stretch really aware of the feelings in my back making sure that comfy is at ease position. I can hold comfortably for the whole meditation period. Become aware of my shoulders. Feel them how are you showed US every time? I'm not quite sure why they're always a bit tense. When I I look at so I have to pay some kind fullness to them aware and kind and Lucido those muscles focused seldom is like zooming in the only Similarly like Google Earth Zoom into a location everything outside that location just fades away falls off the screen so when I focus on my shoulders everything else in my body just disappears pose office creed so focused on this one thing. It's by shoulder muscles to accent now. Simple learning got on my arms possibly my elbows with Sir. My hands in a bit of a sloppy position right now. I never noticed until I looked so now. I adjust the position of my hands. Now if you really comfy back up to my neck to my to my neck can show that comfortable already. I'm starting to feel good about this. What is really relaxing feeling? Sort of strong making show. This rightists relax. Because Republicans irradiation mice father's just softened just with the attention together with care and to my face the facial muscles especially around the eyes and the mouth maybe a bit of the forehead as well feel the forehead muscles a bit tight a moment. Gaza maximum what you know because the mindfulness gives you feedback. I'm mindful now my next moments I see the change. I learn by trial an era to relax muscles in my face. Relax the muscles my eyes and how to ease muscles around my mouth. They do relax. They usually are not on the edges. Little Smile Gripe posture. To start the meditation with somebody wants asked me. What's the most important part of your physical posture? I said the smile of the position of the lake sole position of the hands. Opposition of the back of your smile and all the time. We've been doing this body awareness. You may have noticed that you were. In the present moment. Physical sensations exists now is skillful means to Bingo attention into the here. And now how painful does it feel? Then I'll be aware of my whole body sitting here unify it pots anymore. But this whole buddy toes the tip of the head really relaxed feels good present moment. They relax boaty feel so much more enticing taking about the in deposits only things I would have to do afterwards. This is my home too so I can relax and rest here of the Post. The fear of the future inspires me today. Come into this month motivation. In this moment I look at my piece on Apiece FOR NAMBA for one to ten one being really peaceful ten being agitated. It turned around to the other way if you want. But that's how I prefer my mind more peaceful taking about the poss- whining about the future to stab. Some mind. This no what we should be doing right now. You WanNa Find Solutions. Come in the present moment where you can rest. Energize your mindfulness and reset the focus. So when you come out a mile be more able to innovate with clarity. And power coming to this moment with my piece on solider. You might realize that even this moment but you have a common tree covering on Internal Dialog. Put Monologue talking to yourself giving us off instructions if these moments names. Tv can stop doing just know this moment as it is without giving it a name or title or good bad measurement. Spend this moment be without a name without a judgment by quickly enough anyway just here in science in this moment. Great Moyer devout. This present moment of Anna's insides with kaidonis joy comes into your mind at happiness is mental. And then she recharging. Ina batteries so worn out by worrying about the problems. Your past taking how you can do with your future tie it. In this moment the mind recharge becomes alive happy PA- poised in this segment. Many people can become aware of the breathing after. I'm beth meditation before if you had done become aware of your breath find to enjoy the happiness of this moment of silence off the press conferences watching the press coming watching. Nebraska out peaceful. If you're on holiday HOMEO- Problems and concerns you half your in a monastery in retreat center. You're in the temple inside. If you've had had to meditate this way not just GonNa be quiet for about feel for his Sunday to go even deeper into this meditation. Silence the placeholders tape inside life might be like a storm this policy To the eye of the storm the middle is no wind. Rain call just content eighties. I do feel. How's your body relaxed set you can feed. It's a toll. Come back to your body sign kits humidity pill face a May show that smart is still that increase. It is strong is come out of meditation. It bring the happiness pace out into this world. God saw sue do means or poor peace. Awesome stillness awesome happiness awesome meditation. And you'll find that afterwards. Shoot this left behind before you made a tainted starting to find solutions. Different ways of looking stronger mind. That's one of the reasons why Meditation. They still wisdom pos best here see next week.

British army Wabi Indonesia Chow ascertains Rahm scrub typhus Jon Gaza Buddha Celeste Cement Nebraska Dharma Sangha Gopher Burma Ephron Nollamara Temple Maloka Otherwi Mike
Troubling: a death in Northern Ireland

The Economist: The Intelligence

21:38 min | 1 year ago

Troubling: a death in Northern Ireland

"This economists podcast is sponsored by linked in jobs. Hello and welcome to the intelligence on economists radio. I'm your host Jason Palmer every weekday. We provide a fresh perspective on the events shaping your world. A minority of South African people have steadied formal jobs too many, including a large fraction of the country's youth do piecemeal work or are unemployed altogether. We look at the efforts to bring the young into the workforce. And there's a lot of talk about public figures particularly candidates in America's upcoming presidential race speaking, multiple languages, what's with these polyglot politicians. But I. A funeral will be held today for a young journalist from Northern Ireland who was shot dead last week all for the loss of lira. Our hopes and dreams all of her Mazen potential with snuff type a single Barrick. Lira Mckee had been reporting on violent unrest in the city of Londonderry. We believe this to be a terrorist act. We believe it's been carved violent Republicans yesterday. A group called the new IRA took responsibility for the killing it even apologized. The incident was shocking reminder of the fragility of peace since the end of the Northern Ireland conflict known as the troubles. This was an attack on everybody in northern. It. Doesn't matter if you're Catholic or Protestant. British are this is an attack on democracy? The troubles began in the nineteen sixties and painted mostly Catholic Irish nationalists against the British army Northern Ireland police and mostly Protestant loyalists. For three decades violence and terror was a part of everyday life, the turmoil claimed more than three thousand five hundred lives, but in nineteen ninety eight the Good Friday agreement largely brought an end to the conflict today is about the promise of a bright future. Dave, and behold, a line can be drawn bloody past some low level violence continued, but this latest killing has fear and outrage. The funeral today of Larry Mckee is going to feel in many ways. Like, we'll most states occasion. Tom Wainwright is the economists Britain editor where expecting to see the Irish T show that the prime minister will say the president of island the secretary of the UK as well as low two local politicians from Nova Nyland, of course. And so it's going to feel like a big deal, and it really is a big deal in Northern Ireland. This kind of killing of innocent civilian in what seems to have been a terrorist attack something that really has shocked people. It's by no means the gnome since the peace agreements of twenty one years ago. This kind of thing is much less common than it used to be in people here really really shocked by what happened last week, and Tom what can you tell me about the group responsible for misbehaves death, new IRA and its relation to the other groups with IRA in the name, it's it's a bit confusing. Picture it is it really isn't. I think to understand that you've got to go back to the Good Friday agreement of nineteen ninety eight and. What happened? There was that the IRA and most Republicans agreed to end any kind of struggle and take their fight for the United Ireland to the debating chamber of the streets. But at the time there was some Republicans who disagreed with that to this represented, a capitulation, and these guys who are now widely noted dissident Republicans have continued that struggle on a fairly low level. But nonetheless, they are security worry five the security agency raised the threat in Northern Ireland is severe they have continued trying to police officers, for instance. And so why do the new IRA kill Lear mckie? Well, she seems to have been killed by stray bullets. She was watching a riot taking place in the city of Londonderry Derry as it's known to Republicans, and she was watching from next to police come and she was shot in the head and later died, and this riot was kicked off really after police had been raiding homes in the area shortly beforehand seems that they were concerned on the. The Easter rising some local Republicans might be out to coast trouble. And seems that some cycle dissident Republicans is this as a excuse to get that people on the streets and co some trouble and the new IRA said it was an accident and apologized there's some significance to that. Right. There. Is yet seems that they really feel as if that on the back photo of this that agreed which has said, the it's propensity is violence to said that the Republican coups, but they seem to be well aware that locally these kinds of acts of violence in which older NRI innocent civilians killed or injured go down extremely badly and really risk setting that goes back, and we've seen evidence of this already in dairy, the headquarters of a local political party, which is supported by the IRA people being smearing red painted handprints on their offices a form of protest and lately various Republican murals have been graffiti as well by people saying things like not in my name. Name. And so they think realize that this could set them back in a big way. Police also reporting that moving one hundred people have sent them with information about the killing and in a city like Derry, that's really unusual. This is not a place where people have historically been happy to talk to the police about Republican activists. So we could be seeing Quanta change. So do you get the sense from all that then that there is just simply less tolerance for the kind of violence that was so common during the troubles. I think that's right. I think since the Good Friday agreement which was almost exactly twenty one years ago. Many people in Northern Ireland of come to see the peace that's being achieved is enormously valuable, and the idea of going back to that is something that really worries a lot of people. And I think most observers thing that the chances of returns to scale violence, very slim, but any sign that violences on the rise is obviously a worry, especially at the moment with Brexit going on which is causing all kinds of problems for Northern Ireland. We've also got the problem of the Northern Ireland assembly having been suspended now for more than two years. So there's a feeling Northern Ireland is inevitable position so events like this do concern a lot of people that people worry that things are being destabilized that, but you mentioned Briggs in in passing there. Do you think that all the negotiations and the degree to which Northern Ireland has been such a lynchpin of the negotiations has sort of reignited tensions? It's certainly reignited tensions. Yeah. We haven't yet seen a big kicking off of large scale violence or anything like that. But tensions absolutely have been heightened. And it's not surprising because the peace deal made back in nineteen ninety eight really hinged in many ways on the UK an island shed membership of the European Union that help to enable these countries to have a border, which is not just open. But invisible, I mean, if you go there and drive between Northern Ireland and their public of island, you can do so without even realizing that you've crossed the Boda, and of course, membership of the EU means the two countries of members of the single. Markets, and so no customs checks needed and since nineteen ninety eight people know of Nyland being able to choose whether they take Irish or UK possibles in many ways, they've been allowed to feel as if they are either Irish Oprah show oath if they want and so the UK now leaving the European Union really will subject that to strain. And it's clearly pulling the UK an island upon a way that nobody on typically to twenty one years ago and many people particularly in the Republican community. Most of them voted to remain, by the way, think that Britain is in some way reneging on agreements that were made or hinted that twenty years ago, so it is a time of heightened tension. Yes. Tom. Thank you very much for joining us. Thank you. South Africa is in the midst of unemployment crisis the only country with a higher fischel unemployment rate is Venezuela for the country's youth. The outlook is particularly bleak. Nearly forty percent of those aged between fifteen at thirty four are not in work training or decay. Shen? South Africa has to conham there's one in which a minority has steady formal jobs and lives are rich world lifestyle. And then there's a second in which people either have informal work or no jobs at all John McDermott is Africa correspondent based in Johannesburg. I see this every quarter in the employment numbers. But I also see it all around me whether it's going to the shop and seeing young men carrying brooms or hammers advertising work or even at the bottom of my road. Whether it's the guy who stands there most days carrying a sign that reads any job, please. And this is a human tragedy. But it's also one that threatens the social stability of South Africa. The roots of today's unemployment crisis can be found in the apartheid era demonstrations against the South African government. Strict apartheid policies, this is a trauma and deduction of hunger, homelessness of illness. Illiteracy and unemployment. Unemployment actually began to tick up in the nineteen seventies in one thousand nine hundred eighty s because you had a large black population who had deliberately under educated by white rule and to couldn't move freely in order to find work. So when you had structural changes in key industries like mining farming and manufacturing and when you had sanctions imposed on the racist regime growth. Stalled demand for labour fell, and it was difficult for the majority black population to find skill jobs in the Konami. And so absent those pressures presumably things got better after apartheid things have gone. A lot better since one thousand nine hundred four in democracy happens and the ANC African National Congress took over. What means for the mentioned? When it came to power. It did make a decision of how the labor market would be structured, and that was to have a highly regulated jobs market, which is perhaps understandable, given all the bad things happen to black workers under apartheid. But essentially, what happened was that you had an economy with German style regulations, but a workforce that didn't have German style skills. And because of that it's been often too expensive for employers to hire people, right? And what about today how does the state of the economy today effect on employment levels, stay there? Connie's not great to be honest. Jason I'm that's largely result of the last decade of rule by Jacob Zuma who stepped down last year. Here's the president was stratospheric corrupt and did great damage to the economy on employment remains really high around twenty seven percents, and essentially there's been no GDP growth per person for nine ten years. And that's the inheritance oppose the current. Evident has to deal with. And so there are forty percent of people who aren't working aren't getting trained aren't getting educated. What's life like for them? Life is pretty tough a few weeks ago. I went down to central Johannesburg to an organization called Harambee Harambee does is it tries to help these hundreds of thousands of young people some of them by work time. And again, you just hear these tales of people with a lot of drive and self-confidence just being a visceral over a number of years. There's one woman called Delhvi historic particularly stuck with me. She's thirty two now, and she has two kids. She lives with her mom, and she's spent twelve years looking for work firefighting Phya one has it has Materia. She tried number of different courses tried to educate ourselves activate and tried to confer job. And then since two six hours trying to look for jobs everywhere. Akron. Emmy, and none of the seem to work if I Tim 'cause also done six because I like many on that's not necessarily on Representative the average second school graduate and South Africa takes them to the thirty to find a job. And Dobie toll made up by the time. She finds this organization Harambee her confidence was almost completely shot isolate myself and Lord saw its peak in front of people everyday anything. So I was only as quiet, but his actually call center is within Beheira organization, which is trying to give people work experience. So w finally Gullit's an opportunity to try her skills as shaking, I couldn't even the mouths and my best as shaking didn't want to say to the customer nervous. She was but also how much there's job at meant to her. And what else does Harambee due to help young people into work? It does some basic stuff. So it gives young people a bit of money, so they can afford transport costs and data for their phone. But also does something else which is to try and build their. Infidels over a number of weeks runs courses, which are basically trying to build up young people's soft skills. I sat in on a couple of these courses which fascinating to observe something. Which which you would enjoy called the warcry. What's that? On what? We do. There the back of the room, and you've got I guess kind of thirty thirty five young people who towards the end of the day as class will kick all the tables and chairs away and a different person every day will nobody themselves to lead the war cry. Who? Slowly, stirring movements. They will get up hacker style. And do this quite kind of moving exercise in order to build up a sense of Morad, ary and self confidence. Which both kind of impressed and intimidate me. But places like this can can only do so much. This is addressing a really big systemic problem. What's the government going to do about this? So Ramaphosa knows that jobs and the economy of the key issues, the head of the election next month, and he's place to do number of things about it. Most importantly attract whole of foreign investment, which in theory will kick start domestic industry, but what the president hasn't done is to set an agenda that we've actually lead to serious drop in the unemployment rate does because for mostly political reasons he's unwilling to dismantle this inside or side of Konami. So you have a number of regulations, for example, a national minimum wage strong hiring and firing laws that have been imposed by trade unions and weighed in councils all of which use. If you are worker within the insider Konami, but it makes it much harder. If you're in the eyesight of calling me to get a decent, Joel. And unless the president is actually willing to take on those shits he might get a little bit more money coming into the country that doesn't necessarily mean there'll be many more jobs for South Africans. John. Thank you very much for joining us. Jason. John's take on employment in South Africa is just one part of a special report on the country coming out in a couple of days in the economist pick up a copy to learn more. Lane. Green writes Johnson our language column. He's been tuning in to some of the contenders in America's presidential race. So this year's them field is not only a big one about seventeen candidates. I've even lost count. I think but notably number of them have shown off their language abilities on the campaign trail being over Rourke speaks pretty good Spanish seek it almost infinite. Jila brain who studied Asian studies at university, try out some Mandarin. Law. Joel Harris who spent some time in Montreal. And Quebec is student speaks conversational French apparently. But when that everyone's talking about is people to judge who is the mayor south bend, Indiana and speaks about seven foreign language. If you easy European languages like Spanish in Italian French, but also a Maltese, which is his family heritage language Arabic story, which he learned as military intelligence officer. He was in the navy, and he even learned Norwegian to read a favorite author. And so how is that that sort of perceive superhuman ability being being dealt with on the campaign trail in well from the left wing of the Democratic Party there even been some attacks on but a judge four speaking all these languages because he's this kind of shiny character who's been MacKenzie, and he was in the military, and he plays piano. And he went to Harvard and his mother and father educated almost to educating this kind of show just like racking up all these accomplishments along the same lines as his being at MacKenzie. You're being in the navy just kind of a CV item rather than a useful skill. And why do you think this discussion about languages has come to the fore, white Weiss's is becoming a campaign issue almost? Well, I think. Buddha. Judges ability has been the thing. That's got everybody talking the most sort of gaudy number, but it's also something symbolic of sort of liberal non liberal divide right now, what some people call the Neo liberal internationalist globalist kind of left really prizes. Foreign language is the kind of people who travel and have loads of stamps in their passports are always the ones who are most likely to not only speak a foreign language, but also to be very pleased and proud trotted out and that plays out a little bit differently on the right side of the political spectrum where even those you do speak a foreign language or typically a little more halting about about trying it out, but not every Republican politician is modeling will not at all. No in the twenty sixteen cycle. We had to let, you know, Cuban American politicians Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio Rubio, the two of them distinctly more willing to speak Spanish, most ghetto second, Jeb Bush. Who was a Florida governor spoke Spanish, but then Don Trump actually went after him and criticize him for speaking Spanish in questions to reporters and said that he should set an exam. See put it by speaking English in the United States. Conservatives are a little bit more likely to push English only laws mostly at the state level banning public services from being offered in other languages and to be a little bit more raw about their patriotism, implying. If you speak another language than maybe you're not quite so proud of speaking English. What does this debate? They'll look like outside the Americans are somewhat famous for only speaking English, but in plenty of places, you can't you can't even get away with that. I wouldn't even say it's the debate. In a lot of countries multi-lingualism is part of the national fabric in part of the political culture top level, Canadian politicians need to be able to speak French English and very often switch right in the middle of a press conference, small countries like Switzerland, and Luxembourg are multi lingual and people are expected to speak several or all the national languages. Singapore is one of those countries that is unified by English, but people are expected to know some Chinese, and there's of course, Tamil speaking in Malay speaking population as well. And so it's another one of those places where without multi-lingual is. From the country just doesn't work, and so they're part of really bone deep. I think national value. Thanks very much. Thank you. That's all for this episode of the intelligence, if you like us give us a rating on apple podcasts, and you can subscribe to the economist at a columnist dot com slash radio offer twelve issues for twelve dollars or twelve pounds see about here tomorrow.

Northern Ireland South Africa IRA Jason Palmer president Londonderry Tom Wainwright Larry Mckee Harambee Harambee Konami British army Northern Ireland Johannesburg Britain America John McDermott UK Joel Harris
Amanpour: Angus King, Andy Beshear, Abby Gluck, Rick Atkinson

Amanpour

57:46 min | 1 year ago

Amanpour: Angus King, Andy Beshear, Abby Gluck, Rick Atkinson

"From CNN films. Apollo eleven. Landed experience Menotti's greatest feat like you've never seen before with newly discovered incredible footage. Apollo eleven Sunday June twenty third nine on CNN tired of spending hundreds of dollars for prescription glasses. Xeni offers thousands of affordable. Eyewear styles starting at just six ninety five no ridiculous markups. No hassles. Just quality affordable. I wear delivered right to you visits any today at Xeni dot com slash CNN. Hello, everyone and welcome to Amman for his what's coming up. President Trump's tariffs, pivot back to Asia as China's says it's ready for a trade war, and the cost mouth for everyday Americans, Senator Angus king of Maine, joins us, then how did this happen at the end of the day? You're on rival short, one word answer grieve, fighting big pharma of America's opioid addiction. Willin Oklahoma case against the giant Johnson and Johnson said, the president, I speak to Andy Bashir, the attorney general of the hard hit state of Kentucky and to the Yale Law. Professor Abby glove. Then the British coming, I think understanding what our forebearers thought they were fighting for what they thought they were going creating is important for us to understand that what we're fighting for. It's a prize winning historian, Rick Atkinson, with a different perspective on America's revolutionary war. Welcome to the program everyone. I'm Christiane one four in London. President Trump's taste for tariffs isn't going away after threatening Mexican imports. The president is once again, aiming his weapon of choice at China threatening another three hundred billion dollars of tariffs on their imports. If president gee doesn't meet him to sort things out after the g twenty summit in Japan at the end of this month. Well the Chinese a facing such threats head on, and here's what a foreign ministry spokesman had to say today. Owned, our mortgage, China, does not want to find a trade war, but we are also not afraid of fighting a trade war. If the US is willing to hold talks on an equal footing our doors. I've if the US only wants to escalate trade frictions, we will resolutely respond on fight to the end. And that is fighting tool, though, US tariffs would undoubtedly hit China hod the retaliation from China can devastate American industries. I'm we'll pause higher costs onto the American consumers Maine lobster, for instance is famous and the Chinese have developed quite a taste for it. But the state is feeding the pinch from China's retaliatory action. Maine, Senator Angus king bemoans, the Trump administration's handouts to the hard hit, but politically valuable farmers while his lobster industry gets no such relief. And he join me to talk about the right way and the wrong way to make China pay for its predatory. Predatory practices. Senator Angus king. Welcome to the program could be with you Christiane. So this an I don't want to sound frivolous, but I mean lobsters are something you are now lobbying for particularly because it looks at the China trade war is hitting one of your state's main economic hubs, the necsports, what's going on well, lobsters collateral damage. It was one of the first tariffs that the retaliatory tariffs that the Chinese imposed when we imposed our tariffs, and I'm really trying to make a point here that the administration has decided that it's going to pick winners and losers here. They had a press conference where they're giving away sixteen billion dollars to farmers in the middle west who are affected by this trade war, and yet, other businesses other industries other interests around the country are not being protected lobsters being one of them some of our dealers have seen their sales fall, something like eighty five percent. China was our biggest. Growth in export market. And now it's fallen practically practically two zero and the Canadians are taking over the business, and they'll have it into the future. So it's just one of those examples of how this trade wars affecting Americans, very directly and yet, only some people seem to be under consideration for help. Well before we get to those other some people, this is talk about says, I mean, honestly, I guess very few people would have associated lobsters with a punch in the gut economically for your state who knew that the Chinese middle-class love, lobsters meeting, more more, and even President Trump served lobster to president, gee at the White House. I hope it was Maine lobster, but paint a picture of proportionally what it does to your state. I mean how many people are involved in the loves to business for instance? Well, it's the business in total is about a one point four billion dollar a year business. In our state, and that includes dealers lobstermen people along the retail chain. They're lobster fisherman. They're essentially independent contractors. They own their own boats. They're small business people. Now, what this, these tariffs have done is affected dealers who have been selling into China so far. It hasn't come back to hitting the boat price. But we feel that's only a matter of time if you lowered demand, substantially you're going to affect the price, so it's a long term threat. And it's not the only one the problem is, we're facing competition from Canada, who has a free trade agreement with the EU on lobsters which we don't enjoy. So we're at a disadvantage there. The steel tariffs affected of the price of our of steel lobster traps. And we're also dealing with protecting right whale, so the lobster industries under quite a bit of strain right now, and we don't need additional tariffs that are. Going to cut off one of our most most important growth markets. You know, it's really interesting. You talk about the steel tariffs of the president's impose, and who I guess what, you've just industry -ted is how all these issues into connected right down to the steel for the lobster pods. So you mentioned that there are billions of dollars in handouts to the mid west of the famous sixteen billion, also, what are you asking for on behalf of, of, of the lobster industry? Well, we calculate that the loss is on the exports are about one hundred and thirty eight million dollars. But what we're really looking for some help from the administration and expanding our markets. We don't care whether we sell lobsters to the Chinese or the Japanese or the French, but we just want our markets to grow and one way, the administration could help us is in marketing assistance internationally that would make up for the loss of this important market for us. And, and I think it's important to, to talk about the, the other effects. Of this, these tariffs are now the Federal Reserve says they're costing American families have been four hundred dollars a year. It also happens to be that forty percent of our families. Can't afford a four hundred dollar emergency, and we're talking if the tariffs go to where they're propose, eight hundred dollars a year per family. This is a big deal. This is a tax on Americans. And I think we need to understand that this just isn't something that the Chinese are paying or somebody else. This is American consumers. Let me just since you put it in those terms, I just want to put it broad, the IMF estimates says some four hundred and fifty five billion dollars in global GDP could be lost and global economic output down by zero point five percent by twenty twenty ju to this trade war on President Trump again cold tariffs that beautiful thing this week. I'm what would you say to him? I mean day you will old together a D day in this incredible. Oh show bipartisanship. And, and, and you know, commemorating and celebrating the true heroism of all the liberated Europe. What would you say to him on cooling, trade wall and tariffs, a beautiful thing? Well, I mean tariffs are attacks on American consumers, the idea that China's paying the tariffs, just isn't true. Somebody picks up a good at, at the port of Long Beach, and they have to pay an import duty. Usually, it's the importer that gets passed along to the to the sales of all the way along the chain ends up attacks on the American consumer that's been verified by pretty much everybody. The president keeps saying China's paying the tariffs that, that's really not the case. Now, having said all that China needed to be confronted and I concede that China was not a good actor on the world stage in terms of theft of intellectual property, the subsidies requiring joint ventures in there. Every they needed to be confronted. The question is, how do you do it? And do you do it step by step, or you do it through what amounts to international shock therapy, and the president's made a big gamble here if he's successful, if China concedes and fundamentally changes their business model that will be a huge win for the entire world. If on the other hand, this drags on for a number of years as you say it's going to hit global GDP. It certainly gonna hit American GDP, and it's going to hit ordinary Americans in the wallet. Yeah. And you do make a good point that everybody agrees with the idea of the intellectual property threat theft, the whole cyber adventurism, the wall, way, all of these things as you say, but I guess expand then on, what is the right way to do this, and to achieve those goals and comment if you would on President Trump seeming to us tariffs as a punishment for variety of different things such as. The immigration situation, the migrant situation south of the border, he threatened to put those tariffs on Mexico for the moment that staved off for the moment and his own party doesn't like it. I mean, can you comment on using tariffs for a whole broad array of foreign policy goals? I think it's bad policy. I think tariffs should be used sparingly his history tells us that tariffs, generally are not a positive force. They're always retaliated, and you end up with some kind of collation just as we're seeing with China. I mean, go back to the Smoot Hawley tariff in, in the early thirties, which most economists feel contributed significantly to the great depression worldwide because each country sort of shut down its borders. Trade could be beneficial. It has to be within bounds. It has to be according to norms and rules. So using tariffs to, to bludgeoned another country. Here's the other problem with the presence approach to tariff to tariffs. It's, it's indiscriminate in terms of affecting every. Nobody an effective way to deal with China, for example, would be for a unified front against China's predatory trade practices involving Mexico Europe South America other parts of the world and instead we've picked fights with all of them. So we find ourselves, essentially without allies in this major confrontation, the major way we could influence Chinese behavior. I think is if everyone in the world said, we're not going to deal with this. We're not going to tolerate this and and again separate issues like intellectual property theft from commercial interest. The president likes tariffs. If you go back to the eighties, he was writing he thinks tariffs are good. They're protective history, tells us, otherwise and to use them for policy reasons, I think risks alienating our allies, and ultimately, being self defeating in terms of their facts on the American people. So. With two years in also to this whole Taras situation and you remember very early on. He said trade wars easy to win. Yes, wha- where do you see the ledger right now with the proviso that if China does change its behavior? It is a big win. Well, there's another factor involved here and I was in Asia two weeks ago and talked to a lot of the leaders in people places like Singapore, and Japan. Part of what we're not understanding is Chinese history and Chinese the Chinese are coming out of a period of what they call two hundred years of humiliation at the west. They're very sensitive to insults to bullying to pressure, and there's a they feel a kind of national pride, which makes it all the more difficult for them to give into us in this situation beyond just the, the matters of the, the, the narrow tariff. So that's one of my concerns is. Is that we're not approaching this in a way that's liable to have the Chinese really make the kind of changes that are necessary. If you wanna prediction Christiane, here's what I think's going to happen. The Chinese will make some concessions, they'll buy more. Soybeans. They'll do a couple of other things. They make a promise about intellectual property. The president will declare victory. The tariffs will go away will go on much as before. That's what I think, is going to happen. If, if we hold out for sort of total victory unconditional surrender however, you wanna define it. I think the Chinese are unlikely to capitulate in that manner in part because of their commercial interests, but also because of national pride and they their rightful. What they feel is their rightful place in the world. So we'll see how it plays out but it's a high stakes game right now. And as to go back to lobsters American consumers American businesses happened to. In the crosshairs, you successfully lobbied for a lobster emoji. I mean, wouldn't you, right? You said to do love to tie that would you go would fit a necessary in unique void in the current emoji, lists and should it be added a his destined for significant usage by loves the fans around the world. I can tell you I just used lobster emoji, but nothing to do with this interview. And I have you thanked well, that's it. We push for it. We got it. It was a some of my friends said, aren't you doing anything else down there? This was actually a kind of a sideline to get this done, but it happened. And listen, anything that promotes business in Maine. I'm for let me ask you about another thing that you are very, very concerned you just talked about the threats on one of them. You know, the cyber threats you chair of the newly established cyberspace alarium commission. It was named for President, Eisenhower, what he did that project in nineteen Fifty-three the, the, the mission is to review cyber threats, but he is a scary, quote from you. At this moment, we do not have a clear strategy to prevent bad actors from attacking vital infrastructure. And with each passing moment of inaction risk grows, Raver, I deeply believe that the next crippling attack on our country will be a cyber attack. You know, we've also heard from former Defense Secretary ash Carter on that the year of the defense department of the US doesn't have the right of connections and contacts in Silicon Valley and this whole industry. What are you most of? Well, it's really hard to say, I can tell you that the director of national intelligence, every year does a worldwide threat assessment number one this year was cyber, it could be the electric grid. It could be our elections in twenty twenty it could be the financial system. It could be our Tele-Communications system. We're the most wired society on earth. And therefore, we're the most vulnerable to this kind of attack, and my concern and the work that we're doing. We just had a meeting yesterday of our commission. In the work that we're doing is to try to get the country to the place where we have a, a public known cyber doctrine and strategy that will provide some level of deterrence to our adversaries because right now we're cheap date. Christiane we're we're you know, they can attack us a go after our elections there really no consequences. And therefore, they're going to keep doing it. And so what we're working on on our commission is how do we defend ourselves more effectively, because this really is the, the frontier of you can call it competition or you can call it warfare. It's something in between, we are facing potentially catastrophic attacks. And if we keep sort of wishing it away, we're going to be in deep trouble. And that's why by the way, you mentioned briefly Weiwei while way, makes you know they're very skillful they make a product that's involved in the five G network. But they're also in, in cahoots with the Chinese. Government. And if they're the key building block of five G, which is going to be an enormously, an enormous change in the way our society works if every everything is connected through a device that's connected to Beijing. That's just that's just, you know waving the white flag. I think it's a huge mistake, and it's one that we've got to persuade the rest of the world that it's not worth getting cheaper cheaper devices. If you're exchanging your national security, we have been delving into the opioid crisis, the addiction crisis and accountability for big pharma now Maine isn't ages to join states who is suing Paducah. They're the makers of content, and in two thousand seventeen you had one of the highest levels of opioid addiction deaths. Four hundred seventeen it's going down a little bit. But what do you make these cases like in Kentucky and Oklahoma on this one that you want to bring your state wants to bring? Against Purdue pharma. Where do you think this is headed? I think the people that largely contributed to this should be held accountable. I just literally an hour ago met with a woman in my office, whose brother recently committed suicide because of, in part brought on by opioid opioid addiction which started with a sore hand and a set of pills that he was prescribed and he became addicted, and it destroyed his life. This is a national tragedy. It's striking in many ways, most violently in rural states. That's why Maine New Hampshire West Virginia are being particularly hard hit. And I think the people that made money on this, and I believe, and this is going to be played out in court had knowledge of the addictive nature of their products, but push them anyway. Need to be held accountable, so the judge was the judges and the juries will make the final decisions. But if you cause harm to somebody and you knew it was at least. Foreseeable help being held accountable is is, is, is very important in my view. This is a tragedy for our country as you said, main. We're still losing more than one person a day in our state to this scourge, and it's awful. It really is in the way you described that individual case resonates across the country, Senator Angus king. Thank you for joining us. Thank you, Christiane a pleasure to be with you. Remember to create an ad like this one, visit pure winning dot com slash CNN, the right sheets can take your sleep, and your style to the next level with Boll and branch. The upgrade has never been more, forcible. Every set is crafted from one hundred percent organic cotton. They get softer and softer over time. That's why they have thousands of five star reviews and even three US presidents have Boll and branch sheets. Try them for thirty nights. And if you don't love them, send them back for a full refund. Go to bollandbranch dot com today for fifty dollars off your first set of sheets, plus free shipping with promo code CNN to spelled B O L L, andbranch dot com. That's bollandbranch dot com, promo code CNN to from CNN films. Apollo eleven. Experience humanity's greatest like you've never seen before. Active with newly discovered incredible footage. Entertainment Weekly says it's so pristine and Chris Plante. Feels like it was shot yesterday off. We have come on for one wild ride. Apollo eleven Sunday June twenty third at nine on CNN. And now we're going to focus on the opioid crisis because it is a national one. The numbers are staggering more than one hundred thirty deaths every single day according to the centers for disease control. Unlike may now several states are trying to hold big farmer accountable in court closely wash right now is the multibillion dollar case brought against one of the world's biggest drugmakers Johnson and Johnson by the state of Oklahoma. It accuses the company of manufacturing public health crisis by ova marketing painkillers and downplaying the health risks. It's the first public trial to come from two thousand opioid lawsuits against pharmaceutical companies, which have settled out of court mostly what chain from the sidelines with the keanae is Kentucky's attorney general, Andy ship. His state has been devastated by the crisis, and he's joining us from Louisville. Also with us is Abby Gluck, a Yale Law professor, who served on several major health slow cases and she's joining us. From New York, welcome to both of you. Let, let me ask you first attorney general because you also got these cases going on just tell us. What is the state of play or the state of affairs, the tragedy in your own state, and the legal the legal redress the king there? Well, this opioid epidemic is the challenge in the crisis of our lifetime. We lose thirty Kentucky inns a week to a fatal overdose. Those are thirty of our family members and our friends that we lose every single week. We have over one hundred babies born a month addicted to opioids and it's not just deaths or or addiction. It's tearing at the very fabric of our families we have more kids in kinship care and foster care than ever before. So this is truly an epidemic and crisis. And our very future depends on it, and we like Oklahoma believed that the makers and the distributors of these opioids knew exactly what they were doing. And these are highly addictive substances that shouldn't have been prescribed or marketed for so many of the folks out there. Now suffering from a diction we shouldn't have had the hundreds of millions of pills, flooding into small. Communities, where in many times, we see more than a couple hundred opioids being prescribed for every man woman and child in a small eastern or western Kentucky county. Right. And the costs of what we face are so significant. And that's why we have filed over nine lawsuits just from my office alone including against Johnson, and Johnson and Johnson. So, you know, you, you described the state of affairs that I mean, it is your death rate is more than double, the national average on. But so does this Oklahoma case against Johnson and Johnson is how important is this unwise for you? And for others trying to use the courts now, instead of just out of court settlements and payouts. It's important because it's one of the first cases to go to trial where the public is going to hear about the actions of this company specifically, and Oklahoma, light Kentucky alleges that they knew how dangerous these drugs were, but they marketed them as quote, rarely addictive, and they even marketed towards seniors telling them that this would improve life, and again would rarely be addictive if used for chronic pain, it's important, because the truth is finally starting to come out how important is it to an how likely is it that is going to be successful in court because the others, whether it's Peduto pharma, whether it's TV pharmaceuticals. Dave settled out of court Purdue two hundred and seventy million dollars in March the other one eighty eighty five million dollars in may. Why is it so important to do this way? Now. Well, it's important to Oklahoma. The Oklahoma attorney general is showing his constituents that he's being responsive to their concern responsive to the public safety. But it's also important all of these suits. Whether it's a settlement, or whether it's the court trial are important because they're going to have an impact on the two thousand other cases that are pending, whether those are Kentucky's cases or the sixteen hundred cases that are aggregated together currently in a federal district court in Cleveland, for a long time, we've been watching that federal district court in Cleveland, we've been waiting for huge mega settlement to come out of those cases. And what's happening in Oklahoma is setting the tone. It showing the public has an appetite for Justice in these cases. And it's also giving us the sense of the kind of numbers that are coming out. So we've seen the kind of numbers that are coming out from settlement, which you just mentioned, and now maybe we're going to see the kind of numbers that might come out from a trial. Johnson Johnson took a gamble here going to trial in front of the world at a televised. Courtroom. They could have a huge victory or they could have a huge defeat and that's going to set a tone for everything that follows. Well, you just the nail on the head and I just wanna play the opening statement or these part of it from the Oklahoma attorney general, what he's six hundred fifty three Oklahoma's died unintentional overdoses involving prescription of yours for two thousand seven to two thousand seventeen the pain, anguish and heartbreak that Oklahoma family's businesses communities, and individual Oklahoma's is almost impossible to comprehend how risky is it because, you know, I mean they have I mean they using this public nuisance kind of defense or not defense charge, and that's usually used apparently in property disputes. So both of you just to comment. On, on the public nuisance. I shore public nuisance. You are. Correct is a unusual cause of action and this kind of case normally it's used for things like, you know, property damage or damage to public spaces. It's been used unsuccessfully in the gun, litigation. And it's never been used successfully in sales cases. Because those cases are very intangible, and it's very hard to trace the chain of causation from the person who sells an item to the abuse, and diversion of that item. In this case, the Oklahoma attorney general made a strategy call he went forward on this public nuisance claim because it seeing that the judge was receptive to it. And by dropping off the other claims. In the case, he was able to get the case tried early and quick out in front of that huge federal multi district litigation going I it's very important. You got a piece of the pie, I assets are limited going, I gives you a huge sort of front runners advantage. And I think that's part of what's motivating the public nuisance claim here. And from your perspective attorney general Shamim you must be sitting on the edge of your seat. You'll colleague in the state of Oklahoma is taking a, a high risk. I mean it's a gamble. Where do you see legally the public nuisance defense being used? Well, I hope to take every single one of my cases to trial because the people of my state, my people deserve to have this trial in one of their regions that, that they can come to the courthouse and watch while these companies have to explain themselves. I don't think there's a significant risk certainly in our cases at all. Because we not only have a public nuisance claim but we have significant misrepresentation claims these are companies that were selling these drugs on the false claims that they weren't going to cause addiction and just look at what's happened. Look at the death, the destruction the addiction, the cost of families torn apart. I mean, this is this is absolutely ripping my state, and every other state apart. And I'll just give you an example this weekend. I'm going to an event by group that calls themselves northern Kentucky hates heroin. This started about five years ago with a small group of mothers and fathers that had lost their children. That group is nearly five. Times larger today. I'm proud of what the Oklahoma attorney general is doing because we're all in this together doesn't matter. If you're a democrat or Republican, or an independent drugs will kill you just the same. So I'm glad he is getting this information out there. I'm glad that the public can truly here and learn about the actions and I believe he's going to be successful, just like we're going to be successful in each and every one of our lawsuits, because when you're Kentucky, you've got to be aggressive. And when you look at the devastation that's been caused in my state, we can't sit behind larger states and some national settlement, we have to get out there and fight for the resources that we need to rebuild, because we were hit that much harder than just about anybody else. I'm wondering just quickly before I go to the companies themselves and what they're saying just quickly attorney general Bashir. What, what, what figure you looking at? I mean how hard have you been? What do you need to redress and rectify? What's happened to you a state and the people there? Well, you know, no amount of money is ever going to bring somebody's child back and every single day. I work with and talk with parents, or that have lost children or children that have that have lost parents, you know, every single time one of these fatal overdoses occurs. It, it tears apart a community. We're all victims at this point. And that's the starting point that we're, we're never going to be able to bring somebody back. But what we do need is the dollars for prevention, if we can stop new addiction than we have hoped for tomorrow, what we need is enough money to make sure every single person who wants treatment has a bed and doesn't have to wait for it, and we have the different types of treatment that will work with some it'll be medically assisted with some. It's twelve step. We need men's women's and adolescent treatment because it's all different and then we need dollars four recovery because once you've fallen into addiction, staying in recovery as hard, it takes extra help along the way you may have transporta-. Nation issues. We've gotta make sure we can find you a good job. We've got to eventually get your record expunged so he can get back into society. We've got a repair your relationship with your family, because addiction and these drugs, 'cause all of those issues, and so while I don't have a specific number in mind, I will tell you that it is substantial because the devastation is severe, but I believe that if we can hold these companies accountable, that we can take a drug epidemic that has risen in our lifetime and put it behind us in our lifetime. And as the data of an eight and a nine year old now that's the type of legacy that I want to leave for my kids and everybody else's. Well, it certainly is urgent. But as you can imagine the drug companies are pushing back so Abby, let me just read, you for instance, Johnson Johnson, their attorney has said when they made the charge I e the state of Oklahoma that the people that Janssen set out addict kids, it is only fed that we bring before the cord what Johnson actually does to educate kids. Now johnson. In pharmaceuticals is the Johnson and Johnson subsidiary, which is a queue of flooding the state with these highly addictive painkillers. But here's what they're saying that this is, you know, it's FDA regulated. It's approved these opioids are not like weird illegal drugs. Are that flooding, they are legal and FDA regulated and approved, so? It does that make it more difficult. Abby, do you think to, to, to, to bring them to court? So to speak to bring these drugs to cord which are legal. Yeah. Of course. So the fact that the FDA approves opioid says they have a valid necessary medical use in many situations makes these cases, very different from say tobacco. That's what is complicated. The litigation strategy in these cases at the same time the plaintiffs on governments like the general, they are making the argument that even if you got ta approval, even if opioids were sometimes validly prescribed. The company is nevertheless engaged in deceptive marketing practices. They knew the drugs were more addictive than they let on then aggressively targeted vulnerable populations seeking to get more people addicted. That's why you're seeing claims like fraud bought in a lot of states, consumer fraud because she Mer statutory claims in addition to the public nuisance claim because the crux of the cases have to be against these companies, not that the drug itself was dangerous because it WAS FG I approve but because the companies knew it was more dangerous than they let on, and they went and took advantage of that. So let me show those to this then because. Defensible is part of this whole thing fennel is about one hundred times more powerful than morphine fifty times, more potent than heroin and Johnson and Johnson's opioid products at the center of the trial. That's ongoing are tablet co new center and a federal patch called Jura Jessica that, why would a company like Johnson and Johnson. Which, by the way, we all remember when over and above and created really redressed, one of the early issues. You remember the Tylenol crisis. They came out, and they really fixed it and they changed the caps and all the rest of it. Why would a company that this family friendly, even get into the fennel patch of business, and how dangerous do you see that attorney general, but she the fennel growth? Well, I think defend no growth is incredibly dangerous. And when you think about the FDA what you have to look at is what they approve these drugs for I believe these opioids were meant as God's grace at the end of life that if you have terminal cancer, you shouldn't have to go out in pain, but these companies decided they weren't going to make enough money off, what the FDA had approved the drugs four and so what they engaged in is significant marketing to get doctors and others to prescribe them for what we call off label uses things like migraines, where no one should ever be taking and opioid. And that's how our markets got what it? But, you know, I think these cases boil down to something pretty simple. It's that I was raised to believe that I'm responsible for what I say. And what these companies repeatedly said while marketing these drugs is that they weren't addictive that they wouldn't cause harm that they were safe for. Seniors that they were safe for active servicemen and women and what happened, you know, my friend, Emily Walden, lost her son TJ three days before he's going to deploy to the Kentucky National Guard. Why? Because he took medication that the company told him would help him at the end of the day. We're all responsible for what we've done and what we've said, and we're going to hold these companies accountable for what they've done said. So very quickly to you because you've got very few seconds that this threat of bankruptcy of some of these companies, and that has happened off to settlements and things how. How urgent is it to get these settlements to get these accountability before people start to carrying bankruptcy? And then there's no money in the kitty. Well, I think the issue is bankruptcy would provide for an orderly distribution of assets, given how many cases there are it isn't really fair to have a race to the courthouse. It wouldn't be fair, for instance, if Oklahoma took all of Johnson, and Johnson's assets and left nothing for Kentucky, for example. So what bankruptcy filing would you? I do think we're likely to see some more bankruptcy filings. Is it would pause all of the different litigations and bring all of the claims before a single judge for orderly, hopefully fair distribution of the assets. If a company has more assets than necessary to settle or trial of these cases, great, but I think for many of these companies, that's going to be a challenge. And if the assets Arlen did bankruptcy may be the most fair way to make sure that people get paid. Alright is really huge tossed, but it's so interesting to hear you both IB, gloved an attorney general Bashir, thank you so much now as America grapples with political discord on next guest says the nation's founding history holds the key to today's challenges. Rick Atkinson is a Pulitzer prize. Is winning historian who delve deep into King George, the third's archives to write his new book, the British a-coming. It's the first installment of his planned American revolution trilogy. He walked out Walter Isaacson through the key players in America's war of independence. Welcome to the show. Thank you. You know what really blew me away is a notion of you going through the archives of George the third King, George at Windsor, and anybody ever tapped those archives before. Surprisingly, not really the there were three hundred and fifty thousand pages of Georgian documents and the Queen Queen Elizabeth, second owns them. And she decided in twenty sixteen that she was going to open them up to scholars. I was one of the first ones in and have them digitize. So they be preserved in perpetuity. And most of those Georgian papers are from Georgia third because he was king for sixty years. So every day, I would show my badge at the Henry the eighth gate and show my badge the Norman and climb one hundred and two stone steps and then twenty one wooden stairs. And you'd be in the Garrett of the round tower built by weighing the conqueror in the eleventh century, and that's where the papers are kept, and they're fantastic, George was his own secretary until late in life when he began to go blind. And so he not only wrote his correspondence, himself, he wrote the copies and there's a real tactical sense of being in his presence and he's a great list maker he, he would write lists. He would write formulas for insecticide for example, and feeder reviews, and he would write lists of all of his regiment's in North America. He would list the number of officers, the number of musicians the number of rank and file, you can see arithmetic scratchings in the side as as he does is sums. So I spent a month there in April twenty six. Eighteen and really felt like I got to know him and felt like I know he's not the bumbling Mincy across the stage in Hamilton is is much more man of parts and has a greater depth than we Americans particularly generally assigned to him, and he is running the train in the American revolution. And in the coming, you able to do it from both vantage points from the vantage point of the American colonists, fighting as well as a British and one of the interesting thing about George, the third is that he was much more of a liner than we thought before this is so true. And, you know, when the revolution began in April seventeen seventy five and for some months thereafter, Americans wanted to believe that he was not an innocent bystander that he was fundamentally on their side, and that's not true at all. He was. In fact, a hardliner. He was the force behind the hardliners it within the. A cabinet Lord north who was his first minister prime minister really had no appetite to be a war, minister, and was not particularly interested in prosecuting a war for eight years across three thousand miles of open ocean and the age of sail. And Georgia's the one who's constantly bucking him up in Georgia's, the one who saying, blows must decide, and Georgia's the one who is not necessarily drawing up the minutia of which battalions are going where, but he's very involved in the nitty gritty of expeditionary warfare. Why why was Georgia thune so intent on pursuing a war against the Collins whom on there? Why why, why, why indeed? I think the fundamental reason Walter is that he becomes king in seventeen sixty and seventeen sixty three. The first British empire is created with British victory in the seven years, war, French, and Indian wars. We call it. The gain enormous territorial benefits from that victory. They get Canada, they get sugar islands in the West Indies, they get parts of India. They get a billion. Fertile acres, west of the Appalachians and George is determined that he's going to hang onto that empire. And he also believes and this is an article of faith within the cabinet and certainly for him that if the American colonies are permitted to break away if the insurrection succeeds than Ireland is next Canada, their sugar islands India and that the empire will dissolve it'll be the end of Britain as a great power. A newly created great power and it's a strategic misconception. It's, it's they're badly informed. This, this is not true. And yet, it really is the underpinnings of their determination to thwart American independence, and to suppress bloodily the, the revolution could it have been avoided and they had found some more Commonwealth type structure? Yeah, I Commonwealth, I think is the, the obvious answer, but it wasn't obvious in seventeen seventy five. There were lots of negotiations Benjamin Franklin was in London, as you well know, for years before he left in the spring of seventeen seventy five trying to find a modus Vivendi trying to accommodate both the British point of view and colonial points of view. And I think positions just hardened too much by that time. And so it just kind of unravels and once the shooting starts, then it's very difficult to put the vase back together. Once it smashed. That was a bid Franklin line. And of course he and his own son ended up on different sides of the revolution. How common was that, that Americans were divided on whether or not they wanted independent? Yeah. I mean, you know, well, it's one of the great tragedies of the war is beloved son, William who is the Royal governor of New Jersey, and he's, you know, he's participated with his father and some of the experiments, and the kite, flying and all the rest of it, and Ben Franklin talks about, it's the happiest period of his life, and he remains loyal. He does not become radicalized away. His father has over time in, in London and refuses to accede to fatherly advice that you need to get on on, you need to get on the side of the angels here. And of course he's alternately arrested. He's imprisoned in New England. It's, it's, it's really a tragedy. It's quite common this schism within families as a consequence of irreconcilable political differences, it, really into Speights the civil war in that sense. This is a civil war. The revolution is. And it intimidates these civil. Four of the nineteenth century. And the way that it fractures families you call it a civil war, and one of the themes of your book, as you treat it as a civil war, as opposed just a war for independence. What do you mean by that? Well, you know, you can guess, and scholars have calculated that eighteen to twenty percent of two million white Americans in the colonies at the time of the revolution are loyal. And now loyalty is a shifting concept, you maybe loyal, if the Royal the British army's in your backyard. And when they leave, you may be less loyal, particularly if you're rebel neighbors are warning you that you're going to be punished but say eighteen percent or loyal as in enough of them are loyal to form regiments to fight to, to. Support the king's army and the Royal Navy and to do the bidding of the ministers in London. And so it's a civil war in the sense that there actually is Garm conflict between Americans if you're a loyalist that treatments, you're likely to receive from the rebels can be atrocious. You can have your lands confiscated. You can be jailed you can be sent into exile. You can be executed in some cases, it's very harsh treatment of some of the loyalists were put on scowls in the Hudson river below Albany, and dire conditions. Some were lowered by windless seventy feet below ground in an old Connecticut. Coppermine to these rock walled cells known as hell. It was really a harsh treatment and went back and forth, the loyalists sometimes persecuted there their rebel neighbors. So it's a civil war in the most fundamental sense. Why was Washington such a great leader is not a particularly good general? I think it has to be said he's not a tactician. He's like, like Dwight Eisenhower in some ways he doesn't see the battlefield spatially in temporary. The way a great captain dozen Napoleon. And he's got on steep learning curve when he takes over the continental army on July second seventeen seventy five in Cambridge outside of Boston has been out of uniform for seventeen years, and in the five years, that he was in uniform, you know, he's a Colonel in Virginia militias always under a British superior commanders. There are a lot of things he does not know as he acknowledges, he does not know how to run a continental army he doesn't know much about artillery doesn't know much about cavalry. So we start with the understanding that he makes a lot of mistakes on the battlefield. He's got his moments. There's no doubt about that. But he makes a lot of mistakes. He's also got a lot to learn about the army that he's commending. He shows up in New England as Virginian commanding mostly new Englanders in this continental army. And he is very disparaging of the New England's he writes about the dirty new Englanders, and he has nothing good to say about the officers serving under him from New England and. It takes a while for him to understand, first of all, that he is someone who has scores of slaves, and overseers back in mount Vernon taking care of business for him while he's away. Highest trouble understanding the sacrifice med made by men who leave their farms, their shops, their families to come serve at his side in the 'cause he doesn't really get that at first the army continental army is the absolutely critical institution in this young Republic morning. It's the indispensable institution. And he is the indispensable man within it. And for the two of them to figure out how it together is going to take some time. Having said all that he's a great man. He's a great man is worthy of our adulation, and all the things that we think about him, if we will look knowledge, that there are some issues when he dies there. More than three hundred slaves. And mount Vernon. You cannot square that circle morally, nevertheless, he embodies traits that I think should be the northstar for all of us to this day of a sense of probity, a sense of commitment to a cause larger than himself dignity. These are things we should demand in our leaders is the things we should demand ourselves. These are things that we should recognize in Washington and celebrate to this, this day he can seem alabaster. He can seem remote. And he's not really, he's got three dimensional quality that is really riveting. And it's important for us to remember that he's not just this distant figure who has been in bombed in reverence. He's a fantastic person to help launch us on our journey. One of the other great generals in the book, and actually far more colorful away. Is Charles Lee? Tell me about Charlie. And what would have happened had there been, no Washington would Charles Lee have been the one in charge, and how would it have been different? Well, it would have been real different and probably, not as good Charles Lee was a British army officer he ascended to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, which is fairly high rank in the British army he'd seen some combat he'd been in, in America and the French and Indian war. He'd been shot in the chest and survived that, here's a colorful guys a weird looking guy by all accounts. He's tall and spin lease people described as having no shoulders. I mean as an enormous knows he, he accumulates many nicknames, one of which the cruelest, which Nazo he has a great affection for dogs. He likes dogs as he had not acknowledged as much better than people is always got a pack dogs around him. He decides it's going to emigrate he becomes. Disaffected with his life in the British army he comes to America couple years before the revolution begins. He's a radical at heart and he writes and speaks eloquently about the power of the ideas that are germinating in America, about potential independence, but distance from the crown, and he writes, powerfully about the his assertion that this rather rag, tag badly arm badly lead badly fed army in the making can hold their own against the British army one of the finest armies in the country. And this falls on welcome meters, the political leadership and other military officers are pleased to hear this. He's made a general Major General and a soon become second in command to Washington, he Washington listened to him carefully because he knows things that Washington is not as practical things about how to organize a bivouac and how to organize our Tillery and, and how to get men to do what you want him to do now to, to, to do other things that Washington is, is really pretty green at all this, unfortunately, he's also very ambitious. So we see him successfully. Ellen command in-command on the scene. When the British send the Royal Navy to try to take Charleston in June seventeen seventy five that repulsed and a very bloody and surprising defeat for the Royal Navy. Lease the commander at the time. And he's. Celebrated through the colonies for this this clubbing of the Royal Navy. And he begins to think that maybe in fact Washington is having his problems Washington's going through a succession of defeats that may be what the country needs is Charles Lee as commander in chief. He has a very disloyal correspondence with one of Washington's aides Joseph read, who's a lawyer from Philadelphia, Washington, opens a letter by mistake from Lee to read and discovers that, in fact, these guys are conspiring behind his back is deeply wounded by it. When Washington retreats across New Jersey in December seventeen seventy five seventy six after being a badly slapped around in New York Lee, has a wing of the army, Washington's pleading with him to, to join the army lease taking his time. He's, he's corresponding with members of congress. He's, he's forming the. Beginnings of a ball. He makes him really serious mistake, and on one night in mid December seventeen seventy six he decides that he's not going to camp that night as he's moving to join Washington in Pennsylvania, and he goes to a tavern spends the night. There's a British cavalry patrol that gets wind that he's there. They tacked this tavern early in the morning and they capture. Washington, who by this point is shrewd enough to recognize Charles Lee is a big problem for him. Writes, this very deaf letter to, to Lee in jail in New York saying GM sorry about this. I can only hope that someone in your circumstance can be as happy as you might be in this circumstance. It's really Lee is later exchanged, he comes back to join the army disgraces himself in battle later. It's, it's really finished as a force, but he's got a role early on. And he's a wonderful character to write about underlying this book sort of the foundational truths that help create America. What do you think those two saw, and how we Wesseling with them today? Well, first of all, I think the concept of truth is true, we hold these truths to be self evident that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights. Okay, that's foundational. And it's a certified that it is true. And you know what? It's not true because all men are not created equal in seventeen seventy five those fine words, do not apply to five hundred thousand black slaves. They don't apply to women. They don't apply to native Americans. They don't apply to indigence. It's aspirational. It is the great Yale historian, Edmund Morgan wrote it doesn't guarantee men, these basic rights. It invites them to claim them. And I think that, that is the essence of what we see in those who are fighting for independence, from Britain at the time. It's aspirational. They recognize that there are issues to be worked out, and it turns out there issues to be worked out for two hundred and forty three years subsequently, we're working out still Archibald McLeish the poet. And librarian of congress said democracy is not a thing that's done. It's a thing a nation must be doing. And I just think it's very important to remember that, that we have we've inherited this extraordinary political legacy. But it's a work in progress, and it's always going to be, I think understanding what our forebearers thought they were fighting for what they thought they were going creating is important for us to understand that what we're fighting for what we are continuing to create. I just think it's important to affirm it every day. Thank you very much being with us. Thank you. Thanks. Fascinating insights into the revolutionary pas and the book, of course is out now that is it for today. Thanks for watching and goodbye from London. Are you interested in learning? How great companies grow. Download the Martin podcast. The Marceca podcast tells the stories of real world marketers who use technology to generate growth in chief business and careers exists from advertising to software as a service to data getting brands authentically integrated, the content performs better than TV advertising. Typical life span of an article is about twenty four to thirty six hours before reaching out to the right person with the right message and a clear, call that action that it's just a matter of timing. Ready to learn the secrets of technology driven marketing than download the Mark podcast. Just search Mark. M. A. R. T E C H wherever you download your podcasts.

Oklahoma Johnson Johnson president attorney Kentucky China Maine America CNN Christiane Senator Angus king America President Trump CNN China British army general Bashir Rick Atkinson Royal Navy Asia
232: Do Not Fail To Learn.  Adapt to New Environments. The Boer War.

Jocko Podcast

1:52:22 hr | 3 months ago

232: Do Not Fail To Learn. Adapt to New Environments. The Boer War.

"This is Jaakko podcast number two thirty, two with Echo Charles in me, Jaakko, willink good evening echo good evening. From. Colonel Brasby. Commanding v Manchester Regiment. Dear Madam. Your Letter of the twentieth of August reached me safely. You're per poor. Son died a heroic soldiers death. In all belonging to The v Manchester Regiment for myself downwards. Are Proud of having been comrades. Of So brave and honorable elad. I'm glad to be able to inform you. He did not suffer any great pain. He died saying. He hoped if he ever got over his wounds. He would soon be able to return to his duty. I'm informed by those who were present with him in the blockhouse at the time that he passed away happily. And willing to meet his, God. You have every reason to be proud of his memory. And May God, help and comfort you in your great sorrow. Are will inquire if he has left any keepsake. That could be either sent to were kept for you. I've asked my wife to call and see you the next time she is in Manchester. Believe me yours faithfully. H grigsby. Colonel. And that right, there is a letter of. Condolence. Written. Back to a grieving mother in England during the second Buhler War. In Africa. South Africa. And Of course, the letter is. Paints the picture of A. Well. Let's just say a a kind of perfect heroic death. Which I guess is what any mother would want to hear. But. Make, no mistake. About any war including the BUL war, in South Africa. that. This scene was awful. So the boomer war in South Africa. You know it's it's. It's a war that people consider to be one of the first. Modern wars and there's you know there's a bunch of wars. You could throw in there. That are. Also called that I mean the American, civil war was in some ways considered a modern war. You had. Some. Some wars that were right around there that that weren't a modern war. They were kind of a a mixing. There's one battle. that the British fought against the modest Sudanese. It was an eighteen ninety eight in September of eighteen ninety eight. and. During this battle! You know it was British soldiers and actually Egyptian soldiers as well versus these these Sudanese. And during the battle, there was forty eight. Of the British and Egyptians who were killed, three, hundred and eighty, two wounded. And on the Sudanese side, there was twelve thousand dead. and thirteen thousand wounded. So so, that was kind of a lopsided battle. and. If, you stand up against the British and try and fight them. In that manner of Hey, we'll go toe to toe. Machine guns or we don't have machine guns, but we have. We, ever repeating rifles, we have a massive advantage over you and you're going to continue to charge us. We're GONNA. Mow you down and that's what happened there. So what happens in the Second Bul war. Is. An early example of asymmetric warfare meaning you have a small group in this case, the brewers, which is Afrikaans term that means farmers. And there's between twenty and sixty thousand of them. And they're going up against the British Empire. which at the time was a massive powerhouse? Obviously, they end up with five hundred thousand troops. So three hundred and fifty thousand Brits, one hundred and fifty thousand colonials. And one hundred thousand Africans that are fighting on on the British side. The the Second World War, the first one took place in eighteen eighty, but it's. It was much much smaller. Started, with. A. Farmer that refuse to pay taxes. You know that's seems to be a common thread. We don't like to pay taxes. And the government? confiscated his farm in his equipment and they were going to have an auction. And then these other farmers got together and they attacked the auction. And, this is the this is the original term the term commando. which we use, what we, we usually use it to talk about an individual person. But the original term, a group of people that was called a commando meant you know whatever thirty forty one hundred guys. Band together kind of like a militia group. And the way and they kind of. In the way we think commandos act, which means they you know, they would use mobility and speed and violence of action, surprise ambushes and those kind of behaviors. And meanwhile the Brits. are still in that not. In that first Buor, the the Brits are still wearing red uniforms. You see what I'm saying. This is a this is A. This is a strange world. This is as you know during the evolution of war. and. They're still firing stokes setting up in lines and firing volleys together as a group and on-command ready aim fire that type of thing, and meanwhile the the buor commandos are hiding behind trees and. The first battle that they have there's one hundred twenty Brits dead or wounded, and there's two Buddhist dead and five wiggins so. This this war lasted ten weeks the first one, and like I said it was less of a war. Light Action. Then eventually, they kind of go into this uneasy peace, and then the second buro war comes along and I'm just trying to give some high level. The absolutely no expert on these things and I'm sure some of some people will let me know some things that have gotten wrong, but. The Second Bureau War! is a fight between its. It's these. Allies these these new bluer allies there's there's two new states that are formed one of them. Is called I think it's officially called the South, African Republic, but I usually see it referred to as transvall. And the other there's another state or country called the Orange Free State, and so here's the basis of these. These are a little bit for you know. The shape of Africa at the bottom of Africa where South Africa's today you you go inland a little bit and what happened was. The Brits at one point, they stopped slavery like no more slavery. And the brewers. They still wanted slavery because they were farmers, and they while that that was part of their economy and well, they just thought that they deserve to have slaves. And then on top of that when they got told. Hey, you can't have slaves anymore. There was no kind of deal setup. For them to be compensated to say look if you want us to change the way we're running this. Economy. We need to. We need money you know we need money to. Hire people and So, they look for some kind of compensation. The Brits were like No. This is an immoral activity, and we're not having any more it's. It's overt. So the bewers or a large portion of brewers. which again, not now. These are these are different groups of people. WanNa say mainly Dutch. The boomers were mainly Dutch settlers. which why Speak Afrikaans, which is like a version of Dutch, so they about fifteen thousand of them leave and may march north, and so now they set up these two states where slavery still allowed. And, they and they kind of exist for a while. In a in a relatively I guess in a relatively peaceful way. At least in terms with the British well guess what they find in this land that they end up settling in. They find gold. They find diamonds. And this starts to. Well now, YOU GOLD DIAMONDS WAR! That's where it leads to. The. There's. Kind of three phases that this war goes through. In the first one, the Brits are unprepared. They're not ready for this. In the second phase, the Brits bring in massive numbers. Of people and Supplies, and they kind of just war of attrition, overpower the Beurs, and then the brewers go intellect, full guerrilla warfare mode insurgency mode. And then. The Brits go hard core scorched earth. We're going to win. WAR OF ATTRITION! I ever concentration camps I'm pretty sure that the term concentration camps comes from this war. Because what the British ended up doing is saying okay, we don't want to. We don't want to harm the women and children, so they took the poor women and children and put them in these camps while the camps were. A total disaster and Twenty five plus thousand women and children died of starvation and disease in those camps. And eventually just through just harsh brutality, the debate boomers were broken, and they surrendered in nineteen. Oh two. But from perspective from just a strategic perspective if you think about this. It took. Three long bloody expensive years for the mighty British Empire to defeat these kind of ad hoc. Commando units from the poor side, and that's what they actually were they would they assemble you know? Hey, all of us are going to get together. They would elect who's going to run it and they would decide what they were going to do. Sort of by consensus. That's what these original commando units were. Winston Churchill. He worked as a reporter. During this war, he was captured I captured on a train. He was put into a prisoner of war camp. He escaped I mean that's kind of one of his. That's one of the things that made Winston Churchill Winston Churchill and that's also where he got this name commando that they started using I. in world, War Two I'm pretty sure. He derived the name committed like for the British commandos. Activities their methodologies. We're going to be based on what the what the South African bourse did. WHAT THE SOUTH AFRICAN COMMANDO UNITS DID! He applied that name to the kind. The early Special Operation Types troops in world, war two. And there's another thing that I. Think about when I when I think about. The boomers and the. I think this kind of captures. Certainly an attitude that is prevalent in special operations, forces and really in the military. And it's a it's a saying it's. Kinda wrapped up in a saying that the that the. South African bewers had and the the. The saying is. I'm not going to do this right because you know it's a foreign language, but the the the saying is on Buhrmann plan. And and what it means is. A boomer makes Plante and it's a pretty cool saying. Because what are you doing? Something goes wrong. What do you know what's what's are? What are we going to do when something goes wrong? You know we're going to make plan. We're going to figure it out or we're going to do something about it. We're not gonNA sit back and just let things unfold. That was their attitude. That's still their attitude, and of course look South Africa's has been a place of. A LOT OF TURMOIL Apartheid. It's it's been financially. Just a disaster at points it's it's just a tough place and I've been there. I've actually been lucky enough to have been down there. It's an awesome country. It's an epic country the the nature. There's just unbelievable Shout out to the troopers down there in south, Africa. Paul slade his his South African crew at his company they have. They have legit Jujitsu shout out to fit fight fit militia down there and you know that was interesting. Awesome Guys Awesome Jim. Guy Named. CHEF. And Chef, who's WHO's legit and his buddy rich? They run this jim down there. And why we went there and trained when I was in south, Africa I had like A. Seemed like about a fourteen hour death role with chef, a total beast. Penny also from south, Africa anytime shot to Penny Thomas. But incredible place incredible place and you know that Jim was amazing what they were doing in that Jim and One thing that kind of surprised me as it was totally wide open like every different type of person was in their rich kids, poor kids, black kids, white kids, just wide open. There's credible atmosphere and everybody free conferring and all. So if you ever are in South Africa, go check that place out. It's awesome. but Ever since I went down there, and even before that I mean it's, it's just a it's a war. You know you know if you know the root word of the word command. You always think about what this was all about and so. There's always looking for lessons learned. There's a there's a book called the poor war and military reforms, and it's written by guy named Jay Stone, and another guy named Erwin Schmidl. And it's an a very interesting book away at analyzes what happened, and what lessons were learned and I'm gonNA focus on. The lessons learned that they pulled from it and I'm sure at some point. There's I've got A. Quite a few good books of. The normal Jaakko podcast first person account of a guy that was on the battlefield which. Look some of these battles were just insane especially because you get to see the. Well. We'll we'll. We'll just. We'll just jump into it. So a couple of things to kick off here, we go to the book. Britain was unique among European great powers in retaining a voluntary army. So this time, the a lot of a lot of Europe had conscript. Still so you're just you're just to do your service. You're getting drafted. In order to maintain a flow of recruits, equipment had to be of above average quality, making the British army, the most expensive in the world personal jeweler, so they're spending a lot of money with government preoccupied by the budget, there was little room for innovation much of the nineteenth century, not a lot of. Not a lot of innovation happening. One of the things that they talk about is. Of all the specialized departments it was. Intelligence where the dual British deficiencies of Organization and Budgetary Restrictions are best illustrated in eighteen, ninety nine, the German, spent an equivalent of two hundred seventy thousand dollars for an intelligent staff of three hundred officers Great Britain only spent eleven thousand. So, they're not spending much on Intel. And where this comes to play, as perhaps the war's most glaring intelligence failure was the lack of adequate maps of South Africa and in particular of the Boor. Republics, the brewers for their part published no maps and would allow no British subject into their countries to draw them. They knew what was going on. It's also interesting because. For them to make that to them to for them to proactively do that. It meant they knew the importance of baps and a lot of people don't understand the importance of. When it comes to combat if you don't understand the terrain, you're in trouble. Here's here's A. Little a little cut of what the what the officers were like a Dan defied non-professional Polo playing officer corps, recruited from a narrow social base resulted. From a system, which was itself depending on private funding for an officer's expenses, the army was suited to recreational life. In the eighteen ninety s, an officer could absent himself from regimental duties for as much as two hundred fifty days annually. In the name of sport. I mean I'm GonNa. Tell you right now. You get thirty days. Leave the US military. These guys are getting two hundred and fifty days. Even when on duty recreation was facilitated by making an officer's time his own after the completion of regular duties, usually about nine thirty am. While the ideal of sport may have been carried to an extreme, perhaps helped develop the trait, most often associated with British officers, their conspicuous courage, that virtue was to be indispensable for the attainment of rank. And the large numbers of Victoria crosses one by senior officers attest to this fact, the officers calm. Courage tended to radiate throughout the ranks so this this idea of these just totally brave British officers that are sort of well. That's what they count on. They count on. Hey, where brave! That's how we're going to win. Continue on, courage alone however did not produce good officers for professional education and attitude were often lacking. Few officers were acquainted with foreign languages and the writing of technical military studies was frowned upon. Think about that you're you're the officer. That's GONNA. Lead the military. It's frowned upon to write about military subjects. Crowning proof of this is the fact that in one thousand, nine, hundred Germany produced fifty percent of the world's military literature. France twenty-five percent and Great Britain one percent. If the raw material of trade of the officer, Corps was somewhat lacking. Only owing to portraying this system served only to compound. It's errors so you can see what you're doing with. Doesn't this paint? The most stereotypical picture of these officer guys that are like Hey I'm smart McGrath athlete you. Don't need to study this stuff on brave. And, you also think about Germany Look Germany has A. A militaristic nature right, and obviously even more so before world. War Two an before world. War, one, even more so think about one countries producing fifty percent of the world's military literature. That's insane. And the Brits are producing less than one per set. A couple other things here about what we're dealing with long-term twelve year listeners created a professional rank and file in order to attract manpower. Britain had to pay in both relative and absolute terms during prosperous. TIMES PAT pay had to go up or the army it was feared would be left with only the dregs of society to deal with this perceived problem. The English army had always maintained a high proportion of officers and NCO's supervision was omnipresent, and individuality was systematically stamped out of the recruit, so it's a super top heavy organization And all that everything's just being over supervised, and you're always being told what to do. It's always amazing. The in in the army or the marine. Corps they'll be a guy that's. Twenty years old and he'll be in charge of like a legit number of guys. the whereas this is the opposite. This is where hey. I've been in the army for nine years and I'm not in charge of anyone because I'm getting directed on how to do everything. The natural outgrowth of such closely ordered system was a soldier bread to deference and lacking initiative. You can see where this is going. How much of this was due process, and how much was due to raw material is open to question eighteen, ninety nine, only eighteen percent of the enlisted men could be considered. Illiterate. So got a bunch of guys can't even read. Reserve components gotTA. Talk about this just to let you know that they're out. The reserve components known as militia reserves, militia, volunteers or yeomanry had several distinct roles, and they played the national defense system, so they're going to get called up. It's welcome to the reservists. The. Army was totally directed towards Ho toward home and colonial defense. In examining battlefield, effectiveness, one must go beyond questions of organization and numbers to matters of tactical doctrine for the British. This was most often equated with overwhelming firepower. That's what their their their doctrine is. We're going to overwhelm you with firepower. Every soldier received an issue of two hundred rounds annually for target practice. That's a joke. All training and practice fire was carried out from kneeling and standing positions. I'm going to promise you. Don't WanNa be standing on the battlefield. Musketry practice and this is a quote consisted of firing, a limited number of rounds at stationary bike targets at fixed known ranges progressing from one hundred to one thousand yards, the distances gradually increasing instead of decreasing as they normally do war once a year, there was a field firing when the battalion would spend a glorious morning lazing away at the number of screen setup, inconspicuous positions, which no sane enemy would ever think of occupying. Su so they're doing. They're lining up. One hundred fifty rounds were to be used solely for practicing collective fire so out of your two hundred rounds a hundred. Fifty of them are going to be. Hey, we're all standing in line and were practising shooting together on the battlefield, regulations stated that infantry fire was to be opened at four hundred and fifty meters as to as opposed to six hundred two thousand meters, the Germans while the British continued to place undue emphasis upon volley fire. The Germans preferred individual skirmish fire. Large sections of training manuals dealt with close order battalion formations such as the Square Ashkelon, which deemed especially useful in savage warfare, so what they're talking about there is. The Zulu wars like hey, you're getting attacked. We're GONNA stay in line, and as these people attack us with spears. We're GONNA him down, and it's important that we stay tight in put up big volleys of fire. Meanwhile, the Germans are over there going. Hey, skirmish line you know covering move. Make a little bound Ford. Sir Frederick Maurice the, famed military historian of the period lent his prestige. To a volume that taught the advanced is to be made as rapidly as possible, the main object the attack with the bayonet. Independent firing is generally advisable only at short range, but so visceral here that individual firing is only advisable at short range, but if an especially favourable target presents itself may be ordered also at the middle of extreme ranges. Whilst the attack is being developed follies. Only are to be fired by section or subsections to orders given for independent fiery. That's what they're doing. More sophisticated solutions involving fire movement. Covering, move could not be developed. As long as heavy reliance was placed upon the bayonet, which in turn was the most was, which in turn, was most effective in mass formations, and proved a psychological weapon par excellence faith in the bayonet enabled troops to advance with the intent to use it. It was feared that if this principle was ever called into question than the troops would not approach the enemy close enough. To be of any use whatsoever, so they are. They're using the bayonet. Charge as sort of the foundation old. Culmination of their movement. These? Guys have guns. You know the enemy is gonNA, have guns. Tactical Flexibility was extremely limited. Since the drill book of Eighteen Ninety, eight, thousand, ninety six, did not include any instructions for the movement of troops in extended order extended. Order your spread apart. They're all close, or they're all basically shoulder to shoulder. Oral commands tend to be extremely formal to the point of awkwardness. For instance one said that blank face the blank being filled by some objects. It's building rather than right face. Similarly, one had to say advanced, right, inclined whole rather than take cover behind those rocks. The British tactical scheme suppose that once units were engaged. They would function mechanically. It was not considered. Morale might falter under adversity. Think about that. They just think when they give the order to go. Guys are going to go. BARAU will not falter. During the years immediately preceding the Burra War, the army had two opportunities to test the effectiveness of its organization and doctrine, eighteen, ninety, eight British Britain stage, its largest peacetime maneuvers in more than a generation, some fifty thousand men organized in two corps and two Cavalry Brigades took part over a period of three months. The maneuvers in fact went on only from breakfast to dinner. As officers felt the need to be free in the evenings to attend to the London theater. And socialize with the country gentry. Horrible. This exercise was held on familiar grounds of Aldershot. which was unfortunate sets encouraged and neglect of reconnaissance. You already know so. We're not going to do any reconnaissance. We already walk around here all the time. Perhaps the greatest revolution revelation in the ineptness of the high command, dealing with more troops than most of its members had ever seen one place. Their flaws noted in the officers failure to mount secondary attacks and a continued lack of coordination with artillery when forced to dismount, cavaliers showed considerable firepower defensive supported by machine guns on offense. However, it's still proved inadequate in reconnaissance. The second phase, which took place at Aldershot was even less successful than the first infantry advanced without the use of cover. This is a nightmare. Reconnaissance was poor. No digging in of trenches was permitted allegedly for fear of damaging the downs, the fields at their on. General Sir. Butler not having commanded troops for twelve years. Ended maneuvers with a disastrous one to one assault after marching his command fourteen miles so. You can kind of see what we're dealing with. Are you getting a picture of what we're dealing with? This is not. It's not a good picture. It's not a good picture to peace time scenario and look they were. They were in wars during these timeframes I mean I about what they did. They were in wars. This is was England man that they were. All over the world fighting skirmishes. But. They weren't getting in it. In in this kind of these tactics that they were using working, because they're going against people that aren't. Properly So here we go at the outbreak of facilities. The army could muster only twenty seven thousand. So now we're getting into to this. War could only muster twenty seven thousand men in the theater of operations, whereas the boomers field fielded forty five thousand. Clearly situation differed from colonial wars, in which the opponents lack the ability to monitor a gradual buildup, British strength, requesting troops, and knowing what to do with them are two separate matters. Even after the outbreak of the war, no effort was made immediately to increase the intelligence staff or draw plans for troop utilization. It was the army after all. That was responsible for the request that the colonials send only infantry in no cavalry. General Buller in this guy. Initially kicking off this war theater commander. Was To complain of the last minute plans. Here's what he had to say. The details were arranged by a committee sitting at the war office, so we already don't like that like. You're in South Africa. There's people up in England there no Internet. There's no video teleconference. They're coming up with plans of how you're going to fight this thing. They're not even there. I was not invited to attend. Its meetings were furnished with the minutes of its deliberations. I pressed for the employment of General French with the cavalry. And for Colonel, miles on the staff I had no voice in the appointment of the commanders or of the senior staff officers selected. This is a good old boy network. This guy's going. Oh, sounds like a war in South Africa. I'm like to participate in that. Can you put me on? PUT ME ON FOR FOR A. Giant. Down to the colonies to characterize British military establish of eight establishment of eighteen, ninety nine much should be made of its apathetic, snobbish and non-professional Officer Corps. It's highly disciplined ranks, and this is the your hear this a lot. Let me, say this. Also I've worked with the Brits before they're. They are outstanding. They're an outstanding military and they obviously CH- transformed from what we're talking about right now. But and this is why, though this is why? I was going to say they used that were disciplined and many times. When they use the word discipline, they use it both as a as a negative and a positive throughout this book. Because they're. When they talk about the extreme discipline, it's like hey. These guys weren't GonNa make decisions on their own. They were just GonNa. Follow orders, so they used that term there, and they also talk about how a positive in some situations as well because they were disciplined soldiers. That would make things happen. So. Here we go like I said apathetic, snobbish, non-professional Officers Corps highly disciplined ranks and conservative, anti militaristic Malu in which it functioned. How else to explain the Queen's Regulations of Eighteen, ninety nine, which found space for seventy one regulations dealing with dress. In only four for musketry. And one for field training, while still noting that the troops should wear old clothes to maneuvers, since troops would not be anxious to buy new ones. You'd see what we're dealing with. And here we go despite these deficiencies, the world as a whole, held the British army in high regard in light of its long string of victories dating back to eighteen fifteen. Beat Napoleon there'd be Napoleon right. They beat the world champ. And so now they're the champ. The British. Themselves believed that the army was never in better condition, either as regards to the zeal and skill of its officers from highest to the lowest the training and discipline of the men and the organizations of all branches of the service. That's their attitude, and can we say era, gance and ego? Yes, we can. Thus expiration of the Burra ultimatum on a global eighteen, ninety nine. Regarding a cessation of all British military preparations held no major threat despite the fact that the army would be facing a relatively modern fo- for the first time. If men and materiel, obviously not reading the whole book. There's the caveat if men immaterial proved to be in short supply in the early stages of the war, such was not the case with Shipping Great Britain as premier maritime power had long been accustomed the movement of troops by sea. The massive commitment transported one hundred eighty eight thousand men, thirty six thousand horses, four hundred nine pieces of artillery and one thousand, nine hundred fifty one vehicles over six thousand miles without any serious consequences on the level of. British commerce. That's amazing so logistically. They can get it on. The British navy the Royal Navy. Oh, you want us to deliver some goods. We're going to deliver some goods. Supplemented by reserves, militia, yeomanry volunteers and eventually colonials, the army grew to four times its original size by the spring of Nineteen hundred forces. The field actually outnumbered the combined population. Of Transvaal and of free orange the. Can you imagine you're going to war with more soldiers than they have people? And it's still going to take you three years to get. This thing sorted out. Crazy. Manpower of any sort was increasingly a welcome. In the later stages of the conflict. Free Use of the Empire's entire manpower could not be considered due to certain philosophical constraints, which captain a e Oppenheim foist. We must never. This is just such i. just I read this and I was like wow. This is not this. Is Business Very interesting? Here's what this guy says the captain. We must never depart from the cardinal imperial principle that the imperial army alone is privileged to meet any enemy at any time under any circumstances. We must never resort to free use of native armies of the Empire. The white man, the ruling race must bear the burden in the appeal to arms must assert its superiority, and must do it willingly and sacrificing. For therein lies. The vital principle of empire. The day that sees the white man shrinking from his responsibility, that sees him shifting the birding burden complacently from his own shoulders to those of his subject races. Will also see the doom of his Imperial Dominion. Now, that's something that I. That, that definitely was interesting to me because. You think of these imperialist of the British Empire going in well. We got a bunch of whatever we got a bunch of black guys down here in Africa. Let's let's make them fight and here's this attitude of no. That's not right. That's kind of crazy, right. It's interesting for sure. Fast forward in a little bit in retrospect one cannot help but be impressed by the war's impact upon the army service corps increased numbers redesigned fray, lighter and more durable enlarge system of animals. Furthermore special bulk oriented faster supply columns were developed for cavalry support. For the first time. Limits on instituted on officers kits. His I led to this. And, the notorious cast iron, kitchen and wagon load of champagne associated with general. Buller became a thing of the past. This is like some of the things that they figured out during. This war is that it's not smart to bring a cast, iron, kitchen and wagonloads of Champagne. I think it's safe to say to put this in a modern parlance is that this is the war? Where Shit got real. I mean think about the difference you're going to Warren you're thinking eight. Let's make sure we got our. Our Champagne loaded up. Yes, so it's what is it I mean where does that add to come from just the sheer numbers in history and mystery man? They'd been running around. You know kicking ass for. Well, since since they said they're eighteen fifteen, you know they were the British were just kinda dominating. And we know what happens when you get that disease a victory. Champagne. Yeah Hey. I guarantee you. Some of these officers that they're talking about were thinking. Oh, I'd like to go to South Africa a little war. Going on, I'll go. Go get my adventure done, yeah! Thing. And the and the thing is. Here's the bottom line I. have this in the notes later but. Imagine you're. You're used to boxing, right? And you're GonNa Balk someone, and you grow in there and you've you've trained box, which means you're gonNA stand up, and you're going to throw punches, and you're not gonNA. Kick or Elbow or do a takedown, or you're definitely not going to do anything like I gouge or. Maybe have something in your glove and shake someone right? You're definitely not doing that stuff. And by the way so now you've been fighting under those rules. For. What. Is it eighty five? Over eighty five years. You've been finding and by the way winning and winning because what? Everyone. You're fighting I. mean if we try to. If we try to figure out what this looked like I, bet you this looks like. A three hundred pound boxer that's going up against a hundred pound boxer. That's kind of what all these wars have been like up to this point right? Hey, we're gonNA roll in there. and. This person's going to be small and weak, and we're going to do the boxing thing and they're gonNA throw punches. Don't even hurt us. They don't even hurt us. And, eventually just knock this human out. And then one day not only do you go come up against someone that's going to do double leg takedown nose chokes arm locks. But they'll also shake you. Know, they don't have any rules, it's not just it's not just no rules. Eh May. It's no rules I'M GONNA I'M GONNA have a shift and I'm GONNA. Cut Your throat while you know. Ding Ding round starts, you know. I come out with a K. Bar and stick it into your spine. That's what we're talking about. So. Why did they have this attitude? Because for all these years, they were the heavyweight champ and they. Hey, I gotTA fight tonight. Cool! Make sure you bring the make sure you bring the shots for when we're done. Yeah, because it's GonNa, take three minutes zoo, and then I want you know I wanNa have after party like the old. Days I'm sure they still good, but I haven't been that. But that's what it was. Yeah. Like. He was so much like that that. They would bring the champagne. They bring their trophy with them exactly. Exactly this disease of victory to the NTH degree A. Crazy man! It's crazy. During the course of the Boer War, the Afrikaner. Afrikaner armies. Numbered about forty thousand men, no more of twenty thousand. Whom wherever in the field at one time. So most people ever had out on the field was twenty thousand. The question then. Is How could such a motley force farmers defy the British Empire for so long one answer is as a French observer phrased it was simply the rifle, the rifle of small-calibre rapid firing, flat trajectory and smokeless powder another big advance. You had guns that. The Gun. The gun powder didn't make smoke anymore. which meant you could shoot and you could hide? And you can continue to attack and you wouldn't have. The battlefield filled up smoke. But, this is a little bit. It goes a little bit further that the bourse true strength was not at long ranges because they talk about how everyone thinks. Oh, the booze were hunters. They were farmers, and they would really good shots at long ranges, but this kind of just in addition to that. Their true strength is not long ranges, but rather in sharp shooting at under three hundred yards. boomer skill in that regard was demonstrated in the later stages of the war when their arms were mostly captured from the British, and they still maintain their mastery in small unit firefights, Reference Loan could not assure survival in the face of the vastly superior British numbers and cumulative power firepower from the beginning even when they were. Attached to their wagons, the booze were able to out. March their opponents when freed from their bag, so they eventually they cared wagons in the beginning, and then they finally were like. Hey, we're not even bringing these things. When freed of their baggage, train and camp followers, the difference in rare movement increase rapidly bewers mounted on ponies. Could on occasion travel sixty miles a day for several days on, and when called upon their sturdy little horses go for three days without food. Such marches however can only be considered on the basis of a ready supply of remotes and a factor was the pony, lighter load, weight and distribution. The brewers saddle weighed half that of the British. The rider carried only a little food. His rifles ammunition in a blanket everything else transported on a spare amount. Consequently, a pony carried two hundred and fifty pounds as compared to the British chargers, nearly four hundred pounds so lightweight. Lightweight means going back to the heavyweight versus the hundred pound guy. Hundred pound guys got some mobility and he's got some endurance. they used their artillery very well, talking about that a little bit concealment and protection where they're cardinal principle. This is further tillery they were for they were frequently outnumbered in the field. Several alternate alternative protection protected positions were developed for each gone, thus permitting rapid replacement when peace came under fire. Speed of movement was the essence of the Bourne, gunners. And? The British were constantly amazed by their ability to bring heavy ordinance rapidly into action at unexpected locations, so they would predict positions. So as soon as they started taking fire, because eventually when you're shooting the enemies going to see where you're at, or they're going to judge where you're and start shooting at you, they would immediately move. They're gone into a pre determined position. The brewers use of single guns rather than battery. They're talking about big artillery. Guns was the focus of considerable amount of contemporary interest. A single piece can keep an entire army awake for night firing at six miles range. The brewers realized more the morale effect of unreturned fire, and the sense of security provided when one is assured of covering fire from one's own guns under any withdrawal. They realized that psychological warfare just dropping bombs from six miles away from one gun, and how powerful that was. The machine gun proved more deadly was considered. An equivalent of twenty five men. Thanks to the master, masterly use of terrain and smokeless powder embattled, the brewers were often able to give the impression of greater numbers than in fact existed Captain Slocum. The American observer noted that at the battle of Klezmer on. We'll get into that. Not. A single Bouar was to be seen from the beginning of the battle to the end. On occasion the brewers would deliberately expose themselves in order to further. Confuse the enemy so in this one the opening battles. Fourteen thousand Brits versus four thousand five hundred brewers, the Brits had one, hundred, forty, three, killed, seven, hundred and fifty five wounded. The brewers had eight killed. Thirty wounded. Use dummy guns, black powder attract fire, and command detonated diversionary charges further confused the Brits. In the attacks, it's spying cop and Nicholson's Nek. The brewers advanced in small mutually supporting groups rather than long lines. Generally they tried to deploy their younger men for their old men to the rear and foreign volunteers. Still further back, so we have covered moved going on totally different. Mutually supporting elements. You know what the basis of maneuvering on the you know, the basis of fired move and cover move and fire maneuvres. Mutually, supporting elements in fact, the minute that you get too far away from another element that you can't mutually support each other. You are going to die. pushing forward. By largely avoiding concentration and attack, the brewers forfeited the initiative and allowed British time to deploy so this is some of the debris that the brewers didn't do well. Is didn't go on the attack. The impressions that Ain't GonNa impress the attacks. They'd get an advantage, and they wouldn't take advantage of the advantage that they had. When they could no longer extend their lines beyond the British. The British flanks conventional fighting ended. Inevitably. The advance of the British and ceaseless Afrikaner retreats took their toll on the Bourne morale. And with the fall of Komati port. In the war seemed over. Unable to contend frontally. With massive British armies after the fall of Bloom Fantine. The beurs resorted increasingly two raids orders divert for forces, frightened, communications and supply gain information alarm, the countryside disrupt mobilization and concentrations devastate enemy, held lands and release prisoners. That's the mode. They went into that straight up guerrilla warfare for the Brits. War Soon degenerated into a ceaseless pursuit of an elusive foe. They were all too frequently caught unawares by blue by commandos doubling back in attacking favourite bluer ploys. Grass fires to slow pursuit or writing parallel supposed- pursuers, dismounting firing and falling back. Organization in war plans are also subjects of importance upon call. Every male citizen was responsible to present himself with ten days, rations, a horse, a rifle and thirty thirty rounds of ammunition. So. This is how the brewers were setup. Men were organized into commandos based on electoral districts although they were free to change you units at will. This total decentralized command a commando would have anywhere from three hundred to three thousand men. Command was vested in field. cornets elected one per ward. Since Command was election. Most new actions were undertaken by consensus such a system could not long survive in warfare and we're GONNA. This is massive decentralized committed. It's actually decentralized command to to extreme that becomes ineffective, and oftentimes they end up, not being able to. It's one of the reasons why they couldn't coordinate attacks. Work together and be like okay. The enemies on the ropes let's go coordinate and crush them. They wouldn't quite be able to pull that off. You know the. Deal with consensus. Hey I don't agree with that idea what we should wait a little longer than it, so they don't take action, so there's. The Dichotomy of leadership decentralized command is great, but. You can take it too far. If the three. This is this is where I was talking about earlier. If the three capabilities of any army are its marching marksmanship and disciplined, than his obvious where the doers fatal flaw lay. In its lack of discipline for without discipline, there can be no coherent attack. The bourse valued their own lives increased power of the defense. That they tended to forsake the tactical offense. This lack of aggressiveness was evidenced in their proclivity for sieges. Mafra King. They outnumbered Bayden Powell's force ten thousand men to seven hundred and that they didn't attack. They had ten thousand against seven hundred. Pay We're just GONNA hold siege warfare where it's going to sit here and wait wait you out if I have ten thousand seven hundred. We're coming to get you. Such unwillingness to launch attacks consistently hurt the Bouar caused tactically and strategically even in the field, the brewers had the boozman more aggressive. The British would not have had the time to maneuver around of their flank. Lack of discipline was not only a drawback to tax, but also had peculiar ramifications for the process of surrender, white flags never been used during the native wars, and thus it was not understood that everyone must stop firing when the flags were raised by either side the British frequently complain that Walsum brewers raised their hands. Others continue firing. And that that caused problems. Much to British Chagrin Lord Roberts wrote the brewers have. been the first to introduce into war, the theory that every individual has the right to ask quarter for himself at any moment in an action. A theory, which our own soldiers seem to have almost invariably accepted. So you'd have a couple people surrendered a couple of people. Don't that's confusing? and. This is interesting. The! Europeans never understood the boomer philosophy of inflicting damage. And then escaping into the veld, which is like the open field, the the Bush basically. To a Burger and the term, Burger in this case. It's basically white citizens down there that control that we're in control. To a burger. No position was worth dying for. If, he could not retreat. He would surrender. Naturally, some might feel that horses only complicated to boomers position when kept to the rear, and out of artillery range the Burgers, capable of neither escape nor pursuit. The boomers seemed insecure with without horses, and yet were incapable of dealing with with cavalry when mounted. So this is that comes up a lot. You had these Brits where. They look at you. Know the code of honor and they are. They're not going to surrender, and they're gonNA fight to the death, and they're gonNA hold positions if ordered and the brewers are kind of like. Hey, why would stay here? And if I if if I'm not just going to die on this hill, we're gonNA lose a say. Alive almost almost surrender. So. What you end up with is a fluid element. And you end up with a really rigid element. As commander-in-chief violated at one of the cardinal rules of warfare, and this is kicking off the war by dividing the an inferior force faced with a more mobile enemy operating on interior lines, so he one of the first things that this guy baller does and an interesting. It's not in this book, but I read it in some of the other. Literature about this? This Guy Bowler was like an old guy i. think he was fifty nine years old and he was. Kind of not in the best of health and The the brewers called him the Red Bull, because name was bulletin. Call Them Red Bull because his face was all. I'm imagining like a you know. Be Alcoholic Kinda Sunburn. Guy Stereotypical Guy. That's what he was, and so they kind of made fun of him. They call them red bull. and. He had some issues. And this this whole thing off in this in this thing that they call in the British military that black week, because they took massive losses. Not just in personnel, but in on the battlefield and even when they would might win a battle. They're losing so many people because they're doing. They're winning battles at a massive casualty rate. So now it's starting to talk about. The problems. The British army problems at the beginning of the war in it says you just need to look at how the various major commands were set up. In the early part of the war, it says by the Battle of grasping November twenty, fifth, nine, eighteen, ninety, nine, the British had a four to one superiority, but he'd come to respect boomer firepower in this case and attempt made to pin the enemy frontally with infantry, while a well-spaced calm of the Naval Brigade was to attack the Boola right. The tactically flexible bewers advanced to delay the pinning forces while converging their fire on the blue jackets as they bunched up to ascend the slope. Despite suffering fifty percent casualties, the sailors broke through supported somewhat belatedly by overwhelming numbers of infantry. Again burgers evaded pursuit. The British still believed in their systems superiority. And overlooked then inflexibility of their open order tactics the disproportionate. was still unclear, so they win this battle, but they take. Your fifty percent casualties. And one of the things that they say is to cover up the low number of Boor. Casualties stories circulated that the bourse had run away carrying their dead and wounded in reality. Men really stopped to pick up their dead when they're being overrun. So the the the British kind of pat themselves on the back, and said well, you know the brewers just took their with them. That's why there's no. That's why there's not many dead bodies here even though we have a ton. I apologize to everyone in south. Africa for my annihilation of all these words. Paul Slade I apologize. At, the battle of Modder River, the British once again fell victim to poor reconnaissance matthew in so this is one of the major players here. This guy named Matthew and British guy expected that the bluer positions would be on the far side of the river, utilizing the high ground and village as a defensive line, instead daily Ray elected to place his men on the forward bank of the river in well came. Positions emphasis was placed on grazing fire. The flat veld while artillery ranging was aided aided by strategically placed whitestone's. That's been. So, they set up. Visual targets that they could see no the ranges of. That's nasty. From trenches the burgers could see three miles and Timothy's rear. As the British troops approached the river the brewers. Are Painting them to the ground. Uncoordinated advances increase the slaughter. buor gunners concealed two hundred yards Ford of some buildings suspected of harboring them re havoc on the defense on the dense British artillery formations whose batteries had been withdrawn to fourteen hundred yards to escape the murders, riflefire and artillery fire. Charges were impossible when men into crawl at twelve hundred yards and known could safely ride horseback within two thousand yards of the front. So what happened here? Let me break out a little bit. You had the art, so you had the British advancing in an open field. The brewers let them get close enough so that they can start killing them with rifle fire. When they get close enough in start killing with rifle fire, which is probably four, hundred, five, hundred six hundred meters away, they start running away as they're out of range of the rifle fire. What comes in artillery predetermined artillery positions by White Steel Whitestone's that they've laid out there. This is crafty. However persistent pressure on the left flank event finally carried the river line, and the the British another victory at a disproportionate law. So eventually they keep. They get it done right. They have enough people to get around to flank and they'd get it done. The British Army of nine nine had in reality stumbled into World War One type of battlefield. The question remained as to whether it was to be treated as an aberration or something new. It seemed easy to blame the near disaster on faulty maps. Poor reconnaissance disregarded information on boo reinforcements and general misunderstanding of their intentions, so isn't that interesting? Do we say hey that didn't seem to work out too well? Or do we say didn't have good maps in reconnaissance was a very good, and we didn't expect us from the boomers. That's not taking extreme ownership. That's blaming everything else, not not not us as leaders. Hope to cover his advanced by means of heavy preliminary bombardment of Heights on fast forward in a little bit, but. It. They would set up. This is just it seems so obvious right now, but instead of setting up in the perfect position, maybe on the crest of a hill where you have total high ground dominance. They put a little distraction up there, and they'd set up in a different position maybe lower on the hill, or in the military crest you, maybe if two thirds of a third of the way down the hill or whatever so? As the as the Brits attack, and they start bombing the top of the hill because that's where they think they're gonNA, be they're not they're. Under a driving rainstorm. The Highland Brigade. QUARTER COLUMN SET OFF RABUKA positions only be discovered a few hundred yards from the beurs real positions. Within six minutes, an estimated six hundred fifty men lay dead or wounded on the Veldt. For the rest of the day, the survivors suffered horribly as they were pinned down by fire, baked by the sun, and ceaselessly attacked by ants behind whose nests many of them hid. By mid afternoon. The Brigade was in route. Defeat was clear cut had matthew in another day for the weather to clear could have used his balloon to explore boomer positions too much faith had been placed in shrapnel. They another thing I talk about with the booze would dig really good positions. They would dig in. They would set up on these hills, and they would dig in, and they kinda described what they were. Digging digging in really. Deep foxholes that actually had the had little kind of roofs on as well. And the Brits Thought Hey if we refer to hawk bombs at these guys are all going to blow up. They will was having almost zero fact because if you're in a whole tillery shell near you, you're going to be okay. Unless it goes in the hole and you're going to be okay. So too much faith been placed in shrapnel, which had been proven ineffective against the trenches, poor reconnaissance, ineffective artillery preparation in a complicated night attack. Are we doing things complicated no. We're keeping it simple and poor economy of force. Were hardly ingredients of success, so we have. Complicated Tax or not obeying the law of simple, keeping simple off combat and also poor economy force. What that means is you're not prioritizing executing. You're not focusing your efforts on one thing. And this is common mistake that these guys made fast forward a little bit while Matthew in May, be accused of being unimaginative in his approach. Such could not be said about. General Sir William Gatt Acre. Who had actually? Ushered in the Black Week at Storm, Storm Berg on December twelfth, he proposed to achieve both strategic, strategic and tactical surprise by means of a long rail move followed by ten mile night. March up the enemy positions before they even knew he was in the area. He's got a pretty dynamic plan. Almost from the first, his plan went awry after seventeen hours in top railway cars under the Midsummer Sun, his command became lost in its night march, fearing discovery gathered acre sent out no scouts. Or. Flanking columns his men stumbled through the night on clearest his location, he decided on a flank approach to storm storm Berg rather than on the original direct attack, but failed to communicate to his entire command. Poor March disciplined alerted the local commando in the entire column was soon under attack artillerymen with the sun in there is managed only this shell of their own troops forcing them from a ridge line. They were on the point of taking. At his. As mishap followed confusion, gattiker ordered a withdrawal only later discover he had abandoned the Fusilier Regiment. So I mean this is just every horrible thing that can happen. You got boom blue. You've got the teams lost. You got them leaving an element in the field. The final defeat of black week was suffered by General Buller at Colenso, just twelve miles from Ladysmith. A mere six thousand brewers repelled twenty one thousand British troops from behind a thinly held river line, the poor position was by no means a strong one for a front over fifteen miles. They had to hold two bridges and several fjords. Southern fiords. Sorry fords, the southern forge were particularly vulnerable as they were situated barely within rifle range. To their rear, which formed a natural line of Defense as usual beurs ignored preliminary bombardment and fired only when the British advanced. At, once it became apparent that the buro medium and heavy guns far outranged, British comparable British pieces. So this is a the way this thing kicks off. Hid He'll hilliard's attack went off. I and it was supposed to be closely supported by Colonel Long, field artillery. The eighteen eighty nine drill book recommended that. Unsupported artillery not move closer seventeen hundred yards from the enemy without notifying anyone long. Advanced within seven hundred yards. and. In close order unlimited is when you detach your weapons from there like your big guns. You have on wheels you detach them. It's unlimited. Unlimited in close order. Although this tactic worked in Egypt in eighteen, eighty one. Here. Has Gunners were shot to pieces by Boo Rifleman? Longwood claim he had intended to unlimited over two thousand yards, but he been deceived by the night, so he's making excuses. Baller was one of the most popular and personally brave commanders in the army. He was actually a recipient Victoria's cross. The highest award. His care for men was legendary and closely entwined with his reforms in the Army Service Corps. However, preparations were overly meticulous. And in the midst of the South African summer has wagons carried great coats for the infantry got to keep these guys warm. In South Africa in the summer. Despite his concern for his men, Bowler had proved a portrait commander who attack with little knowledge of terrain or enemy dispositions, his command control. Is it adequate orders imprecise and the withholding of two brigades in the face of a vastly outnumbered enemy was unprofessional. Guys making all kinds of mistakes defeats of the Black Week collectively had a greater impact than dunkirk Britain at the peak of her powers had been mauled by a nation of farmers. The insularity of decades were shattered shattered, latent fortin, latent foreign animosity revealed at safe itself the international press. Yet the nation rallied to meet its moment of crisis head on as thousands of volunteered for service. Lord! Roberts had been appointed to Supersede Bowler. When the latter in a fit of post, defeat depression had signal general right that he might consider surrender. Shaken by motion blur resolved to attack a new before Robert's arrival. By means of turning the right flex, the this is just like I mean. Can you imagine what this whole scenarios like this guy? He's saying I'm going to surrender. And then he flies off the handle because no I'm going to attack and I mean we're just talking disaster. Emotional disaster. The whole world knows that you just got beat by a bunch of farmers. I mean you're the heavyweight champ? And use that a guy. Show up in a whatever. He's waited. One hundred twenty three hundred pounds were basketball shorts. Yeah, he showed up wearing basketball shorts barefoot. And he kicked your ass. So he goes to try and make this happen. Some seventeen hundred men were to assault to hail one thousand, seven hundred forty feet high in the center of the BUOR position the rest of ballers. Twenty thousand men or to look on and do nothing. This is where you got to prioritize execute. Prioritized execute means. You'RE GONNA. Take your resources that you have. You're going to focus them on getting something done instead of saying well I'M GONNA. Keep reserves over here preserves were hearing in the Senate and I'm only seventeen hundred people to take thousands of seventeen hundred foot, tall tall hill. I got twenty thousand people. This is a no brainer you me to take that hill. The best my number one priority will watch this. The bewers had neglected to occupy much of its key position, but the British failed to make the most the opportunity inaccurately, exploring or enhancing it, so they get the hill, incorrectly cited shadow trench, shallow trenches were dug by twenty sappers, while over a thousand men lay idle, so they get this hilltop. and. I got continue. Normally. A battalion was was allocated seventy spades. But they had been left behind in the ascent. Colonel Maurice complained somehow our soldiers by dint of perverse training had imbibed the idea that there is somehow that there is something cowardly and sneak ish about sitting behind cover in the field. or at any rate if they have to get into trenches and works, it is the Royal Engineers Province to provide these defenses, so these guys got up on top of the hill and we're like. Hey, there's a thousand soldiers on top of the hill. There's twenty people twenty engineers to dig. And they sit back and watch a because. They think it's cowardly and be. They think that's not my job. This is the what's weird about. This is happening. Right we're looking back at it, but can you imagine you're sitting? There is thousands of people you know you know. You could be attacked and you're thinking. I'm not picking up a shovel. And by the way we leave your bring shovels, and by the way we only have seventy shovels for a whole battalion. I mean you'd think that in that situation. That's just kind of the leftover attitude. Oil Straight up prevalent attitude of not having to really fight fight fight fight. You know because you've never had your ass kicked. Yeah, so like you took a shot. And, now you're. WHOA, I'm not going to worry about that. It's going to be okay yeah. You get taken down like after the first round. In the first round you get taken down and then you're coaching in between rounds the tournaments. You're doing great. Yeah. No? You're not yet, and he's like I remember. So back longtime ago right before people knew about Judy, so this guy it was actually my friend told me the story about. When he got in a fight. Any just learned you too and I'm trying to remember the exact situation, but basically this is a story where. He got in a fight with a guy in. The Guy you know. They got on the fight over there in. He choked him out right. And when he woke up, he wanted to fight again of course so. Before they fight again, he was like yeah. I'm GONNA is like yeah, you. Can you give me with that sneak attack stuff right almost like they're not fighting or something. That's just doesn't count. Yeah, it doesn't count. It's coward kind of cowardly. Yet they still are the guy who gets taken down right here in you see this actually now. He is taken down. Wrestle me wants to just recipe lease looking at the wrath like ref stand us up kind of thing almost complaining about certain situations in middle of the fight. So, it's kind of like that's that situation, right? They're like Oh, I'm not digging nothing. Yeah we all do that. Yeah, your fight. You're in a war by the way. So they latest. Don't realize almost you know. Continuing on while virtually the entire British army stood idle. The buro army was free to focus attention and artillery on the hilltop position. Lacking shelter proper equipment lines clear lines of authority or knowledge. That artillery was flying on the way up. The British abandoned the position as untenable. This is farmers. The superior the superiority of the Individual Bluer Marksman and the inadequacy of the small British small unit tactics was never more in evidence throughout the day one brigade carried the fighting one demonstrated, and three stayed in reserve, a further testament to port act raised. You had three other. Brigades! Five thousand I'm guessing northgate might be like five thousand people. That's insane. bowlers qualities as a commander or in many ways indicative. Of the army. He did not know when to draw the line with his subordinates, and this is interesting. Heart was still some one of support. It's heart was still marching his men in quarter columns at the second battle of Kalonzo. Despite being told not to. Another guy named Warren was allowed inordinate freedom despite compromising the entire battle. At other times, Bowler interfered with poor results such as at twenty six. He lacked a sense of terrain. Insufficient. Perseverance time and time again robbed him of victory, as did his hoarding of reserves, as if his troops were eighteenth century professionals at the first battle of Calypso. Only four thousand eight hundred men out of a force of twenty, one thousand were engaged at any one time, and at science at Spine Cop, three thousand men out of twenty four thousand. Staff problems bedeviled his battles. Chain of commands were unclear. An artillery was fleet, frequently, misplaced or uncoordinated. The in addition, strong willed, ambitious subordinates, such as warner, long and hard were difficult to control bowler became. Buller came to appreciate the value of cover. Rushes and creeping barrages, and according to Meritas official history was the original originator of curtain fire at the second battle of Clinto. He, now used so this is something you know. He started on a little bit now used mounted troops as a maneuver element on the flanks of inventory. That's a good idea. The new battlefield involved protracted firefights along extensive front coordinated with precise artillery support, and an incessant creeping Ford of the infantry, whereas bullard taken several months and three major engagements to develop a counter the boomer methods of warfare. Robert so guy get sat down to take his place Robert Tribe Roberts arrived in South Africa with zone strong preconceptions. And Old India hand. He placed his faith in cavalry. Cavalry and mobility rather than the Fi then firepower. Roberts had arrived in Cape early. January defined the army everywhere in retreat. Rather than create, this is interesting rather than create immediate political problems. He allowed both Bowler and Matthew and to stay in command, although with limited forces. This is like little little little play in the game, so instead of just coming down there firing these guys he. He knew that that would be very disrupted, so we kept them there. He just gave them like really small elements to control. Roberts would always remain careful with generals associated with. Wolseley ring with the Wolseley Ring, and so there's a guy named General Wolseley who saw a war hero and general and he had his crew. And these guys were part of his crew and he. You know the this Guy General Walls Garrett Wolseley was a war hero and general and a powerful guy, and so he had a crew, and these guys were part of that crew, and so he was also. That's another reason why I of play the long game you know not just going down there and fire these guys because he's got a lot of power off, the entire army was suffused with Pettiness Hamilton. Littleton lost no opportunity to portray Butler and clearly and clearly constantly fought. Warn and lit. So, you just have babies right? Roberts funneled all reinforcements to the Cape rather than Natale. Despite increasing numeric predominance, he load the brewers into the belief that he was tied to the railways. So the Brits and I am really talked about the Brits were using the railways to run their supplies and stuff like that, so he's kind of. He's kind of letting. The boomers think that we're addicted to the railways. Win Ready in late January Roberts massive army struck far to the east threatening boomer supply lines as the brewers withdrew from their earlier blocking assistance French is this is one of the Brit General French's entire cat cavalry. Division the largest such British British. Unit history was launched around their flank for the relief of Kimberley. With victory so close fast forward in a little bit. They continue to do well. The Brits now under Roberts with victory, so close nature now intervened for Roberts was incapacitated by a cold. He got sick. And Kitchener his chief of staff assumed command. Kitchener launched an immediate. concentric assault against the BREWERS, which now which most veterans realized had little chance of success more than a core was thrown into the fruitless and uncoordinated attacks. This is. Ridiculous, so this guy bribes doing pretty well. Kitchener takes over because Roberts is literally gets cold. When this guy takes over man he just goes gets egos hard. He trying to get a name for himself. And he starts all these attacks trying to basically surround the the beurs. More, their cornerstone in the fruitless and uncoordinated attack commanders were ignored kitchener road about the field, directing battalions and raising havoc frustration mountain is mounted as battle dazed men began to trickle back from the front line and Wander about for lack of orders to entrench. As kitchener attempted to launch another attack. He stripped troops from a key terrain feature. This guy's micromanager. Just trying to make things happen. Horrible to read wants back in command. Roberts ceased further assaults. And resorted to ten days of bombardment and a final night attack, so I is nick. You always talk about how leadership boring thing on the battlefield and I skipped a whole chunk of where everything's just falling apart. Kitchen suffered one thousand two hundred casualties. You almost lost one of the major cities. Ridiculous so Roberts comes back in and just. Stop. And then he kind of starts these. More, methodical attacks! And continues that the start stop. Offensive Robert said, but one objective, the capture of the Bouar capitals, and with that the presumed end the war, despite continued guerrilla attacks Pretoria. The second poor capital fell on June fourth the link-up General Buller on July fourth, signaled the end to all conventional resistance by mid December Roberts had departed and kitchener was left in charge of mopping up operations. So that's kind of the the overview of how it went down. at at least up till that point, the most general examination of British Army's performance in South Africa, reveals flaws on virtually every level of command. Lord Wolsey this. The guy just talked about the commander-in-chief had been excluded as the field commander on account of his age army, royal politics along with Anti India prejudice served to eliminate various other candidates for the. The Post and General Buller rose to the top of the list despite his recent poor showing in maneuvers and lack of independent command experience, although unable staff officer like most British officers, he confused personal bravery with the ability to lead an army. This is just a common theme, and I'm up hitting as much of it as I should in the book, but. This idea of the Brits like personal bravery was going to be enough to win the day. It's so strange. To bad mouth that right because courage is you know one of the most. One most powerful characteristics that we can envision a human being with right this ultimate level of courage and sacrifice. But in many ways it was a negative quality because they thought if they have that. They're good deal. You know in this. You WanNa take it back to the MMA. Metaphor is like you know you see that one guy that's all kinds of fired up, but he's yelling and screaming for a fight, and he's highly motivated and he might even be training really hard. In his strength and conditioning. and. He might be ready to go the distance. He might be ready to die when he goes in the ring. And it doesn't matter when you get in there against someone that has better skill than you and that out maneuvers you all that courage bravery doesn't do a damn thing, but get you killed. So I guess it's not that crazy to look that characteristic with from a different angle if you if you're if you're putting your whole now, look if you have a fighter. That's a WIMP, right? That lacks any kind of courage bravery, right? They're not even GonNa get in the cage, or they're going to be scared to get hit and they're going to run away and they're gonNA lose. But you have to have both you have to have courage. You have to have skill. Yen I mean to add to that, too. You get a guy m e again. A guy who's like is you know he's a great wrestler. Greek, grappler, good submission, Guy, whatever and then the other guys may be a really good striker, and he talks a lot of trash interviews and stuff, so he gets under the skin. The guy goes in Superman. Super fired up. Super motivated I'M GONNA I'M GONNA basically beat him at his own jamming and knock him out a strike. You know rather than strategically. Go for you know. Make yourself in a in a better position as far as like tactically strategically whatever. And then he starts to stand with many gets knocked out. Of course you'd be motivated, but by the guys would just way better than you gotta be smarter than that kind of thing. Yeah feels like that's what they're doing to the. Now. So that kind of wraps up. Some overviews of what happened on the ground and look like I said. There's there's I got some books that are first person perspective on the Ground Bluer. and. We can go into those I'm sure we will at some point. But we're we're this book goes next. Is. How they took the lessons learned and what they did with those lessons learned positive and negative. But as I sit here and look at my notes. It's. It's it's. It's not short. There's there's a lot of things that got learned and there's a lot of lessons that they incorporated and there's a lot of lessons that they didn't. Or there's lessons that they made progress towards and then backed away from. So. Rather than do it right now. I want to leave enough time for that so. Let's call it. And we'll pick up the BOUAR war military reforms. On episode, two thirty, three, so. In the meantime. Echo, Charles, yes. Since we are trying to learn. Says we are trying to make progress if How can we continue to make progress as individual humans? First off, making progress isn't always comfortable. It's not always painless But is about that is. We have helped so speaking of pain and growing. Growing pains if you will so. Joints get a little sore when you lift indeed. And I gotta be honest I been out of the supplementation situation for a little bit. This is a little while ago. But I got the replenishment. Of Supplements And what I'm talking about is as bad planning, yeah. Yeah. Sound like the British army on. You know mostly around the ball things to blame you know I got. Caught up, nonetheless anyway. What I'm saying is look when we're on the path we go heart. Most of the time I'm not saying. Go hard into the ground. Saying you go hard, you know got a deep progress demands. Hardware got gotTa push the envelope gotTa push the envelope. I heard a quote from Denzel Washington. He said es is a greater threat to progress than hardship. Is walkouts pretty good concur, true very true. But through that hardship get joint pain. Say for Denzel Wash deserving worked his whole life to achieve this level of skill, just took his his quote and turn it into your little personal advertisement for joint warfare. I'm more turned it into my personal. I apologize to you, Mr Denzel Washington well, let Echo. He'd be happy because I'm incorporating that into. How should I say my daily? My Life. My approach life about that. Don't seek ease. Don't seek the rest between sets. Oh, you gotta take. There s between south, but don't seek the rest in between. Unless anyway. Basically when you join us, get sore joint warfare because it actually works. You can said that one minutes ago. You know Yeah, you're probably right about that. You know what I saw video of somebody posted seventy posted. The support section that they were just listening to you. Talk and listen to you and I go back and forth, but they were laughing. And I was like that's A. Good. Yeah! Because most of the time I'm figuring is the number of people listening right now zero. Like when they when they hear me, say Oh Okay Echo. Would they go? Over cast is best for think they're missing and if they did that, they just missed a Denzel Washington. Quote you know tells you more time. Eases a greater threat to hardship than or sorry eases a greater threat to progress, then offer then- hardships eases. Okay, got it yeah good, we'll give props to. Denzel Washington was good. I liked but anybody that press stop a little early. They didn't get to hear that They missed it from you. Slash Denzel Lonzo Man. All right well there you go and like I said joint warfare. If you don't have during work, forget joint warfare. That's your point. That is the point that. That's why Denzel Washington said. Would he say? Message was get your warfare and. Yes, actually core. That's what what it sure don't forget about the. Don't forget about the discipline. The discipline go in hands, the discipline powder form Jaakko Palmer, my recommended scenario, why because it tastes like a an Arnold Palmer ICED tea with the perfect amount eliminated there. It's Kinda has little bit of sweetness to it, but it's sweetened with monk fruit. So, that's not sugar. You're all good. You're not getting any insulin spike. No, you're going smooth flatlined that thing easy. And you'll get a little bit of. A little bit of hype little a little bit of A. New You have that noise that you for sound effects like. That high pitched like thing that's being prepared. What's the noise there's? Talking about is, it's basically like you know the old school flash. Memory. PREP. are about to go off. Do we need. You can edit this, and you can put in when I say you get that little, and you can put it right, so I'm GonNa do it. Somebody gave you leave a little spot when you get that little. Bow there you go. At the discipline go! Imagine if you did all your. All your CGI I into the actual podcast and I was talking about covering fire and their machine guns going off, that'd be the most popular podcast of all tracers tracers common between us. Yeah, that could be some. There'd be horses getting killed. The only horses got killed the bourse crazy. Crazy yellow think so I would think that'd be kind of the strategy in a in a way, right? Get the horses nothing. You're trying to kill the people, but yeah, but we're trying to kill the enemy. The enemy horses I. Guess All right in there yet. They're mobility. Right like it's a big target. You know. Hey, I don't know I've never tried to kill horse so you. Don't have that experience. What else are you on the last mock, so spend a moment. I made a milk shake last night So, I, mixed them dark chocolate and peanut butter chocolate. Right whatever you know not much of a deviation. It's not like mixed strawberry with you know. With anyway. And so the thing is I haven't had a Malkan. While in front of the kids and they know they don't know they think I'm making. Some dessert and You know. And, so they're like yeah, I want some some cool. And I give him some. They drink the whole thing, and this is regular to new. Imagine that you can just give your kids something that makes them so strong and healthy, and they rethink that they're. They are just a great dad like this. That's literally when I thought. There are looking at me. Like ten, we actually have the big and you know they're two kids. Now I wasn't taking it back. I wanted to because you know. But at the same. Men have had it because they were. It was just so it brought so much happiness. Did you see your? Did you see your son starting to get a little bit Jack? You got done with. That's just the way body is drink one milkshake. Boom Jack. That's. That's actually well now we can. It's guaranteed now. We know it's been tested. Yeah, your son is now jacked. Yes, sir. How old is he? Three three years of? To Jackson the Mulcahy's more your kid Mokattam. Jack White T. You all this stuff at the vitamin SHOPPE. If your vitamin, shoppe opens up chocolate fuel. That's what it's called when it's called. Apparently, yes, also doing is Ju Jitsu. Okay look varying levels of participation disarray now I understand and I think it's going to slowly by slowly. This tournament's going on. Yeah, yeah, so hey, that's something. Some people are making it happen. Good so anyway, so we're doing due to. We're starting to Jitsu continuing to do so when we do. Get origin game. We already know that hundred percent because they're the best keys straight up. That's the the the number the primary. Situation. Factually factually as you like to serve. And they happen to be made hatch. They don't happen to be made and is there a problem? The fact that these keys are so comfortable that Denzel. Is Sort of you know at parade rest over in the corner, shaking his head. San Boys what's up. It's the good That's a good question Because when you put the rift, Jeon, you you're. You're in a different world of Jitsu. Your your different world of Jujitsu and you put the ricky on yet fully end, and the thing is you feel it, and here's the thing I think about most of us is like we get used to nice stuff. Just get used to it, so you're not go back. It's like if you've ever flown in airplane first class it. Economy sucks forever. I know men you put on a rift ghee. Every other that you put on for the rest of your life is economy class. That's what's happening. It's a visceral insult to my sense. Do you in the old days. Man I had some keys that I felt like I was putting on something that was made out of concrete. That's what I was feeling. This is. Not Concrete I don't. Its luxurious. FLURRIES luxuriance straight up. And they happen to be so I. Happen to be made in America, but they're not. They don't know beyond. Purpose. It's kind of one of the purposes behind them. Yeah, and also speaking of just. Next level, first class. Sorry Denzel Comfort. Get yourself some Delta, sixty eight genes which are. We need it's like another category of clothing. 'cause you not. You're not feeling like you're wearing jeans, right? You're not feeling like. Oh, I got to put these genes on I'm gonNA feel constricted in. Now, you're putting on the Delta sixty eight's. You ready just to do a straight up. You know maneuver. You're ready to a Gogo plot in those things. Yeah, so you kind of think of not to go too deep into a tangent? For be it for me, but. Just far far, too. Okay. Okay, so there's a difference between ease. And Comfort and functionality serve. You're maximizing your functionality and. Because of comfort yeah right. Yes so yeah, and even saying comforters misleading, so look if I have a sword I'm fighting in a battle with a sword, and the sword is urged Onomic League designed for my hand Ergonomic. Yes, right performance will increase in its benefit. You know it's comfortable. Yes, you're doing better. You're more whether it be efficient, more functional, more everything comfortable. Yes, but more seem sane, so that's the delta. Good scenario that will work good like when you go into battle. If let's say you go into battle, and you have that sort that ergonomically fits your hand. That is going to be working really good. Until I caught your freaking arm off because that's what I'm GONNA do. To get into an interesting direction as far as the point, but dig it and you're probably right, but. They're saying that you get this. Anomaly correct sword, and that's going to be well difference. It's fun saying bring it. Yeah, YOU'RE DAMN ARM OFF! You realize. You just assumed that I was going into battle against you. Yeah here. Hey. You're right, and you do make a good point on top of my original point for sure and I haven't even really changed much sword, but I will start training your. Yeah, your down. You have a lot of what you call bravery and You know it doesn't matter. Correct or not I'm taking your arm off. Strategically the move. That's what we're doing. Yeah Edge you can get. You can get t shirts. You can get whatever you want from origin main dot com. I N. E. Or. DEMAND DOT COM. Also, we ever own store. If you're interested in representing, wow on the path disciplining freedom. Good. Take the high ground for the highground take you. That was a little sleeper one. That was good. We got some designs coming just and by the way we're not gonNA. Talk about it now, but the last design you submitted to me. It's almost for full approval had to do. A couple of stoorikhel researches. Make sure we are one hundred percent, but were there. Who Will we'll we'll? We'll do one little. Maybe two little things to it just to clean it up, but we're. We're real happy about that. One designed by Jock Yeah Yeah. It was good. I'm fired up about as far as being fired up designed goes. But? Yes, so you got to JAAKKO STORE DOT COM. That's this whole thing about designed by Dhakal. That's kind of weird. Yeah, not pushed. But factually it's true. Let's move on. Fashion Designer yes, anyway. Yes, JOUKO STORE DOT COM. We got a lot of stuff on their hats. HOODIES shirts obviously. Very successor is good stuff i. think it's good stuff anyway. Yeah, and by the way if you WANNA. If you like if you listen to this podcast and you want to support podcast, this is a way to do it you don't you know you don't? We're not over here, saying like First of all, we're not saying hey, you need to listen to the next six minutes of US reading about some random thing that we don't actually care about or know about right. We're not doing that. We're not saying hey, donate money to whatever because whatever we're not doing that. We're saying hey, listen to this. If you happen to feel like Oh, let's throw some support. We don't even want your support. We want you to have a t shirt. You know that is what we want. Is that way? We can P I you in the wild? Yes, that's positively ide-, you, there's no. There's you know you're looking over one. Little glance I see a little I see a little whatever shirt we know what's up. You know what you're going to get. Head non we're all good. I'll get I know if something goes down. You got my back. You Sir Bright. All you tell me this you're looking. You're going down whatever call it whatever you want. There's nine people that you can go. Hey, come with me. One of them is wearing a Jaakko podcast. T shirt. WHO's going with? He's with you hundred percent hundred percent one hundred percent. I don't care what the other people are wearing actually could be wearing. I don't even know they can be wearing a sports team. What else do people wear? A T shirt a rock and roll band. Like look, there's some categories that are gonna be. You know what I mean. You guys got chocolate podcast. T shirt on. He's coming with automatic admission. He might even be. There might be a like. Let's see the guy with juicy teacher. Let's say it's that kind of situation. That's going back well. He's coming to you. He's coming to. Yup Very, so you might as well just prep for that moment. And by the way, look, it might not be me might be some other trooper out there. That's GONNA. That's GONNA. That's GonNa Detach. It's look around. That's GonNa, make the right decision at the right time. To understand what you said when you say, cover me. They're going to go got it. Boom we're already action. Yeah, we got a militia. We got a commando. True if you have a choice between someone you know is on the path to versus someone who you don't know. I'm not saying I'm seeing you don't know and if you're. kind of them. Right they didn't get. They didn't just get that. T shirt right right. They listened to the podcast. They know where we're coming from. They understand there's going to be some some suffering that might unfold in the next thirteen seconds. While this situations happening. We got it. So, anyways, you might WanNa. Get yourself a Dhaka. PODCAST EASIER YEP. STORE DOT com we appreciate it. Also administer massive support. Direct support when you shop on Amazon this. Would you do go to Jaakko podcast? Dot Com, click through one of the books or the book section. It'll land on Amazon. You save that Amazon linked to your favorites to you bookmarks now when you were shopping. Click on that book on that link to Amazon massive great way to support and thank you. For those of US doing that also. Subscribe to the podcast on your favorite or your preferred. PODCAST listening. APP. Application whatever. Yes subscribe if you haven't already. Leave a review if you're in the mood I, think. Yeah, it's good. It's good. If you want to throw a little communication, our way, we I read. The reviews haven't highlighted one. I've gotta read a Funny Review I'm going to go on their. pull up a good review. I for allows copying and pasting some of them because they were really good, had they had something that? We like to refer to as or something. what else we got up. Don't forget about some other podcasts. We gotTA podcast that we had a podcast. WHO's called? The thread will be releasing it soon. I said we were coming up with a new name. We are, but. That's what we're doing, so that'll be out soon and episode eight. Yes, everyone's been before I'm sorry it's been taken while we got the grounded podcast where we talk about Jiu Jitsu. Asked for a podcast about women's Jujitsu for Jaakko podcast and we already had it. We had on the ground at podcast, so checkout grounded podcasts. If you WanNa hear about you and life. Or your kid podcast. Just. Get your kids on the path. Set them up to have an awesome life. Get Him on the PODCASTS. If you. Also want to support a warrior kid. You can go to Irish. Oaks ranch dot com, and you can get aiden who is making? Soap. Which allows you your family? Your friends, everyone you know. If you get this soap, you can all. Decrees. Speaking of Which? If. I'm not mistaken here at look deep into a but I saw I saw hints of a new warrior. Kid So yup. Hints all right Yes, so you want your children to? Stay stating. Also Youtube Channel we do have a youtube channel for video video version is podcasts excerpts on there. If there's anyone that would like to see CGI special effects during the podcast, let's get echo freaking working harder because right now. He's just what do you? How how hard is this? You show me your show, you you show me you show you this podcast. You didn't say anything, so it's just basically me me me you. You're not doing any work, but that's where we get some some horses trampling across the. How cool would that be? What do they call it when they own hide something in like a video game or a movie? Hide something that you gotTa. Look for Eastern. Yes. People should go onto youtube and they see when I mentioned something. You know all of a sudden. There's a Zulu warrior over my shoulder, or whatever you know what I'm saying. Yeah, that's that's a very good. Is it that you've claim to be? The creative guy and I'm over here coming up with Alba. Where are you at? I don't think you are. This whole thing how about this will look into it. If, you don't put a special effect at least one thing that happens. During the PODCAST. You're disappointing. Everybody that's here. I'm sure that's factually. Oh, I guarantee! That's factually correct. You know when we did the audio books for extreme ownership, and that iconic leadership extreme ownership, so if you listen to the extreme ownership audiobook I don't want to. Try and make it sound crazy, but there's audio affects in there. Yes, there's machine gunfire. There's the call to prayer. There's some explosions. And when we when we decided do that well I the main reason life and I. We've got like words written in their like pop up up up up up. Like machine gunfire and I don't want to start off the chapter going. For instance, this one chapter, six simple starts off with the word, whom right it's trying to an explosion just happened. I didn't WanNa have to say that. Right so I said. You know we decided a bunch of these chapters. Start like that. Here's one enemy tracer around zipping overhead right. I don't WanNa have to make that noise. So. What we did was they put special flexner and the the company. The publisher was kind of. They were cool, but they were kind of acting like this was. like it was crazy like it was a little bit of a crazy idea, so anyways they did it and that's a lot of people are stoked on it, but you gotta be ready for because if you're driving your car and you hear an explosion or machine gunfire especially. If you've been in the game like for Real, you might get a little bit of a little bit of adrenaline flow no big deal all good, so yeah, maybe so I think that the same way that that will enhanced the audio books for Dichotomy leadership and extreme ownership. If, someone had the requisite skills. To actually make something cool in here, it'd be good. Right well, keep it in my case. We also psychological warfare if you need a little psychological hitter when you need to go. Overcome a little moment of weakness. You can just check out psychological warfare. Hits on all the MP three. Platforms flipside con canvas. If you want a visual representation of the path, check it out. FLIPSIDE CAMPUS DOT COM Dakota Meyer. Putting cool graphic representations of things that you can hang on your wall. We got some books. We actually it seems like we have a bunch of books. Reason we've got the code. which just came out? Which is a? A real good way just to step up and just go for it. That's the code. We got leadership strategy and tactics field manual. We outweigh the warrior King One two and three Mikey and the dragons. We got disciplining freedom field manual. We got extreme ownership that got him leadership. Checkout all those books if you want to. Good information. I'll tell you what's cool. I hear this all the time. You read the book once and you know I grabbed it I. Grab. You took a page notes. You can take a page notes on that book. If you read it fifty times, you'll take a page notes every time on any of these books that I'm talking about even the kids books. Yes. I believe it fully. So. So check those out. We got each echelon front which is. Leadership my leadership consultancy where we solve problems through leadership if you need help with leadership in your organization. Then go to Ashland Front Com for details. We also have an online platform called E. F. Online dot com where we. Train coach mentor discuss. Guide! People through pre existing. Volumes that are on there, and through live webinars that were doing all the time. So if you actually have a question for me, go online dot com come to one of our live webinars and ask me your question. That's what's happening. So. We also have the muster. and. Look! This is going back and forth. We got the virus this that we had to cancel Orlando. I'm making the call right now. Phoenix is on. We're going to Phoenix. We're going to Phoenix Phoenix. Arizona September sixteenth and seventeenth actually just got off the phone with Jamie. I'm like. Can we do this? Jamie says we can do this. And I said all right rock and roll look if we get to that point in September. We still have to do some kind of social distancing scenario. Whatever we gotta do. We gotta do it, but we're GONNA. Make it happen so. It's going to sell out. Everything we do sells out if YOU WANNA! Come and and look. Here's the deal depending on the social distancing. Mandates. We may have to limit seating more than we normally would. Which means if you WANNA combine your tickets now, so you don't get cough because you thought there was going to be more seats so. That's it's September sixteenth and seventeenth in Arizona. It's December third and fourth in Texas Dallas Texas. People would say and we should have gone to Dallas, day one and we probably should have and I'll tell you another thing. We went to Austin and it was awesome. We did it kind of last minute, and when we were in Austin people like hey, come to Dallas so we're coming to Dallas. That's December third and fourth. We're going to do that one too by the way. Who wants to get some. And, of course we have if overwatch if you need executive leadership at your team, if you need senior leadership at your team and you want somebody that's experienced. That's been tested. Then go to yes, overwatch DOT COM, its military leaders from special operations from combat aviation that understand the principles we talk about here and can employ them in your company. and. If you're a vet and you have those kind of experiences. Go there as well so we can connect the dots also America's Mighty Warriors Dot Org. Mama League. Marley's mom. And she is put together an organization. That helps servicemembers helps the families helps gold star families all over the world. Guys that are on deployment guys that are home from deployment. Guys that are active duty. Guys that are retired. She is a just unbelievable. What she does so go to America's mighty warriors at Dot Org to either donate or get involved if you WANNA get involved. And at this point. If, you haven't had enough of my horrible. Horrible inexcusable pronunciations of various languages. or You WanNa, hear more of echoes sort of bewildered stream of consciousness thoughts. that. You can find us on the interwebs. As twitter Instagram, and of course facebook echoes Attic Charles I am at Dhaka, willink and thanks to our military men and women there around the world in uniform, who stand face the darkness and evil every day. Then thanks to our police law enforcement firefighters paramedics EMT's dispatchers correctional officers Border Patrol Secret Service. Who Stand and face darkest an evil here at home. And to everyone else out there. Do not fail to learn. Do not fail to learn. Adapt to new environments. Change the way you operate. Don't get stuck in the past. Get better. GET BETTER AND IMPROVE And the way you do that is by going out there. Getting after it. Until, Time? Is Echo. Jaakko. Out.

brewers army Africa officer South Africa British army South Africa Britain boxing Manchester Regiment Manchester Paul Slade yeomanry General Buller Colonel Brasby South Africa. Echo Charles
ARP159 Battle of the Clouds

American Revolution Podcast

28:47 min | Last month

ARP159 Battle of the Clouds

"Hello and thank you for joining the American Revolution. This week episode one fifty, nine, the battle of the clouds. Last week I covered the battle of brandy wine, which was the major battle that both sides had hoped would be decisive. General Washington had hoped to halt the British advance on Philadelphia. General Hal at hoped to wipe away the American rebels and take their capital. How won the battle and forced the continentals to retreat, but he did not capture the enemy army. Washington and the bulk of his soldiers escaped to fight another day. Following the battle general, how made no real effort to follow up and crush opponent? Instead the British in Hessian soldiers remained in camp near Brandy wine battlefield for five days. Remember. The British had only landed in Maryland a little over two weeks earlier. Most of the soldiers were sick or out of shape after being kept aboard ship for six weeks. Most of their horses had died, and the remainder were in terrible condition. After fighting a major battle, how did not want to push his men too hard? Although how had tried to put a stop to looting in hopes of winning over the local populace? He was fighting a losing battle. At least two British soldiers were executed in the days after the battle for looting and marauding. The British army did spend time looking for American soldiers in hiding and also four stash supplies. They also commandeered necessary food, horses and anything else. The army needed from the local population. General Deployed General James Grant with a couple of regiments to look for American stragglers during the continental retreat. Grants men scoured the area finding. Without horses, the soldiers on the march could cover little ground. The few feeble horses that they did have to pull their cannons could barely make it up some of the hills. The British also had a large number of their own wounded as well as several hundred wounded American prisoners. Sent a message under a flag of truce. Inviting the continentals to send doctors to care for the wounded prisoners being held by the British. Several Philadelphia surgeons including Dr Benjamin Rush. A signer of the declaration entered British lines under a flag of truce to care for wounded prisoners. While they are rush met with a number of British officers and spoke with an old friend Joseph Galloway, who had been a delegate to the continental congress at one time. Rejecting independence though Galloway had thrown in his lot with the British and was assisting general how? The two men now enemies spoke cordially and respectfully to each other. The continental army had retreated from brandy wine in relatively good order. The men were exhausted, but did not panic. Most of the army marched to the village of Chester for the night. The next morning, Washington move to soldiers up to the Schuylkill river where they crossed a pontoon bridge and entered Philadelphia. Fearing, an imminent attack on the city Washington removed his wounded to Trenton, and other towns North Philadelphia. The wounded General Lafayette went to Bethlehem. The schuylkill river was the last major barrier separating the British from Philadelphia. It took the continental army two days to move across the narrow bridge to the East Bank of the Schuylkill. If the continentals removed the bridge. There would be no way for the British to cross in the face of the enemy. Of course Washington knew that. How could just move north upstream and crossed the schuylkill where it was easier to Ford the river? If the British did cross upstream they could do so, and then marched down the West Bank and turn Washington's flank just as he had done on the banks of the brandy wine. In such a maneuver, Washington could easily find himself pinned in Philadelphia and forced to surrender his army along with the city. Washington's other concern about his position. was that it left the village of reading exposed. Reading was up to the West where the continental army had stored a great quantity of food and supplies. The British would undoubtedly receive intelligence about the supply depot. General Hal could send his regulars to capture the supplies that his own army needed and deny them to the continentals. So on September fourteenth. While the British continued to camp near the brandy wine during the days after the battle, and after Washington had given his army a day's rest, he provided the soldiers with more ammunition, and then crossed back over the Schuylkill River. He crossed further upstream across one of the fords near what is today conshohocken. Washington, put the continental army in a position where they could contest any British movement to the north, either toward reading were to move upstream where the regulars might Ford the Schuylkill and take Philadelphia. With the continentals on the march, the British well remained in camp, the British spent much of September twelve, burying the dead from both sides and tending to the wounded. They sent out foraging parties to collect food for the army. On, September thirteenth. House sent a detachment to capture Wilmington Delaware. The local Polish? They're put up no fight and fled abandoning their cannons without a shot fired. The British. Captured Delaware's President John McKinley. Who remained in town to oversee the town's so-called defense. After taking the town, how moved his wounded and his American prisoners to Wilmington as well? As planned at least a few ships from Admiral House Navy also reached Wilmington about this time and helped remove the wounded. The continentals still had forts and other defenses that prevented the navy from sailing further upstream to Philadelphia. But the lower part of the Delaware was relatively open to the British. Although the British. Army took its time and Washington prepared to put up. Another defense wants. It started to March again. Most patriots feared that Philadelphia would fall within days. On September twelfth just the day after the battle brandy. Wine Thomas Paine pent his crisis number four, where he began by noting the loss at brandy wine. The event of yesterday was one of those kind of alarms, which has just efficient to rouses to duty without being of consequence enough to depress our fortitude. It is not a field of a few acres of ground, but a cause which we are defending. And whether we defeat the enemy in one battle or by degrees, the consequences will be the same. Pain went on in his article to point out that with house limited number of soldiers being reduced with every battle. He must eventually fail no matter how many victories he had in the field. The Continental Congress began an inquiry into the loss at brandy wine. It ordered General Washington to open a court of inquiry against General to bore for his actions at brandy wine. You may recall from last week. The continental general from France had been in command of the left wing on Birmingham. The soldiers were out of position and ran when attacked. The fall of the left flank led to the general defeat of all the divisions on Birmingham Hill, and could have proved much more disastrous, but for the rearguard action led bride General Nathaniel Greene. When informed that he would face a court of inquiry? General Prudhomme to bore instead submitted his resignation on September thirteenth, blaming his failure on ill-trained and incompetent soldiers. Congress accepted his resignation the next day. That would be the end of divorce career in the continental army. But not his end in the revolution. To bore returned to France and to his commission as a colonel in the French army. A few years later he would return to America with the French army after France entered the war. But. That's getting ahead of our story. For now. deboer was going home to France. Congress also requested. General Sullivan, who was supposed to be commanding to Boris Division on Birmingham, Hill. Also be recalled from duty until there could be a court of inquiry. On this question, Washington to mirrored, he needed Sullivan to remain commander of the Maryland troops. He told Congress he could not afford to suspend General Sullivan or conduct a court of inquiry at that time because he anticipated another battle within days. Sullivan would retain his command. He would face a court martial later that year, not only for brandy wine, but also for his actions on Staten Island a month earlier as well as a few other things. That court martial would acquit Sullivan of all charges and clear him to return to duty. Congress though was not just looking for leaders to play. They also had praise for many of the commanders at Brandy wine. The marquee to laffy yet, battlefield wounds only improved the young general's reputation. The other foreign hero from brandy wine was Casimir Pulaski. On September. Fifteenth Congress granted Polaski a commission as a Brigadier General in the Continental Army. I mentioned last week that Polaski had raised a cavalry charge to halt the British. And give the rest of the continental army time to retreat. Congress had been debating whether to give him a commission since he arrived in America in late July. Is Leadership and daring at Brandy. Wine was enough to convince delegates that he was the man for the job. Polaski had been born in Warsaw in seventeen forty five. At the time Warsaw was capital of the Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth. It had a king who was elected by nobles. Coming from a noble family. Polaski was a member of the National League. He had served as a cavalry officer and grew in reputation. King Stanislaw the second Augustus. Allied himself with the Russians and sought to turn the country into a Russian protectorate. Stanislaw cutoff alliances with France and Austria leading to war. The war went bad for Poland and Russia Prussia and Austria partitioned country in seventeen, seventy two. A during the war that led to the partition, Polaski was part of a conspiracy to kidnap the king. This led to charges of attempted regicide, and made him a wanted man throughout Europe. Polaski had to flee his homeland I to Prussia than to the Ottoman Empire and that again to France. He attempted to join other armies, but the criminal charges against him met that no other king would offer him a commission. Facing debtor's prison, Polaski heard that American agents in Paris were looking for officers to go fight in America. He met with Benjamin Franklin and impressed him with his military experience and zeal for liberty. French officials strongly encouraged Franklin to give Polaski mission, and even offered to pay travel costs to America. France was eager to get him to leave the country before his presence there created an international incident. Polaski took Franklin's recommendation and boarded a ship for America in June seventeen, seventy seven. He arrived in Boston in late July, studying English during his voyage. After presenting his credentials to Congress in August, he wrote off to join the continental army without waiting for Congress to act. He served as an unofficial gentlemen volunteer to George Washington in the weeks leading up to brandy wine. But after the battle of brandy wine, following his feats of bravery, he was now commissioned as a brigadier general in the continental. Polaski was also given the title of Commander of the Horse. Also. On September fifteenth the same day that Congress granted a commission to Polaski. It also granted a commission as Major General to Baron. Johann to call. Remember that call had traveled with Lafayette and several other would be generals to America months earlier. But got caught up in the political dispute over having too many French generals. Congress had offered Lafayette a commission as Major General after Lafayette agreed to serve without pay. Congress left to call and others cooling their heels in Philadelphia. All Day decided what to do. In the weeks leading up to brandy wine, Congress had voted not to accept carbs offer of service. Delegates then took a few weeks to debate. How much to pay for his travel expenses and costs of returning home to France. In the meantime to call did a little sightseeing. Visiting the continental medical facilities in Bethlehem where he met with his wounded comrade, General Lafayette. Lafayette's performance at brandy wine raise the reputation, of French officers generally, and is credited at least in part with Congress's change of heart. Another factor was general Lafayette's strong support for Dakota receiving a commission. To call had been his superior and mentor in the French army, and that contributed to the change of Heart in Congress as well. So Congress voted to make the call a major general. When to call perceive the news of his appointment the following day, he said a letter back rejecting the offer. A couple of days after that though he had a change of heart and requested several conditions before he would accept his appointment. One of his conditions was that Congress backdate his commission to the same date as Lafayette's. That way to call would not suffer the dignity of ranking below his former subordinate. He also wanted the option to return to France if he determined his superiors disapproved of his service in the continental army. He wanted his aid to be commissioned as a lieutenant colonel, and that he received a pension and his wife receive a pension if he was killed in service. The result of all of these negotiations was that call did not join the army immediately, but remained in Bethlehem where he with the wounded General Lafayette. DEKALB and Congress would not agree on terms until well after the British occupied Philadelphia. As. Congress debated about officers. General Washington prepared for round two in the British army's advance toward Philadelphia. As I said the continentals had retreated across the Schuylkill River. And then crossed back again while the British remained in camp near Brandy wine. On September Fifteenth, General learned that the continentals had advance toward camp and were about ten miles north of his army. Washington seemed to be daring him to a fight. Another direct battle in open fields something the British thought that they would win every time. Further was forces had fallen to around ten thousand men after brand new wine, so at this point had a numerical advantage. In the early predawn hours of September, Sixteenth General, how assembled his army, and began to march to meet the Americans near White Horse Tavern a few miles to the north. About nine am. Washington received word from Polanski's cavalry that the British were on the march. Rather than take up an immediate defensive physician why she marched his army, three miles toward the advancing British. Around one PM, General. Cornwallis reported that his British regulars had encountered Polanski's cavalry and a few hundred militia. These men fled as the first shots were fired. Next General Knipe Hessian yonkers ran into continentals under General Anthony Wayne and William Maxwell. An American charge unnerved the Eggers, and almost led to the capture of Hessian colonel. Von Donna. British grenadiers provided support to the Eggers and stopped the American advance. The British formed a line of battle, and as General Matthews joined Knipe housing in preparation to attack the Americans. The continentals were forced onto muddy ground, which made the maneuverability of their cannons difficult, and was not a particularly advantageous defensive position. Washington ordered a withdrawal to higher ground, but it looked as though the British would be able to charge the American position before the Americans could withdraw. Justice things were looking bleak. The Sky Darkened and eight driving thunderstorm unleashed across the region. One Hessian officer said that the rain quote came down so hard that in a few moments we were drenched and sank in mud up to our cavs. The wet powder prevented either side from being able to fire their guns. The thick mud and driving rain made it impossible even to order a bayonet charge. With the loss of their powder and given the relatively weak defensive position. General Washington gave the order to withdraw as the worst nor'easter many had ever seen flooded everything. The continentals slogged. Through the mud and rain marching about five miles north before reaching cap around ten PM. there. The soldiers spent a miserable wet night in the field before marching back to the Schuylkill river the next day. The British marched north, attempting to get around the American. Right flank and pushed the continentals back against the flooded Schuylkill River. The two armies eight each other the next day, but neither seemed ready to re-engage. By the following day Friday September nineteenth the schuylkill water levels had fallen enough that the continentals could move across the fords and take up positions on the other side of the river. Thus! Thanks to the weather. What could have become a decisive major battle at white horse tavern was called on account of rain. Both sides suffered around one hundred casualties in the early fighting, but no full battle could play out. The event later became known as the battle of the clouds. The British just as the Americans tried to remove supplies stored at valley, forge and other areas around the region. With their powder destroyed by the rain, it was not clear if the Americans could even put up a defence at the Schuylkill river. Washington directed Lieutenant Colonel Hamilton as one of many officers instructed to remove or destroy supplies that might fall to the enemy. Hamilton was in the process of doing so when his small unit fell under enemy fire. The team fled back to a flat bottom boat on the Schuylkill River, exchanging fire with the enemy as they pulled across to the American side. The British army was poised across the Schuylkill river. Hamilton wrote to the President of Congress John Hancock that day. If. Congress has not yet left. They ought to do it immediately without fail for the enemy have the means of throwing a party this night into the city. With most of the Continental Army along the East Bank of the SCHUYLKILL. Washington left one contention of soldiers under General Anthony Wayne in the field on the West Bank to harass the enemy and delay their advance. Wayne's army camped at a small village called Paoli. Next week I'll take the story there at the Paoli massacre. Hey thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. As always I WANNA. Thank Trae Nance and George Davis for supporting this podcast on patriotic at the Alexander. Hamilton Club level. Also thanks to Mike Hager who supports the PODCASTS at the Robert Morris Circle level. Everyone who can pitch in either with a regular monthly contribution on Patriots Fan or a one time donation via pay POW helps keep this podcast free for everyone else. Who cannot afford to do so. This week we looked at the aftermath of the battle of brandy wine. One of the largest battles of the war. Once again we see general how failing to capitalize on his victory by pushing forward aggressively against the retreating enemy. The Americans who had run away had to March back almost into house face before he would move out of camp again to fight them. For how this might have proven a good strategy. Washington and the continentals began what became known as the battle of the clouds, not on ground really of their choosing. It was not a good defensive location and could have been a more conclusive defeat than brandy wine if the British had captured large portions of the army there. Fortunately for the continentals, weather once again intervened and flooded out. The battlefield before signing could do much of anything. This general Washington and opportunity to reconsider his position and pull back across the Schuylkill River. Seemed determined to do everything he could to protect Philadelphia resulting in some risks that could have been devastating. If how in the British had been able to capitalize on these risk, we could have had a very different outcome of the war. Also this week I covered the commissions of generals to call and Polaski. Too Far and officers who would contribute greatly to the war effort? And sorry if this is a spoiler, but neither man survive the war. Both gave their lives on the battlefield in the service of their adopted 'cause. Also I should address one other point. Last year the news spread around a theory that pass key was secretly a woman, or perhaps a Hermaphrodite also known as an intersex person. This theory is based on his skeleton dug up decades after his death, which showed a skeletal structure more consistent with that of a female. Of course we also know that Polaski had facial hair and a receding hairline during his lifetime. We also know that he was baptized as a male. So the notion that he was a woman posing as a man seems pretty. Far Fetched. Is it possible that he was a Rafferty Intersex and had the features of both male and female. That is theory that was put forward by Smithsonian magazine and covered by many of the major media outlets. I'm not an expert on the identification of bodies so I'm not sure I should really weigh in here. I will say though that Polaski lived his life as a male, and by all measures during his lifetime was considered to be a male. So. Whatever bodily organs he may or may not have had do not alter who he was or the great service that he provided to this country. Polaski would become known as the father of the American cavalry. Will be one of only a handful of people who Congress has granted honorary American citizenship posthumously. My Book recommendation this week is one that covers the critical Philadelphia. Camping It is called the Philadelphia campaign seventeen, seventy, seven to seventeen, seventy eight Vice Stephen Arteta. A recommended a similarly named book a few weeks ago by Thomas Maguire. They both cover the same campaign and have very similar titles, and quite frankly I liked both books. Maguire covers the events in two volumes. If that's too much reading for you on this topic, tape covers an one more succinct volume. Tapes book begins with the British in New, York and the Americans in New Jersey in seventeen, seventy seven. It follows house voyage to Maryland, and his march up into Philadelphia, the occupation of that city, and the eventual British retreat back to New York which led to the battle of monmouth in seventeen, seventy eight. The author is a professor at Stephen. F. Austin State College in Texas. He's written a number of books about US history all different Ariz-. The Philadelphia campaign was published in two thousand three. Last year he wrote another book called Washington's Revolutionary War generals. Which is about how the continental army selected and developed its commanding officers. Another book which I unfortunately haven't had the opportunity to read yet, but has definitely piqued my interest. If you wanna read more about the Philadelphia campaign that I will be discussing over the next few weeks though you may WanNa get a copy of the Philadelphia campaign, Seventeen, seventy, seven to seventeen, seventy eight. My online recommendation this week is an article from the Journal of the American Revolution and give them a free plug here. If you're not already signed up for a free subscription, you definitely should. The Journal puts out lots of great articles every single week on both commonly known and obscure parts of the American Revolution. The article that I'm recommending today is. Aggressive minded gamblers, Washington, how and the days between battles September twelfth through sixteenth, seventeen, seventy, seven by Gary Echo Burger. The article covers just we covered in the episode today the days following the battle of brandy wine, and looks in detail at the various maneuvers by the continentals, while the British sat around and did relatively little. Mr Echo Burger has written a number of history books mostly about the civil war, but this article shows his interest in the revolutionary war as well. You can search for the article which is on the Journal's website. All Things Liberty Dot Com. Or as always I have a direct link to it on my website at www dot. AM REV PODCAST DOT com. Well that's all for this week. I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

army continental army Philadelphia Washington General Washington Congress Schuylkill river British army Polaski France Schuylkill General Hal America General Lafayette Continental Congress Ford General Sullivan General Washington Washington
Castles in the air

Behind the bottom line

14:28 min | 4 months ago

Castles in the air

"Good morning good afternoon. Good evening and welcome to you wherever you are on the world this is James Scofield. The writer of the stories in season to this podcast behind the bottom line. Can I ask you a question? What do you really know about the people you work with? What I've learned is that everybody has an unusual story to tell about themselves and these stories might be funny. They might be sad or they might be frankly weird and over the years. I've turned these people and events into short stories for different magazines in each episode of behind the bottom line. I read you my original story and afterwards I tell you something about its real-life background stay story is cold consoles in the APP. And while you're listening and before you say to yourself that could never happen to me. Discuss CA self have bought a lottery ticket consoles in the air host said. Jim Visit looked at the photographs. This goldmine host agreed. We'll write your chance to own a casual and they'll go crazy. Outsider would have been surprised at their enthusiasm. Schloss Hoffenberg was a small eighteenth century castle. Just outside Leipzig. The windows and doors had been boarded up for ten years. And they were holding the roof. Dr Frankenstein might have been persuaded to move in. But even he would have demanded introduction however Halston. Jim had always been optimists. They met in the nineteen fifties when Jim was a young soldier and he'd caught horth stealing cigarettes and whiskey from a storeroom. The British army base in Paderborn to sell on the black market after halted explained the enormous return on investment and offered to make Jim his partner. Jim Decides to go into business with him. They made an excellent team and by the time Jim left the army the base had ordered enough tobacco and alcohol to poison entire regiment. Luckily host Jim had diverted the goods into the local economy. Jim decided to stay in Germany and the two of them lived quite well. During the boom years of the nineteen sixties selling fake Beatles records. They'd recorded with local color band in the nineteen seventies. They moved into what they called financial consultancy. This mainly involved taking suitcases full of banknotes two zero for rich doctors who wants to avoid paying income tax but the nineteen eighties were bad. Host lost money financing a football club that went from the first division to the fourth. In the time it takes most people to brush their teeth. Jim Managed to do the same with expensive divorces from Gloria and Heidi so when the Berlin Wall came down in November nineteen eighty-nine. The two men rub the hands and thought about how they could introduce the new citizens in the eastern part of reunited Germany to the joys of capitalism. Unfortunately this didn't prove as easy sade hoped. The new citizens didn't have much money and by the early nineteen nineties. They had even less the government shutdown all F actors and made them unemployed. We need to look at what they've got and then find people elsewhere who wanted said host but what is it who will buy it. It was on a holiday visit to shelf noise Feinstein. The Jim found the answer Kossuth. He said the next time he saw host and Americans. Americans love castles and Germany's foot of them. Jim had discovered that nobody is quite sure. Who some of the consuls in eastern Germany belong to they'd being voluntarily or involuntarily handed over to the National Socialists in the nineteen thirties were confiscated by the Russians in the nineteen forties and appropriated by the East German government in the nineteen fifties. You mean we sell hostels to Americans off Horst doubt finally when we don't even own them. No onset Jim. We sell the dream of a cartel to Americans. He is how the plan was simple fast. They got addresses of people in the US with German sounding names. Then they printed brochures sharing attractive pictures of Sloth Hoffenberg they wrote a letter pretending to be is representing the administrators. The costal saying that ownership was unclear and there was the possibility. The person receiving the letter was the rightful owner. If the person sent family details in a processing fee of one hundred ninety nine dollars allston Jim would carry out the necessary investigations and see whether this was indeed the case to the delight. The scam was an instant success. They sent out thousands of letters and only a small percentage of people replied with any money. But this is more than enough wholesome. Jim wasted a few weeks. And then send each client a polite letter saying the costal unfortunately belong to someone else after all the processing fee however was not returned so life was looking very good until the morning how blind the third from Texas came to visit them in that modern news office in Berlin. Yala gentlemen that sent me the brochure about a castle. He asked with an accent left both Jim host scratching their heads. While you all eight no lawyers. Maybe the police would like to know about this. After some discussion it became clear that how it actually was more interested in the deal then in making trouble what he wanted was a costal on his ranch in Texas Manet. They're pretty passy but they now got a castle said Howard you get me a castle real castle and Wednesday nothing about your little scam Halston. Jim got started but the towns of eastern Germany were unwilling to export their castles. Even though they couldn't afford to repay them after six months host and Jim hadn't managed to find anything and Howard was getting impatient to must be costal somewhere said host almost without hope that the local people want to get rid of but where is it. It was on a holiday. Visit Transylvania the Jim found the answer. Casa's in the AD was written for business spotlight in two thousand fourteen and the source of the story. Ready dates back of quite a few years earlier to one of the most significant events of my lifetime which was of course the collapse of the Berlin Wall in Nineteen eighty-nine and then the subsequent unification of East and West Germany and this led to a lot of difficulties for the state in knowing how to manage the resources that were then available to them. Who did these companies? Who did these factors? Who did these buildings belong to? And this was something that wasn't easy to resolve because the owners would fade difficult to to define but Harry which interested me with in particular. The was the fact that there were these really amazing buildings. I'm a nobody reading you who they belong to and but also the problem being that a low end terribly back condition and the state didn't want to take over the responsibility of renovating all of them so it was something that interested me this whole area. I've also always had a sneaking admiration for conman one of my favorite films. A few years ago was the film. Leered CAPRIO in it Catch-me-if-you-can about the conman Frank Abergnail Who started working as a con artist at fifteen looking back in history One of the most successful and fascinating con artists was Victor Lustig who was an austro-hungarian and he was the man who not only managed to sell the Eiffel Tower which is in itself an amazing story and he also actually managed to con the Prohibition Gangster Al Capone out of money. He did of course eventually end up in jail. As of course did Frank Abergnail. I'm so these people aren't always aren't always successful at longtime but what they managed to do in the time when they are operational speak is I think amazing recent times we have of course. The crypto currency scams in particular the most famous of them is one coin set up by apparently a former McKinsey Consultant Rita. Agneta from Bulgaria. And you can hear of an amazing podcast called the missing crypto queen from the BBC. I strongly recommend it. And and on that podcast you can even hear examples of this woman Rita Agneta. I'm taking part all running enormous conferences events in a large large holes. And when she convinces people to invest in a totally fictitious cryptocurrency so. I don't think this is something that's GonNa go away anytime soon. I used to collect but they seem to have now disappeared somewhat because my cybersecurity on my PC's so much better nowadays. But I used to use to receive emails apparently from Nigerian princes asking if I would help them to smuggle money out of Nigeria. I'm and I always used to find these in ice likes these emails because the stories that came attached with them with so entertaining. And you might think of were. How could anybody believe an email offer over three million dollars just simply for providing your bank account details to enable fifteen million dollars to be transferred into it? I'm but police recommended at one time. In the early two thousands there was something like five people sitting in hotel lobbies in London. Every day are waiting to meet people connected with such such scams and there's even a story of a Brazilian bank official who was persuaded to Invest. Two hundred and forty seven million dollars in a non existent airport projects in leg off and the money was never a cupboard and the Bank of course then collapsed so these things have to have real consequences of course apart from the bank which collapsed in. Brazil was a very sad story. I believe from the Czech Republic and an incensed investor in one of these schemes went into a consulate and Nigerian consulate. And shot dead an official there because he blamed them for not making sure that this sort of thing didn't happen. Which was very unfair because the Nigerian government who's to publish regularly full page advertisements in the Economist magazine warning people not to have anything to do with such scams. But I'm this invested. It might not. So yes they can't be quite They can't have tragic consequences but nevertheless I think the stories they. These con artists been really really interesting. One of the things that state which I learnt I have to say from this guy. Victor Listrik who sold the Eiffel Tower He had a the ten commandments for how to be a successful con artist and one of them which I think applies not only. If you want to be a con artist. I think it applies in lots of other situations. In Life. His rule his number one rule was be a patient listener. So I hope all of you will continue to be patient listeners to behind the bottom line and I hope you enjoyed today story castles in the air. I'll be back next week with the story called. Cyber Romance which is about someone who finds the love of their life online. Lots people meet their partners online these days but this case is maybe a little bit extreme. Please subscribe on spotify Apple. Google podcast whichever to make sure you never miss an and tell your friends rice. An online review or to me directly at James Dot ru put dot Scofield at g mail dot com to let me know what you think until the next episode of behind the bottom line. This is James Scofield saying. Stay safe and goodbye.

Jim Germany Jim Visit James Scofield Jim Managed Americans Berlin Wall Eiffel Tower Halston partner writer Leipzig Schloss Hoffenberg Texas US British army Google Apple Dr Frankenstein
Episode 488: Big Phil on Remembrance Day, operating in Northern Ireland, politics, & EDC gear

SOFREP Radio

27:05 min | 11 months ago

Episode 488: Big Phil on Remembrance Day, operating in Northern Ireland, politics, & EDC gear

"It is. It doesn't work. You're just not using enough. You're listening to so lady our special operations military meals on straight talk with the guys in the community Sky Welcome to Sofer radio where it's abic feel campaigns. Turn to do some talking to you again. Don't forget on time on target this software radio so it's a pleasure again. Cindy good week for me. Start the week Sunday who've Remembrance Day Very Poignant Day now remembers members die is our diabetes hour of the Eleventh Day of the eleventh month. And it's when we observe a two-minute signs for our fallen woman since I moved war. Okay so the first World War the Second World War and camp line since is also customary for us over here to wear a red copy. Really now you will see why puppies and the like sprouting up from various organizations. Who Don't really want to go with the flow? No something on doors a red. Poppy is as far as I'm concerned we were to show our respect for the people who afforded as the liberty that we now have today to around and do all bits and pieces so he's just showing a mark of respect to our fallen. I love US I. It's our armistice day or Remembrance Day so I went to Gibraltar brought this year which is somewhere I must spine right now as we speak. But when I was Gibraltar always brought her is at the tip of Spain. O'Brien down South Office far as you can get. And it's a rock his by the English British and as a remembrance service there which is which has a great turn up the governor of the on and that's another own regiment the Gibraltar Regiment. Which is quite interesting? So the next few months I'll probably go buy the spine. And maybe few places with Djibril Richmond. Because they're they're they were cracking loader guys. The good work. My son's just recently with his regiment been working with the Moroccan with them in Morocco. which has been really cool so yes Jibril Rajoub? This year Muslims Sunday we spent in Gibraltar of towns have gripe but brides obviously London. The Senate's off the main war memorial to our glorious dead is attended by thousands absolutely probably hundreds of thousands of people will come into London anti part and the price. They're outside of London. You all the big say. What a major sees Samson Manchester Livable leads onis batons whatever members? Dave brighter some. So and then he got into into the smaller areas of the UK. And you gotta remember during the World Wars. The you know a massive country. So the Charles's of have any small village or hamlet town not being affected by war was very very very unlikely and so as you drive through. The country saw taught just about every village every hamlet every ball suppplies has got his own is II memorial to people that lived in the area area. We'll take him from his early for sacrificing making the Oakwood sacrifice of going to war view country so very poignant time for me nothing is it is important important the youth of today understand. Why don't we do this? You know. Glorify War let's don't dare is not not to say how Great Wolves Wolves Zahn great however countries tall to defend yourself and oppresses needs to be dealt with and you know. He's a well known fact. They've if we end that that would things in the first World War Second World War the outcome of in very very different to what is today we could even be living under dictatorship and then how much limiting you would you be afforded to run around town shouting going off and doing all the rest of the stuff that you do on a daily basis so for you for the day is very very important that they learn. It's not bother history culture and I forget we are operating on an island several several times over the places history tried inviter almond. And there's always been a plan in place to defend our on and to the last man if need be that's the way it is so you. Don't Zebu Berating people celebrating or remembering our fallen because my little bit sad to see that sort of stuff so that was remember for Sunday. This week did last Sunday alarm for the day of the month every without fail and she turning out and look. I people remember Raffle in every day of the year. He's not just on. The eleventh case affects our lives more than others and certainly of Lost Martha share friends. As you know a good deal of you great folk out there as well so yeah. That's enough said on that I'M NOT GONNA. I'm not gonNA granted that from that but I just for I've mentioned Chidlren a little bit politics. Obviously we general election coming up over here which is going to throw up some interesting stuff we have to my. He's here he didn't understand. That goes with a lighter by why and we have the conservative polly the Conservatives were in power at the moment and light before the Labor Party publicize liberal types the conservative a more of your armed forces and that sort of stuff I would have said. The current leader of the Labour Party's in popular with a lot of people on both sides of the coin because he has links Govan links to organizations which were which she probably wouldn't want to associate yourself with doesn't get too good oppress but it'll be interesting is making promises around our armed forces at the moment around veterans but we get this every time promises promises promises promises and very very very little deliverance when it comes to as he push comes to shove these people getting power. They don't ever seem to Saint delivered what they've promised as few the next coming. Mumps and his general general election could have a bearing on how things don't forget we've been kicking. His brexit can down the road for a very long time me. Personally I'm a BREXIT TO DO WANNA leave European Union and it's about time we we all toys but a lot of my wife and obviously you're drag their heels and we still haven't managed to deliver. Who voted for over over for years ago now so but in the UK? Very turbulent time as the rest of the world really having turbulent a billion times of the politics and the way he's let's talk politics there for today. What am I to this week? I'm of the Bulgarian. We're also be running. Some shooting causes assist with some looking forward to. I've also been doing so filming which college in about right now but I'm doing some really interesting stuff. We've had their remembrance rumble. Now it's something you would Hussein Sane. which was my big boxing match? So I'm why morning down now a little bit too Christmas. It'd be interesting I'm doing live shows on Safra up On facebook cause some really. He Co stuff coming up in Bulgaria. I'm probably taking a trip to Canada. Although the Nile your feel about the Canadians in America actually be able to call time out there for sure and then I've got some stuff from the UK. So I plan on plenty look forward to and plenty of stuff that I'll be doing in the next in the coming weeks so we're GONNA talk about a forty the of my history tonight and told you about my experiences in northern on all the province because as a young soldier that was the first place I ever saw combat. There was a I I saw went and it's always so widely publicized outside of the UK the tribulations in an what we went through in northern on on and it was a very very tricky tricky place to operate firstly. Give you a little bit of aground into what happened over there. Massive tension between Catholic states and composed in the states great divides in employment social housing. And all that sort of stuff with the Catholic state property bearing the brunt of the worst of the housing in there and the conditions in store stuff that said as tensions rose in the early days the British army was taken over there basically to act as a barrier between the two the two factions. which were the Protestants and the Catholics? They just basically formed a barrier one salting after the. Ah Because if you've got right back in history that has been troubling Arlen for years and years and years caused by into the potato family. Eka You could. You could apportion blame all the way back for for the hundreds of years. I'm not going to that today. What we're going to deal with? This is why we originally went there and was because tensions are rising between Catholics dyson president sites and the British army refers has deployed over there in the early seventies to basically provide a Baria between the two actually probably more concerned with looking after the Catholics than what they were the Protestants and whatever it is period could honeymoon period. Where for a while the British were there? They were received very well with the Catholic people to the point that they fire across of women giving him cups of tea and what sort of stuff and looking after them on cordons while they're they're parked up on the street doing Vaco kyw points and stuff but with a very short period of time. The honeymoon periods dissolved and his troops didn't go and the violence intensified enough guest at the British was seen more of an occupying now by the people on the on. The Catholic sites who've been Giardi wanted to remain Irishmen. That is the crux of it. They wanted to remain as Irish. The Protestants wanted to start his prison guy. So if you look at the on and does a whole Dovan on the seven counties up at the top opposition. And that's that's that's the way the landsman divided for quite some time now in terms of if you really look at it you know Orlands went bust a few years ago. If we give them back the seven counties that are GonNa bust Salaam lot quicker than that so I think that is an update was I know we want them back on. The back is the. I'll probably fitness few. Didn't that set. Let us I We were then as British soldiers soon as occupies by by the Irish although he wanted to be Irish however we now seeing his saviors but as you wanted to be British so so was flipped on its head being attacked by people are the Irish Republican Army the IRA the provisional in these splinter groups time to fruition derision early seventies honest eighties and not go out of my first trip in about eighteen hundred eight of writing on the I did my first trip ninety nine by Ti. It was a two year residential tour of Northern Ireland in a place called Londonderry and call it dairy. And I'M NOT GONNA go down argument humint now because we could talk about that on on his. We did what was good. I residential tall. which was where you basically to? Your family lived in Northern Ireland. If you're married or if you're a single soldier you've got enough downtime if you go to places like porush and have some downtime and some time off have that said it was extremely intense work when you we're working and we did what were called city tools where we went into small patrol bases in the city of Londonderry and under constant threat of attack from from various different frets whether it'd be shooting bombing that also math again as in those days bombing policy being the preferred unite. It wasn't unheard offers to shoot out your John. Drop something of a building on your all loss of public unrest. Lots of violence. Lots of that sort of stuff United I end. If you were traveling in vehicles I needed to be armored or outsource stuff. So we did these Saito's I would go on for at six or seven. Weeks is what I experienced with ours. Republican as a contact with the enemy was lighter. Eighty nine Poli coming up to Christmas time and they both smoke bomb. alsaud patrol buys his which was detonated. It went and We came out to see what it wasn't react to it and we found that it hadn't really targeting was told his driveway that it was probably called. Come on which meant that. We were going to come out and then get attacked again by another means that we have set up an incident control point shortstop. Because you have rules and regulations and yellow cards and all that sort of stuff. It was difficult you had to appease many people when you were working over there. You know you were working under the constraints of what they call military and aid to the civil power and it was a it was a difficult time. It was is an emergency situation and you had to do things properly so the IRA news as we came out on this particular time I have plans to Nova bomb in a public. Who's right vile patrolled by stars? We get ready in the patrol base showing off bone in the second one that stood run as to when it went luckily enough. I'll still be on the non with vehicle and most of the blast Austin over the top of the vehicle because I put the bomb in the second floor of this pop and it blew the glue the rubble up instead of out in the Nevada data been on the trump floor the pub. Then I'll probably be telling the story headed. I doubt I bohm of it went and He might be as it was the first time I've ever been blown up his subsequent night which asked another lad. No one was killed on this one but on that broke his leg badly level and crack view ribs as he was blown across the street from members. Rubble coming down for ideas and you can see nothing. It was bright dust as far as Britain dusty was insane the smell of the of the of the explosions Asians gone off in the chaos of hearing the two guys that were injured screaming then he couldn't say them we'll get to them but it's coming out of school for about did must've seemed like about five minutes. East things have been blown. So are you know they'll own bang stuff coming out of school I it was. It was comedy comedy. It was okay. So what's not being said Tom. And Jerry film or something and I went something. Is You know when something blows up in his pants fully. Well otherwise I don't remember is is it through straightway and we ran down town we. We tried to find the perpetrator there was no Charles's Palmer put in about two days ago before it was on time so we weren't going to get them but that was was my first experience of of the enemy in Ireland. which was it was a wakeup go with? been there for a few few months nor had anything happen. You got bit lax in your drills and stop strike after something like that. Everybody's bang out again. Everybody's on top of it and the travel happens and we. We went to hard on the town for after that. But I was. I was nineteen nine. According to the next few years I did spend five years in northern on dinner on different operations and stuff for Londonderry. I've been to some short tools in Belfast. I wanted to own are any time you know saw us a sore fair few incidents although it wasn't as probably full on as CEO rock or Afghanistan or someone that he had to be careful. You couldn't take it for crown as you can. It was very tense when you were actually working. You can just take you for that. You're going to get through to the end of the day because it wasn't often Kazimiera once said they want to be lucky. Okay wants to be lucky all the time and that was quite true you know he lived in life. You have to be lucky all the time. which was a stress on you if you if you were working longer but others we got? We got through those days and I compare Afghanistan on all right fairly fairly often often often been criticized signed as a terrorist organization. The I actually weren't that good. Choose people were saying a bit harsh Ville. Oh you know. You're under Australian about underestimate. Look how the terrorist organizations around the world and I look at the Chimera Rouge or I look at you know al-Qaida title. I look at some of these terrorist. Groups you know compared with the stuff that they're doing the The IRA Abreu. Yes I came. There was a Lotta bungled good operations by them. You know there was a lot of. It wasn't as hard core. Perhaps as some people make it out the base to he wasn't romantic as I've seen people make it now. You know at that point the point but terrorism is never the answer for me ever and so if you dolgin that you know expect. He spent the full my the authorities to become a down on the abyss. If you want to deal with terrorism now gus I unfortunately the world's big dose of terrorism over the last few years and it needs to be dealt. Yeah with as as we've seen so Irish. Terrorism is no exception if you WANNA resort to terrorism and then all plenty of good men who prepared to don uniforms and the lovie. Unless that's the way it is and I'll tell you what how often salute every last one of those then prepared to do on behalf or our behalf as it were. That was my first early days and it was from there. Really got my first exposure to special forces because I started doing the tropical close observation platoon localized versions Tunes well covertly. We won't observation towers but we also wrote on the ground observation now pays we used to go into oceans opinions or Darnet's and stuff and we will take photographs of suspects and that sort of thing and there was all sorts of different tasks for the close observation balloons and they were they came under the bracket of they want special forces but they worked to the same the same desk as some of the SPEC ops stuff that was going on cozy young man it was a great thing to be involved with and it was my first exposure of actually seeing NASA astronaut action. One of the causes that we had to do to become a member of the COUSOS Association but soon meant that you had to the instructors on there was a special forces operator as an instructor new cost in terms of learn in those days on the closer was evasion stuff on my first exposure of seeing special forces had seen them in the jungles of Kenya exercise. But I've never seen go on operations probe you weren't privy to everything you did they did. You did come across the mute. Did you see them now. And again coming by and it was something that I'm really aspire to do great jobs I mean we got into a couple of leagues in the city and we took photographs of this player and that player and it was. It was a cracking job. And in between meantime you'd be moving around and covert vehicles and dropping able often. The Lug was was specialist and took some great training and you learn some awesome skills in contrails meals were. SOS TABS should you get caught in illegal ACP's vehicle checkpoints. And I saw things so it really was a cool job to do and not as a as a young man it. It was my first exposure to doing something a little bit special a little bit spec halt for instance in the early days you allowed to grow your hair long so that you blended him. If you're in the cars and driving around it was doing something special and I think it's important that young sports soldiers get exposure to other. Uh stuff up the ladder nowadays. You can pretty soldier you can do. SF F- Jesus Special Forces Support Group has allowed to doing that Kenton great right exposure to see in the way of the world special up special operations and stuff and is a good foundation to get from something that from Pathfinder but zonal SF to then step up to special forces selection proper another saying in the UK we have UK SF which is all T.. One F s is the SAS and the SBA. Yes we both do. UK SF selection of combined selection deny young and has asked me a lot. Now you know what I feel. Ah W-was tell them you know if that's what you're inclining to do. If you're young louden you'll you'll want to go special forces dirt sooner than later because you look back in a is a great place to be. It really is often if you do talk. Twenty any SPEC OPS off right. That's if that's what you really want to get. Get there sooner off the lighter and grab onto by fans for the time that you're there and enjoy moreover. I bought the Harrison on my son as you. You said you know if you enjoy what you do work and it was very true for him to say if you enjoy what you do is not work so that was my only is that was smart. I exposures is young man to special forces in operations. It was on overnight and into my early days spent. I spent over five years on operations in Northern Ireland which is north massive amount of time. But it's still you know five years of you lost nominations along when you think about the longest time but it's still it's still a long enough time and then of course I often I it was just things Bosnia. Kosovo and Sierra Leone just ultimate source which will talk about another dam. Sure they got Waffling on now about some places. So let's now talk about something else. Which is absolute passion to me which is often looking at these bracelets guy Just been been sold out. They've been on the market for a long time. But as some great These power recorded bracelets on the market. Now which is which is really cold if you go on my facebook page. I'm going to profile a few them in the next few weeks. But there's some really cool stuff out of the top lieutenant theory. DC when it comes to things aren't torn kinds or it comes to even splints and all that sort of stuff. For the first. I saw a great length of America. Gold is a massive asset so my ADC thing this week is. He's bracelets and some of them. Even compasses whistles. And also on the I was more blade on his wife actually which was which was gone cold and onto the planes. But the bracelets that we've been looking at for the ADC all really the really cold shaw at some stage. Craig Club will bust out a bracelet if they haven't done so already and I haven't seen one yet but I'm sure they will or will come out a gripe basic another site the connotations of what you can do with that police have even if you distribute down as a spare one day tall tall Yukio onto your back or secure something to the top of your car you can see where government is gone. Yeah the the power having quite language Parak- on you is a massive sooners and Connecticut on your wrist together about it. Is there a guy software. And he's prices now for the last couple of weeks all them out and I'm having a good time with him off Geico they look they look right you can get them in various different colors golden and Black Olive Green. But that doesn't mean you have to have been using this as a I ain't basically or could have you read. Could I in yellow and blue if go yellow and blue one because a lot of these guys now doing regimental counters with them as well. So the point being being and I'll stress this again the point being that we have a large amount of power code almost person at any one time which I can do androids and hundreds of coughing stuff. I mean issues extreme but with the belts are where the five eleven bells with the loops on the front of them. I can even PROZAC so stripped down a Matoco the process and I'm climb RIB roebuck incline Poles. Got The connotations. But I think as we get into these priceless I think on the she showcase. Somebody's stuff on my life show of what we can do. We Strip these bracelets down and how we can get this stuff out and going going to be really closer look forward around Safra Alfred because that will be something to look forward to he'll be really cool. ADC with myself shown you someone at cove trade chicken do. We've really inexpensive kid doesn't uncosted authorities priceless. I mean if you buy more than two freight dollars form. Ub You'd be buying too much you really would and of course if you go really cute on their own and might run. These is on your tally. A series of of retaining time not switch which which o'clock coup United Seriously Avenue Avenue the powerful bracelets their comedy we've looked at me and Northern Ireland and we've told remembrance which is always he's always close to my heart. Let's play the last post. The last post is always played on remembrance. Day that's what starts. Oh He's always done Yeah uh-huh There We got don't forget to Jet Vanes out on Craig's and to check everything on so fret built com. Hopefully next time of our store front was you can turn considine assuming very signed where I'm sure topics voyage until then Jasmine's soon then I'll see you. You've been listening to soft radio. New episodes every Wednesday and Friday follow the show on instagram and twitter pets so red radio

Northern Ireland UK Gibraltar Londonderry UK London facebook Charles America Gibraltar Regiment British army US Afghanistan Jibril Rajoub Spain Djibril Richmond Craig Club Cindy
ARP158 Battle of Brandywine

American Revolution Podcast

29:18 min | 2 months ago

ARP158 Battle of Brandywine

"Hello thank you for for joining the American Revolution. Today episode one fifty, eight. The battle of brandy wine. Last week I left off with the British army commanded by general how having landed and Maryland skirmished with the continentals in Delaware and then moved westward into Pennsylvania in a toward Philadelphia. The continentals under general, Washington pivoted from Delaware into Pennsylvania where they deployed Brady Creek prepared to confront the British advanced their. Brandon Creek is a relatively small waterway that begins with the merger of two smaller creeks about thirty miles west of Philadelphia. It then flows down into Wilmington Delaware before merging with the Christianity. Creek and then into the Delaware River. The waterway was not big enough to sail ships. But. It was deep enough in most places during this era to prevent men from fording across. That said there were a number of fords along the creek where the army could cross. The continentals deployed around those fords and plan to force the enemy to cross that water in the face of enemy fire if they wanted to advance. General Washington believe the most likely crossing point would be at Chads Ford a small village in Pennsylvania about two miles north of the border with Delaware. I September ninth seven, hundred, Seventy, seven is continentals, had secured Chads Ford as well as two other Ford's just upstream from Chad's. They also secured piles Ford to the south in Delaware. This left flank of the Kontinental. Included divisions commanded by major, General, Anthony Wayne and green along Pennsylvania militia. Major General John Sullivan Adam Stephen and Lord Sterling took command of the heights above Chads Ford where they covered the army's right flank the on their divisions further. North colonel. Moses, hazen cover to smaller Ford's further up river, Buffington Ford and West Stars Ford Aka Chunks Ford. In the event of an enemy movement toward those fords. The nearby reinforcements of the army's right flank could be deployed there. Buffington Ford was actually north of the place where the brand wine splits into two small branches. To reach that the enemy would have to Ford both the West Branch and east branch of the creeks in order to reach the continental side. On the British side General Ville Hanff on Naipao Season Marshes Hashes to Kennett square only a few miles from Chad's Ford where the Americans were already deployed. General how did not realize that night? Thousand one so quickly and expected hinder camp several miles further back. A by the time night housing received General House orders he had already set up camp at Kennett Square and had no interest in packing up and marching back several miles that night. Instead. He ordered his army to can't without campfires in hopes of keeping their position a secret from the enemy. By the morning of September, Tenth House regulars also reached Kennett Square. The army of about fifteen thousand combined regulars in Hashes was united and ready. General Hal was not going to charge into battle without first getting the lay of the land. Although he landed in Maryland with few detailed maps or About the area He had been working with local Tories to get what he needed. Joseph Galloway who opted to confirm his loyalty to the king after attending the first Continental Congress had fled his home in Philadelphia to join the British in New York City. He traveled with how to Maryland and served as a local guide. How also received guidance from other local residents including many quakers who lived in the area and knew it well. On top of that, how sent out scouts to determine enemy positions? So the two armies sat on September tenth as how gained intelligence and finalized his plans. On the morning of September, Eleventh General Von Naipao Zain, marched his army of about sixty, eight, hundred, mostly Hessian soldiers toward brandy. Wine Creek. Day would be a hot one. The morning was still chilly at a dense fog, hid much of the two armies from each other. The hilly terrain made it difficult to track the enemy. Leading nine thousands column was Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers, a loyalist regiment. Both Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers were Green Coats, resulting in them, often being mistaken for Haitians during much of the battle. That say morning as the British. Inheritance began their march. American General William. Maxwell had sent scouts across the brandy wine to track enemy movements. An American company was eating breakfast at welches tavern when Ferguson's riflemen and the Queen's Rangers approached. The two sides exchanged fire as the Americans withdrew. These were the first shots fired at around nine a m. Maxwell's continentals continued to harass the advancing British in a series of ambushes as the column move toward the brandy wine. The few hundred Americans could not halt the British. That's their intent was to harass the enemy until they reach the brandy wine where the Americans would make their stand. As the battle moves slowly toward the creek. Fo- sides took casualties. Ferguson's riflemen proved their worth and the worth of Ferguson's newly invented breech, loading rifle with which they were armed as men picked off retreating Americans. Among those wounded was a young captain from Virginia named John Marshall The future chief justice of the United States. By around ten thirty, a M night thousands main column had reached brand Wine Creek. Rather than attempt to cross, he brought up his artillery and simply fired across the creek at the enemy. General Washington was observing the battle through telescope from a house, a short distance from the battle. It became clear that the force attacking them was not the entire British army. Many of his generals feared that the army in front of them was simply meant to amuse them, while another force marched around and flanking maneuver to attack them from a different direction. That was exactly the same tactic that General Howe had used against them on Long Island. Washington sent out scouts in search of another enemy column. For received frustratingly inconclusive intelligence. In fact general how? D- camp before dawn, and before General Knipe housing even began his march. How moved his regulars northward. Washington considered several options. One was that how was attempting a flaky maneuver on the continental right flank? Another was that how was simply keeping the continentals busy? While he marched his army out to Lancaster to seize food and supplies that were stored there. A third possibility was that how marched north in order to get? Washington descend part of his own army north to find how? Then, general. How could double back? Choi Knipe, thousand and crush Washington divided army. By noon Washington decided that if House army really had marched north. They would not participate in the day's battle. It would take them too long to find an unguarded. Ford upstream and then March all the way back, south. Washington maintained a strong right flank. In case they did show up there. But also began to send regiments across the Brady wine to engage with the enemy. If he could defeat night thousands, division before General Hal arrived. He could then focus all of his army on just house division and defeat the divided army in detail. Before, he could commit his army to attack. General Sullivan sent intelligence which he received from a major spear. That there was no sign of the enemy to the north. If, that was true. How likely doubling back to meet up with KNIPE thousand? Fearing that possibility Washington opted not to commit his army to attack across the creek. HELD IN HIS DEFENSIVE POSITIONS! Washington also recalled. Lord Sterling General Stevens Divisions to move from the right flank back to the center. So that the army could be united against an expected full on British assault across the creek. Washington's intelligence however proved incorrect. General, how had in fact marched more than half of his army north leaving in the predawn hours before von Naipaul's and began to march to the brandy wine. As many officers guest venite thousands attack. Wasn't fact a faint to distract the continentals while house? Larger force could move into position to attack the American. Right, flank. How took advantage of local information from the Tories to March his army, six miles to the north along back roads. He crossed the brand new line creek north of where it forked into two branches. He crossed both the West Branch and the east branch of the brandy wine at completely unguarded Ford's. One of the Hessian officers leading his column. Johan Evil noted that the army had to pass through a narrow ravine where a few hundred defenders could have held the army at pay for hours. He was concerned about a possible ambush as he marched his men through. But the Americans were nowhere to be found. General had moved his entire division of about eight thousand soldiers on to the east bank and prepared to attack the American right flank from the north. How had marched north about eight miles to get around the army. By the time, how had gotten his army across the brandy wine? It was a little after one PM. Local who supported the Patriots spot of the army and Gallop down to, inform General Washington. A I Washington was convinced of his earlier intelligence that said the British were not to his north, and brushed off the civilians comments as an excited local. who was exaggerating what he saw. However after receiving several more reports. Washington realized he was in trouble that how was about to crash into his weakened right flank and crush the continental army. Washington quickly redeployed the divisions under Stephen and Stirling to move back to the north and reinforced the right flank. He ordered General Sullivan to Advance House army and engage the enemy. The continental divisions that had been recalled earlier had to run back to their positions to the north in order to meet the enemy. Stephen and Stirling marched their men over three miles in less than half an hour. The American defenses were still in chaos when the British advance core came within eyesight of the Americans by this point, they were less than a mile away. General! How could have ordered a charge and scattered the disorganized continentals? Instead, though how ordered his army to rest and have lunch? House that with his officers for half an hour to an hour, they enjoyed tea and talk over their options. Instead of taking advantage of the surprised and disorganized American defenses. How gave them time to organize their lines? This is just another example of general. How taking pause? Just when he is about to deliver the deathblow, and why of his detractors argue that? How had no intention of actually winning this war? Again I don't think how deliberately sabotaged the British 'cause. His men had just marched a grueling seventeen miles and were tired and hungry. Giving them a short rest before charging into battle might help fight better. Further, it's unclear whether how appreciated disorganized the Americans lines were and how much that time would give them to set their defenses. Taking advantage of the short reprieve, the Americans deployed a defensive line along Birmingham. Hill General Stephen commanded the right flank. General. Lord Sterling commanded the center. and. General Sullivan commanded the left flank. Stephen and Stirling got their men into place relatively easily. Sullivan's division had to march through heavily forested and rocky terrain meaning that it took the soldiers longer to get into position. And they could not see the other divisions positions as they were forming. By the time Sullivan had establishes line. He realized that he was too far forward and had left a large gap between his division and Surly Center. Sullivan wrote off to meet with sterling and make sure they were coordinated in their defense. He left his second in command. The French General Prudhomme. In Command of his division. General Deboer did not speak English and did not really command the respect of his subordinates, leading to further command problems. While Sullivan was still away from his division. General Hell launched his attack around four thirty PM. Sterling, and Stevens Divisions stood firm and repelled several assaults on their positions over the next hour and a half of intense fighting. How had left most of his artillery with Knipe housing meaning that he had to primarily use infantry assault to take the position. British creditors and others among House best regiments push back the soldiers from Sullivan's division and threatened the American left flank. A during this fighting general Washington along with General Lafayette arrived on the scene and assess the situation. At the same time house forces were storming Birmingham Hill. General Knipe thousand who had been distracting the Americans all day near Chads. Her, the distinct on fire and understood that how was attacking? With that Knipe housing ordered his division, which was nearly half of the entire. British Hessian Force. To storm across the brandy wine and take the American position. Since Washington had moved most of his defenders to Birmingham Hill. KNIPE housing only had to contend with a smaller force composed of mostly militia. This force under the command of General Anthony Wayne and supported by Generals Maxwell Armstrong. Could not hold off nipe housands assault. Washington realized that the two pronged attack meant that both lines were about to fail. He had held in Reserve General Nathaniel Greene's division to reinforce whichever lie needed it. But even if he deployed green to one of these two lines, the other would almost certainly fall. Instead Washington ordered green to move to a defensive position where he could form a rearguard action for his retreating army. Green Russia's men into position. Again marching about three miles in just over half an hour. As the American divisions defending Birmingham Hill gave way and retreated. House forces advanced. At the same time Wayne's defenders along the brand new Wine Creek also retreated giving knipe thousand control of the battlefield there. As how continued his advance hoping capture the American army? He ran into Greens. Rearguard line, which had been reinforced by many of the soldiers who were retreating from Birmingham Hill. How tempted to roll up the right flank of Greens, Defensive Line as the soldiers put up a solid defense. CASIMIR Pulaski Polish soldier with the continentals, saw this and organized and to American cavalry charge into the British infantry advance. Thus, forcing the British to halt their attack. Polaski had arrived in America a few months earlier. On the day of the battle congress was still debating whether to give him a commission so technically he had no command authority. But at Washington's request, he organized and led this critical. Careful charge anyway. With the surprise, owing strong America Defensive Line, and with dusk, approaching how called off his offensive and allowed the continentals to retreat from the field. With nightfall, Battle of brandy, wine came to an end. With about thirty thousand soldiers engaged on both sides. This would be one of the largest battles of the American revolution. The British reported nearly six hundred casualties, which is probably an undercount. The Americans estimated that they had inflicted over two thousand British casualties, which is probably over count. The true number is probably closer to the British number, but likely a little higher. Especially, hard hit was Ferguson's Regiment and the loyalist regiment of Queen's Rangers. These units had lead knipe thousands column and took the brunt of the American ambushes as the column advanced. Captain Ferguson himself was shot in the arm and amputation for several weeks. His arm never fully recovered. There are no good records of the American casualties, but most estimates are that they were about double that of the British between one hundred thirteen hundred. About a third of those were captured prisoners, although almost all of the captured were also wounded on the feel. Thanks to General Greene's rearguard action almost all the Americans who were able to walk or run where able to escape capture. The Americans did lose quite a few cannons, including several that they had captured from the enemy. In a few months earlier. Perhaps the most significant casualty of the day was that of General Lafayette who took a ball in the leg late in the day? It proved to be a relatively minor wound that would allow him to return to duty rather quickly. After the battle Captain Ferguson reported that he had seen two American officers on the field whom he could've shot from his position with his rifle. However since the officers had their backs turned toward him, he considered the shot to be dishonorable and did not take it. Later from the description and the known position in the battle, Ferguson became convinced that he had had general Washington in his sights, possibly while conferring with Polaski. Even, so he said later, he did not regret his decision not to shoot. Sniping at officers was considered murder by many professional officers. At the time. The highest ranking officer who died over the encounter was not even on the field. On the day before battle, French general to Cordray, who sought to become the continental commander of artillery, jumped on a horse and Philadelphia and rode out to join the continental in the field. As? He crossed the Schuylkill river either on a ferry or a pontoon bridge accounts differ. His horse got spooked and jumped into the river. With, do cordray caught in the horses, stirrups both the Horse and rider drowned. Later his body was recovered and buried in Philadelphia. With the battle editor and general, how General Knipe Howson made camp near the battlefield and rested their army. General, Washington and the continentals spent another sleepless night making their escape from the British army. Despite the loss Washington put the best face on the day reporting to Congress. Despite the day's misfortune, I am pleased to announce that. Most of my men are in good spirits, and still have the courage to fight the enemy another day. Next week I'm going to discuss the continental army's attempt to fight with the enemy another day. IN THE BATTLE OF CLOUDS Hi thanks for joining the American Revolution podcast after show. As always I'd like to thank Trae Nance and George Davis I supporting this podcast on patriotic at the Alexander Hamilton Club level. Everyone who supports this show for as little as two dollars a month helps me to keep the show free for everyone who cannot afford to support it. If you support the show at the standard bearer level or higher, which is ten dollars a month you will also get a cool flag magnet with a different flag each month from the American revolution. Thanks for everyone who listens and especially to all the new listeners who join this week. I've always seen an increase right after independence day I guess the holiday gets people thinking about the American revolution and prompts many to search out this podcast. The week of July. Fifth was no exception I got more downloads in that week. Then I got in the first ten months combined that this podcast. I really appreciate everyone who takes it interest. And especially if you take the time to make it this far into the podcast. For anyone, who's interested I did an interview with Michigan Judge Michael Warren, who's also the CO founder of Patriot week about the ideological origins of the American Revolution! The specific topic of our conversation was was the American revolution fought for liberty. It was an interesting chat and the full interview is now available on the mio. There's a direct link to it on my website at www Amriyev podcasts dot com, so feel free to watch it if that sort of thing interests you. Also I've been posting more online events that other people are hosting and presenting as long as they relate to the American revolution. If you joined by American Revolution podcast group on Facebook, you'll be able to get these posts. I've been debating whether to start an email mailing list for this kind of thing and I may do that at some point, although the anti spam laws make it difficult to do correctly. I have one correction from two weeks ago when I discussed the CJ Fort, Henry! After the first ambush I said that Captain Ogle road out with his company to assist the survivors. But that he and several of his men were killed with the remainder trading back to the fort. In fact, while almost all of Ogle's company was killed in the ambush, the captain was able to take cover and survive the attack eventually making his way back to the fort. Captain Ogle survived the entire war and moved out to what is today in living into his eighties. One of his descendants Jim Angler pointed out my error and for that I thank him. This week I talked about the battle of brandy wine. In addition to being one of the largest battles of the war. It's always held a special place in my heart, because I grew up only a few miles from the battlefield. I could actually see brandy wine. Creek from my high school window. Many military historian slaked to divide the revolutionary war into two eras. Brandy wine was the last major battle of the first era when the continental army was still considered rather amateur. After the coming winter at valley forge with a better trained and men with longer enlistment, having an impact, the continental army. Come to be seen as a more professional army. The battle at brandy wine involved tens of thousands of men and was fought over many miles. The British used a successful flanking maneuver just as they had done a long island a year earlier. Even so Washington had been on look out this time. For just such a move is intelligence was not as good as it should have been. But. He learned enough to leave himself an avenue of escape. Washington had learned that more important than holding a piece of ground was keeping his army intact and being able to come back for another attack another day. To foreign officers greatly improved their reputations at this battle. Both General Lafayette and General Pulaski would grow in the esteem, Congress and the commander. As discuss more next week. It also greatly damaged the reputation of French, General Deboer. Each battle not only gave the continent l'armee more experience. It also informed the commander about which of his top officers could get the job done, which could not. Brandy wine was important for that reason as well. My Book Recommendation This Week Not surprisingly is about the battle of brandy wine. Other. Several good books on the battle, but the one I'm recommending. Today is called. Brandy wine a military history of the battle that lost Philadelphia but saved America September eleventh, Seventeen, seventy, seven by Michael C Harris. The book does a great job laying out events that led up to the seventeen seventy seven campaign. It then goes into the battle itself in great detail. It's over five hundred pages and includes several helpful. Appendices with extra information. The author Michael Harris has worked for the National Park Service. He also served as a guide for the Pennsylvania Historical Museum commission at Brandy Wine Battlefield. So He's devoted much of his professional life to just this one battle. He's also working on another book. That is due out later this year about the battle of Germantown. I was fortunate enough to meet Mr Harris when he did a presentation on brandy wine for the American Revolution Roundtable of South Jersey last year. He clearly knows his stuff and he does a great job in presenting it. So if you want to read more about the battle of brandy wine checkout harasses brandy wine, eight military history of the battle that lost Philadelphia but saved America. My online recommendation this week is another e book on Archive Dot Org. This is an eighteen forty-six book called some account of the British army under the command of general how and of the battle of brandy wine on the memorable September eleventh, seventeen, seventy, seven and the adventures of that day. By Joseph Townsend. The book gives a short summary of the battle, but also provide some interesting local profiles of people who were involved. Another big chunk of the book. includes the original correspondents about the battle. For that reason I found it quite helpful in understanding the battle of brandy wine. As always you can search for it on Archive, dot org, or use the direct link on my website at www dot. Am Ref PODCAST DOT, com. And, of course, link also appears on the blog I. have for this episode at Blog Dot Amera PODCAST DOT COM, Well. That's offer this week I hope you will join me again next week for another American Revolution podcast.

army General Washington Washington British army continental army General Sullivan Philadelphia Wine Creek Captain Ferguson Ford General Anthony Wayne Congress American army brandy wine General Deboer Ford General House Maryland General Howe Lord Sterling General Stevens
Sepoy Rebellion - March 29, 1857

This Day in History Class

09:08 min | 1 year ago

Sepoy Rebellion - March 29, 1857

"Did you ever want to twenty fifth hour in the day? Well, we can't do that. But if you listen to before breakfast host Laura Vander Cam can help you get a little more out of each day Laura's, the author of several time management and productivity books including Juliet school of possibilities off the clock and one hundred sixty hours. These are tips that have worked for her for people. She admires and that she's learned from feedback from listeners like you, Laura has studied thousands of schedules over the last ten years, she loved seeing how people combined rewarding careers with fulfilling personal lives, if you've ever wondered how some people succeed at work while raising happy families, contributing to their communities doing some sort of crazy athletic endeavor on the weekend or all of the above. Then this is the podcast for you. You'll learn things like why tracking your time is a good idea. How to find more time to read how to make better small talk? How to find? Time to exercise in a busy schedule. Why planning your week on Fridays is better how to savor the good moments and how not to be late so wake up with before breakfast every weekday morning just like that first Cup of coffee. It'll help you feel like you can take on the world one productivity tip at a time listening subscribe at apple podcast or an iheartradio app or wherever you listen to podcasts this day in history class is production of iheartradio. Hi, I'm eve and welcome to this day in history class a show that uncovers history one day at a time. Today. It's March twenty ninth twenty nineteen. The day was March twenty ninth eighteen fifty seven India was under control of the British East, India company and Britain's roll was becoming more troublesome to Indian people. The British were changing the social structure drastically and many Indians were growing disillusioned with the east. India company's activities. Defendant was bubbling among seaports or Indian soldiers serving in the British army. So on this day a twenty nine year old see poi- Nate mangled Pandy attacked two British officers. Unrest had been brewing for a while the East India company entered India in the seventeenth century on the pretense of trading, but by the early eighteenth century, the company's role in India transformed to be more political at the time of the rebellion and the eighteen fifties the East India company was really flexing its muscle as an extension of British imperialism, politics, the economy and culture were subject to the whims of the British. There weren't that many British people who actually lived in India at least not nearly as many as there were Indians, but Indian royalty had entered into deals with the East India company that they believe what benefit them and their states. India was divided into states and the British were given the power to have troops and British residents in each date in return, the British would ensure Royal Indian families with thrive, but the British motivations weren't so straightforward as British influence grew stronger in India the East India comes. Any weakened the power of Indian leadership and attempted to dismantle Indian cultural tradition. James, Andrew Brown, Ramsey, Marcus. And tenth Earl of Dow housi- was a key figure in this dramatic expansion of British power in India when Lord Dow housi- became the governor general of India, he instituted aggressive policies as he believed in the superiority of the west he championed western education in India developed, a transportation system institute at telegraph lines and instituted social reforms, like suppressing female infanticide and encouraging education for girls. But the most controversial part of his political career in India was his aggressive imposition of British administration throughout India under his oversight, the East India company annexed many Indian states under the doctrine of lapse provinces still have Royal rulers. And when one of those rulers had no biological air. The ruler could ask the British government if he could adopt a son to be his successor. But when Dow Hosie came along he realized that he could refuse this permission to adopt. So there would be a lapse in the line of succession in Britain could swoop in annexed territory, this was a sketchy policy subject to abuse. But the British used it to acquire more land in power. Dow house he used the doctrine of lapse in the state of out in eighteen fifty six when the East India company deemed, the ruler incompetent and took control of the state. This didn't sit well with many of the c- poise who were from the highest cast in out as they lost rank and privilege in the transition of power as many Brahmins or people of the highest Hindu castes lost money and power when they were supplanted by British officials. They grew more and more unhappy with the East India company on top of all this some Indians suspected the British were planning to convert everyone to Christianity and all of the new social reforms were upending Indian society. The C poise were also facing singular problems as some felt slighted by low pay and some were being passed over for promotions in favor of white soldiers. But this job that probably broke the camel's back was the issuance of infield rifles a rumor spread that the rifles cartridges have been lubricated with lard from pigs and cows as Hinduism considers Cal State cred and Islam prohibits eating beef. The fact that soldiers had to bite the ends of the cartridges to load the rifles was a huge issue in seen as a fences. So on March twenty ninth eighteen fifty seven Manggala panty. Lebron's CPI decided to protest this potentially militias action and kicked off the uprising by shooting a British sergeant major and Lieutenant Pandy was arrested found guilty incentives to death by hanging. In April see poise rebelled by refusing to use their guns and were severely punished. But by may the uprising head turned violent see poise in south India largely sided with the British but many in the Bengal army mutinied. Off duty, British officers and civilians were killed the British fought back by killing C poise with bayonets and even sometimes getting them out of cannons, and they murdered Indian civilians these devastating and bloody battles lasted into eighteen fifty eight with major incidents at Delhi concord and look now, but in the end the British military established control by slowly in strategically retaking cities after the rebellion had quieted the rebellion ended on July eighth eighteen fifty eight after more than a year. Brutal battles the rebels had not achieved their goal of gaining their independence from Britain. India didn't get there until nineteen forty seven after a long and arduous two hundred years of British rule, but they did cost some setbacks that required some major changes in India the East India company was put out an India came under direct control of the British crown. In armies which have been largely Indian before were reorganized to include mainly British troops and number of diverse Indian soldiers that way, there was less of a chance for the troops to organize a mutiny. The prospect of converting Indians to Christianity was squashed and Britain even began meeting with Indian representatives on cultural issues, but even though the British had rolled back the imposition of some social measures Britain expanded their administration, India and western systems continue to influence the Indian subcontinent. I'm Steph co in hopefully, you know, a little more about history today then you did yesterday. You can follow us on Twitter, Instagram and Facebook at t the I h c podcast. We'll see you tomorrow. For more podcasts from iheartradio. Visit the iheartradio app apple podcasts or wherever you listen to your favorite shows. Jerry Lee Lewis his fifth way dead. Sid vicious in Kurt Kobe, also Amy wine-house, Johnny cash and more disgrace them rock and roll true. Crime podcast stories about musicians getting away with murder and behaving. Very badly is available now hosted by me Jake Brennan, you can listen to disgrace them on the iheartradio app. Apple podcasts, or whatever. You get your podcasts.

India East India India India company British army Britain British East East India British government East India Apple Laura Vander Cam iheartradio Lieutenant Pandy Indian society Dow Hosie Jerry Lee Lewis Britain iheartradio Juliet